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Sample records for maumee river area

  1. 76 FR 27284 - Special Local Regulation; Partnership in Education, Dragon Boat Race; Maumee River, Toledo, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Partnership in Education, Dragon Boat Race; Maumee River, Toledo, OH... establishing a permanent Special Local Regulation on the Maumee River, Toledo, Ohio. This regulation is... place during the third or fourth weekend in July each year. This special local regulated area is...

  2. 77 FR 64718 - Safety Zone; Steam Ship Col. James M. Schoonmaker Relocation Project, Maumee River, Toledo, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary Safety Zone on the waters of Maumee River, Toledo, Ohio, in support of the relocation of S/S Col. James M. Schoonmaker (hereinafter referred to as `the Schoonmaker'). This temporary safety zone will encompass all waters of the Maumee River within a 100 yard radius of the Schoonmaker as it makes its transit from International Park to Skyway Marina. This temporary Safety Zone is necessary to protect persons operating around the area.

  3. 77 FR 55436 - Special Local Regulation; Partnership in Education, Dragon Boat Race; Maumee River, Toledo, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Partnership in Education, Dragon Boat Race; Maumee River, Toledo, OH.... Add Sec. 100.921 to read as follows: Sec. 100.921 Special Local Regulations, Partnership in Education... establishing a permanent Special Local Regulation on the Maumee River, Toledo, Ohio. This regulation is...

  4. Assessing the effectiveness of remediation of contaminated sediments in the Ottawa River Segment of the Maumee Great Lakes Area of Concern (AOC) using biological endpoints: toxicity, food web tissue contamination, biotic condition and DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ottawa River lies in extreme northwest Ohio, flowing into Lake Erie’s western basin at the City of Toledo. The Ottawa River is a component of the Maumee River AOC as defined by the International Commission. The Ottawa River is approximately 45 miles long; however, the 2...

  5. 2009-2012 Indiana Statewide Imagery and LiDAR Program: Maumee River Basin Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The counties comprised in this dataset have been chosen based on the relation to the Maumee River basin, a portion of the Lake Erie basin and correlated with the...

  6. In vivo and In vitro neurochemical-based assessments of wastewater effluents from the Maumee River area of concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arini, Adeline; Cavallin, Jenna E.; Berninger, Jason P.; Marfil-Vega, Ruth; Mills, Marc; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Basu, Niladri

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents contain potentially neuroactive chemicals though few methods are available to screen for the presence of such agents. Here, two parallel approaches (in vivo and in vitro) were used to assess WWTP exposure-related changes to neurochemistry. First, fathead minnows (FHM, Pimephales promelas) were caged for four days along a WWTP discharge zone into the Maumee River (Ohio, USA). Grab water samples were collected and extracts obtained for the detection of alkylphenols, bisphenol A (BPA) and steroid hormones. Second, the extracts were then used as a source of in vitro exposure to brain tissues from FHM and four additional species relevant to the Great Lakes ecosystem (rainbow trout (RT), river otter (RO), bald eagle (BE) and human (HU)). The ability of the wastewater (in vivo) or extracts (in vitro) to interact with enzymes (monoamine oxidase (MAO) and glutamine synthetase (GS)) and receptors (dopamine (D2) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA)) involved in dopamine and glutamate-dependent neurotransmission were examined on brain homogenates. In vivo exposure of FHM led to significant decreases of NMDA receptor binding in females (24–42%), and increases of MAO activity in males (2.8- to 3.2-fold). In vitro, alkylphenol-targeted extracts significantly inhibited D2 (66% in FHM) and NMDA (24–54% in HU and RT) receptor binding, and induced MAO activity in RT, RO, and BE brains. Steroid hormone-targeted extracts inhibited GS activity in all species except FHM. BPA-targeted extracts caused a MAO inhibition in FHM, RT and BE brains. Using both in vivo and in vitro approaches, this study shows that WWTP effluents contain agents that can interact with neurochemicals important in reproduction and other neurological functions. Additional work is needed to better resolve in vitro to in vivo extrapolations (IVIVE) as well as cross-species differences. - Highlights: • We conducted in vivo and in vitro neurochemical

  7. Fish community responses to submerged aquatic vegetation in Maumee Bay, Western Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacob; Kocovsky, Patrick; Wiegmann, Daniel; Miner, Jeffery G.

    2018-01-01

    Submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in clearwater systems simultaneously provides habitat for invertebrate prey and acts as refugia for small fishes. Many fishes in Lake Erie rely on shallow, heavily vegetated bays as spawning grounds and the loss or absence of which is known to reduce recruitment in other systems. The Maumee River and Maumee Bay, which once had abundant macrophyte beds, have experienced a decline of SAV and an increase in suspended solids (turbidity) over the last century due to numerous causes. To compare fish communities in open‐water (turbid) and in SAV (clearer water) habitats in this region, which is designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as an Area of Concern, and to indicate community changes that could occur with expansion of SAV habitat, we sampled a 300‐ha sector of northern Maumee Bay that contained both habitats. Using towed neuston nets through patches of each habitat, we determined that areas of SAV contained more species and a different species complex (based on the Jaccard index and the wetland fish index), than did the open‐water habitat (averaging 8.6 versus 5 species per net trawl). The SAV habitat was dominated by centrarchids, namely Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides, Bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, and Black Crappie Pomoxis nigromaculatus. Open‐water habitat was dominated by Spottail Shiner Notropis hudsonius, Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum, and White Perch Morone americana, an invasive species. These results indicate that restoration efforts aimed at decreasing turbidity and increasing the distribution of SAV could cause substantive shifts in the fish community and address important metrics for assessing the beneficial use impairments in this Area of Concern.

  8. Geologic map of the Maumee quadrangle, Searcy and Marion Counties, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kenzie J.; Hudson, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    This map summarizes the geology of the Maumee 7.5-minute quadrangle in northern Arkansas. The map area is in the Ozark plateaus region on the southern flank of the Ozark dome. The Springfield Plateau, composed of Mississippian cherty limestone, overlies the Salem Plateau, composed of Ordovician carbonate and clastic rocks, with areas of Silurian rocks in between. Erosion related to the Buffalo River and its tributaries, Tomahawk, Water, and Dry Creeks, has exposed a 1,200-ft-thick section of Mississippian, Silurian, and Ordovician rocks mildly deformed by faults and folds. An approximately 130-mile-long corridor along the Buffalo River forms the Buffalo National River that is administered by the National Park Service. McKnight (1935) mapped the geology of the Maumee quadrangle as part of a larger 1:125,000-scale map focused on understanding the lead and zinc deposits common in the area. Detailed new mapping for this study was compiled using a Geographic Information System (GIS) at 1:24,000 scale. Site location and elevation were obtained by using a Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) receiver in conjunction with a U.S. Geological Survey 7.5-minute topographic map and barometric altimeter. U.S. Geological Survey 10-m digital elevation model data were used to derive a hill-shade-relief map used along with digital orthophotographs to map ledge-forming units between field sites. Bedding attitudes were measured in drainage bottoms and on well-exposed ledges. Bedding measured at less than 2 degree dip is indicated as horizontal. Structure contours constructed for the base of the Boone Formation are constrained by field-determined elevations on both upper and lower formation contacts.

  9. In vivo and In vitro neurochemical-based assessments of wastewater effluents from the Maumee River area of concern.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — All primary data reported in this paper were generated by non-federal collaborators from the University of Michigan and McGill University. US EPA-ORD personnel...

  10. Columbia River ESI: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for Wildlife Refuges, National Forests, and State Parks for the Columbia River area. Vector polygons in this data set...

  11. 77 FR 67563 - Regulated Navigation Area-New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area--New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT... Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River and Mill River. The current RNA pertains only to the operation of tugs...) entitled Regulated Navigation Area--New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl...

  12. Drainage areas of the Potomac River basin, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Hunt, Michelle L.; Stewart, Donald K.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains data for 776 drainage-area divisions of the Potomac River Basin, from the headwaters to the confluence of the Potomac River and the Shenandoah River. Data, compiled in downstream order, are listed for streams with a drainage area of approximately 2 square miles or larger within West Virginia and for U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations. The data presented are the stream name, the geographical limits in river miles, the latitude and longitude of the point, the name of the county, and the 7 1/2-minute quadrangle in which the point lies, and the drainage area of that site. The total drainage area of the Potomac River Basin downstream of the confluence of the Shenandoah River at the State boundary is 9,367.29 square miles.

  13. 77 FR 47331 - Regulated Navigation Area-New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ...-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area--New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River, Mill River, New Haven, CT; Pearl... navigable waters of New Haven Harbor, Quinnipiac River and Mill River. The current RNA pertains only to the..., Quinnipiac River, and Mill River RNA. The proposed amendment would give the Captain of the Port Sector Long...

  14. Mississippi National River and Recreation Area Water Trail Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-05

    The Water Trail Plan describes the current conditions of and future plans for the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area (NRRA), a 72-mile stretch of the Mississippi River running through the Twin Cities region of Minnesota. In 2012, the NRRA...

  15. Human impacts on river water quality- comparative research in the catchment areas of the Tone River and the Mur River-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogure, K.

    2013-12-01

    Human activities in river basin affect river water quality as water discharges into river with pollutant after we use it. By detecting pollutants source, pathway, and influential factor of human activities, it will be possible to consider proper river basin management. In this study, material flow analysis was done first and then nutrient emission modeling by MONERIS was conducted. So as to clarify land use contribution and climate condition, comparison of Japanese and European river basin area has been made. The model MONERIS (MOdelling Nutrient Emissions in RIver Systems; Behrendt et al., 2000) was applied to estimate the nutrient emissions in the Danube river basin by point sources and various diffuse pathways. Work for the Mur River Basin in Austria was already carried out by the Institute of Water Quality, Resources and Waste Management at the Vienna University of Technology. This study treats data collection, modelling for the Tone River in Japan, and comparative analysis for these two river basins. The estimation of the nutrient emissions was carried out for 11 different sub catchment areas covering the Tone River Basin for the time period 2000 to 2006. TN emissions into the Tone river basin were 51 kt/y. 67% was via ground water and dominant for all sub catchments. Urban area was also important emission pathway. Human effect is observed in urban structure and agricultural activity. Water supply and sewer system make urban water cycle with pipeline structure. Excess evapotranspiration in arable land is also influential in water cycle. As share of arable land is 37% and there provides agricultural products, it is thought that N emission from agricultural activity is main pollution source. Assumption case of 10% N surplus was simulated and the result was 99% identical to the actual. Even though N surplus reduction does not show drastic impact on N emission, it is of importance to reduce excess of fertilization and to encourage effective agricultural activity

  16. 100 Area Columbia River sediment sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, S.G.

    1993-01-01

    Forty-four sediment samples were collected from 28 locations in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to assess the presence of metals and man-made radionuclides in the near shore and shoreline settings of the Hanford Site. Three locations were sampled upriver of the Hanford Site plutonium production reactors. Twenty-two locations were sampled near the reactors. Three locations were sampled downstream of the reactors near the Hanford Townsite. Sediment was collected from depths of 0 to 6 in. and between 12 to 24 in. below the surface. Samples containing concentrations of metals exceeding the 95 % upper threshold limit values (DOE-RL 1993b) are considered contaminated. Contamination by arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc was found. Man-made radionuclides occur in all samples except four collected opposite the Hanford Townsite. Man-made radionuclide concentrations were generally less than 1 pCi/g

  17. 100 Area Columbia River sediment sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S.G. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-08

    Forty-four sediment samples were collected from 28 locations in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River to assess the presence of metals and man-made radionuclides in the near shore and shoreline settings of the Hanford Site. Three locations were sampled upriver of the Hanford Site plutonium production reactors. Twenty-two locations were sampled near the reactors. Three locations were sampled downstream of the reactors near the Hanford Townsite. Sediment was collected from depths of 0 to 6 in. and between 12 to 24 in. below the surface. Samples containing concentrations of metals exceeding the 95 % upper threshold limit values (DOE-RL 1993b) are considered contaminated. Contamination by arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc was found. Man-made radionuclides occur in all samples except four collected opposite the Hanford Townsite. Man-made radionuclide concentrations were generally less than 1 pCi/g.

  18. Earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta) of the Columbia River basin assessment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam. James

    2000-01-01

    Earthworms are key components of many terrestrial ecosystems; however, little is known of their ecology, distribution, and taxonomy in the eastern interior Columbia River basin assessment area (hereafter referred to as the basin assessment area). This report summarizes the main issues about the ecology of earthworms and their impact on the physical and chemical status...

  19. Water quality assessment of the rivers in bauxite mining area at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water quality assessment of the rivers in bauxite mining area at Kuantan Pahang. ... mining area. Water samples were collected at Kuantan River, Riau River, Pinang River and Pandan Rivers. ... All these rivvers were classified into class II based on INWQS and required conventional treatment for water supply purposes.

  20. Monitoring of protected areas of the Lower Vistula River

    OpenAIRE

    Dawid Aleksander Szatten; Zbigniew Czerebiej

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of the research was to determine the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the condition of surface waters in the protected areas of the Lower Vistula River. The research included the analysis of the surface water monitoring network in the Lower Vistula catchment area in the water management cycle 2010-2015. The research subject was Lower Vistula on the section from the Wloclawek Reservoir (km 675) to the estuary of the river to the Gdańsk Bay (km 941). The most important re...

  1. Assessment of the fish tumor beneficial use impairment in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) at selected Great Lakes Areas of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Vicki; Mazik, Patricia M.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; Braham, Ryan P.; Hahn, Cassidy M.; Walsh, Heather L.; Sperry, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 878 adult Brown Bullhead were collected at 11 sites within the Lake Erie and Lake Ontario drainages from 2011 to 2013. The sites included seven Areas of Concern (AOC; 670 individuals), one delisted AOC (50 individuals) and three non-AOC sites (158 individuals) used as reference sites. These fish were used to assess the “fish tumor or other deformities” beneficial use impairment. Fish were anesthetized, weighed, measured and any external abnormalities documented and removed. Abnormal orocutaneous and barbel tissue, as well as five to eight pieces of liver, were preserved for histopathological analyses. Otoliths were removed and used for age analyses. Visible external abnormalities included reddened (raised or eroded), melanistic areas and raised growths on lips, body surface, fins and barbels. Microscopically, these raised growths included papilloma, squamous cell carcinoma, osteoma and osteosarcoma. Proliferative lesions of the liver included bile duct hyperplasia, foci of cellular alteration, bile duct (cholangioma, cholangiocarcinoma) and hepatocellular (adenoma, hepatic cell carcinoma) neoplasia. The two reference sites (Long Point Inner Bay, Conneaut Creek), at which 30 or more bullhead were collected had a skin tumor prevalence of 10% or less and liver tumor prevalence of 4% or less. Presque Isle Bay, recently delisted, had a similar liver tumor prevalence (4%) and slightly higher prevalence (12%) of skin tumors. The prevalence of skin neoplasms was 15% or less at sites in the Black River, Cuyahoga River and Maumee AOCs, while more than 20% of the bullheads from the Rochester Embayment, Niagara River, Detroit River and Ashtabula River AOCs had skin tumors. The prevalence of liver tumors was greater than 4% at all AOC sites except the Old Channel site at the Cuyahoga River AOC, Wolf Creek within the Maumee AOC and the upper and lower sites within the Niagara River AOC.

  2. 33 CFR 334.570 - Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River near Orsino, Fla... THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.570 Banana River near Orsino, Fla.; restricted area. (a) The area. That part of Banana River N of the NASA Banana River...

  3. Comparative Influences of Precipitation and River Stage on Groundwater Levels in Near-River Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Incheol Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable performance of foundations of various urban buildings and infrastructures is strongly affected by groundwater level (GWL, as GWL causes changes in the stress state within soil. In the present study, the components affecting GWL were investigated, focusing on the effects of precipitation and river stage. These components were analyzed using a six-year database established for hydrological and groundwater monitoring data. Five study regions for which daily measured precipitation, river stage, and GWL data were available were compared. Different periods of precipitation, geographical characteristics, and local surface conditions were considered in the analysis. The results indicated that key influence components on GWL are different depending on the hydrological, geological, and geographical characteristics of the target regions. River stage had the strongest influence on GWL in urban areas near large rivers with a high ratio of paved surface. In rural areas, where the paved surface area ratio and soil permeability were low, the moving average showed a closer correlation to GWL than river stage. A moving average-based method to predict GWL variation with time was proposed for regions with a low ratio of paved surface area and low permeability soils.

  4. River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K.; Brydsten, L.

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and

  5. River and river-related drainage area parameters for site investigation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomqvist, P.; Brunberg, A.K. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Limnology; Brydsten, L. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ecology and Environmental Science

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, a number of parameters of importance to a determination of the function of running waters as transport channels for material from the continents to the sea are presented. We have assumed that retention mechanisms of material in the river and in the riparian zone will be covered by special investigations but tried to create a platform for such investigations by quantification of the extension of different main habitats. The choice of parameters has been made so that also the nature conservation value of the river can be preliminary established, and includes a general description of the river type and the inherent ecosystem. The material links directly to that presented in a previous report concerning site investigation programmes for lakes. The parameters have been divided into five groups: 1) The location of the object relative important gradients in the surrounding nature; 2) The river catchment area and its major constituents; 3) The river morphometry; 4) The river ecosystem; 5) Human-induced damages to the river ecosystem. The first two groups, principally based on the climate, hydrology, geology and vegetation of the catchment area, represent parameters that can be used to establish the rarity and representativity of the system, and will in the context of site investigation program be used as a basis for generalisation of the results. The third group, the river morphometry parameters, are standard parameters for the outline of sampling programmes and for calculations of the physical extension of key habitats in the system. The fourth group, the ecosystem of the river, includes physical, chemical and biological parameters required for determination of the influence from the terrestrial ecosystem of the catchment area, nutrient status, distribution of different habitats, and presence of fish in the system. In the context of site investigation program, the parameters in these two groups will be used for budget calculations of the flow of energy and

  6. M-area basin closure-Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullin, S.R.; Horvath, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    M-Area, on the Savannah River Site, processes raw materials and manufactures fuel and target rods for reactor use. Effluent from these processes were discharged into the M-Area settling basin and Lost Lake, a natural wetland. The closure of this basin began in 1988 and included the removal and stabilization of basin fluids, excavation of all contaminated soils from affected areas and Lost Lake, and placement of all materials in the bottom of the emptied basin. These materials were covered with a RCRA style cap, employing redundant barriers of kaolin clay and geosynthetic material. Restoration of excavated uplands and wetlands is currently underway

  7. Agroecology and biodiversity of the catchment area of Swat River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, H.; Ahmed, R.

    2003-01-01

    Agroecological studies of the of the Swat River catchment area showed that the terrestrial ecosystem of the area is divided into subtropical, humid temperate, cool temperate, cold temperate, subalpine, alpine and cold desert zones. Indicator species along with their altitudinal limits are specified for each zone. Unplanned population growth, agriculture extension, habitat losses, deforestation, environmental pollution and unwise use of natural resources are threats to the natural biodiversity of these zones. Its severity is very evident in the subtropical and humid temperate zones. The losses encountered to the biodiversity of the area under the influence of various anthropogenic stresses are highlighted. (author)

  8. 78 FR 59237 - Regulated Navigation Area-Weymouth Fore River, Fore River Bridge Construction, Weymouth and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... regulatory action because this RNA will only be enforced when construction operations require such. Thus... establishing a temporary regulated navigation area (RNA) on the navigable waters of Weymouth Fore River in the...: Table of Acronyms COTP Captain of the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register RNA...

  9. On the polychroism of river terraces in mountain areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pshenin, G.N.; Serebryanyj, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    Using the method of 14 C isotope dating the age of alluvial deposits of river terraces in mountain areas in Fergana is studied. It is shown that the age of the deposits varies from 16 to 10 thousand years. Their formation as dynamically independent, self-developing systems is pointed out. The role of endo- and exogenous factors in the process of terrace-formation evidently comes to the trigger effect [ru

  10. 33 CFR 334.470 - Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooper River and Charleston....470 Cooper River and Charleston Harbor, S.C.; restricted areas. (a) The restricted areas. (1) Area No. 1 is that portion of the Cooper River beginning near the westerly shore north of Shipyard Creek at...

  11. Yampa River Valley sub-area contingency plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Yampa River Valley sub-area contingency plan (Contingency Plan) has been prepared for two counties in northwestern Colorado: Moffat County and Routt County. The Contingency Plan is provided in two parts, the Contingency Plan and the Emergency Response Action Plan (ERAP). The Contingency Plan provides information that should be helpful in planning to minimize the impact of an oil spill or hazardous material incident. It contains discussions of planning and response role, hazards identification, vulnerability analysis, risk analysis, cleanup, cost recovery, training, and health and safety. It includes information on the incident command system, notifications, response capabilities, emergency response organizations, evacuation and shelter-in-place, and immediate actions.

  12. Hydrogeochemical studies of historical mining areas in the Humboldt River basin and adjacent areas, northern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The study area comprises the Humboldt River Basin and adjacent areas, with emphasis on mining areas relatively close to the Humboldt River. The basin comprises about 16,840 mi2 or 10,800,000 acres. The mineral resources of the Humboldt Basin have been investigated by many scientists over the past 100 years, but only recently has our knowledge of regional geology and mine geology been applied to the understanding and evaluation of mining effects on water and environmental quality. The investigations reported here apply some of the techniques and perspectives developed in the Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative (AMLI) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a program of integrated geological-hydrological-biological-chemical studies underway in the Upper Animas River watershed in Colorado and the Boulder River watershed in, Montana. The goal of my studies of sites and districts is to determine the character of mining-related contamination that is actively or potentially a threat to water quality and to estimate the potential for natural attenuation of that contamination. These geology-based studies and recommendations differ in matters of emphasis and data collection from the biology-based assessments that are the cornerstone of environmental regulations.

  13. 75 FR 76943 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    ...-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Navigation Area (RNA) on the navigable waters of the Hudson River in New York, south of the Troy Locks. This... within the waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks when ice is a threat to navigation. DATES...

  14. 75 FR 8486 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River south of the Troy Locks, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-25

    ...-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River south of the Troy Locks, New York AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... area on the navigable waters of the Hudson River south of the Troy Locks. This regulated navigation... Hudson River south of the Troy locks when ice conditions are 8 inches or greater unless authorized by the...

  15. Socioeconomic baseline characterization for the Savannah River Plant area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the social and economic characteristics of the environs of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The characterization is keyed to those areas of the social and economic environment that could be impacted by the construction and operation of major facilities at SRP. The data consists of past trends and existing characteristics of the area's land use; its demographic, social, and economic profile; regional government; community services; housing, transportation; and historical, scenic, and archeological resources. Published documents, reports, and brochures were the primary sources of all the data presented in this document. When current published data was unavailable, representatives of federal, state, and local agencies were contacted by telephone. Conversations were followed by letters of verification, which were reviewed and verified by the agency representative.

  16. Socioeconomic baseline characterization for the Savannah River Plant area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the social and economic characteristics of the environs of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). The characterization is keyed to those areas of the social and economic environment that could be impacted by the construction and operation of major facilities at SRP. The data consists of past trends and existing characteristics of the area's land use; its demographic, social, and economic profile; regional government; community services; housing, transportation; and historical, scenic, and archeological resources. Published documents, reports, and brochures were the primary sources of all the data presented in this document. When current published data was unavailable, representatives of federal, state, and local agencies were contacted by telephone. Conversations were followed by letters of verification, which were reviewed and verified by the agency representative

  17. Airborne geophysical survey, Wind River Basin area, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of AEC-sponsored, high sensitivity, reconnaisance airborne gamma-ray survey of the Wind River Basin area, Wyoming. The objective of the survey was to define those areas showing surface indications of a generally higher uranium content (uraniferous provinces) and where detailed exploration for uranium would most likely be successful. For the data collection tasks, a TI high sensitivity gamma-ray system consisting of seven large-volume NaI detectors, two 400-channel analyzers, and ancillary geophysical and electronic equipment was used. Gamma-ray spectrometric data were processed to correct for variations in atmospheric and flight conditions and statistically evaluated to remove the effect of surface geologic variations. Data were then compared to regional geomorphic lineaments derived from ERTS-1 imagery. Aeromagnetic data were collected simultaneously with the airborne gamma-ray survey and interpreted in terms of regional structure. Ten major anomalous uranium areas and ten less strong anomalous areas were defined within the region surveyed. These anomalies and the known mining districts and uranium occurrences demonstrated good correlation with the ERTS lineaments. The basins were defined by the aeromagnetic data. It is suggested that gamma-ray spectrometer data be supplemented by both the ERTS and aeromagnetic data to best define the targets of greatest potential for further exploration. (U.S.)

  18. 76 FR 8654 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ...-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River South of the Troy Locks, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... navigable waters of the Hudson River in New York, south of the Troy Locks. This action is necessary to... Hudson River south of the Troy Locks when ice is a threat to navigation. DATES: This rule is effective in...

  19. 78 FR 29648 - Regulated Navigation Area; Waldo-Hancock Bridge Demolition, Penobscot River, Between Prospect and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... 1625-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Waldo-Hancock Bridge Demolition, Penobscot River, Between Prospect... River between Prospect and Verona, ME, under and surrounding the Waldo- Hancock Bridge in order to... Prospect and Verona, ME. (a) Location. The following area is a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA): All...

  20. 78 FR 58875 - Special Local Regulation; Frogtown Race Regatta; Maumee River, Toledo, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... pursuant to authority under section 4(a) of the Administrative Procedure Act (APA) (5 U.S.C. 553(b)). This... Department of Homeland Security Management Directive 023-01 and Commandant Instruction M16475.lD, which guide...

  1. Corn yield under subirrigation and future climate scenarios in the Maumee river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subirrigation has been proposed as a water table management practice to maintain appropriate soil water content during periods of high crop water demand on subsurface drained croplands in the Corn Belt. Subirrigation takes advantage of the subsurface drainage systems already installed on drained agr...

  2. Passive microwave observations of inundation area and the area/stage relation in the Amazon River floodplain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sippel, S.J.; Hamilton, S.K.; Melack, J.M.; Novo, E.M.M.

    1998-01-01

    Inundation patterns in Amazon River floodplains are revealed by analysis of the 37GHz polarization difference observed by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer on the Nimbus-7 satellite. Flooded area is estimated at monthly intervals for January 1979 through August 1987 using mixing models that account for the major landscape units with distinctive microwave emission characteristics. Results are presented separately for 12 longitudinal reaches along the Amazon River main stem in Brazil as well as for three major tributaries (the Jurua, Purus and Madeira rivers). The total area along the Amazon River main stem that was flooded (including both floodplain and open water) varied between 19 000 and 91 000 km 2 . The correlation between flooded area and river stage is used to develop a predictive relationship and reconstruct regional inundation patterns in the floodplain of the Amazon River main stem over the past 94 years of stage records (1903± 1996). The mean flooded area along the Amazon River during this 94-year period was 46 800 km 2 , of which the openwater surfaces of river channels and floodplain lakes comprised about 20 700 km 2 . (author)

  3. Demonstration of Airborne Wide Area Assessment Technologies at the Toussaint River, Ohio

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foley, Jack; Wright, David

    2007-01-01

    ...) technology, a wide area assessment technology, to assist in the characterization of the shore and shallow areas in and around the Toussaint River relative to munitions contamination from historical...

  4. New Information on the Malacofauna of the Catchment Area of Rusenski Lom River (North Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iltcho Kolev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available After this short note adding 8 species to the faunal list of the area, a total of 130 mollusk species are known from the catchment area of Rusenski Lom River both aquatic and terrestrial.

  5. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: SENSITIV (Sensitive Area Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains human-use resource data for sensitive areas along the Hudson River. Vector points in this data set represent sensitive areas. This data set...

  6. Estuarine River Data for the Ten Thousand Islands Area, Florida, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Michael J.; Patino, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected stream discharge, stage, salinity, and water-temperature data near the mouths of 11 tributaries flowing into the Ten Thousand Islands area of Florida from October 2004 to June 2005. Maximum positive discharge from Barron River and Faka Union River was 6,000 and 3,200 ft3/s, respectively; no other tributary exceeded 2,600 ft3/s. Salinity variation was greatest at Barron River and Faka Union River, ranging from 2 to 37 ppt, and from 3 to 34 ppt, respectively. Salinity maximums were greatest at Wood River and Little Wood River, each exceeding 40 ppt. All data were collected prior to the commencement of the Picayune Strand Restoration Project, which is designed to establish a more natural flow regime to the tributaries of the Ten Thousand Islands area.

  7. Soil aquifer treatment to remove priority organic pollutants in the Llobregat river area

    OpenAIRE

    Huerta, Maria; Solé, Josep; Aceves, Mercè; Valhondo González, Cristina; Hernández, Marta; Gullón Santos, Martín

    2013-01-01

    The Llobregat River is the main source of water supply in this area. This river together with its aquifer has suffered from several damages which had contributed to endanger a suitable ecological and hydrological status; among them, pollution is a serious problem to deal with. In the last decades, the presence of organic pollutants in this river has been demonstrated [1,2]. Some of them are persistent to biological degradation and have shown to survive wastewater treatments almost unaltered a...

  8. Estimation of potential runoff-contributing areas in the Kansas-Lower Republican River Basin, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.

