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Sample records for mauna kea science

  1. Mauna Kea volcano's ongoing 18-year swarm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wech, A.; Thelen, W. A.

    2017-12-01

    Mauna Kea is a large postshield-stage volcano that forms the highest peak on Hawaii Island. The 4,205-meter high volcano erupted most recently between 6,000 and 4,500 years ago and exhibits relatively low rates of seismicity, which are mostly tectonic in origin resulting from lithospheric flexure under the weight of the volcano. Here we identify deep repeating earthquakes occurring beneath the summit of Mauna Kea. These earthquakes, which are not part of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory's regional network catalog, were initially detected through a systematic search for coherent seismicity using envelope cross-correlation, and subsequent analysis revealed the presence of a long-term, ongoing swarm. The events have energy concentrated at 2-7 Hz, and can be seen in filtered waveforms dating back to the earliest continuous data from a single station archived at IRIS from November 1999. We use a single-station (3 component) match-filter analysis to create a catalog of the repeating earthquakes for the past 18 years. Using two templates created through phase-weighted stacking of thousands of sta/lta-triggers, we find hundreds of thousands of M1.3-1.6 earthquakes repeating every 7-12 minutes throughout this entire time period, with many smaller events occurring in between. The earthquakes occur at 28-31 km depth directly beneath the summit within a conspicuous gap in seismicity surrounding the flanks of the volcano. Magnitudes and periodicity are remarkably stable long-term, but do exhibit slight variability and occasionally display higher variability on shorter time scales. Network geometry precludes obtaining a reliable focal mechanism, but we interpret the frequency content and hypocenters to infer a volcanic source distinct from the regional tectonic seismicity responding to the load of the island. In this model, the earthquakes may result from the slow, persistent degassing of a relic magma chamber at depth.

  2. RESOLVE's Field Demonstration on Mauna Kea, Hawaii 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captain, Janine; Quinn, Jacqueline; Moss, Thomas; Weis, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    In cooperation with the Canadian Space Agency, and the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology, Inc., NASA has undertaken the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project called RESOLVE (Regolith and Environment Science & Oxygen and Lunar Volatile Extraction). This project is an Earth-based lunar precursor demonstration of a system that could be sent to explore permanently shadowed polar lunar craters, where it would drill into regolith, quantify the volatiles that are present, and extract oxygen by hydrogen reduction of iron oxides. The resulting water could be electrolyzed into oxygen to support exploration and hydrogen, which would be recycled through the process. The RESOLVE chemical processing system was mounted on a Canadian Space Agency mobility chasis and successfully demonstrated on Hawaii's Mauna Kea volcano in February 2010. The RESOLVE unit is the initial prototype of a robotic prospecting mission to the Moon. RESOLVE is designed to go to the poles of the Moon to "ground truth" the form and concentration of the hydrogen/water/hydroxyl that has been seen from orbit (M3, Lunar Prospector and LRO) and to test technologies to extract oxygen from the lunar regolith. RESOLVE has the ability to capture a one-meter core sample of lunar regolith and heat it to determine the volatiles that may be released and then demonstrate the production of oxygen from minerals found in the regolith. The RESOLVE project, which is led by KSC, is a multi-center and multi-organizational effort that includes representatives from KSC, JSC, GRC, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Northern Center for Advanced Technology (NORCAT). This paper details the results obtained from four days of lunar analog testing that included gas chromatograph analysis for volatile components, remote control of chemistry and drilling operations via satalite communications, and real-time water quantification using a novel capacitance measurement technique.

  3. Rover-Based Instrumentation and Scientific Investigations During the 2012 Analog Field Test on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, L. D.; Graff, T. G.

    2013-01-01

    Rover-based 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) were recently completed on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii. Scientific investigations, scientific input, and operational constraints were tested in the context of existing project and protocols for the field activities designed to help NASA achieve the Vision for Space Exploration [1]. Several investigations were conducted by the rover mounted instruments to determine key geophysical and geochemical properties of the site, as well as capture the geological context of the area and the samples investigated. The rover traverse and associated science investigations were conducted over a three day period on the southeast flank of the Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii. The test area was at an elevation of 11,500 feet and is known as "Apollo Valley" (Fig. 1). Here we report the integration and operation of the rover-mounted instruments, as well as the scientific investigations that were conducted.

  4. Changes in Mauna Kea Dry Forest Structure 2000-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; Brinck, Kevin W.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the structure of the subalpine vegetation of Palila Critical Habitat on the southwestern slope of Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawai‘i, were analyzed using 12 metrics of change in māmane (Sophora chrysophylla) and naio (Myoporum sandwicense) trees surveyed on plots in 2000 and 2014. These two dominant species were analyzed separately, and changes in their structure indicated changes in the forest’s health. There was a significant increase in māmane minimum crown height (indicating a higher ungulate “browse line”), canopy area, canopy volume, percentage of trees with ungulate damage, and percentage of dead trees. No significant changes were observed in māmane maximum crown height, proportion of plots with trees, sapling density, proportion of plots with saplings, or the height distribution of trees. The only significant positive change was for māmane tree density. Significantly negative changes were observed for naio minimum crown height, tree height, canopy area, canopy volume, and percentage of dead trees. No significant changes were observed in naio tree density, proportion of plots with trees, proportion of plots with saplings, or percentage of trees with ungulate damage. Significantly positive changes were observed in naio sapling density and the height distribution of trees. There was also a significant increase in the proportion of māmane vs. naio trees in the survey area. The survey methods did not allow us to distinguish among potential factors driving these changes for metrics other than the percentage of trees with ungulate damage. Continued ungulate browsing and prolonged drought are likely the factors contributing most to the observed changes in vegetation, but tree disease or insect infestation of māmane, or naio, and competition from alien grasses and other weeds could also be causing or exacerbating the impacts to the forest. Although māmane tree density has increased since 2000, this study also demonstrates that efforts by managers

  5. Long-term response of the mamane forest to feral herbivore management on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Reddy; D. H. Van Vuren; P. G. Scowcroft; J. B. Kauffman; L. Perry

    2012-01-01

    Seven exclosure sites located on Mauna Kea, Hawaii and established in the 1960s and 70s were sampled to characterize long-term response of the mamane (Sophora chrysophylla) forest to protection from feral sheep grazing, and to assess impacts of non-native plant species and recurrent sheep presence on forest recovery. The forest provides essential...

  6. Spherulitic (c-axis) Growth for Terrestrial (Mauna Kea, Hawaii) and Martian Hematite "blueberries"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, D. C.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2006-01-01

    Hematite concentrations observed by Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) onboard Mars Global Surveyor were considered a possible indicator for aqueous processes on Mars. Observations made by Opportunity show that the hematite at Meridiani Planum is present as spherules ( blueberries) and their fragments. The internal structure of the hematite spherules is not discernable at the resolution limit (approx.30 m/pixel) of Opportunity s Microscopic Imager (MI). A terrestrial analog for martian hematite spherules are spherules from hydrothermally altered and sulfate-rich tephra from the summit region of Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii. The objective of this study is to determine the crystal growth fabric of the Mauna Kea hematite spherules using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques and to relate that crystalline fabric to the observed TES signature of Meridiani Planum "blueberries." TEM analysis of Mauna Kea spherules exhibited a radial growth pattern consisting of "fibrous" hematite with the c-axis of hematite particles aligned along the elongation direction of the hematite fibers. The individual fibers appear to be made of coalesced nano-particles of hematite arranged with their c-axis oriented radially to form a spherical structure. Lattice fringes suggest long-range order across particles and along fibers. According to interpretations of thermal emission spectra for Meridian Planum hematite, the absence of a band at approx. 390/cm implies a geometry where c-face emission dominates. Because the c-face is perpendicular to the c-axis, this is precisely the geometry for the Mauna Kea spherules because the c-axis is aligned parallel to their radial growth direction. Therefore, we conclude as a working hypothesis that the martian spherules also have radial, c-axis growth pattern on a scale that is too small to be detected by the MER MI. Furthermore, by analogy with the Mauna Kea spherules, the martian blueberries could have formed during hydrothermal alteration of

  7. Moessbauer/XRF MIMOS Instrumentation and Operation During the 2012 Analog Field Test on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Trevor G.; Morris, R. V.; Klingelhofer, G.; Blumers, M.

    2013-01-01

    Field testing and scientific investigations were conducted on the Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii, as part of the 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA). Measurements were conducted using both stand-alone and rover-mounted instruments to determine the geophysical and geochemical properties of the field site, as well as provide operational constraints and science considerations for future robotic and human missions [1]. Reported here are the results from the two MIMOS instruments deployed as part of this planetary analog field test.

  8. The isotopic composition of postshield lavas from Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, A.K.; Fray, F.A.; Kwon, S.T.; West, H.B.

    1991-01-01

    The postshield eruptive stage of Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii, can be divided into an early basaltic substage, the Hamakua Volcanics, containing picrites, ankaramites, alkalic and tholeiitic basalt, and a hawaiite substage, the Laupahoehoe Volcanics, containing only hawaiites and rare mugearites. Cumulate gabbroic xenoliths in Laupahoehoe Volcanics have isotopic ratios similar to the Hamakua Volcanics, and these gabbros provide constaints on the crustal evolution of Mauna Kea lavas. Because of the small variation in 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (0.70335-0.70362), 143 Nd/ 144 Nd (0.51297-0.51308) and 206 Pb/ 204 Pb (18.306-18.440), lavas from both substages must contain relatively fixed proportions of depleted, enriched and primitive mantle components. In addition, there is Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic overlap between tholeiitic and alkalic Hamakua basalts. However, the steep 207 Pb/ 204 Pb vs. 206 Pb/ 204 Pb arrays of postshield lavas from Mauna Kea, West Maui and Haleakala volcanoes and the existence of rare samples with high 207 Pb/ 204 Pb, up to 15.548, requires an unusual component in some Hawaiian lavas. This component is unlikely to be derived from sediments or MORB lithosphere, and it may be a minor plume component. Lavas erupted during the postshield stage of Mauna Kea volcano do not define a systematic temporal trend of varying 87 Sr/ 86 Sr and 143 Nd/ 144 Nd. This result contrasts with the temporal trend defined by lavas from Haleakala Volcano and provides evidence for important differences between the origin and evolution of different Hawaiian volcanoes. However, the Laupahoehoe Volcanics trend to lower 206 Pb/ 204 Pb ratios than the Hamakua Volcanics. (orig./WL)

  9. Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of a Hematite-bearing Ridge on Mauna Kea, Hawaii: A Potential Mineralogical Process Analog for the Mount Sharp Hematite Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, T. G.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Hamilton, J. C.; Adams, M.; Fraeman, A. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Catalano, J. G.; Mertzman, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity landed in Gale Crater in August 2012 and is currently roving towards the layered central mound known as Mount Sharp [1]. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) hyperspectral data indicate Mount Sharp contains an 5 km stratigraphic sequence including Fe-Mg smectites, hematite, and hydrated sulfates in the lower layers separated by an unconformity from the overlying anhydrous strata [1,2,3]. Hematite was initially detected in CRISM data to occur in the lower sulfate layers on the north side of the mound [2]. [3] further mapped a distinct hematite detection occurring as part of a 200 m wide ridge that extends 6.5 km NE-SW, approximately parallel with the base of Mount Sharp. It is likely a target for in-situ analyses by Curiosity. We document here the occurrence of a stratum of hematite-bearing breccia that is exposed on the Puu Poliahu cinder cone near the summit of Mauna Kea volcano (Hawaii) (Fig.1). The stratum is more resistant to weathering than surrounding material, giving it the appearance of a ridge. The Mauna Kea hematite ridge is thus arguably a potential terrestrial mineralogical and process analog for the Gale Crater hematite ridge. We are acquiring a variety of chemical and mineralogical data on the Mauna Kea samples, with a focus on the chemical and mineralogical information already available or planned for the Gale hematite ridge.

  10. The ISRU Field Tests 2010 and 2012 at Mauna Kea, Hawaii: Results from the Miniaturised Mossbauer Spectrometers Mimos II and Mimos IIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhoefer, G.; Morris, R. V.; Blumers, M; Bernhardt, B.; Graff, T.

    2014-01-01

    The 2010 and 2012 In-Situ Resource Utilization Analogue Test (ISRU) [1] on the Mauna Kea volcano in Hawai'i was coordinated by the Northern Centre for Advanced Technology (NORCAT) in collaboration with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the German Aerospace Center (DLR), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), through the PISCES program. Several instruments were tested as reference candidates for future analogue testing at the new field test site at the Mauna Kea volcano in Hawai'i. The fine-grained, volcanic nature of the material is a suitable lunar and martian analogue, and can be used to test excavation, site preparation, and resource utilization techniques. The 2010 location Pu'u Hiwahine, a cinder cone located below the summit of Mauna Kea (19deg45'39.29" N, 155deg28'14.56" W) at an elevation of 2800 m, provides a large number of slopes, rock avalanches, etc. to perform mobility tests, site preparation or resource prospecting. Besides hardware testing of technologies and systems related to resource identification, also in situ science measurements played a significant role in integration of ISRU and science instruments. For the advanced Mössbauer instrument MIMOS IIA, the new detector technologies and electronic components increase sensitivity and performance significantly. In combination with the high energy resolution of the SDD it is possible to perform Xray fluorescence analysis simultaneously to Mössbauer spectroscopy. In addition to the Fe-mineralogy, information on the sample's elemental composition will be gathered. The 2010 and 2012 field campaigns demonstrated that in-situ Mössbauer spectroscopy is an effective tool for both science and feedstock exploration and process monitoring. Engineering tests showed that a compact nickel metal hydride battery provided sufficient power for over 12 hr of continuous operation for the MIMOS instruments.

  11. Home range and movements of Feral cats on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltz, Dan M.; Hess, S.C.; Brinck, K.W.; Banko, P.C.; Danner, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    Feral cats Felis catus in dry subalpine woodland of Mauna Kea, Hawai'i, live in low density and exhibit some of the largest reported home ranges in the literature. While 95% fixed kemel home range estimates for three females averaged 772 ha, four males averaged 1 418 ha, and one male maintained a home range of 2 050 ha. Mean daily movement rates between sexes overlapped widely and did not differ significantly (P = 0.083). Log-transformed 95% kernel home ranges for males were significantly larger than those of females (P = 0.024), but 25% kernel home ranges for females were larger than those of males (P = 0.017). Moreover, log-transformed home ranges of males were also significantly larger than those of females in this and seven other studies from the Pacific region (P = 0.044). Feral cats present a major threat to endangered Hawaiian birds, but knowledge of their ecology can be used for management by optimizing trap spacing and creating buffer zones around conservation areas.

  12. Habitat and food preferences of the endangered Palila (Loxioides bailleui) on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Steven C.; Banko, Paul C.; Miller, Linda J.; Laniawe, Leona P.

    2014-01-01

    Seeds and flowers of the leguminous māmane (Sophora chrysophylla) tree are the primary food resource of the federally endangered Palila (Loxioides bailleui; Fringillidae: Drepanidinae), which is now restricted to dry subalpine woodland on Mauna Kea Volcano on the island of Hawai'i because of centuries of habitat degradation by non-native ungulates. Palila are morphologically and behaviorally adapted to consume māmane seeds by grasping seed pods with their feet and opening pods with stout bills and demonstrate limited ability to exploit alternative food resources. This degree of single species dependency is rare among birds and illustrates unique adaptations that also occurred in other Hawaiian species that are now extinct. In mixed-woodland with co-dominant naio (Myoporum sandwicense), Palila spent 1.7-3.9 times longer in māmane than in naio during foraging observations where naio was 1.3-4.6 times as dense as māmane. Naio fruit was readily available, but it comprised proportionally food items taken by Palila. Although māmane flowers were more abundant than māmane pods throughout this study except at one lower-elevation mixed-woodland site, Palila spent more time foraging on pods than flowers in both māmane woodland and mixed-woodland, but consumed more flowers than pods in mixed-woodland. Insects, which have been reported as an important component of the diet of Palila, were apparently taken rarely in this study. Protecting and restoring māmane in woodlands adjacent to the current range of Palila will benefit their recovery, allowing them to exploit increased food availability in areas of their former range.

  13. Geomorphometric variability of "monogenetic" volcanic cones: Evidence from Mauna Kea, Lanzarote and experimental cones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kervyn, M.; Ernst, G. G. J.; Carracedo, J.-C.; Jacobs, P.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanic cones are the most common volcanic constructs on Earth. Their shape can be quantified using two morphometric ratios: the crater/cone base ratio (W cr/W co) and the cone height/width ratio (H co/W co). The average values for these ratios obtained over entire cone fields have been explained by the repose angle of loose granular material (i.e. scoria) controlling cone slopes. The observed variability in these ratios between individual cones has been attributed to the effect of erosional processes or contrasting eruptive conditions on cone morphometry. Using a GIS-based approach, high spatial resolution Digital Elevation Models and airphotos, two new geomorphometry datasets for cone fields at Mauna Kea (Hawaii, USA) and Lanzarote (Canary Islands, Spain) are extracted and analyzed here. The key observation in these datasets is the great variability in morphometric ratios, even for simple-shape and well-preserved cones. Simple analog experiments are presented to analyze factors influencing the morphometric ratios. The formation of a crater is simulated within an analog cone (i.e. a sand pile) by opening a drainage conduit at the cone base. Results from experiments show that variability in the morphometric ratios can be attributed to variations in the width, height and horizontal offset of the drainage point relative to the cone symmetry axis, to the dip of the underlying slope or to the influence of a small proportion of fine cohesive material. GIS analysis and analog experiments, together with specific examples of cones documented in the field, suggest that the morphometric ratios for well-preserved volcanic cones are controlled by a combination of 1) the intrinsic cone material properties, 2) time-dependent eruption conditions, 3) the local setting, and 4) the method used to estimate the cone height. Implications for interpreting cone morphometry solely as either an age or as an eruption condition indicator are highlighted.

  14. Constraining the timescale of magma stagnation beneath Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii,using diffusion profiles in olivine phenocrysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, E. M.; Ganguly, J.

    2009-12-01

    Fe-Mg diffusion profiles have been measured in olivine xenocrysts within alkalic basalts in order to constrain the timescales of magma stagnation beneath Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii. It has been suggested that during the main tholeiitic shield-building stage, and postshield eruptive stages of Mauna Kea, magmas were stalled and stagnated near the Moho, at a depth of ~15 km. Evidence in support of this hypothesis comes from cumulates formed by gravity-settling and in situ crystallization within magma chambers (Fodor and Galar, 1997), and from clinopyroxene-wholerock thermobarometry on Hamakua basalts (Putirka, in press). The cumulates represent a ‘fossil’ magma chamber which formed primarily from tholeiitic basalts; during the later capping-lava stage of Mauna Kea, alkalic basalts tore off chunks of these cumulates during ascent to the surface. We have measured several diffusion profiles in olivine xenocrysts from a single basalt sample. Because these xenocrysts have homogenous core compositions identical to a neighboring dunite cumulate, and because they are much larger and texturally distinct from compositionally dissimilar olivine phenocrysts, they are interpreted to be cumulate olivines which were dislodged during magma recharge/mixing in the stagnation zone. Although the orientations of the phenocrysts are not yet known, the diffusion profiles have been fit using diffusion coefficients parallel to the c and a crystallographic axes (i.e. minimum and maximum values). Modeling diffusion profiles yields ∫Ddt ≤4.5 x 10-5 cm2. Assuming that the xenocrysts were broken off from the cumulate immediately when the magma chamber was recharged, it is possible to calculate the maximum stagnation time of the basalts. Thus, the retrieved ∫Ddt value yields a maximum stagnation time of ~0.7 years. References: Fodor RV, Galar, PA (1997). A View into the Subsurface of Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii: Crystallization Processes Interpreted through the Petrology and Petrography of

  15. Controls on carbon storage and weathering in volcanic ash soils across a climate gradient on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, M. G.; Chadwick, O.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanic ash soils retain the largest and most persistent soil carbon pools of any ecosystem. However, the mechanisms governing soil carbon accumulation and weathering during initial phases of weathering are not well understood. We examined soil organic matter dynamics and weathering across a high altitude (3563 - 3013 m) 20 ky climate gradient on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. Four elevation sites were selected ( 250-500 mm rainfall) which range from arid-periglacial to sites which contain a mix of shrubs and grasses. At each site, between 2-3 pits were dug and major diagnostic horizons down to bedrock (in-tact lava) were sampled. Soils were analyzed for particle size, organic C and N, soil pH, exchangeable cations, base saturation, NaF pH, phosphorous sorption and bulk elements. Mass loss and pedogenic metal accumulation (hydroxlamine Fe, Al and Si extractions) were used to measure extent of weathering, leaching, changes in soil mineralogy and carbon accumulation with the short-range-ordered (SRO) minerals. Reactive-phase (SRO) minerals show a general trend of increasing abundance through the soil depth profile with increasing rainfall. However carbon accumulation patterns across the climate gradient are largely decoupled from these trends. The results suggest that after 20ky, pedogenic processes have altered the nature and composition of the volcanic ash such that it is capable of retaining soil C even where organic acid influences from plant material and leaching from rainfall is severely limited. Comparisons with lower elevation soils on Mauna Kea and other moist mesic (2500mm rainfall) sites on Hawaii suggest that these soils have reached only between 1-15 % of their capacity to retain carbon. Our results suggest that in low rainfall and a cold climate, after 20ky, weathering has advanced but is decoupled from soil carbon accumulation patterns and the associated influence of vegetation on soil development. Changes in soil carbon composition and amount across the entire

  16. Field Testing of a Pneumatic Regolith Feed System During a 2010 ISRU Field Campaign on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Jack; Zacny, Kris; Chu, Philip; Wilson, Jack; Santoro, Chris; Carlson, Lee; Maksymuk, Michael; Townsend, Ivan I.; Mueller, Robert P.; Mantovani, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Lunar In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) consists of a number of tasks starting with mining of lunar regolith, followed by the transfer of regolith to an oxygen extraction reactor and finally processing the regolith and storing of extracted oxygen. The transfer of regolith from the regolith hopper at the ground level to an oxygen extraction reactor many feet above the surface could be accomplished in different ways, including using a mechanical auger, bucket ladder system or a pneumatic system. The latter system is commonly used on earth when moving granular materials since it offers high reliability and simplicity of operation. In this paper, we describe a pneumatic regolith feed system, delivering feedstock to a Carbothermal reactor and lessons learned from deploying the system during the 2010 ISRU field campaign on the Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

  17. Evidence of feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Toxoplasma gondii in feral cats on Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Raymond M; Goltz, Daniel M; Hess, Steven C; Banko, Paul C

    2007-04-01

    We determined prevalence to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in feral cats (Felis catus) on Mauna Kea Hawaii from April 2002 to May 2004. Six of 68 (8.8%) and 11 of 68 (16.2%) cats were antibody positive to FIV and antigen positive for FeLV, respectively; 25 of 67 (37.3%) cats were seropositive to T. gondii. Antibodies to FeLV and T. gondii occurred in all age and sex classes, but FIV occurred only in adult males. Evidence of current or previous infections with two of these infectious agents was detected in eight of 64 cats (12.5%). Despite exposure to these infectious agents, feral cats remain abundant throughout the Hawaiian Islands.

  18. Evidence of feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukemia virus, and Toxoplasma gondii in feral cats on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, R.M.; Goltz, Dan M.; Hess, S.C.; Banko, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    We determined prevalence to feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antibodies, feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in feral cats (Felis catus) on Mauna Kea Hawaii from April 2002 to May 2004. Six of 68 (8.8%) and 11 of 68 (16.2%) cats were antibody positive to FIV and antigen positive for FeLV, respectively; 25 of 67 (37.3%) cats were seropositive to T. gondii. Antibodies to FeLV and T. gondii occurred in all age and sex classes, but FIV occurred only in adult males. Evidence of current or previous infections with two of these infectious agents was detected in eight of 64 cats (12.5%). Despite exposure to these infectious agents, feral cats remain abundant throughout the Hawaiian Islands. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2007.

  19. Feasibility Study of Earthquake Early Warning in Hawai`i For the Mauna Kea Thirty Meter Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, P.; Hotovec-Ellis, A. J.; Thelen, W. A.; Bodin, P.; Vidale, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes, including large damaging events, are as central to the geologic evolution of the Island of Hawai`i as its more famous volcanic eruptions and lava flows. Increasing and expanding development of facilities and infrastructure on the island continues to increase exposure and risk associated with strong ground shaking resulting from future large local earthquakes. Damaging earthquakes over the last fifty years have shaken the most heavily developed areas and critical infrastructure of the island to levels corresponding to at least Modified Mercalli Intensity VII. Hawai`i's most recent damaging earthquakes, the M6.7 Kiholo Bay and M6.0 Mahukona earthquakes, struck within seven minutes of one another off of the northwest coast of the island in October 2006. These earthquakes resulted in damage at all thirteen of the telescopes near the summit of Mauna Kea that led to gaps in telescope operations ranging from days up to four months. With the experiences of 2006 and Hawai`i's history of damaging earthquakes, we have begun a study to explore the feasibility of implementing earthquake early warning systems to provide advanced warnings to the Thirty Meter Telescope of imminent strong ground shaking from future local earthquakes. One of the major challenges for earthquake early warning in Hawai`i is the variety of earthquake sources, from shallow crustal faults to deeper mantle sources, including the basal decollement separating the volcanic pile from the ancient oceanic crust. Infrastructure on the Island of Hawai`i may only be tens of kilometers from these sources, allowing warning times of only 20 s or less. We assess the capability of the current seismic network to produce alerts for major historic earthquakes, and we will provide recommendations for upgrades to improve performance.

  20. Performance of Regolith Feed Systems for Analog Field Tests of In-Situ Resource Utilization Oxygen Production Plants in Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Ivan I.; Mueller, Robert P.; Mantovani, James G.; Zacny, Kris A.; Craft, Jack

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on practical aspects of mechanical auger and pneumatic regolith conveying system feeding In-Situ Resource Utilization Oxygen production plants. The subsystems of these feedstock delivery systems include an enclosed auger device, pneumatic venturi educator, jet-lift regolith transfer, innovative electro-cyclone gas-particle separation/filtration systems, and compressors capable of dealing with hot hydrogen and/or methane gas re-circulating in the system. Lessons learned from terrestrial laboratory, reduced gravity and field testing on Mauna Kea Volcano in Hawaii during NASA lunar analog field tests will be discussed and practical design tips will be presented.

  1. Compositional variation within thick (>10 m) flow units of Mauna Kea Volcano cored by the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shichun; Vollinger, Michael J.; Frey, Frederick A.; Rhodes, J. Michael; Zhang, Qun

    2016-07-01

    Geochemical analyses of stratigraphic sequences of lava flows are necessary to understand how a volcano works. Typically one sample from each lava flow is collected and studied with the assumption that this sample is representative of the flow composition. This assumption may not be valid. The thickness of flows ranges from 100 m. Geochemical heterogeneity in thin flows may be created by interaction with the surficial environment whereas magmatic processes occurring during emplacement may create geochemical heterogeneities in thick flows. The Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) cored ∼3.3 km of basalt erupted at Mauna Kea Volcano. In order to determine geochemical heterogeneities in a flow, multiple samples from four thick (9.3-98.4 m) HSDP flow units were analyzed for major and trace elements. We found that major element abundances in three submarine flow units are controlled by the varying proportion of olivine, the primary phenocryst phase in these samples. Post-magmatic alteration of a subaerial flow led to loss of SiO2, CaO, Na2O, K2O and P2O5, and as a consequence, contents of immobile elements, such as Fe2O3 and Al2O3, increase. The mobility of SiO2 is important because Mauma Kea shield lavas divide into two groups that differ in SiO2 content. Post-magmatic mobility of SiO2 adds complexity to determining if these groups reflect differences in source or process. The most mobile elements during post-magmatic subaerial and submarine alteration are K and Rb, and Ba, Sr and U were also mobile, but their abundances are not highly correlated with K and Rb. The Ba/Th ratio has been used to document an important role for a plagioclase-rich source component for basalt from the Galapagos, Iceland and Hawaii. Although Ba/Th is anomalously high in Hawaiian basalt, variation in Ba abundance within a single flow shows that it is not a reliable indicator of a deep source component. In contrast, ratios involving elements that are typically immobile, such as La/Nb, La

  2. Redox variations in Mauna Kea lavas, the oxygen fugacity of the Hawaiian plume, and the role of volcanic gases in Earth's oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brounce, Maryjo; Stolper, Edward; Eiler, John

    2017-08-22

    The behavior of C, H, and S in the solid Earth depends on their oxidation states, which are related to oxygen fugacity ( f O 2 ). Volcanic degassing is a source of these elements to Earth's surface; therefore, variations in mantle f O 2 may influence the f O 2 at Earth's surface. However, degassing can impact magmatic f O 2 before or during eruption, potentially obscuring relationships between the f O 2 of the solid Earth and of emitted gases and their impact on surface f O 2 We show that low-pressure degassing resulted in reduction of the f O 2 of Mauna Kea magmas by more than an order of magnitude. The least degassed magmas from Mauna Kea are more oxidized than midocean ridge basalt (MORB) magmas, suggesting that the upper mantle sources of Hawaiian magmas have higher f O 2 than MORB sources. One explanation for this difference is recycling of material from the oxidized surface to the deep mantle, which is then returned to the surface as a component of buoyant plumes. It has been proposed that a decreasing pressure of volcanic eruptions led to the oxygenation of the atmosphere. Extension of our findings via modeling of degassing trends suggests that a decrease in eruption pressure would not produce this effect. If degassing of basalts were responsible for the rise in oxygen, it requires that Archean magmas had at least two orders of magnitude lower f O 2 than modern magmas. Estimates of f O 2 of Archean magmas are not this low, arguing for alternative explanations for the oxygenation of the atmosphere.

  3. Redox variations in Mauna Kea lavas, the oxygen fugacity of the Hawaiian plume, and the role of volcanic gases in Earth’s oxygenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brounce, Maryjo; Stolper, Edward; Eiler, John

    2017-08-07

    The behavior of C, H, and S in the solid Earth depends on their oxidation states, which are related to oxygen fugacity (fO2). Volcanic degassing is a source of these elements to Earth’s surface; therefore, variations in mantle fO2 may influence the fO2 at Earth’s surface. However, degassing can impact magmatic fO2 before or during eruption, potentially obscuring relationships between the fO2 of the solid Earth and of emitted gases and their impact on surface fO2. We show that low-pressure degassing resulted in reduction of the fO2 of Mauna Kea magmas by more than an order of magnitude. The least degassed magmas from Mauna Kea are more oxidized than midocean ridge basalt (MORB) magmas, suggesting that the upper mantle sources of Hawaiian magmas have higher fO2 than MORB sources. One explanation for this difference is recycling of material from the oxidized surface to the deep mantle, which is then returned to the surface as a component of buoyant plumes. It has been proposed that a decreasing pressure of volcanic eruptions led to the oxygenation of the atmosphere. Extension of our findings via modeling of degassing trends suggests that a decrease in eruption pressure would not produce this effect. If degassing of basalts were responsible for the rise in oxygen, it requires that Archean magmas had at least two orders of magnitude lower fO2 than modern magmas. Estimates of fO2 of Archean magmas are not this low, arguing for alternative explanations for the oxygenation of the atmosphere.

  4. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) on the Moon: Moessbauer Spectroscopy as a Process Monitor for Oxygen Production. Results from a Field Test on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R.V.; Schroder, C.; Graff, T.G.; Sanders, G.B.; Lee, K.A.; Simon, T.M.; Larson, W.E.; Quinn, J.W.; Clark, L.D.; Caruso, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Essential consumables like oxygen must to be produced from materials on the lunar surface to enable a sustained, long-term presence of humans on the Moon. The Outpost Precursor for ISRU and Modular Architecture (OPTIMA) field test on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, facilitated by the Pacific International Space Center for Exploration Systems (PISCES) of the University of Hawaii at Hilo, was designed to test the implementation of three hardware concepts to extract oxygen from the lunar regolith: Precursor ISRU Lunar Oxygen Testbed (PILOT) developed by Lockheed Martin in Littleton, CO; Regolith & Environmental Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatiles Extraction (RESOLVE) developed at the NASA Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, FL; and ROxygen developed at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, TX. The three concepts differ in design, but all rely on the same general principle: hydrogen reduction of metal cations (primarily Fe2+) bonded to oxygen to metal (e.g., Fe0) with the production of water. The hydrogen source is residual hydrogen in the fuel tanks of lunar landers. Electrolysis of the water produces oxygen and hydrogen (which is recycled). We used the miniaturized M ssbauer spectrometer MIMOS II to quantify the yield of this process on the basis of the quantity of Fe0 produced. Iron M ssbauer spectroscopy identifies iron-bearing phases, determines iron oxidation states, and quantifies the distribution of iron between mineral phases and oxidation states. The oxygen yield can be calculated by quantitative measurements of the distribution of Fe among oxidation states in the regolith before and after hydrogen reduction. A M ssbauer spectrometer can also be used as a prospecting tool to select the optimum feedstock for the oxygen production plants (e.g., high total Fe content and easily reduced phases). As a demonstration, a MIMOS II backscatter spectrometer (SPESI, Germany) was mounted on the Cratos rover (NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, OH), which is one of

  5. Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of Acid-Sulfate Alteration of Basaltic Material on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii: Jarosite and Hydrated Halloysite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Trevor G.; Morris, R. V.; Archilles C. N.; Agresti, D. G.; Ming, D. W.; Hamilton, J. C.; Mertzman, S. A.; Smith, J.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfates have been identified on the martian surface during robotic surface exploration and by orbital remote sensing. Measurements at Meridiani Planum (MP) by the Alpha-Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and Mossbauer (MB) instruments on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity document the presence of a ubiquitous sulfate-rich outcrop (20-40% SO3) that has jarosite as an anhydrous Fe3+-sulfate [1- 3]. The presence of jarosite implies a highly acidic (pH <3) formation environment [4]. Jarosite and other sulfate minerals, including kieserite, gypsum, and alunite have also been identified in several locations in orbital remote sensing data from the MEx OMEGA and MRO CRISM instruments [e.g. 5-8]. Acid sulfate weathering of basaltic materials is an obvious pathway for formation of sulfate-bearing phases on Mars [e.g. 4, 9, 10]. In order to constrain acid-sulfate pathways on Mars, we are studying the mineralogical and chemical manifestations of acid-sulfate alteration of basaltic compositions in terrestrial environments. We have previously shown that acidsulfate alteration of tephra under hydrothermal conditions on the Puu Poliahu cone (summit region of Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii) resulted in jarosite and alunite as sulfate-bearing alteration products [11-14]. Other, more soluble, sulfates may have formed, but were leached away by rain and melting snow. Acidsulfate processes on Puu Poliahu also formed hematite spherules similar (except in size) to the hematite spherules observed at MP as an alteration product [14]. Phyllosilicates, usually smectite }minor kaolinite are also present as alteration products [13]. We discuss here an occurrence of acid-sulfate alteration on Mauna Kea Volcano (Hawaii). We report VNIR spectra (0.35-2.5 microns ASD spectrometer), Mossbauer spectra (MER-like ESPI backscatter spectrometer), powder XRD (PANalytical), and major element chemical compositions (XRF with LOI and Fe redox) for comparison to similar data acquired or to be acquired by MRO

  6. Combined U-Th/He and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of post-shield lavas from the Mauna Kea and Kohala volcanoes, Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aciego, S.M.; Jourdan, F.; DePaolo, D.J.; Kennedy, B.M.; Renne, P.R.; Sims, K.W.W.

    2009-10-01

    Late Quaternary, post-shield lavas from the Mauna Kea and Kohala volcanoes on the Big Island of Hawaii have been dated using the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar and U-Th/He methods. The objective of the study is to compare the recently demonstrated U-Th/He age method, which uses basaltic olivine phenocrysts, with {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages measured on groundmass from the same samples. As a corollary, the age data also increase the precision of the chronology of volcanism on the Big Island. For the U-Th/He ages, U, Th and He concentrations and isotopes were measured to account for U-series disequilibrium and initial He. Single analyses U-Th/He ages for Hamakua lavas from Mauna Kea are 87 {+-} 40 ka to 119 {+-} 23 ka (2{sigma} uncertainties), which are in general equal to or younger than {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages. Basalt from the Polulu sequence on Kohala gives a U-Th/He age of 354 {+-} 54 ka and a {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar age of 450 {+-} 40 ka. All of the U-Th/He ages, and all but one spurious {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages conform to the previously proposed stratigraphy and published {sup 14}C and K-Ar ages. The ages also compare favorably to U-Th whole rock-olivine ages calculated from {sup 238}U - {sup 230}Th disequilibria. The U-Th/He and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results agree best where there is a relatively large amount of radiogenic {sup 40}Ar (>10%), and where the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 36}Ar intercept calculated from the Ar isochron diagram is close to the atmospheric value. In two cases, it is not clear why U-Th/He and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar ages do not agree within uncertainty. U-Th/He and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results diverge the most on a low-K transitional tholeiitic basalt with abundant olivine. For the most alkalic basalts with negligible olivine phenocrysts, U-Th/He ages were unattainable while {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar results provide good precision even on ages as low as 19 {+-} 4 ka. Hence, the strengths and weaknesses of the U-Th/He and {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar methods are

  7. Mauna Kea, Hawaii as an Analogue Site for Future Planetary Resource Exploration: Results from the 2010 ILSO-ISRU Field-Testing Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Kate, I. L.; Armstrong, R.; Bernhardt, B.; Blummers, M.; Boucher, D.; Caillibot, E.; Captain, J.; Deleuterio, G.; Farmer, J. D.; Glavin, D. P.; hide

    2010-01-01

    Within the framework of the International Lunar Surface Operation - In-Situ Resource Utilization Analogue Test held on January 27 - February 11, 2010 on the Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii, a number of scientific instrument teams collaborated to characterize the field site and test instrument capabilities outside laboratory environments. In this paper, we provide a geological setting for this new field-test site, a description of the instruments that were tested during the 2010 ILSO-ISRU field campaign, and a short discussion for each instrument about the validity and use of the results obtained during the test. These results will form a catalogue that may serve as reference for future test campaigns. In this paper we provide a description and regional geological setting for a new field analogue test site for lunar resource exploration, and discuss results obtained from the 2010 ILSO-ISRU field campaign as a reference for future field-testing at this site. The following instruments were tested: a multispectral microscopic imager, MMI, a Mossbauer spectrometer, an evolved gas analyzer, VAPoR, and an oxygen and volatile extractor called RESOLVE. Preliminary results show that the sediments change from dry, organic-poor, poorly-sorted volcaniclastic sand on the surface, containing basalt, iron oxides and clays, to more water- and organic-rich, fine grained, well-sorted volcaniclastic sand, primarily consisting of iron oxides and depleted of basalt and clays. Furthermore, drilling experiments showed a very close correlation between drilling on the Moon and drilling at the test site. The ILSO-ISRU test site was an ideal location for testing strategies for in situ resource exploration at the lunar or martian surface.

  8. Hematite Spherules in Basaltic Tephra Altered Under Aqueous, Acid-Sulfate Conditions on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii: Possible Clues for the Occurrence of Hematite-Rich Spherules in the Burns Formation at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Graff, T. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Mertzman, S. A.; Gruener, J. E.; Golden, D. C.; Robinson, G. A.

    2005-01-01

    Iron-rich spherules (>90% Fe2O3 from electron microprobe analyses) approx.10-100 microns in diameter are found within sulfate-rich rocks formed by aqueous, acid-sulfate alteration of basaltic tephra on Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii. Although some spherules are nearly pure Fe, most have two concentric compositional zones, with the core having a higher Fe/Al ratio than the rim. Oxide totals less than 100% (93-99%) suggest structural H2O and/or /OH. The transmission Moessbauer spectrum of a spherule-rich separate is dominated by a hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) sextet whose peaks are skewed toward zero velocity. Skewing is consistent with Al(3+) for Fe(3+) substitution and structural H2O and/or /OH. The grey color of the spherules implies specular hematite. Whole-rock powder X-ray diffraction spectra are dominated by peaks from smectite and the hydroxy sulfate mineral natroalunite as alteration products and plagioclase feldspar that was present in the precursor basaltic tephra. Whether spherule formation proceeded directly from basaltic material in one event (dissolution of basaltic material and precipitation of hematite spherules) or whether spherule formation required more than one event (formation of Fe-bearing sulfate rock and subsequent hydrolysis to hematite) is not currently constrained. By analogy, a formation pathway for the hematite spherules in sulfate-rich outcrops at Meridiani Planum on Mars (the Burns formation) is aqueous alteration of basaltic precursor material under acid-sulfate conditions. Although hydrothermal conditions are present on Mauna Kea, such conditions may not be required for spherule formation on Mars if the time interval for hydrolysis at lower temperatures is sufficiently long.

  9. Mauna Loa lava accumulation rates at the Hilo drill site: Formation of lava deltas during a period of declining overall volcanic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, P.W.; Moore, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Accumulation rates for lava flows erupted from Mauna Loa, as sampled in the uppermost 280 m of the Hilo drill hole, vary widely for short time intervals (several thousand years), but overall are broadly similar to those documented elsewhere on this volcano since 100 ka. Thickness variations and accumulation rates for Mauna Loa lavas at the Hilo drill site have been strongly affected by local paleotopography, including funneling and ponding between Mauna Kea and Kilauea. In addition, gentle submerged slopes of Mauna Kea in Hilo Bay have permitted large shoreline displacements by Mauna Loa flows. Ages of eruptive intervals have been determined from published isotopic data and from eustatic sea level curves modified to include the isostatic subsidence of the island of Hawaii at 2.2-2.6 mm/yr. Prior to 10 ka, rates of Mauna Loa lava accumulation at the drill site varied from 0.6 to 4.3 mm/yr for dateable intervals, with an overall rate of 1.8 mm/yr. Major eruptive pulses at about 1.3 and 10 ka, each probably representing a single long-lived eruption based on lack of weathering between flow units, increase the overall accumulation rate to 2.4 mm/yr. The higher rate since 10 ka reflects construction of thick near-shoreline lava deltas as postglacial sea levels rose rapidly. Large lava deltas form only along coastal segments where initially subaerial slopes have been submerged by the combined effects of eustatic sea level rise, isostatic subsidence, or spreading of volcano flanks. Overall accumulation of 239 m of lava at the drill site since 100-120 ka closely balances submergence of the Hilo area, suggesting that processes of coastal lava deposition have been modulated by rise in sea level. The Hilo accumulation rate is slightly higher than average rates of 1-2 mm/yr determined elsewhere along the Mauna Loa coast, based on rates of shoreline coverage and dated sea cliff and fault scarp exposures. Low rates of coastal lava accumulation since 100 ka, near or below the rate

  10. Use of Hawaii Analog Sites for Lunar Science and In-Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, G. B.; Larson, W. E.; Picard, M.; Hamilton, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) and lunar science share similar objectives with respect to analyzing and characterizing the physical, mineral, and volatile materials and resources at sites of robotic and human exploration. To help mature and stress instruments, technologies, and hardware and to evaluate operations and procedures, space agencies have utilized demonstrations at analog sites on Earth before use in future missions. The US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), and the German Space Agency (DLR) have utilized an analog site on the slope of Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii to test ISRU and lunar science hardware and operations in two previously held analog field tests. NASA and CSA are currently planning on a 3rd analog field test to be held in June, 2012 in Hawaii that will expand upon the successes from the previous two field tests.

  11. Survival of feral cats, Felis catus (Carnivora: Felidae), on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i, based on tooth cementum lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Raymond M.; Farmer, Chris; Hess, Steven C.; Stephens, Robert M.; Banko, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Feral cats (Felis catus) have spread throughout anthropogenic and insular environments of the world. They now threaten many species of native wildlife with chronic depredation. Knowledge of feral cat population dynamics is necessary to understand their ecological effects and to develop effective control strategies. However, there are few studies worldwide regarding annual or lifetime survival rates in remote systems, and none on Pacific islands. We constructed the age distribution and estimated survival of feral cats in a remote area of Hawai'i Island using cementum lines present in lower canine teeth. Our data suggest annual cementum line formation. A log-linear model estimated annual survival ≥ 1 yr of age to be 0.647. Relatively high survival coupled with high reproductive output allows individual cats to affect native wildlife for many years and cat populations to rebound quickly after control efforts.