    1999-01-01

    Digital soils and topographic data were used to estimate and compare potential runoff-contributing areas for 19 selected subbasins representing soil, slope, and runoff variability within the Kansas-Lower Republican (KLR) River Basin. Potential runoff-contributing areas were estimated separately and collectively for the processes of infiltration-excess and saturation-excess overland flow using a set of environmental conditions that represented high, moderate, and low potential runoff. For infiltration-excess overland flow, various rainfall intensities and soil permeabilities were used. For saturation-excess overland flow, antecedent soil-moisture conditions and a topographic wetness index were used. Results indicated that the subbasins with relatively high potential runoff are located in the central part of the KLR River Basin. These subbasins are Black Vermillion River, Clarks Creek, Delaware River upstream from Muscotah, Grasshopper Creek, Mill Creek (Wabaunsee County), Soldier Creek, Vermillion Creek (Pottawatomie County), and Wildcat Creek. The subbasins with relatively low potential runoff are located in the western one-third of the KLR River Basin, with one exception, and are Buffalo Creek, Little Blue River upstream from Barnes, Mill Creek (Washington County), Republican River between Concordia and Clay Center, Republican River upstream from Concordia, Wakarusa River downstream from Clinton Lake (exception), and White Rock Creek. The ability to distinguish the subbasins as having relatively high or low potential runoff was possible mostly due to the variability of soil permeability across the KLR River Basin.

  9. Tracing the spatial propagation of river inlet water into an agricultural polder area using anthropogenic gadolinium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Siderius, C.; Verheul, M.; Pomarius, H.

    2012-01-01

    Diverting river water into agricultural areas or nature reserves is a frequently applied management strategy to prevent fresh water shortage. However, the river water might have negative consequences for chemical and ecological water quality in the receiving water bodies. This study aimed to obtain

  10. Invertebrates of the Columbia River basin assessment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine G. Niwa; Roger E. Sandquist; Rod Crawford; et al.

    2001-01-01

    A general background on functional groups of invertebrates in the Columbia River basin and how they affect sustainability and productivity of their ecological communities is presented. The functional groups include detritivores, predators, pollinators, and grassland and forest herbivores. Invertebrate biodiversity and species of conservation interest are discussed....

  11. 33 CFR 334.500 - St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean, Sherman Creek; restricted areas and danger zone, Naval Station...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.500 St. Johns River, Atlantic Ocean, Sherman Creek; restricted areas and danger zone, Naval Station Mayport, Florida. (a) The areas. (1) The St. Johns River restricted...

  12. Analysis and Application of River Surface Line in Hilly Area based on Hec-ras Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Congshan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For example—Cixian Fuyang River Regulation Project. Due to the character that Fuyang River is located in hilly areas of Cixian, we use the Hex-ras software to calculate the status of the river water surface line for the goal of determining the final treatment plan. We maintain the present situation of the river channel design as principle, select the most appropriate pushed water level and roughnessas the basic, and we combine the classification calculation of crossing structures of backwater and the encryption calculation section to get the more accurate result. We compare the water level elevation and the calculation of cross strait, analyze the design parameters, calculate repeated the water line section, analyze the rationality of the design plan, and then finally determine the applicability of Hex-rac software in the large continuous variation of cross section of embankment of river river surface line.

  13. Settlement to Improve Water Quality in Delaware River, Philadelphia-Area Creeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the U.S. Department of Justice have reached agreement with a major water utility in the greater Philadelphia area to significantly reduce sewage discharges to the Delaware River and local creeks.

  14. Mercury bioaccumulation assessment for the St. Louis River Area of Concern (poster)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated mercury concentrations have been documented in fish and invertebrates within the St. Louis River Area of Concern (AOC). Mercury bioavailability is affected by multiple factors, including mercury sources, sediment and water geochemistry, food web structure, individual fis...

  15. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Hudson River: MGT (Management Area Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive human-use data for regional and state parks, historic sites, marine sanctuaries, and other managed areas for the Hudson River....

  16. Environmental Settings and Harmful Algal Blooms in the Sea Area Adjacent to the Changjiang River Estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Mingjiang

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of the environmental settings of the sea area adjacent to the Changjiang River estuary include complex currents and water masses, the diluted water plume and its redirection, upwelling, front, and nutrients and their sources. The Changjiang River estuary characteristics also include the phytoplankton community, which can affect the growth, migration, assembling, resting and competition of algae to form red tides in this area.. The features of red tide events recorded in th...

  17. Assessing the Environmental Condition of Minor Rivers in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sergeevich Kuznetsov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the study of water and sediment pollution in the channel of the Neva delta. Spectrophotometry was used to determine the concentration of pollutants in water. In the chemical analysis of the precipitate, atomic absorption spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy were used. Analysis of the hydrochemical composition and sediment of the Smolenka River showed high concentrations of heavy metals and petroleum products. At the same time, the hydrochemical composition of the Smolenka River is highly unstable, but the concentration of oil products and lead in the sediments indicates the presence of local pollution sources. Based on our findings, we are guided by the restoration of the aquatic environment.

  18. Quarternary Sediment Characteristics of Floodplain area: Study Case at Kampar River, Rumbio Area and Surroundings, Riau Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Yuskar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study area is located in some floodplains of meandering river environment along the Kampar River, Rumbio. Typical morphology of meandering river that found in this area can be classified as stream channel, floodplain, abandoned channel, and sand bars deposit. Meandering river system carries sediment supply by suspended and bed - load (mixed load in conjunction with low energy into a particular characteristic on sediment deposition. This study aims to determine the characteristics of the sediments, changes in vertical and lateral spread of sediment deposition on the floodplain environment. This study conducted by field survey using a hand auger of 1.5m - 4m depth and trenching which is a layer that has been exposed of 1-2 meters depth. Further analysis had been carried out using granulometri method and core data analysis to determine the characteristics and depositional facies. Sediment deposit that formed along the Kampar River is the result of the main channel migration of Kampar River. The characteristic of quaternary sediment facies is coarse to gravelly sand on the bottom followed by fine to very fine sand with pattern fining upwards and silt to clay and abundant terrestrial organic matter at the uppermost layer. Depositional facies are determined based on the characteristics of sediment facies which can be grouped into a stream channel, oblique accretion deposits, sand bars and overbank deposits.

  19. Effects of human activities on rivers located in protected areas of the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Luisa Kuhlmann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study evaluated the impacts of anthropogenic activities upstream of conservation areas on the Paraibuna river and its implications for freshwater biodiversity. METHODS: The study was carried out in two units, Cunha and Santa Virginia, of the Serra do Mar State Park (SP, located in the Atlantic Rain Forest. Five sampling sites were defined, four along the Paraibuna river and one in the Ipiranga river, the latter fully inserted into the protected area. Physical, chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological data were obtained from surface water as well as aquatic macroinvertebrates. RESULTS: The results showed that the waters of the Paraibuna river have low anthropogenic interference. However, conductivity, turbidity, coliforms, iron, total phosphorus and nitrate showed a gradient improving its water quality from upstream to downstream, indicating the existence of erosion and introduction of organic debris in the basin. The BMWP index, varying from 58 to 190, also showed the good condition of the river to aquatic biota, with predominant Excellent quality diagnosis. The values of this index and the richness index (S outlined a similar gradient but with the lowest values recorded in P3. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that the upstream activities alter the natural condition of the Paraibuna river and its biota and that the protected areas provides environmental services reducing these impacts. The ideal situation in order to ensure the conservation of the freshwater biota of the Paraibuna river would be the incorporation of parts of the upstream area into the protected area and convert occupied areas into Sustainable Use Area, that guarantee the adoption of sustainable techniques to the existing land uses and the application of aquatic life protection indicators for monitoring the water quality of the river.

  20. Tracing the spatial propagation of river inlet water into an agricultural polder area using anthropogenic gadolinium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Rozemeijer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diverting river water into agricultural areas or nature reserves is a frequently applied management strategy to prevent fresh water shortage. However, the river water might have negative consequences for chemical and ecological water quality in the receiving water bodies. This study aimed to obtain a spatial image of the diverted river water propagation into a hydrologically complex polder area, the polder Quarles van Ufford in The Netherlands. We used anthropogenic gadolinium (Gd-anomaly as a tracer for river water that was diverted into the polder. A clear reduction in the river water contribution was found between very dry conditions on 5 August 2010 and very wet conditions on 22 October. Despite the large river water impact on 5 August, the diverted river water did not propagate up into the small agricultural headwater ditches. Gadolinium proved to be an effective tracer for diverted river water in a polder system. We applied our results to upgrade the interpretation of water quality monitoring data and to validate an integrated nutrient transport model.

  1. Environmental impacts of Ghazi Barotha hydropower project on river Indus and surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, G.A.; Sufi, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    WAPDA being an esteemed organization of the country is involved in development of Water and Power Sector Projects. Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project is another huge hydropower generation project in the country after Tarbela. The barrage to feed power channel of Ghazi Barotha Power Station are built over River Indus 7 Km down of Tarbela Dam. The project has been constructed to utilize the hydraulic head for power generation that is available between the tailrace of Tarbela Dam and the confluence of Haro River. In this reach river Indus drops by 76 m in distance of 63 Km. This is solely a power generation project with an installed capacity of 1450 MW. The purpose of this paper is to assess the negative impacts on the River Indus due to the construction of GBHP as Water of river Indus will be diverted to the power channel and the river Indus flows go to its lowest in low flow season. The reduction in river flow may change the ecology of the river - belas and people dependant on river water. In this context a study was made to keep the negative environmental impacts as low as possible and suggest mitigation measures to reduce negative impacts and provide enhancement measure to compensate the losses to be sustained by the area people and maintain the social life along with the ecology of the area less disturbed. The study demonstrated that the project is technically sound, economically viable and has limited environmental and social impacts on the area overall and specific the belas and people dependant on the Indus Water from Tarbela downstream up to confluence of Kabul River. (author)

  2. Isotopic Tracking of Hanford 300 Area Derived Uranium in the Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, John N.; Dresel, P. Evan; Conrad, Mark E.; Patton, Gregory W.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2010-10-31

    Our objectives in this study are to quantify the discharge rate of uranium (U) to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site's 300 Area, and to follow that U down river to constrain its fate. Uranium from the Hanford Site has variable isotopic composition due to nuclear industrial processes carried out at the site. This characteristic makes it possible to use high-precision isotopic measurements of U in environmental samples to identify even trace levels of contaminant U, determine its sources, and estimate discharge rates. Our data on river water samples indicate that as much as 3.2 kg/day can enter the Columbia River from the 300 Area, which is only a small fraction of the total load of dissolved natural background U carried by the Columbia River. This very low-level of Hanford derived U can be discerned, despite dilution to < 1 percent of natural background U, 350 km downstream from the Hanford Site. These results indicate that isotopic methods can allow the amounts of U from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site entering the Columbia River to be measured accurately to ascertain whether they are an environmental concern, or are insignificant relative to natural uranium background in the Columbia River.

  3. Socioeconomic issues for the Bear River Watershed Conservation Land Area Protection Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Catherine Cullinane; Huber, Christopher; Gascoigne, William; Koontz, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    The Bear River Watershed Conservation Area is located in the Bear River Watershed, a vast basin covering fourteen counties across three states. Located in Wyoming, Utah, and Idaho, the watershed spans roughly 7,500 squares miles: 1,500 squares miles in Wyoming; 2,700 squares miles in Idaho; and 3,300 squares miles in Utah (Utah Division of Water Resources, 2004). Three National Wildlife Refuges are currently contained within the boundary of the BRWCA: the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge in Utah, the Bear Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Idaho, and the Cokeville Meadows National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming. In 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service conducted a Preliminary Project Proposal and identified the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area as having high-value wildlife habitat. This finding initiated the Land Protection Planning process, which is used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to study land conservation opportunities including adding lands to the National Wildlife Refuge System. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposes to include part of the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area in the Refuge System by acquiring up to 920,000 acres of conservation easements from willing landowners to maintain landscape integrity and habitat connectivity in the region. The analysis described in this report provides a profile of the social and economic conditions in the Bear River Watershed Conservation Area and addresses social and economic questions and concerns raised during public involvement in the Land Protection Planning process.

  4. Hydrological assessment of freshwater resource areas in the Zambezi River Basin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mwenge Kahinda, Jean-Marc

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available characterisation of the degree of regulation of the river system, followed by an assessment of high water yielding areas (water towers), groundwater recharge and base flow index. To understand the environmental patterns and processes that occur in the river... to hydrogeology, IAH Publ. 8, Verlag Heinz Heisse. Xu, Y. and Beekman, H.E. (Eds). 2003. Groundwater recharge estimation in southern Africa. UNESCO IHP Series No. 64. UNESCO Paris. Figure 1: The Zambezi River Basin and its 13 sub basins Figure 3: High water...

  5. Interaction of the sea breeze with a river breeze in an area of complex coastal heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shiyuan; Takle, Eugene S.; Leone, John M., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction of the sea-breeze circulation with a river-breeze circulation in an area of complex coastal heating (east coast of Florida) was studied using a 3D finite-element mesoscale model. The model simulations are compared with temperature and wind fields observed on a typical fall day during the Kennedy Space Center Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment. The results from numerical experiments designed to isolate the effect of the river breeze indicate that the convergence in the sea-breeze front is suppressed when it passes over the cooler surface of the rivers.

  6. Fault and joint geometry at Raft River Geothermal Area, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guth, L. R.; Bruhn, R. L.; Beck, S. L.

    1981-07-01

    Raft River geothermal reservoir is formed by fractures in sedimentary strata of the Miocene and Pliocene salt lake formation. The fracturing is most intense at the base of the salt lake formation, along a decollement that dips eastward at less than 50 on top of metamorphosed precambrian and lower paleozoic rocks. Core taken from less than 200 m above the decollement contains two sets of normal faults. The major set of faults dips between 500 and 700. These faults occur as conjugate pairs that are bisected by vertical extension fractures. The second set of faults dips 100 to 200 and may parallel part of the basal decollement or reflect the presence of listric normal faults in the upper plate. Surface joints form two suborthogonal sets that dip vertically. East-northeast-striking joints are most frequent on the limbs of the Jim Sage anticline, a large fold that is associated with the geothermal field.

  7. River Mileages and Drainage Areas for Illinois Streams. Volume 1. Illinois Except Illinois River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    SALINE MINES SALINE RIVER (MOUTH AT OHIO RIVER MILE 867.4) HARDIN COUNTY 0.0 HYDROLOGIC UNIT 05140204 SALINE MINES 0.0 AT MOUTH NEAR LAMB 1177 373416...ROA-) S3? TIIN W 6E STEWAPASON 1.2 QOAo 532 TIIN N bE SEAnO 2.2 -iOA’ S28 T1IN d~ 6E STEWARnSON 2.o3 RDA- S28 Tl~rl N 6F STEW AkNr SON 4.1 ROAn 522 T12N...50.9 ROAD S029TllN9Rl4W CASEY1151.2 LAMBS BRANCH R CASEY 51.4 RO40 SQ2,TllN9Rl4W CASEY 52.0 ROAD S029T~lN9Rl4W CASEY S2.8 ROAD S349Tl2N9RI4W CASEY

  8. Determination of inundation area in the Amazon River floodplain using the SMMR 37 GHz polarization difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sippel, S.J.; Hamilton, S.K.; Melack, J.M.; Choudhury, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    The 37 GHz polarization difference observed by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR), which was operated on board the Nimbus-7 satellite, provides a sensitive indicator of surface water. These data can provide information on seasonal inundation patterns in large tropical wetlands such as the Amazon River floodplain. Although the SMMR data are of low resolution, we were able to estimate the area inundated within a group of pixels by using linear mixing models which incorporate the major end-members of the observed microwave signatures. The models were then used to estimate seasonal changes in inundation area over a 7-year period for a 34,550 km 2 area along the Amazon River near Manaus. The seasonal changes in inundation area determined using mixing models correlate well with changes in river stage. (author)

  9. Phosphorus losses from agricultural areas in river basins; effects and uncertainties of targeted mitigation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronvang, B.; Bechmann, M.; Lundekvam, H.; Behrendt, H.; Rubaek, G.H.; Schoumans, O.F.; Syversen, N.; Andersen, H.E.; Hoffmann, C.C.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we show the quantitative and relative importance of phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural areas within European river basins and demonstrate the importance of P pathways, linking agricultural source areas to surface water at different scales. Agricultural P losses are increasingly

  10. 33 CFR 334.560 - Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at Patrick Air Force Base, Fla.; restricted area. 334.560 Section 334.560 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.560 Banana...

  11. Geochemical behaviour of heavy metals in a sedimentation area of the rivers Rhine and Meuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Biesbosch, situated in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse in The Netherlands, is considered an important freshwater tidal area, although the tidal amplitude has decreased as a result of the implementation of the Delta Worles. Due to the decrease in flow rates since the closure ofthe area by

  12. Geochemical behaviour of heavy metals in a sedimentation area of the rivers Rhine and Meuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, G.A. van den

    1998-01-01

    The Biesbosch, situated in the delta of the rivers Rhine and Meuse in The Netherlands, is considered an important freshwater tidal area, although the tidal amplitude has decreased as a result of the implementation of the Delta Worles. Due to the decrease in flow rates since the closure ofthe area

  13. 78 FR 34255 - Regulated Navigation Area; Vessel Traffic in Vicinity of Marseilles Dam; Illinois River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final Rule RNA Regulated Navigation Area A. Regulatory History... Navigation Area (RNA) on the Illinois River. This Temporary Final Rule stipulates operational requirements... Mile Marker 240.0 to Mile Marker 271.4. This RNA is necessary to protect the general public, vessels...

  14. Satellite-based empirical models linking river plume dynamics with hypoxic area andvolume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satellite-based empirical models explaining hypoxic area and volume variation were developed for the seasonally hypoxic (O2 < 2 mg L−1) northern Gulf of Mexico adjacent to the Mississippi River. Annual variations in midsummer hypoxic area and ...

  15. Satellite remote sensing of river inundation area, stage, and discharge: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laurence C.

    1997-08-01

    The growing availability of multi-temporal satellite data has increased opportunities for monitoring large rivers from space. A variety of passive and active sensors operating in the visible and microwave range are currently operating, or planned, which can estimate inundation area and delineate flood boundaries. Radar altimeters show great promise for directly measuring stage variation in large rivers. It also appears to be possible to obtain estimates of river discharge from space, using ground measurements and satellite data to construct empirical curves that relate water surface area to discharge. Extrapolation of these curves to ungauged sites may be possible for the special case of braided rivers.Where clouds, trees and floating vegetation do not obscure the water surface, high-resolution visible/infrared sensors provide good delineation of inundated areas. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors can penetrate clouds and can also detect standing water through emergent aquatic plants and forest canopies. However, multiple frequencies and polarizations are required for optimal discrimination of various inundated vegetation cover types. Existing single-polarization, fixed-frequency SARs are not sufficient for mapping inundation area in all riverine environments. In the absence of a space-borne multi-parameter SAR, a synergistic approach using single-frequency, fixed-polarization SAR and visible/infrared data will provide the best results over densely vegetated river floodplains.

  16. [Water environmental capacity calculation model for the rivers in drinking water source conservation area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Shen, Ye-na; Jin, Shu-quan; Shi, Yi-ming

    2008-09-01

    Based on the one-dimension model for water environmental capacity (WEC) in river, a new model for the WEC estimation in river-reservoir system was developed in drinking water source conservation area (DWSCA). In the new model, the concept was introduced that the water quality target of the rivers in DWSCA was determined by the water quality demand of reservoir for drinking water source. It implied that the WEC of the reservoir could be used as the water quality control target at the reach-end of the upstream rivers in DWSCA so that the problems for WEC estimation might be avoided that the differences of the standards for a water quality control target between in river and in reservoir, such as the criterions differences for total phosphorus (TP)/total nitrogen (TN) between in reservoir and in river according to the National Surface Water Quality Standard of China (GB 3838-2002), and the difference of designed hydrology conditions for WEC estimation between in reservoir and in river. The new model described the quantitative relationship between the WEC of drinking water source and of the river, and it factually expressed the continuity and interplay of these low water areas. As a case study, WEC for the rivers in DWSCA of Laohutan reservoir located in southeast China was estimated using the new model. Results indicated that the WEC for TN and TP was 65.05 t x a(-1) and 5.05 t x a(-1) in the rivers of the DWSCA, respectively. According to the WEC of Laohutan reservoir and current TN and TP quantity that entered into the rivers, about 33.86 t x a(-1) of current TN quantity should be reduced in the DWSCA, while there was 2.23 t x a(-1) of residual WEC of TP in the rivers. The modeling method was also widely applicable for the continuous water bodies with different water quality targets, especially for the situation of higher water quality control target in downstream water body than that in upstream.

  17. Model evaluation of faecal contamination in coastal areas affected by urban rivers receiving combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, T; Kojima, K; Lee, S A; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    Odaiba seaside park is one of the most popular waterfronts in Tokyo Bay, but is easily affected by wet weather pollutant loads through combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The monitoring data of Escherichia coli clearly showed high faecal contamination after a rainfall event on 9-11 November 2007. We estimated the amounts of discharge volume and E. coli pollutant loads of urban rivers receiving CSO from rainfall chambers as well as pumping stations and primary effluent discharge. The result suggested that Sumida River and Meguro River were more influential to the Odaiba coastal area than other sources including the nearest wastewater treatment plant. Subsequently, we simulated the dynamic behaviour of E. coli by a three-dimensional (3D) hydro-dynamic and water quality model. The model simulation reproduced that E. coli concentration after the rainfall event increased rapidly at first and later gradually decreased. The simulations with and without inflow pollutant loads from urban rivers suggested that the E. coli concentration can be influenced by the Meguro River just after the rainfall event and Sumida River about 1 week later. From the spatial and temporal distribution of surface E. coli concentration, after at least 6 days from the rainfall event, high faecal contamination spread to the whole of the coastal area.

  18. The role of discharge variation in scaling of drainage area and food chain length in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, John L.; Finlay, Jacques C.; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Post, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Food chain length (FCL) is a fundamental component of food web structure. Studies in a variety of ecosystems suggest that FCL is determined by energy supply, environmental stability, and/or ecosystem size, but the nature of the relationship between environmental stability and FCL, and the mechanism linking ecosystem size to FCL, remain unclear. Here we show that FCL increases with drainage area and decreases with hydrologic variability and intermittency across 36 North American rivers. Our analysis further suggests that hydrologic variability is the mechanism underlying the correlation between ecosystem size and FCL in rivers. Ecosystem size lengthens river food chains by integrating and attenuating discharge variation through stream networks, thereby enhancing environmental stability in larger river systems.

  19. 76 FR 58105 - Regulated Navigation Area; Saugus River, Lynn, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a Regulated Navigation Area (RNA) on the navigable... INFORMATION: Regulatory Information The Coast Guard is issuing this temporary rule without prior notice and... Pipeline bridge poses to the navigational channel necessitates that all mariners comply with this RNA...

  20. Hydrochemistry of rivers in an acid sulphate soil hotspot area in western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ROOS

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available During heavy rains and snow melting, acid sulphate (AS soils on the coastal plains of Finland are flushed resulting in discharge of acidic and metal-rich waters that strongly affect small streams. In this study, the impact of AS soils occurrence and hydrological changes on water quality were determined for 21 rivers (catchment sizes between 96–4122 km2 running through an AS soil hotspot area in western central Finland. Water samples, collected at the outlet, during eight selected events, were analysed for pH, dissolved organic carbon, electrical conductivity (EC and 32 chemical elements. Based on the correlation with percentage arable land in the catchments (a rough estimate of AS soil occurrences, as up to 50% of the arable land is underlain with these soils, it was possible to categorize variables into those that are enriched in runoff from such land, depleted in runoff from such land (only one element, and not affected by land-use type in the catchments. Of the variables enriched in runoff from arable land, some were leached from AS soils during high-water flows, in particular (aluminium, boron, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, lithium, manganese, nickel, sulphur, silicon, thorium, thallium, uranium, and zinc and others occurred in highest concentrations during lower flows (calcium, EC, potassium, magnesium, sodium, rubidium and strontium. Molybdenum and phosphorus were not leached from AS soils in larger amounts than from other soils and thus related to other factors connected to the arable land. Based on the concentrations of potentially toxic metals derived from AS soils, the 21 rivers were ranked from the least (Lestijoki River, Lapväärtinjoki River and Perhonjoki River to the most (Sulvanjoki River, Vöyrinjoki River and Maalahdenjoki River heavily AS soil impacted. It has been decided that Vöyrinjoki is to be dredged along a ca. 20 km distance. This is quite alarming considering the high metal concentrations in the river.;

  1. Ichthyofauna species of the upper Kaniv reservoir and mouth area of the Desna River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Sytnik

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It was studied the fish species of the upper part of Kaniv reservoir (Kyiv water area and the mouth area of the Desna River. The found and preceding data of ichthyological research were compared. The changes in the fish population were analyzed. Two new invasive alien fish species were discovered in the Kaniv reservoir and Desna River: Amur sleeper (Perccotus glenii and Stone moroco (Pseudorasdora parva. Generally the ichthyofauna composition of these water bodies was supplemented with seven unmarketable and dirt species.

  2. Design principles of water sensitive in settlement area on the river banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryanti, E.; Hasriyanti, N.; Utami, W. D.

    2018-03-01

    This research will formulate the principle of designing settlement area of Kapuas River Pontianak with the approach of water sensitive concept of urban design (WSUD) the densely populated settlement area. By using a case study the approach that is a dense settlement area located on the banks of the river with literature study techniques to formulate the aspects considered and components that are set in the design, descriptive analysis with the rationalistic paradigm for identification characteristics of the settlement in the river banks areas with consideration of WSUD elements and formulate the principles of designing water-sensitive settlement areas. This research is important to do because the problems related to the water management system in the existing riverside settlement in Pontianak has not been maximal to do. So the primary of this research contains several objectives that will be achieved that is identifying the characteristics of riverside settlement area based on consideration of design aspects of the area that are sensitive to water and the principle of designing the area so that the existing problem structure will be formulated in relation to the community’s need for infrastructure in settlement environment and formulate and develop appropriate technology guidelines for integrated water management systems in riverside settlement areas and design techniques for water-sensitive settlements (WSUD).

  3. Analysis on Physical Characteristics of Rural Solid Waste in Dongjiang River Source Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Tao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dongjiang river is the source of drinking water of Guangdong Province and Hongkong, and the source area includes three counties in Ganzhou city of Jiangxi Province: Xunwu, Anyuan and Dingnan. Three typical villages were chosen in Dongjiang river source area to investigate the producing quantity and physical characteristics of rural solid waste. Results of investigation showed that the dominant ingredient in rural solid waste in Dongjiang river source area was kitchen waste, taking over 60%, followed by dust, reaching 12%, while other components took less than 10%. The per-capita producing quantity of solid waste of county-level village was 0.2~0.47 kg·d -1 and averaged by 0.36 kg·d -1, while that of town-level village was 0.18~0.35 kg· d -1, averaged by 0.29 kg· d -1 and that of hamlet was 0.07~0.33 kg· d -1, averaged by 0.17 kg· d -1. Water content in rural mixed solid waste of investigated area was significantly linear with percentage of kitchen waste in the mixed waste(R 2 =0.626, P=0.019. The average calorie wasaround 2 329 kJ·kg -1, which indicated that the rural solid waste in Dongjiang river source area was not suitable for incineration disposal directly.

  4. An aerial radiological survey of the southwest drainage basin area of the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feimster, E.L.

    1994-04-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over a 106-square-mile area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), formerly the Savannah River Plant. The survey was conducted from August 24 through September 8, 1988, to collect baseline radiological data over the area. Both natural and man-made gamma emitting radionuclides were detected in the area. The detected man-made sources were confined to creeks, branches, and SRS facilities in the surveyed area and were a result of SRS operations. Naturally-occurring radiation levels were consistent with those levels detected in adjacent areas during previous surveys. The annual dose levels were within the range of levels found throughout the United States

  5. Hydrological and pollution processes in mining area of Fenhe River Basin in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yonggang; Meng, Zhilong; Jiao, Wentao

    2018-03-01

    The hydrological and pollution processes are an important science problem for aquatic ecosystem. In this study, the samples of river water, reservoir water, shallow groundwater, deep groundwater, and precipitation in mining area are collected and analyzed. δD and δ 18 O are used to identify hydrological process. δ 15 N-NO 3 - and δ 18 O-NO 3 - are used to identify the sources and pollution process of NO 3 - . The results show that the various water bodies in Fenhe River Basin are slightly alkaline water. The ions in the water mainly come from rock weathering. The concentration of SO 4 2- is high due to the impact of coal mining activity. Deep groundwater is significantly less affected by evaporation and human activity, which is recharged by archaic groundwater. There are recharge and discharge between reservoir water, river water, soil water, and shallow groundwater. NO 3 - is the main N species in the study area, and forty-six percent of NO 3 - -N concentrations exceed the drinking water standard of China (NO 3 - -N ≤ 10 mg/L content). Nitrification is the main forming process of NO 3 - . Denitrification is also found in river water of some river branches. The sources of NO 3 - are mainly controlled by land use type along the riverbank. NO 3 - of river water in the upper reaches are come from nitrogen in precipitation and soil organic N. River water in the lower reaches is polluted by a mixture of soil organic N and fertilizers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 76 FR 70866 - Expansions of the Russian River Valley and Northern Sonoma Viticultural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    .... ACTION: Final rule; Treasury decision. SUMMARY: This Treasury decision expands the Russian River Valley... describe the origin of their wines and to allow consumers to better identify wines they may purchase. DATES... consumers to identify wines they may purchase. Establishment of a viticultural area is neither an approval...

  7. Baseline study of the Mokolo and Lephalala rivers in the Waterberg area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Klerk, A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in the Waterberg area to characterize the aquatic macro invertebrate community structure and fish assemblages in the Mokolo and Lephalala rivers prior to the onset of increased mining activities and coal fired power stations...

  8. Environmental monitoring of 137Cs in the Vardar River catchment area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anovski, T.; Cvetanovska-Nastevska, L.; Jovanovski, N.

    1996-01-01

    Distribution of Cs-137, as one of the most important anthropogenic radioactive pollutant on the environment, in various samples within the Vardar river catchment area has been determined. By application of adequate radioecological model, an effective equivalent dose for different transfer media and exposure pathways as a contribution of Cs-137 to the total exposure of man of different age, were calculated. (author)

  9. 76 FR 31895 - Regulated Navigation Area; Magothy River, Sillery Bay, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... navigation area (RNA) in certain waters of the Magothy River, in Sillery Bay, Maryland, on July 23, 2011. This RNA is necessary to provide for the safety of life, property and the environment. This RNA... number is 202-366-9329. To avoid duplication, please use only one of these four methods. See the ``Public...

  10. 77 FR 73916 - Regulated Navigation Area; S99 Alford Street Bridge Rehabilitation Project, Mystic River, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... against hazardous conditions created by repair work on the S99 Alford Street Bridge across the Mystic... navigation area that was promulgated to protect the public against hazardous conditions created by repair... restaurants), and vessels who intend to transit in the Mystic River beneath the S99 Alford Street Bridge...

  11. Mercury bioaccumulation assessment for the St. Louis River Area of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both Minnesota and Wisconsin have posted fish consumption advisories within the St. Louis River Area of Concern (SLR AOC), in part because fish have elevated mercury concentrations. To assess mercury concentrations in fish tissue within the SLR AOC relative to reference condition...

  12. Searching for patterns among special animal deposits in the Dutch river area during the Roman period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores recurring patterns among special animal deposits in rural settlements in the Dutch river area from the Roman period and draws a comparison with finds of other material categories. Recognising patterns is a step towards interpreting special deposits as the material remains of

  13. 75 FR 39839 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River and Port of NY/NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... navigation area (RNA) from Port Coeymans, New York on the Hudson River to Jersey City, New Jersey on Upper... replacement span. DATES: This rule is effective from July 13, 2010 through October 31, 2010. The RNA will be... time and place announced by a later notice in the Federal Register. [[Page 39840

  14. 77 FR 41717 - Regulated Navigation Area; Original Waldo-Hancock Bridge Removal, Penobscot River, Bucksport, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ...-AA11 Regulated Navigation Area; Original Waldo-Hancock Bridge Removal, Penobscot River, Bucksport, ME..., ME, under and surrounding the original Waldo-Hancock Bridge in order to facilitate the removal of the... Coast Guard informed MEDOT that the deconstruction of the original Waldo- Hancock Bridge would require...

  15. River Basin Water Assessment and Balance in fast developing areas in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Van Chin; Ranzi, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Uneven precipitation in space and time together with mismanagement and lack of knowledge about quantity and quality of water resources, have caused water shortages for water supply to large cities and irrigation areas in many regions of Viet Nam in the dry season. The rainy season (from June to October) counts for 80% of the total annual rainfall, while the water volume of dry season (from November to May of the following year) accounts for 20% only. Lack of sufficient water volumes occurs in some areas where the pressure of a fast increasing population (1.3% per year on average in the last decade in Viet Nam), intensive agricultural and industrial uses is one of the major problems facing sustainable development. For those areas an accurate water assessment and balance at the riverbasin scale is needed to manage the exploitation and appropriate use of water resources and plan future development. The paper describes the preliminary phase of the pilot development of the river basin water balance for the Day River Basin in the Red River delta in Viet Nam. The Day river basin includes a 7,897 km² area in the south-western part of the Red River in Viet Nam. The total population in the Day river basin exceeds 8 millions inhabitants, including the Hanoi capital, Nam Dinh and other large towns. Agricultural land covered 390,294 ha in 2000 and this area is going to be increased by 14,000 ha in 2010 due to land reclamation and expansion toward the sea. Agricultural uses exploit about 90% of surface water resources in the Day river basin but have to compete with industrial and civil needs in the recent years. At the background of the brief characterization of the Day River Basin, we concentrate on the application of a water balance model integrated by an assessment of water quality after consumptive uses for civil, agricultural and industrial needs to assist water management in the basin. In addition, future development scenarios are taken into account, considering less

  16. Quality index of the surface water of Amazonian rivers in industrial areas in Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Adaelson Campelo; Faial, Kleber Raimundo Freitas; do Carmo Freitas Faial, Kelson; da Silva Lopes, Iris Danielly; de Oliveira Lima, Marcelo; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Mendonça, Neyson Martins

    2017-10-15

    In this study was to evaluate the waters quality of the Murucupi River, located in urban agglomerate area and intense industrial activity in Barcarena City, Pará State. The Arapiranga River in Abaetetuba City was used as control area (Background), next to Barcarena. Was used the Water Quality Index (WQI) based on nine variables analized. Waters quality of the Arapiranga and Murucupi rivers were regular to good and bad to good, respectively. Anthropogenic influence on the Murucupi River was higher, mainly by the disposal of domestic effluents from the urban agglomerate and of the industrial waste tailing basins upstream of this river. Due to its less inhabited environment and further away from the area urban and industrial, the Arapiranga River was more preserved. Waters pollution of around these area is increasingly intense, and restricted its uses for various purposes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Basin of the river Oskil as a tourist-recreational area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валентина Клименко

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available At the current stage of Ukraine’s economic development tourism is a priority sector of our country’s economy. Due to the fact that Ukraine has set a high priority goal - to join the European Union, we should pay attention to the conditions of various areas and sectors of our economy, in particular, the quality of tourism services, whether the recreational sector meets European standards. Many economically developed countries make tourism the most important among other sectors to fill the budget and closely monitor the quality of tourist services. Due to the rapid development of the tourism industry in our country the question has arisen as to conformity of recreational facilities conditions with international standards and finding new places of recreation, including water tourism. The aim of the study is to highlight the Oskil River Basin (within Kharkiv region as a tourist and recreational area and the use of the study materials in the learning process. The article deals with problems of insufficiently studied use of the river Oskil basin both as a tourist, and a recreational area. The hydrographic characteristics of the reservoir have been studied to illustrate the conformity of water objects with the standards and requirements of tourist and recreational activities; methods and techniques of water resources assessment have been analyzed for recreation; the river Oskil (within Ukraine and Chervono-Oskil reservoir have been assessed on the possibility of tourist-recreational use. The ways to use the study materials in education have been determined. Recreational potential of the river and the reservoir should not be underestimated. Thus, analyzing resources of the Oskil river basin and Chervono-Oskil reservoir in terms of recreation, we can conclude that the water of the river is not equally suitable for recreational purposes. The river basin can be used as an object of beach-bathing leisure, tourist boating and rafting, sport rafting

  18. HYDROCHEMICAL CONDITIONS OF THE ŁOSOSINA RIVER WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE AREA OF TYMBARK

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Policht-Latawiec; Włodzimierz Kanownik

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable use of waters requires not only determining the amount, but primarily the quality of the available water resources and developing a long-term programme of their protection. The analysis of the Łososina river water in the area of Tymbark city was presented in the paper. The water was tested in a view of the requirements as the natural fish habitat and its potential use for people supply in potable water. The river water samples were taken in 2014 at randomly selected dates, once a ...

  19. 78 FR 12260 - Regulated Navigation Area-Weymouth Fore River, Fore River Bridge Construction, Weymouth and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... bridge will reach the end of its useable life span in 2018 and the Massachusetts Department of... temporary existing bridge spans. D. Regulatory Analyses We developed this proposed rule after considering... unforeseen, that could pose an imminent hazard to persons and vessels operating in the area. This rule is...

  20. Comparative Assessment Of Coastal Tourism Potentials Of Selected Areas In Rivers State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obinwanne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study examined coastal tourism potentials in Rivers State with emphasis on Opobo Bonny and Port Harcourt to determine the area that has comparative advantage for tourism development to optimally utilize resources. The study was conducted in Bonny Opobo and Port Harcourt of River State Nigeria. The area occupies the land close to the Atlantic Ocean within 60km radius from the coast. A survey design was adopted for the study. The instruments used were observation checklist and interview schedule. The instruments were tested for validity and reliability using five experts drawn from the field. The data collected were analyzed using ethnographic description method of analysis to answer research questions. The natural attractions found include mangrove forest sacred forests sacred rivers lakes beaches fishing rivers natural sources of drinking water and sanctuary. The cultural heritage resources were historical monument shrines museums different cultural festivals cultural materials and slave port. The man-made attractions were recreational park zoological garden and tourism village. It was found that there were more tourism potentials in Port Harcourt study site more than Bonny and Opobo sites and therefore Port Harcourt has comparative advantage over Bonny and Opobo for tourism development. Therefore efforts should be made and scarce resources utilized towards developing those coastal areas with best potentials and comparative advantage over others.

  1. Environmental impact monitoring of U exploration activity in river water at Kalan Area West Kalimantan 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AS Soediro; A Dedi; A Djuhara; T Wismawati; A Nugroho; S Widarti

    2010-01-01

    U exploration at Kalan (Eko Remaja, Lemajung, Semut) will produce the environment impact of flora, fauna and society. The objective monitoring is to detect and measure the environmental change quality component caused by U exploration activity in river water at Kalan area. The monitoring were done by analyze river water sample were taken at the same place previously year. Analysis river water sample such as Ca, Mg, Fe, Ni, Zn, radioactivity U at Eko Remaja, Lemajung, Semut have shown nearly equal to the result of previous years and still below the limited value. Water quality Kalan (that scale 4.9 for Eko Remaja, Lemajung and 4.8 for Semut, it means, that's safe for environment. (author)

  2. Comprehensive strategy for corrective actions at the Savannah River Site General Separations Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebra, M.A.; Lewis, C.M.; Amidon, M.B.; McClain, L.K.

    1991-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS), operated by the Westinghouse Savannah River Company for the United States Department of Energy, contains a number of waste disposal units that are currently in various stages of corrective action investigations, closures, and postclosure corrective actions. Many of these sites are located within a 40-square-kilometer area called the General Separations Area (GSA). The SRS has proposed to the regulatory agencies, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC), that groundwater investigations and corrective actions in this area be conducted under a comprehensive plan. The proposed plan would address the continuous nature of the hydrogeologic regime below the GSA and the potential for multiple sources of contamination. This paper describes the proposed approach

  3. DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, C.E.; Janecek, L.L.

    1997-08-31

    Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site`s total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside.

  4. DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.E.; Janecek, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site's total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside

  5. Mathematical modelling for distribution of heavy metals in estuary area of Red River (Vietnam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, N. T. T.; Volkova, I. V.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the authors studied the features of spatial distribution of some heavy metals (Pb, Hg, As) in the system “suspended substance - bottom sediments” in the mouth area of the Red River (Vietnam). A mathematical modelling for diffusion processes of heavy metals in a suspended form, in bottom sediments and the spatial analysis for the results of these models were proposed and implemented. The studies were carried out during main hydrological seasons of 2014 - 2016 (during the flood and inter-natal periods). The propagation of heavy metals was modeled by solving the equation of turbulent diffusion. A spatial analysis of the content of heavy metals in the suspended form and in the bottom sediments was implemented by using the interpolation model in ArcGIS 10.2.2. The distribution of Pb, Hg, As concentration of the suspended form and bottom sediment phases in the estuary area of the Red River was characterized by maximum in the mouths of the branches and general decreasing gradient towards the sea. Maximum concentrations of Pb, Hg in suspended forms were observed in the surface layer of water at the river-sea barrier. The content of Hg and As in the estuary region of the Red River was observed in the following order: SSsurfBS.

  6. Species composition of the vegetation along the Sherichhu River, lower montane area of Eastern Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenzin Jamtsho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the riparian vegetation along the Sherichhu River, lower montane area of Eastern Bhutan was conducted from April to December 2015 to explore the plant communities in terms of species composition. A total number of 18 plots were placed within the remnant patches of the vegetation on either side of the river. In total, 172 species of vascular plant has been recorded. The cluster analysis suggested four types of plant communities in the study area viz., the MallotusDesmodium-Rhus shrubland and the Syzygium venosum woodland communities, which are located in V-shaped valleys and the Albizia-Flueggea woodland and Quercus glauca woodland communities located in U-shaped valleys. In broad-spectrum, the topographic features and environmental variables i.e. litter accumulation and flooding condition might also have some impact on the species composition of the plant communities of this vegetation.

  7. Flood protection structure detection with Lidar: examples on French Mediterranean rivers and coastal areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trmal Céline

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at presenting different topographic analysis conducted with GIS software in order to detect flood protection structures, natural or artificial, in river floodplains but also in coastal zones. Those computations are relevant because of the availability of high-resolution lidar digital terrain model (DTM. An automatic detection permits to map the footprint of those structures. Then detailed mapping of structure crest is achieved by implementing a least cost path analysis on DTM but also on other terrain aspects such as the curvature. On coastal zones, the analysis is going further by identifying flood protected areas and the level of protection regarding sea level. This article is illustrated by examples on French Mediterranean rivers and coastal areas.

  8. The influence of the macro-sediment from the mountainous area to the river morphology in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. C.; Wu, C.; Shih, P.

    2012-12-01

    Chen, Su-Chin scchen@nchu.edu.tw Wu, Chun-Hung* chwu@mail.nchu.edu.tw Dept. Soil & Water Conservation, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan. The Chenyulan River was varied changed with the marco-sediment yielded source area, Shenmu watershed, with 10 debris flow events in the last decade, in Central Taiwan. Multi-term DEMs, the measurement data of the river topographic profile and aerial photos are adopted to analyze the decade influences of the marco-sediment to the river morphology in Chenyulan River. The changes of river morphology by observing the river pattern, calculating the multi-term braided index, and estimating the distribution of sediment deposition and main channel in the river. The response for the macro-sediment from the mountainous areas into the river in the primary stage is the increase in river width, the depth of sediment deposition and volume of sediment transport. The distribution of sediment deposition from upstream landslide and river bank erosion along the river dominates the change of river morphology in the primary stage. The river morphology achieves stable gradually as the river discharge gradually decreases in the later stage. Both of the braided index and the volume of sediment transport decrease, and the river flow maintains in a main channel instead of the braided pattern in this stage. The decade sediment deposition depth is estimated as > 0.5 m, especially > 3.5 m in the sections closed to the sediment-yield source areas, the mean river width increases 15%, and the sediment with a total volume of 8×107 tons has been transported in last decade in Chenyulan River. The river morphology in Chenyulan River maintains a short-term stable, i.e. 2 or 3 years, and changes again because of the flooding events with a large amount of sediment caused by frequently heavy rainfall events in Taiwan. Furthermore, the response of river morphology in Chenyulan River due to the heavy rainfall with a total precipitation of around 860 mm

  9. Bedform morphology of salmon spawning areas in a large gravel-bed river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2007-05-01

    While the importance of river channel morphology to salmon spawning habitat is increasingly recognized, quantitative measures of the relationships between channel morphology and habitat use are lacking. Such quantitative measures are necessary as management and regulatory agencies within the Pacific Northwestern region of the USA, and elsewhere, seek to quantify potential spawning habitat and develop recovery goals for declining salmon populations. The objective of this study was to determine if fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) spawning areas in the Snake River, Idaho, USA, were correlated with specific bed form types at the pool-riffle scale. A bed form differencing technique was used to objectively quantify the longitudinal riverbed profile into four distinct pool-riffle units that were independent of discharge. The vertical location of thalweg points within these units was quantified with a riffle proximity index. Chinook salmon spawning areas were mapped and correlated with the pool-riffle units through the use of cross-tabulation tables. The results indicate that 84% of fall Chinook salmon spawning areas were correlated with riffles (Chi-square=152.1, df=3, p<0.001), with 53% of those areas located on the upstream side of riffle crests. The majority of Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning occurred at a vertical location within 80% of the nearest riffle crest elevation. The analyses of bed form morphology will assist regional fish mangers in quantifying existing and potential fall Chinook salmon spawning habitat, and will provide a quantitative framework for evaluating general ecological implications of channel morphology in large gravel-bed rivers.

  10. EVALUATION OF DISASTER MITIGATION SYSTEM AGAINST LAHAR FLOW OF PUTIH RIVER, MT. MERAPI AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Maksal Saputra

    2013-05-01

    Result of the evaluation shows that the existing early warning system does not produce sufficient time for the sand miners to save themselves. The proposed solution is to divide sand mine area in Putih River into 3 zones, each zone has different procedure of the early warning and evacuation. This is arranged to avoid casualties to the sand miners. Keywords: Lahar flood, sand miners, early warning.

  11. Columbia River : Select Area Fishery Evaluation project : 1995-96 Annual Reports.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Paul; Miller, Marc; Hill, Jim

    1998-06-01

    Water quality monitoring was conducted from November 1994 through October 1996 at five Oregon and three Washington select area study sites in the lower Columbia River. Physicochemical monitoring and aquatic biomonitoring programs were established to profile baseline parameters at each study site and document differences between study sites. Data collected at study sites where fish rearing operations were initiated indicate a potential negative impact on the surrounding benthic invertebrate communities.

  12. Proposal to market Provo River Project power, Salt Lake City area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report is an environmental assessment of the Western Area Power Administrations's proposal to change the way in which the power produced by the Provo River Project (PRP) is marketed. The topics of the report include the alternatives to the proposed action that have been considered, a description of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and the alternatives that were considered, and other environmental considerations

  13. Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Lower Ohio River Navigation Area, Illinois and Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Pulaski Counties, Illinois. O.L. Baskins and Company, Historical Publishers: Chicago, IL. Robbins , Chandles S., Bertel Brunn, and Herbert S. Zim 196b...woodpecker (Campephllus principalis) ( Robbins et^ al . 1966). Faunal resources available from the Ohio River, the levee flank lakes, and the backwater...the area, occasional raids occurred (Müller and Davy 1977:31). These Indian raids were often bloody and cruel ( Baskin 1883:536-537) as rage and

  14. HYDROCHEMICAL CONDITIONS OF THE ŁOSOSINA RIVER WATER MANAGEMENT IN THE AREA OF TYMBARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Policht-Latawiec

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable use of waters requires not only determining the amount, but primarily the quality of the available water resources and developing a long-term programme of their protection. The analysis of the Łososina river water in the area of Tymbark city was presented in the paper. The water was tested in a view of the requirements as the natural fish habitat and its potential use for people supply in potable water. The river water samples were taken in 2014 at randomly selected dates, once a month in 5 measurement points. 21 physicochemical indices were assessed in the samples. The assessment of the Łososina river water quality was made on the basis of the results of both: on site and laboratory testing, which were compared with the Regulation of the Minister of Environment of 23 October 2014. The utility values were assessed on the basis of the Regulations of the Minister of Environment of 27 November and 04 October 2014. The analysis of the results demonstrated that the Łososina river water met the requirements of quality class I water in points 1, 2 and 3. Below Tymbark the Łososina river water was polluted, so due to high BOD5 in points 4 and 5, and phosphate concentrations in point 4, it was classified as class II, i.e. good state. Pollution coefficients computed according to Burchard and Dubaniewicz classify the Łososina river water as clean along the whole investigated stretch. Below Tymbark city (points 4 and 5 the Łososina river water cannot be used for drinking water supply because of high BOD5 and iron concentrations. In the other points it could be used for water supply following appropriate physical and chemical treatment. The water does not meet the requirements for salmonid or cyprinid fish along the whole stretch because of high nitrite concentrations, except point 3, where the Łososina river water provided a proper natural habitat for carp.

  15. Atoyac River Pollution in the Metropolitan Area of Puebla, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pérez Castresana

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Atoyac River crosses the metropolitan area of Puebla-Tlaxcala in Mexico and presents a state of pollution that has been scarcely studied. In 2016, the water quality of the river was evaluated based on physicochemical and bacteriological parameters, under the guidelines established for the Maximum Permissible Limit (MPL for Aquatic Life Protection (ALP and Agricultural Irrigation (AI. The sampling sites were the Covadonga Dam, the Echeverría Dam, and an irrigation canal. Water from wells and a spring in the Emilio Portes Gil (EPG population that uses Atoyac water for agricultural irrigation was also analyzed. The data obtained from the river were compared with the 2011 data published in the declaration of classification of Atoyac and Xochiac or Hueyapan and its tributaries. There was a notable increase in hemical oxygen demand (COD (49% and in heavy metals with varying percentages. The anoxic condition of the river (mean 1.47 mg of O2/L with large populations of coliform bacteria was demonstrated, 11 pathogenic members of the Enterobacteriaceae were found, and high organic pollution concentrations were shown, particularly during droughts. Irrigation and well water was contaminated with fecal bacteria (104–549 NMP/100 mL, which included pathogens.

  16. The Effect Of Intensive Keramba On The Presence Of Parasite Organisms In Rivers Of Lingsar Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriadi Supriadi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The application of intensive keramba in rivers could affect the presence of parasite organisms throughout  the river downstream. The aims of this research are to find out the diversity of parasite species and the effect of intensive aquaculture method developed by the community on the presence of various parasitic organisms, particularly in the downstream area. A total of 65 Tilapia fish samples (O. niloticus that was collected from 3 areas ( 15 samples from upstream, 25 samples in keramba and 25 samples from downstream areas have been examined  in the laboratory of Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science, University of Mataram. Methods employed  to identify parasites that  infected fish samples are native method and flotation method. This research has identified 7 species of parasites which were divided into 2 groups: ectoparasites (Trichodina sp., Amylodinium sp., Oogonium sp., Dactylogirus sp., Trematode and endoparasites (Entamoeba sp. dan Camallanus sp.. Diversity index calculation  indicated that parasite organisms in upstream area were lower in number than that in the downstream and intensive karamba area (H’= (0,825; 1,596 dan 1.324 respectively.  These data has showed there was a difference in species diversity and evenness index of parasite organisms in the upstream, downstream and intensive keramba area. In conclusion, there was significant influence of the application of intensive keramba on the appearance of various parasite organisms that could affect the sustainability of  fish aquaculture.

  17. Characterization of contaminants in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Lake Erie Areas of Concern: St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solla, Shane R. de; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2004-11-01

    PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and dioxins/furans in snapping turtle eggs and plasma (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated at three Areas of Concern (AOCs) on Lake Erie and its connecting channels (St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour), as well as two inland reference sites (Algonquin Provincial Park and Tiny Marsh) in 2001-2002. Eggs from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs had the highest levels of p,p'-DDE (24.4 and 57.9 ng/g) and sum PCBs (928.6 and 491.0 ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Contaminant levels in eggs from St. Clair River AOC were generally higher than those from Algonquin Park, but similar to those from Tiny Marsh. Dioxins appeared highest from the Detroit River. The PCB congener pattern in eggs suggested that turtles from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs were exposed to Aroclor 1260. TEQs of sum PCBs in eggs from all AOCs and p,p'-DDE levels in eggs from the Wheatley Harbour and the Detroit River AOCs exceeded the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Furthermore, sum PCBs in eggs from Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour exceeded partial restriction guidelines for consumption. Although estimated PCB body burdens in muscle tissue of females were well below consumption guidelines, estimated residues in liver and adipose were above guidelines for most sites.

  18. Characterization of contaminants in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Lake Erie Areas of Concern: St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Solla, Shane R; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2004-11-01

    PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and dioxins/furans in snapping turtle eggs and plasma (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated at three Areas of Concern (AOCs) on Lake Erie and its connecting channels (St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour), as well as two inland reference sites (Algonquin Provincial Park and Tiny Marsh) in 2001-2002. Eggs from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs had the highest levels of p,p'-DDE (24.4 and 57.9 ng/g) and sum PCBs (928.6 and 491.0 ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Contaminant levels in eggs from St. Clair River AOC were generally higher than those from Algonquin Park, but similar to those from Tiny Marsh. Dioxins appeared highest from the Detroit River. The PCB congener pattern in eggs suggested that turtles from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs were exposed to Aroclor 1260. TEQs of sum PCBs in eggs from all AOCs and p,p'-DDE levels in eggs from the Wheatley Harbour and the Detroit River AOCs exceeded the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Furthermore, sum PCBs in eggs from Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour exceeded partial restriction guidelines for consumption. Although estimated PCB body burdens in muscle tissue of females were well below consumption guidelines, estimated residues in liver and adipose were above guidelines for most sites.

  19. Characterization of contaminants in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Lake Erie Areas of Concern: St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solla, Shane R. de; Fernie, Kimberly J.

    2004-01-01

    PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and dioxins/furans in snapping turtle eggs and plasma (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated at three Areas of Concern (AOCs) on Lake Erie and its connecting channels (St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour), as well as two inland reference sites (Algonquin Provincial Park and Tiny Marsh) in 2001-2002. Eggs from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs had the highest levels of p,p'-DDE (24.4 and 57.9 ng/g) and sum PCBs (928.6 and 491.0 ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Contaminant levels in eggs from St. Clair River AOC were generally higher than those from Algonquin Park, but similar to those from Tiny Marsh. Dioxins appeared highest from the Detroit River. The PCB congener pattern in eggs suggested that turtles from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs were exposed to Aroclor 1260. TEQs of sum PCBs in eggs from all AOCs and p,p'-DDE levels in eggs from the Wheatley Harbour and the Detroit River AOCs exceeded the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Furthermore, sum PCBs in eggs from Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour exceeded partial restriction guidelines for consumption. Although estimated PCB body burdens in muscle tissue of females were well below consumption guidelines, estimated residues in liver and adipose were above guidelines for most sites

  20. Characterization of contaminants in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Lake Erie Areas of Concern: St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solla, Shane R. de; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2004-11-01

    PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and dioxins/furans in snapping turtle eggs and plasma (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated at three Areas of Concern (AOCs) on Lake Erie and its connecting channels (St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour), as well as two inland reference sites (Algonquin Provincial Park and Tiny Marsh) in 2001-2002. Eggs from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs had the highest levels of p,p'-DDE (24.4 and 57.9 ng/g) and sum PCBs (928.6 and 491.0 ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Contaminant levels in eggs from St. Clair River AOC were generally higher than those from Algonquin Park, but similar to those from Tiny Marsh. Dioxins appeared highest from the Detroit River. The PCB congener pattern in eggs suggested that turtles from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs were exposed to Aroclor 1260. TEQs of sum PCBs in eggs from all AOCs and p,p'-DDE levels in eggs from the Wheatley Harbour and the Detroit River AOCs exceeded the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Furthermore, sum PCBs in eggs from Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour exceeded partial restriction guidelines for consumption. Although estimated PCB body burdens in muscle tissue of females were well below consumption guidelines, estimated residues in liver and adipose were above guidelines for most sites.

  1. Arsenic in terrestrial invertebrates from riparian areas of the Piracicaba River Basin, Sao Paulo State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, E.J.; Magalhaes, M.R.L.; Santos, M.L.O.; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. de; Fonseca, F.Y.

    2017-01-01

    There is no information on arsenic distribution in terrestrial invertebrates from riparian forests of urban and rural areas in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the As levels in invertebrates from riverine forests of the Piracicaba River Basin, Sao Paulo, Brazil, using the instrumental neutron activation analysis, k 0 -comparator method. After correction of mass fractions, values higher than 0.10 mg kg -1 were quantified in invertebrates from both urban and agricultural areas. An unexpected As mass fraction of 13 mg kg -1 obtained in the Coleopteran pest Macrodactylus pumilio indicated resistance to As-containing-pesticides. (author)

  2. Regional Hydrology of the Green River-Moab Area, Northwestern Paradox Basin, Utah

    OpenAIRE

    United States Geological Survey

    1982-01-01

    The Green River-Moab area encompasses about 7,800 square kilometers or about 25 percent of the Paradox basin. The entire Paradox basin is a part of the Colorado Plateaus that is underlain by a thick sequence of evaporite (salt) beds of Pennsylvanian age. The rock units that underlie the area have been grouped into hydrogeologic units based on their water-transmitting ability. Confining beds consist of evaporite beds of mostly salt, and overlying and underlying thick sequences of rocks with...

  3. The Prognosis of Influence of The Oder River Waters Dammed by Malczyce Barrage on Left Bank Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalfen Mieczysław

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The finalisation of the construction of the Malczyce barrage is planned for 2015. Damming of the river will cause a change in the water and ground conditions in the adjoining areas. The paper analyses the influence of the water level in the Oder River dammed by the barrage on groundwater table level in the left bank valley.

  4. Nutrient Application and Algal Blooms: Farmer Decisions Regarding the Use of Best Management Practices in Lake Erie's Maumee River Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, A.; Toman, E.; Wilson, R. S.; Martin, J.

    2016-12-01

    Lake Erie is the most productive of the Great Lakes. However, harmful algal blooms (HABs) caused by nutrient run-off threaten the lake. Experts have proposed numerous best management practices (BMPs) designed to reduce nutrient and sediment run-off. However, for these practices to be effective at reducing HABs, a significant portion of farmers and landowners within Lake Erie's watersheds have to first adopt and implement these practices. In order to better understand how farmers and landowners make decisions about whether or not to adopt and implement BMPs we conducted a series of focus groups and a mail survey of Lake Erie's largest watershed. We found that many farmers were supportive of adopting BMPs. For example, 60% of farmers in the watershed have already adopted using grid soil sampling while another 30% are willing to adopt the practice in the future. However, other practices were less popular, for example, only 18% of farmers had already adopted cover crops. Farmers also expressed several reservations about adopting some BMPs. For example, farmers were concerned about the costs of some BMPs, such as cover crops and drainage management systems, and how such practices might interfere with the planting of subsequent crops. Our research has several implications for reducing nutrient production by promoting BMPs. First, we identified potential concerns and limitations farmers faced in implementing specific BMPs. For example, conservationists can design future programs and communication efforts to target these specific concerns. Second, through examining the socio-psychological and cognitive characteristics that influence farmer decision-making, we identified that willingness to adopt nutrient BMPs is association with how strongly a farmer identifies with conservation and how effective they believed the BMP was at reducing run-off. Messages and information about BMPs may be more effective if they are framed in a way that aligns with identities and beliefs about BMP efficacy. Lastly, our research provides a framework of how the "wicked problem" of nutrient run-off can be addressed through the promotion of BMPs.