  12. Space radar image of Mauna Loa, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This image of the Mauna Loa volcano on the Big Island of Hawaii shows the capability of imaging radar to map lava flows and other volcanic structures. Mauna Loa has erupted more than 35 times since the island was first visited by westerners in the early 1800s. The large summit crater, called Mokuaweoweo Caldera, is clearly visible near the center of the image. Leading away from the caldera (towards top right and lower center) are the two main rift zones shown here in orange. Rift zones are areas of weakness within the upper part of the volcano that are often ripped open as new magma (molten rock) approaches the surface at the start of an eruption. The most recent eruption of Mauna Loa was in March and April 1984, when segments of the northeast rift zones were active. If the height of the volcano was measured from its base on the ocean floor instead of from sea level, Mauna Loa would be the tallest mountain on Earth. Its peak (center of the image) rises more than 8 kilometers (5 miles) above the ocean floor. The South Kona District, known for cultivation of macadamia nuts and coffee, can be seen in the lower left as white and blue areas along the coast. North is toward the upper left. The area shown is 41.5 by 75 kilometers (25.7 by 46.5 miles), centered at 19.5 degrees north latitude and 155.6 degrees west longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/ X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on its 36th orbit on October 2, 1994. The radar illumination is from the left of the image. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted, vertically received). The resulting color combinations in this radar image are caused by differences in surface roughness of the lava flows. Smoother flows

  13. X-ray Diffraction Results from Mars Science Laboratory: Mineralogy of Rocknest at Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, D. L.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Chipera, S. J.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Treiman, A. H.; Sarrazin, P.; Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; Achilles, C. N.; Yen, A. S.; Bristow, T. F.; Crisp, J. A.; Morookian, J. M.; Farmer, J. D.; Rampe, E. B.; Stolper, E. M.; Spanovich, N.; Achilles, Cherie; Agard, Christophe; Verdasca, José Alexandre Alves; Anderson, Robert; Anderson, Ryan; Archer, Doug; Armiens-Aparicio, Carlos; Arvidson, Ray; Atlaskin, Evgeny; Atreya, Sushil; Aubrey, Andrew; Baker, Burt; Baker, Michael; Balic-Zunic, Tonci; Baratoux, David; Baroukh, Julien; Barraclough, Bruce; Bean, Keri; Beegle, Luther; Behar, Alberto; Bell, James; Bender, Steve; Benna, Mehdi; Bentz, Jennifer; Berger, Gilles; Berger, Jeff; Berman, Daniel; Bish, David; Blake, David F.; Avalos, Juan J. Blanco; Blaney, Diana; Blank, Jen; Blau, Hannah; Bleacher, Lora; Boehm, Eckart; Botta, Oliver; Böttcher, Stephan; Boucher, Thomas; Bower, Hannah; Boyd, Nick; Boynton, Bill; Breves, Elly; Bridges, John; Bridges, Nathan; Brinckerhoff, William; Brinza, David; Bristow, Thomas; Brunet, Claude; Brunner, Anna; Brunner, Will; Buch, Arnaud; Bullock, Mark; Burmeister, Sönke; Cabane, Michel; Calef, Fred; Cameron, James; Campbell, John "Iain"; Cantor, Bruce; Caplinger, Michael; Rodríguez, Javier Caride; Carmosino, Marco; Blázquez, Isaías Carrasco; Charpentier, Antoine; Chipera, Steve; Choi, David; Clark, Benton; Clegg, Sam; Cleghorn, Timothy; Cloutis, Ed; Cody, George; Coll, Patrice; Conrad, Pamela; Coscia, David; Cousin, Agnès; Cremers, David; Crisp, Joy; Cros, Alain; Cucinotta, Frank; d'Uston, Claude; Davis, Scott; Day, Mackenzie "Kenzie"; Juarez, Manuel de la Torre; DeFlores, Lauren; DeLapp, Dorothea; DeMarines, Julia; DesMarais, David; Dietrich, William; Dingler, Robert; Donny, Christophe; Downs, Bob; Drake, Darrell; Dromart, Gilles; Dupont, Audrey; Duston, Brian; Dworkin, Jason; Dyar, M. Darby; Edgar, Lauren; Edgett, Kenneth; Edwards, Christopher; Edwards, Laurence; Ehlmann, Bethany; Ehresmann, Bent; Eigenbrode, Jen; Elliott, Beverley; Elliott, Harvey; Ewing, Ryan; Fabre, Cécile; Fairén, Alberto; Farley, Ken; Farmer, Jack; Fassett, Caleb; Favot, Laurent; Fay, Donald; Fedosov, Fedor; Feldman, Jason; Feldman, Sabrina; Fisk, Marty; Fitzgibbon, Mike; Flesch, Greg; Floyd, Melissa; Flückiger, Lorenzo; Forni, Olivier; Fraeman, Abby; Francis, Raymond; François, Pascaline; Franz, Heather; Freissinet, Caroline; French, Katherine Louise; Frydenvang, Jens; Gaboriaud, Alain; Gailhanou, Marc; Garvin, James; Gasnault, Olivier; Geffroy, Claude; Gellert, Ralf; Genzer, Maria; Glavin, Daniel; Godber, Austin; Goesmann, Fred; Goetz, Walter; Golovin, Dmitry; Gómez, Felipe Gómez; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Gondet, Brigitte; Gordon, Suzanne; Gorevan, Stephen; Grant, John; Griffes, Jennifer; Grinspoon, David; Grotzinger, John; Guillemot, Philippe; Guo, Jingnan; Gupta, Sanjeev; Guzewich, Scott; Haberle, Robert; Halleaux, Douglas; Hallet, Bernard; Hamilton, Vicky; Hardgrove, Craig; Harker, David; Harpold, Daniel; Harri, Ari-Matti; Harshman, Karl; Hassler, Donald; Haukka, Harri; Hayes, Alex; Herkenhoff, Ken; Herrera, Paul; Hettrich, Sebastian; Heydari, Ezat; Hipkin, Victoria; Hoehler, Tori; Hollingsworth, Jeff; Hudgins, Judy; Huntress, Wesley; Hurowitz, Joel; Hviid, Stubbe; Iagnemma, Karl; Indyk, Steve; Israël, Guy; Jackson, Ryan; Jacob, Samantha; Jakosky, Bruce; Jensen, Elsa; Jensen, Jaqueline Kløvgaard; Johnson, Jeffrey; Johnson, Micah; Johnstone, Steve; Jones, Andrea; Jones, John; Joseph, Jonathan; Jun, Insoo; Kah, Linda; Kahanpää, Henrik; Kahre, Melinda; Karpushkina, Natalya; Kasprzak, Wayne; Kauhanen, Janne; Keely, Leslie; Kemppinen, Osku; Keymeulen, Didier; Kim, Myung-Hee; Kinch, Kjartan; King, Penny; Kirkland, Laurel; Kocurek, Gary; Koefoed, Asmus; Köhler, Jan; Kortmann, Onno; Kozyrev, Alexander; Krezoski, Jill; Krysak, Daniel; Kuzmin, Ruslan; Lacour, Jean Luc; Lafaille, Vivian; Langevin, Yves; Lanza, Nina; Lasue, Jeremie; Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Lee, Ella Mae; Lee, Qiu-Mei; Lees, David; Lefavor, Matthew; Lemmon, Mark; Malvitte, Alain Lepinette; Leshin, Laurie; Léveillé, Richard; Lewin-Carpintier, Éric; Lewis, Kevin; Li, Shuai; Lipkaman, Leslie; Little, Cynthia; Litvak, Maxim; Lorigny, Eric; Lugmair, Guenter; Lundberg, Angela; Lyness, Eric; Madsen, Morten; Mahaffy, Paul; Maki, Justin; Malakhov, Alexey; Malespin, Charles; Malin, Michael; Mangold, Nicolas; Manhes, Gérard; Manning, Heidi; Marchand, Geneviève; Jiménez, Mercedes Marín; García, César Martín; Martin, Dave; Martin, Mildred; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Martín-Soler, Javier; Martín-Torres, F. Javier; Mauchien, Patrick; Maurice, Sylvestre; McAdam, Amy; McCartney, Elaina; McConnochie, Timothy; McCullough, Emily; McEwan, Ian; McKay, Christopher; McLennan, Scott; McNair, Sean; Melikechi, Noureddine; Meslin, Pierre-Yves; Meyer, Michael; Mezzacappa, Alissa; Miller, Hayden; Miller, Kristen; Milliken, Ralph; Ming, Douglas; Minitti, Michelle; Mischna, Michael; Mitrofanov, Igor; Moersch, Jeff; Mokrousov, Maxim; Jurado, Antonio Molina; Moores, John; Mora-Sotomayor, Luis; Morookian, John Michael; Morris, Richard; Morrison, Shaunna; Mueller-Mellin, Reinhold; Muller, Jan-Peter; Caro, Guillermo Muñoz; Nachon, Marion; López, Sara Navarro; Navarro-González, Rafael; Nealson, Kenneth; Nefian, Ara; Nelson, Tony; Newcombe, Megan; Newman, Claire; Newsom, Horton; Nikiforov, Sergey; Niles, Paul; Nixon, Brian; Dobrea, Eldar Noe; Nolan, Thomas; Oehler, Dorothy; Ollila, Ann; Olson, Timothy; Owen, Tobias; Hernández, Miguel Ángel de Pablo; Paillet, Alexis; Pallier, Etienne; Palucis, Marisa; Parker, Timothy; Parot, Yann; Patel, Kiran; Paton, Mark; Paulsen, Gale; Pavlov, Alex; Pavri, Betina; Peinado-González, Verónica; Pepin, Robert; Peret, Laurent; Perez, Rene; Perrett, Glynis; Peterson, Joe; Pilorget, Cedric; Pinet, Patrick; Pla-García, Jorge; Plante, Ianik; Poitrasson, Franck; Polkko, Jouni; Popa, Radu; Posiolova, Liliya; Posner, Arik; Pradler, Irina; Prats, Benito; Prokhorov, Vasily; Purdy, Sharon Wilson; Raaen, Eric; Radziemski, Leon; Rafkin, Scot; Ramos, Miguel; Rampe, Elizabeth; Raulin, François; Ravine, Michael; Reitz, Günther; Rennó, Nilton; Rice, Melissa; Richardson, Mark; Robert, François; Robertson, Kevin; Manfredi, José Antonio Rodriguez; Romeral-Planelló, Julio J.; Rowland, Scott; Rubin, David; Saccoccio, Muriel; Salamon, Andrew; Sandoval, Jennifer; Sanin, Anton; Fuentes, Sara Alejandra Sans; Saper, Lee; Sarrazin, Philippe; Sautter, Violaine; Savijärvi, Hannu; Schieber, Juergen; Schmidt, Mariek; Schmidt, Walter; Scholes, Daniel "Dan"; Schoppers, Marcel; Schröder, Susanne; Schwenzer, Susanne; Martinez, Eduardo Sebastian; Sengstacken, Aaron; Shterts, Ruslan; Siebach, Kirsten; Siili, Tero; Simmonds, Jeff; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Slavney, Susie; Sletten, Ronald; Smith, Michael; Sánchez, Pablo Sobrón; Spanovich, Nicole; Spray, John; Squyres, Steven; Stack, Katie; Stalport, Fabien; Steele, Andrew; Stein, Thomas; Stern, Jennifer; Stewart, Noel; Stipp, Susan Louise Svane; Stoiber, Kevin; Stolper, Ed; Sucharski, Bob; Sullivan, Rob; Summons, Roger; Sumner, Dawn; Sun, Vivian; Supulver, Kimberley; Sutter, Brad; Szopa, Cyril; Tan, Florence; Tate, Christopher; Teinturier, Samuel; ten Kate, Inge; Thomas, Peter; Thompson, Lucy; Tokar, Robert; Toplis, Mike; Redondo, Josefina Torres; Trainer, Melissa; Treiman, Allan; Tretyakov, Vladislav; Urqui-O'Callaghan, Roser; Van Beek, Jason; Van Beek, Tessa; VanBommel, Scott; Vaniman, David; Varenikov, Alexey; Vasavada, Ashwin; Vasconcelos, Paulo; Vicenzi, Edward; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Voytek, Mary; Wadhwa, Meenakshi; Ward, Jennifer; Webster, Chris; Weigle, Eddie; Wellington, Danika; Westall, Frances; Wiens, Roger Craig; Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Williams, Amy; Williams, Joshua; Williams, Rebecca; Williams, Richard B. "Mouser"; Wilson, Mike; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Wolff, Mike; Wong, Mike; Wray, James; Wu, Megan; Yana, Charles; Yen, Albert; Yingst, Aileen; Zeitlin, Cary; Zimdar, Robert; Mier, María-Paz Zorzano

    2013-09-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity scooped samples of soil from the Rocknest aeolian bedform in Gale crater. Analysis of the soil with the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) x-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument revealed plagioclase (~An57), forsteritic olivine (~Fo62), augite, and pigeonite, with minor K-feldspar, magnetite, quartz, anhydrite, hematite, and ilmenite. The minor phases are present at, or near, detection limits. The soil also contains 27 ± 14 weight percent x-ray amorphous material, likely containing multiple Fe3+- and volatile-bearing phases, including possibly a substance resembling hisingerite. The crystalline component is similar to the normative mineralogy of certain basaltic rocks from Gusev crater on Mars and of martian basaltic meteorites. The amorphous component is similar to that found on Earth in places such as soils on the Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Jame Clerk Maxwell Telescope Science Archive (CADC, 2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canadian Astronomy Data, Centre

    2018-01-01

    The JCMT Science Archive (JSA), a collaboration between the CADC and EOA, is the official distribution site for observational data obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The JSA search interface is provided by the CADC Search tool, which provides generic access to the complete set of telescopic data archived at the CADC. Help on the use of this tool is provided via tooltips. For additional information on instrument capabilities and data reduction, please consult the SCUBA-2 and ACSIS instrument pages provided on the JAC maintained JCMT pages. JCMT-specific help related to the use of the CADC AdvancedSearch tool is available from the JAC. (1 data file).

  15. Chronic West Nile virus infection in kea (Nestor notabilis)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakonyi, T.; Gaydon, G. K.; Schwing, R.; Vogl, W.; Häbich, A.-C.; Thaller, D.; Weissenböck, H.; Rudolf, Ivo; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Nowotny, N.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 183, February (2016), s. 135-139 ISSN 0378-1135 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT; European Commission(XE) 261391 - EUROWESTNILE Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : West Nile virus * Lineage 2 * Kea * Nestor notabilis * Psittaciformes * Persistent infection * Austria Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.628, year: 2016

  16. SkyProbe: Real-Time Precision Monitoring in the Optical of the Absolute Atmospheric Absorption on the Telescope Science and Calibration Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuillandre, J.-C.; Magnier, E.; Sabin, D.; Mahoney, B.

    2016-05-01

    Mauna Kea is known for its pristine seeing conditions but sky transparency can be an issue for science operations since at least 25% of the observable (i.e. open dome) nights are not photometric, an effect mostly due to high-altitude cirrus. Since 2001, the original single channel SkyProbe mounted in parallel on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) has gathered one V-band exposure every minute during each observing night using a small CCD camera offering a very wide field of view (35 sq. deg.) encompassing the region pointed by the telescope for science operations, and exposures long enough (40 seconds) to capture at least 100 stars of Hipparcos' Tycho catalog at high galactic latitudes (and up to 600 stars at low galactic latitudes). The measurement of the true atmospheric absorption is achieved within 2%, a key advantage over all-sky direct thermal infrared imaging detection of clouds. The absolute measurement of the true atmospheric absorption by clouds and particulates affecting the data being gathered by the telescope's main science instrument has proven crucial for decision making in the CFHT queued service observing (QSO) representing today all of the telescope time. Also, science exposures taken in non-photometric conditions are automatically registered for a new observation at a later date at 1/10th of the original exposure time in photometric conditions to ensure a proper final absolute photometric calibration. Photometric standards are observed only when conditions are reported as being perfectly stable by SkyProbe. The more recent dual color system (simultaneous B & V bands) will offer a better characterization of the sky properties above Mauna Kea and should enable a better detection of the thinnest cirrus (absorption down to 0.01 mag., or 1%).

  17. Isotopic evolution of Mauna Loa volcano

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, M.D.; Kammer, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    In an effort to understand the temporal helium isotopic variations in Mauna Loa volcano, we have measured helium, strontium and lead isotopes in a suite of Mauna Loa lavas that span most of the subaerial eruptive history of the volcano. The lavas range in age from historical flows to Ninole basalt which are thought to be several hundred thousand years old. Most of the samples younger than 30 ka in age (Kau Basalt) are radiocarbon-dated flows, while the samples older than 30 ka are stratigraphically controlled (Kahuku and Ninole Basalt). The data reveal a striking change in the geochemistry of the lavas approximately 10 ka before present. The lavas older than 10 ka are characterized by high 3 He/ 4 He (≅ 16-20 times atmospheric), higher 206 Pb/ 204 Pb (≅ 18.2), and lower 87 Sr/ 86 Sr(≅ 0.70365) ratios than the younger Kau samples (having He, Pb and Sr ratios of approximately 8.5 x atmospheric, 18.1 and 0.70390, respectively). The historical lavas are distinct in having intermediate Sr and Pb isotopic compositions with 3 He/ 4 He ratios similar to the other young Kau basalt (≅ 8.5 x atmospheric). The isotopic variations are on a shorter time scale (100 to 10,000 years) than has previously been observed for Hawaiian volcanoes, and demonstrate the importance of geochronology and stratigraphy to geochemical studies. The data show consistency between all three isotope systems, which suggests that the variations are not related to magma chamber degassing processes, and that helium is not decoupled from the other isotopes. However, the complex temporal evolution suggests that three distinct mantle sources are required to explain the isotopic data. Most of the Mauna Loa isotopic variations could be explained by mixing between a plume type source, similar to Loihi, and an asthenospheric source with helium isotopic composition close to MORB and elevated Sr isotopic values. (orig./WL)

  18. Population estimates of the Endangered Hawaiʻi ʻĀkepa (Loxops coccineus) in different habitats on windward Mauna Loa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Seth W.; Camp, Richard J.; Hart, Patrick J.; Kichman, Scott T.

    2018-01-01

    Endangered Hawai‘i ʻĀkepas (Loxops coccineus) are endemic to Hawai‘i island, where they occur in five spatially distinct populations. Data concerning the status and population trends of these unique Hawaiian honeycreepers are crucial for assessing the effectiveness of recovery and management actions. In 2016, we used point‐transect distance sampling to estimate the abundance of Hawai‘i ʻĀkepas in portions of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) and the Kaʻū Forest Reserve (KFR) on Mauna Loa volcano. We then compiled the survey data from four other populations to provide a global population estimate. In our HAVO and KFR study area, we mapped habitat classes to determine the population densities in each habitat. Densities were highest (1.03 birds/ha) in open‐canopy montane ʻōhiʻa (Metrosideros polymorpha) woodland. In contrast, densities of the largest ʻĀkepa population on Mauna Kea volcano were highest in closed‐canopy ʻōhiʻa and koa (Acacia koa) forest where the species is dependent on nest cavities in tall (> 15 m), large (> 50‐cm diameter at breast height) trees. We surveyed potential nesting habitat in HAVO and KFR and found only one cavity in the short‐stature montane ʻōhiʻa woodland and five cavities in the tall‐stature forest. Differences in densities between the Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa populations suggest that Hawai‘i ʻĀkepas may exhibit different foraging and nesting behaviors in the two habitats. The estimated overall population density in the HAVO and KFR study area was 0.52 birds/ha, which equates to 3663 (95% CI 1725–6961) birds in their 11,377‐ha population range. We calculated a global population of 16,428 (95% CI 10,065–25,198) birds, which is similar to an estimate of 13,892 (95% CI 10,315–17,469) birds made in 1986. Our results suggest that populations are stable to increasing in the two largest populations, but the three other populations are smaller (range = 77–1443 birds) and trends

  19. 1984 Mauna Loa eruption and planetary geolgoy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    In planetary geology, lava flows on the Moon and Mars are commonly treated as relatively simple systems. Some of the complexities of actual lava flows are illustrated using the main flow system of the 1984 Mauna Loa eruption. The outline, brief narrative, and results given are based on a number of sources. The implications of the results to planetary geology are clear. Volume flow rates during an eruption depend, in part, on the volatile content of the lava. These differ from the volume flow rates calculated from post eruption flow dimensions and the duration of the eruption and from those using models that assume a constant density. Mass flow rates might be more appropriate because the masses of volatiles in lavas are usually small, but variable and sometimes unknown densities impose severe restrictions on mass estimates

  20. Vocal repertoire of the New Zealand kea parrot Nestor notabilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raoul SCHWING, Stuart PARSONS, Ximena J. NELSON

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The unique alpine-living kea parrot Nestor notabilis has been the focus of numerous cognitive studies, but its communication system has so far been largely neglected. We examined 2,884 calls recorded in New Zealand’s Southern Alps. Based on audio and visual spectrographic differences, these calls were categorised into seven distinct call types: the non-oscillating ‘screech’ contact call and ‘mew’; and the oscillating ‘trill’, ‘chatter’, ‘warble’ and ‘whistle’; and a hybrid ‘screech-trill’. Most of these calls contained aspects that were individually unique, in addition to potentially encoding for an individual’s sex and age. Additionally, for each recording, the sender’s previous and next calls were noted, as well as any response given by conspecifics. We found that the previous and next calls made by the sender were most often of the same type, and that the next most likely preceding and/or following call type was the screech call, a contact call which sounds like the ‘kee-ah’ from which the bird’s name derives. As a social bird capable of covering large distances over visually obstructive terrain, long distance contact calls may be of considerable importance for social cohesion. Contact calls allow kea to locate conspecifics and congregate in temporary groups for social activities. The most likely response to any given call was a screech, usually followed by the same type of call as the initial call made by the sender, although responses differed depending on the age of the caller. The exception was the warble, the kea’s play call, to which the most likely response was another warble. Being the most common call type, as well as the default response to another call, it appears that the ‘contagious’ screech contact call plays a central role in kea vocal communication and social cohesion [Current Zoology 58 (5: 727-740, 2012].

  1. SkyProbeBV: dual-color absolute sky transparency monitor to optimize science operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuillandre, Jean-Charles; Magnier, Eugene; Sabin, Dan; Mahoney, Billy

    2008-07-01

    Mauna Kea (4200 m elevation, Hawaii) is known for its pristine seeing conditions, but sky transparency can be an issue for science operations: 25% of the nights are not photometric, a cloud coverage mostly due to high-altitude thin cirrus. The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) is upgrading its real-time sky transparency monitor in the optical domain (V-band) into a dual-color system by adding a B-band channel and redesigning the entire optical and mechanical assembly. Since 2000, the original single-channel SkyProbe has gathered one exposure every minute during each observing night using a small CCD camera with a very wide field of view (35 sq. deg.) encompassing the region pointed by the telescope for science operations, and exposures long enough (30 seconds) to capture at least 100 stars of Hipparcos' Tychos catalog at high galactic latitudes (and up to 600 stars at low galactic latitudes). A key advantage of SkyProbe over direct thermal infrared imaging detection of clouds, is that it allows an accurate absolute measurement, within 5%, of the true atmospheric absorption by clouds affecting the data being gathered by the telescope's main science instrument. This system has proven crucial for decision making in the CFHT queued service observing (QSO), representing today 95% of the telescope time: science exposures taken in non-photometric conditions are automatically registered for being re-observed later on (at 1/10th of the original exposure time per pointing in the observed filters) to ensure a proper final absolute photometric calibration. If the absorption is too high, exposures can be repeated, or the observing can be done for a lower ranked science program. The new dual color system (simultaneous B & V bands) will allow a better characterization of the sky properties above Mauna Kea and should enable a better detection of the thinner cirrus (absorption down to 0.02 mag., i.e. 2%). SkyProbe is operated within the Elixir pipeline, a collection of tools

  2. Geologic map of the northeast flank of Mauna Loa volcano, Island of Hawai'i, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusdell, Frank A.; Lockwood, John P.

    2017-05-01

    SummaryMauna Loa, the largest volcano on Earth, has erupted 33 times since written descriptions became available in 1832. Some eruptions were preceded by only brief seismic unrest, while others followed several months to a year of increased seismicity.The majority of the eruptions of Mauna Loa began in the summit area (>12,000-ft elevation; Lockwood and Lipman, 1987); yet the Northeast Rift Zone (NERZ) was the source of eight flank eruptions since 1843 (table 1). This zone extends from the 13,680-ft-high summit towards Hilo (population ~60,000), the second largest city in the State of Hawaii. Although most of the source vents are farther than 30 km away, the 1880 flow from one of the vents extends into Hilo, nearly reaching Hilo Bay. The city is built entirely on flows erupted from the NERZ, most older than that erupted in 1843.Once underway, Mauna Loa's eruptions can produce lava flows that reach the sea in less than 24 hours, severing roads and utilities in their path. For example, lava flows erupted from the Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ) in 1950 advanced at an average rate of 9.3 km per hour, and all three lobes reached the ocean within approximately 24 hours (Finch and Macdonald, 1953). The flows near the eruptive vents must have traveled even faster.In terms of eruption frequency, pre-eruption warning, and rapid flow emplacement, Mauna Loa poses an enormous volcanic-hazard threat to the Island of Hawai‘i. By documenting past activity and by alerting the public and local government officials of our findings, we can anticipate the volcanic hazards and substantially mitigate the risks associated with an eruption of this massive edifice.From the geologic record, we can deduce several generalized facts about the geologic history of the NERZ. The middle to the uppermost section of the rift zone were more active in the past 4,000 years than the lower part, perhaps due to buttressing of the lower east rift zone by Mauna Kea and Kīlauea volcanoes. The historical flows

  3. Radon at the Mauna Loa Observatory: transport from distant continents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittlestone, S.; Robinson, E.; Ryan, S.

    1992-01-01

    Continuous measurements of radon have been made at an altitude of 3400m at the Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii. Concentrations ranged from about 20 to more than 700mBq m -3 . These were similar to values at remote Macquarie I., some 2000 km south of Australia in the Southern Ocean. At Mauna Loa, the radon concentrations could usually be separated into free tropospheric and island influenced categories on the basis of local meteorological observations. On one occasion a long range transport event from Asia brought relatively high radon concentrations to Mauna Loa and persisted for several days. The Asian origin of this event was supported by wind trajectories. This measurement program demonstrates the value of radon data in evaluating air transport models and the influence of transport from distant continents on baseline atmospheric measurements. (author)

  4. Differential parasitism of seed-feeding Cydia (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) by native and alien wasp species relative to elevation in subalpine Sophora (Fabaceae) forests on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboyski, P.T.; Slotterback, J.W.; Banko, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    Alien parasitic wasps, including accidental introductions and purposefully released biological control agents, have been implicated in the decline of native Hawaiian Lepidoptera. Understanding the potential impacts of alien wasps requires knowledge of ecological parameters that influence parasitism rates for species in their new environment. Sophora seed-feeding Cydia spp. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) were surveyed for larval parasitoids to determine how native and alien wasps are partitioned over an elevation gradient (2200-2800 m) on Hawaii Island, Hawaii. Parasitism rate of native Euderus metallicus (Eulophidae) increased with increased elevation, while parasitism rate by immigrant Calliephialtes grapholithae (Ichneumonidae) decreased. Parasitism by Pristomerus hawaiiensis (Ichneumonidae), origins uncertain, also decreased with increased elevation. Two other species, Diadegma blackburni (Ichneumonidae), origins uncertain, and Brasema cushmani (Eupelmidae), a purposefully introduced biological control agent for pepper weevil, did not vary significantly with elevation. Results are contrasted with a previous study of this system with implications for the conservation of an endangered bird species that feed on Cydia larvae. Interpretation of results is hindered by lack of knowledge of autecology of moths and wasps, origins, phylogeny, systematics, competitive ability, and physiological limitations of each wasp species. These factors should be incorporated into risk analysis for biological control introductions and invasive species programs. ?? 2004 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  5. Breeding productivity and survival of the endangered Hawai'i Creeper in a wet forest refuge on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mark

    2001-01-01

    We studied the demography of the endangered Hawai‘i Creeper (Oreomystis muna) from 1994-1999 at three sites in Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Hawai‘i Creepers bred from January to June, with peak breeding in February through May (about 120-l 80 days), and molted from May to August. A small proportion (4.9%) of individuals overlapped breeding and molting activities. We located and monitored the fates of 60 nests. Mean clutch size was 2.1 eggs, nest building required 19 days, incubation was 16 to 17 days, and nestling period lasted 18 days. Of all nest attempts, 25% were abandoned before egg laying, 6.7% were removed for captive propagation, 13.3% had undetermined fates, 38.3% failed during incubation or nestling periods, and 16.7% were successful. Thus, of 33 nests that were active through egg laying and outcome was confirmed, only 30% were successful. The daily survival rate of active nests was 0.960 t 0.009 SE. An average of 1.7 chicks fledged from successful nests. Thirty-two percent of hatch-year birds were alive and in the study area at least one year later. Annual adult survival was high (0.88 t 0.03). The primary factors limiting productivity of Hawai‘i Creeper in Hakalau Forest NWR appear to be low reproductive potential in combination with high rates of nesting failure. Further research into the causes of nest failure, the length of the breeding season, and renesting behavior of females is needed, and protection of the forest from the degrading impacts of introduced mammals is paramount.

  6. The Pan-STARRS Data Processing and Science Analysis Software Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heasley, J. N.

    2008-01-01

    The Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) will use gigapixel CCD cameras on multiaperture telescopes to survey the sky in the visible and infrared bands. A single telescope system (PS1) has been deployed on Maui, and a four-telescope system (PS4) will be sited on Mauna Kea on the Big Island of Hawaii. These systems will survey the sky repeatedly and will generate petabytes of image data and catalogs of billions of stars and galaxies. Each set of images will be combined to create a very sensitive multicolor image of the sky, and differences between images will provide for a massive database of 'time domain astronomy' including the study of moving objects and transient or variable objects. All data from PS1 will be put into the public domain following its 3.5 year survey. The project faces formidable challenges in processing the image data in near real time and making the catalog data accessible via relational databases. In this talk, I describe the software systems developed by the Pan-STARRS project and how these core systems will be augmented by an assortment of science 'servers' being developed by astronomers in the PS1 Science Consortium.

  7. 75 FR 43823 - Safety Zone; He'eia Kea Small Boat Harbor, Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in He'eia Kea Small Boat Harbor located in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, Hawaii. The safety zone is necessary to protect watercraft and the general public from hazards associated with five vessels moored for approximately 3- weeks off the boat harbor's main pier. Vessels desiring to transit through the zone can request permission by contacting the Captain of the Port Honolulu.

  8. Lava inundation zone maps for Mauna Loa, Island of Hawaiʻi, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusdell, Frank A.; Zoeller, Michael H.

    2017-10-12

    Lava flows from Mauna Loa volcano, on the Island of Hawaiʻi, constitute a significant hazard to people and property. This report addresses those lava flow hazards, mapping 18 potential lava inundation zones on the island.

  9. Flexibility in problem solving and tool use of kea and New Caledonian crows in a multi access box paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auersperg, Alice M I; von Bayern, Auguste M P; Gajdon, Gyula K; Huber, Ludwig; Kacelnik, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Parrots and corvids show outstanding innovative and flexible behaviour. In particular, kea and New Caledonian crows are often singled out as being exceptionally sophisticated in physical cognition, so that comparing them in this respect is particularly interesting. However, comparing cognitive mechanisms among species requires consideration of non-cognitive behavioural propensities and morphological characteristics evolved from different ancestry and adapted to fit different ecological niches. We used a novel experimental approach based on a Multi-Access-Box (MAB). Food could be extracted by four different techniques, two of them involving tools. Initially all four options were available to the subjects. Once they reached criterion for mastering one option, this task was blocked, until the subjects became proficient in another solution. The exploratory behaviour differed considerably. Only one (of six) kea and one (of five) NCC mastered all four options, including a first report of innovative stick tool use in kea. The crows were more efficient in using the stick tool, the kea the ball tool. The kea were haptically more explorative than the NCC, discovered two or three solutions within the first ten trials (against a mean of 0.75 discoveries by the crows) and switched more quickly to new solutions when the previous one was blocked. Differences in exploration technique, neophobia and object manipulation are likely to explain differential performance across the set of tasks. Our study further underlines the need to use a diversity of tasks when comparing cognitive traits between members of different species. Extension of a similar method to other taxa could help developing a comparative cognition research program.

  10. Flexibility in problem solving and tool use of kea and New Caledonian crows in a multi access box paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M I Auersperg

    Full Text Available Parrots and corvids show outstanding innovative and flexible behaviour. In particular, kea and New Caledonian crows are often singled out as being exceptionally sophisticated in physical cognition, so that comparing them in this respect is particularly interesting. However, comparing cognitive mechanisms among species requires consideration of non-cognitive behavioural propensities and morphological characteristics evolved from different ancestry and adapted to fit different ecological niches. We used a novel experimental approach based on a Multi-Access-Box (MAB. Food could be extracted by four different techniques, two of them involving tools. Initially all four options were available to the subjects. Once they reached criterion for mastering one option, this task was blocked, until the subjects became proficient in another solution. The exploratory behaviour differed considerably. Only one (of six kea and one (of five NCC mastered all four options, including a first report of innovative stick tool use in kea. The crows were more efficient in using the stick tool, the kea the ball tool. The kea were haptically more explorative than the NCC, discovered two or three solutions within the first ten trials (against a mean of 0.75 discoveries by the crows and switched more quickly to new solutions when the previous one was blocked. Differences in exploration technique, neophobia and object manipulation are likely to explain differential performance across the set of tasks. Our study further underlines the need to use a diversity of tasks when comparing cognitive traits between members of different species. Extension of a similar method to other taxa could help developing a comparative cognition research program.

  11. NOAA carbon dioxide measurements at Mauna Loa Observatory, 1974-1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.T.; Komhyr, W.D.; Harris, T.B.; Chin, J.F.S.

    1977-01-01

    The Geophysical Monitoring for Climatic Change program of NOAA's Environmental Research Laboratories has measured atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, continuously since June 1974. The measurements through 1976 have been analyzed for recent secular concentration changes and show a continuing increase of about 0.9 ppm/year

  12. Coupling at Mauna Loa and Kīlauea by stress transfer in an asthenospheric melt layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnermann, Helge M.; Foster, James H.; Poland, Michael; Wolfe, Cecily J.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Miklius, Asta

    2012-01-01

    The eruptive activity at the neighbouring Hawaiian volcanoes, Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, is thought to be linked despite both having separate lithospheric magmatic plumbing systems. Over the past century, activity at the two volcanoes has been anti-correlated, which could reflect a competition for the same magma supply. Yet, during the past decade Kīlauea and Mauna Loa have inflated simultaneously. Linked activity between adjacent volcanoes in general remains controversial. Here we present a numerical model for the dynamical interaction between Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, where both volcanoes are coupled by pore-pressure diffusion, occurring within a common, asthenospheric magma supply system. The model is constrained by measurements of gas emission rates indicative of eruptive activity, and it is calibrated to match geodetic measurements of surface deformation at both volcanoes, inferred to reflect changes in shallow magma storage. Although an increase in the asthenospheric magma supply can cause simultaneous inflation of Kīlauea and Mauna Loa, we find that eruptive activity at one volcano may inhibit eruptions of the adjacent volcano, if there is no concurrent increase in magma supply. We conclude that dynamic stress transfer by asthenospheric pore pressure is a viable mechanism for volcano coupling at Hawai‘i, and perhaps for adjacent volcanoes elsewhere.

  13. Record annual increase of carbon dioxide observed at Mauna Loa for 2015 |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate Oceans & Coasts Fisheries Satellites Research Marine & Aviation Charting Sanctuaries Research Record annual increase of carbon dioxide observed at Mauna Loa for 2015 Climate Research Share Niño weather pattern, as forests, plantlife and other terrestrial systems responded to changes in

  14. Visual artificial grammar learning: comparative research on humans, kea (Nestor notabilis) and pigeons (Columba livia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobbe, Nina; Westphal-Fitch, Gesche; Aust, Ulrike; Fitch, W. Tecumseh

    2012-01-01

    Artificial grammar learning (AGL) provides a useful tool for exploring rule learning strategies linked to general purpose pattern perception. To be able to directly compare performance of humans with other species with different memory capacities, we developed an AGL task in the visual domain. Presenting entire visual patterns simultaneously instead of sequentially minimizes the amount of required working memory. This approach allowed us to evaluate performance levels of two bird species, kea (Nestor notabilis) and pigeons (Columba livia), in direct comparison to human participants. After being trained to discriminate between two types of visual patterns generated by rules at different levels of computational complexity and presented on a computer screen, birds and humans received further training with a series of novel stimuli that followed the same rules, but differed in various visual features from the training stimuli. Most avian and all human subjects continued to perform well above chance during this initial generalization phase, suggesting that they were able to generalize learned rules to novel stimuli. However, detailed testing with stimuli that violated the intended rules regarding the exact number of stimulus elements indicates that neither bird species was able to successfully acquire the intended pattern rule. Our data suggest that, in contrast to humans, these birds were unable to master a simple rule above the finite-state level, even with simultaneous item presentation and despite intensive training. PMID:22688635

  15. EX0909 Legs 1 through 4 Mapping Field Trials V through VIII Hawaiian Islands (EX0909, EM302) on NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in Hawaiian Islands, Necker Ridge, Mauna Kea

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer arrived in Honolulu, HI on 7 August, 2009. The ship planned to stay and work in Hawaii till March / April 2009. A total of 77 days-at-sea...

  16. Evaluating the long-term management of introduced ungulates to protect the palila, an endangered bird, and its critical habitat in subalpine forest of Mauna Kea, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Banko; Steven C. Hess; Paul G. Scowcroft; Chris Farmer; James D. Jacobi; Robert M. Stephens; Richard J. Camp; David L. Leonard; Kevin W. Brinck; J. O. Juvik; S. P. Juvik

    2014-01-01

    Under the multiple-use paradigm, conflicts may arise when protection of an endangered species must compete with other management objectives. To resolve such a conflict in the Critical Habitat of the endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper, palila (Loxioides bailleui), federal courts ordered the eradication of introduced ungulates responsible for damaging...

  17. Mauna Loa--history, hazards and risk of living with the world's largest volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusdell, Frank A.

    2012-01-01

    Mauna Loa on the Island Hawaiʻi is the world’s largest volcano. People residing on its flanks face many hazards that come with living on or near an active volcano, including lava flows, explosive eruptions, volcanic smog, damaging earthquakes, and local tsunami (giant seawaves). The County of Hawaiʻi (Island of Hawaiʻi) is the fastest growing County in the State of Hawaii. Its expanding population and increasing development mean that risk from volcano hazards will continue to grow. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) closely monitor and study Mauna Loa Volcano to enable timely warning of hazardous activity and help protect lives and property.

  18. Quality assurance of the UV irradiances of the UV-B Monitoring and Research Program: the Mauna Loa test case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zempila, Melina Maria; Davis, John; Janson, George; Olson, Becky; Chen, Maosi; Durham, Bill; Simpson, Scott; Straube, Jonathan; Sun, Zhibin; Gao, Wei

    2017-09-01

    The USDA UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) is an ongoing effort aiming to establish a valuable, longstanding database of ground-based ultraviolet (UV) solar radiation measurements over the US. Furthermore, the program aims to achieve a better understanding of UV variations through time, and develop a UV climatology for the Northern American section. By providing high quality radiometric measurements of UV solar radiation, UVMRP is also focusing on advancing science for agricultural, forest, and range systems in order to mitigate climate impacts. Within these foci, the goal of the present study is to investigate, analyze, and validate the accuracy of the measurements of the UV multi-filter rotating shadowband radiometer (UV-MFRSR) and Yankee (YES) UVB-1 sensor at the high altitude, pristine site at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. The response-weighted irradiances at 7 UV channels of the UV-MFRSR along with the erythemal dose rates from the UVB-1 radiometer are discussed, and evaluated for the period 2006-2015. Uncertainties during the calibration procedures are also analyzed, while collocated groundbased measurements from a Brewer spectrophotometer along with model simulations are used as a baseline for the validation of the data. Besides this quantitative research, the limitations and merits of the existing UVMRP methods are considered and further improvements are introduced.

  19. Perception of Lava Flow Hazards and Risk at Mauna Loa and Hualalai Volcanoes, Kona, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Houghton, B. F.; Johnston, D. M.; Paton, D.; Swanson, D. A.

    2001-12-01

    The island of Hawaii is composed of five sub-aerially exposed volcanoes, three of which have been active since 1801 (Kilauea, Mauna Loa, Hualalai). Hawaii has the fastest population growth in the state and the local economy in the Kona districts (i.e., western portion of the island) is driven by tourism. Kona is directly vulnerable to future lava flows from Mauna Loa and Hualalai volcanoes, as well as indirectly from the effects of lava flows elsewhere that may sever the few roads that connect Kona to other vital areas on the island. A number of factors such as steep slopes, high volume eruptions, and high effusion rates, combine to mean that lava flows from Hualalai and Mauna Loa can be fast-moving and hence unusually hazardous. The proximity of lifelines and structures to potential eruptive sources exacerbates societies' risk to future lava flows. Approximately \\$2.3 billion has been invested on the flanks of Mauna Loa since its last eruption in 1984 (Trusdell 1995). An equivalent figure has not yet been determined for Hualalai, but an international airport, several large resort complexes, and Kailua-Kona, the second largest town on the island, are down-slope and within 15km of potential eruptive Hualalai vents. Public and perhaps official understanding of specific lava flow hazards and the perceptions of risk from renewed volcanism at each volcano are proportional to the time lapsed since the most recent eruption that impacted Kona, rather than a quantitative assessment of risk that takes into account recent growth patterns. Lava flows from Mauna Loa and Hualalai last directly impacted upon Kona during the notorious 1950 and circa 1801 eruptions, respectively. Various non-profit organizations; local, state and federal government entities; and academic institutions have disseminated natural hazard information in Kona but despite the intuitive appeal that increased hazard understanding and risk perception results in increased hazard adjustment adoption, this

  20. Review of the Oriental lantern-fly genus Egregia Chew Kea Foo, Porion & Audibert, 2011, with a new species from Sumatra (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Constant

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Datua brevirostris Lallemand, 1959 is transferred to the genus Egregia Chew Kea Foo, Porion & Audibert, 2011 in the Aphaeninae and the new combination Egregia brevirostris (Lallemand, 1959 comb. nov. is proposed. Egregia marpessa Chew Kea Foo, Porion & Audibert, 2011, the type-species of the genus Egregia, is synonymized with Egregia brevirostris (Lallemand, 1959. A second species, Egregia laprincesse sp. nov. is described from Sumatra, extending the distribution of the genus hitherto recorded only from Borneo. Distribution maps and an identification key are provided. The male genitalia of E. brevirostris are illustrated and described. The genus Datua Schmidt, 1911 now contains a single species, D. bisinuata Schmidt, 1911.

  1. Application of Earthquake Subspace Detectors at Kilauea and Mauna Loa Volcanoes, Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, P.; Benz, H.; Yeck, W.

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the capabilities of earthquake subspace detectors for detailed cataloging and tracking of seismicity in a number of regions and settings. We are exploring the application of subspace detectors at the United States Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) to analyze seismicity at Kilauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes. Elevated levels of microseismicity and occasional swarms of earthquakes associated with active volcanism here present cataloging challenges due the sheer numbers of earthquakes and an intrinsically low signal-to-noise environment featuring oceanic microseism and volcanic tremor in the ambient seismic background. With high-quality continuous recording of seismic data at HVO, we apply subspace detectors (Harris and Dodge, 2011, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., doi: 10.1785/0120100103) during intervals of noteworthy seismicity. Waveform templates are drawn from Magnitude 2 and larger earthquakes within clusters of earthquakes cataloged in the HVO seismic database. At Kilauea, we focus on seismic swarms in the summit caldera region where, despite continuing eruptions from vents in the summit region and in the east rift zone, geodetic measurements reflect a relatively inflated volcanic state. We also focus on seismicity beneath and adjacent to Mauna Loa's summit caldera that appears to be associated with geodetic expressions of gradual volcanic inflation, and where precursory seismicity clustered prior to both Mauna Loa's most recent eruptions in 1975 and 1984. We recover several times more earthquakes with the subspace detectors - down to roughly 2 magnitude units below the templates, based on relative amplitudes - compared to the numbers of cataloged earthquakes. The increased numbers of detected earthquakes in these clusters, and the ability to associate and locate them, allow us to infer details of the spatial and temporal distributions and possible variations in stresses within these key regions of the volcanoes.

  2. International Gemini Observatory officially launched

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Over 200 research, engineering, and science leaders from seven countries journeyed to the top of a remote mountain in the Chilean Andes to celebrate the inauguration the new Gemini South telescope, the complement of the Gemini North telescope already operating in Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

  3. The origin of Mauna Loa's Nīnole Hills: Evidence of rift zone reorganization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Jeffrey; Williams-Jones, Glyn; Trusdell, Frank A.; Martin, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify the origin of Mauna Loa volcano's Nīnole Hills, Bouguer gravity was used to delineate density contrasts within the edifice. Our survey identified two residual anomalies beneath the Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ) and the Nīnole Hills. The Nīnole Hills anomaly is elongated, striking northeast, and in inversions both anomalies merge at approximately −7 km above sea level. The positive anomaly, modeled as a rock volume of ~1200 km3 beneath the Nīnole Hills, is associated with old eruptive vents. Based on the geologic and geophysical data, we propose that the gravity anomaly under the Nīnole Hills records an early SWRZ orientation, now abandoned due to geologically rapid rift-zone reorganization. Catastrophic submarine landslides from Mauna Loa's western flank are the most likely cause for the concurrent abandonment of the Nīnole Hills section of the SWRZ. Rift zone reorganization induced by mass wasting is likely more common than currently recognized.

  4. Ancient and contemporary DNA reveal a pre-human decline but no population bottleneck associated with recent human persecution in the kea (Nestor notabilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Dussex

    Full Text Available The impact of population bottlenecks is an important factor to consider when assessing species survival. Population declines can considerably limit the evolutionary potential of species and make them more susceptible to stochastic events. New Zealand has a well documented history of decline of endemic avifauna related to human colonization. Here, we investigate the genetic effects of a recent population decline in the endangered kea (Nestor notabilis. Kea have undergone a long-lasting persecution between the late 1800s to 1970s where an estimated 150,000 kea were culled under a governmental bounty scheme. Kea now number 1,000-5,000 individuals in the wild and it is likely that the recent population decline may have reduced the genetic diversity of the species. Comparison of contemporary (n = 410, historical (n = 15 and fossil samples (n = 4 showed a loss of mitochondrial diversity since the end of the last glaciation (Otiran Glacial but no loss of overall genetic diversity associated with the cull. Microsatellite data indicated a recent bottleneck for only one population and a range-wide decline in Ne dating back some 300 - 6,000 years ago, a period predating European arrival in NZ. These results suggest that despite a recent human persecution, kea might have experienced a large population decline before stabilizing in numbers prior to human settlement of New Zealand in response to Holocene changes in habitat distribution. Our study therefore highlights the need to understand the respective effects of climate change and human activities on endangered species dynamics when proposing conservation guidelines.

  5. Ancient and contemporary DNA reveal a pre-human decline but no population bottleneck associated with recent human persecution in the kea (Nestor notabilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussex, Nicolas; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Robertson, Bruce C

    2015-01-01

    The impact of population bottlenecks is an important factor to consider when assessing species survival. Population declines can considerably limit the evolutionary potential of species and make them more susceptible to stochastic events. New Zealand has a well documented history of decline of endemic avifauna related to human colonization. Here, we investigate the genetic effects of a recent population decline in the endangered kea (Nestor notabilis). Kea have undergone a long-lasting persecution between the late 1800s to 1970s where an estimated 150,000 kea were culled under a governmental bounty scheme. Kea now number 1,000-5,000 individuals in the wild and it is likely that the recent population decline may have reduced the genetic diversity of the species. Comparison of contemporary (n = 410), historical (n = 15) and fossil samples (n = 4) showed a loss of mitochondrial diversity since the end of the last glaciation (Otiran Glacial) but no loss of overall genetic diversity associated with the cull. Microsatellite data indicated a recent bottleneck for only one population and a range-wide decline in Ne dating back some 300 - 6,000 years ago, a period predating European arrival in NZ. These results suggest that despite a recent human persecution, kea might have experienced a large population decline before stabilizing in numbers prior to human settlement of New Zealand in response to Holocene changes in habitat distribution. Our study therefore highlights the need to understand the respective effects of climate change and human activities on endangered species dynamics when proposing conservation guidelines.

  6. Ancient and Contemporary DNA Reveal a Pre-Human Decline but No Population Bottleneck Associated with Recent Human Persecution in the Kea (Nestor notabilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussex, Nicolas; Rawlence, Nicolas J.; Robertson, Bruce C.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of population bottlenecks is an important factor to consider when assessing species survival. Population declines can considerably limit the evolutionary potential of species and make them more susceptible to stochastic events. New Zealand has a well documented history of decline of endemic avifauna related to human colonization. Here, we investigate the genetic effects of a recent population decline in the endangered kea (Nestor notabilis). Kea have undergone a long-lasting persecution between the late 1800s to 1970s where an estimated 150,000 kea were culled under a governmental bounty scheme. Kea now number 1,000–5,000 individuals in the wild and it is likely that the recent population decline may have reduced the genetic diversity of the species. Comparison of contemporary (n = 410), historical (n = 15) and fossil samples (n = 4) showed a loss of mitochondrial diversity since the end of the last glaciation (Otiran Glacial) but no loss of overall genetic diversity associated with the cull. Microsatellite data indicated a recent bottleneck for only one population and a range-wide decline in Ne dating back some 300 – 6,000 years ago, a period predating European arrival in NZ. These results suggest that despite a recent human persecution, kea might have experienced a large population decline before stabilizing in numbers prior to human settlement of New Zealand in response to Holocene changes in habitat distribution. Our study therefore highlights the need to understand the respective effects of climate change and human activities on endangered species dynamics when proposing conservation guidelines. PMID:25719752

  7. The Ecology of Coral Reef Top Predators in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Dale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coral reef habitats in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM are characterized by abundant top-level predators such as sharks and jacks. The predator assemblage is dominated both numerically and in biomass by giant trevally (Caranx ignobilis and Galapagos sharks (Carcharhinus galapagensis. A lower diversity of predatory teleosts, particularly groupers and snappers, distinguishes the PMNM from other remote, unfished atolls in the Pacific. Most coral reef top predators are site attached to a “home” atoll, but move extensively within these atolls. Abundances of the most common sharks and jacks are highest in atoll fore reef habitats. Top predators within the PMNM forage on a diverse range of prey and exert top-down control over shallow-water reef fish assemblages. Ecological models suggest ecosystem processes may be most impacted by top predators through indirect effects of predation. Knowledge gaps are identified to guide future studies of top predators in the PMNM.

  8. Long, paired A'A/Pahoehoe flows of Mauna Loa: Volcanological significance and insights they provide into volcano plumbing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Scott K.; Walker, George P. L.

    1987-01-01

    The long lava flows of Mauna Loa, Hawaii have been cited as Earth's closed analogs to the large Martian flows. It is therefore important to understand the flow mechanics and characteristics of the Mauna Loa flows and to make use of these in an attempt to gain insights into Martian eruptive processes. Two fundamentally different kinds of long lava flows can be distinguished on Hawaiian volcanoes as in Martian flows. The two kinds may have identical initial viscosities, chemical compositions, flow lengths, and flow volumes, but their flow mechanisms and thermal energy budgets are radically different. One travels a distance set by the discharge rate as envisaged by Walker and Wadge, and the other travels a distance set mainly by the eruption duration and ground slope. In the Mauna Loa lavas, yield strength becomes an important flow morphology control only in the distal part of a'a lavas. The occurrence of paired flows on Mauna Loa yields insights into the internal plumbing systems of the volcano, and it is significant that all of the volume of the a'a flow must be stored in a magma chamber before eruption, while none of the volume of the pahoehoe needs to be so stored. Differentiation between the two kinds of flows on images of Martian volcanoes is possible and hence an improved understanding of these huge structures is acquired.

  9. Long, paired A'A/Pahoehoe flows of Mauna Loa: Volcanological significance and insights they provide into volcano plumbing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, S.K.; Walker, G.P.L.

    1987-01-01

    The long lava flows of Mauna Loa, Hawaii have been cited as Earth's closed analogs to the large Martian flows. It is therefore important to understand the flow mechanics and characteristics of the Mauna Loa flows and to make use of these in an attempt to gain insights into Martian eruptive processes. Two fundamentally different kinds of long lava flows can be distinguished on Hawaiian volcanoes as in Martian flows. The two kinds may have identical initial viscosities, chemical compositions, flow lengths, and flow volumes, but their flow mechanisms and thermal energy budgets are radically different. One travels a distance set by the discharge rate as envisaged by Walker and Wadge, and the other travels a distance set mainly by the eruption duration and ground slope. In the Mauna Loa lavas, yield strength becomes an important flow morphology control only in the distal part of a'a lavas. The occurrence of paired flows on Mauna Loa yields insights into the internal plumbing systems of the volcano, and it is significant that all of the volume of the a'a flow must be stored in a magma chamber before eruption, while none of the volume of the pahoehoe needs to be so stored. Differentiation between the two kinds of flows on images of Martian volcanoes is possible and hence an improved understanding of these huge structures is acquired

  10. Technical Note: Long-term memory effect in the atmospheric CO2 concentration at Mauna Loa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Varotsos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The monthly mean values of the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration derived from in-situ air samples collected at Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii, USA during 1958–2004 (the longest continuous record available in the world are analyzed by employing the detrended fluctuation analysis to detect scaling behavior in this time series. The main result is that the fluctuations of carbon dioxide concentrations exhibit long-range power-law correlations (long memory with lag times ranging from four months to eleven years, which correspond to 1/f noise. This result indicates that random perturbations in the carbon dioxide concentrations give rise to noise, characterized by a frequency spectrum following a power-law with exponent that approaches to one; the latter shows that the correlation times grow strongly. This feature is pointing out that a correctly rescaled subset of the original time series of the carbon dioxide concentrations resembles the original time series. Finally, the power-law relationship derived from the real measurements of the carbon dioxide concentrations could also serve as a tool to improve the confidence of the atmospheric chemistry-transport and global climate models.

  11. COR1 Engineering Test Unit Measurements at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory, September 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William; Reginald, Nelson; Streander, Kim

    2003-01-01

    The COR1 Engineering Test Unit (ETU), which had been previously tested at the NCAR/HAO and NRL test facilities, was modified into an instrument capable of observing the Sun. It was then taken to the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory to observe the corona. The changes made to observe the Sun were as follows: 1. The plate scale was changed to accommodate the smaller Apogee camera. This change had already been made for the NRL tests. 2. The previous Oriel polarizer was replaced with a commercial Polarcor polarizer from Newport to be more flight-like. However, because of cost and availability considerations, this polarizer was smaller than those which will be used for flight. 3. A structure was placed around the back section of the instrument, to protect it from stray light. 4. A pointing spar borrowed from HAO was used to track the Sun. A few days into the test, it became evident that some artifacts were appearing in the data, and these artifacts were changing as the polarizer was rotated. It was decided to test two other polarizers, the Oriel polarizer which had been used in the previous tests at HAO and NRL, and a Nikon polarizer which was borrowed from a camera belonging to one of the observatory staff members. These three polarizers had much different qualities are shown.

  12. Concentric cylinder viscometry at subliquidus conditions on Mauna Ulu lavas, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehlke, A.; Robert, B.; Harris, A. J.; gurioli, L.; Whittington, A. G.

    2013-12-01

    The morphology of lava flows is controlled by the physical properties of the lava and its effusion rates, as well as environmental influences such as surface medium, slope and ambient temperature and pressure conditions. The important physical properties of lavas include viscosity (η), yield strength (σy), thermal diffusivity (κ) and heat capacity (CP), all of which strongly depend on temperature (T), composition (Χ), crystal fraction (φc) and vesicularity (φb). The crystal fraction (φc) typically increase as temperature decreases, and therefore is temperature dependent itself and influences the residual liquid composition (Χ). The rheological behavior of multi-phase lavas in lava flows is expressed as different flow types, forced from a smooth pahoehoe to a blocky ';a'a within a transition zone. Recent field studies of overflow units at the Muliwai a Pele lava flow erupted from Mauna Ulu in 1974 on Kilauea volcano (Hawaii) reveal a transition zone in a distance approximately 4.5 km from the vent as a result of a cooling gradient of 6 °C/km, crystallization rates of 0.05/km and a density increase from 1010 × 150 kg/m3 near to 1410 × 120 kg/m3 6 km distant from the vent due to degassing. Concentric cylinder viscometry under atmospheric conditions has been conducted in order to investigate the rheological response of crystal-liquid lava suspensions at different equilibrium temperatures for Mauna Ulu lavas. We detect first solid phases around 1230 °C being clinopyroxene, olivine and spinel, followed by plagioclase appearing as microlites as observed in natural rock samples. Measured apparent viscosities (ηapp) with applied strain rates between 50 s-1 and 0.3 s-1 at 1201 °C, 1192 °C and 1181 °C show a strong stress-strain rate dependency, classifying our 2-phase suspensions as Herschel-Bulkey fluids with an extrapolated apparent yield strength (τ0) around 200 to 150 Pa in presence of different crystal fractions, resulting in a 2.5 fold increase of

  13. Automatic near-real-time detection of CMEs in Mauna Loa K-Cor coronagraph images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. T.; St Cyr, O. C.; Burkepile, J.; Posner, A.

    2017-12-01

    A simple algorithm has been developed to detect the onset of coronal massejections (CMEs), together with an estimate of their speed, in near-real-timeusing images of the linearly polarized white-light solar corona taken by theK-Cor telescope at the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO). The algorithm usedis a variation on the Solar Eruptive Event Detection System (SEEDS) developedat George Mason University. The algorithm was tested against K-Cor data takenbetween 29 April 2014 and 20 February 2017, on days which the MLSO websitemarked as containing CMEs. This resulted in testing of 139 days worth of datacontaining 171 CMEs. The detection rate varied from close to 80% in 2014-2015when solar activity was high, down to as low as 20-30% in 2017 when activitywas low. The difference in effectiveness with solar cycle is attributed to thedifference in relative prevalance of strong CMEs between active and quietperiods. There were also twelve false detections during this time period,leading to an average false detection rate of 8.6% on any given day. However,half of the false detections were clustered into two short periods of a fewdays each when special conditions prevailed to increase the false detectionrate. The K-Cor data were also compared with major Solar Energetic Particle(SEP) storms during this time period. There were three SEP events detectedeither at Earth or at one of the two STEREO spacecraft where K-Cor wasobserving during the relevant time period. The K-Cor CME detection algorithmsuccessfully generated alerts for two of these events, with lead times of 1-3hours before the SEP onset at 1 AU. The third event was not detected by theautomatic algorithm because of the unusually broad width of the CME in positionangle.

  14. Three-dimensional seismic velocity structure of Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes in Hawaii from local seismic tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guoqing; Shearer, Peter M.; Matoza, Robin S.; Okubo, Paul G.; Amelung, Falk

    2016-01-01

    We present a new three-dimensional seismic velocity model of the crustal and upper mantle structure for Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes in Hawaii. Our model is derived from the first-arrival times of the compressional and shear waves from about 53,000 events on and near the Island of Hawaii between 1992 and 2009 recorded by the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory stations. The Vp model generally agrees with previous studies, showing high-velocity anomalies near the calderas and rift zones and low-velocity anomalies in the fault systems. The most significant difference from previous models is in Vp/Vs structure. The high-Vp and high-Vp/Vs anomalies below Mauna Loa caldera are interpreted as mafic magmatic cumulates. The observed low-Vp and high-Vp/Vs bodies in the Kaoiki seismic zone between 5 and 15 km depth are attributed to the underlying volcaniclastic sediments. The high-Vp and moderate- to low-Vp/Vs anomalies beneath Kilauea caldera can be explained by a combination of different mafic compositions, likely to be olivine-rich gabbro and dunite. The systematically low-Vp and low-Vp/Vs bodies in the southeast flank of Kilauea may be caused by the presence of volatiles. Another difference between this study and previous ones is the improved Vp model resolution in deeper layers, owing to the inclusion of events with large epicentral distances. The new velocity model is used to relocate the seismicity of Mauna Loa and Kilauea for improved absolute locations and ultimately to develop a high-precision earthquake catalog using waveform cross-correlation data.

  15. New insights into the magma chamber activity under Mauna Loa inferred from SBAS-InSAR and geodetic inversion modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varugu, B. K.; Amelung, F.

    2017-12-01

    Mauna Loa volcano, located on the Big Island, Hawaii, is the largest volcano on the earth and historically been one of the most active volcanoes on the earth. Since its last eruption in 1984, there was a decrease in the magmatic activity, yet episodic inflations with increased seismicity sparks interests in the scientific community and there is strong need to monitor the volcano with growing infrastructure close to the flanks of the volcano. Geodetic modelling of the previous inflations illustrate that the magma activity is due to inflation of hydraulically connected dike and magma chamber located from 4-8km beneath the summit (Amelung et al. 2007). Most of the seismicity observed on Mauna Loa is due to the movement along a decollement fault situated at the base of the volcano. Magma inflation under Mauna Loa has started again during the last quarter of 2013 and is continuing still with an increased seismicity. In this study, we used 140 images form COSMO SkyMED between 2013-2017 to derive and model the ground deformation. We carried out time series InSAR analysis using Small Baseline (SB) approach. While the deformation pattern seems similar in many ways to the previous inflation periods, geodetic modelling for inversion of source parameters indicate a significant propagation of the dike ( 1 km) into the South West Rift Zone(SWRZ) and a decreased depth of the dike top from summit, compared to the previous inflations. Such propagation needs to be studied further in view of the steep slope of SWRZ. In understanding the dynamics of this propagating dike, we also observed an increased seismic activity since 2014 in the vicinity of the modelled dike. Here in this study we attempt to characterize the stresses induced by the propagating dike and seaward slipping movement along the basal decollement, to explain the increased seismicity using a finite element model.

  16. Development of lava tubes in the light of observations at Mauna Ulu, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, D.W.; Holcomb, R.T.; Tilling, R.I.; Christiansen, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    During the 1969-1974 Mauna Ulu eruption on Kilauea's upper east rift zone, lava tubes were observed to develop by four principal processes: (1) flat, rooted crusts grew across streams within confined channels; (2) overflows and spatter accreted to levees to build arched roofs across streams; (3) plates of solidified crust floating downstream coalesced to form a roof; and (4) pahoehoe lobes progressively extended, fed by networks of distributaries beneath a solidified crust. Still another tube-forming process operated when pahoehoe entered the ocean; large waves would abruptly chill a crust across the entire surface of a molten stream crossing through the surf zone. These littoral lava tubes formed abruptly, in contrast to subaerial tubes, which formed gradually. All tube-forming processes were favored by low to moderate volume-rates of flow for sustained periods of time. Tubes thereby became ubiquitous within the pahoehoe flows and distributed a very large proportionof the lava that was produced during this prolonged eruption. Tubes transport lava efficiently. Once formed, the roofs of tubes insulate the active streams within, allowing the lava to retain its fluidity for a longer time than if exposed directly to ambient air temperature. Thus the flows can travel greater distances and spread over wider areas. Even though supply rates during most of 1970-1974 were moderate, ranging from 1 to 5 m3/s, large tube systems conducted lava as far as the coast, 12-13 km distant, where they fed extensive pahoehoe fields on the coastal flats. Some flows entered the sea to build lava deltas and add new land to the island. The largest and most efficient tubes developed during periods of sustained extrusion, when new lava was being supplied at nearly constant rates. Tubes can play a major role in building volcanic edifices with gentle slopes because they can deliver a substantial fraction of lava erupted at low to moderate rates to sites far down the flank of a volcano. We

  17. Perspectives on basaltic magma crystallization and differentiation: Lava-lake blocks erupted at Mauna Loa volcano summit, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, Renee L.; Fodor, R.V.; Trusdell, Frank A.

    2006-01-01

    Explosive eruptions at Mauna Loa summit ejected coarse-grained blocks (free of lava coatings) from Moku'aweoweo caldera. Most are gabbronorites and gabbros that have 0–26 vol.% olivine and 1–29 vol.% oikocrystic orthopyroxene. Some blocks are ferrogabbros and diorites with micrographic matrices, and diorite veins (≤2 cm) cross-cut some gabbronorites and gabbros. One block is an open-textured dunite.The MgO of the gabbronorites and gabbros ranges ∼ 7–21 wt.%. Those with MgO >10 wt.% have some incompatible-element abundances (Zr, Y, REE; positive Eu anomalies) lower than those in Mauna Loa lavas of comparable MgO; gabbros (MgO <10 wt.%) generally overlap lava compositions. Olivines range Fo83–58, clinopyroxenes have Mg#s ∼83–62, and orthopyroxene Mg#s are 84–63 — all evolved beyond the mineral-Mg#s of Mauna Loa lavas. Plagioclase is An75–50. Ferrogabbro and diorite blocks have ∼ 3–5 wt.% MgO (TiO2 3.2–5.4%; K2O 0.8–1.3%; La 16–27 ppm), and a diorite vein is the most evolved (SiO2 59%, K2O 1.5%, La 38 ppm). They have clinopyroxene Mg#s 67–46, and plagioclase An57–40. The open-textured dunite has olivine ∼ Fo83.5. Seven isotope ratios are 87Sr/86Sr 0.70394–0.70374 and 143Nd/144Nd 0.51293–0.51286, and identify the suite as belonging to the Mauna Loa system.Gabbronorites and gabbros originated in solidification zones of Moku'aweoweo lava lakes where they acquired orthocumulate textures and incompatible-element depletions. These features suggest deeper and slower cooling lakes than the lava lake paradigm, Kilauea Iki, which is basalt and picrite. Clinopyroxene geobarometry suggests crystallization at <1 kbar P. Highly evolved mineral Mg#s, <75, are largely explained by cumulus phases exposed to evolving intercumulus liquids causing compositional ‘shifts.’ Ferrogabbro and diorite represent segregation veins from differentiated intercumulus liquids filter pressed into rigid zones of cooling lakes. Clinopyroxene

  18. Inflation Features of the Distal Pahoehoe Portion of the 1859 Mauna Loa Flow, Hawaii; Implications for Evaluating Planetary Lava Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbelman, J. R.; Garry, W. B.; Bleacher, Jacob E.; Crumpler, L S.

    2011-01-01

    The 1859 eruption of Mauna Loa, Hawaii, resulted in the longest subaerial lava flow on the Big Island. Detailed descriptions were made of the eruption both from ships and following hikes by groups of observers; the first three weeks of the eruption produced an `a`a flow that reached the ocean, and the following 10 months produced a pahoehoe flow that also eventually reached the ocean. The distal portion of the 1859 pahoehoe flow component includes many distinctive features indicative of flow inflation. Field work was conducted on the distal 1859 pahoehoe flow during 2/09 and 3/10, which allowed us to document several inflation features, in or-der evaluate how well inflated landforms might be detected in remote sensing data of lava flows on other planets.

  19. Integrated science and engineering for the OSIRIS-REx asteroid sample return mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauretta, D.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction: The Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) asteroid sample return mission will survey near-Earth asteroid (101955) Bennu to understand its physical, mineralogical, and chemical properties, assess its resource potential, refine the impact hazard, and return a sample of this body to the Earth [1]. This mission is scheduled for launch in 2016 and will rendezvous with the asteroid in 2018. Sample return to the Earth follows in 2023. The OSIRIS-REx mission has the challenge of visiting asteroid Bennu, characterizing it at global and local scales, then selecting the best site on the asteroid surface to acquire a sample for return to the Earth. Minimizing the risk of exploring an unknown world requires a tight integration of science and engineering to inform flight system and mission design. Defining the Asteroid Environment: We have performed an extensive astronomical campaign in support of OSIRIS-REx. Lightcurve and phase function observations were obtained with UA Observatories telescopes located in southeastern Arizona during the 2005--2006 and 2011--2012 apparitions [2]. We observed Bennu using the 12.6-cm radar at the Arecibo Observatory in 1999, 2005, and 2011 and the 3.5-cm radar at the Goldstone tracking station in 1999 and 2005 [3]. We conducted near-infrared measurements using the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility at the Mauna Kea Observatory in Hawaii in September 2005 [4]. Additional spectral observations were obtained in July 2011 and May 2012 with the Magellan 6.5-m telescope [5]. We used the Spitzer space telescope to observe Bennu in May 2007 [6]. The extensive knowledge gained as a result of our telescopic characterization of Bennu was critical in the selection of this object as the OSIRIS-REx mission target. In addition, we use these data, combined with models of the asteroid, to constrain over 100 different asteroid parameters covering orbital, bulk, rotational, radar

  20. Hawaii's Annual Journey Through the Universe Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J.; Daou, D.; Day, B.; Slater, T. F.; Slater, S. J.

    2012-08-01

    Hawaii's annual Journey through the Universe program is a flagship Gemini public education and outreach event that engages the public, teachers, astronomers, engineers, thousands of local students and staff from all of the Mauna Kea Observatories. The program inspires, educates, and engages teachers, students, and their families as well as the community. From February 10-18, 2011, fifty-one astronomy educators from observatories on Mauna Kea and across the world visited over 6,500 students in 310 classrooms at 18 schools. Two family science events were held for over 2,500 people at the 'Imiloa Astronomy Education Center and the University of Hawaii at Hilo. The local Chamber of Commerce(s) held an appreciation celebration for the astronomers attended by over 170 members from the local government and business community. Now going into its eighth year in Hawaii, the 2012 Journey Through the Universe program will continue working with the observatories on Mauna Kea and with the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI). As a new partner in our Journey program, NLSI will join the Journey team (Janice Harvey, Gemini Observatory, Journey Team Leader) and give an overview of the successes and future developments of this remarkable program and its growth. The future of America rests on our ability to train the next generation of scientists and engineers. Science education is key and Journey through the Universe opens the doors of scientific discovery for our students. www.gemini.edu/journey

  1. Contrasting patterns of vesiculation in low, intermediate, and high Hawaiian fountains: A case study of the 1969 Mauna Ulu eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcheta, Carolyn E.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Swanson, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    Hawaiian-style eruptions, or Hawaiian fountains, typically occur at basaltic volcanoes and are sustained, weakly explosive jets of gas and dominantly coarse, juvenile ejecta (dense spatter to delicate reticulite). Almost the entire range of styles and mass eruption rates within Hawaiian fountaining occurred during twelve fountaining episodes recorded at Mauna Ulu, Kīlauea between May and December 1969. Such diversity in intensity and style is controlled during magma ascent by many processes that can be constrained by the size and shape of vesicles in the 1969 pyroclasts. This paper describes pyroclast vesicularity from high, intermediate, and low fountaining episodes with eruption rates from 0.05 to 1.3 × 106 m3 h− 1. As each eruptive episode progressed, magma ascent slowed in and around the vent system, offering extended time for bubbles to grow and coalesce. Late ejected pyroclasts are thus characterized by populations of fewer and larger vesicles with relaxed shapes. This progression continued in the intervals between episodes after termination of fountain activity. The time scale for this process of shallow growth, coalescence and relaxation of bubbles is typically tens of hours. Rims and cores of pumiceous pyroclasts from moderate to high fountaining episodes record a second post-fragmentation form of vesicle maturation. Partially thermally insulated pyroclasts can have internal bubble populations evolve more dynamically with continued growth and coalescence, on a time scale of only minutes, during transport in the fountains. Reticulite, which formed in a short-lived fountain 540 m in height, underwent late, short-lived bubble nucleation followed by rapid growth of a uniform bubble population in a thermally insulated fountain, and quenched at the onset of permeability before significant coalescence. These contrasting patterns of shallow degassing and outgassing were the dominant controls in determining both the form and duration of fountaining

  2. The Perception of Volcanic Risk in Kona Communities from Mauna Loa and Hualalai Volcanoes, Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, C. E.; Houghton, B. F.; Johnston, D. M.; Paton, D.; Swanson, D. A.

    2002-12-01

    Hawai`i's coastal communities are becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural hazards as a consequence of increasing population and infrastructure. Volcanic hazards in Kona (i.e., western side of the island) stem primarily from Mauna Loa and Hualalai volcanoes. The former has erupted thirty-nine times since 1832. Lava flows were emplaced in Kona during six of these, but last impacted Kona in 1950. Hualalai last erupted in c. 1800. The most recent eruptions at each volcano were damaging to society, but future eruptions would exact much greater impacts. The second largest city on the island, several resort complexes, and an international airport are located within 15 km of vents. Society's proximity to potential eruptive sources, a potential for relatively fast moving lavas, and the relatively long time intervals since the last eruptions in Kona, are the stimuli for this study of risk perception. Target populations were high school students and their parents, and the greater adult public (n=462). Using this data, we discuss threat knowledge as an influence on risk perception and perceptions as a driving mechanism for preparedness. Threat knowledge and perception of risk were found to be low to moderate. On average less than two-thirds of residents were aware of the most recent eruptions that impacted Kona and a minority felt that Mauna Loa and Hualalai could erupt again. Furthermore, only about one-third were aware that lava flows could reach the coast in Kona in under three hours. Lava flows and ash fall were perceived to be among the least likely hazards to affect the respondent's community. Not unexpectedly, individual preparedness measures were found to be limited to simple tasks, while measures specific to infrequent hazard events such as volcanic eruptions and earthquakes were seldom adopted. Respondents exhibit an "unrealistic optimism bias" and infer that responsibility for community preparedness for future eruptions rests primarily with officials. Hazard

  3. Variability of the 2014-present inflation source at Mauna Loa volcano revealed using time-dependent modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, I. A.; Miklius, A.; Okubo, P.; Montgomery-Brown, E. K.

    2017-12-01

    Mauna Loa volcano is the largest active volcano on earth and in the 20thcentury produced roughly one eruption every seven years. The 33-year quiescence since its last eruption 1984 has been punctuated by three inflation episodes where magma likely entered the shallow plumbing system, but was not erupted. The most recent began in 2014 and is ongoing. Unlike prior inflation episodes, the current one is accompanied by a significant increase in shallow seismicity, a pattern that is similar to earlier pre-eruptive periods. We apply the Kalman filter based Network Inversion Filter (NIF) to the 2014-present inflation episode using data from a 27 station continuous GPS network on Mauna Loa. The model geometry consists of a point volume source and tabular, dike-like body, which have previously been shown to provide a good fit to deformation data from a 2004-2009 inflation episode. The tabular body is discretized into 1km x 1km segments. For each day, the NIF solves for the rates of opening on the tabular body segments (subject to smoothing and positivity constraints), volume change rate in the point source, and slip rate on a deep décollement fault surface, which is constrained to a constant (no transient slip allowed). The Kalman filter in the NIF provides for smoothing both forwards and backwards in time. The model shows that the 2014-present inflation episode occurred as several sub-events, rather than steady inflation. It shows some spatial variability in the location of the inflation sub-events. In the model, opening in the tabular body is initially concentrated below the volcano's summit, in an area roughly outlined by shallow seismicity. In October, 2015 opening in the tabular body shifts to be centered beneath the southwest portion of the summit and seismicity becomes concentrated in this area. By late 2016, the opening rate on the tabular body decreases and is once again under the central part of summit. This modeling approach has allowed us to track these

  4. Estimate of the biotic contribution to the atmospheric CO2 increase based on direct measurements at Mauna Loa Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, W.P.; Machta, L.; Keeling, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The CO 2 concentrations recorded at Mauna Loa Observatory from 1958-1983 were examined to detect the existence of any significant sources of CO 2 other than fossil fuel combustion. The observed annual CO 2 concentrations were compared with concentrations calculated assuming a number of hypothetical constant, nonfossil fuel emission scenarios added to the fossil fuel emissions. It was found that constant nonfossil fuel sources must have been 10% or less of the fossil fuel sources. This conclusion assumes that a constant fraction of the total emissions went into the oceans and that the nonfossil fuel emissions were invariant from year to year. When this latter restriction was relaxed, almost any nonfossil fuel source was possible if its history closely matched that of the fossil fuel emissions. We conclude that it is unlikely that biotic or other nonfossil fuel sources could have exceeded about 0.5 GT of carbon per year except in the unlikely event that they grew at a rate close to that of the fossil fuel emissions

  5. The perception of volcanic risk in Kona communities from Mauna Loa and Hualālai volcanoes, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Chris E.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Johnston, David M.; Paton, Douglas; Swanson, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Volcanic hazards in Kona (i.e. the western side of the island of Hawai'i) stem primarily from Mauna Loa and Huala??lai volcanoes. The former has erupted 39 times since 1832. Lava flows were emplaced in Kona during seven of these eruptions and last impacted Kona in 1950. Huala??lai last erupted in ca. 1800. Society's proximity to potential eruptive sources and the potential for relatively fast-moving lava flows, coupled with relatively long time intervals since the last eruptions in Kona, are the underlying stimuli for this study of risk perception. Target populations were high-school students and adults ( n =462). Using these data, we discuss threat knowledge as an influence on risk perception, and perception as a driving mechanism for preparedness. Threat knowledge and perception of risk were found to be low to moderate. On average, fewer than two-thirds of the residents were aware of the most recent eruptions that impacted Kona, and a minority felt that Mauna Loa and Huala??lai could ever erupt again. Furthermore, only about one-third were aware that lava flows could reach the coast in Kona in less than 3 h. Lava flows and ash fall were perceived to be among the least likely hazards to affect the respondent's community within the next 10 years, whereas vog (volcanic smog) was ranked the most likely. Less than 18% identified volcanic hazards as amongst the most likely hazards to affect them at home, school, or work. Not surprisingly, individual preparedness measures were found on average to be limited to simple tasks of value in frequently occurring domestic emergencies, whereas measures specific to infrequent hazard events such as volcanic eruptions were seldom adopted. Furthermore, our data show that respondents exhibit an 'unrealistic optimism bias' and infer that responsibility for community preparedness for future eruptions primarily rests with officials. We infer that these respondents may be less likely to attend to hazard information, react to warnings as

  6. Prevalence of pox-like lesions and malaria in forest bird communitites on leeward Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, C.T.; Lease, J.K.; Dusek, Robert J.; Samuel, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Introduced avian pox virus and malaria have had devastating impacts on native Hawaiian forest birds, yet little has been published about their prevalence and distribution in forest bird communities outside of windward Hawaii Island. We surveyed native and non-native forest birds for these two diseases at three different elevations on leeward Mauna Loa Volcano at the Kona Forest Unit of Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge. Prevalence of malaria by both serology and microscopy varied by elevation and ranged from 28% at 710 m to 13% at 1830 m. Prevalence of pox-like lesions also varied by altitude, ranging in native species from 10% at 710 m to 2% at 1830 m. Native species at all elevations had the highest prevalence of malarial antibody and pox-like lesions. By contrast, pox-like lesions were not detected in individuals of four non-native species and only 5% of Japanese White-eye (Zosterops japonicus) was positive for malaria. A significantly high proportion of birds with pox-like lesions also had serological evidence of concurrent, chronic malarial infections, suggesting an interaction between these diseases, dual transmission of both diseases by the primary mosquito vector (Culex quinquefasciatus) or complete recovery of some pox-infected birds without loss of toes. Results from this study document high prevalence of malaria and pox at this refuge. Development of effective disease control strategies will be important for restoration of remnant populations of the endangered 'Akiapola'au (Hemignathus munroi), Hawaii Creeper (Oreomystis mana), and Hawaii 'Akepa (Loxops coccineus coccineus) that still occur on the refuge.

  7. Mass coral bleaching due to unprecedented marine heatwave in Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Courtney S; Burns, John H R; Liu, Gang; Steward, Kanoelani; Gutlay, Tiffany Nicole; Kenyon, Jean; Eakin, C Mark; Kosaki, Randall K

    2017-01-01

    2014 marked the sixth and most widespread mass bleaching event reported in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, home to the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM), the world's second largest marine reserve. This event was associated with an unusual basin-scale warming in the North Pacific Ocean, with an unprecedented peak intensity of around 20°C-weeks of cumulative heat stress at Lisianksi Island. In situ bleaching surveys and satellite data were used to evaluate the relative importance of potential drivers of bleaching patterns in 2014, assess the subsequent morality and its effects on coral communities and 3D complexity, test for signs of regional acclimation, and investigate long-term change in heat stress in PMNM. Surveys conducted at four island/atoll (French Frigate Shoals, Lisianski Island, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, and Midway Atoll) showed that in 2014, percent bleaching varied considerably between islands/atolls and habitats (back reef/fore reef and depth), and was up to 91% in shallow habitats at Lisianski. The percent bleaching during the 2014 event was best explained by a combination of duration of heat stress measured by Coral Reef Watch's satellite Degree Heating Week, relative community susceptibility (bleaching susceptibility score of each taxon * the taxon's abundance relative to the total number of colonies), depth and region. Mean coral cover at permanent Lisianski monitoring sites decreased by 68% due to severe losses of Montipora dilatata complex, resulting in rapid reductions in habitat complexity. Spatial distribution of the 2014 bleaching was significantly different from the 2002 and 2004 bleaching events likely due to a combination of differences in heat stress and local acclimatization. Historical satellite data demonstrated heat stress in 2014 was unlike any previous event and that the exposure of corals to the bleaching-level heat stress has increased significantly in the northern PMNM since 1982, highlighting the increasing

  8. Mass coral bleaching due to unprecedented marine heatwave in Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney S Couch

    Full Text Available 2014 marked the sixth and most widespread mass bleaching event reported in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, home to the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument (PMNM, the world's second largest marine reserve. This event was associated with an unusual basin-scale warming in the North Pacific Ocean, with an unprecedented peak intensity of around 20°C-weeks of cumulative heat stress at Lisianksi Island. In situ bleaching surveys and satellite data were used to evaluate the relative importance of potential drivers of bleaching patterns in 2014, assess the subsequent morality and its effects on coral communities and 3D complexity, test for signs of regional acclimation, and investigate long-term change in heat stress in PMNM. Surveys conducted at four island/atoll (French Frigate Shoals, Lisianski Island, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, and Midway Atoll showed that in 2014, percent bleaching varied considerably between islands/atolls and habitats (back reef/fore reef and depth, and was up to 91% in shallow habitats at Lisianski. The percent bleaching during the 2014 event was best explained by a combination of duration of heat stress measured by Coral Reef Watch's satellite Degree Heating Week, relative community susceptibility (bleaching susceptibility score of each taxon * the taxon's abundance relative to the total number of colonies, depth and region. Mean coral cover at permanent Lisianski monitoring sites decreased by 68% due to severe losses of Montipora dilatata complex, resulting in rapid reductions in habitat complexity. Spatial distribution of the 2014 bleaching was significantly different from the 2002 and 2004 bleaching events likely due to a combination of differences in heat stress and local acclimatization. Historical satellite data demonstrated heat stress in 2014 was unlike any previous event and that the exposure of corals to the bleaching-level heat stress has increased significantly in the northern PMNM since 1982, highlighting

  9. science

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Spurgeon

    Give us the tools: science and technology for development. Ottawa, ...... altered technical rela- tionships among the factors used in the process of production, and the en- .... to ourselves only the rights of audit and periodic substantive review." If a ...... and destroying scarce water reserves, recreational areas and a generally.

  10. Radiocarbon dates for lava flows from northeast rift zone of Mauna Loa Volcano, Hilo 7 1/2 minute quadrangle, Island of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan-Banks, J. M.; Lockwood, J.P.; Rubin, M.

    1989-01-01

    Twenty-eight 14C analyses are reported for carbonized roots and other plant material collected from beneath 15 prehistoric lava flows erupted from the northeast rift zone (NERZ) of Mauna Loa Volcano (ML). The new 14C dates establish ages for 13 previously undated lava flows, and correct or add to information previously reported. Limiting ages on other flows that lie either above or below the dated flows are also established. These dates help to unravel the eruptive history of ML's NERZ. -from Authors

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, salinity and other variables collected from Surface underway observations using Autonomous sensor to measure dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument and others from 1998-01-31 to 2003-02-12 (NODC Accession 0080986)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0080986 includes Surface underway, chemical, meteorological and physical data collected from MIRAI in the North Pacific Ocean, Papahānaumokuākea...

  12. Comparison of Inflation Processes at the 1859 Mauna Loa Flow, HI, and the McCartys Flow Field, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Garry, W. Brent; Zimbelman, James R.; Crumpler, Larry S.

    2012-01-01

    Basaltic lavas typically form channels or tubes during flow emplacement. However, the importance of sheet flow in the development of basalt ic terrains received recognition over the last 15 years. George Walke r?s research on the 1859 Mauna Loa Flow was published posthumously in 2009. In this paper he discusses the concept of endogenous growth, or inflation, for the distal portion of this otherwise channeldominated lava flow. We used this work as a guide when visiting the 1859 flow to help us better interpret the inflation history of the McCartys flow field in NM. Both well preserved flows display similar clues about the process of inflation. The McCartys lava flow field is among the you ngest (approx.3000 yrs) basaltic lava flows in the continental United States. It was emplaced over slopes of <1 degree, which is similar to the location within the 1859 flow where inflation occurred. Although older than the 1859 flow, the McCartys is located in an arid environ ment and is among the most pristine examples of sheet flow morphologies. At the meter scale the flow surface typically forms smooth, undula ting swales that create a polygonal terrain. The literature for simil ar features includes multiple explanatory hypotheses, original breakouts from adjacent lobes, or inflation related upwarping of crust or sa gging along fractures that enable gas release. It is not clear which of these processes is responsible for polygonal terrains, and it is po ssible that one explanation is not the sole cause of this morphology between all inflated flows. Often, these smooth surfaces within an inflated sheet display lineated surfaces and occasional squeeze-ups alon g swale contacts. We interpret the lineations to preserve original fl ow direction and have begun mapping these orientations to better interpret the emplacement history. At the scale of 10s to 100s of meters t he flow comprises multiple topographic plateaus and depressions. Some depressions display level floors with

  13. Characterizing the influence of anthropogenic emissions and transport variability on sulfate aerosol concentrations at Mauna Loa Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lauren E.

    Sulfate aerosol in the atmosphere has substantial impacts on human health and environmental quality. Most notably, atmospheric sulfate has the potential to modify the earth's climate system through both direct and indirect radiative forcing mechanisms (Meehl et al., 2007). Emissions of sulfur dioxide, the primary precursor of sulfate aerosol, are now globally dominated by anthropogenic sources as a result of widespread fossil fuel combustion. Economic development in Asian countries since 1990 has contributed considerably to atmospheric sulfur loading, particularly China, which currently emits approximately 1/3 of global anthropogenic SO2 (Klimont et al., 2013). Observational and modeling studies have confirmed that anthropogenic pollutants from Asian sources can be transported long distances with important implications for future air quality and global climate change. Located in the remote Pacific Ocean (19.54°N, 155.58°W) at an elevation of 3.4 kilometers above sea level, Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) is an ideal measurement site for ground-based, free tropospheric observations and is well situated to experience influence from springtime Asian outflow. This study makes use of a 14-year data set of aerosol ionic composition, obtained at MLO by the University of Hawaii at Manoa. Daily filter samples of total aerosol concentrations were made during nighttime downslope (free-tropospheric) transport conditions, from 1995 to 2008, and were analyzed for aerosol-phase concentrations of the following species: nitrate (NO3-), sulfate (SO42-), methanesulfonate (MSA), chloride (Cl-), oxalate, sodium (Na+), ammonium (NH 4+), potassium (K+), magnesium (Mg 2+), and calcium (Ca2+). An understanding of the factors controlling seasonal and interannual variations in aerosol speciation and concentrations at this site is complicated by the relatively short lifetimes of aerosols, compared with greenhouse gases which have also been sampled over long time periods at MLO. Aerosol filter

  14. Hawaiian fissure fountains: Quantifying vent and shallow conduit geometry, episode 1 of the 1969-1974 Mauna Ulu eruption: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcheta, Carolyn; Fagents, Sarah; Swanson, Donald A.; Houghton, Bruce F.; Ericksen, Todd; Carey, Rebecca; Cayol, Valérie; Poland, Michael P.; Weis, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Geometries of shallow magmatic pathways feeding volcanic eruptions are poorly constrained, yet many key interpretations about eruption dynamics depend on knowledge of these geometries. Direct quantification is difficult because vents typically become blocked with lava at the end of eruptions. Indirect geophysical techniques have shed light on some volcanic conduit geometries, but the scales are too coarse to resolve narrow fissures (widths typically 1 m). Kīlauea's Mauna Ulu eruption, which started with 30 m. Direct measurements at the ground surface were augmented by tripod-mounted lidar measurements to quantify the shallow conduit geometry for three vents at a resolution eruptive behavior, especially if incorporated into computer models.

  15. Assessing individual and organizational response to volcanic crisis and unrest at Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Ashleigh; Gregg, Chris; Lindell, Michael; Prater, Carla; Joyner, Timothy; Eggert, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    This study describes response to and preparedness for eruption and unrest at Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes, respectively. The on-going 1983-present eruption of Kīlauea's East Rift Zone (ERZ) has generated a series of lava flow crises, the latest occurring in 2014 and 2015 when lava from a new vent flowed northeast and into the perimeter of developed areas in the lower Puna District, some 20km distant. It took ca. 2 months for the June 27 lava flow to advance a distance to which scientists reported it might be a concern to people downslope, but this prompted widespread formal and informal responses and culminated in improvements to infrastructure, voluntary evacuations of residents and businesses and closure of schools. Unlike Kīlauea, which has had frequent crises since the mid-20th century, the last eruption of nearby Mauna Loa occurred in 1984 and the last eruption and crisis on its Southwest Rift Zone (SWZ) was in 1950, so residents there are less familiar with eruptions than in Puna. In September 2015, the US Geological Survey, Hawaiian Volcano Observatory upgraded Mauna Loa's Alert Level from Normal to Advisory due to increases in unrest above known background levels. A crisis on Mauna Loa's SWZ would likely be much different than the recent 2014-15 crisis at Kīlauea as steep topography downslope of the SWZ and typical high discharge rates mean lava flows move fast, posing increased risk to areas downslope. Typically, volcanic eruptions have significant economic consequences out of proportion with their magnitudes. Furthermore, uncertainties regarding the physical and organizational communication of risk information amplify these economic losses. One significant impediment to risk communication is limited knowledge about the most effective ways to verbally, numerically and graphically communicate scientific uncertainty. This was a challenge in the recent lava flow crisis on Kīlauea. The public's demand for near-real time information updates, including

  16. Dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from discrete sample and profile observations using Alkalinity titrator, CTD and other instruments from JOHN P. TULLY in the North Pacific Ocean, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument and South Pacific Ocean from 1994-09-06 to 1994-11-10 (NODC Accession 0115011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0115011 includes chemical, discrete sample, physical and profile data collected from JOHN P. TULLY in the North Pacific Ocean, Papahānaumokuākea...