  5. 33 CFR 334.155 - Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. 334.155 Section 334.155 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.155 Severn River, Naval Station Annapolis, Small Boat Basin, Annapolis, MD; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within the Naval Station Annapolis small boat basin and...

  6. Rn-222 concentrations in private well water and in river water around Ningyo Toge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunoki, Eiji [Okayama, Prefectural Inst. for Environmental Science and Public Health (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The Ningyo-Toge Works of Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation have started the pilot plant for uranium refining and conversion in 1984 and thereafter been producing 6-uranium fluoride, which is a raw material for an uranium concentration plant. The operation of prototype reactor has started since 1989. In this study, radioactive contamination around the works under these circumstances has been monitored in the respects of Rn concentrations in well water and river one for more than 10 years. The radioactivities of well water sampled at 4 points in this area were in a range of 0.6-82.9 Bq/l. The differences in the activities seemed to be depending on petrological properties. For the river water, the Rn concentration was determined at 13 points in the area. Seasonal changes in the Rn concentrations were not significant (p<0.05) but there were significant changes among years during 1985-1995. Further, the radioactive levels of soils collected from riverbed at 5 points were significantly different both for {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra, but the ratios of {sup 238}U/{sup 226}Ra were consistent. Furthermore, there was no correlation between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 222}Rn concentrations in the river water. (M.N.)

  7. [Oncomelania hupensis snail distribution in working areas of Yangtze River hydrologic agencies located in middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River in 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Xu; Suo-Xin, Huang; Zheng-Yuan, Zhao; Ben-Jiao, Hu; Jun, Fu; Si-Min, Dai; Li-Hong, Wen

    2016-10-13

    To understand the Oncomelania hupensis snail distribution in the working areas of Yangtze River hydrologic agencies located in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in 2016, so as to provide the evidence for assessing the risk of schistosome infection of hydrological workers and establishing the control strategies. The suspicious environments with O. hupensis snails in the above working areas were selected as study areas, and the snail situation was surveyed by the system sampling method combined with the environmental sampling method. The survey data were collected and analyzed statistically. Totally 19 working areas from 17 hydrological agencies were selected as the investigation sites, among which, 10 working areas from 9 agencies were found with O. hupensis snail distribution. The constituent ratio of the areas with snails reached to 38.81% of the investigation areas, the occurrence rate of frames with snails was 3.08%, and the average density of living snails was 0.07 /0.1 m 2 . By comparison, the average density of living snails and occurrence rate of frames with snails in hydrological agencies under the jurisdiction of the Middle Reaches Administrative Bureau were the most serious among three administrative bureaus of the Yangtze River Water Resources Commission. There are various degrees of O. hupensis breeding in the working areas of hydrological agencies located in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and the hydrological workers are facing with the risk of schistosome infection.

  8. Bibliography of geologic studies: Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt) and adjacent areas in Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strowd, W.

    1978-11-01

    The objective of this compilation is to present a comprehensive listing of published, unpublished, and open-file references pertaining to the geology of the Columbia Plateau and adjacent areas in the State of Idaho. The bibliography was compiled in support of Rockwell's Basalt Waste Isolation Program that is evaluating the feasibility of nuclear waste storage in the Columbia River Basalt Group. The emphasis is on stratigraphy, structural geology, seismicity, and tectonics, although the nature of Columbia River Basalt distribution in Idaho has necessitated the inclusion of a sizeable collection of references on geology marginal to the Columbia Plateau and associated mineral resources. The bibliography is divided into two major sections, the alphabetical listing of all references and the subject index. The subject index is divided into 19 categories to facilitate locating a specific reference in the user's field of interest

  9. USING GIS TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL AREAS SUSCEPTIBLE TO FLOOD. CASE STUDY: SOLONEŢ RIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. TIPLEA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Using GIS to Identify Potential Areas Susceptible to Flood. Case Study: Soloneţ River. In this study, we aim to analyze the impact of different peak flows in territory and also a better understanding of the dynamic of a river flow. The methodology used for flood zone delimitation is based on a quantitative analysis model which requires the use of mathematical, physical and statistical operations in order to emphasize the relations between the different variables that were implied (discharges, grain size, terrain morphology, soil saturation, vegetation etc.. The results cannot be expected to be completely accurate but can provide a good representation of the process. Validation of results will inevitably be difficult and should be measured in the field. The information resulting from this study could be useful for raising awareness about both hazards and possible mitigation measure, a key component of disaster risk reduction planning.

  10. Human waterborne parasites in zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha) from the Shannon River drainage area, Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, Thaddeus K; Conn, David Bruce; Lucy, Frances; Minchin, Dan; Tamang, Leena; Moura, Lacy N S; DaSilva, Alexandre J

    2004-08-01

    Zebra mussels ( Dreissena polymorpha) from throughout the Shannon River drainage area in Ireland were tested for the anthropozoonotic waterborne parasites Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, E. hellem, and Enterocytozoon bieneusi, by the multiplexed combined direct immunofluorescent antibody and fluorescent in situ hybridization method, and PCR. Parasite transmission stages were found at 75% of sites, with the highest mean concentration of 16, nine, and eight C. parvum oocysts, G. lamblia cysts, and Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores/mussel, respectively. On average eight Enterocytozoon bieneusi spores/mussel were recovered at any selected site. Approximately 80% of all parasites were viable and thus capable of initiating human infection. The Shannon River is polluted with serious emerging human waterborne pathogens including C. parvum, against which no therapy exists. Zebra mussels can recover and concentrate environmentally derived pathogens and can be used for the sanitary assessment of water quality.

  11. Methylmercury compounds - main areas of contamination on a transsect of the river Elbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hintelmann, H.; Wilken, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The river Elbe and some of its tributaries are worldwide one of the most mercury polluted river systems. They are not only polluted by inorganic mercury compouns, but the contents of the highly toxic methylmercury compounds are also elevated. In order to determine the low levels of methylmercury compounds usually observed in sediments, a new HPLC/AFS-coupling was developed. In an oxidation/reduction interface the mercury species eluting from the HPLC collumn are transformed continuously to elemental mercury, which is then detected on-line by a highly sensitive atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer. The detection limit for the analysis of organic mercury species in sediments after extraction with hydrochloric acid/toluene, preconcentration and determination by HPLC/AFS is 0.1 μg/kg d. w. Hence, uncontaminated samples with very low methylmercury compounds contents could also be successfully analyzed. Main areas of total mercury contamination in the Elbe system were in the tributary rivers Saale and Mulde, with contents of up to 112 mg/kg d. w. but important emitters were also found in the Czech Republic (CR). This contamination was followed downstream to the Hamburg area and dropped to a background level of 0.06 mg/kg d. w. in the German Bight. The highest content of methylmercury compounds (119 μg/kg d. w.) was measured again in the river Mulde. The levels of methylmercury compounds were generally high at sites where the microbial activity was stimulated by high contents of organic matter, indicating a biotic methylation of mercury. The organic substrates originated either from municipal (sewage plants) or industrial sources (pulp mill effluents). (orig.) [de

  12. Land Use and the Agrarian Economy in the Roman Dutch River Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Groot

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to reconstruct agrarian land use for a rural community in the Roman frontier zone in the Netherlands. The Dutch River Area was characterised by a dynamic landscape. Rivers regularly flooded the surrounding low-lying land. Only the higher streamridges provided suitable places for habitation and arable agriculture. The limitations of the landscape dictated to a large extent both the types and quantities of crops and animals that could be produced. An interactive map of the micro-region of Tiel-Passewaaij shows how the land was used for agrarian production and sourced for other products. These symbols link to short texts that discuss the archaeological evidence for aspects such as growing cereals, raising livestock and the exploitation of wood and wild animals. The complex and dynamic geological situation of the Dutch River Area is also explained, and the consequences for agriculture discussed. We address three main research questions. How were the different elements of the riverine landscape used by rural inhabitants? How were arable agriculture and animal husbandry organised spatially, both within the settlement and in its immediate surroundings? Which natural resources were used and managed? Our research is mainly based on one large and well-excavated settlement complex (Tiel-Passewaaij, but we will use complementary data from several other settlements in the region. Our results show that the river landscape offered plenty of opportunities for agriculture. The interaction between arable and pastoral farming was essential, with livestock providing manure and agricultural labour, and the fields offering fodder and additional grazing (after harvest or during fallow years. The location of large enclosure ditches suggest that even minor differences in height, caused by older streamridges, may have made arable farming possible in the flood basin.

  13. Regional hydrology of the Green River-Moab area, northwestern Paradox Basin, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rush, F.E.; Whitfield, M.S.; Hart, I.M.

    1982-12-01

    The Green River-Moab area encompasses about 7800 square kilometers or about 25% of the Paradox basin. The entire Paradox basin is a part of the Colorado Plateaus that is underlain by a thick sequence of evaporite (salt) beds of Pennsylvanian age. The rock units that underlie the area have been grouped into hydrogeologic units based on their water-transmitting ability. Confining beds consist of evaporite beds of mostly salt, and overlying and underlying thick sequences of rocks with minimal permeability; above and below these confining beds are aquifers. The upper Mesozoic sandstone aquifer, probably is the most permeable hydrogeologic unit of the area and is the subject of this investigation. The principal component of groundwater outflow from this aquifer probably is subsurface flow to regional streams (the Green and Colorado Rivers) and is about 100 million cubic meters per year. All other components of outflow are relatively small. The average annual recharge to the aquifer is about 130 million cubic meters, of which about 20 million cubic meters is from local precipitation. For the lower aquifer, all recharge and discharge probably is by subsurface flow and was not estimated. The aquifers are generally isolated from the evaporite beds by the bounding confining beds; as a result, most ground water has little if any contact with the evaporites. Brines are present in the confining beds, but solution of beds of salt probably is very slow in most parts of the area. No brine discharges have been identified

  14. 2012 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Chehalis River Watershed Area, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Chehalis River Watershed study area on January 28th, February 2nd-7th,...

  15. Geophysical borehole logging in selected areas in the Greater Accra plains and the Densu river basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amartey, E. A.

    2009-06-01

    Geophysical borehole logging was complemented by Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method to study fractured bedrock aquifer systems on the compounds of Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC), Water Research Institute (WRI) in the Accra Plains and the Hydrometric Station of the Department of Geology, University of Ghana at Buokrom in the Densu River Basin. Single-point resistance, resistivity and natural gamma logging in a total of nine boreholes were conducted to identify and characterize the various aquifers in the study areas. Results obtained from the single-point resistance and resistivity logs showed clearly the characteristics of water-bearing fracture zones in the various rock formations. The gamma logs obtained for each area were correlated to form hydrostratigraphic units to establish potential zones of high water-bearing fractures. VES modeled curves shows hydrogeological units of the geological formation which compares well with features obtained on the logs. The investigation identified fractured zone thicknesses of <1 m to 2 m at GAEC area, <1 m to 9 m at WRI area and <1 m to 10 m thicknesses at the Buokrom area. The fractured bedrock aquifers identified have been characterized based on their thicknesses as follows. Five minor (thickness < 5 m), two medium (thickness 5 m to 14 m) and three major (thickness ⩾15 m) fractures were identified at the GAEC area. At the WRI area three minor and five medium fractures were identified. Also four minor and five medium fractures were identified for the Buokrom area boreholes. (au)

  16. Iodine 129 concentration in river and lake water in the Fukushima area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuyama, Hironori; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Miyake, Yasuto; Honda, Maki; Yamagata, Takeyasu

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of radionuclides, including "1"2"9I, were released into the environment by Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. In determination of "1"2"9I, accelerator mass spectrometry is extraordinarily sensitive. We found that river and lake water in Fukushima area contained significant amount of "1"2"9I from the accident, and provided fruitful information for us. The concentration of "1"2"9I in the river and lake water taken in June 2012 ranged from 3.88 x 10"7 atoms/L to 3.32 x 10"9 atoms/L. The concentration of "1"2"9I in samples taken in Kawauchi village and Tamura city located in the west of the nuclear power plant was low, while that in Namie town, Iitate village and Minamisouma city was relatively high. In addition, the concentration of "1"2"9I in samples taken at the same place in December 2011, March 2012 and June 2012 was increased except one sample. This is result from the outflow of "1"2"9I which was attached to the organic matter, and from seasonal changes. To investigate the state of dilution of "1"2"9I in river and lake, it is necessary to take long-term and fixed-point observation. (author)

  17. Cumulative effects of restoration efforts on ecological characteristics of an open water area within the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, B.R.; Shi, W.; Houser, J.N.; Rogala, J.T.; Guan, Z.; Cochran-Biederman, J. L.

    2011-01-01

    Ecological restoration efforts in large rivers generally aim to ameliorate ecological effects associated with large-scale modification of those rivers. This study examined whether the effects of restoration efforts-specifically those of island construction-within a largely open water restoration area of the Upper Mississippi River (UMR) might be seen at the spatial scale of that 3476ha area. The cumulative effects of island construction, when observed over multiple years, were postulated to have made the restoration area increasingly similar to a positive reference area (a proximate area comprising contiguous backwater areas) and increasingly different from two negative reference areas. The negative reference areas represented the Mississippi River main channel in an area proximate to the restoration area and an open water area in a related Mississippi River reach that has seen relatively little restoration effort. Inferences on the effects of restoration were made by comparing constrained and unconstrained models of summer chlorophyll a (CHL), summer inorganic suspended solids (ISS) and counts of benthic mayfly larvae. Constrained models forced trends in means or in both means and sampling variances to become, over time, increasingly similar to those in the positive reference area and increasingly dissimilar to those in the negative reference areas. Trends were estimated over 12- (mayflies) or 14-year sampling periods, and were evaluated using model information criteria. Based on these methods, restoration effects were observed for CHL and mayflies while evidence in favour of restoration effects on ISS was equivocal. These findings suggest that the cumulative effects of island building at relatively large spatial scales within large rivers may be estimated using data from large-scale surveillance monitoring programs. Published in 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Temporal changes of radioactive contamination of Ploučnice river Inundation area, Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neznal, M.; Gnojek, I.; Thinová, L.; Neubauer, L.

    2010-01-01

    The inundation area of Ploučnice river has been contaminated by natural radionuclides during the early mining of the uranium ore deposit in the region of Stráž pod Ralskem, Northern Bohemia, i.e. in the seventies and in the eighties of the last century. The evaluation of the level of contamination has faced many problems. During several floods that occurred after the primary contamination, the contaminants were spread to a relatively large territory, but the level of contamination became fairly variable. Large regions have not been affected at all, and measured values of gamma dose rate are comparable with the values of natural background. On the other hand, a higher contamination can be found at small areas, often situated far from the river - for example in catchwater drains. Moreover, many contaminated areas are located in places that are difficult to reach. The topographical orientation is also intricate in such places. A study of temporal changes of contamination was based on a comparison of data obtained using two different methods: airborne gamma-ray spectrometry and detailed ground gamma dose rate and in situ gamma spectrometry measurements

  19. RESEARCH ON ARGES RIVER FISH FAUNA IN BUDEASA-GOLESTI AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Mihaela Truţă

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arges River was subject to periodic ichthyologic, hydrobiological and hydrological research. By its content and approach the present paper shows a series of research on fish fauna in Budeasa-Golesti area of Arges River, Pitesti. By research presented in the study we sought to evaluate the state and evolution of fish fauna in the city reservoirs, Pitesti area, over the last 30 years, trying to highlight the causes that led to the current situation and to propose measures for the conservation of natural fish fauna in the future. Fish fauna in Pitesti area currently consists of 14 species belonging to four families: Cyprinidae (9 species, Cobitidae (1 species, Esocidae (1 species and Percidae (3 species. Most species live naturally in lakes studied except for one species Pseudorasbora parva which was introduced accidentally. The research undertaken to reflect changes in the fish fauna in the last 30 years, indicates an increase in the number of species, either through deliberate stocking for sport fishing purposes or due to changes in biotope favouring the development of certain species which were accidental in the past.

  20. GIS Analysis of Flood Vulnerable Areas In Benin- Owena River Basin, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Oluwasegun Hezekiah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and intensity of flood disasters have become serious issues in the national development process of Nigeria as flood disasters have caused serious environmental damages, loss of human lives and other heavy economic losses;  putting the issue of disaster reduction and risk management higher on the policy agenda of affected governments, multilateral agencies and NGOs. The starting point of concrete flood disaster mitigation efforts is to identify the areas with higher risk levels and fashion out appropriate preventive and response mechanisms. This research paper explored the potentials of Geographic Information System (GIS in data capture, processing and analysis in identifying flood-prone areas for the purpose of planning for disaster mitigation and preparedness, using Benin-Owena river basin of Nigeria as a unit of analysis. The data used in this study were obtained from FORMECU and were entered and use to develop a flood risk information system. Analysis and capability of the developed system was illustrated and shown graphically. The research showed that over one thousand settlements harbouring over ten million people located in the study area are at grave risk of flooding.   Key words: Flood, Risk, Vulnerability, Geographical Information System (GIS, River -Basin

  1. Geotechnical investigation for seismic issues for K-reactor area at Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, G.; Reeves, C.Q.

    1991-01-01

    A geotechnical investigation has been completed at Savannah River Site to characterize the foundation conditions in K-Reactor Area and confirm soil design properties for use in seismic qualification of structures. The scope of field work included ten soil borings to a 200-foot depth with split-spoon and undisturbed sampling. Additionally, 42 cone penetrometer tests were performed with seismic down-hole measurements. Three cross-hole shear wave velocity tests were also completed to confirm the assumed dynamic properties which had been used in preliminary seismic analysis

  2. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates

  3. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  4. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates

  5. Reservoir-flooded river mouth areas as sediment traps revealing erosion from peat mining areas - Jukajoki case study in eastern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahvanainen, Teemu; Meriläinen, Henna-Kaisa; Haraguchi, Akira; Simola, Heikki

    2016-04-01

    Many types of soil-disturbing land use have caused excess sedimentation in Finnish lakes. Identification and quantification of catchment sources of sediment material is crucial in cases where demands for remediation measures are considered. We studied recent (50 yr) sediments of four small rivers, all draining to a reservoir impounded in 1971. Catchments of two of the rivers had had peat mining activities from early 1980s until recently, exposing large areas of peat surfaces to erosion. The water level of the reservoir had risen to the river mouth areas of all rivers, while in each case, the river mouth areas still form riverine narrows separable from the main reservoir, hence collecting sedimentation from their own catchments. The original soils under the reservoir water level could readily be observed in core samples, providing a dated horizon under recent sediments. In addition, we used 137Cs-stratigraphies for dating of samples from original river bed locations. As expected, recent sediments of rivers with peat mining influence differed from others e.g. by high organic content and C:N ratios. Stable isotopes 13C and 15N both correlated with C:N (r = 0.799 and r = -0.717, respectively) and they also differentiated the peat-mining influenced samples from other river sediments. Principal components of the physical-chemical variables revealed clearer distinction than any variables separately. Light-microscopy revealed abundance of leafs of Sphagnum mosses in peat-mining influenced river sediments that were nearly absent from other rivers. Spores of Sphagnum were, however, abundant in all river sediments indicating their predominantly airborne origin. We find that combination of several physical-chemical characters rather than any single variable and microscopy of plant remains can result in reliable recognition of peatland-origin of sediment material when non-impacted sites are available for comparison. Dating of disturbed recent sediments is challenging. River

  6. Revised risk-based indices and proposed new composite watershed health measure and application thereof to the Upper Mississippi River Watershed, Ohio River Basin, and Maumee River Basin

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset includes names and geographic coordinates of gauge stations where flow and water quality (sediment, nitrogen, phosphorus) are measured in the Upper...

  7. Narrating Palaeolithic Human Settlement History : the case of the Imjin-Hantan River Area, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwook Yoo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to furnish a narrative story-telling with the broad perspective on the human past rather than simply depending on the analytical examination of archaeological data. For the purpose of this task, Ferdinand Braudel’s concept of “la longue durée” is applied to parallel the environmental background and hominid’s life/land-use patterns based on the geological data and archaeological remains. The Imjin-Hantan River Area (IHRA, known for the discovery of Acheulian-like handaxe, was occupied from ca 0.23 mya to the final Pleistocene; the hominids continuously changed their residing patterns in the landscape with actively modifying the lithic technological organization as a response to the environmental change. Integrating the geological features, absolute dates and characteristics of lithic assemblages from individual sites, we can recognize six phases of environmental changes based on the development of river channel system. These six phases witness different patterns of hominid’s adaptation in this area and correspondingly yield different mode of raw material utilization and lithic procurement. While more accurate geological dates are yet to be published and the description of lithic assemblages may be changed by new data, it is prospecting that Braudel’s la longue durée is a useful concept for meaningfully narrating a long-term human occupation history in the discipline of prehistoric archaeology.

  8. Uniform Transnational Assessment of the Environmental Indices from the Romanian Catchment Area of the Tisa River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIU-FLORIN FONOGEA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The uniform transnational assessment of the environmental indices in the catchment area of the Tisa river aims at rehabilitating, protecting and conserving the environmental systems, as well as creating a commonly strategic demarche concerning a sustainable spatial development, based on integrated intersectorial approaches of environmental issues, viewed in their territorial dimension. The information necessary in underlining the current situation in the Romanian catchment area of the Tisa has been structured according to the following categories of analysed indices: sources of surface waters, resources of drinkable water and water supply resources, the risk of not reaching the environmental objectives, significant sources of water pollution (punctual sources of pollution, diffuse sources of pollution, significant hydromorphic pressure, the quality of water, significant sources of air pollution, soils affected by agricultural and industrial activities, nature protection and waste management.

  9. Use of radon-222 as tracer to estimate groundwater infiltration velocity in a river bank area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh Van Giap

    2003-01-01

    Naturally occurring isotope Rn-222 has been used as a natural tracer to determine the residence time of groundwater infiltrated from river into an aquifer in a riverbank area. The applied method is based on the increasing radon concentration in infiltrating water during it passes through the riverbank and reaches an equilibrium value. Solid-state nuclear track detector technique is used to measure directly radon concentration in water of a well. In order to confirm the relationship between radon concentration and it's residence time, a model was constructed in the laboratory. Experiment carried out in Nam Dinh are showed that mean infiltrating velocity of groundwater in the studied area as high as 5.1 m/day. (author)

  10. Safety analysis -- 200 Area Savannah River Plant, F-Canyon Operations. Supplement 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beary, M.M.; Collier, C.D.; Fairobent, L.A.; Graham, R.F.; Mason, C.L.; McDuffee, W.T.; Owen, T.L.; Walker, D.H.

    1986-02-01

    The F-Canyon facility is located in the 200 Separations Area and uses the Purex process to recover plutonium from reactor-irradiated uranium. The irradiated uranium is normally in the form of solid or hollow cylinders called slugs. These slugs are encased in aluminum cladding and are sent to the F-Canyon from the Savannah River Plant (SRP) reactor areas or from the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF). This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the F-Canyon operations and is an update to a section of a previous SAR. The previous SAR documented an analysis of the entire 200 Separations Area operations. This SAR documents an analysis of the F-Canyon and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the Savannah River Implementation Plans. A substantial amount of the information supporting the conclusions of this SAR is found in the Systems Analysis. Some F-Canyon equipment has been updated during the time between the Systems Analysis and this SAR and a complete description of this equipment is included in this report. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the F-Canyon can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations and to the environment. In this report, risk is defined as the expected frequency of an accident, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequence in person-rem. The units of risk for radiological dose are person-rem/year. Maximum individual exposure values have also been calculated and reported.

  11. Development of method for evaluating estimated inundation area by using river flood analysis based on multiple flood scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, T.; Takahashi, T.

    2017-12-01

    Non-structural mitigation measures such as flood hazard map based on estimated inundation area have been more important because heavy rains exceeding the design rainfall frequently occur in recent years. However, conventional method may lead to an underestimation of the area because assumed locations of dike breach in river flood analysis are limited to the cases exceeding the high-water level. The objective of this study is to consider the uncertainty of estimated inundation area with difference of the location of dike breach in river flood analysis. This study proposed multiple flood scenarios which can set automatically multiple locations of dike breach in river flood analysis. The major premise of adopting this method is not to be able to predict the location of dike breach correctly. The proposed method utilized interval of dike breach which is distance of dike breaches placed next to each other. That is, multiple locations of dike breach were set every interval of dike breach. The 2D shallow water equations was adopted as the governing equation of river flood analysis, and the leap-frog scheme with staggered grid was used. The river flood analysis was verified by applying for the 2015 Kinugawa river flooding, and the proposed multiple flood scenarios was applied for the Akutagawa river in Takatsuki city. As the result of computation in the Akutagawa river, a comparison with each computed maximum inundation depth of dike breaches placed next to each other proved that the proposed method enabled to prevent underestimation of estimated inundation area. Further, the analyses on spatial distribution of inundation class and maximum inundation depth in each of the measurement points also proved that the optimum interval of dike breach which can evaluate the maximum inundation area using the minimum assumed locations of dike breach. In brief, this study found the optimum interval of dike breach in the Akutagawa river, which enabled estimated maximum inundation area

  12. Comparison of benthos and plankton for selected areas of concern and non-areas of concern in western Lake Michigan Rivers and Harbors in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenberry, Barbara C. Scudder; Bell, Amanda H.; Olds, Hayley T.; Burns, Daniel J.

    2016-07-25

    Recent data are lacking to assess whether impairments still exist at four of Wisconsin’s largest Lake Michigan harbors that were designated as Areas of Concern (AOCs) in the late 1980s due to sediment contamination and multiple Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs), such as those affecting benthos (macroinvertebrates) and plankton (zooplankton and phytoplankton) communities. During three seasonal sampling events (“seasons”) in May through August 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey collected sediment benthos and water plankton at the four AOCs as well as six less-degraded non-AOCs along the western Lake Michigan shoreline to assess whether AOC communities were degraded in comparison to non-AOC communities. The four AOCs are the Lower Menominee River, the Lower Green Bay and Fox River, the Sheboygan River, and the Milwaukee Estuary. Due to their size and complexity, multiple locations or “subsites” were sampled within the Lower Green Bay and Fox River AOC (Lower Green Bay, the Fox River near Allouez, and the Fox River near De Pere) and within the Milwaukee Estuary AOC (the Milwaukee River, the Menomonee River, and the Milwaukee Harbor) and single locations were sampled at the other AOCs and non-AOCs. The six non-AOCs are the Escanaba River in Michigan, and the Oconto River, Ahnapee River, Kewaunee River, Manitowoc River, and Root River in Wisconsin. Benthos samples were collected by using Hester-Dendy artificial substrates deployed for 30 days and by using a dredge sampler; zooplankton were collected by net and phytoplankton by whole-water sampler. Except for the Lower Green Bay and Milwaukee Harbor locations, communities at each AOC were compared to all non-AOCs as a group and to paired non-AOCs using taxa relative abundances and metrics, including richness, diversity, and an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI, for Hester-Dendy samples only). Benthos samples collected during one or more seasons were rated as degraded for at least one metric at all AOCs. In the

  13. Construction area expansion in relation to economic-demographic development and land resource in the Pearl River Delta of China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Zhijia; Huang, Heqing; Werners, Saskia E.; Yan, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Since 1979, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) of China has experienced rapid socioeconomic development along with a fast expansion of construction area. Affected by both natural and human factors, a complex interdependency is found among the regional changes in construction area, GDP and population. A

  14. Chromium and nickel in the soils of industrial areas at Asopos river basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios Karayannis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present and compare previous efforts aiming to investigate whether previous wastewater disposal practices in selected (four metal finishing facilities, located at Asopos river basin (near Athens at East-Central Greece, and resulted in relevant soil contamination. The work is focused mainly on Cr and Ni, which are the primary elements of concern in the Asopos river Basin area. To assess the natural geochemical levels of Cr and Ni, 30 soil samples were collected from locations that were assumed free of contamination. In these 30 soil samples, Cr concentration varied from 60 to 418 mg/kg, and Ni concentrations varied between 91 and 1200 mg/kg. A second group of soil samples consisted of more than 100 samples from drill cores and surface soil samples, assumed affected by the disposal of effluents of the metal finishing facilities and/or the relevant drainage of runoff water. A third group of samples consisted of 10 more surface soil samples collected in summer 2015 (campaigns by Sybilla ltd in the framework of EU IED Directive Baseline Site Investigation Study for two metal finishing units. The above mentioned groups of data were evaluated and compared with a fourth group of data (collected from Inofyta industrial area in the framework of EU funded project LIFE-CHARM “Chromium in Asopos groundwater system: Remediation technologies and Measures”. The conclusion of this study is that there is no indication of downstream pollution migration from the land-based treated effluents disposal of the above mentioned metal finishing facilities. Cr and Ni concentrations in the lower soil layers were of the same order of magnitude to those of the reference soils. On the contrary Inofyta Industrial Area soil seems to be rather contaminated and requires special attention.