  17. A concept for a thirty-meter telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgarella, Denis; Zamkotsian, Frederic; Dohlen, Kjetil; Ferrari, Marc; Hammer, Francois; Sayede, Frederic; Rigaud, Francois

    2004-07-01

    In May 2000, the Canada-France-Hawaii (CFHT) Telescope Science Advisory Committee solicited the Canadian, Hawaiian and French communities to propose concepts to replace the present CFH telescope by a larger telescope. Three groups were selected: Carlberg et al. (2001) in Canada, Khun et al. (2001) in Hawaii and Burgarella et al. (2001a) in France. The reports were delivered to CFHT in May 2001 and are now available throughout the CFHT website. One of the main constraints was due to the fact that the new and larger telescope should use as much as possible the existing site and be compliant with the Mauna Kea Science reserve Master Plan (2000). This plan analyses all aspects of the Mauna Kea summit but most of them are related to the facts that the mountain must be considered as a sacred area for indigenous Hawaiian people and that the ecosystem is fragile. But in addition, the plan also tries to account for the fact that the summit of Mauna Kea is a world famous site for astronomy. The points that we can highlight in the context of our project are of two types. Since then, the project evolved and Hawaii is not considered as the one and only site to build an Extremely Large Telescope (ELT). Moreover, the size of the primary mirror, which was strongly dependent on the above constraints, is no more limited to the 16 - 20 m which was our conclusion at this time. Nevertheless, the three points of the resolution are still valid and since then, we have kept on working on the concept by launching differnt follow-up studies that are necessary to start such a project. Of course, the main point is the Science Objectives which drive the main specifications for an ELT. But related technical studies are also mandatory e.g. Adaptive Optics, Building of a primary mirror larger than 30 m in diameter, Image Quality as a function of the segment size and shape.

  18. Design and Characterization of the 4STAR Sun-Sky Spectrometer with Results from 4- Way Intercomparison of 4STAR, AATS-14, Prede, and Cimel Photometers at Mauna Loa Observatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, C. J.; Dunagan, S. E.; Johnson, R. R.; Schmid, B.; Shinozuka, Y.; Ramachandran, S.; Livingston, J. M.; Russell, P. B.; Redemann, J.; Tran, A. K.; Holben, B. N.

    2008-12-01

    Uncertainties in radiative forcing of climate are still dominated by uncertainties in forcing by aerosols. Aerosols impact the radiation balance in three primary ways: the direct effect through scattering and absorption of radiation, the indirect effect by acting as cloud condensation nuclei affecting cloud optical depth and longevity, and the semi-direct effect affecting cloud formation and longevity through heating and thermodynamics. An active collaboration between the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center (ARC), and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is advancing new instrument concepts with application to reducing these aerosol uncertainties. The concept of 4STAR (Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research) combines airborne sun tracking capabilities of the Ames Airborne Tracking Sun Photometer (AATS-14) and Aeronet-like sky scanning capability with state-of-the-art monolithic spectrometry. The overall science goal for the new instruments is to improve knowledge of atmospheric constituents and their links to climate. The high-resolution spectral capability will improve retrievals of gas constituents (e.g., H2O, O3, and NO2) and thereby improve determination of aerosol properties as residual components of the total optical depth. The sky scanning capability will enable retrievals of aerosol type (via complex refractive index and shape) and aerosol size distribution extending to larger sizes than attainable by direct-beam sun photometry alone. Additional technical goals are to reduce instrument size, weight, and power requirements while increasing autonomy and component modularity to permit operation on a wide range of aircraft including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). To investigate techniques to accomplish these goals, we developed a ground-based prototype, 4STAR-Ground. The 4STAR-Ground operating performance has been characterized in many tests

  19. Observations of carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide at Tae-Ahn peninsula (Korea), Mount Waliguan (China), Ulaan Uul (Mongolia) and at Mauna Loa (Hawaii USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y.S. [Korea National Univ. of Education, Chongwon (Korea, Republic of); Tans, P.P.; Conway, T.J.; Dlugokencky, E.J. [Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Lab., Bouler (United States); Novelli, P.C.; Tolier, M. [Colorado Univ. (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences; Wen, Y. [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing (China); Dagvadorj, D. [Mongolian Hydrometeorological Research Inst., Ulaan Batar (Mongolia)

    1995-12-31

    It has been discussed that the greenhouse gases, e.g. carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) methane (CH{sub 4}), enhance warming in the biosphere. Many scientists are therefore interested in monitoring the minor constituents of the atmosphere and in the carbon cycle. In cooperation with the Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) of U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and carbon monoxide (CO) at the western tip of the Tae-ahn Peninsula (TAP) in central Korea since October 1990 has been measured. Shortly thereafter, two more sites were added for the measurement of greenhouse gases in East Asia; one at Mount Waliguar Qinghai Province (QPC) in China and another at Ulaan Uul (UUM), the Gobi Desert in Mongolia. Also, trace gas data obtained at Mauna Loa (MLO) in Hawaii in the USA has been used. The Hawaiian data represent the world`s longest period of CO{sub 2} monitoring since 1958. The present monitoring is a part of the Global Air Sampling Network the WMO`s Global Atmospheric Watch. The method of collecting and measuring CO{sub 2}, CO and CH{sub 4} have been described else where. Here the four year monitoring of the trace gases at the three sites in East Asia is reported. The results are also compared with the measured values obtained at the free troposphere background site at MLO in Hawaii

  20. Shifts in bryophyte carbon isotope ratio across an elevation × soil age matrix on Mauna Loa, Hawaii: do bryophytes behave like vascular plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Mashuri; Sack, Lawren

    2011-05-01

    The carbon isotope ratio (δ(13)C) of vascular plant leaf tissue is determined by isotope discrimination, primarily mediated by stomatal and mesophyll diffusion resistances and by photosynthetic rate. These effects lead to predictable trends in leaf δ(13)C across natural gradients of elevation, irradiance and nutrient supply. Less is known about shifts in δ(13)C for bryophytes at landscape scale, as bryophytes lack stomata in the dominant gametophyte phase, and thus lack active control over CO(2) diffusion. Twelve bryophyte species were sampled across a matrix of elevation and soil ages on Mauna Loa, Hawaii Island. We tested hypotheses based on previous findings for vascular plants, which tend to have less negative δ(13)C at higher elevations or irradiances, and for leaves with higher leaf mass per area (LMA). Across the matrix, bryophytes spanned the range of δ(13)C values typical of C(3) vascular plants. Bryophytes were remarkably similar to vascular plants in exhibiting less negative δ(13)C with increasing elevation, and with lower overstory cover; additionally δ(13)C was related to bryophyte canopy projected mass per area, a trait analogous to LMA in vascular plants, also correlated negatively with overstory cover. The similarity of responses of δ(13)C in bryophytes and vascular plants to environmental factors, despite differing morphologies and diffusion pathways, points to a strong direct role of photosynthetic rate in determining δ(13)C variation at the landscape scale.

  1. Observations of carbon dioxide, methane, and carbon monoxide at Tae-Ahn peninsula (Korea), Mount Waliguan (China), Ulaan Uul (Mongolia) and at Mauna Loa (Hawaii USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Y S [Korea National Univ. of Education, Chongwon (Korea, Republic of); Tans, P P; Conway, T J; Dlugokencky, E J [Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Lab., Bouler (United States); Novelli, P C; Tolier, M [Colorado Univ. (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences; Wen, Y [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing (China); Dagvadorj, D [Mongolian Hydrometeorological Research Inst., Ulaan Batar (Mongolia)

    1996-12-31

    It has been discussed that the greenhouse gases, e.g. carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) methane (CH{sub 4}), enhance warming in the biosphere. Many scientists are therefore interested in monitoring the minor constituents of the atmosphere and in the carbon cycle. In cooperation with the Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) of U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and carbon monoxide (CO) at the western tip of the Tae-ahn Peninsula (TAP) in central Korea since October 1990 has been measured. Shortly thereafter, two more sites were added for the measurement of greenhouse gases in East Asia; one at Mount Waliguar Qinghai Province (QPC) in China and another at Ulaan Uul (UUM), the Gobi Desert in Mongolia. Also, trace gas data obtained at Mauna Loa (MLO) in Hawaii in the USA has been used. The Hawaiian data represent the world`s longest period of CO{sub 2} monitoring since 1958. The present monitoring is a part of the Global Air Sampling Network the WMO`s Global Atmospheric Watch. The method of collecting and measuring CO{sub 2}, CO and CH{sub 4} have been described else where. Here the four year monitoring of the trace gases at the three sites in East Asia is reported. The results are also compared with the measured values obtained at the free troposphere background site at MLO in Hawaii

  2. Decline of Ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha) in Hawaii: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles S. Hodges; Ken T. Adee; John D. Stein; Hulton B. Wood; Robert D. Doty

    1986-01-01

    Portions of the ohia (Metrosideros polymorpha) forests on the windward slopes of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea on the island of Hawaii began dying in 1952. Little mortality has occurred since 1972. About 50,000 ha are affected by the decline. Individual trees exhibit several symptoms, from slow progressive dieback to rapid death. Seven types of decline...

  3. The Pacific Islands Climate Science Center five-year science agenda, 2014-2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helweg, David; Nash, Sarah A.B.; Polhemus, Dan A.

    2014-01-01

    From the heights of Mauna Kea on Hawaiʻi Island to the depths of the Mariana Trench, from densely populated cities to sparse rural indigenous communities and uninhabited sandy atolls, the Pacific region encompasses diverse associations of peoples and places that are directly affected by changes to the atmosphere, ocean, and land. The peoples of the Pacific are among the first to observe and experience the effects of global climatic changes. Because the Pacific region is predominantly composed of vast ocean expanses punctuated only by small, isolated emergent islands and atolls, marine processes are critical factors in the region’s climate systems, and their impacts occur here to a greater degree than in continental regions. Rates of sea-level rise in the region during the modern altimetry period exceed the global rate, with the highest increases occurring in the western North Pacific (Cazenave and Llovel, 2010; Nerem and others, 2010; Timmermann and others, 2010). The ocean has also warmed during this period. Since the 1970s, sea-surface temperature has increased at a rate of 0.13 to 0.41 °F (0.07 to 0.23 °C) per decade, depending on the location (Keener and others, 2012a). Ocean chemistry has changed during this period as well, with surface pH having dropped by 0.1 pH units (Feely and others, 2009; Doney and others, 2012). Over the past century, air temperature has increased throughout the Pacific region. In Hawaiʻi, average temperatures increased by 0.08 °F per decade during the period 1919 to 2006, and in recent years, the rate of increase has been accelerating, particularly at high elevations (Giambelluca and others, 2008). In the western North Pacific, temperatures also increased over the past 60 years (Lander and Guard, 2003; Lander, 2004; Lander and Khosrowpanah, 2004; Kruk and others, 2013), with a concurrent warming trend in the central South Pacific since the 1950s (Australian Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO, 2011).

  4. Hydrogen isotope correction for laser instrument measurement bias at low water vapor concentration using conventional isotope analyses: application to measurements from Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L R; Sharp, Z D; Galewsky, J; Strong, M; Van Pelt, A D; Dong, F; Noone, D

    2011-03-15

    The hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of water vapor can be measured with commercially available laser spectroscopy analyzers in real time. Operation of the laser systems in relatively dry air is difficult because measurements are non-linear as a function of humidity at low water concentrations. Here we use field-based sampling coupled with traditional mass spectrometry techniques for assessing linearity and calibrating laser spectroscopy systems at low water vapor concentrations. Air samples are collected in an evacuated 2 L glass flask and the water is separated from the non-condensable gases cryogenically. Approximately 2 µL of water are reduced to H(2) gas and measured on an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. In a field experiment at the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO), we ran Picarro and Los Gatos Research (LGR) laser analyzers for a period of 25 days in addition to periodic sample collection in evacuated flasks. When the two laser systems are corrected to the flask data, they are strongly coincident over the entire 25 days. The δ(2)H values were found to change by over 200‰ over 2.5 min as the boundary layer elevation changed relative to MLO. The δ(2)H values ranged from -106 to -332‰, and the δ(18)O values (uncorrected) ranged from -12 to -50‰. Raw data from laser analyzers in environments with low water vapor concentrations can be normalized to the international V-SMOW scale by calibration to the flask data measured conventionally. Bias correction is especially critical for the accurate determination of deuterium excess in dry air. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Statistical analysis of the mesospheric inversion layers over two symmetrical tropical sites: Réunion (20.8° S, 55.5° E) and Mauna Loa (19.5° N, 155.6° W)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bègue, Nelson; Mbatha, Nkanyiso; Bencherif, Hassan; Tato Loua, René; Sivakumar, Venkataraman; Leblanc, Thierry

    2017-11-01

    In this investigation a statistical analysis of the characteristics of mesospheric inversion layers (MILs) over tropical regions is presented. This study involves the analysis of 16 years of lidar observations recorded at Réunion (20.8° S, 55.5° E) and 21 years of lidar observations recorded at Mauna Loa (19.5° N, 155.6° W) together with SABER observations at these two locations. MILs appear in 10 and 9.3 % of the observed temperature profiles recorded by Rayleigh lidar at Réunion and Mauna Loa, respectively. The parameters defining MILs show a semi-annual cycle over the two selected sites with maxima occurring near the equinoxes and minima occurring during the solstices. Over both sites, the maximum mean amplitude is observed in April and October, and this corresponds to a value greater than 35 K. According to lidar observations, the maximum and minimum mean of the base height ranged from 79 to 80.5 km and from 76 to 77.5 km, respectively. The MILs at Réunion appear on average ˜ 1 km thinner and ˜ 1 km lower, with an amplitude of ˜ 2 K higher than Mauna Loa. Generally, the statistical results for these two tropical locations as presented in this investigation are in fairly good agreement with previous studies. When compared to lidar measurements, on average SABER observations show MILs with greater amplitude, thickness and base altitudes of 4 K, 0.75 and 1.1 km, respectively. Taking into account the temperature error by SABER in the mesosphere, it can therefore be concluded that the measurements obtained from lidar and SABER observations are in significant agreement. The frequency spectrum analysis based on the lidar profiles and the 60-day averaged profile from SABER confirms the presence of the semi-annual oscillation where the magnitude maximum is found to coincide with the height range of the temperature inversion zone. This connection between increases in the semi-annual component close to the inversion zone is in agreement with most previously

  6. The Gemini 8-Meter Telescopes Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroson, Todd A.

    1995-05-01

    The Gemini 8-Meter Telescopes Project is an international partnership to build and operate two 8-meter telescopes, one on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and one on Cerro Pachon, Chile. The telescopes will be international facilities, open to the scientific communities of the six member countries, the United States (50%), the United Kingdom (25%), Canada (15%), Chile (5%), Argentina (2.5%), and Brazil (2.5%). The telescopes are designed to exploit the best atmospheric conditions at these excellent sites. Near diffraction limited performance will be delivered at 2.2 microns and longward, with minimal degradation of the best seeing conditions at shorter wavelengths. The telescopes and facilities are designed to achieve emissivity opportunity. First light for the Mauna Kea telescope is expected in late 1998, and for the Cerro Pachon telescope in mid-2000. This talk will report on construction progress, the instrumental capabilities, and operations strategies being considered. The Gemini 8-meter Telescopes Project is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc. under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation which serves as executive agency for the Gemini partner countries. U.S. participation in the project is through the U.S. Gemini Program, a division of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories. NOAO is operated by AURA, Inc. under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  7. Forecasting the impact of storm waves and sea-level rise on Midway Atoll and Laysan Island within the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument—a comparison of passive versus dynamic inundation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Berkowitz, Paul; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Logan, Joshua B.

    2013-01-01

    Two inundation events in 2011 underscored the potential for elevated water levels to damage infrastructure and affect terrestrial ecosystems on the low-lying Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. The goal of this study was to compare passive "bathtub" inundation models based on geographic information systems (GIS) to those that include dynamic water levels caused by wave-induced set-up and run-up for two end-member island morphologies: Midway, a classic atoll with islands on the shallow (2-8 m) atoll rim and a deep, central lagoon; and Laysan, which is characterized by a deep (20-30 m) atoll rim and an island at the center of the atoll. Vulnerability to elevated water levels was assessed using hindcast wind and wave data to drive coupled physics-based numerical wave, current, and water-level models for the atolls. The resulting model data were then used to compute run-up elevations using a parametric run-up equation under both present conditions and future sea-level-rise scenarios. In both geomorphologies, wave heights and wavelengths adjacent to the island shorelines increased more than three times and four times, respectively, with increasing values of sea-level rise, as more deep-water wave energy could propagate over the atoll rim and larger wind-driven waves could develop on the atoll. Although these increases in water depth resulted in decreased set-up along the islands’ shorelines, the larger wave heights and longer wavelengths due to sea-level rise increased the resulting wave-induced run-up. Run-up values were spatially heterogeneous and dependent on the direction of incident wave direction, bathymetry, and island configuration. Island inundation was modeled to increase substantially when wave-driven effects were included, suggesting that inundation and impacts to infrastructure and terrestrial habitats will occur at lower values of predicted sea-level rise, and thus sooner in the 21st century, than suggested

  8. KEA-71 Smart Current Signature Sensor (SCSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development and uses of the Smart Current Signature Sensor (SCSS), also known as the Valve Health Monitor (VHM) system. SCSS provides a way to not only monitor real-time the valve's operation in a non invasive manner, but also to monitor its health (Fault Detection and Isolation) and identify potential faults and/or degradation in the near future (Prediction/Prognosis). This technology approach is not only applicable for solenoid valves, and it could be extrapolated to other electrical components with repeatable electrical current signatures such as motors.

  9. Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & ; Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations Science Programs Applied

  10. Science and Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravetz, David

    2005-01-01

    This article is for teachers looking for new ways to motivate students, increase science comprehension, and understanding without using the old standard expository science textbook. This author suggests reading a science fiction novel in the science classroom as a way to engage students in learning. Using science fiction literature and language…

  11. Science and data science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blei, David M; Smyth, Padhraic

    2017-08-07

    Data science has attracted a lot of attention, promising to turn vast amounts of data into useful predictions and insights. In this article, we ask why scientists should care about data science. To answer, we discuss data science from three perspectives: statistical, computational, and human. Although each of the three is a critical component of data science, we argue that the effective combination of all three components is the essence of what data science is about.

  12. SkyProbe, monitoring the absolute atmospheric transmission in the optical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuillandre, Jean-charles; Magnier, Eugene; Mahoney, William

    2011-03-01

    Mauna Kea is known for its pristine seeing conditions, but sky transparency can be an issue for science operations since 25% of the night are not photometric, mostly due to high-altitude cirrus. Since 2001, the original single-channel SkyProbe has gathered one exposure every minute during each observing night using a small CCD camera with a very wide field of view (35 sq. deg.) encompassing the region pointed by the telescope for science operations, and exposures long enough (40 seconds) to capture at least 100 stars of Hipparcos' Tychos catalog at high galactic latitudes (and up to 600 stars at low galactic latitudes). A key advantage of SkyProbe over direct thermal infrared imaging detection of clouds, is that it allows an accurate absolute measurement, within 5%, of the true atmospheric absorption by clouds affecting the data being gathered by the telescope's main science instrument. This system has proven crucial for decision making in the CFHT queued service observing (QSO), representing today 80% of the telescope time: science exposures taken in non-photometric conditions are automatically registered for being re-observed later on (at 1/10th of the original exposure time per pointing in the observed filters) to ensure a proper final absolute photometric calibration. The new dual color system (simultaneous B&V bands) will allow a better characterization of the sky properties atop Mauna Kea and will enable a better detection of the thinner cirrus (absorption down to 0.02 mag., i.e. 2%). SkyProbe is operated within the Elixir pipeline, a collection of tools used for handling the CFHT CCD mosaics (CFH12K and MegaCam), from data pre-processing to astrometric and photometric calibration.

  13. Propuesta de proyecto de estadística: un modelo de regresión lineal simple para pronosticar la concentración de co2 del volcán Mauna Loa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Alfredo López Miranda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo aplica un modelo predictivo de regresión lineal para analizar la contaminación atmosférica de dióxido de carbono (CO2 producida por el volcán Mauna Loa de Hawái. Los datos fueron extraídos de un repositorio de internet que contiene múltiples casos de geología, climatología, física, etcétera. El modelo se utilizó para predecir la tendencia de emisiones de CO2 con respecto al tiempo; se estimó la contaminación promedio de dicha tendencia, la cual descubrimos ha crecido aproximadamente 0.1 partes por millón por mes; así como también se obtuvieron los intervalos de predicción para una emisión puntual que existió en un momento determinado. Se recomienda el trabajo para estudiantes de ciencias exactas y naturales, como prototipo de artículo de investigación donde se aplique específicamente el modelo de regresión lineal simple; aunque la estructura también puede servir en otras áreas donde se enseñen los modelos de regresión.

  14. Science in Science Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allday, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Offers some suggestions as to how science fiction, especially television science fiction programs such as "Star Trek" and "Star Wars", can be drawn into physics lessons to illuminate some interesting issues. (Author/KHR)

  15. Remote observing with the Keck Telescopes from the U.S. mainland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibrick, Robert I.; Allen, Steve L.; Conrad, Albert

    2000-06-01

    We describe the current status of efforts to establish a high-bandwidth network from the U.S. mainland to Mauna Kea and a facility in California to support Keck remote observing and engineering via the Internet. The California facility will be an extension of the existing Keck remote operations facility located in Waimea, Hawaii. It will be targeted towards short-duration observing runs which now comprise roughly half of all scheduled science runs on the Keck Telescope. Keck technical staff in Hawaii will support remote observers on the mainland via video conferencing and collaborative software tools. Advantages and disadvantages of remote operation from California versus Hawaii are explored, and costs of alternative communication paths examined. We describe a plan for a backup communications path to protect against failure of the primary network. Alternative software models for remote operation are explored, and recent operational results described.

  16. Information Science: Science or Social Science?

    OpenAIRE

    Sreeramana Aithal; Paul P.K.,; Bhuimali A.

    2017-01-01

    Collection, selection, processing, management, and dissemination of information are the main and ultimate role of Information Science and similar studies such as Information Studies, Information Management, Library Science, and Communication Science and so on. However, Information Science deals with some different characteristics than these subjects. Information Science is most interdisciplinary Science combines with so many knowledge clusters and domains. Information Science is a broad disci...

  17. Metrology of the Solar Spectral Irradiance at the Top Of Atmosphere in the Near Infrared using Ground Based Instruments. Final results of the PYR-ILIOS campaign (Mauna Loa Observatory, June-July 2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cessateur, G.; Bolsée, D.; Pereira, N.; Sperfeld, P.; Pape, S.

    2017-12-01

    The availability of reference spectra for the Solar Spectral Irradiance (SSI) is important for the solar physics, the studies of planetary atmospheres and climatology. The near infrared (NIR) part of these spectra is of great interest for its main role for example, in the Earth's radiative budget. Until recently, some large and unsolved discrepancies (up to 10 %) were observed in the 1.6 μm region between space instruments, models and ground-based measurements. We designed a ground-based instrumentation for SSI measurements at the Top Of Atmosphere (TOA) through atmospheric NIR windows using the Bouguer-Langley technique. The main instrument is a double NIR spectroradiometer designed by Bentham (UK), radiometrically characterized at the Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy. It was absolute calibrated against a high-temperature blackbody as primary standard for spectral irradiance at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany). The PYR-ILIOS campaign was carried out in June to July 2016 at the Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii, USA, 3396 m a.s.l.) follows the four-month IRESPERAD campaign which was carried out in the summer 2011 at the Izaña Atmospheric Observatory (Canary Islands, 2367 m a.s.l.). We present here the results of the 3'week PYR-ILIOS campaign and compare them with the ATLAS 3 spectrum as well as from recently reprocessed NIR solar spectra obtained with SOLAR/SOLSPEC on ISS and SCIAMACHY on ENVISAT. The uncertainty budget of the PYR-ILIOS results will be discussed.

  18. Infrared Solar Spectroscopic Measurements of Free Tropospheric CO, C2H6, and HCN above Mauna Loa, Hawaii: Seasonal Variations and Evidence for Enhanced Emissions from the Southeast Asian Tropical Fires of 1997-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, F. J.; Stephen, T. M.; Pougatchev, N. S.; Fishman, J.; David, S. J.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Novelli, P. C.; Jones, N. B.

    1999-01-01

    High spectral resolution (0.003 per cm) infrared solar absorption measurements of CO, C2H6, and HCN have been recorded at the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change station on Mauna Loa, Hawaii, (19.5N, 155.6W, altitude 3.4 km). The observations were obtained on over 250 days between August 1995 and February 1998. Column measurements are reported for the 3.4-16 km altitude region, which corresponds approximately to the free troposphere above the station. Average CO mixing ratios computed for this layer have been compared with flask sampling CO measurements obtained in situ at the station during the same time period. Both show asymmetrical seasonal cycles superimposed on significant variability. The first 2 years of observations exhibit a broad January-April maximum and a sharper CO minimum during late summer. The C2H6 and CO 3.4-16 km columns were highly correlated throughout the observing period with the C2H6/CO slope intermediate between higher and lower values derived from similar infrared spectroscopic measurements at 32'N and 45'S latitude, respectively. Variable enhancements in CO, C2H6, and particularly HCN were observed beginning in about September 1997. The maximum HCN free tropospheric monthly mean column observed in November 1997 corresponds to an average 3.4-16 km mixing ratio of 0.7 ppbv (1 ppbv = 10(exp -9) per unit volume), more than a factor of 3 above the background level. The HCN enhancements continued through the end of the observational series. Back-trajectory calculations suggest that the emissions originated at low northern latitudes in southeast Asia. Surface CO mixing ratios and the C2H6 tropospheric columns measured during the same time also showed anomalous autumn 1997 maxima. The intense and widespread tropical wild fires that burned during the strong El Nino warm phase of 1997- 1998 are the likely source of the elevated emission products.

  19. Science of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortunato, Santo; Bergstrom, Carl T; Börner, Katy; Evans, James A; Helbing, Dirk; Milojević, Staša; Petersen, Alexander M; Radicchi, Filippo; Sinatra, Roberta; Uzzi, Brian; Vespignani, Alessandro; Waltman, Ludo; Wang, Dashun; Barabási, Albert-László

    2018-03-02

    Identifying fundamental drivers of science and developing predictive models to capture its evolution are instrumental for the design of policies that can improve the scientific enterprise-for example, through enhanced career paths for scientists, better performance evaluation for organizations hosting research, discovery of novel effective funding vehicles, and even identification of promising regions along the scientific frontier. The science of science uses large-scale data on the production of science to search for universal and domain-specific patterns. Here, we review recent developments in this transdisciplinary field. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  20. L' AND M' Photometry Of Ultracool Dwarfs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marley, M

    2004-01-01

    We have compiled L' (3.4-4.1 microns) and M' (4.6-4.8 microns) photometry of 63 single and binary M, L, and T dwarfs obtained at the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope using the Mauna Kea Observatory filter set...

  1. Spectral reflectance study of the Hadley-Appenine (Apollo 15) region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucey, P.G.; Hawke, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Twenty three near infrared spectra were obtained from the Mauna Kea Observatory 2.2 m telescope. Results of an analysis of near infrared spectra obtained for surface units in the Hadley-Apennine region were presented. Compositional trends from the interior to exterior of the Imbrium are discussed

  2. Confirmation of 5 SN in the Kepler/K2 C16 Field with Gemini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margheim, S.; Tucker, B. E.; Garnavich, P. M.; Rest, A.; Narayan, G.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S.; Kasen, D.; Shaya, E.; Mushotzky, R.; Olling, R.; Villar, A.; Forster, F.; Zenteno, A.; James, D.; Smith, R. Chris

    2018-01-01

    We report new spectroscopic classifications by KEGS of supernova discovered by Pan-STARRS1 during a targeted search of the Kepler/K2 Campaign 16 field using the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on both the Gemini North Observatory on Mauna Kea, and the Gemini South Observatory on Cerro Pachon.

  3. Statistical analysis of the mesospheric inversion layers over two symmetrical tropical sites: Réunion (20.8° S, 55.5° E and Mauna Loa (19.5° N, 155.6° W

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bègue

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation a statistical analysis of the characteristics of mesospheric inversion layers (MILs over tropical regions is presented. This study involves the analysis of 16 years of lidar observations recorded at Réunion (20.8° S, 55.5° E and 21 years of lidar observations recorded at Mauna Loa (19.5° N, 155.6° W together with SABER observations at these two locations. MILs appear in 10 and 9.3 % of the observed temperature profiles recorded by Rayleigh lidar at Réunion and Mauna Loa, respectively. The parameters defining MILs show a semi-annual cycle over the two selected sites with maxima occurring near the equinoxes and minima occurring during the solstices. Over both sites, the maximum mean amplitude is observed in April and October, and this corresponds to a value greater than 35 K. According to lidar observations, the maximum and minimum mean of the base height ranged from 79 to 80.5 km and from 76 to 77.5 km, respectively. The MILs at Réunion appear on average ∼ 1 km thinner and ∼ 1 km lower, with an amplitude of ∼ 2 K higher than Mauna Loa. Generally, the statistical results for these two tropical locations as presented in this investigation are in fairly good agreement with previous studies. When compared to lidar measurements, on average SABER observations show MILs with greater amplitude, thickness and base altitudes of 4 K, 0.75 and 1.1 km, respectively. Taking into account the temperature error by SABER in the mesosphere, it can therefore be concluded that the measurements obtained from lidar and SABER observations are in significant agreement. The frequency spectrum analysis based on the lidar profiles and the 60-day averaged profile from SABER confirms the presence of the semi-annual oscillation where the magnitude maximum is found to coincide with the height range of the temperature inversion zone. This connection between increases in the semi-annual component close to the

  4. Science Smiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Science Smiles. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 4 April 1996 pp 4-4 Science Smiles. Chief Editor's column / Science Smiles · R K Laxman · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 5 May 1996 pp 3-3 Science Smiles.

  5. Science or Science Fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefsrud, Lianne M.; Meyer, Renate

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the framings and identity work associated with professionals’ discursive construction of climate change science, their legitimation of themselves as experts on ‘the truth’, and their attitudes towards regulatory measures. Drawing from survey responses of 1077 professional......, legitimation strategies, and use of emotionality and metaphor. By linking notions of the science or science fiction of climate change to the assessment of the adequacy of global and local policies and of potential organizational responses, we contribute to the understanding of ‘defensive institutional work...

  6. Creating Effective Partnerships in Ecosystem-Based Management: A Culture of Science and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlie S. Wiener

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An ecosystem-based management research partnership between the Hawai‘i Institute of Marine Biology and Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, specifically with the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve and, later, the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, provides a case study to analyze integration of scientific research into management plans through collaborative communications. Ecosystem-based management seeks input from disparate stakeholders and requires effective communication systems for the public, science, and management partners that bypass differences in organizational culture and communication styles. Here, we examine a successful partnership within the framework of ecosystem-based management to survey and evaluate cultural differences, understand what facilitates collaborative communication, highlight factors that impede a successful partnership, and identify areas for improvement. Effective communication has been achieved through an analysis of the organizations cultures and structures to better define communication links. Although specific differences were noted in organization and style, successful integration was accomplished through techniques such as the development of symposia and semiannual reports. This paper will explore the organizational culture analysis and structure evaluation, which are components of a larger study. This science management integration project is an example of how organizational analysis can lead to recommendations for improved communication and integration of science and management.

  7. The Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index in Relation to Sunspot Number, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation Index, the Mauna Loa Atmospheric Concentration of CO2, and Anthropogenic Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Global warming/climate change has been a subject of scientific interest since the early 19th century. In particular, increases in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) have long been thought to account for Earth's increased warming, although the lack of a dependable set of observational data was apparent as late as the mid 1950s. However, beginning in the late 1950s, being associated with the International Geophysical Year, the opportunity arose to begin accurate continuous monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric concentration of CO2. Consequently, it is now well established that the atmospheric concentration of CO2, while varying seasonally within any particular year, has steadily increased over time. Associated with this rising trend in the atmospheric concentration of CO2 is a rising trend in the surface-air and sea-surface temperatures (SSTs). This Technical Publication (TP) examines the statistical relationships between 10-year moving averages (10-yma) of the Global Land-Ocean Temperature Index (GLOTI), sunspot number (SSN), the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index, and the Mauna Loa CO2 (MLCO2) index for the common interval 1964-2006, where the 10-yma values are used to indicate trends in the data. Scatter plots using the 10-yma values between GLOTI and each of the other parameters are determined, both as single-variate and multivariate fits. Scatter plots are also determined for MLCO2 using single-variate and bivariate (BV) fits, based on the GLOTI alone and the GLOTI in combination with the AMO index. On the basis of the inferred preferential fits for MLCO2, estimates for MLCO2 are determined for the interval 1885-1964, thereby yielding an estimate of the preindustrial level of atmospheric concentration of CO2. Lastly, 10-yma values of MLCO2 are compared against 10-yma estimates of the total carbon emissions (TCE) to determine the likelihood that manmade sources of carbon emissions are indeed responsible for the recent warming now

  8. Primary Science Interview: Science Sparks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    In this "Primary Science" interview, Lynne Bianchi talks with Emma Vanstone about "Science Sparks," which is a website full of creative, fun, and exciting science activity ideas for children of primary-school age. "Science Sparks" started with the aim of inspiring more parents to do science at home with their…

  9. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Nicholas

    2009-10-01

    Introduction: what this book is about and why you might want to read it; Prologue: three orphans share a common paternity: professional science communication, popular journalism, and literary fiction are not as separate as they seem; Part I. Professional Science Communication: 1. Spreading the word: the endless struggle to publish professional science; 2. Walk like an Egyptian: the alien feeling of professional science writing; 3. The future's bright? Professional science communication in the age of the internet; 4. Counting the horse's teeth: professional standards in science's barter economy; 5. Separating the wheat from the chaff: peer review on trial; Part II. Science for the Public: What Science Do People Need and How Might They Get It?: 6. The Public Understanding of Science (PUS) movement and its problems; 7. Public engagement with science and technology (PEST): fine principle, difficult practice; 8. Citizen scientists? Democratic input into science policy; 9. Teaching and learning science in schools: implications for popular science communication; Part III. Popular Science Communication: The Press and Broadcasting: 10. What every scientist should know about mass media; 11. What every scientist should know about journalists; 12. The influence of new media; 13. How the media represents science; 14. How should science journalists behave?; Part IV. The Origins of Science in Cultural Context: Five Historic Dramas: 15. A terrible storm in Wittenberg: natural knowledge through sorcery and evil; 16. A terrible storm in the Mediterranean: controlling nature with white magic and religion; 17. Thieving magpies: the subtle art of false projecting; 18. Foolish virtuosi: natural philosophy emerges as a distinct discipline but many cannot take it seriously; 19. Is scientific knowledge 'true' or should it just be 'truthfully' deployed?; Part V. Science in Literature: 20. Science and the Gothic: the three big nineteenth-century monster stories; 21. Science fiction: serious

  10. Evaluation Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Michael Quinn

    2018-01-01

    Culturally and politically science is under attack. The core consequence of perceiving and asserting evaluation as science is that it enhances our credibility and effectiveness in supporting the importance of science in our world and brings us together with other scientists to make common cause in supporting and advocating for science. Other…

  11. Science/s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle Tricoire

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Un forum a été organisé en mars par la Commission européenne. Il s’appelait « Science in Society ». Depuis 2000 la Commission a mis en place un Plan d’Action élaboré pour que soit promue « la science » au sein du public, afin que les citoyens prennent de bonnes décisions, des décisions informées. Il s’agit donc de développer la réflexivité au sein de la société, pour que cette dernière agisse avec discernement dans un monde qu’elle travaille à rendre durable. ...

  12. Science Fiction and Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Terence

    2002-01-01

    Uses science fiction films such as "Jurassic Park" or "Anaconda" to teach science concepts while fostering student interest. Advocates science fiction as a teaching tool to improve learning and motivation. Describes how to use science fiction in the classroom with the sample activity Twister. (YDS)

  13. Sciences & Nature

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... Sciences & Nature, the Scientific Journal edited by the University of ... Subjects covered include agronomy, sciences of the earth, environment, biological, ...

  14. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ..... circulation patterns include the nutrient-rich Somali ...... matical Structures in Computer Science 24: e240311.

  15. Sound Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickel, Aaron J.; Lee, Michele H.; Pareja, Enrique M.

    2010-01-01

    How can a teacher simultaneously teach science concepts through inquiry while helping students learn about the nature of science? After pondering this question in their own teaching, the authors developed a 5E learning cycle lesson (Bybee et al. 2006) that concurrently embeds opportunities for fourth-grade students to (a) learn a science concept,…

  16. Science Teaching in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Reading the interesting article "Discerning selective traditions in science education" by Per Sund, which is published in this issue of "CSSE," allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must…

  17. Capabilities: Science Pillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamos National Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations

  18. Faces of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamos National Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations

  19. Bradbury Science Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamos National Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations

  20. Office of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamos National Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations

  1. Deconstructing science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonas, Peter Pericles

    2012-12-01

    In this paper I expand on the premises of Jesse Bazzul's thesis in his paper, Neoliberal ideology, global capitalism, and science education: engaging the question of subjectivity, exploring the implications of the ideologies within the culturally emerging logic of science exposes the incommensurability of intents and purposes in its methods and epistemology. I argue that science needs to acknowledge the subjectivity at its core to make space for non-absolute agents and new fields of study.

  2. Science Bubbles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Pedersen, David Budtz

    2013-01-01

    Much like the trade and trait sof bubbles in financial markets,similar bubbles appear on the science market. When economic bubbles burst, the drop in prices causes the crash of unsustainable investments leading to an investor confidence crisis possibly followed by a financial panic. But when...... bubbles appear in science, truth and reliability are the first victims. This paper explores how fashions in research funding and research management may turn science into something like a bubble economy....

  3. Science Shops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    1999-01-01

    The paper prsents the overall concept of science shops as practised in most of the European science shops and present the concept practised and some experience obtained at the Technical University of Denmark. An outline for the planning of new sceince shops is presented.......The paper prsents the overall concept of science shops as practised in most of the European science shops and present the concept practised and some experience obtained at the Technical University of Denmark. An outline for the planning of new sceince shops is presented....

  4. The sciences of science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischhoff, Baruch

    2013-08-20

    The May 2012 Sackler Colloquium on "The Science of Science Communication" brought together scientists with research to communicate and scientists whose research could facilitate that communication. The latter include decision scientists who can identify the scientific results that an audience needs to know, from among all of the scientific results that it would be nice to know; behavioral scientists who can design ways to convey those results and then evaluate the success of those attempts; and social scientists who can create the channels needed for trustworthy communications. This overview offers an introduction to these communication sciences and their roles in science-based communication programs.

  5. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Science. The journal has a new and more modern layout, published online only, and the editorial. Board was increased to include more disciplines pertaining to marine sciences. While important chal- lenges still lie ahead, we are steadily advancing our standard to increase visibility and dissemination throughout the global ...

  6. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high ... or by any means without permission in writing from the copyright holder. ..... Journal of Chemical Engineering Research and Design 82 ... Indian Ocean Marine Science Association Technical.

  7. Life sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, L. (ed.)

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs. (MHB)

  8. Big Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1986-05-15

    Astronomy, like particle physics, has become Big Science where the demands of front line research can outstrip the science budgets of whole nations. Thus came into being the European Southern Observatory (ESO), founded in 1962 to provide European scientists with a major modern observatory to study the southern sky under optimal conditions.

  9. Life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, L.

    1991-04-01

    This document is the 1989--1990 Annual Report for the Life Sciences Divisions of the University of California/Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Specific progress reports are included for the Cell and Molecular Biology Division, the Research Medicine and Radiation Biophysics Division (including the Advanced Light Source Life Sciences Center), and the Chemical Biodynamics Division. 450 refs., 46 figs

  10. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chief Editor José Paula | Faculty of Sciences of University of Lisbon, Portugal. Copy Editor Timothy Andrew. Published biannually. Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) ...

  11. Science teaching in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Brendan E.; Dopico, Eduardo

    2016-06-01

    Reading the interesting article Discerning selective traditions in science education by Per Sund , which is published in this issue of CSSE, allows us to open the discussion on procedures for teaching science today. Clearly there is overlap between the teaching of science and other areas of knowledge. However, we must constantly develop new methods to teach and differentiate between science education and teaching science in response to the changing needs of our students, and we must analyze what role teachers and teacher educators play in both. We must continually examine the methods and concepts involved in developing pedagogical content knowledge in science teachers. Otherwise, the possibility that these routines, based on subjective traditions, prevent emerging processes of educational innovation. Modern science is an enormous field of knowledge in its own right, which is made more expansive when examined within the context of its place in society. We propose the need to design educative interactions around situations that involve science and society. Science education must provide students with all four dimensions of the cognitive process: factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and metacognitive knowledge. We can observe in classrooms at all levels of education that students understand the concepts better when they have the opportunity to apply the scientific knowledge in a personally relevant way. When students find value in practical exercises and they are provided opportunities to reinterpret their experiences, greater learning gains are achieved. In this sense, a key aspect of educational innovation is the change in teaching methodology. We need new tools to respond to new problems. A shift in teacher education is needed to realize the rewards of situating science questions in a societal context and opening classroom doors to active methodologies in science education to promote meaningful learning through meaningful teaching.

  12. Revolutionary Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2016-03-01

    On rare occasions in the history of science, remarkable discoveries transform human society and forever alter mankind's view of the world. Examples of such discoveries include the heliocentric theory, Newtonian physics, the germ theory of disease, quantum theory, plate tectonics and the discovery that DNA carries genetic information. The science philosopher Thomas Kuhn famously described science as long periods of normality punctuated by times of crisis, when anomalous observations culminate in revolutionary changes that replace one paradigm with another. This essay examines several transformative discoveries in the light of Kuhn's formulation. We find that each scientific revolution is unique, with disparate origins that may include puzzle solving, serendipity, inspiration, or a convergence of disparate observations. The causes of revolutionary science are varied and lack an obvious common structure. Moreover, it can be difficult to draw a clear distinction between so-called normal and revolutionary science. Revolutionary discoveries often emerge from basic science and are critically dependent on nonrevolutionary research. Revolutionary discoveries may be conceptual or technological in nature, lead to the creation of new fields, and have a lasting impact on many fields in addition to the field from which they emerge. In contrast to political revolutions, scientific revolutions do not necessarily require the destruction of the previous order. For humanity to continue to benefit from revolutionary discoveries, a broad palette of scientific inquiry with a particular emphasis on basic science should be supported. Copyright © 2016 Casadevall and Fang.

  13. Science packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Primary science teachers in Scotland have a new updating method at their disposal with the launch of a package of CDi (Compact Discs Interactive) materials developed by the BBC and the Scottish Office. These were a response to the claim that many primary teachers felt they had been inadequately trained in science and lacked the confidence to teach it properly. Consequently they felt the need for more in-service training to equip them with the personal understanding required. The pack contains five disks and a printed user's guide divided up as follows: disk 1 Investigations; disk 2 Developing understanding; disks 3,4,5 Primary Science staff development videos. It was produced by the Scottish Interactive Technology Centre (Moray House Institute) and is available from BBC Education at £149.99 including VAT. Free Internet distribution of science education materials has also begun as part of the Global Schoolhouse (GSH) scheme. The US National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) and Microsoft Corporation are making available field-tested comprehensive curriculum material including 'Micro-units' on more than 80 topics in biology, chemistry, earth and space science and physics. The latter are the work of the Scope, Sequence and Coordination of High School Science project, which can be found at http://www.gsh.org/NSTA_SSandC/. More information on NSTA can be obtained from its Web site at http://www.nsta.org.

  14. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the ... tidal height and amplitude can influence light penetra- ...... to environmental parameters in cage culture area of Sepanggar Bay, Malaysia.

  15. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue for the wide dissem- ... consist of special issues on major events or important thematic issues. ... of sources, including plant and animal by- products.

  16. science poster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    SRN ADARSH COLLEGE. Cordially invites ... in. Science. " " Date : 11-03-2014 Time : 9:30 am ... SITADEVI RATANCHAND NAHAR ADARSH PU COLLEGE ? ... ADARSH INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ?

  17. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pod diversity and distribution are important especially since studies on marine biodiversity are scarce .... Method II –. Zamoum &. Furla (2012) protocol. Method III. – Geist et al (2008) protocol ..... Public Library Of Science One 8: 51273.

  18. Science Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is one of the world’s leading environmental and human health research organizations. Science provides the foundation for Agency policies, actions, and decisions made on behalf of the American people.

  19. Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brettell, T. A.; Saferstein, R.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a review of articles appealing to forensic practitioners. Topics include: drugs and poisons, forensic biochemistry, and trace evidence. Lists noteworthy books published on forensic science topics since 1986. (MVL)

  20. Big science

    CERN Multimedia

    Nadis, S

    2003-01-01

    " "Big science" is moving into astronomy, bringing large experimental teams, multi-year research projects, and big budgets. If this is the wave of the future, why are some astronomers bucking the trend?" (2 pages).

  1. Molecular sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The research in molecular sciences summarized includes photochemistry, radiation chemistry, geophysics, electromechanics, heavy-element oxidizers , heavy element chemistry collisions, atoms, organic solids. A list of publications is included

  2. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and scope: The Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science provides an avenue .... shell growth is adversely affected. ... local stressors in action, such as ocean acidification ..... that the distribution of many intertidal sessile animals.

  3. World science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the Third World Network of Scientific Organizations (TWNSO), established last year with its headquarters in Trieste, Italy, is to promote the role of science and technology in developing countries. TWNSO, under the presidency of Abdus Salam, is an offshoot of the Third World Academy of Sciences, which has pushed the cause of international scientific collaboration since its establishment in 1983. (orig./HSI).

  4. A high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer for planetary spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Sinton, W. M.

    1973-01-01

    The employment of a high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) is described for planetary and other astronomical spectroscopy in conjunction with the 88-inch telescope at Mauna Kea Observatory. The FTS system is designed for a broad range of uses, including double-beam laboratory spectroscopy, infrared gas chromatography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The data system is well-suited to astronomical applications because of its great speed in acquiring and transforming data, and because of the enormous storage capability of the magnetic tape unit supplied with the system. The basic instrument is outlined 2nd some of the initial results from the first attempted use on the Mauna Kea 88-inch telescope are reported.

  5. Observatories and Telescopes of Modern Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverington, David

    2016-11-01

    Preface; Part I. Optical Observatories: 1. Palomar Mountain Observatory; 2. The United States Optical Observatory; 3. From the Next Generation Telescope to Gemini and SOAR; 4. Competing primary mirror designs; 5. Active optics, adaptive optics and other technical innovations; 6. European Northern Observatory and Calar Alto; 7. European Southern Observatory; 8. Mauna Kea Observatory; 9. Australian optical observatories; 10. Mount Hopkins' Whipple Observatory and the MMT; 11. Apache Point Observatory; 12. Carnegie Southern Observatory (Las Campanas); 13. Mount Graham International Optical Observatory; 14. Modern optical interferometers; 15. Solar observatories; Part II. Radio Observatories: 16. Australian radio observatories; 17. Cambridge Mullard Radio Observatory; 18. Jodrell Bank; 19. Early radio observatories away from the Australian-British axis; 20. The American National Radio Astronomy Observatory; 21. Owens Valley and Mauna Kea; 22. Further North and Central American observatories; 23. Further European and Asian radio observatories; 24. ALMA and the South Pole; Name index; Optical observatory and telescope index; Radio observatory and telescope index; General index.

  6. Hawaii: a picture window on the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, I.; Redfern, M.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the telescopes and associated studies of the astronomical observatory situated on Mauna Kea, Big Island, Hawaii. Mauna Kea is the home for ten telescopes, one of which is the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope used to look at the birth of the stars. The two newest telescopes - the Clerk Maxwell Telescope and the Caltech High Dish will study the birth in even more detail using submillimetre waves. Three more telescopes are planned - the Keck ten-metre telescope is due for completion in 1990, followed by the 7.5 metre Japenese National Large Telescope and then the 15-metre National New Technology Telescope. A brief description of the latter five telescopes is given. (U.K.)

  7. The sciences of science communication

    OpenAIRE

    Fischhoff, Baruch

    2013-01-01

    The May 2012 Sackler Colloquium on “The Science of Science Communication” brought together scientists with research to communicate and scientists whose research could facilitate that communication. The latter include decision scientists who can identify the scientific results that an audience needs to know, from among all of the scientific results that it would be nice to know; behavioral scientists who can design ways to convey those results and then evaluate the success of those attempts; a...

  8. Science Fairs for Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Katherine; Culbertson, Timothy

    2014-03-01

    Scientific discovery, technological revolutions, and complex global challenges are commonplace in the modern era. People are bombarded with news about climate change, pandemics, and genetically modified organisms, and scientific literacy has never been more important than in the present day. Yet only 29% of American adults have sufficient understanding to be able to read science stories reported in the popular press [Miller, 2010], and American students consistently rank below other nations in math and science [National Center for Education Statistics, 2012].

  9. Is normal science good science?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrianna Kępińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available “Normal science” is a concept introduced by Thomas Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962. In Kuhn’s view, normal science means “puzzle solving”, solving problems within the paradigm—framework most successful in solving current major scientific problems—rather than producing major novelties. This paper examines Kuhnian and Popperian accounts of normal science and their criticisms to assess if normal science is good. The advantage of normal science according to Kuhn was “psychological”: subjective satisfaction from successful “puzzle solving”. Popper argues for an “intellectual” science, one that consistently refutes conjectures (hypotheses and offers new ideas rather than focus on personal advantages. His account is criticized as too impersonal and idealistic. Feyerabend’s perspective seems more balanced; he argues for a community that would introduce new ideas, defend old ones, and enable scientists to develop in line with their subjective preferences. The paper concludes that normal science has no one clear-cut set of criteria encompassing its meaning and enabling clear assessment.

  10. Exploring science through science fiction

    CERN Document Server

    Luokkala, Barry B

    2014-01-01

    How does Einstein’s description of space and time compare with Dr. Who? Can James Bond really escape from an armor-plated railroad car by cutting through the floor with a laser concealed in a wristwatch? What would it take to create a fully-intelligent android, such as Star Trek’s Commander Data? How might we discover intelligent civilizations on other planets in the galaxy? Is human teleportation possible? Will our technological society ever reach the point at which it becomes lawful to discriminate on the basis of genetic information, as in the movie GATTACA? Exploring Science Through Science Fiction addresses these and other interesting questions, using science fiction as a springboard for discussing fundamental science concepts and cutting-edge science research. The book is designed as a primary text for a college-level course which should appeal to students in the fine arts and humanities as well as to science and engineering students. It includes references to original research papers, landmark scie...

  11. Pure Science and Applied Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Aumann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (Excerpt The name of my talk is Pure Science and Applied Science, and the idea I would like to sell to you today is that there is no such thing as “pure” or “applied” science. In other words, there is such a thing as science, but there is no difference between pure and applied science. Science is one entity and cannot be separated into different categories. In order to back that up, I would like to tell you a little story. As an undergraduate, I studied mathematics at City College in New York. At that time, what was called Pure Mathematics was in vogue, and the more prominent mathematicians were a little contemptuous of any kind of application. A very famous, prominent mathematician in the first half of the previous century by the name of G. H. Hardy, who was in a branch of mathematics called number theory, said that the only thing he regretted was that he unwittingly did some important work in mathematical genetics that eventually turned out to have some application. … Such was the atmosphere in the late ’40s of the previous century and, being a young man and impressionable, I was swept up in this atmosphere.

  12. Adhesion science

    CERN Document Server

    Comyn, John

    1997-01-01

    The use of adhesives is widespread and growing, and there are few modern artefacts, from the simple cereal packet, to the jumbo jet, that are without this means of joining. Adhesion Science provides an illuminating account of the science underlying the use of adhesives, a branch of chemical technology which is fundamental to the science of coatings and composite materials and to the performance of all types of bonded structures. This book guides the reader through the essential basic polymer science, and the chemistry of adhesives in use at present. It discusses surface preparation for adhesive bonding, and the use of primers and coupling agents. There is a detailed chapter on contact angles and what can be predicted from them. A simple guide on stress distribution joints and how this relates to testing is included. It also examines the interaction of adhesives and the environment, including an analysis of the resistance of joints to water, oxygen and ultra-violet light. Adhesion Science provides a comprehens...

  13. Magnetic field measurements in xi Bootis A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesgaard, A.M.; Chesley, D.; Preston, G.W.

    1975-01-01

    Four Zeeman spectrograms from Lick Observatory of xi Boo A and two of iota Peg at 2 A mm -1 have been measured to determine if a weak magnetic field is present in xi Boo A. The results indicate that the field is too weak to be measured by this technique on these spectrograms, although remeasurements of spectrograms from Mauna Kea at 3.4 A mm -1 still give a positive field of 170 gauss. (U.S.)

  14. Lunar occultation of Saturn. IV - Astrometric results from observations of the satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, D. W.; Elliot, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    The method of determining local lunar limb slopes, and the consequent time scale needed for diameter studies, from accurate occultation timings at two nearby telescopes is described. Results for photoelectric observations made at Mauna Kea Observatory during the occultation of Saturn's satellites on March 30, 1974, are discussed. Analysis of all observations of occultations of Saturn's satellites during 1974 indicates possible errors in the ephemerides of Saturn and its satellites.

  15. Science Fiction on Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmester, David

    1985-01-01

    Reviews science fiction films used in a science fiction class. Discusses feature films, short science fiction films, short story adaptations, original science fiction pieces and factual science films that enrich literature. (EL)

  16. Islam and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus

    The following sections are included: * The Holy Quran and Science * Modem Science, A Greco- Islamic Legacy * The Decline of Sciences in Islam * The Limitations of Science * Faith and Science * The Present Picture of Sciences in the Islamic Countries * Renaissance of Sciences in Islam * Steps Needed for Building up Sciences in the Islamic Countries * Science Education * Science Foundations in Islam * Technology in Our Countries * Concluding Remarks * REFERENCES

  17. Network science

    CERN Document Server

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...

  18. Nonlinear Science

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2010-01-01

    This book gives a general, basic understanding of the mathematical structure "nonlinearity" that lies in the depths of complex systems. Analyzing the heterogeneity that the prefix "non" represents with respect to notions such as the linear space, integrability and scale hierarchy, "nonlinear science" is explained as a challenge of deconstruction of the modern sciences. This book is not a technical guide to teach mathematical tools of nonlinear analysis, nor a zoology of so-called nonlinear phenomena. By critically analyzing the structure of linear theories, and cl

  19. An adaptive strategy for reducing Feral Cat predation on endangered hawaiian birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, S.C.; Banko, P.C.; Hansen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the long history of Feral Cats Felis catus in Hawai'i, there has been little research to provide strategies to improve control programmes and reduce depredation on endangered species. Our objective Was to develop a predictive model to determine how landscape features on Mauna Kea, such as habitat, elevation, and proximity to roads, may affect the number of Feral Cats captured at each trap. We used log-link generalized linear models and QAIC c model ranking criteria to determine the effect of these factors. We found that The number of cats captured per trap Was related to effort, habitat type, and Whether traps Were located on The West or North Slope of Mauna Kea. We recommend an adaptive management strategy to minimize trapping interference by non-target Small Indian Mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus with toxicants, to focus trapping efforts in M??mane Sophora chrysophylla habitat on the West slope of Mauna Kea, and to cluster traps near others that have previously captured multiple cats.

  20. Origin and depositional environment of clastic deposits in the Hilo drill hole, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeson, M.H.; Clague, D.A.; Lockwood, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Volcaniclastic units cored at depths of about 87, 164, 178, 226, and 246 m below sea level and carbonate units located between depths of 27 and 53 m below sea level in the Hilo drill core were found to be deposited at or near sea level. Four of these units are hydroclastic deposits, formed when subaerially erupted Mauna Loa lava flows entered the ocean and fragmented to produce quenched, glassy fragments during hydrovolcanic explosions. Ash units 24 and 26, at 178 m depth, accumulated at sea level in a freshwater bog. They contain pyroxenes crystallized from tholeiitic magma that we infer erupted explosively at the summit of Kilauea volcano. Two carbon-rich layers from these ashes have a weighted average radiocarbon age of 38.6 ?? 0.9 ka; the ashes probably correlate with the oldest and thickest part of the Pahala ash. Ash unit 44, at the transition from Mauna Kea to Mauna Loa lava flows, was probably nearly 3.2 m thick and is inferred to be equivalent to the lower thick part of the composite Homelani ash mapped in Hilo and on the flanks of Mauna Kea. The age of this part of Homelani ash is between 128 ?? 33 and 200 ?? 10 ka; it may have erupted subglacially during the Pohakuloa glacial maxima on Mauna Kea. Beach sand units 12 and 22 were derived from nearby Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea lava flows. The middle of beach sand unit 38 was derived mainly from lava erupted near the distal end of the subaerial east rift zone of Kilauea volcano; these sands were transported about 33 km northwest to Hilo Bay by prevailing longshore currents. Combined age, depth, and sea level markers in the core allow us to determine that lava flow recurrence intervals averaged one flow every 4 kyr during the past 86 kyr and one flow every 16 kyr between 86 and 200 ka at the drill site and that major explosive eruptions that deposit thick ash in Hilo have occurred only twice in the last 400 kyr. These recurrence intervals support the moderate lava flow hazard zonation (zone 3) for coastal Hilo

  1. The 40Ar/39Ar dating of core recovered by the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (phase 2), Hilo, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Warren D.; Renne, Paul R.

    2005-04-01

    The Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project, phase 2 (HSDP-2), recovered core from a ˜3.1-km-thick section through the eastern flanks of Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea volcanoes. We report results of 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating by broad-beam infrared laser of 16 basaltic groundmass samples and 1 plagioclase separate, mostly from K-poor tholeiites. The tholeiites generally have mean radiogenic 40Ar enrichments of 1-3%, and some contain excess 40Ar; however, isochron ages of glass-poor samples preserve stratigraphic order in all cases. A 246-m-thick sequence of Mauna Loa tholeiitic lavas yields an isochron age of 122 ± 86 kyr (all errors 2σ) at its base. Beneath the Mauna Loa overlap sequence lie Mauna Kea's postshield and shield sequences. A postshield alkalic lava yields an age of 236 ± 16 kyr, in agreement with an age of 240 ± 14 kyr for a geochemically correlative flow in the nearby HSDP-1 core hole, where more complete dating of the postshield sequence shows it to have accumulated at 0.9 ± 0.4 m/kyr, from about 330 to <200 ka. Mauna Kea's shield consists of subaerial tholeiitic flows to a depth of 1079 m below sea level, then shallow submarine flows, hyaloclastites, pillow lavas, and minor intrusions to core bottom at 3098 m. Most subaerial tholeiitic flows fail to form isochrons; however, a sample at 984 m yields an age of 370 ± 180 kyr, consistent with ages from similar levels in HSDP-1. Submarine tholeiites including shallow marine vitrophyres, clasts from hyaloclastites, and pillow lavas were analyzed; however, only pillow lava cores from 2243, 2614, and 2789 m yield reliable ages of 482 ± 67, 560 ± 150, and 683 ± 82 kyr, respectively. A linear fit to ages for shield samples defines a mean accumulation rate of 8.6 ± 3.1 m/kyr and extrapolates to ˜635 kyr at core bottom. Alternatively, a model relating Mauna Kea's growth to transport across the Hawaiian hot spot that predicts downward accelerating accumulation rates that reach ˜20 m/kyr at core bottom (De

  2. Animal Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanCleave, Janice

    2001-01-01

    Presents a set of hands-on, outdoor science experiments designed to teach elementary school students about animal adaptation. The experiments focus on: how color camouflage affects an insect population; how spiderlings find a home; and how chameleons camouflage themselves by changing color. (SM)

  3. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ination of high quality research generated in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO) region, ... fisheries, recovery and restoration processes, legal and institutional frameworks, and interactions/relationships ... Science features state-of-the-art review articles and short communications. ... Non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS).

  4. Brewing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelter, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Following the brewing process from grain to glass, this course uses the biological and chemical principles of brewing to teach science to the nonscience major. Discussion of the scientific aspects of malting, mashing, fermentation, and the making of different beer styles is complemented by laboratory exercises that use scientific methods to…

  5. Redirecting science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaserud, F.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters. Science policy and fund-raising up to 1934; The Copenhagen spirit at work, late 1920's to mid-1930s; The refugee problem, 1933 to 1935; Experimental biology, late 1920s to 1935; and Consolidation of the transition, 1935 to 1940

  6. Systems Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Alexander; Hammond, Debora; Jackson, Michael; Laszlo, Alexander; Mitroff, Ian; Snowden, Dave; Troncale, Len; Carr-Chellman, Alison; Spector, J. Michael; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of systems science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Alexander Christakis, Debora Hammond, Michael Jackson, Alexander Laszlo, Ian Mitroff, Dave…

  7. Marine Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    J O U R N A L O F. Marine Science. Coral reefs of Mauritius in a changing global climate ..... in confined aquifers, and a lesser influence in uncon- fined systems. On the ... massive cloud cover during the critical months, some. 70% bleaching ...

  8. Science Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G. W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Provides a reading list for A- and S-level biology. Contains several experiments and demonstrations with topics on: the intestine, bullock corneal cells, valences, the science of tea, automated hydrolysis, electronics characteristics, bromine diffusion, enthalpy of vaporization determination, thermometers, pendulums, hovercraft, Bernoulli fluid…

  9. Cognitive Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocking, Rodney R.; Mestre, Jose P.

    The focus of this paper is on cognitive science as a model for understanding the application of human skills toward effective problem-solving. Sections include: (1) "Introduction" (discussing information processing framework, expert-novice distinctions, schema theory, and learning process); (2) "Application: The Expert-Novice…

  10. Materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    the document is a collection of papers on different aspects of materials science. It discusses many items such as semiconductors, surface properties and interfaces, construction and civil engineering, metallic materials, polymers and composites, biology and biomaterials, metallurgy etc.. - 1 - Document1 Document1

  11. Science Smiles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Page 1. Science Smiles. RKLaxman. I bought the plot to build my office. But the activists would not let me touch anything lest it should upset the ecological balance here. R -E-SO-N-A-N-C-E -, -Fe-b-ru-ary-19-9-S -----~-------------

  12. Actuarial Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Bette

    1982-01-01

    Details are provided of a program on actuarial training developed at the State University of New York (SUNY) at Binghamton through the Department of Mathematical Sciences. An outline of its operation, including a few statistics on students in the program, is included. (MP)

  13. Organizational Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beriwal, Madhu; Clegg, Stewart; Collopy, Fred; McDaniel, Reuben, Jr.; Morgan, Gareth; Sutcliffe, Kathleen; Kaufman, Roger; Marker, Anthony; Selwyn, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of organizational science, broadly defined as including many fields--organizational behavior and development, management, workplace performance, and so on--were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might…

  14. Subterranean science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paling, Sean; Sadler, Stephen

    2015-05-01

    The deep underground laboratories of the world are no longer the scientific realm of astroparticle physics alone. From Mars rovers to muon tomography, and from radioactive dating to astrobiology, Sean Paling and Stephen Sadler describe the renaissance in the science taking place far beneath our feet.

  15. Wyndham Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messel, H.

    Described is the Wyndham science component of the program designed for the six years of secondary schooling for students in New South Wales, Australia. A subjective evaluation of the program and suggestions for improving course materials and teaching are given. There are six major sections in the report: (1) a general outline of the structure and…

  16. Science and anti-science

    CERN Document Server

    Holton, Gerald

    1997-01-01

    What is good science? What goal--if any--is the proper end of scientific activity? Is there a legitimating authority that scientists mayclaim? Howserious athreat are the anti-science movements? These questions have long been debated but, as Gerald Holton points out, every era must offer its own responses. This book examines these questions not in the abstract but shows their historic roots and the answers emerging from the scientific and political controversies of this century. Employing the case-study method and the concept of scientific thematathat he has pioneered, Holton displays the broad scope of his insight into the workings of science: from the influence of Ernst Mach on twentiethcentury physicists, biologists, psychologists, and other thinkers to the rhetorical strategies used in the work of Albert Einstein, Niels Bohr, and others; from the bickering between Thomas Jefferson and the U.S. Congress over the proper form of federal sponsorship of scientific research to philosophical debates since Oswald...

  17. Caring Science or Science of Caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkel, Marian C; Watson, Jean; Giovannoni, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    The concepts caring science and science of caring have different meanings; however, they are often used interchangeably. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the synthesis of the scholarly literature on the definitions of the science of caring and caring science and to affirm the authors' perspective relating to the language of caring science. Caring science advances the epistemology and ontology of caring. Ideas related to caring science inquiry are presented, and the authors acknowledge the future of caring science as unitary caring science.

  18. Portraying Real Science in Science Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Esther M.

    2011-01-01

    In both formal and informal settings, not only science but also views on the nature of science are communicated. Although there probably is no singular nature shared by all fields of science, in the field of science education it is commonly assumed that on a certain level of generality there is a consensus on many features of science. In this…

  19. Interfacial and Surface Science | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science group within the Material Science Center. He oversees research studies of surfaces and interfaces Interfacial and Surface Science Interfacial and Surface Science Image of irregular-outlined, light address a broad range of fundamental and applied issues in surface and interfacial science that are

  20. Composing Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Leslie

    2015-03-01

    The course Scientific Inquiry at California State University was developed by faculty in biology, physics and English to meet ``writing proficiency'' requirements for non-science majors. Drawing from previous work in composition studies, the position that we take in this course is that we should be engaging students in writing that replicates the work that writing does in science, rather than replicating the particular structural conventions characteristic of scientific writing. That is, scientists use writing to have, remember, share, vet, challenge, and stabilize ideas, and our course requires students use writing to achieve those aims, rather than produce writing that obeys particular conventions of scientific writing. This talk will describe how we have integrated findings from composition studies with a course on scientific inquiry, and provide examples of how scientific communication has resulted from this dialogue. Funding by NSF #1140860.

  1. Computer sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul H.

    1988-01-01

    The Computer Science Program provides advanced concepts, techniques, system architectures, algorithms, and software for both space and aeronautics information sciences and computer systems. The overall goal is to provide the technical foundation within NASA for the advancement of computing technology in aerospace applications. The research program is improving the state of knowledge of fundamental aerospace computing principles and advancing computing technology in space applications such as software engineering and information extraction from data collected by scientific instruments in space. The program includes the development of special algorithms and techniques to exploit the computing power provided by high performance parallel processors and special purpose architectures. Research is being conducted in the fundamentals of data base logic and improvement techniques for producing reliable computing systems.

  2. Materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The Materials Science Division is engaged in research on physical properties of materials and the effects of radiation upon them. This involves solid state materials undergoing phase transitions, energy storing materials, and biomaterials. The Division also offers research facilities for M.S. and Ph.D. thesis work in the fields of physics, chemistry, materials, and radiation sciences in cooperation with the various colleges and departments of the UPR Mayaguez Campus. It is anticipated that it will serve as a catalyst in starting energy-related research programs in cooperation with UPR faculty, especially programs involving solar energy. To encourage and promote cooperative efforts, contact is maintained with former graduate students and with visiting scientists from Latin American research institutions

  3. Emulating Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro, Larissa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article compares forms of visual argumentation in the scientific study of evolution and Young-Earth Creationism, arguing that secular forms of scientific representation have affected the way creationists visually construct their own. In order to affirm their view of the origin of the universe, creationists borrow from, mimic, and ultimately emulate the techniques, or at least the appearance, of scientific method and reasoning. The use of the word “emulation” is very deliberate since their aim is to match and surpass a rival scientific paradigm – evolution. The sermon preached by the design of the Creation Museum in Petersburg, Kentucky, is not content simply to look like science, but aims to do science that is affirmed by the Scriptures.

  4. Fictitious Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Science and Technology (S&T), like Research and Development (R&D), has become a case of capital investment like any other economic sector. This has distanced R&D from social needs, to the extent that part of R&D ends up actually being fictitious, in the sense that it acquires a price on the market but never becomes part of material…

  5. Material Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Dong Yeon; Kim, Heung

    1987-08-15

    This book introduces material science, which includes key of a high-tech industry, new materials of dream like new metal material and semiconductor, classification of materials, microstructure of materials and characteristic. It mentions magic new materials such as shape memory alloy, fine ceramics, engineering fine ceramics, electronic ceramics, engineering plastic, glass, silicone conductor, optical fiber mixed materials and integrated circuit, challenge for new material and development of new materials.

  6. Material Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Dong Yeon; Kim, Heung

    1987-08-01

    This book introduces material science, which includes key of a high-tech industry, new materials of dream like new metal material and semiconductor, classification of materials, microstructure of materials and characteristic. It mentions magic new materials such as shape memory alloy, fine ceramics, engineering fine ceramics, electronic ceramics, engineering plastic, glass, silicone conductor, optical fiber mixed materials and integrated circuit, challenge for new material and development of new materials.

  7. Mechanical science

    CERN Document Server

    Bolton, W C

    2013-01-01

    This book gives comprehensive coverage of mechanical science for HNC/HND students taking mechanical engineering courses, including all topics likely to be covered in both years of such courses, as well as for first year undergraduate courses in mechanical engineering. It features 500 problems with answers and 200 worked examples. The third edition includes a new section on power transmission and an appendix on mathematics to help students with the basic notation of calculus and solution of differential equations.

  8. Health Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    McEntyre, Johanna; Swan, Alma; Meier zu Verl, Christian; Horstmann, Wolfram

    2011-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of research data management in the health sciences, primarily focused upon the sort of data curated by the European Bioinformatics Institute and similar organisations. In this field, data management is well-advanced, with a sophisticated infrastructure created and maintained by the community for the benefit of all. These advances have been brought about because the field has been data-intense for many years and has been driven by the challenges biology fac...

  9. Preservice Science Teachers' Science Teaching Orientations and Beliefs about Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers clarification of science teacher orientations as a potential component of pedagogical content knowledge. Science teaching orientations and beliefs about science held by 237 preservice science teachers were gathered via content-specific vignettes and questionnaire, respectively, prior to participation in a UK-based teacher…

  10. Specialized science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadevall, Arturo; Fang, Ferric C

    2014-04-01

    As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism.

  11. Communicating Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, G. J.; McCaffrey, M. S.; Kiehl, J. T.; Schmidt, C.

    2010-12-01

    We are in an era of rapidly changing communication media, which is driving a major evolution in the modes of communicating science. In the past, a mainstay of scientific communication in popular media was through science “translators”; science journalists and presenters. These have now nearly disappeared and are being replaced by widespread dissemination through, e.g., the internet, blogs, YouTube and journalists who often have little scientific background and sharp deadlines. Thus, scientists are required to assume increasing responsibility for translating their scientific findings and calibrating their communications to non-technical audiences, a task for which they are often ill prepared, especially when it comes to controversial societal issues such as tobacco, evolution, and most recently climate change (Oreskes and Conway 2010). Such issues have been politicized and hi-jacked by ideological belief systems to such an extent that constructive dialogue is often impossible. Many scientists are excellent communicators, to their peers. But this requires careful attention to detail and logical explanation, open acknowledgement of uncertainties, and dispassionate delivery. These qualities become liabilities when communicating to a non-scientific audience where entertainment, attention grabbing, 15 second sound bites, and self assuredness reign (e.g. Olson 2009). Here we report on a program initiated by NCAR and UCAR to develop new approaches to science communication and to equip present and future scientists with the requisite skills. If we start from a sound scientific finding with general scientific consensus, such as the warming of the planet by greenhouse gases, then the primary emphasis moves from the “science” to the “art” of communication. The art cannot have free reign, however, as there remains a strong requirement for objectivity, honesty, consistency, and above all a resistance to advocating particular policy positions. Targeting audience

  12. Materials Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The Materials Science Program is structured so that NASA s headquarters is responsible for the program content and selection, through the Enterprise Scientist, and MSFC provides for implementation of ground and flight programs with a Discipline Scientist and Discipline Manager. The Discipline Working Group of eminent scientists from outside of NASA acts in an advisory capacity and writes the Discipline Document from which the NRA content is derived. The program is reviewed approximately every three years by groups such as the Committee on Microgravity Research, the National Materials Advisory Board, and the OBPR Maximization and Prioritization (ReMaP) Task Force. The flight program has had as many as twenty-six principal investigators (PIs) in flight or flight definition stage, with the numbers of PIs in the future dependent on the results of the ReMaP Task Force and internal reviews. Each project has a NASA-appointed Project Scientist, considered a half-time job, who assists the PI in understanding and preparing for internal reviews such as the Science Concept Review and Requirements Definition Review. The Project Scientist also insures that the PI gets the maximum science support from MSFC, represents the PI to the MSFC community, and collaborates with the Project Manager to insure the project is well-supported and remains vital. Currently available flight equipment includes the Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) and Microgravity Science Glovebox. Ground based projects fall into one or more of several categories. Intellectual Underpinning of Flight Program projects include theoretical studies backed by modeling and computer simulations; bring to maturity new research, often by young researchers, and may include preliminary short duration low gravity experiments in the KC-135 aircraft or drop tube; enable characterization of data sets from previous flights; and provide thermophysical property determinations to aid PIs. Radiation Shielding and preliminary In

  13. African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... The African Crop Science Journal, a quarterly publication, publishes original ... interactions, information science, environmental science and soil science.

  14. Design and Implementation of Data Reduction Pipelines for the Keck Observatory Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelino, C. R.; Berriman, G. B.; Kong, M.; Laity, A. C.; Swain, M. A.; Campbell, R.; Goodrich, R. W.; Holt, J.; Lyke, J.; Mader, J. A.; Tran, H. D.; Barlow, T.

    2015-09-01

    The Keck Observatory Archive (KOA), a collaboration between the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute and the W. M. Keck Observatory, serves science and calibration data for all active and inactive instruments from the twin Keck Telescopes located near the summit of Mauna Kea, Hawaii. In addition to the raw data, we produce and provide quick look reduced data for four instruments (HIRES, LWS, NIRC2, and OSIRIS) so that KOA users can more easily assess the scientific content and the quality of the data, which can often be difficult with raw data. The reduced products derive from both publicly available data reduction packages (when available) and KOA-created reduction scripts. The automation of publicly available data reduction packages has the benefit of providing a good quality product without the additional time and expense of creating a new reduction package, and is easily applied to bulk processing needs. The downside is that the pipeline is not always able to create an ideal product, particularly for spectra, because the processing options for one type of target (eg., point sources) may not be appropriate for other types of targets (eg., extended galaxies and nebulae). In this poster we present the design and implementation for the current pipelines used at KOA and discuss our strategies for handling data for which the nature of the targets and the observers' scientific goals and data taking procedures are unknown. We also discuss our plans for implementing automated pipelines for the remaining six instruments.

  15. Environmental conditions associated with lesions in introduced free-ranging sheep in Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jenny G.; Duncan, Colleen G.; Spraker, Terry R.; Schuler, Bridget A.; Hess, Steven C.; Faford, Jonathan K.J.; Sin, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Wildlife species which have been translocated between temperate and tropical regions of the world provide unique opportunities to understand how disease processes may be affected by environmental conditions. European mouflon sheep (Ovis gmelini musimon) from the Mediterranean Islands were introduced to the Hawaiian Islands for sport hunting beginning in 1954 and were subsequently hybridized with feral domestic sheep (O. aries), which had been introduced in 1793. Three isolated mouflon populations have become established in the Hawaiian Islands but diseases in these populations have been little studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare gross and histologic lesions in respiratory, renal, and hepatic systems of free-ranging sheep in two isolated volcanic environments on Hawai‘i Island. Tissue and fecal samples were collected in conjunction with population reductions during February 2011. We found gross or histologic evidence of lungworm infection in 44/49 sheep from Mauna Loa which were exposed to gaseous emissions from Kīlauea Volcano. In contrast, only 7/50 sheep from Mauna Kea had lesions consistent with lungworm, but Mauna Kea sheep had significantly more upper respiratory tract inflammation and hyperplasia consistent with chronic antigenic stimulation, possibly associated with exposure to fine airborne particulates during extended drought conditions. We hypothesize that gasses from Kīlauea Volcano contributed to severity of respiratory disease principally associated with chronic lungworm infections at Mauna Loa; however, there were numerous other potentially confounding environmental factors and interactions that merit further investigation.

  16. Life sciences and environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The DOE laboratories play a unique role in bringing multidisciplinary talents -- in biology, physics, chemistry, computer sciences, and engineering -- to bear on major problems in the life and environmental sciences. Specifically, the laboratories utilize these talents to fulfill OHER's mission of exploring and mitigating the health and environmental effects of energy use, and of developing health and medical applications of nuclear energy-related phenomena. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) support of this mission is evident across the spectrum of OHER-sponsored research, especially in the broad areas of genomics, structural biology, basic cell and molecular biology, carcinogenesis, energy and environment, applications to biotechnology, and molecular, nuclear and radiation medicine. These research areas are briefly described.

  17. Life sciences and environmental sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The DOE laboratories play a unique role in bringing multidisciplinary talents -- in biology, physics, chemistry, computer sciences, and engineering -- to bear on major problems in the life and environmental sciences. Specifically, the laboratories utilize these talents to fulfill OHER`s mission of exploring and mitigating the health and environmental effects of energy use, and of developing health and medical applications of nuclear energy-related phenomena. At Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) support of this mission is evident across the spectrum of OHER-sponsored research, especially in the broad areas of genomics, structural biology, basic cell and molecular biology, carcinogenesis, energy and environment, applications to biotechnology, and molecular, nuclear and radiation medicine. These research areas are briefly described.

  18. National Science Bowl | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Bowl National Science Bowl The Department of Energy's Office of Science sponsors the National Science Bowl competition. This fun, fast-paced academic tournament tests the brainpower of middle and high school student teams on science and math topics. The National Science Bowl provides an

  19. National Science Teachers Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Resources Books, Articles, and More NSTA Press® NSTA Journals Science and Children Science Scope The Science Teacher Journal of College Science Teaching Connected Science Learning NSTA Learning Center Online Resources: Calendar, Freebies ... e-Newsletters NSTA Science Store New Releases Bestsellers Award Winners

  20. Do Gender-Science Stereotypes Predict Science Identification and Science Career Aspirations among Undergraduate Science Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundiff, Jessica L.; Vescio, Theresa K.; Loken, Eric; Lo, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The present research examined whether gender-science stereotypes were associated with science identification and, in turn, science career aspirations among women and men undergraduate science majors. More than 1,700 students enrolled in introductory science courses completed measures of gender-science stereotypes (implicit associations and…

  1. Island of Hawaii, State of Hawaii seen from Skylab

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A vertical view of the Island of Hawaii, State of Hawaii (19.5N, 155.5W), as photographed from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit by a Skylab 4 crewman. This photograph, taken on January 8, 1974, is very useful in studies of volcanic areas. Prominent volcanic features such as the summit caldera on Mauna Loa, the extinct volcano Mauna Kea, the Kilauea caldera, and the pit crater at Halo Mau Mau within the caldera are easily identified. Kilauea was undergoing frequent eruption during the mission. Detailed features such as the extent and delineation of historic lava flows on Mauna Loa can be determined and are important parameters in volcanic studies.

  2. Soviet science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, Z.A.

    1979-01-01

    In this brief history of science in the Soviet Union the emphasis is on the interaction between scientific and technological developments and the political objectives of the Soviet government Reference is made to the development of nuclear energy for military and for peaceful purposes. In an appendix, a rather detailed account is given of a 'nuclear disaster in the South Urals area'; reference is made to ecological, genetic and population researches in the areas contaminated by long-lived products of radioactive waste (e.g. Sr-90 and Cs-137). Section headings are: lakes; mammals; population genetics and radiation genetics (covering plants, animals and soil activity). (U.K.)

  3. Science commons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    SCP: Creative Commons licensing for open access publishing, Open Access Law journal-author agreements for converting journals to open access, and the Scholar's Copyright Addendum Engine for retaining rights to self-archive in meaningful formats and locations for future re-use. More than 250 science and technology journals already publish under Creative Commons licensing while 35 law journals utilize the Open Access Law agreements. The Addendum Engine is a new tool created in partnership with SPARC and U.S. universities. View John Wilbanks's biography

  4. Science toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    "I have a low boredom threshold," Tim Rowett explains, ushering in my son Alex and me. Rowett is a jovial, professorishlooking man with wire-rimmed glasses and a short, white beard. Alex and I have gone to his flat in Twickenham, on the edge of London, to see his collection of fun stuff - jokes, games, puzzles and other toys related to science. When I ask what they have in common, Rowett has a ready, if not illuminating, answer: "They're just things that make people go 'Wow!'."

  5. Science blogging

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Christie

    2016-01-01

    Here is the essential how-to guide for communicating scientific research and discoveries online, ideal for journalists, researchers, and public information officers looking to reach a wide lay audience. Drawing on the cumulative experience of twenty-seven of the greatest minds in scientific communication, this invaluable handbook targets the specific questions and concerns of the scientific community, offering help in a wide range of digital areas, including blogging, creating podcasts, tweeting, and more. With step-by-step guidance and one-stop expertise, this is the book every scientist, science writer, and practitioner needs to approach the Wild West of the Web with knowledge and confidence.

  6. Science Night

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Would it surprise you to know that you can measure the speed of light using chocolate and a microwave oven? If you're interested in this and in finding out much more, come along to the Museum of the History of Science on 3 and 4 July 2004, when dozens of companies, institutions, colleges and organizations will be running exhibits, shows, and displays on the theme of counting and measuring. CERN will be there with a display stand that includes two particle detectors. Full details are available from the Museum website at: http://www.lanuitdelascience.ch/

  7. Catholic Science

    OpenAIRE

    Laplanche, François

    2008-01-01

    My research is a prolongation of a book published in 1994 by Albin Michel entitled La Bible en France entre mythe et critique (The Bible in France between myth and criticism). This book examined the birth of “Catholic Science” following de Lamennais. The forthcoming book will deal with the possible and unpredictable demise of this science. The period described covers the turn of the century (the crisis of modernism) to the 1970s, when the publication of several works that marked a pause in th...

  8. Nanomaterials science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinrich Rohrer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The nanometer regime covers the transition from condensed matter behavior to atomic and molecular properties and thus is a very rich but also very demanding area in materials science. Close to the condensed matter side, properties and functions might still very well be scalable, whereas close to the atomic and molecular side, the scalability is mostly lost. Properties and functions change qualitatively or quantitatively by orders of magnitude when the dimensions become smaller than a critical size in the nanometer range. Examples are the ballistic regime for electron or spin transport at dimensions below the mean free path, near-field effects in scanning near-field optical microscopy and quantum wells when the dimensions are below an appropriate wavelength, novel electronic, mechanical, and chemical properties when the number of bulk atoms becomes smaller than that of surface atoms, quantum conduction, and Coulomb blockade. Thus, by going below a certain size, an abundance of novel properties and functions are at one's disposal, or, in other words, we can functionalize materials simply by reducing their size to the nanoscale.The key to the future lies in the functions that we give to materials, not just in finding 'novel functional materials'. This catch expression in many materials science programs and initiatives of the past two decades sounds great, but it is not what really counts. All materials are functional in one way or another and, therefore, all new materials are 'novel functional materials'. Certainly, finding new materials is always an important part of progress, but we should also focus on the much larger domain of novel functions that we can give to existing or modified materials. A good example is semiconductors: they are fifty or more years old and their properties are very well known, but they were not of widespread interest and use until the transistor changed their destiny into being the central material in the information

  9. Enacting science

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Anthony Leo

    My study examines the development of forms of knowing that arise when students engage in open-ended explorations involving self-directed design and building involving simple materials. It is grounded in an enactivist theoretical perspective on cognition which holds that the creation of action-thought processes for engaging the world is interwoven with the meanings that are constructed for these experiences. A dynamic conception of persons-acting-in-a-setting is fundamental to an enactivist view of cognition. How is understanding enacted in building activity? How does the shape of a problem emerge? How do students enact meaning and understanding when they experience a high degree of physical engagement in building things? What are some characteristics of an enactive learning/teaching environment? My research settings comprise a range of individual, group and classroom engagements of varying lengths over a three and one-half year period. The first research episode involved two grade eight students in an investigation of Paper Towels. The second four month engagement was in a grade nine science class that culminated in the building of a Solar House. The third grade ten episode involved a one month project to build a Mousetrap Powered Car. A fourth Invent a Machine project was conducted in two grade eight science classes taught by the teacher who participated in the Solar House project. Two students were present in three of the four projects. I interviewed one of these students upon completion of his high school physics courses. I found that building is a form of thinking which develops competency in managing complex practical tasks. A triadic relationship of exploration, planning and acting is present. Practical and procedural understandings emerge as students enter and re-enter self-directed problem settings. Thinking patterns depend on the kinds of materials chosen, the ways they are used, and on how students contextualize the problem. Classroom assessment

  10. FOREWORD Nanomaterials science Nanomaterials science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, Heinrich

    2010-10-01

    The nanometer regime covers the transition from condensed matter behavior to atomic and molecular properties and thus is a very rich but also very demanding area in materials science. Close to the condensed matter side, properties and functions might still very well be scalable, whereas close to the atomic and molecular side, the scalability is mostly lost. Properties and functions change qualitatively or quantitatively by orders of magnitude when the dimensions become smaller than a critical size in the nanometer range. Examples are the ballistic regime for electron or spin transport at dimensions below the mean free path, near-field effects in scanning near-field optical microscopy and quantum wells when the dimensions are below an appropriate wavelength, novel electronic, mechanical, and chemical properties when the number of bulk atoms becomes smaller than that of surface atoms, quantum conduction, and Coulomb blockade. Thus, by going below a certain size, an abundance of novel properties and functions are at one's disposal, or, in other words, we can functionalize materials simply by reducing their size to the nanoscale. The key to the future lies in the functions that we give to materials, not just in finding 'novel functional materials'. This catch expression in many materials science programs and initiatives of the past two decades sounds great, but it is not what really counts. All materials are functional in one way or another and, therefore, all new materials are 'novel functional materials'. Certainly, finding new materials is always an important part of progress, but we should also focus on the much larger domain of novel functions that we can give to existing or modified materials. A good example is semiconductors: they are fifty or more years old and their properties are very well known, but they were not of widespread interest and use until the transistor changed their destiny into being the central material in the information technology revolution

  11. Penguin Bank: A Loa-Trend Hawaiian Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G.; Blichert-Toft, J.; Clague, D. A.; Cousens, B.; Frey, F. A.; Moore, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    Hawaiian volcanoes along the Hawaiian Ridge from Molokai Island in the northwest to the Big Island in the southeast, define two parallel trends of volcanoes known as the Loa and Kea spatial trends. In general, lavas erupted along these two trends have distinctive geochemical characteristics that have been used to define the spatial distribution of geochemical heterogeneities in the Hawaiian plume (e.g., Abouchami et al., 2005). These geochemical differences are well established for the volcanoes forming the Big Island. The longevity of the Loa- Kea geochemical differences can be assessed by studying East and West Molokai volcanoes and Penguin Bank which form a volcanic ridge perpendicular to the Loa and Kea spatial trends. Previously we showed that East Molokai volcano (~1.5 Ma) is exclusively Kea-like and that West Molokai volcano (~1.8 Ma) includes lavas that are both Loa- and Kea-like (Xu et al., 2005 and 2007).The submarine Penguin Bank (~2.2 Ma), probably an independent volcano constructed west of West Molokai volcano, should be dominantly Loa-like if the systematic Loa and Kea geochemical differences were present at ~2.2 Ma. We have studied 20 samples from Penguin Bank including both submarine and subaerially-erupted lavas recovered by dive and dredging. All lavas are tholeiitic basalt representing shield-stage lavas. Trace element ratios, such as Sr/Nb and Zr/Nb, and isotopic ratios of Sr and Nd clearly are Loa-like. On an ɛNd-ɛHf plot, Penguin Bank lavas fall within the field defined by Mauna Loa lavas. Pb isotopic data lie near the Loa-Kea boundary line defined by Abouchami et al. (2005). In conclusion, we find that from NE to SW, i.e., perpendicular to the Loa and Kea spatial trend, there is a shift from Kea-like East Molokai lavas to Loa-like Penguin Bank lavas with the intermediate West Molokai volcano having lavas with both Loa- and Kea-like geochemical features. Therefore, the Loa and Kea geochemical dichotomy exhibited by Big Island volcanoes

  12. Supercomputational science

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, S

    1990-01-01

    In contemporary research, the supercomputer now ranks, along with radio telescopes, particle accelerators and the other apparatus of "big science", as an expensive resource, which is nevertheless essential for state of the art research. Supercomputers are usually provided as shar.ed central facilities. However, unlike, telescopes and accelerators, they are find a wide range of applications which extends across a broad spectrum of research activity. The difference in performance between a "good" and a "bad" computer program on a traditional serial computer may be a factor of two or three, but on a contemporary supercomputer it can easily be a factor of one hundred or even more! Furthermore, this factor is likely to increase with future generations of machines. In keeping with the large capital and recurrent costs of these machines, it is appropriate to devote effort to training and familiarization so that supercomputers are employed to best effect. This volume records the lectures delivered at a Summer School ...