  15. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant: Separations area operations. Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuel (Supplement 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, P M

    1983-09-01

    Analysis of the Savannah River Plant RBOF and RRF included an evaluation of the reliability of process equipment and controls, administrative controls, and engineered safety features. The evaluation also identified potential scenarios and radiological consequences. Risks were calculated in terms of 50-year population dose commitment per year (man-rem/year) to the onsite and offsite population within an 80 Km radius of RBOF and RRF, and to an individual at the plant boundary. The total 50-year onsite and offsite population radiological risks of operating the RBOF and RRF were estimated to be 1.0 man-rem/year. These risks are significantly less than the population dose of 54,000 man/rem/yr for natural background radiation in a 50-mile radius. The 50-year maximum offsite individual risk from operating the facility was estimated to be 2.1 {times} 10{sup 5} rem/yr. These risks are significantly lower than 93 mrem/yr an individual is expected to receive from natural background radiation in this area. The analysis shows. that the RBOF and RRF can be operated without undue risk to onsite personnel or to the general public.

  16. Availability of ground water in the Blackstone River area Rhode Island and Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Herbert E.; Dickerman, David C.

    1974-01-01

    The Blackstone River study area covers 83 square miles of northern Rhode Island and 5 square miles of adjacent Massachusetts (fig. 1). It includes parts of the Blackstone, Moshassuck, and Tenmile River basins, and a coastal area that drains to the brackish Seekonk and Providence Rivers. In Rhode Island, all or parts of the suburban towns of Cumberland, Lincoln, North Smithfield, and Smithfield and all or parts of the cities of Central Falls, East Povidence, Pawtucket, Providence, and Woonsocket are within the study area. Also included are parts of the towns Attleboro and North Attleborough in Massachusetts. In 1970, total population was about 240,000, which was equivalent to about one-fourth of the total population of Rhode Island. Fresh water usage in 1970 by public-supply systems and self-supplied industry was about 33 mgd (million gallons per day), which was equal to 22 percent of total fresh water use in Rhode Island for all purposes except generation of electric power (fig. 2). Anticipated increases in population and per capita water requirements are likely to cause the demand for water to more than double within the next 50 years. A significant part of this demand can be met from wells that tap the principal streams. This aquifer yielded an average of 10 mgd in 1970 and is capable of sustaining a much higher yield. The primary objectives of the study were to determine and map the saturated thickness and transmissivity of the stratified-drift aquifer and to assess the potential sustained yield of those parts of the aquifer favorable for large-scale development of water. A secondary objective was to describe ground-water quality and to evaluate the impact of induced infiltration of polluted stream water on the quality of native ground water. This report is based on analysis of drillers' records of more than 700 wells and borings which include 462 lithologic logs; 35 specific-capacity determinations; 12 aquifer tests, including detailed tests at two sites to

  17. Settlement preferences in the disaster-prone areas of Brantas River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariyani, S.

    2018-01-01

    Kota Lama is one of the urban villages in Malang city that has settlements along the Brantas River. Kota Lama experienced three landslides and flooding in 2015 and one in 2016. Those disasters caused the community to take action of post-disaster recovery, yet the people still choose to remain living in Kota Lama. Therefore, the study aims at determining the preferences of the citizens living in disaster-prone areas in Brantas River. The research used a factor analysis of 12 variables: 1) neighbourhood situation, 2) air condition, 3) relations between neighbours, 4) security, 5) location, 6) customs, 7) ethnic diversity, 8) the presence of social groups, 9) the community’s customs and habits, 10) proximity to the economic facilities, 11) adequate educational facilities, and 12) adequate medical/health facilities. The results show that two factors have been formed, namely Factor 1 (access) comprising variables of neighbourhood situation, air condition, relations between neighbours, location, ethnic diversity, the presence of a social group, supporting positive habits at home, close to the economic facilities, educational facilities, as well as medical facilities, and Factor 2 (assurance) consisting of customs and security.

  18. A global framework for future costs and benefits of river-flood protection in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Philip J.; Jongman, Brenden; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Bates, Paul D.; Botzen, Wouter J. W.; Diaz Loaiza, Andres; Hallegatte, Stephane; Kind, Jarl M.; Kwadijk, Jaap; Scussolini, Paolo; Winsemius, Hessel C.

    2017-09-01

    Floods cause billions of dollars of damage each year, and flood risks are expected to increase due to socio-economic development, subsidence, and climate change. Implementing additional flood risk management measures can limit losses, protecting people and livelihoods. Whilst several models have been developed to assess global-scale river-flood risk, methods for evaluating flood risk management investments globally are lacking. Here, we present a framework for assessing costs and benefits of structural flood protection measures in urban areas around the world. We demonstrate its use under different assumptions of current and future climate change and socio-economic development. Under these assumptions, investments in dykes may be economically attractive for reducing risk in large parts of the world, but not everywhere. In some regions, economically efficient investments could reduce future flood risk below today’s levels, in spite of climate change and economic growth. We also demonstrate the sensitivity of the results to different assumptions and parameters. The framework can be used to identify regions where river-flood protection investments should be prioritized, or where other risk-reducing strategies should be emphasized.

  19. Management of an Underground River to Overcome Water Scarcity in the Gunung Sewu Karst Area, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choirul Amin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Since people living in a karst area periodically face a crisis due to a lack of fresh water, it is necessary to re-evaluate the ability to use water resources. An appropriate and effective management is required to use available water resource sustainably. We describe a management process of exploring underground river in karst region as water resources. The activities completed included four phases, namely exploration, pre-lifting activities, the water lifting and post-lifting activities. The exploration phase included speleological surveys and data collection for the cave mouth using remote sensing instrument. The pre-lifting was done to prepare various requirements before the lifting process was completed. The water lifting phase consisted of the construction of an underground river dam, the installation of submersible pumps, the construction of reservoirs and the installation of piping to connect to the public hydrant. The post-lifting phase was mainly conducted to organise water distribution evenly. This management model was evidenced to successfully overcome drought in Pucung village by providing fresh water to the local community. Moreover, this model promoted residents’ cost savings by reducing their expenses for buying water from IDR 50,000/m3 to IDR 3,500/m3 (1,300 percent.

  20. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J C; Vieira, I C G; Almeida, A S; Silva, C A

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs) along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH) ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  1. Floristic and structural status of forests in permanent preservation areas of Moju river basin, Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract The goal of this study is to analyze the floristic patterns and the structure of disturbed and undisturbed upland forests, in Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs along the Moju river, in the Brazilian state of Pará. Trees with a diameter equal to or larger than 10cm at 1.30m from the ground (DBH ≥10cm were analyzed for the upper stratum. For the middle stratum, individuals with DBH between 4.99 and 9.99cm were sampled. Forty-five families and 221 species were found in disturbed forests, and 43 families and 208 species in undisturbed forests. Floristic similarity was high between strata and between forest types, with values above 50%. Similarity was highest between middle strata. The most species-abundant families in undisturbed forests were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Chrysobalanaceae and Myrtaceae; the species with the highest density there were Eschweilera grandiflora, Licania sclerophylla and Zygia cauliflora. In disturbed forests, the dominant families were Fabaceae, Sapotaceae, Lecythidaceae and Melastomataceae. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was 3.21 for undisturbed forests and 2.85 for disturbed forests. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS analysis did not group the forests by their floristic composition in both upper and middle strata. Overall, the PPA forests along the Moju river, even if disturbed, did not show major floristic changes but substantially change their structural characteristics.

  2. Radioecological of the Vardar river catchment area after the Chernobyl release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetanovska, L.; Anovski, T.

    1997-01-01

    Vardar river with its length of 301.6 km and its catchment area of 28,338 km 2 covers almost 80% of the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Various usage of the surface and underground water flows of this hydro system (water supply, irrigation, etc.) to which gravitate cca 2/3 of the population of our Country, are subject of increased interest for their protection. In this sense, radioecological investigations (due to a presence of a local not well prospected uranium deposits and a factor, for phosphate fertilizers) were in progress. The first preliminary results of performed gamma-spectrometric analysis showed that besides many others, the following isotopes: I-131, I-132, Cs-134, Cs-137 and Ru-103, dominated into the investigated water, air and food samples. Different from the concentration of I-131 into the filtered Skopje air which was 12 Bq/m 3 on the 5th of May, 1986, the concentration of Cs-137 was up to 15 Bq/m 3 in air, 122 Bq/L in local precipitation, up to 800 Bq/kg in sediments and 0.29 Bq/L in the water samples from the Vardar river

  3. Savannah River Site plan for performing maintenance in Federal Facility Agreement areas (O and M Plan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Savannah River Site was placed on the National Priority List (NPL) in December 1989 and became subject to comprehensive remediation in accordance with CERCLA. The FFA, effective August 16, 1993, establishes the requirements for Site investigation and remediation of releases and potential releases of hazardous substances, and interim status corrective action for releases of hazardous wastes or hazardous constituents. It was determined that further direction was needed for the Operating Departments regarding operation and maintenance activities within those areas listed in the FFA. The Plan for Performing Maintenance (O and M Plan) provides this additional direction. Section 4.0 addresses the operation and maintenance activities necessary for continued operation of the facilities in areas identified as RCRA/CERCLA Units or Site Evaluation Areas. Certain types of the O and M activity could be construed as a remedial or removal action. The intent of this Plan is to provide direction for conducting operation and maintenance activities that are not intended to be remedial or removal actions. The Plan identifies the locations of the units and areas, defines intrusive O and M activities, classifies the intrusive activity as either minor or major, and identifies the requirements, approvals, and documentation necessary to perform the activity in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; and minimizes any potential impact to any future removal and remedial actions

  4. Culture-based Identification Of Microcystin-Degrading Bacteria In the Sandusky Bay and Maumee Bay of Lake Erie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormiston, A.; Mou, X.

    2012-12-01

    Harmful cyanobacteria blooms (cyanoHABs) are a serious issue that affects wildlife, human health, recreation and local economics worldwide. CyanoHABs produce cyanotoxins, such as microcystins (MCs) that lead to skin irritation, illness and liver tumors. Bacterially mediated degradation of MCs plays a key role to transform these toxic substrates to less harmful metabolites in natural environments. However, only a few Sphingomonos species have been isolated for degradation of MCs and many of which are from other habitats such as water plants. This project aims to isolate and identify bacteria that can degrade MC-LR and MC-RR, two major forms of MCs found during cyanoHABs in Lake Erie. Water samples were collected from the surface of Sandusky Bay and Maumee Bay of Lake Erie and immediately filtered through 3.0 -μm-pore-size membrane filters to obtain bacterioplankton fraction. The filtrates were amended with excessive inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus compounds and incubated in the dark for a week to purposely establish a carbon-limited condition. Afterwards, enrichment microcosms were established in flasks filled with pre-incubated bacterioplankton and single MC compounds (final concentration 10 μM). Once cell growth was confirmed by flow cytometry-based cell counting, bacterial cells in enriched microcosms were transferred onto solid surfaces, i.e., GFF filter and noble agar for colony isolation. Obtained single colonies were inoculated in defined liquid media with MCs as single carbon source. DNA was extracted from each purified isolate and analyzed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (RFLP). A total of 18 different RFLP banding patterns were found, indicating MC-degrading bacteria may be heterogeneous in studied water samples. 16S rRNA genes of selected bacterial isolates were PCR amplified and sequenced for taxonomic identification. Our results demonstrated that MCs can be degraded by multiple bacterial species in Lake Erie. Future directions

  5. 77 FR 13971 - Regulated Navigation Area; MBTA Saugus River Railroad Drawbridge Rehabilitation Project, Saugus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... waterside restaurants), and vessels who intend to transit in the Saugus River beneath the MBTA Saugus River... standards are technical standards (e.g., specifications of materials, performance, design, or operation...

  6. Decontamination of Savannah River Plant H-Area hot-canyon crane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.N.; Sims, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination techniques applicable to the remotely operated bridge cranes in canyon buildings at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) were identified and were evaluated in laboratory-scale tests. High pressure Freon blasting was found to be the most attractive process available for this application. Strippable coatings were selected as an alternative technique in selected applications. The ability of high pressure Freon blasting plus two strippable coatings (Quadcoat 100 and Alara 1146) to remove the type of contamination expected on SRP cranes was demonstrated in laboratory-scale tests. Quadrex HPS was given a contract to decontaminate the H-Area hot canyon crane. Decontamination operations were successfully carried out within the specified time-frame window. The radiation level goals specified by SRP were met and decontamination was accomplished with 85% less personnel exposure than estimated by SRP before the job started. This reduction is attributed to the increased efficiency of the new decontamination techniques used. 6 refs., 1 tab

  7. Luminescence of quartz and feldspar fingerprints provenance and correlates with the source area denudation in the Amazon River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawakuchi, A. O.; Jain, M.; Mineli, T. D.; Nogueira, L.; Bertassoli, D. J.; Häggi, C.; Sawakuchi, H. O.; Pupim, F. N.; Grohmann, C. H.; Chiessi, C. M.; Zabel, M.; Mulitza, S.; Mazoca, C. E. M.; Cunha, D. F.

    2018-06-01

    The Amazon region hosts the world's largest watershed spanning from high elevation Andean terrains to lowland cratonic shield areas in tropical South America. This study explores variations in optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals in suspended silt and riverbed sands retrieved from major Amazon rivers. These rivers drain Pre-Cambrian to Cenozoic source rocks in areas with contrasting denudation rates. In contrast to the previous studies, we do not observe an increase in the OSL sensitivity of quartz with transport distance; for example, Tapajós and Xingu Rivers show more sensitive quartz than Solimões and Madeira Rivers, even though the latter have a significantly larger catchment area and longer sediment transport distance. Interestingly, high sensitivity quartz is observed in rivers draining relatively stable Central Brazil and Guiana shield areas (denudation rate ξ = 0.04 mmyr-1), while low sensitivity quartz occurs in less stable Andean terrains (ξ = 0.24 mmyr-1). An apparent linear correlation between quartz OSL sensitivity and denudation rate suggests that OSL sensitivity may be used as a proxy for erosion rates in the Amazon basin. Furthermore, luminescence sensitivity measured in sand or silt arises from the same mineral components (quartz and feldspar) and clearly discriminates between Andean and shield sediments, avoiding the grain size bias in provenance analysis. These results have implications for using luminescence sensitivity as a proxy for Andean and shield contributions in the stratigraphic record, providing a new tool to reconstruct past drainage configurations within the Amazon basin.

  8. Three-dimensional Virtual Simulation of Oil Spill of Yangtze River in Chongqing Area Based on Emergency Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuzhe; Huang, Liwen

    the river of Yangtze River in Chongqing area is continuous curved. Hydrology and channel situation is complex, and the transportation is busy. With the increasing of shipments of hazardous chemicals year by year, oil spill accident risk is rising. So establishment of three-dimensional virtual simulation of oil spill and its application in decision-making has become an urgent task. This paper detailed the process of three-dimensional virtual simulation of oil spill and established a system of three-dimensional virtual Simulation of oil spill of Yangtze River in Chongqing area by establishing an oil spill model of the Chongqing area based on oil particles model, and the system has been used in emergency decision to provide assistance for the oil spill response.

  9. 77 FR 51733 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, New River Gorge National River, Bicycle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... important segment of the New River in West Virginia for the benefit and enjoyment of present and future... multiple uses, including hiking and bicycling. Both of these plans can be viewed by going to the NERI park... for ``Environmental Assessment: Design and Build Two Stacked Loop Hiking and Biking Trail Systems...

  10. Is similar the distribution of Chironomidae (Diptera and Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata in a river and a lateral fluvial area?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aparecida Silveira Cesar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerous factors may affect the pattern of distribution of benthic fauna in a river mouth region and, among the macroinvertebrates, Chironomidae and Oligochaeta are the most abundant groups and most tolerant to environmental changes. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the controlling factors of and a possible similarity between Chironomidae and Oligochaeta assemblies at two close sites, the mouth of the Guareí River into the Paranapanema River (São Paulo, Brazil and its lateral fluvial area. Methods Fauna samples were collected every three months during one year. Water physical and chemical variables and sediment variables were also determined in the same period. Results Both assemblies presented low density variability over time in the lateral area due to sediment characteristics and environmental factors. Taxa Caladomyia, Parachironomus, Pristina sp., Pristina osborni, Bothrioneurum and Opistocysta funiculus were recorded at this site. The Guareí River presented both greater temporal and spatial variations, attributed mainly to a reduction in the water level. Greater organism abundance, especially of Chironomus and Tubificinae, was observed in the river. Conclusions Dissimilarity in temporal and spatial distributions of Chironomidae and Oligochaeta was attributed to peculiar characteristics of the two study sites, a river channel and a lateral area. Reduction in the water level over the year was the main controlling factor of Chironomidae and Oligochaeta richness and density in the river. In the lateral area, the presence and abundance of certain taxa were determined by the nature of the sediment and water physical and chemical variables.

  11. Remediating Contaminated Sediments in the Ashtabula Harbor as Part of the Ashtabula River Area of Concern: A Collaboration Success Story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diggs, I.W.; Case, J.L.; Rule, R.W.; Snyder, M.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Buffalo District (USACE), in close collaboration with the USEPA and members of an Ashtabula, Ohio, stakeholder advocacy group, were able to achieve major success in mitigating ecological impacts from contaminated sediments deposited in the lower Ashtabula River and Ashtabula Harbor after years of effort to obtain the federal funding needed to do so. The river and harbor were subject to unregulated discharges of hazardous chemicals, heavy metals, and low-level radiological contaminants from decades of operations by a variety of industrial, manufacturing, processing and production activities located near or adjacent to the river and harbor areas. Conditions in the ecosystem in and around the lower portion of the river deteriorated to the point that it was designated a Great Lakes Area of Concern (AOC) in 1983. The advocacy group known as the Ashtabula River Partnership (ARP), facilitated through efforts by both USACE and USEPA, developed an innovative plan to remediate the Ashtabula River AOC by conducting a two-phase project, completed with combined funding authorized under the Great Lakes Legacy Act (GLLA) of 2002, and Section 312(a) of the Water Resources Development Act (WRDA) of 1990. Removal of nearly 527,000 m 3 of contaminated sediments from the AOC would significantly reduce the contaminant source term and produce favorable conditions for re-establishing ecosystem balance. This would also be the first project in the nation completed by USACE under its authority to perform environmental dredging covered by WRDA Section 312(a). (authors)

  12. Temporal dynamic of malaria in a suburban area along the Niger River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissoko, Mahamadou Soumana; Sissoko, Kourane; Kamate, Bourama; Samake, Yacouba; Goita, Siaka; Dabo, Abdoulaye; Yena, Mama; Dessay, Nadine; Piarroux, Renaud; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Gaudart, Jean

    2017-10-23

    Even if rainfall and temperature are factors classically associated to malaria, little is known about other meteorological factors, their variability and combinations related to malaria, in association with river height variations. Furthermore, in suburban area, urbanization and growing population density should be assessed in relation to these environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of combined environmental, meteorological and hydrological factors on malaria incidence through time in the context of urbanization. Population observational data were prospectively collected. Clinical malaria was defined as the presence of parasites in addition to clinical symptoms. Meteorological and hydrological factors were measured daily. For each factors variation indices were estimated. Urbanization was yearly estimated assessing satellite imaging and field investigations. Principal component analysis was used for dimension reduction and factors combination. Lags between malaria incidences and the main components were assessed by cross-correlation functions. Generalized additive model was used to assess relative impact of different environmental components, taking into account lags, and modelling non-linear relationships. Change-point analysis was used to determine transmission periods within years. Malaria incidences were dominated by annual periodicity and varied through time without modification of the dynamic, with no impact of the urbanization. The main meteorological factor associated with malaria was a combination of evaporation, humidity and rainfall, with a lag of 3 months. The relationship between combined temperature factors showed a linear impact until reaching high temperatures limiting malaria incidence, with a lag 3.25 months. Height and variation of the river were related to malaria incidence (respectively 6 week lag and no lag). The study emphasizes no decreasing trend of malaria incidence despite accurate access to care and

  13. Environmental pollution due to gas flaring at Oyigbo area of Rivers State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avwiri, G. O.; Ebeniro, J. O.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental degradation due to oil activities in the oil rich Niger Delta of Nigeria is daily approaching a non-tolerance level. Pollutants come from various aspects of operation ranging from seismic operations through drilling to the refinery stage. Gas flared daily by Oil Companies constitute a major health hazard in this country. Environmental pollution due to gas flaring at Oyigbo area of Rivers State is hereby reported. Surface temperature-distance variations were investigated for both dry (March) and rainy (June) seasons. Physical and chemical properties of the rainwater from the areas were also measured and analysed. The results show a surface temperature elevation of about 4.1 Celsius above the mean normal diurnal temperature within a 3.00 km. radius. An average pH 4.25 was recorded thus showing the acidic nature of the environmental rainwater from the area. All other measured parameters showed serious deviations from standards. This temperature elevation and increased acidity of the rainwater have enormous influence on socio-economic lives and the activities of the populace especially on their source of income which is mainly small scale farming. It is therefore necessary that Government agencies empowered to monitor environment especially FEPA should implement all the existing legislation on gas flaring and be more involved in the design and location of gas flaring stacks. These stacks should be located at least 2 km. from towns and villages

  14. [Environment spatial distribution of mercury pollution in Songhua River upstream gold mining areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ting-Ting; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Gang; Zhao, Dan-Dan

    2010-09-01

    Using Zeeman mercury spectrometer RA915+ monitoring the total gaseous mercury concentration were collected from gold mining area in Huadian, in the upper reaches of the Songhua River, during summer and autumn of 2008, where we simultaneously collected samples of air, water, sediment and soil. The research is focused on analyzing of the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of atmospheric mercury pollution and the correlation with other environmental factors. The results show that: the concentration of atmospheric mercury in summer is higher than that in autumn and in the evening is higher than at noon, and it present a gradual decay with the distance to the gold mining area as the center point increasing. The distribution rule of mercury pollution of environmental factors in the gold mining area is: in sediment > in soil > in plant > in water, the characteristics of mercury pollution distribution in plant is: root > stem and leaf, and the content of mercury in plant in autumn is commonly higher than that in summer. This is thought due to the accumulation of pollutant element from soil during the growth of plant. The atmospheric mercury has a significant correlation with the root of plant, respectively 0.83 in summer and 0.97 in autumn.

  15. Groundwater flow simulation of the Savannah River Site general separations area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bagwell, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bennett, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-09-07

    The most recent groundwater flow model of the General Separations Area, Savannah River Site, is referred to as the “GSA/PORFLOW” model. GSA/PORFLOW was developed in 2004 by porting an existing General Separations Area groundwater flow model from the FACT code to the PORFLOW code. The preceding “GSA/FACT” model was developed in 1997 using characterization and monitoring data through the mid-1990’s. Both models were manually calibrated to field data. Significantly more field data have been acquired since the 1990’s and model calibration using mathematical optimization software has become routine and recommended practice. The current task involved updating the GSA/PORFLOW model using selected field data current through at least 2015, and use of the PEST code to calibrate the model and quantify parameter uncertainty. This new GSA groundwater flow model is named “GSA2016” in reference to the year in which most development occurred. The GSA2016 model update is intended to address issues raised by the DOE Low-Level Waste (LLW) Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) in a 2008 review of the E-Area Performance Assessment, and by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in reviews of tank closure and Saltstone Disposal Facility Performance Assessments.

  16. Treatment of M-area mixed wastes at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy has prepared this environmental assessment, DOE/EA-0918, to assess the potential environmental impacts of the treatment of mixed wastes currently stored in the M-Area at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. DOE is proposing to treat and stabilize approximately 700,000 gallons of mixed waste currently stored in the Interim Treatment/Storage Facility (IT/SF) and Mixed Waste Storage Shed (MWSS). This waste material is proposed to be stabilized using a vitrification process and temporarily stored until final disposal is available by the year 2005. This document has been prepared to assess the potential environmental impacts attributable to the treatment and stabilization of M-area mixed wastes, the closure of the interim storage area, and storage of the vitrified waste until disposal in onsite RCRA vaults. Based on the analyses in the environmental assessment, the Department of Energy has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the Department of Energy is issuing this finding of no significant impact

  17. Clay mineralogy and source-to-sink transport processes of Changjiang River sediments in the estuarine and inner shelf areas of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yifei; Zou, Xinqing; Gao, Jianhua; Wang, Chenglong; Li, Yali; Yao, Yulong; Zhao, Wancang; Xu, Min

    2018-02-01

    We examined the source-to-sink sediment transport processes from the Changjiang River to the estuarine coastal shelf area by analyzing the clay mineral assemblages in suspended sediment samples from the Changjiang River catchment and surface samples from the estuarine coastal shelf area following the impoundment of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD) in 2003. The results indicate that the clay mineral compositions throughout the study area are dominated by illite, with less abundant kaolinite and chlorite and scarce smectite. The clay minerals display distinct differences in the tributaries and exhibit obvious changes in the trunk stream compared with the periods before 2003, and the source of sediment has largely shifted to the mid- to lower reaches of the river after 2003. Spatially, the clay mineral assemblages in the estuarine area define two compositionally distinct provinces. Province I covers the mud area of the Changjiang River estuary and the Zhe-Min coastal region, where sediment is primarily supplied by the Changjiang River. Province II includes part of the Changjiang River estuary and the southeastern portion of the study area, where the sediment is composed of terrestrial material from the Changjiang River and re-suspended material from the Huanghe River carried by the Jiangsu coastal current. Moreover, the other smaller rivers in China (including the Oujiang and Minjiang rivers of mainland China and the rivers of West Taiwan) also contribut sediments to the estuarine and inner shelf areas. In general, the clay mineral assemblages in the Changjiang River estuarine area are have mainly been controlled by sediment supplied from upstream of the Changjiang River tributaries. However, since the completion of the TGD in 2003, the mid- to downstream tributaries have become the main source of sediments from the Changjiang catchment into the East China Sea. These analyses further demonstrate that the coastal currents and the decrease in the sediment load of the river

  18. Assessing Potential Conservation and Restoration Areas of Freshwater Fish Fauna in the Indian River Basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Jay P; Manish, Kumar; Mehta, Rajender; Pandit, Maharaj K

    2016-05-01

    Conservation efforts globally are skewed toward terrestrial ecosystems. To date, conservation of aquatic ecosystems, in particular fish fauna, is largely neglected. We provide a country-wide assessment of Indian river ecosystems in order to identify and prioritize areas for protection and restoration of freshwater fish fauna. Using various biodiversity and anthropogenic attributes, coupled with tools of ecological modeling, we delineated areas for fish fauna conservation and restoration in the 20 major river basins of India. To do this, we used prioritization analyses and reserve selection algorithms to derive conservation value index (CVI) and vulnerability index (VI) of the river basins. CVI was estimated using endemicity, rarity, conservation value, and taxonomic singularity, while VI was estimated using a disturbance index derived from percent geographic area of the basin under human settlements, human population density, predominant land use, and total number of exotic fish species in each basin. The two indices, CVI and VI, were converted into geo-referenced maps, and each map was super-imposed onto species richness and forest cover maps, respectively. After superimposition, areas with high CVI and low VI shade intensities were delineated for conservation, while areas with high CVI and high VI shade intensities were demarcated for restoration. In view of the importance of freshwater fish for human livelihoods and consumption, and ecosystems of India's rivers, we call for urgent attention to the conservation of their fish fauna along with restoration of their degraded habitats.

  19. Bioavailability of iron and zinc in green leafy vegetables growing in river side and local areas of Allahabad district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Green Leafy Vegetables (GLVs are the treasure trove of many micronutrients.Objective: The aim of the study is to find out the commonly growing vegetables in river side and local areas of Allahabad district and to access the bioavailability of iron and zinc in selected green leafy vegetables of river side and local areas of Allahabad district.Methods: Five to four commonly grown green leafy vegetables were selected from the Arailghat, Baluaghat, Gaughat, Mahewa, Muirabad, Rajapur, Rasullabad for the study. Total iron and zinc in sample were estimated by AOAC (2005 and bioavailability of zinc and iron from various food samples was determined in vitro method described by Luten (1996. Appropriate statistical technique was adopted for analysis of study.Result: Soya leaves, Radish leaves, Amaranth, Spinach were grown in both the areas except Kulpha and Karamwa, which are commonly grown in river side area. There was a significant difference between the bioavailability of iron and zinc in GLV grown in local and river side area.Conclusion: Hence it can be concluded that there is a contamination of heavy metals which binds with the iron and zinc and make them less bioavailable in the selected GLV.