  13. Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    microscopy and imaging science, interfacial and surface science, materials discovery, and thin-film material Science Materials Science Illustration with bottom row showing a ball-and-stick model and top row dense black band. State-of-the-art advances in materials science come from a combination of experiments

  14. Team science for science communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; Strauss, Benjamin H

    2014-09-16

    Natural scientists from Climate Central and social scientists from Carnegie Mellon University collaborated to develop science communications aimed at presenting personalized coastal flood risk information to the public. We encountered four main challenges: agreeing on goals; balancing complexity and simplicity; relying on data, not intuition; and negotiating external pressures. Each challenge demanded its own approach. We navigated agreement on goals through intensive internal communication early on in the project. We balanced complexity and simplicity through evaluation of communication materials for user understanding and scientific content. Early user test results that overturned some of our intuitions strengthened our commitment to testing communication elements whenever possible. Finally, we did our best to negotiate external pressures through regular internal communication and willingness to compromise.

  15. Photometric Study of Uranian Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesten, Philip R.

    1998-01-01

    The best summary of my work at NASA is expressed in the following abstract, submitted the Division for Planetary Science of the American Astronomical Society and to be presented at the annual meeting in Madison in October. We report photometric measurements of Uranian satellites Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel and Titania (10.4 Aug. 1995), and Neptune's satellite Triton (21.2 Sept. 1995) with the infrared camera (IRCAM) and standard J (1.13 - 1.42 microns), H (1.53 - 1.81 microns), and K (2.00 - 2.41 microns) filters at the 3.8-m UKIRT telescope on Mauna Kea. The individual images frames are 256 x 256 pixels with a platescale of .286 arcsec/pixel, resulting in a 1.22 arc min field of view. This summer brought the IR photometry measurements nearly to a close. As indicated by the abstract above, I will present this work at the annual DPS meeting in October. In anticipation of the opening of the new Carl Sagan Laboratory for Cosmochemisty, of which I will be a participating member, I also devoted a considerable fraction of the summer to learning the biochemistry which underlies the experiments to be conducted. To put the end of the summary close to the beginning, it was a most productive summer.

  16. The Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI): A Powerful New Integral Field Spectrograph for the Keck Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Patrick; KCWI Team

    2013-01-01

    The Keck Cosmic Web Imager (KCWI) is a new facility instrument being developed for the W. M. Keck Observatory and funded for construction by the Telescope System Instrumentation Program (TSIP) of the National Science Foundation (NSF). KCWI is a bench-mounted spectrograph for the Keck II right Nasmyth focal station, providing integral field spectroscopy over a seeing-limited field up to 20"x33" in extent. Selectable Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings provide high efficiency and spectral resolution in the range of 1000 to 20000. The dual-beam design of KCWI passed a Preliminary Design Review in summer 2011. The detailed design of the KCWI blue channel (350 to 700 nm) is now nearly complete, with the red channel (530 to 1050 nm) planned for a phased implementation contingent upon additional funding. KCWI builds on the experience of the Caltech team in implementing the Cosmic Web Imager (CWI), in operation since 2009 at Palomar Observatory. KCWI adds considerable flexibility to the CWI design, and will take full advantage of the excellent seeing and dark sky above Mauna Kea with a selectable nod-and-shuffle observing mode. The KCWI team is lead by Caltech (project management, design and implementation) in partnership with the University of California at Santa Cruz (camera optical and mechanical design) and the W. M. Keck Observatory (program oversight and observatory interfaces).

  17. Development of a state machine sequencer for the Keck Interferometer: evolution, development, and lessons learned using a CASE tool approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Leonard J.; Booth, Andrew; Hsieh, Jonathan; Summers, Kellee R.

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the evolution of a sequencer from a simple Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) based sequencer into a complex implementation designed utilizing UML (Unified Modeling Language) methodologies and a Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) tool approach. The main purpose of the Interferometer Sequencer (called the IF Sequencer) is to provide overall control of the Keck Interferometer to enable science operations to be carried out by a single operator (and/or observer). The interferometer links the two 10m telescopes of the W. M. Keck Observatory at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The IF Sequencer is a high-level, multi-threaded, Harel finite state machine software program designed to orchestrate several lower-level hardware and software hard real-time subsystems that must perform their work in a specific and sequential order. The sequencing need not be done in hard real-time. Each state machine thread commands either a high-speed real-time multiple mode embedded controller via CORBA, or slower controllers via EPICS Channel Access interfaces. The overall operation of the system is simplified by the automation. The UML is discussed and our use of it to implement the sequencer is presented. The decision to use the Rhapsody product as our CASE tool is explained and reflected upon. Most importantly, a section on lessons learned is presented and the difficulty of integrating CASE tool automatically generated C++ code into a large control system consisting of multiple infrastructures is presented.

  18. The Hyper Suprime-Cam SSP Survey: Overview and survey design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aihara, Hiroaki; Arimoto, Nobuo; Armstrong, Robert; Arnouts, Stéphane; Bahcall, Neta A.; Bickerton, Steven; Bosch, James; Bundy, Kevin; Capak, Peter L.; Chan, James H. H.; Chiba, Masashi; Coupon, Jean; Egami, Eiichi; Enoki, Motohiro; Finet, Francois; Fujimori, Hiroki; Fujimoto, Seiji; Furusawa, Hisanori; Furusawa, Junko; Goto, Tomotsugu; Goulding, Andy; Greco, Johnny P.; Greene, Jenny E.; Gunn, James E.; Hamana, Takashi; Harikane, Yuichi; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Hattori, Takashi; Hayashi, Masao; Hayashi, Yusuke; Hełminiak, Krzysztof G.; Higuchi, Ryo; Hikage, Chiaki; Ho, Paul T. P.; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Huang, Kuiyun; Huang, Song; Ikeda, Hiroyuki; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Inoue, Akio K.; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Iwata, Ikuru; Jaelani, Anton T.; Jian, Hung-Yu; Kamata, Yukiko; Karoji, Hiroshi; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Katayama, Nobuhiko; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Kayo, Issha; Koda, Jin; Koike, Michitaro; Kojima, Takashi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Konno, Akira; Koshida, Shintaro; Koyama, Yusei; Kusakabe, Haruka; Leauthaud, Alexie; Lee, Chien-Hsiu; Lin, Lihwai; Lin, Yen-Ting; Lupton, Robert H.; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Medezinski, Elinor; Mineo, Sogo; Miyama, Shoken; Miyatake, Hironao; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Momose, Rieko; More, Anupreeta; More, Surhud; Moritani, Yuki; Moriya, Takashi J.; Morokuma, Tomoki; Mukae, Shiro; Murata, Ryoma; Murayama, Hitoshi; Nagao, Tohru; Nakata, Fumiaki; Niida, Mana; Niikura, Hiroko; Nishizawa, Atsushi J.; Obuchi, Yoshiyuki; Oguri, Masamune; Oishi, Yukie; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Okamoto, Sakurako; Okura, Yuki; Ono, Yoshiaki; Onodera, Masato; Onoue, Masafusa; Osato, Ken; Ouchi, Masami; Price, Paul A.; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Sako, Masao; Sawicki, Marcin; Shibuya, Takatoshi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Shimono, Atsushi; Shirasaki, Masato; Silverman, John D.; Simet, Melanie; Speagle, Joshua; Spergel, David N.; Strauss, Michael A.; Sugahara, Yuma; Sugiyama, Naoshi; Suto, Yasushi; Suyu, Sherry H.; Suzuki, Nao; Tait, Philip J.; Takada, Masahiro; Takata, Tadafumi; Tamura, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Manobu M.; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tanaka, Yoko; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Terashima, Yuichi; Toba, Yoshiki; Tominaga, Nozomu; Toshikawa, Jun; Turner, Edwin L.; Uchida, Tomohisa; Uchiyama, Hisakazu; Umetsu, Keiichi; Uraguchi, Fumihiro; Urata, Yuji; Usuda, Tomonori; Utsumi, Yousuke; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Wang, Wei-Hao; Wong, Kenneth C.; Yabe, Kiyoto; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Yamanoi, Hitomi; Yasuda, Naoki; Yeh, Sherry; Yonehara, Atsunori; Yuma, Suraphong

    2018-01-01

    Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) is a wide-field imaging camera on the prime focus of the 8.2-m Subaru telescope on the summit of Mauna Kea in Hawaii. A team of scientists from Japan, Taiwan, and Princeton University is using HSC to carry out a 300-night multi-band imaging survey of the high-latitude sky. The survey includes three layers: the Wide layer will cover 1400 deg2 in five broad bands (grizy), with a 5 σ point-source depth of r ≈ 26. The Deep layer covers a total of 26 deg2 in four fields, going roughly a magnitude fainter, while the UltraDeep layer goes almost a magnitude fainter still in two pointings of HSC (a total of 3.5 deg2). Here we describe the instrument, the science goals of the survey, and the survey strategy and data processing. This paper serves as an introduction to a special issue of the Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan, which includes a large number of technical and scientific papers describing results from the early phases of this survey.

  19. Marine Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    PNL research in the marine sciences is focused on establishing a basic understanding of the mechanisms of stress and tolerance in marine organisms exposed to contaminants. Several environmental stressors had been investigated in earlier energy-related research. In a landmark study, for example, PNL had established that the severity of fish disease caused by the common infectious agent, Flexobacter columnaris, was seriously aggravated by thermal enhancement and certain ecological factors. Subsequent studies demonstrated that the primary immune response in fish, challenged by columnaris, could be permanently suppressed by comparatively low tritium exposures. The research has suggested that a potential exists for a significant biological impact when an aquatic stressor is added to an ambient background of other stressors, which may include heat, heavy metal ions, radiation or infectious microorganisms. More recently, PNL investigators have shown that in response to heavy metal contaminants, animals synthesize specific proteins (metallothioneins), which bind and sequester metals in the animals, thus decreasing metal mobility and effects. Companion studies with host-specific intracellular pathogens are being used to investigate the effects of heavy metals on the synthesis of immune proteins, which mitigate disease processes. The results of these studies aid in predicting the ecological effects of energy-related contaminants on valued fin and shellfish species

  20. Astromaterial Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Matthew E.

    Recent work has used large scale molecular dynamics simulations to study the structures and phases of matter in the crusts of neutron stars, with an emphasis on applying techniques in material science to the study of astronomical objects. In the outer crust of an accreting neutron star, a mixture of heavy elements forms following an X-ray burst, which is buried and freezes. We will discuss the phase separation of this mixture, and the composition of the crust that forms. Additionally, calculations of the properties of the crust, such as diffusion coefficients and static structure factors, may be used to interpret observations. Deeper in the neutron star crust, at the base of the inner crust, nuclei are compressed until they touch and form structures which have come to be called 'nuclear pasta.' We study the phases of nuclear pasta with classical molecular dynamics simulations, and discuss how simulations at low density may be relevant to nucleosynthesis in neutron star mergers. Additionally, we discuss the structure factor of nuclear pasta and its impact on the properties of the crust, and use this to interpret observations of crust cooling in low mass X-ray binaries. Lastly, we discuss a correspondence between the structure of nuclear pasta and biophysics.

  1. Applications of Nuclear Science for Stewardship Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizewski, Jolie A

    2013-01-01

    Stewardship science is research important to national security interests that include stockpile stewardship science, homeland security, nuclear forensics, and non-proliferation. To help address challenges in stewardship science and workforce development, the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances (SSAA) was inaugurated ten years ago by the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U. S. Department of Energy. The goal was to enhance connections between NNSA laboratories and the activities of university scientists and their students in research areas important to NNSA, including low-energy nuclear science. This paper presents an overview of recent research in low-energy nuclear science supported by the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances and the applications of this research to stewardship science.

  2. Science meeting. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    the document is a collection of the science meeting abstracts in the fields of nuclear physics, medical sciences, chemistry, agriculture, environment, engineering, material sciences different aspects of energy and presents research done in 2000 in these fields

  3. Science, evolution, and creationism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Revising Science and Creationism

    ... are more comfortable. In the book Science, Evolution, and Creationism, a group of experts assembled by the National Academy of Sciences and the Institute of Medicine explain the fundamental methods of science, document...

  4. Rhetoric of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. Allen

    1991-01-01

    Places rhetoric of science in context with sociology, psychology, history, and philosophy of science. Generates a typology of concerns for rhetoric of science. Characterizes the central issues of the field. (RS)

  5. Genetic Science Learning Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic Science Learning Center Making science and health easy for everyone to understand Home News Our Team What We Do ... Collaboration Conferences Current Projects Publications Contact The Genetic Science Learning Center at The University of Utah is a ...

  6. 77 FR 55863 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Applied Sciences Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Committee; Earth Science Subcommittee; Applied Sciences Advisory Group Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics... the Applied Science Advisory Group. This Subcommittee reports to the Earth Science Subcommittee... following topics: --Applied Sciences Program Update --Earth Science Data Latency Study Preliminary Update...

  7. Cognitive science contributions to decision science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2015-02-01

    This article briefly reviews the history and interplay between decision theory, behavioral decision-making research, and cognitive psychology. The review reveals the increasingly important impact that psychology and cognitive science have on decision science. One of the main contributions of cognitive science to decision science is the development of dynamic models that describe the cognitive processes that underlay the evolution of preferences during deliberation phase of making a decision. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Science + Maths = A Better Understanding of Science!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwick, Andy; Clark, Kris

    2016-01-01

    Science and mathematics share a common purpose: to explore, understand and explain the pure beauty of our universe and how it works. Using mathematics in science enquiry can enhance children's understanding of science and also provide opportunities for children to apply their mathematical knowledge to "real" contexts. The authors…

  9. Computational Materials Science | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Computational Materials Science Computational Materials Science An image of interconnecting, sphere science capabilities span many research fields and interests. Electronic, Optical, and Transport Properties of Photovoltaic Materials Material properties and defect physics of Si, CdTe, III-V, CIGS, CZTS

  10. Common Earth Science Misconceptions in Science Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chris

    2012-01-01

    A survey of the Earth science content of science textbooks found a wide range of misconceptions. These are discussed in this article with reference to the published literature on Earth science misconceptions. Most misconceptions occurred in the "sedimentary rocks and processes" and "Earth's structure and plate tectonics"…

  11. Help | ScienceCinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    , Conversion, and Utilization Engineering Environmental Sciences Fission and Nuclear Technologies Fossil Fuels Geosciences Materials Science Mathematics Nanotechnology Nuclear Materials and Reactors Particle Accelerators

  12. What's science? Where's science? Science journalism in German print media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summ, Annika; Volpers, Anna-Maria

    2016-10-01

    This article examines the current state of science coverage in German print media. It deals with the following questions: (1) how the main characteristics of science journalism can be described, (2) whether there is a difference between various scientific fields, and (3) how different definitions of science journalism lead to differing findings. Two forms of science coverage were analyzed in a standardized, two-part content analysis of German newspapers (N = 1730 and N = 1640). The results show a significant difference between a narrow and a broad definition of science journalism. In the classic understanding, science journalism is prompted by scientific events and is rather noncritical. Science coverage in a broad sense is defined by a wider range of journalistic styles, driven by non-scientific events, and with a focus on the statements of scientific experts. Furthermore, the study describes the specific role of the humanities and social sciences in German science coverage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Science Olympiad students' nature of science understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpot, Cindy J.

    2007-12-01

    Recent reform efforts in science education focus on scientific literacy for all citizens. In order to be scientifically literate, an individual must have informed understandings of nature of science (NOS), scientific inquiry, and science content matter. This study specifically focused on Science Olympiad students' understanding of NOS as one piece of scientific literacy. Research consistently shows that science students do not have informed understandings of NOS (Abd-El-Khalick, 2002; Bell, Blair, Crawford, and Lederman, 2002; Kilcrease and Lucy, 2002; Schwartz, Lederman, and Thompson, 2001). However, McGhee-Brown, Martin, Monsaas and Stombler (2003) found that Science Olympiad students had in-depth understandings of science concepts, principles, processes, and techniques. Science Olympiad teams compete nationally and are found in rural, urban, and suburban schools. In an effort to learn from students who are generally considered high achieving students and who enjoy science, as opposed to the typical science student, the purpose of this study was to investigate Science Olympiad students' understandings of NOS and the experiences that formed their understandings. An interpretive, qualitative, case study method was used to address the research questions. The participants were purposefully and conveniently selected from the Science Olympiad team at a suburban high school. Data collection consisted of the Views of Nature of Science -- High School Questionnaire (VNOS-HS) (Schwartz, Lederman, & Thompson, 2001), semi-structured individual interviews, and a focus group. The main findings of this study were similar to much of the previous research in that the participants had informed understandings of the tentative nature of science and the role of inferences in science, but they did not have informed understandings of the role of human imagination and creativity, the empirical nature of science, or theories and laws. High level science classes and participation in

  14. Science to the People

    CERN Document Server

    Doswaldbeck, L; Brancati, D; Colombo, U; Coyaud, S; De Semir, V; Dupuy, G; Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Lecourt, D; Llewellyn Smith, Christopher Hubert; Mettan, G; Montagnier, L; Morrison, Douglas Robert Ogston; Rampini, F; Ting, Samuel C C; Ugo, R; Widman, A; CERN. Geneva

    1994-01-01

    Science & society : urgent topics Risk perception : Ringing the alarm bells Basic research : Understanding its relevance Science and Economics : Comparing puplic costs and puplic benefits Language(s) : Translating expert knowledge into common culture Science and ethics : Freedom of research and limits to its applications Science,Media & Society: A confrontation

  15. Project-Based Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcik, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Project-based science is an exciting way to teach science that aligns with the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS"). By focusing on core ideas along with practices and crosscutting concepts, classrooms become learning environments where teachers and students engage in science by designing and carrying out…

  16. Science Fiction & Scientific Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerneda, Julie E.

    2006-01-01

    The term "science fiction" has become synonymous, in the media at least, for any discovery in science too incredible or unexpected for the nonscientist to imagine. One of the most common classroom uses of science fiction is for students to pick out flaws in science fiction movies or television shows. Unfortunately, this approach can result in…

  17. Science in Cinema. Teaching Science Fact through Science Fiction Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubeck, Leroy W.; And Others

    Many feel that secondary school graduates are not prepared to compete in a world of rapidly expanding technology. High school and college students in the United States often prefer fantasy to science. This book offers a strategy for overcoming student apathy toward the physical sciences by harnessing the power of the cinema. In it, ten popular…

  18. Formative science and indicial science: epistemological proposal for information science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliany Alvarenga de Araújo

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Epistemological reflections on the Information Science as scientific field that if structure in the context of modern science, in theoretical and methodological terms and technologies of the information in applied terms. Such configuration made possible the sprouting of this science; however we consider that the same one will not guarantee to this science the full development as field of consistent and modern knowledge. Modern Science, while scientific practical vision and meets depleted and the information technologies are only auto-regulated mechanisms that function according to principles of automatisms. To leave of these considerations we propols the concept of Formative Science (Bachelard, 1996 and the Indiciario Paradigm (1991 with epistemological basis for the Information Science. The concept of formative science if a base on the principles of tree states of the scientific spirit and the psychological condition of the scientific progress and the indiciario paradigm it considers the intuição (empirical and rational as methodological base to make it scientific.

  19. The World of Science Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sheila

    1971-01-01

    Science fiction is discussed from the following standpoints: What Is Science Fiction?; The History of Science Fiction; and The Themes of Science Fiction. A list of films, books, and records about science fiction is given. (DB)

  20. Network science, nonlinear science and infrastructure systems

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Network Science, Nonlinear Science and Infrastructure Systems has been written by leading scholars in these areas. Its express purpose is to develop common theoretical underpinnings to better solve modern infrastructural problems. It is felt by many who work in these fields that many modern communication problems, ranging from transportation networks to telecommunications, Internet, supply chains, etc., are fundamentally infrastructure problems. Moreover, these infrastructure problems would benefit greatly from a confluence of theoretical and methodological work done with the areas of Network Science, Dynamical Systems and Nonlinear Science. This book is dedicated to the formulation of infrastructural tools that will better solve these types of infrastructural problems. .

  1. The 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar dating of lavas from the Hilo 1-km core hole, Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, W.D.; Turrin, B.D.; Renne, P.R.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Mauna Kea lava flows cored in the HilIo hole range in age from <200 ka to about 400 ka based on 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating and K-Ar analyses of 16 groundmass samples and one coexisting plagioclase. The lavas, all subaerially deposited, include a lower section consisting only of tholeiitic basalts and an upper section of interbedded alkalic, transitional tholeiitic, and tholeiitic basalts. The lower section has yielded predominantly complex, discordant 40Ar/39Ar age spectra that result from mobility of 40Ar and perhaps K, the presence of excess 40Ar, and redistribution of 39Ar by recoil. Comparison of K-Ar ages with 40Ar/39Ar integrated ages indicates that some of these samples have also lost 39Ar. Nevertheless, two plateau ages of 391 ?? 40 and 400 ?? 26 ka from deep in the hole, combined with data from the upper section, show that the tholeiitic section accumulated at an average rate of about 7 to 8 m/kyr and has an mean recurrence interval of 0.5 kyr/flow unit. Samples from the upper section yield relatively precise 40Ar/39Ar plateau and isotope correlation ages of 326 ?? 23, 241 ?? 5, 232 ?? 4, and 199 ?? 9 ka for depths of -415.7 m to -299.2 m. Within their uncertainty, these ages define a linear relationship with depth, with an average accumulation rate of 0.9 m/kyr and an average recurrence interval of 4.8 kyr/flow unit. The top of the Mauna Kea sequence at -280 m must be older than the plateau age of 132 ?? 32 ka, obtained for the basal Mauna Loa flow in the corehole. The upward decrease in lava accumulation rate is a consequence of the decreasing magma supply available to Mauna Kea as it rode the Pacific plate away from its magma source, the Hawaiian mantle plume. The age-depth relation in the core hole may be used to test and refine models that relate the growth of Mauna Kea to the thermal and compositional structure of the mantle plume.

  2. Informal science education at Science City

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, April Nicole

    The presentation of chemistry within informal learning environments, specifically science museums and science centers is very sparse. This work examines learning in Kansas City's Science City's Astronaut Training Center in order to identify specific behaviors associated with visitors' perception of learning and their attitudes toward space and science to develop an effective chemistry exhibit. Grounded in social-constructivism and the Contextual Model of Learning, this work approaches learning in informal environments as resulting from social interactions constructed over time from interaction between visitors. Visitors to the Astronaut Training Center were surveyed both during their visit and a year after the visit to establish their perceptions of behavior within the exhibit and attitudes toward space and science. Observations of visitor behavior and a survey of the Science City staff were used to corroborate visitor responses. Eighty-six percent of visitors to Science City indicated they had learned from their experiences in the Astronaut Training Center. No correlation was found between this perception of learning and visitor's interactions with exhibit stations. Visitor attitudes were generally positive toward learning in informal settings and space science as it was presented in the exhibit. Visitors also felt positively toward using video game technology as learning tools. This opens opportunities to developing chemistry exhibits using video technology to lessen the waste stream produced by a full scale chemistry exhibit.

  3. Teaching Science Fact with Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raham, R. Gary

    2004-01-01

    The literature of science fiction packs up the facts and discoveries of science and runs off to futures filled with both wonders and warnings. Kids love to take the journeys it offers for the thrill of the ride, but they can learn as they travel, too. This book will provide the reader with: (1) an overview of the past 500 years of scientific…

  4. Science & Engineering Indicators 2016. National Science Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Foundation, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Science and Engineering Indicators" (SEI) is first and foremost a volume of record comprising high-quality quantitative data on the U.S. and international science and engineering enterprise. SEI includes an overview and seven chapters that follow a generally consistent pattern. The chapter titles are as follows: (1) Elementary and…

  5. Democratizing data science through data science training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, John Darrell; Fierro, Lily; Kamdar, Jeana; Gordon, Jonathan; Stewart, Crystal; Bhattrai, Avnish; Abe, Sumiko; Lei, Xiaoxiao; O'Driscoll, Caroline; Sinha, Aakanchha; Jain, Priyambada; Burns, Gully; Lerman, Kristina; Ambite, José Luis

    2018-01-01

    The biomedical sciences have experienced an explosion of data which promises to overwhelm many current practitioners. Without easy access to data science training resources, biomedical researchers may find themselves unable to wrangle their own datasets. In 2014, to address the challenges posed such a data onslaught, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) launched the Big Data to Knowledge (BD2K) initiative. To this end, the BD2K Training Coordinating Center (TCC; bigdatau.org) was funded to facilitate both in-person and online learning, and open up the concepts of data science to the widest possible audience. Here, we describe the activities of the BD2K TCC and its focus on the construction of the Educational Resource Discovery Index (ERuDIte), which identifies, collects, describes, and organizes online data science materials from BD2K awardees, open online courses, and videos from scientific lectures and tutorials. ERuDIte now indexes over 9,500 resources. Given the richness of online training materials and the constant evolution of biomedical data science, computational methods applying information retrieval, natural language processing, and machine learning techniques are required - in effect, using data science to inform training in data science. In so doing, the TCC seeks to democratize novel insights and discoveries brought forth via large-scale data science training.

  6. Science and religion: implications for science educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Michael J.

    2010-03-01

    A religious perspective on life shapes how and what those with such a perspective learn in science; for some students a religious perspective can hinder learning in science. For such reasons Staver's article is to be welcomed as it proposes a new way of resolving the widely perceived discord between science and religion. Staver notes that Western thinking has traditionally postulated the existence and comprehensibility of a world that is external to and independent of human consciousness. This has led to a conception of truth, truth as correspondence, in which our knowledge corresponds to the facts in this external world. Staver rejects such a conception, preferring the conception of truth as coherence in which the links are between and among independent knowledge claims themselves rather than between a knowledge claim and reality. Staver then proposes constructivism as a vehicle potentially capable of resolving the tension between religion and science. My contention is that the resolution between science and religion that Staver proposes comes at too great a cost—both to science and to religion. Instead I defend a different version of constructivism where humans are seen as capable of generating models of reality that do provide richer and more meaningful understandings of reality, over time and with respect both to science and to religion. I argue that scientific knowledge is a subset of religious knowledge and explore the implications of this for science education in general and when teaching about evolution in particular.

  7. Science Matters Special Edition: Wildland Fire Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is applying its extensive expertise in air quality science to the study of wildland fires to help states and communities that are impacted. This issue of Science Matters newsletter highlights some of the research projects under way by EPA and partners.

  8. Advancing the Science of Team Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk‐Krzesinski, Holly J.; Börner, Katy; Contractor, Noshir; Fiore, Stephen M.; Hall, Kara L.; Keyton, Joann; Spring, Bonnie; Stokols, Daniel; Trochim, William; Uzzi, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The First Annual International Science of Team Science (SciTS) Conference was held in Chicago, IL April 22–24, 2010. This article presents a summary of the Conference proceedings. Clin Trans Sci 2010; Volume 3: 263–266. PMID:20973925

  9. Family experiences, the motivation for science learning and science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schulze, Salome

    Student Motivation for Science Learning questionnaire combined with items investigating family experiences. ... science achievement: inadequate school resources and weak household ..... informal interviews with the science teachers of the.

  10. International lunar observatory / power station: from Hawaii to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, S.

    Astronomy's great advantages from the Moon are well known - stable surface, diffuse atmosphere, long cool nights (14 days), low gravity, far side radio frequency silence. A large variety of astronomical instruments and observations are possible - radio, optical and infrared telescopes and interferometers; interferometry for ultra- violet to sub -millimeter wavelengths and for very long baselines, including Earth- Moon VLBI; X-ray, gamma-ray, cosmic ray and neutrino detection; very low frequency radio observation; and more. Unparalleled advantages of lunar observatories for SETI, as well as for local surveillance, Earth observation, and detection of Earth approaching objects add significant utility to lunar astronomy's superlatives. At least nine major conferences in the USA since 1984 and many elsewhere, as well as ILEWG, IAF, IAA, LEDA and other organizations' astronomy-from-the-Moon research indicate a lunar observatory / power station, robotic at first, will be one of the first mission elements for a permanent lunar base. An international lunar observatory will be a transcending enterprise, highly principled, indispensable, soundly and broadly based, and far- seeing. Via Astra - From Hawaii to the Moon: The astronomy and scie nce communities, national space agencies and aerospace consortia, commercial travel and tourist enterprises and those aspiring to advance humanity's best qualities, such as Aloha, will recognize Hawaii in the 21st century as a new major support area and pan- Pacific port of embarkation to space, the Moon and beyond. Astronomical conditions and facilities on Hawaii's Mauna Kea provide experience for construction and operation of observatories on the Moon. Remote and centrally isolated, with diffuse atmosphere, sub-zero temperature and limited working mobility, the Mauna Kea complex atop the 4,206 meter summit of the largest mountain on the planet hosts the greatest collection of large astronomical telescopes on Earth. Lunar, extraterrestrial

  11. Physical Sciences 2007 Science & Technology Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A U

    2008-04-07

    The Physical Sciences Directorate applies frontier physics and technology to grand challenges in national security. Our highly integrated and multidisciplinary research program involves collaborations throughout Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the National Nuclear Security Administration, the Department of Energy, and with academic and industrial partners. The Directorate has a budget of approximately $150 million, and a staff of approximately 350 employees. Our scientists provide expertise in condensed matter and high-pressure physics, plasma physics, high-energy-density science, fusion energy science and technology, nuclear and particle physics, accelerator physics, radiation detection, optical science, biotechnology, and astrophysics. This document highlights the outstanding research and development activities in the Physical Sciences Directorate that made news in 2007. It also summarizes the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2007.

  12. Physical Sciences 2007 Science and Technology Highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazi, A.U.

    2008-01-01

    The Physical Sciences Directorate applies frontier physics and technology to grand challenges in national security. Our highly integrated and multidisciplinary research program involves collaborations throughout Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the National Nuclear Security Administration, the Department of Energy, and with academic and industrial partners. The Directorate has a budget of approximately $150 million, and a staff of approximately 350 employees. Our scientists provide expertise in condensed matter and high-pressure physics, plasma physics, high-energy-density science, fusion energy science and technology, nuclear and particle physics, accelerator physics, radiation detection, optical science, biotechnology, and astrophysics. This document highlights the outstanding research and development activities in the Physical Sciences Directorate that made news in 2007. It also summarizes the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2007

  13. Ife Journal of Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ife Journal of Science (IJS) aims to publish articles resulting from original research in the broad areas of chemical, biological, mathematical and physical sciences. ... Review articles on research topics and books are also welcome.

  14. Different images of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsson, Eva

      Within the science and technology centres (STC) movement there exists explicit aims and ambitions to enhance visitors' interest in and knowledge about science. Meanwhile, several researches question the choice of the scientific content in exhibitions when arguing that a too unproblematic view...... of science commonly is presented. But what images and aspects of science are visitors actually confronted with at STCs? How do staff members at STCs consider the scientific content and how do they choose what aspects of science to display in exhibitions? What ideas about visitors' learning do staff members....... The most common image was the usefulness of science which displays science in an unproblematic and single-dimensioned way. In order to explore what underlying assumptions and factors which affect how science is constituted, 17 staff members who worked with planning and constructing new exhibitions...

  15. National Academy of Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Irma. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) PNAS is one of the world’s most- ... Exchange Evolution Resources Biographical Memoirs National Academy of Sciences About The NAS Mission History Organization Leadership and ...

  16. Materials Science and Engineering |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering? What Is Materials Science and Engineering? MSE combines engineering, physics and chemistry to solve problems in nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, energy, manufacturing, and more ,' which could replace steel. Materials Science and Mechanical Engineering Professors work together to

  17. Science and Shakespeare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Steven; Chinnery, Charlene

    2003-01-01

    Describes an assignment in which the preservice teacher must find a connection between science and Shakespeare. Connects the science of the witches in Shakespeare's "Macbeth" to the holistic approach of education. (SG)

  18. NWWA Science Award given

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Bill

    John G. Ferris, a U.S. Geological Survey retiree, received the National Water Well Association (NWWA) Science Award for 1985 on September 10, 1985, in Baltimore, Md. The award recognizes Ferris's renowned contributions to the science of groundwater.

  19. Integrating Forensic Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, John; Deslich, Barbara J.

    2000-01-01

    Explains the implementation of forensic science in an integrated curriculum and discusses the advantages of this approach. Lists the forensic science course syllabi studied in three high schools. Discusses the unit on polymers in detail. (YDS)

  20. Science | Argonne National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Security Photon Sciences Physical Sciences & Engineering Energy Frontier Research Centers Scientific Publications Researchers Postdocs Exascale Computing Institute for Molecular Engineering at Argonne Work with Us About Safety News Careers Education Community Diversity Directory Argonne National Laboratory

  1. Journal of Aquatic Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Aquatic Sciences publishes articles on problems and issues in Aquatic Sciences from all ... The journal accepts for publication manuscripts of very high international standard containing reports of original scientific research.

  2. African Health Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences is an internationally refereed, free access, journal publishing original articles on research, clinical practice, public health, policy, planning, ... Makerere University School of Medicine, College of Health Sciences

  3. ICASE Computer Science Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering computer science program is discussed in outline form. Information is given on such topics as problem decomposition, algorithm development, programming languages, and parallel architectures.

  4. Science Inventory | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Science Inventory is a searchable database of research products primarily from EPA's Office of Research and Development. Science Inventory records provide descriptions of the product, contact information, and links to available printed material or websites.

  5. Science in General Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Andrew F.

    2013-01-01

    General education must develop in students an appreciation of the power of science, how it works, why it is an effective knowledge generation tool, and what it can deliver. Knowing what science has discovered is desirable but less important.

  6. Ghana Journal of Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The GHANA JOURNAL OF SCIENCE is published jointly by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research of Ghana and the Ghana Science Association. It is open to all ... the authors belong. The topics need not be related to West Africa.

  7. Science Education Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Discusses: (1) the nature of science; (2) Ausubel's learning theory and its application to introductory science; and (3) mathematics and physics instruction. Outlines a checklist approach to Certificate of Extended Education (CSE) practical assessment in biology. (JN)

  8. Repositioning Information Science.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibekwe-Sanjuan , Fidelia; Buckland , Michael; Latham , Kiersten

    2010-01-01

    International audience; During the twentieth century there was a strong desire for information studies to become scientific, to move from librarianship, bibliography, and documentation to an information science. In 1968 the American Documentation Institute was renamed American Society for Information Science. By the twenty-first century, however, departments of (library and) information science had turned instead towards the social sciences, but have not been successful in providing a coheren...

  9. THE NATURE OF SCIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    R. Trigg

    2014-01-01

    The study defines social science and its specific in contrast with history, psychology and physical sciences. Also it emphasizes the importance of the idea of a 'value-free' science for the social sciences is clear. Social scientists want to be seen to establish 'facts' about society in the same way that they think that a physicist or a chemist uncovers 'facts'. Using the theories of Hempel, Quine, Feyerabend and Kuhn, it addresses a series of questions concening scientific theories, their ro...

  10. Inequalities in Science

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Inequalities in scientists’ contributions to science and their rewards have always been very high. There are good reasons to propose that inequalities in science across research institutions and across individual scientists have increased in recent years. In the meantime, however, globalization and internet technology have narrowed inequalities in science across nations and facilitated the expansion of science and rapid production of scientific discoveries through international collaborative ...

  11. Inequalities in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Inequalities in scientists’ contributions to science and their rewards have always been very high. There are good reasons to propose that inequalities in science across research institutions and across individual scientists have increased in recent years. In the meantime, however, globalization and internet technology have narrowed inequalities in science across nations and facilitated the expansion of science and rapid production of scientific discoveries through international collaborative networks. PMID:24855244

  12. Social science that matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2006-01-01

    Social science is headed down a dead end toward mere scientism, becoming a second-rate version of the hard sciences. We neeed to recognise and support a different kind of social science research - and so should those who demand accountability from researchers. This paper asks what kind of social...... science we - scholars, policy makers, administrators - should and should not promote in democratic societies, and how we may hold social scientists accountable to deliver what we ask them for....

  13. Open Science Training Handbook

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Bezjak; April Clyburne-Sherin; Philipp Conzett; Pedro Fernandes; Edit Görögh; Kerstin Helbig; Bianca Kramer; Ignasi Labastida; Kyle Niemeyer; Fotis Psomopoulos; Tony Ross-Hellauer; René Schneider; Jon Tennant; Ellen Verbakel; Helene Brinken

    2018-01-01

    For a readable version of the book, please visit https://book.fosteropenscience.eu A group of fourteen authors came together in February 2018 at the TIB (German National Library of Science and Technology) in Hannover to create an open, living handbook on Open Science training. High-quality trainings are fundamental when aiming at a cultural change towards the implementation of Open Science principles. Teaching resources provide great support for Open Science instructors and trainers. The ...

  14. Sci-Fi Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudenrich, Craig C.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using science fiction television episodes, novels, and films for teaching science and motivating students. Studies Newton's Law of Motion, principles of relativity, journey to Mars, interplanetary trajectories, artificial gravity, and Martian geology. Discusses science fiction's ability to capture student interest and the advantages of…

  15. Teaching Science through Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Jesse; Kruse, Jerrid W.; Clough, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Science education efforts have long emphasized inquiry, and inquiry and scientific practices are prominent in contemporary science education reform documents (NRC 1996; NGSS Lead States 2013). However, inquiry has not become commonplace in science teaching, in part because of misunderstandings regarding what it means and entails (Demir and Abell…

  16. Science Opens Doors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Steve; Smyth, Jen

    2016-01-01

    Science Opens Doors is the creation of Clive Thompson of the Horners' Livery Company. The Science Opens Doors project philosophy is strongly based upon the King's College London ASPIRES project, which established that children like doing science in junior school (ages 7-11), but that by the age of 12-14 they are firmly against becoming scientists.…

  17. Why Earth Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This article briefly describes Earth science. The study of Earth science provides the foundation for an understanding of the Earth, its processes, its resources, and its environment. Earth science is the study of the planet in its entirety, how its lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere work together as systems and how they affect…

  18. Demystifying Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Judith; Bartels, Selina; Lederman, Norman; Gnanakkan, Dionysius

    2014-01-01

    With the emergence of the "Next Generation Science Standards" ("NGSS"; NGSS Lead States 2013), it is apparent that teaching and learning about nature of science (NOS) continues to be an important goal of science education for all K-12 students. With this emphasis on NOS, early childhood teachers are asking how to design…

  19. Forensic Science Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Forensic science technicians, also called crime laboratory technicians or police science technicians, help solve crimes. They examine and identify physical evidence to reconstruct a crime scene. This article discusses everything students need to know about careers for forensic science technicians--wages, responsibilities, skills needed, career…

  20. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  1. Science, Worldviews, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauch, Hugh G., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Whether science can reach conclusions with substantial worldview import, such as whether supernatural beings exist or the universe is purposeful, is a significant but unsettled aspect of science. For instance, various scientists, philosophers, and educators have explored the implications of science for a theistic worldview, with opinions spanning…

  2. Social Work and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlert, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Interest has grown in the past few years about the place of social work in science. Questions remain, such as whether social work should be considered a science, and if so, where it fits into the constellation of sciences. This article attempts to shed light on these questions. After briefly considering past and present constructions of science…

  3. History of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oversby, John

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses why the history of science should be included in the science curriculum in schools. He also presents some opportunities that can come out of using historical contexts, and findings from a study assessing the place of history of science in readily available textbooks.

  4. Science Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Jang, Hae Gwon; Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Sun-Ja; Yoo, Chang Young; Chung, Min Suk

    2012-01-01

    Science comic strips entitled Dr. Scifun were planned to promote science jobs and studies among professionals (scientists, graduate and undergraduate students) and children. To this end, the authors collected intriguing science stories as the basis of scenarios, and drew four-cut comic strips, first on paper and subsequently as computer files.…

  5. Information science in transition

    CERN Document Server

    Gilchrist, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Are we at a turning point in digital information? The expansion of the internet is unprecedented. Will information science become part of computer science and does rise of the term informatics demonstrate convergence of information science and information technology - a convergence that must surely develop? This work reflects on such issues.

  6. Nursing science leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Mario R

    2015-04-01

    This introduces the guest author's column on perspectives on the development of leaders in science. The need for leadership in science is discussed and a model for the development of science leaders in nursing is outlined. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Earth System Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Sandra; Coffman, Margaret

    2004-01-01

    For several decades, science teachers have used bottles for classroom projects designed to teach students about biology. Bottle projects do not have to just focus on biology, however. These projects can also be used to engage students in Earth science topics. This article describes the Earth System Science Project, which was adapted and developed…

  8. Journal of Consumer Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Consumer Sciences is an official publication of the South African Association of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences (SAAFECS). The Journal of Consumer Sciences (JCS) publishes articles that focus on consumer experiences in different places and from different perspectives and methodological ...

  9. Safety Education and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Safety education in the science classroom is discussed, including the beginning of safe management, attitudes toward safety education, laboratory assistants, chemical and health regulation, safety aids, and a case study of a high school science laboratory. Suggestions for safety codes for science teachers, student behavior, and laboratory…

  10. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 2 ... email addresses used by the office of Indian Academy of Sciences, including those of the staff, the journals, various programmes, and Current Science, has changed from 'ias.ernet.in' (or 'academy.ias.ernet.in') to 'ias.ac.in'.

  11. Remodeling Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestenes, David

    2013-01-01

    Radical reform in science and mathematics education is needed to prepare citizens for challenges of the emerging knowledge-based global economy. We consider definite proposals to establish: (1) "Standards of science and math literacy" for all students. (2) "Integration of the science curriculum" with structure of matter,…

  12. Archives: Afrique Science: Revue Internationale des Sciences et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 31 of 31 ... Archives: Afrique Science: Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie. Journal Home > Archives: Afrique Science: Revue Internationale des Sciences et Technologie. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Opening science: New publication forms in science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheliga, Kaja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] Digital technologies change how scientists access and process information and consequently impact publication forms in science. Even though the core of scientific publications has remained the same, established publication formats, such as the scientific paper or book, are succumbing to the transitions caused by digital technologies. At the same time, new online tools enable new publication forms, such as blogs, microblogs or wikis, to emerge. This article explores the changing and emerging publications forms in science and also reflects upon the changing role of libraries. The transformations of publishing forms are discussed in the context of open science.

  14. New science on the Open Science Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, R; Altunay, M; Sehgal, C [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Avery, P [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Bejan, A; Gardner, R; Wilde, M [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Blackburn, K [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Blatecky, A; McGee, J [Renaissance Computing Institute, Chapel Hill, NC 27517 (United States); Kramer, B; Olson, D; Roy, A [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Livny, M [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Potekhin, M; Quick, R; Wenaus, T [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Wuerthwein, F [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)], E-mail: ruth@fnal.gov

    2008-07-15

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) includes work to enable new science, new scientists, and new modalities in support of computationally based research. There are frequently significant sociological and organizational changes required in transformation from the existing to the new. OSG leverages its deliverables to the large-scale physics experiment member communities to benefit new communities at all scales through activities in education, engagement, and the distributed facility. This paper gives both a brief general description and specific examples of new science enabled on the OSG. More information is available at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org.

  15. New science on the Open Science Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pordes, R; Altunay, M; Sehgal, C; Avery, P; Bejan, A; Gardner, R; Wilde, M; Blackburn, K; Blatecky, A; McGee, J; Kramer, B; Olson, D; Roy, A; Livny, M; Potekhin, M; Quick, R; Wenaus, T; Wuerthwein, F

    2008-01-01

    The Open Science Grid (OSG) includes work to enable new science, new scientists, and new modalities in support of computationally based research. There are frequently significant sociological and organizational changes required in transformation from the existing to the new. OSG leverages its deliverables to the large-scale physics experiment member communities to benefit new communities at all scales through activities in education, engagement, and the distributed facility. This paper gives both a brief general description and specific examples of new science enabled on the OSG. More information is available at the OSG web site: www.opensciencegrid.org

  16. Pragmaticism, Science and Theology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    2016-01-01

    This review assesses Ashley and Deely’s claims regarding the relation of science and religion, taking Einstein’s famous statement that “science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind” as its starting point. It argues that Ashley and Deely’s book How Science Enriches Theology...... demonstrates that the actual problem in the contemporary dialogue between the two seem to be whether the link between science and religion shall be based on an impersonal process spirituality arising from a void or on a personalism with a personal god at the source....

  17. BES Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biocca, Alan; Carlson, Rich; Chen, Jackie; Cotter, Steve; Tierney, Brian; Dattoria, Vince; Davenport, Jim; Gaenko, Alexander; Kent, Paul; Lamm, Monica; Miller, Stephen; Mundy, Chris; Ndousse, Thomas; Pederson, Mark; Perazzo, Amedeo; Popescu, Razvan; Rouson, Damian; Sekine, Yukiko; Sumpter, Bobby; Dart, Eli; Wang, Cai-Zhuang -Z; Whitelam, Steve; Zurawski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  18. BES Science Network Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian; Biocca, A.; Carlson, R.; Chen, J.; Cotter, S.; Dattoria, V.; Davenport, J.; Gaenko, A.; Kent, P.; Lamm, M.; Miller, S.; Mundy, C.; Ndousse, T.; Pederson, M.; Perazzo, A.; Popescu, R.; Rouson, D.; Sekine, Y.; Sumpter, B.; Wang, C.-Z.; Whitelam, S.; Zurawski, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  19. The Double Helix: Why Science Needs Science Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, Athena

    2003-01-01

    Discusses why science needs science fiction, commenting on the author's book about science that draws heavily on the "Star Trek" series. The best science, in spite of popular thinking, comes from leaps of intuition, and science fiction provides a creative spark that encourages participation in science. (SLD)

  20. Science Process Skills in Science Curricula Applied in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumusak, Güngör Keskinkiliç

    2016-01-01

    One of the most important objectives of the science curricula is to bring in science process skills. The science process skills are skills that lie under scientific thinking and decision-making. Thus it is important for a science curricula to be rationalized in such a way that it brings in science process skills. New science curricula were…

  1. WikiScience: Wikipedia for science and technology

    OpenAIRE

    Aibar Puentes, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    Peer-reviewed Presentació de la conferència "WikiScience: Wikipedia for science and technology". Presentación de la conferencia "WikiScience: Wikipedia for science and technology". Presentation of the conference "Science Wiki: Wikipedia for science and technology".

  2. Special science-fiction (Science Fiction Special).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francais dans le Monde, 1985

    1985-01-01

    An issue devoted to the use of science fiction in the French language classroom discusses such topics as the development of the genre, literary techniques, themes, imagery, sociolinguistic elements, and potential classroom activities. (MSE)

  3. Science at Your Fingertips. Teaching Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of fingerprinting to interest students in the practical applications of science. Teachers can have students fingerprint each other, compare prints, and learn how they are used to solve crimes and find missing children. (MDM)

  4. Media, risk and science

    CERN Document Server

    Allan, Stuart

    2002-01-01

    How is science represented by the media? Who defines what counts as a risk, threat or hazard, and why? In what ways do media images of science shape public perceptions? What can cultural and media studies tell us about current scientific controversies? "Media, Risk and Science" is an exciting exploration into an array of important issues, providing a much needed framework for understanding key debates on how the media represent science and risk. In a highly effective way, Stuart Allan weaves together insights from multiple strands of research across diverse disciplines. Among the themes he examines are: the role of science in science fiction, such as "Star Trek"; the problem of 'pseudo-science' in "The X-Files"; and how science is displayed in science museums. Science journalism receives particular attention, with the processes by which science is made 'newsworthy' unravelled for careful scrutiny. The book also includes individual chapters devoted to how the media portray environmental risks, HIV-AIDS, food s...

  5. The science writing tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuhart, Arthur L.

    This is a two-part dissertation. The primary part is the text of a science-based composition rhetoric and reader called The Science Writing Tool. This textbook has seven chapters dealing with topics in Science Rhetoric. Each chapter includes a variety of examples of science writing, discussion questions, writing assignments, and instructional resources. The purpose of this text is to introduce lower-division college science majors to the role that rhetoric and communication plays in the conduct of Science, and how these skills contribute to a successful career in Science. The text is designed as a "tool kit," for use by an instructor constructing a science-based composition course or a writing-intensive Science course. The second part of this part of this dissertation reports on student reactions to draft portions of The Science Writing Tool text. In this report, students of English Composition II at Northern Virginia Community College-Annandale were surveyed about their attitudes toward course materials and topics included. The findings were used to revise and expand The Science Writing Tool.

  6. African Journals Online: Environmental Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 28 of 28 ... African Journals Online: Environmental Sciences ... Anthropology, Technology, Computer Science & Engineering, Veterinary Science ... and Metabolism (AJEM) is a biomedical peer-reviewed journal with international circulation. ... AFRREV STECH: An International Journal of Science and Technology.

  7. Teaching Science Fiction by Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donawerth, Jane

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the 200-year-old tradition of women science fiction authors. Discusses the benefits of teaching science fiction written by women. Describes 5 science fiction short stories and 5 science fiction novels suitable for high school students. (RS)

  8. Science News of the Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science News, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Highlights important 1983 news stories reported in Science News. Stories are categorized under: anthropology/paleontology; behavior; biology; chemistry; earth sciences; energy; environment; medicine; physics; science and society; space sciences and astronomy; and technology and computers. (JN)

  9. Cameroon Journal of Agricultural Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Camerounais des Sciences Agricoles The Cameroon Journal of Agricultural Science publishes new information on all aspects of agricultural science – agronomy, breeding, crop protection, economics, rural sociology, forestry and animal science, health and production ...

  10. Science policy up close

    CERN Document Server

    Marburger, John H

    2015-01-01

    In a career that included tenures as president of Stony Brook University, director of Brookhaven National Laboratory, and science advisor to President George W. Bush, John Marburger (1941 2011) found himself on the front line of battles that pulled science ever deeper into the political arena. From nuclear power to global warming and stem cell research, science controversies, he discovered, are never just about science. Science Policy Up Close" presents Marburger s reflections on the challenges science administrators face in the twenty-first century. In each phase of public service Marburger came into contact with a new dimension of science policy. The Shoreham Commission exposed him to the problem of handling a volatile public controversy over nuclear power. The Superconducting Super Collider episode gave him insights into the collision between government requirements and scientists expectations and feelings of entitlement. The Directorship of Brookhaven taught him how to talk to the public about the risks ...

  11. Empirical philosophy of science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagenknecht, Susann; Nersessian, Nancy J.; Andersen, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of philosophers of science make use of qualitative empirical data, a development that may reconfigure the relations between philosophy and sociology of science and that is reminiscent of efforts to integrate history and philosophy of science. Therefore, the first part...... of this introduction to the volume Empirical Philosophy of Science outlines the history of relations between philosophy and sociology of science on the one hand, and philosophy and history of science on the other. The second part of this introduction offers an overview of the papers in the volume, each of which...... is giving its own answer to questions such as: Why does the use of qualitative empirical methods benefit philosophical accounts of science? And how should these methods be used by the philosopher?...

  12. A guided science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valsiner, Jaan

    That sciences are guided by explicit and implicit ties to their surrounding social world is not new. Jaan Valsiner fills in the wide background of scholarship on the history of science, the recent focus on social studies of sciences, and the cultural and cognitive analyses of knowledge making....... The theoretical scheme that he uses to explain the phenomena of social guidance of science comes from his thinking about processes of development in general—his theory of bounded indeterminacy—and on the relations of human beings with their culturally organized environments. Valsiner examines reasons for the slow...... and nonlinear progress of ideas in psychology as a science at the border of natural and social sciences. Why is that intellectual progress occurs in different countries at different times? Most responses are self-serving blinders for presenting science as a given rather than understanding it as a deeply human...

  13. How to Motivate Science Teachers to Use Science Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Trna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A science experiment is the core tool in science education. This study describes the science teachers' professional competence to implement science experiments in teaching/learning science. The main objective is the motivation of science teachers to use science experiments. The presented research tries to answer questions aimed at the science teachers' skills to use science experiments in teaching/learning science. The research discovered the following facts: science teachers do not include science experiments in teaching/learning in a suitable way; are not able to choose science experiments corresponding to the teaching phase; prefer teachers' demonstration of science experiments; are not able to improvise with the aids; use only a few experiments. The important research result is that an important motivational tool for science teachers is the creation of simple experiments. Examples of motivational simple experiments used into teachers' training for increasing their own creativity and motivation are presented.

  14. Science for Diplomacy, Diplomacy for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colglazier, E. Wiliam

    2015-04-01

    I was a strong proponent of ``science diplomacy'' when I became Science and Technology Adviser to the Secretary of State in 2011. I thought I knew a lot about the subject after being engaged for four decades on international S&T policy issues and having had distinguished scientists as mentors who spent much of their time using science as a tool for building better relations between countries and working to make the world more peaceful, prosperous, and secure. I learned a lot from my three years inside the State Department, including great appreciation and respect for the real diplomats who work to defuse conflicts and avoid wars. But I also learned a lot about science diplomacy, both using science to advance diplomacy and diplomacy to advance science. My talk will focus on the five big things that I learned, and from that the one thing where I am focusing my energies to try to make a difference now that I am a private citizen again.

  15. Los Alamos National Lab: National Security Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    SKIP TO PAGE CONTENT Los Alamos National Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect Museum New Hires Publications Research Library Mission Science & Innovation Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Lab Organizations Science Programs

  16. Science and Innovation at Los Alamos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamos National Laboratory Delivering science and technology to protect our nation and promote world stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Facilities Science Pillars Research Library Science Briefs Science News Science Highlights Lab Organizations

  17. Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy

    CERN Document Server

    Ruivo, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    'Management of science policy, sociology of science policy and economics of science policy' is a theoretical essay on the scientific foundation of science policy (formulation, implementation, instruments and procedures). It can be also used as a textbook.

  18. Fascinating! Popular Science Communication and Literary Science Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    Some see literary Science Fiction as a possible vehicle for critical discussions about the future development and the ethical implications of science-based technologies. According to that understanding, literary Science Fiction constitutes a variety of science communication. Along related lines, ......, popular science communication with science fiction features might be expected to serve a similar purpose. Only, it is far from obvious that it actually works that way.......Some see literary Science Fiction as a possible vehicle for critical discussions about the future development and the ethical implications of science-based technologies. According to that understanding, literary Science Fiction constitutes a variety of science communication. Along related lines...

  19. Science in Schools Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Mike

    As part of a program to increase learning and engagement in science classes 124 Victorian schools are trialing a best practice teaching model. The Science in Schools Research Project is a DEET funded project under the Science in Schools Strategy, developed in response to recent research and policy decisions at national and state levels through which literacy, numeracy and science have been identified as key priorities for learning. This major science research project aims to identify, develop and trial best practice in Science teaching and learning. The Department will then be able to provide clear advice to Victoria's schools that can be adopted and sustained to: * enhance teaching and learning of Science * enhance student learning outcomes in Science at all year levels * increase student access to, and participation in Science learning from Prep through to Year 10, and hence in the VCE as well. The nature of the SiS program will be detailed with specific reference to the innovative programs in solar model cars, robotics and environmental science developed at Forest Hill College in response to this project.

  20. Extending eScience Provenance with User-Submitted Semantic Annotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, J.; Zednik, S.; West, P.; Fox, P. A.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    eScience based systems generate provenance of their data products, related to such things as: data processing, data collection conditions, expert evaluation, and data product quality. Recent advances in web-based technology offer users the possibility of making annotations to both data products and steps in accompanying provenance traces, thereby expanding the utility of such provenance for others. These contributing users may have varying backgrounds, ranging from system experts to outside domain experts to citizen scientists. Furthermore, such users may wish to make varying types of annotations - ranging from documenting the purpose of a provenance step to raising concerns about the quality of data dependencies. Semantic Web technologies allow for such kinds of rich annotations to be made to provenance through the use of ontology vocabularies for (i) organizing provenance, and (ii) organizing user/annotation classifications. Furthermore, through Linked Data practices, Semantic linkages may be made from provenance steps to external data of interest. A desire for Semantically-annotated provenance has been motivated by data management issues in the Mauna Loa Solar Observatory’s (MLSO) Advanced Coronal Observing System (ACOS). In ACOS, photomoeter-based readings are taken of solar activity and subsequently processed into final data products consumable by end users. At intermediate stages of ACOS processing, factors such as evaluations by human experts and weather conditions are logged, which could impact data product quality. If such factors are linked via user-submitted annotations to provenance, it could be significantly beneficial for other users. Likewise, the background of a user could impact the credibility of their annotations. For example, an annotation made by a citizen scientist describing the purpose of a provenance step may not be as reliable as a similar annotation made by an ACOS project member. For this work, we have developed a software package that

  1. The World Science Festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazmino, J.

    2012-06-01

    (Abstract only) New York City in the late 20th century rose to be a planetary capital for the sciences, not just astronomy. This growth was mainly in the academic sector but a parallel growth occurred in the public and home field. With the millennium crossing, scientists in New York agitated for a celebration of the City as a place for a thriving science culture. In 2008 they began World Science Festival. 2011 is the fourth running, on June 1-5, following the AAVSO/AAS meetings. World Science Festival was founded by Dr. Brian Greene, Columbia University, and is operated through the World Science Foundation. The Festival is "saturation science" all over Manhattan in a series of lectures, shows, exhibits, performances. It is staged in "science" venues like colleges and musea, but also in off-science spaces like theaters and galleries. It is a blend from hard science, with lectures like those by us astronomers, to science-themed works of art, dance, music. Events are fitted for the public, either for free or a modest fee. While almost all events are on Manhattan, effort has been made to geographically disperse them, even to the outer boroughs. The grand finale of World Science Festival is a street fair in Washington Square. Science centers in booths, tents, and pavilions highlight their work. In past years this fair drew 100,000 to 150,000 visitors. The entire Festival attracts about a quarter-million attendees. NYSkies is a proud participant at the Washington Square fair. It interprets the "Earth to the Universe" display, debuting during IYA-2009. Attendance at "Earth..." on just the day of the fair plausibly is half of all visitors in America. The presentation shows the scale and scope of World Science Festival, its relation to the City, and how our astronomers work with it.

  2. Science as theater, theater as science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Harry

    2002-04-01

    Beginning with Bertold Brecht's "Galileo" in 1942 and Friedrich Dürrenmatt's "The Physicists" in 1962, physics and other sciences have served a number of dramatists as backdrops for the exposition of existential problems, as well as the provision of entertainment. Michael Frayn's 1998 play "Copenhagen" broke new ground by giving a central role to the presentation of scientific substance and ideas and to the examination of recent controversial and emotionally charged events in the history of science and of the "real world". A rash of "science plays" erupted. How should we physicists react to this development? Surely, it can be argued, any exposure of science to the public is better than none and will help break down the barriers between the "two cultures". But what if the science or the scientists are badly misrepresented or the play is a weapon to strip science of its legitimacy and its claims to reality and truth? After reviewing a half dozen of the new plays, I conclude that "Copenhagen", though flawed, is not only the best of show, but a positive, even admirable endeavor. The contributions of Bohr, Heisenberg, Born, Schrödinger, and other scientists and their interactions in the golden years of the creation of quantum mechanics are accurately and thrillingly rendered. There may be no better non-technical exposition of complementarity and the uncertainty principle than the one that Frayn puts into the mouths of Bohr and Heisenberg. The treatment of the history of the atomic bomb and Heisenberg's role in Germany's failure to achieve a bomb is another matter. Frayn can also be criticized for applying uncertainly and complementarity to the macroscopic world and, in particular, to human interactions, thereby giving some aid and comfort to the post-modernists. These reservations aside, Copenhagen is a beautiful contribution to the appreciation of science.

  3. Environmental Science: 49 Science Fair Projects. Science Fair Projects Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Robert L.; Keen, G. Daniel

    This book contains 49 science fair projects designed for 6th to 9th grade students. Projects are organized by the topics of soil, ecology (projects in habitat and life cycles), pests and controls (projects in weeds and insects), recycling (projects in resources and conservation), waste products (projects in decomposition), microscopic organisms,…

  4. 75 FR 10845 - Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National Science and Technology Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science... participants. SUMMARY: The Subcommittee on Forensic Science of the National Science and Technology Council's... . Kenneth E. Melson, Co-Chair, Subcommittee on Forensic Science. [FR Doc. 2010-4899 Filed 3-8-10; 8:45 am...

  5. U-Science (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borne, K. D.

    2009-12-01

    The emergence of e-Science over the past decade as a paradigm for Internet-based science was an inevitable evolution of science that built upon the web protocols and access patterns that were prevalent at that time, including Web Services, XML-based information exchange, machine-to-machine communication, service registries, the Grid, and distributed data. We now see a major shift in web behavior patterns to social networks, user-provided content (e.g., tags and annotations), ubiquitous devices, user-centric experiences, and user-led activities. The inevitable accrual of these social networking patterns and protocols by scientists and science projects leads to U-Science as a new paradigm for online scientific research (i.e., ubiquitous, user-led, untethered, You-centered science). U-Science applications include components from semantic e-science (ontologies, taxonomies, folksonomies, tagging, annotations, and classification systems), which is much more than Web 2.0-based science (Wikis, blogs, and online environments like Second Life). Among the best examples of U-Science are Citizen Science projects, including Galaxy Zoo, Stardust@Home, Project Budburst, Volksdata, CoCoRaHS (the Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow network), and projects utilizing Volunteer Geographic Information (VGI). There are also scientist-led projects for scientists that engage a wider community in building knowledge through user-provided content. Among the semantic-based U-Science projects for scientists are those that specifically enable user-based annotation of scientific results in databases. These include the Heliophysics Knowledgebase, BioDAS, WikiProteins, The Entity Describer, and eventually AstroDAS. Such collaborative tagging of scientific data addresses several petascale data challenges for scientists: how to find the most relevant data, how to reuse those data, how to integrate data from multiple sources, how to mine and discover new knowledge in large databases, how to

  6. Games in Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    , 2007). Some of these newer formats are developed in partnerships between research and education institutions and game developers and are based on learning theory as well as game design methods. Games well suited for creating narrative framework or simulations where students gain first-hand experience......This paper presents a categorisation of science game formats in relation to the educational possibilities or limitations they offer in science education. This includes discussion of new types of science game formats and gamification of science. Teaching with the use of games and simulations...... in science education dates back to the 1970s and early 80s were the potentials of games and simulations was discussed extensively as the new teaching tool ( Ellington et al. , 1981). In the early 90s the first ITC -based games for exploration of science and technical subjects was developed (Egenfeldt...

  7. Science, expertise, and democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Justin; Elliott, Kevin C

    2012-06-01

    The combination of government's significant involvement in science, science's significant effects on the public, and public ignorance (of both politics and science) raise important challenges for reconciling scientific expertise with democratic governance. Nevertheless, there have recently been a variety of encouraging efforts to make scientific activity more responsive to social values and to develop citizens' capacity to engage in more effective democratic governance of science. This essay introduces a special issue of the Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal, "Science, Expertise, and Democracy," consisting of five papers that developed from the inaugural Three Rivers Philosophy conference held at the University of South Carolina in April 2011. The pieces range from a general analysis of the in-principle compatibility of scientific expertise and democracy to much more concrete studies of the intersection between scientific practices and democratic values in areas such as weight-of-evidence analysis, climate science, and studies of locally undesirable land uses.

  8. Nuclear science teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    A Panel of Experts on Nuclear Science Teaching met in Bangkok from 15 to 23 July 1968 to review the present status of an need for teaching of topics related to nuclear science at the secondary and early university level including teacher training, and to suggest appropriate ways of introducing these topics into the science curricula. This report contains the contributions of the members of the Panel, together with the general conclusions and recommendations for the development of school and early university curricula and training programs, for the improvement of teaching materials and for the safest possible handing of radioactive materials in school and university laboratories. It is hoped that the report will be of use to all nuclear scientists and science educators concerned with modernizing their science courses by introducing suitable topics and experiments in nuclear science

  9. Materials science symposium 'materials science using accelerators'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Tetsuro; Asai, Masato; Chimi, Yasuhiro

    2005-07-01

    The facility of the JAERI-Tokai tandem accelerator and its booster has been contributing to advancing heavy-ion sciences in the fields of nuclear physics, nuclear chemistry, atomic and solid-state physics and materials science, taking advantage of its prominent performance of heavy-ion acceleration. This facility was recently upgraded by changing the acceleration tubes and installing an ECR ion-source at the terminal. The radioactive nuclear beam facility (Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex, TRIAC) was also installed by the JAERI-KEK joint project. On this occasion, this meeting was held in order to provide a new step for the advancement of heavy-ion science, and to exchange information on recent activities and future plans using the tandem facility as well as on promising new experimental techniques. This meeting was held at Tokai site of JAERI on January 6th and 7th in 2005, having 24 oral presentations, and was successfully carried out with as many as 90 participants and lively discussions among scientists from all the fields of heavy-ion science, including solid-sate physics, nuclear physics and chemistry, and accelerator physics. This summary is the proceedings of this meeting. We would like to thank all the staffs of the accelerators section, participants and office workers in the Department of Materials Science for their support. The 24 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. Challenges and Opportunities in Developing the Hawaiian Scientific and Technical Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, James R.

    2012-01-01

    In searching for dark skies, persistently clear weather, and minimal atmospheric interference, astronomical observing sites are generally located in remote, mountainous locations, and usually far from large communities. Such locations often have weak economies, and shallow workforce pools in the technical and administrative areas generally needed by the observatories. This leads to a problem, and an opportunity, for both the observatories and their local communities. Importing employees from far away locations is costly, leads to high turnover, and deprives the community of economic benefits and the sense of fealty with the observatories that would naturally result if local people occupied these comparatively good paying jobs. While by no means unique, the observatories on Mauna Kea Hawai`i are a clear example of this dual dilemma. This presentation will report findings from a model workforce needs assessment survey of all the Mauna Kea observatories, which has establish likely annual staffing requirements in several categories of technological and administrative support, including the educational entrance requirements. Results indicated that through 2023, 80% of observatory job openings on Hawai`i Island will be in technology and administration. Furthermore, the vast majority of these jobs will require only a two-year or four-year college degree in a relevant field as an entrance requirement. Efforts to realign the existing resources to better meet these common needs will be discussed, including the highly successful partnership between County of Hawai`i Workforce Development Board, the Mauna Kea observatories, the local K-12 systems, Hawai`i Community College, the University of Hawai`i Hilo, and a number of informal education and workplace experience programs. This collaboration has resulted in no fewer than three, interlocked, community programs have stepped up to meet this challenge to the benefit of both the local community and the observatories.

  11. Data science from scratch

    CERN Document Server

    Grus, Joel

    2015-01-01

    This is a first-principles-based, practical introduction to the fundamentals of data science aimed at the mathematically-comfortable reader with some programming skills. The book covers: * The important parts of Python to know * The important parts of Math / Probability / Statistics to know * The basics of data science * How commonly-used data science techniques work (learning by implementing them) * What is Map-Reduce and how to do it in Python * Other applications such as NLP, Network Analysis, and more

  12. COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVENPORT,J.

    2004-11-01

    The Brookhaven Computational Science Center brings together researchers in biology, chemistry, physics, and medicine with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to exploit the remarkable opportunities for scientific discovery which have been enabled by modern computers. These opportunities are especially great in computational biology and nanoscience, but extend throughout science and technology and include for example, nuclear and high energy physics, astrophysics, materials and chemical science, sustainable energy, environment, and homeland security.

  13. Towards Data Science

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Yangyong; Xiong, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Currently, a huge amount of data is being rapidly generated in cyberspace. Datanature (all data in cyberspace) is forming due to a data explosion. Exploring the patterns and rules in datanature is necessary but difficult. A new discipline called Data Science is coming. It provides a type of novel research method (a data-intensive method) for natural and social sciences and goes beyond computer science in researching data. This paper presents the challenges presented by data and discusses what...

  14. Data-intensive science

    CERN Document Server

    Critchlow, Terence

    2013-01-01

    Data-intensive science has the potential to transform scientific research and quickly translate scientific progress into complete solutions, policies, and economic success. But this collaborative science is still lacking the effective access and exchange of knowledge among scientists, researchers, and policy makers across a range of disciplines. Bringing together leaders from multiple scientific disciplines, Data-Intensive Science shows how a comprehensive integration of various techniques and technological advances can effectively harness the vast amount of data being generated and significan

  15. NEWS: Why choose science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    National concerns over the uptake of science subjects and an analysis of how school science departments together with careers programmes influence students' subject choices feature in a recent report from the UK's National Institute for Careers Education and Counselling. It points out that decisions on science subjects are taken very early in pupils' education, often well before the implications of those choices can be clearly understood. If pupils are to be encouraged to keep science options open, then both science teachers and careers advisers have important roles to play. Physics is in fact singled out in the report's recommendations as in need of special attention, due to its perceived difficulty both within the double-award science course and also at A-level. The lack of qualified teachers in physics is noted as a problem for schools and the many initiatives to address these issues should be encouraged according to the report, but within an overall high-profile and well funded national strategy for developing science education in schools. The report also notes that science teachers do not feel able to keep up with career information, whilst few careers advisers have a science background and have little opportunity to build up their knowledge of science syllabuses or of science and engineering careers. More contact between both types of specialist is naturally advocated. Copies of the full report, Choosing Science at 16 by Mary Munro and David Elsom, are available from NICEC, Sheraton House, Castle Park, Cambridge CB3 0AX on receipt of an A4 stamped (70p) addressed envelope. A NICEC briefing summary is also available from the same address (20p stamp required).

  16. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  17. Shark Citizen Science

    OpenAIRE

    Bear, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, academic science has used graduate students to collect data in many cases, but community science, the term by which citizen science is also known, has revolutionized the process by which large amounts of data can be collected accurately by large numbers of non-scientists under the training and mentorship of scientists. There has been some discussion in the scientific community about whether the data collected by citizen scientists is as scientifically valid as data collected by...

  18. School of Political Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Voskresensky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of all the departments of political sciences in Russia - the Department at MGIMO-University is probably the oldest one. In fact it is very young. While MGIMO-University is celebrating its 70th anniversary the Department of Political Sciences turns 15. Despite the fact that political analyst is a relatively new profession in Russia, it acquired a legal standing only in the 1990s, the political science school at MGIMO-University is almost as old as the university itself. Unlike many other universities, focused on the training teachers of political science or campaign managers MGIMO-University has developed its own unique political science school of "full cycle", where students grow into political sciences from a zero level up to the highest qualifications as teachers and researchers, and campaign managers, consultants and practitioners. The uniqueness of the school of political science at MGIMO-University allows its institutional incarnation -the Department of Political Science - to offer prospective studentsa training in a wide range of popular specialties and specializations, while ensuring a deep theoretical and practical basis of the training. Studying at MGIMO-University traditionally includes enhanced linguistic component (at least two foreign languages. For students of international relations and political science learning foreign languages is particularly important.It allows not only to communicate, but also to produce expertise and knowledge in foreign languages.

  19. Data science for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Pierson, Lillian

    2015-01-01

    Discover how data science can help you gain in-depth insight into your business - the easy way! Jobs in data science abound, but few people have the data science skills needed to fill these increasingly important roles in organizations. Data Science For Dummies is the perfect starting point for IT professionals and students interested in making sense of their organization's massive data sets and applying their findings to real-world business scenarios. From uncovering rich data sources to managing large amounts of data within hardware and software limitations, ensuring consistency in report

  20. THE NATURE OF SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Trigg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study defines social science and its specific in contrast with history, psychology and physical sciences. Also it emphasizes the importance of the idea of a 'value-free' science for the social sciences is clear. Social scientists want to be seen to establish 'facts' about society in the same way that they think that a physicist or a chemist uncovers 'facts'. Using the theories of Hempel, Quine, Feyerabend and Kuhn, it addresses a series of questions concening scientific theories, their roles for the scientific explanation and the scientific progress.

  1. WFIRST Project Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The WFIRST Project is a joint effort between GSFC and JPL. The project scientists and engineers are working with the community Science Definition Team to define the requirements and initial design of the mission. The objective is to design an observatory that meets the WFIRST science goals of the Astr02010 Decadal Survey for minimum cost. This talk will be a report of recent project activities including requirements flowdown, detector array development, science simulations, mission costing and science outreach. Details of the interim mission design relevant to scientific capabilities will be presented.

  2. Practical data science cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Ojeda, Tony; Bengfort, Benjamin; Dasgupta, Abhijit

    2014-01-01

    If you are an aspiring data scientist who wants to learn data science and numerical programming concepts through hands-on, real-world project examples, this is the book for you. Whether you are brand new to data science or you are a seasoned expert, you will benefit from learning about the structure of data science projects, the steps in the data science pipeline, and the programming examples presented in this book. Since the book is formatted to walk you through the projects with examples and explanations along the way, no prior programming experience is required.

  3. BER Science Network Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alapaty, Kiran; Allen, Ben; Bell, Greg; Benton, David; Brettin, Tom; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Cotter, Steve; Crivelli, Silvia; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Richard; Tierney, Brian; Goodwin, Ken; Gregurick, Susan; Hicks, Susan; Johnston, Bill; de Jong, Bert; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Livny, Miron; Markowitz, Victor; McGraw, Jim; McCord, Raymond; Oehmen, Chris; Regimbal, Kevin; Shipman, Galen; Strand, Gary; Flick, Jeff; Turnbull, Susan; Williams, Dean; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-11-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2010 ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research, of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by BER. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section. A number of common themes emerged from the case studies and workshop discussions. One is that BER science, like many other disciplines, is becoming more and more distributed and collaborative in nature. Another common theme is that data set sizes are exploding. Climate Science in particular is on the verge of needing to manage exabytes of data, and Genomics is on the verge of a huge paradigm shift in the number of sites with sequencers and the amount of sequencer data being generated.

  4. Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — PNNL's Physical Sciences Laboratory (PSL) houses 22 research laboratories for conducting a wide-range of research including catalyst formulation, chemical analysis,...

  5. Increasing Robotic Science Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The principal objectives are to demonstrate robotic-based scientific investigations and resource prospecting, and develop and demonstrate modular science instrument...

  6. Great Lakes Science Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Since 1927, Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) research has provided critical information for the sound management of Great Lakes fish populations and other important...

  7. History of information science

    OpenAIRE

    Buckland, MK; Liu, Z

    1998-01-01

    This informative volume concentrates on the following areas: Historiography of Information Science; Paul Otlet and His Successors; Techniques, Tools, and Systems; People and Organizations; Theoretical Topics; and Literature.

  8. Handbook of information science

    CERN Document Server

    Stock, Wolfgang G

    2013-01-01

    Dealing with information is one of the vital skills in thetwenty-first century. It takes a fair degree of information savvy to create, represent and supply information as well as to search for and retrieve relevant knowledge. This Handbook is a basic work of information science, providing a comprehensive overview of the current state of information retrieval and knowledge representation. It addresses readers from all professions and scientific disciplines, but particularly scholars, practitioners and students of Information Science, Library Science, Computer Science, Information Management, an

  9. Science's social responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2014-01-01

    like Science in the City in which the science institutions communicate and discuss science with interested citizens. It can be done in relation to strategic plans: solving medical, environmental, socio-political problems for which the state or commercial actors provide funding. But it can also be what...... this is kind of funny, it has some kind of serious core to it in that part of science responsibility to society is to figure out the meaning of the questions that we want to pose – and furthermore: which questions can be asked. Doing this may not be limited to short-term processes, to strategic considerations...

  10. Assessment in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustaman, N. Y.

    2017-09-01

    An analyses study focusing on scientific reasoning literacy was conducted to strengthen the stressing on assessment in science by combining the important of the nature of science and assessment as references, higher order thinking and scientific skills in assessing science learning as well. Having background in developing science process skills test items, inquiry in its many form, scientific and STEM literacy, it is believed that inquiry based learning should first be implemented among science educators and science learners before STEM education can successfully be developed among science teachers, prospective teachers, and students at all levels. After studying thoroughly a number of science researchers through their works, a model of scientific reasoning was proposed, and also simple rubrics and some examples of the test items were introduced in this article. As it is only the beginning, further studies will still be needed in the future with the involvement of prospective science teachers who have interests in assessment, either on authentic assessment or in test items development. In balance usage of alternative assessment rubrics, as well as valid and reliable test items (standard) will be needed in accelerating STEM education in Indonesia.

  11. [How to distinguish science from non science].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antiseri, D

    1991-01-01

    The questions discussed in this article concern the demarcation between scientific theories and non scientific theories. The problem is not only an epistemological one, but it implies also ethical and social consequences. For example, is it acceptable for an European country to allow the practice of non-traditional medicines which are not yet considered officially as scientific? According to Karl Popper, the author discusses the following points: 1. Is there a logical asymmetry between the verification and the falsification of a theory? 2. The criterion of falsifiability demarcates science from non-science. 3. There is no automatic method to find new theories. 4. The facts of science are discovered by scientists through theories. 5. The scientific method is only one and it consists of these three steps: problems-theories-refutations. The article's core is that the rational physician is the one who kills (falsifies) his own diagnosis instead of his own patients.

  12. Nuclear reactions: Science and trans-science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    This book is a collection of essays written by Weinberg over the span of his scientific and administrative career. A sound theorist, he was introduced to nuclear physics as part of the Manhattan project, and assumed administrative responsibilities during that project. His career has allowed him to make valuable contributions in a broad range of fields. These essays touch on topics of interest to him, concern to the country, and of profound import for society as it exists today. They are grouped into five sections: science and trans-science; scientific administration; strategic defense and arms control; time, energy and resources; nuclear energy

  13. Energy, information science, and systems science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Terry C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mercer - Smith, Janet A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-02-01

    This presentation will discuss global trends in population, energy consumption, temperature changes, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy security programs at Los Alamos National Laboratory. LANL's capabilities support vital national security missions and plans for the future. LANL science supports the energy security focus areas of impacts of Energy Demand Growth, Sustainable Nuclear Energy, and Concepts and Materials for Clean Energy. The innovation pipeline at LANL spans discovery research through technology maturation and deployment. The Lab's climate science capabilities address major issues. Examples of modeling and simulation for the Coupled Ocean and Sea Ice Model (COSIM) and interactions of turbine wind blades and turbulence will be given.

  14. Theoretical computer science and the natural sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Bruno

    2005-12-01

    I present some fundamental theorems in computer science and illustrate their relevance in Biology and Physics. I do not assume prerequisites in mathematics or computer science beyond the set N of natural numbers, functions from N to N, the use of some notational conveniences to describe functions, and at some point, a minimal amount of linear algebra and logic. I start with Cantor's transcendental proof by diagonalization of the non enumerability of the collection of functions from natural numbers to the natural numbers. I explain why this proof is not entirely convincing and show how, by restricting the notion of function in terms of discrete well defined processes, we are led to the non algorithmic enumerability of the computable functions, but also-through Church's thesis-to the algorithmic enumerability of partial computable functions. Such a notion of function constitutes, with respect to our purpose, a crucial generalization of that concept. This will make easy to justify deep and astonishing (counter-intuitive) incompleteness results about computers and similar machines. The modified Cantor diagonalization will provide a theory of concrete self-reference and I illustrate it by pointing toward an elementary theory of self-reproduction-in the Amoeba's way-and cellular self-regeneration-in the flatworm Planaria's way. To make it easier, I introduce a very simple and powerful formal system known as the Schoenfinkel-Curry combinators. I will use the combinators to illustrate in a more concrete way the notion introduced above. The combinators, thanks to their low-level fine grained design, will also make it possible to make a rough but hopefully illuminating description of the main lessons gained by the careful observation of nature, and to describe some new relations, which should exist between computer science, the science of life and the science of inert matter, once some philosophical, if not theological, hypotheses are made in the cognitive sciences. In the

  15. Romanticism and Romantic Science: Their Contribution to Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzigeorgiou, Yannis; Schulz, Roland

    2014-01-01

    The unique contributions of romanticism and romantic science have been generally ignored or undervalued in history and philosophy of science studies and science education. Although more recent research in history of science has come to delineate the value of both topics for the development of modern science, their merit for the educational field…

  16. Home Culture, Science, School and Science Learning: Is Reconciliation Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aik-Ling

    2011-01-01

    In response to Meyer and Crawford's article on how nature of science and authentic science inquiry strategies can be used to support the learning of science for underrepresented students, I explore the possibly of reconciliation between the cultures of school, science, school science as well as home. Such reconciliation is only possible when…

  17. Adapting Practices of Science Journalism to Foster Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polman, Joseph L.; Newman, Alan; Saul, Ellen Wendy; Farrar, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe how the practices of expert science journalists enable them to act as "competent outsiders" to science. We assert that selected science journalism practices can be used to design reform-based science instruction; these practices not only foster science literacy that is useful in daily life, but also…

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Detached M dwarf eclipsing binaries in WTS (Birkby+, 2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkby, J.; Nefs, B.; Hodgkin, S.; Kovacs, G.; Sipocz, B.; Pinfield, D.; Snellen, I.; Mislis, D.; Murgas, F.; Lodieu, N.; de Mooij, E.; Goulding, N.; Cruz, P.; Stoev, H.; Cappetta, M.; Palle, E.; Barrado, D.; Saglia, R.; Martin, E.; Pavlenko, Y.

    2013-04-01

    We identified our new MEBs using observations from the WTS (WFCAM Transit Survey). The WTS is an ongoing photometric monitoring campaign that operates on the 3.8-m United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. The survey began on 2007 August 5, and the eclipsing systems presented in this paper are all found in just one of the four WTS fields. Photometric follow-up observations to help test and refine our light-curve models were obtained in the Sloan i band using the Wide-Field Camera (WFC) on the 2.5-m INT at Roque de Los Muchachos, La Palma. (6 data files).

  19. Interstellar ice grains in the Taurus molecular clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittet, D.C.B.; Bode, M.F.; Baines, D.W.T.; Evans, A.

    1983-01-01

    Observations made in November 1981 using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) at Mauna Kea of the 3 μm ice absorption feature in the spectra of several obscured stars in the Taurus interstellar clouds are reported. The feature correlated in strength with extinction at visual wavelengths (Asub(v)), and is present in stars with Asub(v) as low as 4-6 mag. Ice may be widespread in the Taurus clouds, vindicating ideas on grain composition and growth first reported nearly 50 yr ago. (author)

  20. Planetary submillimeter spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    The aim is to develop a comprehensive observational and analytical program to study solar system physics and meterology by measuring molecular lines in the millimeter and submillimeter spectra of planets and comets. A primary objective is to conduct observations with new JPL and Caltech submillimeter receivers at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. A secondary objective is to continue to monitor the time variable planetary phenomena (e.g., Jupiter and Uranus) at centimeter wavelength using the NASA antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN).

  1. Submillimeter (Lambda < 1 mm) Continuum Imaging at CSO: A Retrospective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, C. Darren

    2009-01-01

    This contribution is submitted on behalf of all students, postdocs, and staff inspired and supported by Tom Phillips to build an instrument and then wait for low precipitable water vapor. Over the 20 plus years of its existence, the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) has seen a succession of ever more powerful detectors to measure continuum emission in the shortest submillimeter bands available from Mauna Kea. These instruments have been trained on the nearest solar systems, the most distant galaxies, and objects in between. I show several images collected over the 5 plus year history of the SHARC II camera and anecdotal comparison with past work.

  2. Modeling update for the Thirty Meter Telescope laser guide star dual-conjugate adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Luc; Wang, Lianqi; Ellerbroek, Brent

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the modeling efforts undertaken in the past couple of years to derive wavefront error (WFE) performance estimates for the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), which is the facility laser guide star (LGS) dual-conjugate adaptive optics (AO) system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). The estimates describe the expected performance of NFIRAOS as a function of seeing on Mauna Kea, zenith angle, and galactic latitude (GL). They have been developed through a combination of integrated AO simulations, side analyses, allocations, lab and lidar experiments.

  3. Detection of the J = 6→5 transition of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, P.F.; Erickson, N.R.; Fetterman, H.R.; Clifton, B.J.; Peck, D.D.; Tannenwald, P.E.; Koepf, G.A.; Buhl, D.; McAvoy, N.

    1981-01-01

    The J = 6→5 rotational transition of carbon monoxide has been detected in emission from the KL ''plateau source'' in the Orion molecular cloud. The corrected peak antenna temperature is 100 K, and the FWHM line width is 26 km s -1 . These observations were carried out using the 3 m telescope of the NASA IRTF (Infrared Telescope Facility) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and constitute the first astronomical data obtained at submillimeter wavelengths with a heterodyne system using a laser local oscillator. Our data support the idea that the high-velocity dispersion CO in Orion is optically thin and set a lower limit to its temperature of approx.180 K

  4. Fermentation. Third World Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Natalie; Hughes, Wyn

    This unit, developed by the Third World Science Project, is designed to add a multicultural element to existing science syllabi (for students aged 11-16) in the United Kingdom. The project seeks to develop an appreciation of the: boundless fascination of the natural world; knowledge, skills, and expertise possessed by men/women everywhere;…

  5. Carnap on unified science

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klev, Ansten

    -, č. 59 (2016), s. 53-67 ISSN 0039-3681 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Rudolf Carnap * Unity of Science * Logical Empiricism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.723, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0039368116300206

  6. Ground Pollution Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong Min; Bae, Jae Geun

    1997-08-01

    This book deals with ground pollution science and soil science, classification of soil and fundamentals, ground pollution and human, ground pollution and organic matter, ground pollution and city environment, environmental problems of the earth and ground pollution, soil pollution and development of geological features of the ground, ground pollution and landfill of waste, case of measurement of ground pollution.

  7. "Science" Rejects Postmodernism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Pierre, Elizabeth Adams

    2002-01-01

    The National Research Council report, "Scientific Research in Education," claims to present an inclusive view of sciences in responding to federal attempts to legislate educational research. This article asserts that it narrowly defines science as positivism and methodology as quantitative, rejecting postmodernism and omitting other theories. Uses…

  8. Comment: "Science" Rejects Postmodernism

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Pierre, Elizabeth Adams

    2002-01-01

    The National Research Council report "Scientific Research in Education" claims to present an inclusive view of science as it responds to federal government attempts to legislate educational research. This author argues, however, that the report in fact narrowly defines "science" as positivism and "methodology" as quantitative. These definitions…

  9. INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    2017年9月21日 ... library. Please pay the full subscription fee for renewal/new order before 31 December 2017. If you wish, you may indicate your intent to subscribe our ... School & Colleges. Payment for Current Science Journal should be made in favour of Current Science Association, Bengaluru. Subscription Payment ...

  10. Teaching Science through Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Children find comfort in stories. They are familiar, accessible and entertaining. By teaching science through narratives, we can provide that same comfort and access to scientific content to children of all ages. In this article, I will discuss how, through the use of narratives in science instruction, we can provide students with a deeper…

  11. Science sharpens your mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, R.H.G.

    2003-01-01

    Working in research gives the need to define your thinking. Your own field of work determines your scope of thinking. Science means generalisation of personal experiences in generally accepted models and paradigms. The difference between working in a project with stakeholders and science is the

  12. Democratizing Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Jane; Goode, Joanna; Ryoo, Jean J.

    2015-01-01

    Computer science programs are too often identified with a narrow stratum of the student population, often white or Asian boys who have access to computers at home. But because computers play such a huge role in our world today, all students can benefit from the study of computer science and the opportunity to build skills related to computing. The…

  13. Science and Technology Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baark, Erik

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years.......This paper examines the status of science and technology in Mongolia, and discusses the policy issues which have emerged with the transition to market economy in recent years....

  14. Confronting Ambiguity in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Katherine; Harlow, Danielle; Whitmer, Ali; Gaines, Steven

    2015-01-01

    People are regularly confronted with environmental and science-related issues presented to them in newspapers, on television, or even in their own doctor's office. Often the information they use to inform their decisions on matters of science may be ambiguous and contradictory. This article presents an activity that investigates how students deal…

  15. The Significance of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielke, R.

    2002-05-01

    Whether global warming, terrestrial carbon sinks, ecosystem functioning, genetically modified organisms, cloning, vaccination or chemicals in the environment, science is increasingly the battlefield on which political advocates, not least lawyers and commercial interests, manipulate `facts' to their preferred direction, which fosters the politicization of science. Debate putatively over science increasingly relies on tactics such as ad hominem attacks and criticism of process (for example, peer review or sources of funding), through paid advertisements, press releases and other publicity campaigns. As political battles are waged through `science', many scientists are willing to adopt tactics of demagoguery and character assassination as well as, or even instead of, reasoned argument, as in aspects of debate over genetically modified crops or global warming. Science is becoming yet another playing field for power politics, complete with the trappings of media spin and a win-at-all-costs attitude. Sadly, much of what science can offer policymakers, and hence society, is lost. This talk will use cases from the atmospheric sciences as points of departure to explore the politicization of science from several perspectives and address questions such as: Is it a problem? For whom and what outcomes? What are the alternatives to business-as-usual?

  16. Building Collections: Science Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapp, JoAnn Vergona

    2005-01-01

    Fantasy and science fiction are two genres that are products of imagination. Both present alternate worlds governed by their own laws and values, but it is the plausibility of events in each world that sets the two apart. In fantasy, events happen by magic or inexplicable means. In science fiction, events could happen based on advanced…

  17. Weekend Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Karey

    2012-01-01

    Weekend plans...every family has them. Whether it's fishing, swimming, or simply picnicking by the river, water plays a significant role in many recreational endeavors. Encouraging students and their families to use their "scientific eyes" to explore these wonderful wet places is what Weekend Science Project is all about. Weekend Science Project…

  18. The Sound of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  19. Committee on Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCIENCE ADVISOR WASHINGTON, DC -- Today, House Science Committee Chairman Sherwood Boehlert (R-NY23) and Advisor nominee Dr. John H. Marburger. The Senate Commerce Committee has scheduled a nomination hearing for this afternoon, and Boehlert and Grucci have been invited to testify. Dr. Marburger was nominated

  20. Science-brobygning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irminger, Signe S.; Jessen, Caroline Z.; Svendsen, Pernille Maj

    2013-01-01

    Formålet med projekt Science-brobygning er, at indsamle og begrebsliggøre viden om brobygning i Danmark indenfor Science. Baseret på undersøgelser og indsamlig af viden om brobygningsaktiviteter i overgangen mellem gymnasiet og universitetet, præsenterer projektet en række anbefalinger i forhold...