  20. An aerial radiological survey of the Savannah River Site TNX facility and surrounding area, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over a 3.8-square-kilometer (1.5-square-mile) area, centered on the Savannah River Site (SRS) TNX facility. The survey was flown on July 25, 1986, prior to the Steel Creek Corridor survey. Radiological measurements were used to determine the extent of man-made radionuclides in the TNX area. This survey area had been covered during previous site surveys of the Savannah River Floodplain. Higher than typical levels of thorium-232 daughters were detected in the survey area just west of the TNX facility. The natural terrestrial radiation levels were consistent with those measured during prior surveys of this and other SRS areas. 5 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Defense waste solidification studies, 200-S area. Savannah River Plant work request 860504, Project S-1780

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    A scope of work and a venture guidance appraisal were prepared for a conceptual process and plant facilities for the solidification and long-term storage of radioactive wastes removed from underground storage tanks in the 241 F and H Areas at the Savannah River Plant. Conceptual design was based on incorporating the highly radioactive waste components in a borosilicate type glass. The scope of work describes facilities for: reclaiming liquid and sludge wastes from F and H area tank farms; separating the sludge from the liquid salt solution by physical processes; removing radioactive cesium from the salt solution by ion exchange techniques; incorporating the dried sludge and cesium in a borosilicate glass in stainless steel containers; evaporating the liquid salt solution and encapsulating the resulting salt cake in a stainless steel container; and storing two years' worth of glass and salt containing cyclinders in separate retrievable surface storage facilities. Operations are to be located in a new area, designated the 200-S area. A full complement of power, general, and service facilities are provided. The venture guidance appraisal based on FY 82 authorization and FY 87 turnover is $2,900,000,000. The figure is suitable for planning purposes only. The Glass-form Waste Case is a variation of the concrete-form waste case (or the Reference Plant Case) reported in DPE--3410. The new venture guidance appraisal for the concrete-form case (updated to a consistent time basis with the glass-form case) is $2,900,000,000, indicating no apparent cost advantage between the two waste product forms

  2. Bank filtered water quality characteristics in Okgog-Ri area of Youngsan-River, Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee-Youl; Kim, Hyoung-Soo [Korea Water Resources Corp., Taejeon(Korea)

    2001-02-28

    Preliminary artificial recharge groundwater intake method using bank filtering had been conducted in Okgog-Ri of Youngsan-River to evaluate the possibility of substitution of surface water intake method in the area. In order to investigate the characteristics of bank filtered groundwater, we examined the hydrogeological properties of alluvium and water quality of stream and groundwater. It is observed that nitrate in stream water from synthetic fertilizer and poultry manure is almost consumed during bank filtering in this area. This implies that denitrification of organic carbon and the oxidation of pyrite present in the alluvium aquifer. Groundwater samples from bank filtering show high Mn concentration. This high Mn concentration may be resulted from decreasing redox potential due to denitrification and increasing mobility due to redox reaction of Mn-oxide. In the study area, there is a typical tendency that Al concentrations of water samples decrease according to increasing pH. This tendency is interpreted as forming of amorphous Al(OH){sub 3} precipitates by reducing the Al{sup 3+} solubilities. It is revealed that the bank filtered groundwater in the area is not edible because color, turbidity, heterotrophic bacteria, coliform and Mn of the groundwater exceed the guideline of drinking water. Even though the bank filtered groundwater without treatment does not satisfy the guideline of drinking water, the groundwater shows a good water quality compared with stream water. So, the water treatment method using bank filtered groundwater can be more economical and efficient than the treatment using direct intake of stream water in the aspect of water quality. (author). 15 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  3. AREA COMPLETION STRATEGIES AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE: CHARACTERIZATION FOR CLOSURE AND BEYOND

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagwell, L; Mark Amidon, M; Sadika Baladi, S

    2007-01-01

    During the first four decades of its 56 year existence, the Savannah River Site (SRS) was a key supplier of nuclear material for national defense. During the 1990s, the site's primary missions became waste site closure, environmental restoration, and deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of remnant cold war apparatus. Since 1989, with the approval of State and Federal regulatory agencies and with the participation of interested stakeholders, SRS has implemented a final remedy for a majority of the more than 500 individual waste sites at the former nuclear materials complex. These waste sites range from small, inert rubble pits to large, heavy industrial areas and radioactive waste disposal grounds. The closure and final remediation of these waste sites mark significant progress toward achieving SRS's overarching goal of reducing or eliminating future environmental damage and human health threats. However, larger challenges remain. For example, what are appropriate and achievable end-states for decommissioned nuclear facilities? What environmental and human health risks are associated with these end-states? To answer these questions within the strictures of smaller budgets and accelerated schedules, SRS is implementing an ''area completion'' strategy that: (1) unites several discrete waste units into one conceptual model, (2) integrates historically disparate environmental characterization and D and D activities, (3) reduces the number of required regulatory documents, and (4) in some cases, compresses schedules for achieving a stakeholder-approved end-state

  4. Grain-Size Analysis of Debris Flow Alluvial Fans in Panxi Area along Jinsha River, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The basic geometric parameters of 236 debris flow catchments were determined by interpreting SPOT5 remote sensing images with a resolution of 2.5 m in a 209 km section along the Jinsha River in the Panxi area, China. A total of 27 large-scale debris flow catchments were selected for detailed in situ investigation. Samples were taken from two profiles in the deposition zone for each debris flow catchment. The φ value gradation method of the grain size was used to obtain 54 histograms with abscissa in a logarithmic scale. Five types of debris flows were summarized from the outline of the histogram. Four grain size parameters were calculated: mean grain size, standard deviation, coefficient of skewness, and coefficient of kurtosis. These four values were used to evaluate the features of the histogram. The grain index that reflects the transport (kinetic energy information of debris flows was defined to describe the characteristics of the debris-flow materials. Furthermore, a normalized grain index based on the catchment area was proposed to allow evaluation of the debris flow mobility. The characteristics of the debris-flow materials were well-described by the histogram of grain-size distribution and the normalized grain index.

  5. Safety analysis, 200 Area, Savannah River Plant H-Canyon operations. Supplement 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beary, M M; Collier, C D; Fairobent, L A; Graham, R F; Mason, C L; McDuffee, W T; Owen, T L; Walker, D H [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1986-02-01

    The H-Canyon facility is located in the 200 Separations Area and uses the HM process to separate uranium, neptunium, plutonium, and fission products. Irradiated uranium fuels containing {sup 235}U at enrichments from 1.1% to 94% are processed and recovered, along with neptunium and plutonium isotopes. This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the H-Canyon operations and is an update to a section of a previous SAR. This SAR documents an analysis of the H-Canyon and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the Savannah River Implementation Plans. A substantial amount of the information supporting the Conclusions of this SAR is found in the Systems Analysis. Some H-Canyon equipment has been updated during the time between the Systems Analysis and this SAR and a complete description of this equipment is included in this report. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the H-Carbon can be operated without due risk to onsite or offsite populations and to the environment. In this report, risk is defined an the expected frequency of an accident, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequence in person-rem. The units of risk for radiological does are person-rem/year. Maximum individual exposure values have also been calculated and reported.

  6. Affecting factors of preferential flow in the forest of the Three Gorges area, Yangtze River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jinhua; ZHANG Hongjiang; HE Fan; QI Shenglin; SUN Yanhong; ZHANG Youyan; SHI Yuhu

    2007-01-01

    In order to study the factors affecting preferential flow,a 2.9 m-long,2.6 m-deep soil profile was dug in the Quxi watershed,Yangtze River.To analyze the influence of rainfall on preferential flow,the preferential flow process was observed when the rainfalls were recorded.Soil physical and infiltration characteristics were also measured to study their effect on preferential flow.The results showed that the rainfall amount that could cause preferential flow was over 26 mm.There are four types of rainfall in the Three Gorges area,namely gradually dropping rain,even rain,sudden rain and peak rain.Preferential flow process was found to be relevant to the rainfall process.It was determined that with different rainfall types,preferential flow appeared at different times,occurring first in peak rain,followed by sudden rain,gradually dropping rain,and then even rain.Preferential flow would appear when the rainfall intensity was over 0.075 mm/min.In the studied area,the coarse soil particles increased with the soil depth,and for the deeper soil layer,the coarse particles promote the formation of preferential flow.Preferential flow accelerates the steady infiltration rate in the 83-110 cm soil horizon,and the quickly moving water in this horizon also enhanced the further formation and development of preferential flow.

  7. Ecological Compensation Mechanism in Water Conservation Area: A Case Study of Dongjiang River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Fanbin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate economic compensation from downstream to upstream watershed is important to solve China’s social and economic imbalances between regions and can potentially enhance water resources protection and ecological security. The study analyzes the implementation of ecological compensation policy and related legal basis under ecological compensation mechanism theory and practice patterns, based on current natural environment and socio-economic development of national origin in Dongjiang water conservation areas. Under the principle of “Users pay”, the Dongjiang River is the subject of ecological compensation and recipient. By using the “cost-benefit analysis” and “cost method of industrial development opportunity”, we estimate that the total ecological compensation amounted to 513.35 million yuan. When estimated by the indicators such as water quantity, water quality and water use efficiency, we establish the “environmental and ecological protection cost sharing model” and measure the total cost of protecting downstream watershed areas, the Guangdong Province, is about 108.61 million yuan. The implementation of the Dongjiang source region that follows the principles of ecological compensation and approaches are also designed

  8. AREA COMPLETION STRATEGIES AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE: CHARACTERIZATION FOR CLOSURE AND BEYOND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, L; Mark Amidon, M; Sadika Baladi, S

    2007-06-11

    During the first four decades of its 56 year existence, the Savannah River Site (SRS) was a key supplier of nuclear material for national defense. During the 1990s, the site's primary missions became waste site closure, environmental restoration, and deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of remnant cold war apparatus. Since 1989, with the approval of State and Federal regulatory agencies and with the participation of interested stakeholders, SRS has implemented a final remedy for a majority of the more than 500 individual waste sites at the former nuclear materials complex. These waste sites range from small, inert rubble pits to large, heavy industrial areas and radioactive waste disposal grounds. The closure and final remediation of these waste sites mark significant progress toward achieving SRS's overarching goal of reducing or eliminating future environmental damage and human health threats. However, larger challenges remain. For example, what are appropriate and achievable end-states for decommissioned nuclear facilities? What environmental and human health risks are associated with these end-states? To answer these questions within the strictures of smaller budgets and accelerated schedules, SRS is implementing an ''area completion'' strategy that: (1) unites several discrete waste units into one conceptual model, (2) integrates historically disparate environmental characterization and D&D activities, (3) reduces the number of required regulatory documents, and (4) in some cases, compresses schedules for achieving a stakeholder-approved end-state.

  9. A Living Landscape : Bronze Age settlement sites in the Dutch river area (c. 2000-800 BC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnoldussen, Stijn

    2008-01-01

    "A Living Landscape. Bronze Age settlements in the Dutch river area (c. 2000-800 BC)" Academisch proefschrift over de aard en dynamiek van bronstijdnederzettingen in het rivierengebied. Het bevat een introductie op de geologische processen en de paleogeografie van de Nederlandse rivierdelta als

  10. Promoting Peace Education for Behaviourial Changes in Public Secondary Schools in Calabar Municipality Council Area, Cross River State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uko, E. S.; Igbineweka, P. O.; Odigwe, F. N.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating the promotion of peace education for behavioural changes in public secondary schools in Calabar Municipal Council Area of Cross River State. A descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. A set of questionnaire items were validated and used for the collection of data involving 310 respondents, selected…

  11. Pesticides in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas in the Tuolumne River basin in the vicinity of Modesto, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence, concentrations, and loads of dissolved pesticides in storm runoff were compared for two contrasting land uses in the Tuolumne River Basin, California, during two different winter storms: agricultural areas (February 1994) and the Modesto urban area (February 1995). Both storms followed the main application period of pesticides on dormant almond orchards. Eight samples of runoff from agricultural areas were collected from a Tuolumne River site, and 10 samples of runoff from urban areas were collected from five storm drains. All samples were analyzed for 46 pesticides. Six pesticides were detected in runoff from agricultural areas, and 15 pesticides were detected in runoff from urban areas. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dacthal (DCPA), metolachlor, and simazine were detected in almost every sample. Median concentrations were higher in the runoff from urban areas for all pesticides except napropamide and simazine. The greater occurrence and concentrations in storm drains is partly attributed to dilution of agricultural runoff by nonstorm base-flow in the Tuolumne River and by storm runoff from nonagricultural and nonurban land. In most cases, the occurrence and relative concentrations of pesticides found in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas were related to reported pesticide application. Pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas were more variable during the storm hydrograph than were concentrations in runoff from urban areas. All peak pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas occurred during the rising limb of the storm hydrograph, whereas peak concentrations in the storm drains occurred at varying times during the storm hydrograph. Transport of pesticides from agricultural areas during the February 1994 storm exceeded transport from urban areas during the February 1995 storm for chlorpyrifos, diazinon, metolachlor, napropamide, and simazine. Transport of DCPA was about the same from agricultural and urban

  12. Influence of agricultural practice on trace metals in soils and vegetation in the water conservation area along the East River (Dongjiang River), South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Chunling, E-mail: clluo@gig.ac.cn [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang, Renxiu [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2012-08-01

    Dongjiang (East River) is the key resource of potable water for the Pearl River Delta region, South China. Although industrial activities are limited in the water conservation area along this river, agriculture is very intensive. The present study evaluated trace metals in four soils under different cultivation. The total concentrations of trace metals decreased in the order orchard soil > vegetable soil > paddy soil > natural soil, reflecting decreasing inputs of agrochemicals to soils. Relatively high concentrations of Cd were recorded in the 60-cm soil profiles. The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio in the above-ground tissues of plant was significantly lower than their corresponding soils. In combination with the low transfer factor of Pb from soil to plant shoots, atmospheric deposition is probably a major pathway for Pb to enter plant leaves. Regular monitoring on the soil quality in this area is recommended for the safety of water resource and agricultural products. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil Cd exceeded the upper limit of Chinese standard for agricultural soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relatively high concentrations of Cd were recorded in the 60-cm soil profiles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Agricultural soil had higher concentrations of metals and lower {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb in above-ground tissues of plant was more anthropogenic than soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Atmospheric deposition may be a major pathway for Pb to enter plant leaves.

  13. Lidar-enhanced geologic mapping, examples from the Medford and Hood River areas, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, T. J.; McClaughry, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Lidar-based 3-foot digital elevation models (DEMs) and derivatives (slopeshade, hillshade, contours) were used to help map geology across 1700 km2 (650 mi2) near Hood River and Medford, Oregon. Techniques classically applied to interpret coarse DEMs and small-scale topographic maps were adapted to take advantage of lidar's high resolution. Penetration and discrimination of plant cover by the laser system allowed recognition of fine patterns and textures related to underlying geologic units and associated soils. Surficial geologic maps were improved by the ability to examine tiny variations in elevation and slope. Recognition of low-relief features of all sizes was enhanced where pixel elevation ranges of centimeters to meters, established by knowledge of the site or by trial, were displayed using thousands of sequential colors. Features can also be depicted relative to stream level by preparing a DEM that compensates for gradient. Near Medford, lidar-derived contour maps with 1- to 3-foot intervals revealed incised bajada with young, distal lobes defined by concentric contour lines. Bedrock geologic maps were improved by recognizing geologic features associated with surface textures and patterns or topographic anomalies. In sedimentary and volcanic terrain, structure was revealed by outcrops or horizons lying at one stratigraphic level. Creating a triangulated irregular network (TIN) facet from positions of three or more such points gives strike and dip. Each map area benefited from hundreds of these measurements. A more extensive DEM in the plane of the TIN facet can be subtracted from surface elevation (lidar DEM) to make a DEM with elevation zero where the stratigraphic horizon lies at the surface. The distribution of higher and lower stratigraphic horizons can be shown by highlighting areas similarly higher or lower on the same DEM. Poor fit of contacts or faults projected between field traverses suggest the nature and amount of intervening geologic structure

  14. Games between stakeholders and the payment for ecological services: evidence from the Wuxijiang River reservoir area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A gambling or “game” phenomenon can be observed in the complex relationship between sources and receptors of ecological compensation among multiple stakeholders. This paper investigates the problem of gambling to determine payment amounts, and details a method to estimate the ecological compensation amount related to water resources in the Wuxijiang River reservoir area in China. Public statistics and first-hand data obtained from a field investigation were used as data sources. Estimation of the source and receptor amount of ecological compensation relevant to the water resource being investigated was achieved using the contingent valuation method (CVM. The ecological compensation object and its benefit and gambling for the Wuxijiang River water source area are also analyzed in this paper. According to the results of a CVM survey, the ecological compensation standard for the Wuxijiang River was determined by the CVM, and the amount of compensation was estimated. Fifteen blocks downstream of the Wuxijiang River and 12 blocks in the water source area were used as samples to administer a survey that estimated the willingness to pay (WTP and the willingness to accept (WTA the ecological compensation of Wuxijiang River for both nonparametric and parametric estimation. Finally, the theoretical value of the ecological compensation amount was estimated. Without taking other factors into account, the WTP of residents in the Wuxi River water source was 297.48 yuan per year, while the WTAs were 3864.48 yuan per year. The theoretical standard of ecological compensation is 2294.39–2993.81 yuan per year. Under the parameter estimation of other factors, the WTP of residents in the Wuxi River water source area was 528.72 yuan per year, while the WTA was 1514.04 yuan per year. The theoretical standard of ecological compensation is 4076.25–5434.99 yuan per year. The main factors influencing the WTP ecological compensation in the Wuxi River basin are

  15. Games between stakeholders and the payment for ecological services: evidence from the Wuxijiang River reservoir area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lin

    2018-01-01

    A gambling or "game" phenomenon can be observed in the complex relationship between sources and receptors of ecological compensation among multiple stakeholders. This paper investigates the problem of gambling to determine payment amounts, and details a method to estimate the ecological compensation amount related to water resources in the Wuxijiang River reservoir area in China. Public statistics and first-hand data obtained from a field investigation were used as data sources. Estimation of the source and receptor amount of ecological compensation relevant to the water resource being investigated was achieved using the contingent valuation method (CVM). The ecological compensation object and its benefit and gambling for the Wuxijiang River water source area are also analyzed in this paper. According to the results of a CVM survey, the ecological compensation standard for the Wuxijiang River was determined by the CVM, and the amount of compensation was estimated. Fifteen blocks downstream of the Wuxijiang River and 12 blocks in the water source area were used as samples to administer a survey that estimated the willingness to pay (WTP) and the willingness to accept (WTA) the ecological compensation of Wuxijiang River for both nonparametric and parametric estimation. Finally, the theoretical value of the ecological compensation amount was estimated. Without taking other factors into account, the WTP of residents in the Wuxi River water source was 297.48 yuan per year, while the WTAs were 3864.48 yuan per year. The theoretical standard of ecological compensation is 2294.39-2993.81 yuan per year. Under the parameter estimation of other factors, the WTP of residents in the Wuxi River water source area was 528.72 yuan per year, while the WTA was 1514.04 yuan per year. The theoretical standard of ecological compensation is 4076.25-5434.99 yuan per year. The main factors influencing the WTP ecological compensation in the Wuxi River basin are annual income and age. The

  16. Games between stakeholders and the payment for ecological services: evidence from the Wuxijiang River reservoir area in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    A gambling or “game” phenomenon can be observed in the complex relationship between sources and receptors of ecological compensation among multiple stakeholders. This paper investigates the problem of gambling to determine payment amounts, and details a method to estimate the ecological compensation amount related to water resources in the Wuxijiang River reservoir area in China. Public statistics and first-hand data obtained from a field investigation were used as data sources. Estimation of the source and receptor amount of ecological compensation relevant to the water resource being investigated was achieved using the contingent valuation method (CVM). The ecological compensation object and its benefit and gambling for the Wuxijiang River water source area are also analyzed in this paper. According to the results of a CVM survey, the ecological compensation standard for the Wuxijiang River was determined by the CVM, and the amount of compensation was estimated. Fifteen blocks downstream of the Wuxijiang River and 12 blocks in the water source area were used as samples to administer a survey that estimated the willingness to pay (WTP) and the willingness to accept (WTA) the ecological compensation of Wuxijiang River for both nonparametric and parametric estimation. Finally, the theoretical value of the ecological compensation amount was estimated. Without taking other factors into account, the WTP of residents in the Wuxi River water source was 297.48 yuan per year, while the WTAs were 3864.48 yuan per year. The theoretical standard of ecological compensation is 2294.39–2993.81 yuan per year. Under the parameter estimation of other factors, the WTP of residents in the Wuxi River water source area was 528.72 yuan per year, while the WTA was 1514.04 yuan per year. The theoretical standard of ecological compensation is 4076.25–5434.99 yuan per year. The main factors influencing the WTP ecological compensation in the Wuxi River basin are annual income and age

  17. 33 CFR 165.540 - Regulated Navigation Area; Cape Fear River, Northeast Cape Fear River, Wilmington, North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Dredging work within the RNA will be conducted in five distinct areas: Ocean Bar II, Horseshoe Shoal.... (e) Description of work areas in the RNA—(1) Ocean Bar II, mouth of Cape Fear. The work area includes..., ensure that they have sufficient propulsion and directional control to safely navigate the RNA under the...

  18. Area Completion Strategies at Savannah River Site: Characterization for Closure and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagwell, Laura; O'Quinn, Sadika; Amidon, Mark

    2008-01-01

    During the first four decades of its 56 year existence, the Savannah River Site (SRS) was a key supplier of nuclear material for national defense. During the 1990's, the site's primary missions became waste site closure, environmental restoration, and deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of remnant cold war apparatus. Since 1989, with the approval of State and Federal regulatory agencies and with the participation of interested stakeholders, SRS has implemented a final remedy for a majority of the more than 500 individual waste sites at the former nuclear materials complex. These waste sites range from small, inert rubble pits to large, heavy industrial areas and radioactive waste disposal grounds. The closure and final remediation of these waste sites mark significant progress toward achieving SRS's overarching goal of reducing or eliminating future environmental damage and human health threats. However, larger challenges remain. For example, what are appropriate and achievable end-states for decommissioned nuclear facilities? What environmental and human health risks are associated with these end-states? To answer these questions within the strictures of smaller budgets and accelerated schedules, SRS is implementing an 'area completion' strategy that: - unites several discrete waste units into one conceptual model, - integrates historically disparate environmental characterization and D and D activities - reduces the number of required regulatory documents, - and, in some cases, compresses schedules for achieving a stakeholder-approved end-state. The area completion approaches being implemented at SRS reflect an evolution of the traditional RCRA/ CERCLA remedial process. Area completion strategies: - group waste units and/or D and D facilities together for characterization, remediation, and possible reuse; - identify data needs and integrate data collection activities for D and D, characterization, and remediation; - identify problems that require action

  19. Aquatic habitat modifications in La Plata River basin, Patagonia and associated marine areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugetti, Ana Cristina; Calcagno, Alberto Tomás; Brieva, Carlos Alberto; Giangiobbe, María Silvia; Pagani, Andrea; Gonzalez, Silvia

    2004-02-01

    This paper describes the environmental characteristics and situation of aquatic habitats and communities in southern continental and maritime areas of southeastern South America (Patagonian Shelf GIWA Subregion), resulting from an overall assessment carried out within the framework of a GIWA project, mostly on the basis of publicly available data. The main focus of the analysis was on the current situation of transboundary water resources and anthropogenic impacts. In the inland waters, habitat and community modifications result, principally, from dams and reservoirs built in the main watercourses for hydroelectric power generation and other uses. The transformation of lotic environments into lentic ones have affected habitats and altered biotic communities. In the La Plata River basin, invasive exotic species have displaced native ones. Habitats in the ocean have been degraded, as their biodiversity becomes affected by overfishing and pollution. This article includes a discussion on the causal chain and the policy options elaborated for the Coastal Ecosystem of Buenos Aires province and the Argentinean-Uruguayan Common Fishing Zone, where fishing resources are shared by both countries.

  20. Performing Mimetic Mapping: A Non-Visualisable Map of the Suzhou River Area of Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Karandinou

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions issues concerning the mapping of experience, through the concept of mimesis – the creative re-performance of the site experience onto the map. The place mapped is the Suzhou River area, a significant part of Shanghai, the former boundary between the British and American Settlements, and an ever-changing and transforming territory. Through the detailed description of the mapping processes, we analyse the position of this particular map within contemporary discourse about mapping. Here, we question the purpose of the process, the desired outcome, the consciousness of the significance of each step/event, and the possible significance of the final traces that the mapping leaves behind. Although after the mapping had been carried out, the procedure was analysed, post-rationalised, and justified through its partial documentation (as part of an educational process, this paper questions the way and the reason for these practices (the post-rationalising of the mapping activity, justifying the strategy, etc., and their possible meaning, purpose, demand or context. Thus we conclude that the subject matter is not the final outcome of an object or ‘map’; there is no final map to be exhibited. What this paper brings forth is the mapping as an event, an action performed by the embodied experience of the actual place and by the trans-local materiality of the tools and elements involved in the process of its making.

  1. Red River Wildlife Management Area HEP Report, Habitat Evaluation Procedures, Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Paul

    2004-11-01

    A habitat evaluation procedures (HEP) analysis conducted on the 314-acre Red River Wildlife Management Area (RRWMA) managed by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game resulted in 401.38 habitat units (HUs). Habitat variables from six habitat suitability index (HSI) models, comprised of mink (Mustela vison), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), common snipe (Capella gallinago), black-capped chickadee (Parus altricapillus), yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia), and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), were measured by Regional HEP Team (RHT) members in August 2004. Cover types included wet meadow, riverine, riparian shrub, conifer forest, conifer forest wetland, and urban. HSI model outputs indicate that the shrub component is lacking in riparian shrub and conifer forest cover types and that snag density should be increased in conifer stands. The quality of wet meadow habitat, comprised primarily of introduced grass species and sedges, could be improved through development of ephemeral open water ponds and increasing the amount of persistent wetland herbaceous vegetation e.g. cattails (Typha spp.) and bulrushes (Scirpus spp.).

  2. Hydrogeological modelling of the eastern region of Areco river locally detailed on Atucha I and II nuclear power plants area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grattone, Natalia I.; Fuentes, Nestor O.

    2009-01-01

    Water flow behaviour of Pampeano aquifer was modeled using Visual Mod-flow software Package 2.8.1 with the assumption of a free aquifer, within the region of the Areco river and extending to the rivers of 'Canada Honda' and 'de la Cruz'. Steady state regime was simulated and grid refinement allows obtaining locally detailed calculation in the area of Atucha I and II Nuclear power plants, in order to compute unsteady situations as the consequence of water flow variations from and to the aquifer, enabling the model to study the movement of possible contaminant particles in the hydrogeologic system. In this work the effects of rivers action, the recharge conditions and the flow lines are analyzed, taking always into account the range of reliability of obtained results, considering the incidence of uncertainties introduced by data input system, the estimates and interpolation of parameters used. (author)

  3. A preliminary comparison of hydrodynamic approaches for flood inundation modeling of urban areas in Jakarta Ciliwung river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojali, Aditia; Budiaji, Abdul Somat; Pribadi, Yudhistira Satya; Fatria, Dita; Hadi, Tri Wahyu

    2017-07-01

    This paper addresses on the numerical modeling approaches for flood inundation in urban areas. Decisive strategy to choose between 1D, 2D or even a hybrid 1D-2D model is more than important to optimize flood inundation analyses. To find cost effective yet robust and accurate model has been our priority and motivation in the absence of available High Performance Computing facilities. The application of 1D, 1D/2D and full 2D modeling approach to river flood study in Jakarta Ciliwung river basin, and a comparison of approaches benchmarked for the inundation study are presented. This study demonstrate the successful use of 1D/2D and 2D system to model Jakarta Ciliwung river basin in terms of inundation results and computational aspect. The findings of the study provide an interesting comparison between modeling approaches, HEC-RAS 1D, 1D-2D, 2D, and ANUGA when benchmarked to the Manggarai water level measurement.

  4. Taxonomic and functional diversity of a coastal planktonic bacterial community in a river-influenced marine area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Stefan; Richter, Michael; Balestra, Cecilia; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Casotti, Raffaella

    2017-04-01

    The Gulf of Naples is a dynamical area with intense exchanges between offshore oligotrophic and coastal eutrophic waters with frequent freshwater inputs. The Sarno River, one of the most polluted rivers in Europe, strongly contributes to the pollution of the area, discharging high amounts of heavy metals and organic wastes from heavily cultivated and industrial areas. This paper reports on the diversity and community structure of the marine residential Bacteria and Archaea of the Gulf of Naples in an area close to the river Sarno plume and investigates their small-scale taxonomic diversity and expression patterns as a proxy of potential metabolic activity using metagenomics and metatranscriptomics. Bacteria and Archaea were mainly represented by marine clades, with only minor contributors from freshwater ones. The community was dominated by Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria, of which Rhodospirillales, Pelagibacteriales, and Oceanospirilalles were most represented. However, Alteromonadales and Rhodobacterales were the most active, despite their relative lower abundance, suggesting that they are important for overall ecosystem functioning and nutrient cycling. Nitrification and a reversed form of dissimilatory sulfate reduction were the major metabolic processes found in the metatrascriptomes and were mainly associated to Nitrosopumilales and Pelagibacter, respectively. No clear indication of transcripts related to stress induced by heavy metals or organic pollutants was found. In general, despite the high loads of pollutants discharged continuously by the Sarno River, the microbial community did not show marks of stress-induced changes neither structural nor functional, thus suggesting that this river has little or no effect on the planktonic bacterial community of the Gulf of Naples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Numerical simulation of groundwater and surface-water interactions in the Big River Management Area, central Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterson, John P.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2013-01-01

    The Rhode Island Water Resources Board is considering use of groundwater resources from the Big River Management Area in central Rhode Island because increasing water demands in Rhode Island may exceed the capacity of current sources. Previous water-resources investigations in this glacially derived, valley-fill aquifer system have focused primarily on the effects of potential groundwater-pumping scenarios on streamflow depletion; however, the effects of groundwater withdrawals on wetlands have not been assessed, and such assessments are a requirement of the State’s permitting process to develop a water supply in this area. A need for an assessment of the potential effects of pumping on wetlands in the Big River Management Area led to a cooperative agreement in 2008 between the Rhode Island Water Resources Board, the U.S. Geological Survey, and the University of Rhode Island. This partnership was formed with the goal of developing methods for characterizing wetland vegetation, soil type, and hydrologic conditions, and monitoring and modeling water levels for pre- and post-water-supply development to assess potential effects of groundwater withdrawals on wetlands. This report describes the hydrogeology of the area and the numerical simulations that were used to analyze the interaction between groundwater and surface water in response to simulated groundwater withdrawals. The results of this analysis suggest that, given the hydrogeologic conditions in the Big River Management Area, a standard 5-day aquifer test may not be sufficient to determine the effects of pumping on water levels in nearby wetlands. Model simulations showed water levels beneath Reynolds Swamp declined by about 0.1 foot after 5 days of continuous pumping, but continued to decline by an additional 4 to 6 feet as pumping times were increased from a 5-day simulation period to a simulation period representative of long-term average monthly conditions. This continued decline in water levels with

  6. Effects of combined sewer overflow and stormwater on indicator bacteria concentrations in the Tama River due to the high population density of Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Young-Sik; Kobori, Hiromi; Takasago, Masahisa

    2009-05-01

    The indicator bacteria (standard plate count, total coliform, and fecal coliform bacteria) concentrations have been investigated using six ambient habitats (population density, percent sewer penetration, stream flow rate (m(3)/sec), percent residential area, percent forest area and percent agricultural area) in the Tama River basin in Tokyo, Japan during June 2003 to January 2005. The downstream and tributary Tama River showed higher concentrations of TC and FC bacteria than the upstream waters, which exceeded an environmental quality standard for rivers and a bathing water quality criterion. It was estimated that combined sewer overflow (CSO) and stormwater effluents contributed -4-23% to the indicator bacteria concentrations of the Tama River. The results of multiple regression analyses show that the indicator bacteria concentrations of Tama River basin are significantly affected by population density. It is concluded that the Tama River received a significant bacterial contamination load originating from the anthropogenic source.