  1. The Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, Berry

    2013-01-01

    The view that science and religion are conflicting ways of understanding the world is widely and frequently presented in the media and may be the view held by most children. It is not the only view, however, and there are many scientists who have a religious faith. Usefully perhaps, for those who are interested in science education, examining…

  2. When Science Soars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Kate A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes an inquiry-based activity involving paper airplanes that has been used as a preservice training tool for instructors of a Native American summer science camp, and as an activity for demonstrating inquiry-based methods in a secondary science methods course. Focuses on Bernoulli's principle which describes how fluids move over and around…

  3. Strengthening Science Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Todd; Melville, Wayne; Bartley, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Teachers do not work in a vacuum. They are, in most cases, part of a science department in which teachers and the chairperson have important roles in science education reform. Current reform is shaped by national standards documents that emphasize the pedagogical and conceptual importance of best practices framed by constructivism and focused on…

  4. Adding SPICE to Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author would like to raise awareness of GK?12 programs by sharing experiences from SPICE (Science Partners in Inquiry-based Collaborative Education), a partnership between the University of Florida and Alachua County Public Schools. SPICE pairs nine graduate student fellows with nine middle school science teachers. Each…

  5. Theory and computational science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, P.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical and computational science carried out at the Daresbury Laboratory in 1984/5 is detailed in the Appendix to the Daresbury Annual Report. The Theory, Computational Science and Applications Groups, provide support work for the experimental projects conducted at Daresbury. Use of the FPS-164 processor is also described. (U.K.)

  6. Short-Form Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Beth; Hedwall, Melissa; Dirks, Andrew; Stretch, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Reading provides a unique window into the history and nature of science and the norms of scientific communication and supports students in developing critical-reading skills in engaging ways. Effective use of reading promotes a spirit of inquiry and an understanding of science concepts while also addressing expectations of the Common Core State…

  7. Encyclopedia of Rose Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, A.; Debener, T.; Gudin, S.; Byrne, D.B.; Cairns, T.; Vries, de D.P.; Dubois, L.A.M.; Forkmann, G.; Fruchter, M.; Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Horst, R.K.; Jay, M.; Kwakkenbosch, T.A.M.; Pemberton, B.; Put, H.M.C.; Rajapakse, S.; Reid, M.; Schum, A.; Shorthouse, J.D.; Ueda, Y.; Vainstein, A.; Pol, van de P.A.; Zieslin, N.

    2003-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Rose Science brings together a wealth of information on the rose, long treasured for its captivating perfumes and splendid colors. Now, more than ever, science plays a central place in the production of this flower at the center of one of the world's biggest floricultural

  8. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 4. Dawn of Science - All was Light - 11. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 17 Issue 4 April 2012 pp 324-329. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/04/0324-0329. Keywords.

  9. Future of nuclear science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A report is presented by the Ad Hoc Panel on the Future of Nuclear Science on its assessment of the scientific objectives and unexplored questions of nuclear science and recommendations of the manpower, funding, and facilities required to realize its full potential. Nuclear research and its facilities and budgetary, sociological, and application aspects of this research are considered

  10. NATO and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Henry

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the Third Dimension of NATO. Presses for increased efforts to overcome the disparity in the rate of scientific development among the countries of the alliance. Discusses scientific nobility, the rise of European science, science for stability, environmental protection, and the changed scientific climate. (CW)

  11. K-6 Science Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blueford, J. R.; And Others

    A unified science approach is incorporated in this K-6 curriculum mode. The program is organized into six major cycles. These include: (1) science, math, and technology cycle; (2) universe cycle; (3) life cycle; (4) water cycle; (5) plate tectonics cycle; and (6) rock cycle. An overview is provided of each cycle's major concepts. The topic…

  12. Beyond Big Science

    CERN Multimedia

    Boyle, Alan

    2007-01-01

    "Billion-dollar science projects end up being about much more than the science, whether we're talking about particle physics, or fusion research, or the international space station, or missions to the moon and beyond, or the next-generation radio telescope." (3 pages)

  13. Science and Technology Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    CONTENTS,1992, Vol 35, Iss AUG, pp 3 12 Garfield E, "Parascience, Pseudoscience , and Political Power Holton,Gerald on the Antiscience Phenomenon And Why...1993, Vol 25, Iss JUN, pp 3 9 Garfield E, "The Science Religion Connection an Introduction to Science and Religion From Warfare over Sociobiology to a

  14. Archives: African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 67 ... Archives: African Health Sciences. Journal Home > Archives: African Health Sciences. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 67 Items, 1 2 > >> ...

  15. Science and Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John W.

    2001-10-01

    Science and art diverge in that art usually represents a single individual's conception and viewpoint, even when many others are involved in bringing a work to fruition, whereas science progresses by extending consensus among those knowledgeable in a field. Art usually communicates at an emotional level. It values individual expression and impact on the emotions at the expense of objectivity. Science, especially in its archival record, values objectivity and reproducibility and does not express the imagination and joy of discovery inherent in its practice. This is too bad, because it does not give a realistic picture of how science is really done and because individuality and emotion are inherently more interesting than consensus. Leaving out the personal, emotional side can make science seem boring and pedestrian, when exactly the opposite is true. In teaching science we need to remember that communication always benefits from imagination and esthetic sense. If we present science artistically and imaginatively, as well as objectively and precisely, students will develop a more complete understanding of what science and scientists are about--one that is likely to capture their imaginations, emotions, and best efforts.

  16. Set Sail with Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutar, Vicki; Parr, Rachael; Prescott, Ron; Di Iorio, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 and 2008, three science teachers participated in research "cruises" to the Juan de Fuca Ridge off the coast of Washington. This opportunity was made possible by a National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER grant awarded to Daniela Di Iorio, an oceanographer at the University of Georgia in Athens. The cruises helped renew their…

  17. Making Science Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lewis

    1981-01-01

    Presents a viewpoint concerning the impact of recent scientific advances on society. Discusses biological discoveries, space exploration, computer technology, development of new astronomical theories, the behavioral sciences, and basic research. Challenges to keeping science current with technological advancement are also discussed. (DS)

  18. Women in Science Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harassment of Women: Climate, Culture, and Consequences in Academic Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine June 12, 2018, 11 am - 12:30 pm ET Washington, DC Report Discussion Sexual Harassment of Women: Climate . EDUCATION Elementary and Secondary Mathematics and Science Education High School Graduates who Completed

  19. Fermilab | Science | Particle Accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    perhaps most widely felt in the development of the World Wide Web and in the superconducting wire and Fermilab Search Toggle Fermilab Navbar Toggle Search Search Home About Science Jobs Contact Phone public events Fermilab Public Events Lederman Science Center Fermilab Natural Areas Folk and Barn Dancing

  20. Nuclear science research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Research activities in nuclear science carried out during 1976 are summarized. Research centers around nuclear structure and the application of nuclear techniques to solid state science, materials, engineering, chemistry, biology, and medicine. Reactor and accelerator operations are reported. (E.C.B.)

  1. Science Learning Centres Roundup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    A recent YouGov poll indicated that almost half of eight to 18-year-olds aspire to a career in science. The latest Association of Colleges enrolment survey indicates a large increase in uptake of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) at further education (FE) colleges. These reports, along with other findings that suggest an…

  2. NASA science communications strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, the Clinton Administration issued a report, 'Science in the National Interest', which identified new national science goals. Two of the five goals are related to science communications: produce the finest scientists and engineers for the 21st century, and raise scientific and technological literacy of all Americans. In addition to the guidance and goals set forth by the Administration, NASA has been mandated by Congress under the 1958 Space Act to 'provide for the widest practicable and appropriate dissemination concerning its activities and the results thereof'. In addition to addressing eight Goals and Plans which resulted from a January 1994 meeting between NASA and members of the broader scientific, education, and communications community on the Public Communication of NASA's Science, the Science Communications Working Group (SCWG) took a comprehensive look at the way the Agency communicates its science to ensure that any changes the Agency made were long-term improvements. The SCWG developed a Science Communications Strategy for NASA and a plan to implement the Strategy. This report outlines a strategy from which effective science communications programs can be developed and implemented across the agency. Guiding principles and strategic themes for the strategy are provided, with numerous recommendations for improvement discussed within the respective themes of leadership, coordination, integration, participation, leveraging, and evaluation.

  3. What is Science?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, H.

    2009-01-01

    Helen Quinn is a theoretical particle physicist at SLAC. Throughout her career, she has been passionately involved in science education and public understanding of science. In talking about science, whether to the public or to students, we scientists often assume that they share with us a common idea of science. In my experience that is often not the case. To oversimplify, scientists think of science both as a process for discovering properties of nature, and as the resulting body of knowledge, whereas most people seem to think of science, or perhaps scientists, as an authority that provides some information--just one more story among the many that they use to help make sense of their world. Can we close that gap in understanding? Middle school teachers typically spend a day or so teaching something called the scientific method, but the process by which scientific ideas are developed and tested is messier and much more interesting than that typical capsule description. Some remarkable features of the process are seldom stressed in teaching science, nor are they addressed in explaining any one piece of science to the public. My goal in this column is to provide some ideas for closing that gap in understanding, and to encourage scientists and teachers to communicate about the process as they discuss scientific work

  4. Measuring Adolescent Science Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-01-01

    To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ("Gymnasium") completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one…

  5. Is Psychology a Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 11. Is Psychology a Science ? Kamala V Mukunda. General Article Volume 2 Issue 11 November 1997 pp 59-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/11/0059-0066 ...

  6. Dawn of Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 7. Dawn of Science-The Galilean World. T Padmanabhan. Series Article Volume 16 Issue 7 July 2011 pp 663-669. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/07/0663-0669. Keywords.

  7. The Science of Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fett, Paula

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, "math and science" has been the mantra for many educators and business leaders who warn of an urgent need to encourage the pursuit of these and other technological disciplines or risk losing ground in the global economy. Simply emphasizing the need for "math and science" expertise does not, however, encourage…

  8. Science communication for uncertian science and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sanden, M.C.A.; Flipse, S.M.

    2016-01-01

    Differences in viewpoints between science and society, like in for example the HPV-vaccination debate, should be considered from a socio-technical system perspective, and not solely from a boundary perspective between the lay public, medical doctors and scientists. Recent developments in the

  9. Focused Science Delivery makes science make sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel W. Scheuering; Jamie. Barbour

    2004-01-01

    Science does not exist in a vacuum, but reading scientific publications might make you think it does. Although the policy and management implications of their findings could often touch a much wider audience, many scientists write only for the few people in the world who share their area of expertise. In addition, most scientific publications provide information that...

  10. Differentiating Science Instruction: Secondary science teachers' practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeng, Jennifer L.; Bell, Randy L.

    2015-09-01

    This descriptive study investigated the implementation practices of secondary science teachers who differentiate instruction. Participants included seven high school science teachers purposefully selected from four different schools located in a mid-Atlantic state. Purposeful selection ensured participants included differentiated instruction (DI) in their lesson implementation. Data included semi-structured interviews and field notes from a minimum of four classroom observations, selected to capture the variety of differentiation strategies employed. These data were analyzed using a constant-comparative approach. Each classroom observation was scored using the validated Differentiated Instruction Implementation Matrix-Modified, which captured both the extent to which critical indicators of DI were present in teachers' instruction and the performance levels at which they engaged in these components of DI. Results indicated participants implemented a variety of differentiation strategies in their classrooms with varying proficiency. Evidence suggested all participants used instructional modifications that required little advance preparation to accommodate differences in students' interests and learning profile. Four of the seven participants implemented more complex instructional strategies that required substantial advance preparation by the teacher. Most significantly, this study provides practical strategies for in-service science teachers beginning to differentiate instruction and recommendations for professional development and preservice science teacher education.

  11. JPRS Report, Science & Technology USSR: Life Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    intestinal and renal colic and peritonitis) and 4 diseases closely simulating these (acute gastritis , food poisoning, myocardial infarction...Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Medicine, USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, Leningrad] [Abstract] Histological and histochemical studies...the histological impression of rccip- functional integration. Figures 4; references 25: 5 Rus- rocal connections. A continuum was evident

  12. CSIR ScienceScope: Life sciences

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available modern science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Fight against diseases of developing world . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Aptamers: a new approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Medicinal chemistry – the missing link... the impact of biofuels on hydrology, food security, poverty relief and biodiversity conservation. A combination of process-based field measurements and modelling exercises are being undertaken. Tree genetics The reality of an ever-growing demand...

  13. History of Science and Science Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Cláudia; Guilherme, Elsa; Gaspar, Raquel; Boaventura, Diana

    2015-01-01

    The activities presented in this paper, which are addressed to elementary school, are focused on the pioneering work of the Portuguese King Carlos I in oceanography and involve the exploration of the exhibits belonging to two different science museums, the Aquarium Vasco da Gama and the Maritime Museum. Students were asked to study fish…

  14. Computer Science Professionals and Greek Library Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendrinos, Markos N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the current state of computer science penetration into librarianship in terms of both workplace and education issues. The shift from material libraries into digital libraries is mirrored in the corresponding shift from librarians into information scientists. New library data and metadata, as well as new automated…

  15. History of Science and Science Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Cláudia; Guilherme, Elsa; Gaspar, Raquel; Boaventura, Diana

    2015-10-01

    The activities presented in this paper, which are addressed to elementary school, are focused on the pioneering work of the Portuguese King Carlos I in oceanography and involve the exploration of the exhibits belonging to two different science museums, the Aquarium Vasco da Gama and the Maritime Museum. Students were asked to study fish adaptations to deep sea, through the exploration of a fictional story, based on historical data and based on the work of the King that served as a guiding script for all the subsequent tasks. In both museums, students had access to: historical collections of organisms, oceanographic biological sampling instruments, fish gears and ships. They could also observe the characteristics and adaptations of diverse fish species characteristic of deep sea. The present study aimed to analyse the impact of these activities on students' scientific knowledge, on their understanding of the nature of science and on the development of transversal skills. All students considered the project very popular. The results obtained suggest that the activity promoted not only the understanding of scientific concepts, but also stimulated the development of knowledge about science itself and the construction of scientific knowledge, stressing the relevance of creating activities informed by the history of science. As a final remark we suggest that the partnership between elementary schools and museums should be seen as an educational project, in which the teacher has to assume a key mediating role between the school and the museums.

  16. Communicating Your Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    Effective science communication can open doors, accelerate your career and even make you a better scientist. Part of being an effective and productive scientist means being an effective science communicator. The scientist must communicate their work in talks, posters, peer-reviewed papers, internal reports, proposals as well as to the broader public (including law makers). Despite the importance of communication, it has traditionally not been part of our core training as scientists. Today's science students are beginning to have more opportunities to formally develop their science communication skills. Fortunately, new and even more established scientists have a range of tools and resources at their disposal. In this presentation, we will share some of these resources, share our own experiences utilizing them, and provide some practical tools to improve your own science communication skills.

  17. Ghana Science Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entsua-Mensah, C.

    2004-01-01

    This issue of the Ghana Science Abstracts combines in one publication all the country's bibliographic output in science and technology. The objective is to provide a quick reference source to facilitate the work of information professionals, research scientists, lecturers and policy makers. It is meant to give users an idea of the depth and scope and results of the studies and projects carried out. The scope and coverage comprise research outputs, conference proceedings and periodical articles published in Ghana. It does not capture those that were published outside Ghana. Abstracts reported have been grouped under the following subject areas: Agriculture, Biochemistry, Biodiversity conservation, biological sciences, biotechnology, chemistry, dentistry, engineering, environmental management, forestry, information management, mathematics, medicine, physics, nuclear science, pharmacy, renewable energy and science education

  18. Journalism and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    that are likely to occur to journalistic attitudes - mirroring changing attitudes in the wider society - towards science and scientific researchers. Two journalistic conventions - those of science transmission and of investigative journalism - are presented and discussed in relation to the present drive towards...... commercialization within the world of science: how are journalists from these different schools of thought likely to respond to the trend of commercialization? Likely journalistic reactions could, while maintaining the authority of the scientific method, be expected to undermine public trust in scientists....... In the long term, this may lead to an erosion of the idea of knowledge as something that cannot simply be reduced o the outcome of negotiation between stakeholders. It is argued that science is likely to be depicted as a fallen angel. This may be countered, it is posited, by science turning human...

  19. Empirical Philosophy of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansnerus, Erika; Wagenknecht, Susann

    2015-01-01

    knowledge takes place through the integration of the empirical or historical research into the philosophical studies, as Chang, Nersessian, Thagard and Schickore argue in their work. Building upon their contributions we will develop a blueprint for an Empirical Philosophy of Science that draws upon...... qualitative methods from the social sciences in order to advance our philosophical understanding of science in practice. We will regard the relationship between philosophical conceptualization and empirical data as an iterative dialogue between theory and data, which is guided by a particular ‘feeling with......Empirical insights are proven fruitful for the advancement of Philosophy of Science, but the integration of philosophical concepts and empirical data poses considerable methodological challenges. Debates in Integrated History and Philosophy of Science suggest that the advancement of philosophical...

  20. Earth Science Informatics - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    2017-01-01

    Over the last 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in information management, there are an increasing number of individuals entering the field of information management as it applies to Geoscience and Remote Sensing data, and the field of informatics has come to its own. Informatics is the science and technology of applying computers and computational methods to the systematic analysis, management, interchange, and representation of science data, information, and knowledge. Informatics also includes the use of computers and computational methods to support decision making and applications. Earth Science Informatics (ESI, a.k.a. geoinformatics) is the application of informatics in the Earth science domain. ESI is a rapidly developing discipline integrating computer science, information science, and Earth science. Major national and international research and infrastructure projects in ESI have been carried out or are on-going. Notable among these are: the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), the European Commissions INSPIRE, the U.S. NSDI and Geospatial One-Stop, the NASA EOSDIS, and the NSF DataONE, EarthCube and Cyberinfrastructure for Geoinformatics. More than 18 departments and agencies in the U.S. federal government have been active in Earth science informatics. All major space agencies in the world, have been involved in ESI research and application activities. In the United States, the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP), whose membership includes over 180 organizations (government, academic and commercial) dedicated to managing, delivering and applying Earth science data, has been working on many ESI topics since 1998. The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS)s Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) has been actively coordinating the ESI activities among the space agencies.The talk will present an overview of current efforts in ESI, the role members of IEEE GRSS play, and discuss

  1. Science Fiction in the Political Science Classroom: A Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Clifford E.

    1977-01-01

    Science fiction can be used for introducing and analyzing political concepts at the undergraduate level for either a specialized theory-oriented course such as Political Science Fiction or an Introduction to Political Science course. (Author/RM)

  2. Science et Technique, Sciences de la Santé

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES. Science et Technique, Sciences de la Santé. Journal Home > Vol ... The journal is focused on health sciences in general. It publishes articles ...

  3. Inaugural Seminar on "Women in Science : A Career in Science"

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Venue : SMS Auditorium, Cochin University of Science and Technology, ... in science, particularly at the senior levels of teaching and research in India, has ... To explore avenues for entrepreneur development for women through Science.

  4. Computer Labs | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Structural Engineering Laboratory Water Resources Laboratory Computer Science Department Computer Science Academic Programs Computer Science Undergraduate Programs Computer Science Major Computer Science Tracks

  5. Computer Resources | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Structural Engineering Laboratory Water Resources Laboratory Computer Science Department Computer Science Academic Programs Computer Science Undergraduate Programs Computer Science Major Computer Science Tracks

  6. Computer Science | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Structural Engineering Laboratory Water Resources Laboratory Computer Science Department Computer Science Academic Programs Computer Science Undergraduate Programs Computer Science Major Computer Science Tracks

  7. Communicating knowledge in science, science journalism and art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kristian Hvidtfelt

    Richter. The specialized knowledge about the image is communicated in three very different contexts with three very different outcomes. The paper uses Niklas Luhmann's system theory to describe science, science journalism, and art as autonomous social subsystems of communication. Also, Luhmann's notions...... of irritation and interference are employed to frame an interpretation of the complex relations between communicating knowledge about the image in science, science journalism, and art. Even though the functional differentiation between the communication systems of science, science journalism, and art remains...... that Richter's Erster Blick ends up questioning the epistemological and ontological grounds for communication of knowledge in science and in science journalism....

  8. 76 FR 6163 - Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National Science and Technology Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-03

    ... Branch responses to the AFIS interoperability issues identified in the National Academy of Sciences 2009... OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National Science and Technology Council ACTION: Notice of meeting. Public input is requested concerning...

  9. 75 FR 4882 - Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National Science and Technology Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY Subcommittee on Forensic Science; Committee on Science; National Science and Technology Council ACTION: Notice of Panel Session. Public input is requested concerning appropriate Federal Executive Branch responses to the National Academy of Sciences 2009 report...

  10. How In-Service Science Teachers Integrate History and Nature of Science in Elementary Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacieminoglu, Esme

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the in-service science teachers' (IST) perceptions and practices about curriculum and integration of the history of science (HOS) and the nature of science (NOS) affect their science courses. For this aim, how ISTs integrated the NOS and HOS in their elementary science courses for understanding of…

  11. Basic Energy Sciences at NREL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S.

    2000-01-01

    NREL's Center for Basic Sciences performs fundamental research for DOE's Office of Science. Our mission is to provide fundamental knowledge in the basic sciences and engineering that will underpin new and improved renewable energy technologies

  12. Managing the space sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    In April 1994 the National Research Council received a request from NASA that the NRC's Space Studies Board provide guidance on questions relating to the management of NASA's programs in the space sciences. The issues raised in the request closely reflect questions posed in the agency's fiscal year 1994 Senate appropriations report. These questions included the following: Should all the NASA space science programs be gathered into a 'National Institute for Space Science'? What other organizational changes might be made to improve the coordination and oversight of NASA space science programs? What processes should be used for establishing interdisciplinary science priorities based on scientific merit and other criteria, while ensuring opportunities for newer fields and disciplines to emerge? And what steps could be taken to improve utilization of advanced technologies in future space scienc missions? This report details the findings of the Committee on the Future of Space Science (FOSS) and its three task groups: the Task Group on Alternative Organizations, Task Group on Research Prioritization, and the Task Group on Technology.

  13. Science on stage

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    During the opening ceremony, the audience was dazzled by a juggling show involving dramatic light effects. They also took away with them a teacher's sheet explaining some of the scientific concepts involved in juggling. Science teachers can sometimes be quite humorous when it comes to explaining serious matters, as those who took part in the 'Science on Stage' festival held at CERN from 21 to 25 November were able to see for themselves. The 500 or so participants from 27 different countries, mostly science teachers but also some university lecturers, science outreach specialists and students, had the opportunity to share their experience of the teaching of science. They also attended presentations and shows, took part in workshops and visited a fair with stands offering ideas on how to make school science lessons more appealing. The festival, organised by the EIROforum (a partnership between CERN, EFDA, ESA, ESO, EMBL, ESRF and ILL), marked the end of two years of projects for the promotion of science in vir...

  14. Globalization and Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencze, J. Lawrence; Carter, Lyn; Chiu, Mei-Hung; Duit, Reinders; Martin, Sonya; Siry, Christina; Krajcik, Joseph; Shin, Namsoo; Choi, Kyunghee; Lee, Hyunju; Kim, Sung-Won

    2013-06-01

    Processes of globalization have played a major role in economic and cultural change worldwide. More recently, there is a growing literature on rethinking science education research and development from the perspective of globalization. This paper provides a critical overview of the state and future development of science education research from the perspective of globalization. Two facets are given major attention. First, the further development of science education as an international research domain is critically analyzed. It seems that there is a predominance of researchers stemming from countries in which English is the native language or at least a major working language. Second, the significance of rethinking the currently dominant variants of science instruction from the perspectives of economic and cultural globalization is given major attention. On the one hand, it is argued that processes concerning globalization of science education as a research domain need to take into account the richness of the different cultures of science education around the world. At the same time, it is essential to develop ways of science instruction that make students aware of the various advantages, challenges and problems of international economic and cultural globalization.

  15. The Data Science Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzel, C.

    2017-12-01

    Modern scientific data continue to increase in volume, variety, and velocity, and though the hype of big data has subsided, its usefulness for scientific discovery has only just begun. Harnessing these data for new insights, more efficient decision making, and other mission critical uses requires a combination of skills and expertise, often labeled data science. Data science can be thought of as a combination of statistics, computation and the domain from which the data relate, and so is a true interdisciplinary pursuit. Though it has reaped large benefits in companies able to afford the high cost of the severely limited talent pool, it suffers from lack of support in mission driven organizations. Not purely in any one historical field, data science is proving difficult to find a home in traditional university academic departments and other research organizations. The landscape of data science efforts, from academia, industry and government, can be characterized as nascent, enthusiastic, uneven, and highly competitive. Part of the challenge in documenting these trends is the lack of agreement about what data science is, and who is a data scientist. Defining these terms too closely and too early runs the risk of cutting off a tremendous amount of productive creativity, but waiting too long leaves many people without a sustainable career, and many organizations without the necessary skills to gain value from their data. This talk will explore the landscape of data science efforts in the US, including how organizations are building and sustaining data science teams.

  16. Value of Fundamental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burov, Alexey

    Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?

  17. Science, Society and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. S.; Teich, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    Apart from the journals they produce, scientific societies play an important role in communicating scientific findings and norms to the broader society. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) includes among its goals to promote and defend the integrity of science and its use; provide a voice for science on societal issues; promote the responsible use of science in public policy; and increase public engagement with science and technology. AAAS websites and programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/wwc/book.htm) and ScienceCareers.org (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org), provide tools for scientists to become more directly engaged in effectively communicating their findings and involved in the policy process. Education programs work to build the next generation of scientists and a science-literate public. To bridge the current communication gap between scientists, the public and policymakers, AAAS, like other scientific societies, maintains policy and outreach programs with limited budgets and staff. AAAS works to engage policymakers and provide scientific underpinning to key issues through congressional briefings, meetings, policy briefs, and media outreach. AAAS responds to challenges to accepted scientific findings and processes through op-eds, letters to government officials, resolutions, and Board statements. Some of these initiatives occur on a local level in partnership with local civic leaders, whose endorsement makes them more powerful. On a national scale, they assure that the voice of science is included in the debate. The changing media landscape presents opportunities and challenges for future AAAS endeavors.

  18. Science in the Citadel

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Colleen

    2017-01-01

    On a sunny Saturday afternoon, the 22nd of April, Science in the Citadel was held in Gozo’s iconic medieval Citadel. It provided an atmospheric venue for the first science festival on the island. The festival was sponsored by EcoGozo, and inaugurated by Minister of Gozo, Dr Anton Refalo. The aim of the festival was to engage the public with science, to inspire the next generation towards scientific endeavour and to showcase Gozo as a potential future hub for scientific discussion and developm...

  19. Science Communication in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper was presented during the author?s visit at the Faculty of Human Development of the University of Kobe . The paper is intended to provide the knowledge about science communication in the Nordic countries (in particular in Denmark). The focus in the paper is on (i) examples of new...... and innovative modes of science communication in Denmark and (ii) educational programs for science communicators. Furthermore, emphasis is on the pedagogical ideas behind the initiatives, rather than on thorough descriptions of structures, curricula and evaluations of the projects....

  20. Computer science handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Tucker, Allen B

    2004-01-01

    Due to the great response to the famous Computer Science Handbook edited by Allen B. Tucker, … in 2004 Chapman & Hall/CRC published a second edition of this comprehensive reference book. Within more than 70 chapters, every one new or significantly revised, one can find any kind of information and references about computer science one can imagine. … All in all, there is absolute nothing about computer science that can not be found in the encyclopedia with its 110 survey articles …-Christoph Meinel, Zentralblatt MATH

  1. Securitization and Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2011-01-01

    /explanations can come to objectify an issue to the extent where securitization – and even politicization – becomes next to impossible. Second, science co-determines the status of a securitizing actor and thus influences the authority of the speaker in specific fields. Third, scientific facts can be mobilized......The interface between science and securitization has not been systematically addressed. This article argues from a Bourdieusian viewpoint that scientific arguments and ‘facts’ are at work in at least three distinct mechanisms within and around securitization. First, science communities...

  2. Leadership in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Marion E

    2015-04-01

    In this article, there is a leadership discussion related to the development of leaders in nursing science-a topic rarely discussed. Given the recent dramatic shifts in funding as well as changes in methods of inquiry and data models, there is a clear need for individuals in nursing science who can not only negotiate the turbulent waters of funding but can also lead teams of others, and the discipline, to generate and translate knowledge that will truly be useful to providers, patients, and families. This requires leaders in science who can challenge the prevailing views and traditional paths to excellence held sacred by some. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Coping with Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricard, Lykke Margot

    2003-01-01

    Life of Science, edited by Lykke Margot Ricard and Robin Engelhardt. Learning Lab Denmark, Copenhagen, pages 39-45. 2003 Short description: What makes children think about scientific inventions? In this case it was watching the news and listing to parents conversation that made a 12-year old...... schoolboy write an essay on the theme: ?The world would be a better place to live in if?!? Abstract: Science has a long tradition for emphasizing objectivity, but it is the emotional impact of science that makes children interested. Metaphors and personal experiences of the scientist can be a useful...

  4. Life of Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelhardt, Robin; Margot Ricard, Lykke

    Learning Lab Denmark, København. 2003 Short description: In connection to the conference Changes and Challenges the White Book "Life of Science" was published. Member states of the European Union as well as applying countries were invited to contribute to the book with texts in order to present...... inspiring cases of concrete educational strategies for improving learning, teaching and recruitment in the fields of science and technology. Abstract: The aim of this white book is to present some of the most inspiring examples of Science and Technology Education in Europe. In creating the white book, we...

  5. Exploration of Science Parks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Huibing; Sun Nengli

    2005-01-01

    Science parks have developed gready in the world, whereas empirical researches have showed that science parks based on linear model cannot guarantee the creation of innovation. Hi-tech innovation is derived from flow and management of information. The commercial and social interactions between in-parks and off-park firms and research institutions act as the key determinant for innovation.Industrial clustering is the rational choice for further developing Chinese science parks and solving some problems such as the lack of dear major industries and strong innovation sense, etc.

  6. Science A history

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    2002-01-01

    From award-winning science writer John Gribbin, "Science: A History" is the enthralling story of the men and women who changed the way we see the world, and the turbulent times they lived in. From Galileo, tried by the Inquisition for his ideas, to Newton, who wrote his rivals out of the history books; from Marie Curie, forced to work apart from male students for fear she might excite them, to Louis Agassiz, who marched his colleagues up a mountain to prove that the ice ages had occurred. Filled with pioneers, visionaries, eccentrics and madmen, this is the history of science as it has never been told before.

  7. Complementary Social Science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Pedersen, Morten Axel

    2014-01-01

    of measurement device deployed. At the same time, however, we also expect new interferences and polyphonies to arise at the intersection of Big and Small Data, provided that these are, so to speak, mixed with care. These questions, we stress, are important not only for the future of social science methods......The rise of Big Data in the social realm poses significant questions at the intersection of science, technology, and society, including in terms of how new large-scale social databases are currently changing the methods, epistemologies, and politics of social science. In this commentary, we address...

  8. COMPUTATIONAL SCIENCE CENTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVENPORT, J.

    2005-11-01

    The Brookhaven Computational Science Center brings together researchers in biology, chemistry, physics, and medicine with applied mathematicians and computer scientists to exploit the remarkable opportunities for scientific discovery which have been enabled by modern computers. These opportunities are especially great in computational biology and nanoscience, but extend throughout science and technology and include, for example, nuclear and high energy physics, astrophysics, materials and chemical science, sustainable energy, environment, and homeland security. To achieve our goals we have established a close alliance with applied mathematicians and computer scientists at Stony Brook and Columbia Universities.

  9. Science, conscience, consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Descartes' metaphysics lays the foundation for the special sciences, and the notion of consciousness ("conscientia") belongs to metaphysics rather than to psychology. I argue that as a metaphysical notion, "consciousness" refers to an epistemic version of moral conscience. As a consequence, the activity on which science is based turns out to be conscientious thought. The consciousness that makes science possible is a double awareness: the awareness of what one is thinking, of what one should be doing, and of the possibility of a gap between the two.

  10. PubSCIENCE

    CERN Document Server

    United States. Department of Energy. Office of Scientific and Technical Information

    PubSCIENCE, a component of EnergyFiles, indexes 1,000 scientific and technical journals. It contains over one million multi-source journal citations dating back over 25 years from DOE's Energy Science and Technology Database. The focus of PubSCIENCE is on those journals where DOE researchers report their scientific discoveries. Frequency of contributions by DOE-sponsored researchers to scientific journals has been analyzed to prioritize data collection efforts. OSTI partners with participating publishers to provide information that is both relevant and useful to the DOE scientific community as well as information that was developed as the result of government sponsored R&D.

  11. Computational Science and Innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dean, David Jarvis

    2011-01-01

    Simulations - utilizing computers to solve complicated science and engineering problems - are a key ingredient of modern science. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is a world leader in the development of high-performance computing (HPC), the development of applied math and algorithms that utilize the full potential of HPC platforms, and the application of computing to science and engineering problems. An interesting general question is whether the DOE can strategically utilize its capability in simulations to advance innovation more broadly. In this article, I will argue that this is certainly possible.

  12. Learning Science: Some Insights from Cognitive Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, P. S. C.

    Theories of teaching and learning, including those associated with constructivism, often make no overt reference to an underlying assumption that they make; that is, human cognition depends on domain-free, general-purpose processing by the brain. This assumption is shown to be incompatible with evidence from studies of children's early learning. Rather, cognition is modular in nature, and often domain-specific. Recognition of modularity requires a re-evaluation of some aspects of current accounts of learning science. Especially, children's ideas in science are sometimes triggered rather than learned. It is in the nature of triggered conceptual structures that they are not necessarily expressible in language, and that they may not be susceptible to change by later learning.

  13. Opening science: New publication forms in science

    OpenAIRE

    Scheliga, Kaja

    2014-01-01

    Digital technologies change how scientists access and process information and consequently impact publication forms in science. Even though the core of scientific publications has remained the same, established publication formats, such as the scientific paper or book, are succumbing to the transitions caused by digital technologies. At the same time, new online tools enable new publication forms, such as blogs, microblogs or wikis, to emerge. This article explores the changing and emerging p...

  14. Fellowship | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Address: Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Powai, Mumbai ..... Specialization: Elementary Particle Physics ..... Sciences, National Institute of Science Education & Research, Jatni, Khordha 752 050, Orissa

  15. History of science and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Byeong Ju

    1986-04-15

    This book shows origin of technology and development of civilization, origin of science and dissemination of ironware, accumulation of science and technology in the Middle Age society, the era of the Renaissance and science, factory-made manual industry and mechanistic nature view, the era of scientific enlightenment, industrial revolution, science and technology of Korea, formation of modern science and technology, modern technology and approach to science and technology, science and technology in the twenty century such as biochemistry and physics, and cooperation of science and technology.

  16. History of science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Byeong Ju

    1986-04-01

    This book shows origin of technology and development of civilization, origin of science and dissemination of ironware, accumulation of science and technology in the Middle Age society, the era of the Renaissance and science, factory-made manual industry and mechanistic nature view, the era of scientific enlightenment, industrial revolution, science and technology of Korea, formation of modern science and technology, modern technology and approach to science and technology, science and technology in the twenty century such as biochemistry and physics, and cooperation of science and technology.

  17. Science from the inside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumey, Chris

    2009-09-01

    Most scientists think of science as completely objective, but lab studies by social scientists - including several carried out in nanotechnology labs - suggest that it is more subjective than many scientists realize. Chris Toumey looks at the results of these studies.

  18. Theoretical Computer Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    The proceedings contains 8 papers from the Conference on Theoretical Computer Science. Topics discussed include: query by committee, linear separation and random walks; hardness results for neural network approximation problems; a geometric approach to leveraging weak learners; mind change...

  19. A Forgotten Social Science?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Nielsen, Janet

    2011-01-01

    The post–World War II era was one of great triumph for American linguists—and yet linguistics is all but absent from the historical literature on postwar social science. This paper aims to illuminate this curious situation: to understand its provenance, evaluate its merits, and contextualize...... of linguistics has led to a parallel isolation in the historical literature. Ultimately, this paper poses a pivotal and timely question: How is the postwar social science space construed within the existing historiographic framework, and how should it be construed in order to maximize understanding? I propose...... it broadly. I argue that the historiographic lacuna results from two factors: (1) the opt-out of linguists from the wider American social science community, and (2) historical-developmental and -orientational factors that stand linguistics apart from the social science mainstream. The resultant isolation...

  20. Fundamentals of electrochemical science

    CERN Document Server

    Oldham, Keith

    1993-01-01

    Key Features* Deals comprehensively with the basic science of electrochemistry* Treats electrochemistry as a discipline in its own right and not as a branch of physical or analytical chemistry* Provides a thorough and quantitative description of electrochemical fundamentals

  1. Sciences & Nature: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sciences & nature publish original works in French or in English that have not been ... This page should provide a summary (200 words maximum) in French and English .... one copy of the journal where his article is published, and 10 offprints.

  2. Anthropology in cognitive science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Andrea; Hutchins, Edwin; Medin, Douglas

    2010-07-01

    This paper reviews the uneven history of the relationship between Anthropology and Cognitive Science over the past 30 years, from its promising beginnings, followed by a period of disaffection, on up to the current context, which may lay the groundwork for reconsidering what Anthropology and (the rest of) Cognitive Science have to offer each other. We think that this history has important lessons to teach and has implications for contemporary efforts to restore Anthropology to its proper place within Cognitive Science. The recent upsurge of interest in the ways that thought may shape and be shaped by action, gesture, cultural experience, and language sets the stage for, but so far has not fully accomplished, the inclusion of Anthropology as an equal partner. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  3. ScienceScope: Aerospace

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    CSIR

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this edition of ScienceScope, innovations in and around aerodynamics research and development is explored. The publication explores activities in environmentally friendly aerospace technologies to enhance the aviation industry....

  4. Western Nuclear Science Alliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Reese; George Miller; Stephen Frantz; Denis Beller; Denis Beller; Ed Morse; Melinda Krahenbuhl; Bob Flocchini; Jim Elliston

    2010-12-07

    The primary objective of the INIE program is to strengthen nuclear science and engineering programs at the member institutions and to address the long term goal of the University Reactor Infrastructure and Education Assistance Program.

  5. Social Dynamics of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoling; Kaur, Jasleen; Milojević, Staša; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    The birth and decline of disciplines are critical to science and society. How do scientific disciplines emerge? No quantitative model to date allows us to validate competing theories on the different roles of endogenous processes, such as social collaborations, and exogenous events, such as scientific discoveries. Here we propose an agent-based model in which the evolution of disciplines is guided mainly by social interactions among agents representing scientists. Disciplines emerge from splitting and merging of social communities in a collaboration network. We find that this social model can account for a number of stylized facts about the relationships between disciplines, scholars, and publications. These results provide strong quantitative support for the key role of social interactions in shaping the dynamics of science. While several ``science of science'' theories exist, this is the first account for the emergence of disciplines that is validated on the basis of empirical data.

  6. Zimbabwe Science News

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -disciplinary and semi-popular. The Zimbabwe Science News has ceased publication. ... An overview of solar and solar-related technologies in Zimbabwe · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  7. How economics shapes science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephan, Paula E

    2012-01-01

    .... At a time when science is seen as an engine of economic growth, Paula Stephan brings a keen understanding of the ongoing cost-benefit calculations made by individuals and institutions as they compete...

  8. Imaging Sciences Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J.V.

    1996-11-21

    This report contains the proceedings of the Imaging Sciences Workshop sponsored by C.A.S.LS., the Center for Advanced Signal & Image Sciences. The Center, established primarily to provide a forum where researchers can freely exchange ideas on the signal and image sciences in a comfortable intellectual environment, has grown over the last two years with the opening of a Reference Library (located in Building 272). The Technical Program for the 1996 Workshop include a variety of efforts in the Imaging Sciences including applications in the Microwave Imaging, highlighted by the Micro-Impulse Radar (MIR) system invented at LLNL, as well as other applications in this area. Special sessions organized by various individuals in Speech, Acoustic Ocean Imaging, Radar Ocean Imaging, Ultrasonic Imaging, and Optical Imaging discuss various applica- tions of real world problems. For the more theoretical, sessions on Imaging Algorithms and Computed Tomography were organized as well as for the more pragmatic featuring a session on Imaging Systems.

  9. Sustainable computational science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rougier, Nicolas; Hinsen, Konrad; Alexandre, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    Computer science offers a large set of tools for prototyping, writing, running, testing, validating, sharing and reproducing results, however computational science lags behind. In the best case, authors may provide their source code as a compressed archive and they may feel confident their research...... workflows, in particular in peer-reviews. Existing journals have been slow to adapt: source codes are rarely requested, hardly ever actually executed to check that they produce the results advertised in the article. ReScience is a peer-reviewed journal that targets computational research and encourages...... the explicit replication of already published research, promoting new and open-source implementations in order to ensure that the original research can be replicated from its description. To achieve this goal, the whole publishing chain is radically different from other traditional scientific journals. ReScience...

  10. Life sciences at CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents briefly the organization of the - Direction des Sciences du Vivant - of french atomic energy commission (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA)) and their main axes of research (F.M)

  11. Measuring adolescent science motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-02-01

    To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ('Gymnasium') completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one criterion, extracted a loading pattern, which in principle, followed the SMQ-II frame. Two items were dropped due to inappropriate loadings. The remaining SMQ-II seems to provide a consistent scale matching the findings in literature. Nevertheless, also possible shortcomings of the scale are discussed. Data showed a higher perceived self-determination in girls which seems compensated by their lower self-efficacy beliefs leading to equality of females and males in overall science motivation scores. Additionally, the Big Five personality traits and science motivation components show little relationship.

  12. Pseudoscience and science fiction

    CERN Document Server

    May, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Aliens, flying saucers, ESP, the Bermuda Triangle, antigravity … are we talking about science fiction or pseudoscience? Sometimes it is difficult to tell the difference. Both pseudoscience and science fiction (SF) are creative endeavours that have little in common with academic science, beyond the superficial trappings of jargon and subject matter. The most obvious difference between the two is that pseudoscience is presented as fact, not fiction. Yet like SF, and unlike real science, pseudoscience is driven by a desire to please an audience – in this case, people who “want to believe”. This has led to significant cross-fertilization between the two disciplines. SF authors often draw on “real” pseudoscientific theories to add verisimilitude to their stories, while on other occasions pseudoscience takes its cue from SF – the symbiotic relationship between ufology and Hollywood being a prime example of this. This engagingly written, well researched and richly illustrated text explores a wide range...

  13. African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Health Sciences is an open access, free online, internationally ... Ebola virus disease: assessment of knowledge, attitude and practice of nursing ... and immune system modulation by aerobic versus resisted exercise training for elderly ...

  14. Climate science reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Rapley, C.; De Meyer, K.

    2014-01-01

    There is a gap between the current role of the climate science community and the needs of society. Closing this gap represents a necessary but insufficient step towards improved public discourse and more constructive policy formulation on climate change.

  15. Materials Sciences Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation and index of the ERDA materials sciences program is presented. This compilation is intended for use by administrators, managers, and scientists to help coordinate research and as an aid in selecting new programs

  16. Animal Science Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    Researches carried out in the 'Animal Science Project' of the Agricultural Nuclear Energy Center, Piracicaba, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, are described. Such researches comprise : immunology and animal nutrition. Tracer techniques are employed in this study. (M.A.) [pt

  17. Digital Social Science Lab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Michael; Lauersen, Christian Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    At the Faculty Library of Social Sciences (part of Copenhagen University Library) we are currently working intensely towards the establishment of a Digital Social Science Lab (DSSL). The purpose of the lab is to connect research, education and learning processes with the use of digital tools...... at the Faculty of Social Sciences. DSSL will host and facilitate an 80 m2 large mobile and intelligent study- and learning environment with a focus on academic events, teaching and collaboration. Besides the physical settings DSSL has two primary functions: 1. To implement relevant social scientific software...... and hardware at the disposal for students and staff at The Faculty of Social Sciences along with instruction and teaching in the different types of software, e.g. Stata, Nvivo, Atlas.ti, R Studio, Zotero and GIS-software. 2. To facilitate academic events focusing on use of digital tools and analytic software...

  18. Workshops on Writing Science

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-30

    Sep 30, 2017 ... Eligibility: Post graduates in any branch of science, as well as to post graduates in Mass. Communication/Journalism, aspiring to contribute scientific content to print media in India. Minimum requirements for participation: ...

  19. African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 2 (1993) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. African Crop Science Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.