  7. Luminescence of quartz and feldspar fingerprints provenance and correlates with the source area denudation in the Amazon River basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawakuchi, A.O.; Jain, M.; Mineli, T.D.

    2018-01-01

    The Amazon region hosts the world's largest watershed spanning from high elevation Andean terrains to lowland cratonic shield areas in tropical South America. This study explores variations in optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals in suspended...... silt and riverbed sands retrieved from major Amazon rivers. These rivers drain Pre-Cambrian to Cenozoic source rocks in areas with contrasting denudation rates. In contrast to the previous studies, we do not observe an increase in the OSL sensitivity of quartz with transport distance; for example...... shield areas (denudation rate ξ=0.04 mmyr−1), while low sensitivity quartz occurs in less stable Andean terrains (ξ=0.24 mmyr−1). An apparent linear correlation between quartz OSL sensitivity and denudation rate suggests that OSL sensitivity may be used as a proxy for erosion rates in the Amazon basin...

  8. The distribution of mercury around the small-scale gold mining area along the Cikaniki river, Bogor, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Takashi; Kono, Yuriko; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Hidayati, Nuril; Rahajoe, Joeni Setijo

    2013-08-01

    The distribution of mercury in the soil, sediment and river water around the artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) area along the Cikaniki River, West Java, Indonesia, was investigated. The total mercury concentration (T-Hg) in the forest soil ranged from 0.11 to 7.0mgkg(-1), and the highest value was observed at the ASGM village. In the vertical T-Hg profile around the villages, the highest value was observed at the soil surface, and the concentration decreased with depth. This result suggested that the mercury released by mining activity was dispersed through the atmosphere and deposited on the surface. The total organic carbon content (TOC) showed a similar vertical profile as the T-Hg, and a linear relationship was found between T-Hg and TOC. Mercury deposited on the surface can be absorbed by organic matter. The slope of the line was larger near the ASGM village, implying a higher rate of deposition of mercury. The T-Hg in the sediment ranged from 10 to 70mgkg(-1), decreasing gradually toward the lower reaches of the river. Mining waste can be transported with the river flow and deposited along the river. The distribution of the mining waste can be determined using the mineralogical composition measured by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of hyporheic exchange flows on egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geist, D. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Arntzen, E. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abernethy, C. S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002–2003 water year.

  10. Estimation of the recharge area contributing water to a pumped well in a glacial-drift, river-valley aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Daniel J.

    1989-01-01

    The highly permeable, unconfined, glacial-drift aquifers that occupy most New England river valleys constitute the principal source of drinking water for many of the communities that obtain part or all of their public water supply from ground water. Recent events have shown that these aquifers are highly susceptible to contamination that results from a number of sources, such as seepage from wastewater lagoons, leaking petroleum-product storage tanks, and road salting. To protect the quality of water pumped from supply wells in these aquifers, it is necessary to ensure that potentially harmful contaminants do not enter the ground in the area that contributes water to the well. A high degree of protection can be achieved through the application of appropriate land-use controls within the contributing area. However, the contributing areas for most supply wells are not known. This report describes the factors that affect the size and shape of contributing areas to public supply wells and evaluates several methods that may be used to delineate contributing areas of wells in glacial-drift, river-valley aquifers. Analytical, two-dimensional numerical, and three-dimensional numerical models were used to delineate contributing areas. These methods of analysis were compared by applying them to a hypothetical aquifer having the dimensions and geometry of a typical glacial-drift, river-valley aquifer. In the model analyses, factors that control the size and shape of a contributing area were varied over ranges of values common to glacial-drift aquifers in New England. The controlling factors include the rate of well discharge, rate of recharge to the aquifer from precipitation and from adjacent till and bedrock uplands, distance of a pumping well from a stream or other potential source of induced recharge, degree of hydraulic connection of the aquifer with a stream, horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer, ratio of horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity, and

  11. Evaluation of Eco-economy Harmony and Spatial Evolution of the Urban Agglomeration Area in The Great Pearl River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuming; Xu, Min; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Naizhong; Zhang, Yuhuan

    2018-05-01

    Based on the land use data of the study area during 1990 to 2016, the coordination between ecological environment and economy was estimated according to the ESV (ecosystem services value) and EEH (eco-economy harmony) index. The results showed that large amount of farmland and forests were changed to construction land in the study area, due to the rapid urbanization and industrialization. The ESV showed an overall downward trend, the ESV in per hectare was decreased from 1554,000Yuan to 14513,000Yuan. The economic development speed was decreased from 1990 to 2016, the area with high GDP growth rate is changed from the core area of the pearl river delta to the periphery area. The ecology-economy relation in the study area experienced a transformation of “low grade coordination-low grade conflict -further conflict”. Shenzhen, Dongguan, Huizhou, Jiangmen, the central city of Foshan and Guangzhou became the most high-grade conflict areas.

  12. Regional development of river basins in the Olkiluoto-Pyhaejaervi Area, SW Finland, 2000 BP - 8000 AP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojala, A.E.K.; Virkki, H.; Palmu, J.-P.; Hokkanen, K.; Kaija, J.

    2006-12-01

    Biosphere assessment forms one of the main components in Posiva's Safety Case portfolio and includes analyses of terrain and ecosystem development. Shoreline displacement and changes in surface hydrology form one part of these analyses. In this report, the regional development of the Olkiluoto-Pyhaejaervi area in the time period 2000 BP - 8000 AP was examined by taking into account changes in the surface flow patterns of the Lapinjoki and Eurajoki river basins. A hydrological model, EULA, was developed and applied to investigate the past and future hydrological regimes and changes in the Olkiluoto-Pyhaejaervi study area. As detailed assessment of erosion and sedimentation effects were not within the scope of this study, only their general effects were evaluated. The digital elevation models (DEM) for different time stages (2000, 1500, 1000 and 500 BP; 100, 300, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000, 3500, 4000, 4500, 5000, 6000, 7000 and 8000 AP) were compiled taking into account the land uplift and tilting of the Earth's crust. With the aid of various sophisticated GIS tools, the boundaries of the main river basins, the flow patterns of rivers and development of lakes during each stage were modelled. The yearly discharge rates of rivers Eurajoki and Lapinjoki were also evaluated with the assumption that present climatic features prevail during the whole time period 2000 BP - 8000 AP. Finally, the probability of significant changes in the surface water flow routes were estimated during different stages. (orig.)

  13. Identification of erosional and inundation hazard zones in Ken-Betwa river linking area, India, using remote sensing and GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avtar, Ram; Singh, Chander Kumar; Shashtri, Satayanarayan; Mukherjee, Saumitra

    2011-11-01

    Ken-Betwa river link is one of the pilot projects of the Inter Linking of Rivers program of Government of India in Bundelkhand Region. It will connect the Ken and Betwa rivers through a system of dams, reservoirs, and canals to provide storage for excess rainfall during the monsoon season and avoid floods. The main objective of this study is to identify erosional and inundation prone zones of Ken-Betwa river linking site in India using remote sensing and geographic information system tools. In this study, Landsat Thematic Mapper data of year 2005, digital elevation model from the Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission, and other ancillary data were analyzed to create various thematic maps viz. geomorphology, land use/land cover, NDVI, geology, soil, drainage density, elevation, slope, and rainfall. The integrated thematic maps were used for hazard zonation. This is based on categorizing the different hydrological and geomorphological processes influencing the inundation and erosion intensity. Result shows that the southern part of the study area which lies in Panna district of Madhya Pradesh, India, is more vulnerable than the other areas.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in suspended particulate matter and sediments from the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal areas, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xiaojun; Chen Shejun; Mai Bixian; Yang Qingshu; Sheng Guoying; Fu Jiamo

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distribution, composition, and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent coastal areas were examined. Total PAH concentrations varied from 189 to 637 ng/g in sediments and 422 to 1850 ng/g in SPM. PAHs were dominated by 5,6-ring compounds in sediments and by 2,3-ring compounds in SPM samples. Assessment of PAH sources suggested that biomass and coal combustion is the major PAH source to the outer part of the estuary sediments and that petroleum combustion is the major PAH source to the inner part of estuary sediments. As for SPM samples, PAH isomer pair ratios indicated multiple (petroleum, petroleum combustion, and biomass and coal combustion) PAH sources, and significant temporal variations could exist for the sources of water column PAHs in the study area. The distribution of perylene in SPM samples indicated that the river was the dominant source of perylene in SPM and that perylene could be taken as an index to assess the contribution of river inflow to the total PAHs in SPM samples. The high concentration of perylene in the sediment was indicative of an in situ biogenic origin. - PAH were determined in suspended particulate matter and sediments from Pearl River Estuary

  15. Road kills of amphibians in different land use areas from Sharavathi river basin, central Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Seshadri

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of amphibian mortality on roads was carried out in the Sharavathi river basin in the central Western Ghats. Road kills in three different land use areas: agricultural fields, water bodies and forests were recorded for four days along three 100m stretches in each type of area. One-hundred-and-forty-four individuals belonging to two orders, eight families, 11 genera and 13 species were recorded in the survey. Kills/km observed were: in forest 55, agricultural fields 38 and water bodies 27, for an overall average of 40 kills/km. Kill species compositions varied significantly between land use areas, but not overall kill rates.

  16. 77 FR 19544 - Regulated Navigation Area, Zidell Waterfront Property, Willamette River, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions on this rule, call or email BM1 Silvestre Suga III, Waterways Management Division, Coast Guard Sector Columbia River, telephone 503-240-9319, email Silvestre[email protected

  17. Fecal contamination in several rivers of the Greater Metropolitan Area and the Osa Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo-Brenes, Guillermo; Mora-Molina, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of rivers in Costa Rica is an issue that requires special attention. The term “river con- tamination” means the incorporation of strange matter such as microorganisms (total and fecal coliforms), chemical products (soaps, fertilizers, pesti- cides), heavy metals (such as chrome, lead, mercury), or organic matter, the last one coming from soil through superficial water runoff as well as domestic wastewaters. All of them deteriorate the water qua- lity and reduce the different wat...

  18. Compliance of the Savannah River Site D-Area cooling system with environmental regulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.; Wilde, E.W. (eds.)

    1990-08-01

    This document presents information relating to a demonstration under Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act for the 400-D Area cooling system at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The demonstration was mandated because the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for SRS (SC0000175), granted on January 1, 1984, specified in-stream temperature limits in SRS streams of 32.2{degree}C and a {Delta}T limit of 2.8{degree}C above ambient. To achieve compliance with in-stream temperature limits, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) entered into a Consent Order (84-4-W) which temporarily superseded the temperature requirements and identified a process for attaining compliance. The preferred option for achieving thermal compliance in Beaver Dam Creek consisted of increased flow, with mixing of the raw water basin overflow with the cooling water discharge during the summer months. Although this action can achieve instream temperatures of less than 32.2{degree}C, {Delta}T's still exceed 2.8{degree}C. Therefore, a 316 (a) Demonstration was initiated to determine whether a balanced indigenous biological community can be supported in the receiving stream with {Delta}T's in excess of 2.8{degree}C. A Biological Monitoring Program for Beaver Dam Creek was approved by SCDHEC in June 1988 and implemented in September 1988. The program monitored the water quality, habitat formers, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, fish, other vertebrate wildlife and threatened and endangered species in Beaver Dam Creek for an 18-month period (September 1988-February 1990). This document summarizes information collected during the monitoring program and evaluates the data to determine whether Beaver Dam Creek presently supports a balanced indigenous biological community. 97 refs., 32 figs., 51 tabs.

  19. Performance of sand filters for the separations areas at the Savannah River Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, D.A.; Sykes, G.H.; McKibben, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Two new large sand filters, 30.5 by 100 m, were constructed and put into service at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) in 1975 and 1976. These units were designed to provide final filtration of process air - one for each of the two separations areas. Eventual flow will be 4950 m 3 /min (205,000 scfm) on each unit when all facilities are connected. They were built as replacements for the original sand filters that began operation in 1954 and 1955. The new filters have been operated in parallel with the old units following partial failure of the old units from acid attack and erosion of the concrete support structure for the sand beds. The design of the new units was based on extensive tests at SRP on characteristics of different sands. The performance of the new filters meets criteria for pressure drop, flow capacity, and efficiency. The efficiencies measured by DOP test are greater than 99.98%. Parallel operation reduces air velocity through the beds, which increases efficiency. A characteristic of sand filter performance has been low apparent efficiency at low input; efficiency increases as the activity input rises. This is attributed to a small entrainment release from the large amount of activity already sorbed on the filter; this release controls and lowers the calculated efficiency at low input. An analysis of efficiency as a function of input activity projects efficiencies greater than 99.99% for large inputs that might be characteristic of large internal accidents. The data indicate that DOP efficiencies can be used in hazards analyses to determine accident consequences. Routine evaluation of filter releases can be used for surveillance to establish that performance is normal at other times

  20. Aquifer recharge from infiltration basins in a highly urbanized area: the river Po Plain (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetti, M.; Nghiem, S. V.; Sorichetta, A.; Stevenazzi, S.; Santi, E. S.; Pettinato, S.; Bonfanti, M.; Pedretti, D.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the extensive urbanization in the Po Plain in northern Italy, rivers need to be managed to alleviate flooding problems while maintaining an appropriate aquifer recharge under an increasing percentage of impermeable surfaces. During the PO PLain Experiment field campaign in July 2015 (POPLEX 2015), both active and under-construction infiltration basins have been surveyed and analyzed to identify appropriate satellite observations that can be integrated to ground based monitoring techniques. A key strategy is to have continuous data time series on water presence and level within the basin, for which ground based monitoring can be costly and difficult to be obtained consistently.One of the major and old infiltration basin in the central Po Plain has been considered as pilot area. The basin is active from 2003 with ground based monitoring available since 2009 and supporting the development of a calibrated unsaturated-saturated two-dimensional numerical model simulating the infiltration dynamics through the basin.A procedure to use satellite data to detect surface water change is under development based on satellite radar backscatter data with an appropriate incidence angle and polarization combination. An advantage of satellite radar is that it can observe surface water regardless of cloud cover, which can be persistent during rainy seasons. Then, the surface water change is correlated to the reservoir water stage to determine water storage in the basin together with integrated ground data and to give quantitative estimates of variations in the local water cycle.We evaluated the evolution of the infiltration rate, to obtain useful insights about the general recharge behavior of basins that can be used for informed design and maintenance. Results clearly show when the basin becomes progressively clogged by biofilms that can reduce the infiltration capacity of the basin by as much as 50 times compared to when it properly works under clean conditions.

  1. Reactivated basement structures in the central Savannah River area and their relationship to coastal plain deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumbest, R.J.; Price, V.; Temples, T.J.; Fallaw, W.C.; Snipes, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Structural surface mapping and geophysical studies have identified several faults in the crystalline basement and overlying Coastal Plain sedimentary sequences in the central Savannah River area. Major subsurface basement shear zones occur parallel to and near Upper Three Runs Creek and Tinker Creek and are associated with linear aeromagnetic anomalies. Reflection seismic imaging of the basement shows a band of southeast dipping events parallel to Upper Three Runs Creek. Drill core from basement contain phyllonites, mylonites, fault breccia and pseudotachylite. The magnetic anomalies also mark the boundary separating greenschist facies metavolcanic rocks from amphibolite facies felsic gneiss, schist, and amphibolite. These features are similar to those that characterize other Paleozoic faults of the Eastern Piedmont Fault system. Reflection seismic imaging shows the sub-Cretaceous unconformity as well defined and easily identified event as well as easily traced laterally extensive events in Coastal Plain sequences. The unconformity and sedimentary sequences are faulted or deformed in several locations which also coincide with changes in dip of the unconformity. In the vicinity of Upper Three Runs Creek the unconformity shows a broad warping across which the elevation drops to the southeast and sedimentary sequences show a marked rate of thickening southeast. This indicates deformation of the basement exerted a control on deposition of the Coastal Plain sediments with down to the southeast movement. The basement shear zones are closely associated with the Dunbarton basin and are probable reactivated Paleozoic structures associated with extensional basin development as commonly seen associated with extensional basins on the east coast of North America

  2. Potential depletion of surface water in the Colorado River and agricultural drains by groundwater pumping in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, Arizona and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Stanley A.; Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.; Heilman, Julian A.

    2013-01-01

    Water use along the lower Colorado River is allocated as “consumptive use,” which is defined to be the amount of water diverted from the river minus the amount that returns to the river. Diversions of water from the river include surface water in canals and water removed from the river by pumping wells in the aquifer connected to the river. A complication in accounting for water pumped by wells occurs if the pumping depletes water in drains and reduces measured return flow in those drains. In that case, consumptive use of water pumped by the wells is accounted for in the reduction of measured return flow. A method is needed to understand where groundwater pumping will deplete water in the river and where it will deplete water in drains. To provide a basis for future accounting for pumped groundwater in the Parker-Palo Verde-Cibola area, a superposition model was constructed. The model consists of three layers of finite-difference cells that cover most of the aquifer in the study area. The model was run repeatedly with each run having a pumping well in a different model cell. The source of pumped water that is depletion of the river, expressed as a fraction of the pumping rate, was computed for all active cells in model layer 1, and maps were constructed to understand where groundwater pumping depletes the river and where it depletes drains. The model results indicate that if one or more drains exist between a pumping well location and the river, nearly all of the depletion will be from drains, and little or no depletion will come from the Colorado River. Results also show that if a well pumps on a side of the river with no drains in the immediate area, depletion will come from the Colorado River. Finally, if a well pumps between the river and drains that parallel the river, a fraction of the pumping will come from the river and the rest will come from the drains. Model results presented in this report may be considered in development or refinement of strategies

  3. Application of MIKE SHE to study the impact of coal mining on river runoff in Gujiao mining area, Shanxi, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Ping

    Full Text Available Coal mining is one of the core industries that contribute to the economic development of a country but deteriorate the environment. Being the primary source of energy, coal has become essential to meet the energy demand of a country. It is excavated by both opencast and underground mining methods and affects the environment, especially hydrological cycle, by discharging huge amounts of mine water. Natural hydrological processes have been well known to be vulnerable to human activities, especially large scale mining activities, which inevitably generate surface cracks and subsidence. It is therefore valuable to assess the impact of mining on river runoff for the sustainable development of regional economy. In this paper, the impact of coal mining on river runoff is assessed in one of the national key coal mining sites, Gujiao mining area, Shanxi Province, China. The characteristics of water cycle are described, the similarities and differences of runoff formation are analyzed in both coal mining and pre-mining periods. The integrated distributed hydrological model named MIKE SHE is employed to simulate and evaluate the influence of coal mining on river runoff. The study shows that mining one ton of raw coal leads to the reduction of river runoff by 2.87 m3 between 1981 and 2008, of which the surface runoff decreases by 0.24 m3 and the baseflow by 2.63 m3. The reduction degree of river runoff for mining one ton of raw coal shows an increasing trend over years. The current study also reveals that large scale coal mining initiates the formation of surface cracks and subsidence, which intercepts overland flow and enhances precipitation infiltration. Together with mine drainage, the natural hydrological processes and the stream flows have been altered and the river run off has been greatly reduced.

  4. Tritium concentrations in flow from selected springs that discharge to the Snake River, Twin Falls-Hagerman area, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that some of the approximately 30,900 curies of tritium disposed to the Snake River Plain aquifer from 1952 to 1988 at the INEL (idaho National Engineering Laboratory) have migrated to springs discharging to the Snake River in the Twin Falls-Hagerman area. To document tritium concentrations in springflow, 17 springs were sampled in November 1988 and 19 springs were sampled in March 1989. Tritium concentrations were less than the minimum detectable concentration of 0.5 pCi/mL (picocuries/mL) in November 1988 and less than the minimum detectable concentration of 0.2 pCi/mL in March 1989 the minimum detectable concentration was smaller in March 1989. The maximum contaminant level of tritium in drinking water as established by the US Environmental Protection Agency is 20 pCi/mL. US Environmental Protection Agency sample analyses indicate that the tritium concentration has decreased in the Snake River near Buhl since the 1970's. In 1974-79, tritium concentrations were less than 0.3 ± 0.2 pCi/mL in 3 of 20 samples; in 1983-88, 17 of 23 samples contaminated less than 0.3 ± 0.2 pCi/mL of tritium; the minimum detectable concentration is 0.2 pCi/mL. On the basis of decreasing tritium concentrations in the Snake River, their correlation to cessation of atmospheric weapons tests tritium concentrations in springflow less than the minimum detectable concentration, and the distribution of tritium in groundwater at the INEL, aqueous disposal of tritium at the INEL has had no measurable effect on tritium concentrations in springflow from the Snake River Plain aquifer and in the Snake River near Buhl. 15 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Sulfate migration in a river affected by acid mine drainage from the Dabaoshan mining area, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meiqin; Lu, Guining; Guo, Chuling; Yang, Chengfang; Wu, Jingxiong; Huang, Weilin; Yee, Nathan; Dang, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Sulfate, a major component of acid mine drainage (AMD), its migration in an AMD-affected river which located at the Dabaoshan mine area of South China was investigated to pursue the remediation strategy. The existing factors of relatively low pH values of 2.8-3.9, high concentrations of SO4(2-) (∼1940 mg L(-1)) and Fe(3+) (∼112 mg L(-1)) facilitated the precipitation of schwertmannite (Fe8O8(OH)6SO4·nH2O) in the upstream river. Geochemical model calculations implied the river waters were supersaturated, creating the potential for precipitation of iron oxyhydroxides. These minerals evolved from schwertmannite to goethite with the increasing pH from 2.8 to 5.8 along the river. The concentration of heavy metals in river waters was great reduced as a result of precipitation effects. The large size of the exchangeable sulfate pool suggested that the sediments had a strong capacity to bind SO4(2-). The XRD results indicated that schwertmannite was the predominant form of sulfate-bearing mineral phases, which was likely to act as a major sulfate sink by incorporating water-borne sulfate into its internal structure and adsorbing it onto its surface. The small size of reduced sulfur pools and strong oxidative status in the surface sediments further showed that SO4(2-) shifting from water to sediment in form of sulfate reduction was not activated. In short, precipitation of sulfate-rich iron oxyhydroxides and subsequent SO4(2-) adsorption on these minerals as well as water dilution contributed to the attenuation of SO4(2-) along the river waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Monitoring of the water quality of the Surata River in the mining area of Vetas and California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Vladimir Illich

    2004-01-01

    The regional autonomous corporation for the defense of the Bucaramanga plateau, environmental authority in the area of influence of the Mining District of Vetas and California, exercises among other activities, the pursuit and control to the auriferous exploitations. Two of the components of this pursuit are: the monitoring of the water quality of the Surata River, final receiver of the effusions coming from of the mineral benefit and the discharges control of cyanidation sand or cyanidation lines, by means of the monthly programming of daily discharges for mining company; in order to diminish the events of high cyanide concentrations in the hydraulic averages and to reduce the cyanide consumptions for the recovery of gold. The mining exploitations of the municipality pour their residuals to the Vetas River, while those of the Municipality of California, pour them to the gulch La Baja, flowing of the Vetas River who in turn is flowing of the Surata River, that supplies a part of the system of aqueduct of the Bucaramanga Municipality. The water quality of mining effusions is determined in three monitored points on the gulch La Baja, the Vetas River and the Surata River; additionally it is made a sampling and analysis of silts in four points on the same currents. The sampling frequency for the water quality is monthly, while for the silts analysis is biweekly. This monitoring is carried out from the year 1988, although it has suffered some interruptions in the time. The technique of water sampling is punctual, integrated to the wide of the bed and without seating capacity, the taking of silts is punctual and integrated to the wide of the bed and without seating capacity, these samples are preserved and transported to the laboratory of waters and soils of the CDMB, where the following parameters are analyzed: for the water sample, mercury, free cyanide and total cyanide, suspended solids, turbidity, pH and conductivity; for the sample of silts only mercury is analyzed

  7. Application of MIKE SHE to study the impact of coal mining on river runoff in Gujiao mining area, Shanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Jianhua; Yan, Shiyan; Gu, Pan; Wu, Zening; Hu, Caihong

    2017-01-01

    Coal mining is one of the core industries that contribute to the economic development of a country but deteriorate the environment. Being the primary source of energy, coal has become essential to meet the energy demand of a country. It is excavated by both opencast and underground mining methods and affects the environment, especially hydrological cycle, by discharging huge amounts of mine water. Natural hydrological processes have been well known to be vulnerable to human activities, especially large scale mining activities, which inevitably generate surface cracks and subsidence. It is therefore valuable to assess the impact of mining on river runoff for the sustainable development of regional economy. In this paper, the impact of coal mining on river runoff is assessed in one of the national key coal mining sites, Gujiao mining area, Shanxi Province, China. The characteristics of water cycle are described, the similarities and differences of runoff formation are analyzed in both coal mining and pre-mining periods. The integrated distributed hydrological model named MIKE SHE is employed to simulate and evaluate the influence of coal mining on river runoff. The study shows that mining one ton of raw coal leads to the reduction of river runoff by 2.87 m3 between 1981 and 2008, of which the surface runoff decreases by 0.24 m3 and the baseflow by 2.63 m3. The reduction degree of river runoff for mining one ton of raw coal shows an increasing trend over years. The current study also reveals that large scale coal mining initiates the formation of surface cracks and subsidence, which intercepts overland flow and enhances precipitation infiltration. Together with mine drainage, the natural hydrological processes and the stream flows have been altered and the river run off has been greatly reduced.

  8. Abundance of Harpy and Crested Eagles from a reservoir-impact area in the Low- and Mid-Xingu River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TM. Sanaiotti

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Brazilian Amazon, two monospecific genera, the Harpy Eagle and Crested Eagle have low densities and are classified by IUCN as Near Threatened due to habitat loss, deforestation, habitat degradation and hunting. In this study, we evaluate occurrence of these large raptors using the environmental surveys database from Belo Monte Hydroelectric Power Plant. Integrating the dataset from two methods, we plotted a distribution map along the Xingu River, including records over a 276-km stretch of river. Terrestrial surveys (RAPELD method were more efficient for detecting large raptors than standardized aquatic surveys, although the latter were complementary in areas without modules. About 53% of the records were obtained during activities of wildlife rescue/flushing, vegetation suppression or in transit. Between 2012 and 2014, four Harpy Eagles were removed from the wild; two shooting victims, one injured by collision with power lines and one hit by a vehicle. Also, seven nests were mapped. The mean distance between Harpy Eagle records was 15 km along the river channel, with a mean of 20 km between nests near the channel, which allowed us to estimate 20 possible pairs using the alluvial forest, riverine forest and forest fragments. Territories of another ten pairs will probably be affected by inundation of the Volta Grande channel, which is far from the main river. The average distance between Crested Eagle records was 16 km along the river channel. The only nest found was 1.3 km away from a Harpy Eagle nest. The remnant forests are under threat of being replaced by cattle pastures, so we recommend that permanently protected riparian vegetation borders (APP be guaranteed, and that forest fragments within 5 km of the river be conserved to maintain eagle populations.

  9. Practicality of marine protected areas - Can there be solutions for the River Indus delta?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwai, Samina; Fanning, Paul; Ahmed, Waqar; Tabrez, Mohsin; Zhang, Jing; Khan, Muhammad Wasim

    2016-12-01

    The River Indus delta is the most prominent feature on the Pakistan coast. Owing to its prominence, mangrove ecosystem, historical, ecological and economic significance it is also a proposed Marine Protected Area (MPA). Currently there are no designated MPAs in Pakistan. This paper presents findings of the Fishery Resource Appraisal Project of Pakistan (FRAPP) a fishery stock assessment carried out for the pelagic and demersal fishery resource of Pakistan from 2009 to 2015 and the Creek Survey Program (CSP) which was part of FRAPP. And discusses how the delta suffers from physical stress. The observations from FRAPP indicates deterioration in the mangrove ecosystem, that are evident in the form of loss of biodiversity and biological productivity. The 600 observations from 10 major creeks showed that trawl catches were a mix of generally small size fish and shrimp. Catches averaged less than 1 kg per tow in all the creeks sampled. Catch weights were somewhat higher in Isaro, WadiKhuddi, Paitiani, Dabbo, Richaal Creeks all of which were near mangrove areas and open sea. The most frequently occurring species of shrimps caught in the trawls belonged to 7 major taxa. The Khobar Creek and Upper Wari Creek are notable for the high rates of occurrence of every group except the Caridea. They are also the only two creeks where the freshwater family Paleomonidae is common. The size composition of the important penaeid family of shrimps in all study areas combined suggests that the smallest shrimps (0.5-1.5 cm carapace length CL) enter the creeks in February/March and adults (5-6 cm CL) move out again 6-12 months later. Four species of Penaeus (monodon, japonicus, semisulcatus, merguiensis), two species of Metapenaeus (monoceros, affinis), Parapeneoposis stylifera and Solenosera sp. were caught, all in low abundance, less than 0.5 Kg tow-1. The shrimp catches in the area off the Sindh coast, the catches averaged 4.30 ± 13.40 kg h-1 on the inner shelf (20-50 m) and 1.7 ± 6

  10. Study and proposals related to extensive flooding in the Siret River area during the summer of 2008 in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanescu, Victor; Stefan, Sabina; Irimescu, Anisoara

    2010-05-01

    Extensive flooding due to overflowing of the Siret River and associated runoff in smaller rivers in northeastern Romania at the end of July 2008 are discussed, taking into account the meteorological and hydrological contexts. The flooding events in Romania claimed human deaths and population displacement, large-scale destruction of housing and infrastructure. Although the Siret river is quite shallow, and several dams and reservoirs restrict and control its flow, the area along the river remains prone to periodic flooding, mainly in spring and summer. Several observations are made on the viability of settlements close to Siret riverbed in Romania, related to the repeatability of situations such as that during the summer of 2008. Generally, the relative shallowness of the river Siret may cause flash floods, when its level increases rapidly due to abundant precipitation. As such, the horizontal extent of the flooding due to runoff is a factor seemingly more important than the short-lived increases in depth, combined with the speed of the flow. As a direct result of the flooding, crops and buildings were damaged. The probability that similar meteorological contexts can cause flooding with the extent of that in 2008 will be discussed. Also, some possible means to improve the reaction of authorities and delivery of relief by them to the affected population will be proposed. Regarding the meteorological context, a presentation of the cyclonic system that has brought heavy and/or continuous rain in northern and northeastern Romania will be made. As proposal for improving the delivery of resources toward the affected area and population, a software system designed to shorten the process of conveying relevant information to decisional factors, and to increase the speed of information between interesed parties will be discussed. The possible outcome of this specific case study will be the improvement of the decisional flux required in times of natural disasters, flooding

  11. Literature Search and Analysis for Cultural Resources in Areas 1 through 5 of the Rock River, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    el Mundo Centroamericano de Su Tiempo (Vu Centenario de Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo). San Jose, Costa Rica: Editorial Texto Ltda.), pp. 149- 156...elsewhere. For example, in Tennessee the Stanley-type cluster , an evolutionary variant of the bifurcated-base tradition, marks a diagnostic Middle...Mississippian groups functioned as middlemen for trade along the Rock River. The cluster of Upper Mississip- pian sites in the Sterling area may have

  12. Beyond harm's reach? Submersion of river turtle nesting areas and implications for restoration actions after Amazon hydropower development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Darren; Michalski, Fernanda; Gibbs, James P

    2018-01-01

    The global expansion of energy demands combined with abundant rainfall, large water volumes and high flow in tropical rivers have led to an unprecedented expansion of dam constructions in the Amazon. This expansion generates an urgent need for refined approaches to river management; specifically a move away from decision-making governed by overly generalized guidelines. For the first time we quantify direct impacts of hydropower reservoir establishment on an Amazon fresh water turtle. We conducted surveys along 150 km of rivers upstream of a new dam construction during the low water months that correspond to the nesting season of Podocnemis unifilis in the study area. Comparison of nest-areas before (2011, 2015) and after (2016) reservoir filling show that reservoir impacts extend 13% beyond legally defined limits. The submerged nesting areas accounted for a total of 3.8 ha of nesting habitat that was inundated as a direct result of the reservoir filling in 2016. Our findings highlight limitations in the development and implementation of existing Brazilian environmental impact assessment process. We also propose potential ways to mitigate the negative impacts of dams on freshwater turtles and the Amazonian freshwater ecosystems they inhabit.

  13. Beyond harm’s reach? Submersion of river turtle nesting areas and implications for restoration actions after Amazon hydropower development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Fernanda; Gibbs, James P.

    2018-01-01

    The global expansion of energy demands combined with abundant rainfall, large water volumes and high flow in tropical rivers have led to an unprecedented expansion of dam constructions in the Amazon. This expansion generates an urgent need for refined approaches to river management; specifically a move away from decision-making governed by overly generalized guidelines. For the first time we quantify direct impacts of hydropower reservoir establishment on an Amazon fresh water turtle. We conducted surveys along 150 km of rivers upstream of a new dam construction during the low water months that correspond to the nesting season of Podocnemis unifilis in the study area. Comparison of nest-areas before (2011, 2015) and after (2016) reservoir filling show that reservoir impacts extend 13% beyond legally defined limits. The submerged nesting areas accounted for a total of 3.8 ha of nesting habitat that was inundated as a direct result of the reservoir filling in 2016. Our findings highlight limitations in the development and implementation of existing Brazilian environmental impact assessment process. We also propose potential ways to mitigate the negative impacts of dams on freshwater turtles and the Amazonian freshwater ecosystems they inhabit. PMID:29333347

  14. Contamination history of suspended river sediments accumulated in oxbow lakes over the last 25 years. Morava river (Danube catchment area), Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babek, O. [Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Palacky Univ., Olomouc (Czech Republic). Dept. of Geology; Hilscherova, K.; Holoubek, I.; Machat, J.; Klanova, J. [Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic). Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology; Nehyba, S.; Zeman, J.; Famera, M. [Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic). Dept. of Geological Sciences; Francu, J. [Czech Geological Survey, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2008-06-15

    Background, aims, and scope Embankment of meandering river systems in many industrial areas results in the formation of artificial oxbow lakes that may act as perennial or intermittent traps for river sediments. Their deposits can be dated using a combination of historical and stratigraphic data, providing a good means to study historical records of contamination transported by rivers. Contamination history over the last few decades is of special significance for Central and Eastern Europe as it can reflect high pollutant levels in the second half of the twentieth century and the subsequent improvement after the fall of the Iron Curtain. The purpose of this study was to investigate recent sediments of an oxbow lake of the Morava River, Czech Republic, their stratigraphic records, sediment architecture, and history of contamination. Materials and methods Seven ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles and three sediment cores up to 4 m deep were studied. The stratigraphy of the cores was inferred from visible-light spectrophotometry, X-ray radiography, grain size analysis, and semiquantitative modal analysis of sandy fractions. The sediments were dated using the {sup 137}Cs mass activity and combinations of stratigraphic and historical data. The cores were sampled for concentrations of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants. Wet sampled, lyophilized, and sieved sediments were extracted and analyzed for heavy metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) of aqua regia leachate and for persistent organic pollutants by gas chromatography (GC-ECD and GC-MS). Results Three distinct sedimentary sequences (S1, S2, and S3) were identified. The basal sequence S1 represents river channel sediments deposited before the formation of the oxbow lake, most likely before the 1930s. The boundary between the S1 and S2 sequence correlates with the level of sediment dredging from 1981 evidenced from historical data. The overlying sequences S2 and S3 represent a

  15. Contamination history of suspended river sediments accumulated in oxbow lakes over the last 25 years. Morava river (Danube catchment area), Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babek, O.

    2008-01-01

    Background, aims, and scope Embankment of meandering river systems in many industrial areas results in the formation of artificial oxbow lakes that may act as perennial or intermittent traps for river sediments. Their deposits can be dated using a combination of historical and stratigraphic data, providing a good means to study historical records of contamination transported by rivers. Contamination history over the last few decades is of special significance for Central and Eastern Europe as it can reflect high pollutant levels in the second half of the twentieth century and the subsequent improvement after the fall of the Iron Curtain. The purpose of this study was to investigate recent sediments of an oxbow lake of the Morava River, Czech Republic, their stratigraphic records, sediment architecture, and history of contamination. Materials and methods Seven ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles and three sediment cores up to 4 m deep were studied. The stratigraphy of the cores was inferred from visible-light spectrophotometry, X-ray radiography, grain size analysis, and semiquantitative modal analysis of sandy fractions. The sediments were dated using the 137 Cs mass activity and combinations of stratigraphic and historical data. The cores were sampled for concentrations of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants. Wet sampled, lyophilized, and sieved sediments were extracted and analyzed for heavy metals by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) of aqua regia leachate and for persistent organic pollutants by gas chromatography (GC-ECD and GC-MS). Results Three distinct sedimentary sequences (S1, S2, and S3) were identified. The basal sequence S1 represents river channel sediments deposited before the formation of the oxbow lake, most likely before the 1930s. The boundary between the S1 and S2 sequence correlates with the level of sediment dredging from 1981 evidenced from historical data. The overlying sequences S2 and S3 represent a

  16. 100 Area and 300 Area Component of the River Corridor Baseline Risk Assessment Spring 2006 Data Compilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. M. Queen; S. G. Weiss

    2006-11-20

    The purpose of this report is to describe the sampling approaches, modifications made to the 100 Area and 300 Area component of the RCBRA Sampling and Analysis Plan, summarize validation efforts, and provide sample identification numbers.

  17. 100 Area and 300 Area Component of the River Corridor Baseline Risk Assessment Spring 2006 Data Compilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queen, J.M.; Weiss, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the sampling approaches, modifications made to the 100 Area and 300 Area component of the RCBRA Sampling and Analysis Plan, summarize validation efforts, and provide sample identification numbers.

  18. Comparison of Solid-Water Partitions of Radiocesium in River Waters in Fukushima and Chernobyl Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshio; Fan, Qiaohui; Suga, Hiroki; Tanaka, Kazuya; Sakaguchi, Aya; Takeichi, Yasuo; Ono, Kanta; Mase, Kazuhiko; Kato, Kenji; Kanivets, Vladimir V

    2017-09-29

    Adsorption of radiocesium (RCs) on particulate matters in aquatic environment is important to understand its mobility and bioavailability. We here focused on factors controlling partition of RCs on particulate matters and sediments in Kuchibuto (Fukushima) and Pripyat (Chernobyl) Rivers, though RCs level in water was much smaller than WHO guideline. Moreover, Cs speciation and organic matter-clay mineral interaction were studied: (i) extended X-ray absorption fine structure showed that the contribution of outer-sphere complex of Cs on particulate matters is larger in Chernobyl than in Fukushima and (ii) scanning transmission X-ray microscope revealed larger association of humic substances and clay minerals in Chernobyl partly due to high [Ca 2+ ] in the Pripyat River. Consequently, RCs is more soluble in the Pripyat River due to weaker interaction of RCs with clay minerals caused by the inhibition effect of the adsorbed humic substances. In contrast, particulate matters and sediments in the Kuchibuto River display high adsorption affinity with lesser inhibition effect of adsorbed humic substances. This difference is possibly governed by the geology and soil type of provenances surrounding both catchments (Fukushima: weathered granite; Chernobyl: peat wetland and carbonate platform) which leads to high concentrations of organic matter and Ca 2+ in the Pripyat River.

  19. Development of water quality objectives and management systems for the lower Athabasca River in the oil sands area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noton, L.; McEachern, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addressed environmental concerns related to the increased oil sands activity along the lower Athabasca River in northeastern Alberta. The concerns include potential effects on water quality of the river even though wastewaters do not currently reach the Athabasca River, nor do they have any significant effects. However, as the industry expands, there is concern that releases of wastewater may increase significantly. A multi-stakeholder group called the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA) has addressed some of these environmental management issues in the Athabasca area by establishing a water quality task group that examines water quality protection and management activities. The task group intends to develop and recommend water quality objectives and management options on the lower Athabasca River. Their 4 part process includes: (1) defining the problem, (2) setting goals, (3) measuring performance, and (4) managing and adapting to potential impacts. The group has identified and defined about 35 water quality variables of potential concern. It has also identified the uses of water it wants to protect and intends to prevent the degradation of water quality. A plan for developing site specific water quality objectives has been established following a review of water quality guidelines. Performance will be measured using water quality models that simulate full development scenarios. The modelling work will be instrumental in designing management schemes for any potential impacts

  20. Trends and driving mechanism of land-use change in metropolitan areas of Pearl River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng-gui; Zhang, Hong-ou; Wang, Juan; Wu, Qi-tao

    2008-10-01

    Taking Pearl River Delta for an example this study focuses on the trends and the driving mechanism of land-use changes in metropolises, in order to achieve the fundamental objectives of LUCC study increasing the awareness on dynamics of global land-use and land-cover changes, and improving the ability of forecasting LUCC. By analyzing the land-use change in Pearl River Delta from 1996 to 2006, it is found that the differences among internal space are notable. By establishing time-sequence-curve with SPSS software, it is shown that trends of land-use change are very clear. With factor analysis on land-use change, the study summarizes four factors of driving mechanism, including factors of economic development level, regional industrial structure, demographic and agricultural structure adjustment, which impact land change in Pearl River Delta to a different extent.

  1. Study on groundwater flow system in a sedimentary rock area. Case study for the Yoro river basin, Chiba Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Ryutaro; Munakata, Masahiro; Kimura, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    In the safety assessment for a geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste such as high-level radioactive waste and TRU waste etc, it is important to estimate radionuclide migration to human society associated with groundwater flow. Groundwater flow systems for many domestic areas including Tono Mine, Kamaishi Mine and Horonobe district have been studied, but deep groundwater flow circumstances, and mixing between deep groundwater and shallow groundwater flow system are not well understood. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started to investigate a sedimentary rock area in the Yoro river basin, in Chiba Prefecture, where the topographic and geological features are relatively simple for mathematical modeling, and hydraulic data as well as data from river and well water are available. Hydro-chemical conditions of the regional groundwater were discussed based on temperature, chemical compositions, isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and the isotopic age of radioactive carbon for water samples collected from wells, rivers and springs in the Yoro river basin. It was found that the groundwater system in this basin consists of types of water: Ca-HCO 3 type water, Na-HCO 3 type water and NaCl type water. The Ca-HCO 3 type water is meteoric water cultivated several thousand years or after, the Na-HCO 3 type water is meteoric water cultivated under cold climates several to twenty thousand years ago. The NaCl type water is fossil brine water formed twenty thousand years ago. It was also observed that the Na-HCO 3 type water upwelled at the surface originates from GL-200m to -400m. This observation indicates that the Na-HCO 3 type water upwelled through the Ca-HCO 3 type water area with the both waters partially mixed. (author)

  2. Pesticides in soil and sediment of a dyke-protected area of the Red River Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Gianna; Bläsing, Melanie; Kruse, Jens; Amelung, Wulf; Renaud, Fabrice; Sebesvari, Zita

    2017-04-01

    Coastal regions are densely populated but at the same time represent important agricultural areas for food production of the growing world population. To sustain high agricultural yields, in monocultures such as permanent rice systems, pesticides are used in high quantity and frequency. While earlier studies monitored the fate of pesticides in paddy rice systems, the overall fate of these compounds is altered nowadays due to the construction of dykes, which are needed in many delta regions to protect them from high tides, storm surges and salt water intrusion such as in the Red River Delta. The dyke system regulates the discharge and water exchange inside the diked area including irrigation channels for the paddy rice production. Local authorities observed increasing pollution towards the sea (highest pollution close to the dykes) and hypothesized that the dyke system would prevent water exchange and thus lead to an accumulation of pollutants within the diked area. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dykes on pesticide pollution patterns in coastal delta regions of the Red River Delta. The study was conducted in the district Giao Thuy of the Red River Delta, Vietnam. This area is surrounded by a sea and river dyke; both have several inlet and outlet gates to control the water level in the irrigation channels. We determined the pesticide pollution pattern in a diked agricultural area, as well as along salinity gradients in and outside the diked areas. Samples were taken from rice fields and sediments from irrigation channels inside the diked area as well from saline aquaculture fields located outside the dyke. Pesticide analysis was conducted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), followed up by the clean-up process described by Laabs et al. (2007) and analyses using gas chromatography coupled with a mass selective detector (MSD). Preliminary results suggest that out of the 26 analysed compounds chlorpyrifos, propiconazole and

  3. Optimization of wetland restoration siting and zoning in flood retention areas of river basins in China: A case study in Mengwa, Huaihe River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Song, Yuqin

    2014-11-01

    Wetland restoration in floodplains is an ecological solution that can address basin-wide flooding issues and minimize flooding and damages to riverine and downstream areas. High population densities, large economic outputs, and heavy reliance on water resources make flood retention and management pressing issues in China. To balance flood control and sustainable development economically, socially, and politically, flood retention areas have been established to increase watershed flood storage capacities and enhance the public welfare for the populace living in the areas. However, conflicts between flood storage functions and human habitation appear irreconcilable. We developed a site-specific methodology for identifying potential sites and functional zones for wetland restoration in a flood retention area in middle and eastern China, optimizing the spatial distribution and functional zones to maximize flood control and human and regional development. This methodology was applied to Mengwa, one of 21 flood retention areas in China's Huaihe River Basin, using nine scenarios that reflected different flood, climatic, and hydraulic conditions. The results demonstrated improved flood retention and ecological functions, as well as increased economic benefits.

  4. Adaptive response among residents of the Techa River area and other localities in the Southern Urals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudyakoval, O. I.; Akleyevl, V.; Alenschenki, A. V.; Gotib, V. J.; Kudriashova, O. V.; Semenova, I. P.; Serebryanyi, A. M.; Pelevina, I. I.

    2004-01-01

    Adaptive response was investigated in a population of adult residents of contaminated and uncontaminated villages on the Techa River. Blood lymphocytes were cultivated after addition of PHA and the cytokinetic block with cytochalasin B. the frequency of cells with imcronuclei (MN) was scored in (1000-2000) bi-nucleated cells. The adaptive response (AR) was determined for each individual as a ratio of cells with MN after irradiation at an adaptive dose (of 0.05 Gy) and at a challenge dose (of 1.0 Gy) 5 h later, to cells with MN after a single irradiation at the dose of 1.0 Gy. The criterion of 2 for the calculation of statistical significance was used p<0.05. The analysis of all data obtained shows that the spontaneous level of cells with MN is, on the average, the same in chronically exposed people and people living in uncontaminated area in the same socio-economic and climatic conditions (control group), but the individual variability was found to be increased in the exposed group. It is important to note that there is a correlation between the frequency of cells with MN and the internal exposure dose (to the red bone marrow). The level of cells with MN after irradiation in the dose of 1.0 Gy is characterised by high individual variability in irradiated population; and there is a correlation between the spontaneous frequency of cells with; MN and the radiosensitivity observed. The main difference between the exposed and control population is manifested by different numbers of peoples with significant AR. In the exposed group a lower number of individuals have a significant AR; on the other hand, a higher number of exposed residents have shown an increased radiosensitivity after adaptive irradiation at the dose of 0.05 Gy. In chronically exposed population a high degree of individual variability is observed, especially after acute irradiation in the dose of 1.0 gy. It was noted that after irradiation in the dose of 0.05 Gy the number of people with significant AR

  5. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.; Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Abernethy, Cary S.

    2004-09-24

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by PNNL that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall chinook salmon spawning areas. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The hydrologic regime during the 2002?2003 sampling period exhibited one of the lowest, most stable daily discharge patterns of any of the previous 12 water years. The vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG) between the river and the riverbed suggested the potential for predominantly small magnitude vertical exchange. The VHG also showed little relationship to changes in river discharge at most sites. Despite the relatively small vertical hydraulic gradients at most sites, the results from the numerical modeling of riverbed pore water velocity and hyporheic zone temperatures

  6. River Corridor Easements

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A River Corridor Easement (RCE) is an area of conserved land adjacent to a river or stream that was conserved to permanently protect the lateral area the river needs...

  7. Analysis of VIA and EbA in a River Bank Erosion Prone Area of Bangladesh Applying DPSIR Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hafizur Rahman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to set up a comprehensive approach to the Vulnerability and Impact Assessment (VIA of river erosion and to suggest Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA practices. Based on the analysis of vulnerability using the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR framework, this paper discusses some of the significant climatic (rainfall pattern, temperature, seasonal drift, cold wave and heat wave and non-climatic (river erosion, repetitive death of field crops and agrochemicals forces in the Kazipur Upazila (Sirajganj District—a river erosion-prone area of Bangladesh. Both primary (Key Informants Interview, Household Survey, and Focus Group Discussion and secondary (climatic, literature review data have been used in revealing the scenario of climatic stress. The analysis revealed a slightly increasing trend of mean annual temperature, and a decreasing trend of total annual rainfall from 1981 to 2015, which have been supported by people’s perception. This study found that river erosion, the increase of temperature and the late arrival of monsoon rain, excessive monsoon rainfall, high use of agrochemicals, and flow alterations are major drivers in the riverine ecosystem. These drivers are creating pressures on agricultural land, soil fertility, water availability and livelihood patterns of affected communities. Hence, floating bed cultivation, integrated pest management, use of cover crops, reforestation, the introduction of an agro-weather forecasting system, and a new variety of flood tolerant species have been suggested as potential EbA to cope with river bank erosion and to increase the capacity of the affected ecosystem.

  8. Relationships between pesticides and organic carbon fractions in sediments of the Danshui River estuary and adjacent coastal areas of Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, C.-C.; Gong, G.-C.; Chen, H.-Y.; Hsieh, H.-L.; Santschi, Peter H.; Wade, Terry L.; Sericano, Jose L.

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand the fate of pesticides in marine environments, concentrations of pesticides and different carbonaceous fractions were determined for surface sediments in the Danshui River and nearby coastal areas of Taiwan. The major compounds detected were tetrachlorobenzene, HCHs, chlordane, aldrin, DDDs, DDEs and DDTs. Total concentrations of pesticides in the sediments ranged from not detectable to 23 ng g -1 , with the maximum value detected near the discharge point of the marine outfall from the Pali sewage treatment plant. These results confirm that pesticides persist in estuarine and nearby coastal environments of the Danshui River well after their ban. Concentrations of total pesticides significantly correlate with concentrations of total organic carbon and black carbon in these sediments, suggesting that total organic carbon and black carbon regulate the distribution of trace organic pollutants in fluvial and coastal marine sediments. - Total organic carbon and black carbon regulate the distribution of trace organic pollutants in sediments of the Danshui River estuary and adjacent coastal areas of Taiwan

  9. Chemical analysis of interstitial water in rivers of Centro Experimental Aramar area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matoso, Erika; Goncalves, Julia Rosa, E-mail: ematoso@hotmail.com [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha (CE/CTM-SP), Ipero, SP (Brazil). Centro Experimental Aramar; Cadore, Solange [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica. Departamento de Quimica Analitica

    2013-07-01

    This work presents the results from analysis of samples of interstitial waters for the following chemical parameters: F{sup -}, Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 2}{sup -}, Br{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, PO{sub 4}{sup 3-}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} by Ionic Chromatography, Na, K by Flame Photometry, Al, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn by ICP OES, pH and the biological parameter: toxicity by natural bioluminescent bacterium (Vibrio fischeri) bioassay. The samples were obtained from sediments collected in 6 different sampling locations, in a ratio of 10-km-long from Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA). The rivers were the samples came from were: Ipanema River, Sorocaba River and Ribeirao do Ferro River. The interstitial water was extracted by centrifugation (3000 rpm, 20 min, 4 deg C). Analysis for metal concentrations were carried out after acid digestion and others tests proceeded in the sample after filtration without further treatment. These data will contribute to evaluate the distribution of contaminants and nutrients in these collecting points and this toxicity status. The release of soluble substances from sediments to interstitial water provides one way for bioaccumulation of these compounds and may affect the survival or development of aquatic organisms. The analysis in interstitial water has never been evaluated at this sampling points and the importance of this study is collecting data providing a better knowledge of the hydrological conditions in which Centro Experimental Aramar is located. (author)

  10. Chemical analysis of interstitial water in rivers of Centro Experimental Aramar area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matoso, Erika; Goncalves, Julia Rosa; Cadore, Solange

    2013-01-01

    This work presents the results from analysis of samples of interstitial waters for the following chemical parameters: F - , Cl - , NO 2 - , Br - , NO 3 - , PO 4 3- , SO 4 2- by Ionic Chromatography, Na, K by Flame Photometry, Al, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn by ICP OES, pH and the biological parameter: toxicity by natural bioluminescent bacterium (Vibrio fischeri) bioassay. The samples were obtained from sediments collected in 6 different sampling locations, in a ratio of 10-km-long from Centro Experimental Aramar (CEA). The rivers were the samples came from were: Ipanema River, Sorocaba River and Ribeirao do Ferro River. The interstitial water was extracted by centrifugation (3000 rpm, 20 min, 4 deg C). Analysis for metal concentrations were carried out after acid digestion and others tests proceeded in the sample after filtration without further treatment. These data will contribute to evaluate the distribution of contaminants and nutrients in these collecting points and this toxicity status. The release of soluble substances from sediments to interstitial water provides one way for bioaccumulation of these compounds and may affect the survival or development of aquatic organisms. The analysis in interstitial water has never been evaluated at this sampling points and the importance of this study is collecting data providing a better knowledge of the hydrological conditions in which Centro Experimental Aramar is located. (author)

  11. Prescribed burning in the Kings River Ecosystem Project Area: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. McCandliss

    2002-01-01

    The prescribed fire program on the Sierra National Forest is in its infancy. Prescription burning was initiated in 1994 in two 32,000-acre watersheds in the Kings River District of the Sierra National Forest. Primary objectives are to return fire to a more historical role in forest ecosystems and to provide opportunities for scientists from the Pacific Southwest...

  12. 76 FR 10524 - Restricted Area, Potomac River, Marine Corps Base Quantico, Quantico, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ..., in the third column, in Sec. 334.235, paragraph (b)(2), the sentence ``In addition, lighted, floating... the channel from the Potomac River and immediately west of the CSX railroad bridge.'' is corrected to read ``In addition, floating small craft intrusion barriers marked with reflective material will be...

  13. Pools and rapids as spawning and nursery areas for fish in a river stretch without floodplains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunshine de Ávila-Simas

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the importance of two environments situated in the main channel of the Peixe River (a tributary of the upper Uruguay River on fish reproduction and initial growth. Ichthyoplankton, macrozooplankton, and zoobenthos collections were taken on a monthly basis from October 2011 to March 2012, sampling a rapids and a pool environment. The instrument used for the capture of the ichthyoplankton in both environments was a light trap. In total, 795 eggs and 274 larvae were captured. The species that presented higher abundance and occurrence frequency out of the total captured in both environments were Leporinus obtusidens, Bryconamericus iheringii, and Bryconamericus stramineus. The evaluation of the feeding activity reveals a major repletion degree of the larvae in more advanced stages in the pool. The pool environment presented a higher abundance of larvae in more advanced development stages. We conclude that the channel of the Peixe River is important for the reproduction and initial growth of fish and that each river environment seems to fulfill a different role in the life cycle of the ichthyoplankton community.

  14. Nutrient characterisation of river inflow into the estuaries of the Gouritz Water Management Area, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lemley, DA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available environments. Long-term water quality monitoring data (dissolved inorganic nitrogen, i.e. DIN; and dissolved inorganic phosphorus, i.e. DIP), collected by the Department of Water Affairs (DWA), were used to assess historical trends of river nutrient inflow...

  15. Perfluoroalkyl substance contamination of the Llobregat River ecosystem (Mediterranean area, NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, Julian; Pérez, Francisca; Masiá, Ana; Picó, Yolanda; Farré, Marinella; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylate, C4, C6–C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in water, sediment, and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS, being the most frequently found perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS). In general, mean PFAS concentrations measured in sediments (0.01–3.67 ng g −1 ) and biota (0.79–431 μg kg −1 ) samples were higher than those found in water (0.01–233 ng L −1 ). L-PFOS presented very high levels in biota and water, particularly in the Anoia River where a maximum concentration of 2.71 μg L −1 was related to important industrial activities. However, this pollution does not extend down the Llobregat River according to cumulated values. None of the hazard quotients (HQ) calculated indicate potential risk for the different tropic levels considered (algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). According to Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) proposed by the European Commission (L-PFOS) and to Provisional Health Advisory (PHA) values (PFOA, L-PFOS) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), only two water samples exceeded PHA concentration for L-PFOS. - Highlights: • Distribution of 21 PFASs in water, sediment, biota of Llobregat River is investigated. • High L-PFOS concentration in the Anoia River related to industrial activities • PFAS concentration was sediment ≫ water, suggesting accumulation in river's mouth. • Highest PFAS values in biota observed after the Cardener River's confluence • Barbus graellsii accumulates more PFHxA and Cyprinus carpio more L-PFOS. • None of the calculated HQs indicates potential risk for the different tropic

  16. Perfluoroalkyl substance contamination of the Llobregat River ecosystem (Mediterranean area, NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Julian, E-mail: Julian.Campo@uv.es [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100, Burjassot, València (Spain); Pérez, Francisca [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Masiá, Ana; Picó, Yolanda [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group (SAMA-UV), Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Av. Vicent Andrés Estellés s/n. 46100, Burjassot, València (Spain); Farré, Marinella [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barceló, Damià [Department of Environmental Chemistry (IDAEA-CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Emili Grahit, 101, Edifici H2O, Parc Científic i Tecnològic de la Universitat de Girona, E-17003 Girona (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    The occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4–C14, C16, C18 carboxylate, C4, C6–C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in water, sediment, and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS, being the most frequently found perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS). In general, mean PFAS concentrations measured in sediments (0.01–3.67 ng g{sup −1}) and biota (0.79–431 μg kg{sup −1}) samples were higher than those found in water (0.01–233 ng L{sup −1}). L-PFOS presented very high levels in biota and water, particularly in the Anoia River where a maximum concentration of 2.71 μg L{sup −1} was related to important industrial activities. However, this pollution does not extend down the Llobregat River according to cumulated values. None of the hazard quotients (HQ) calculated indicate potential risk for the different tropic levels considered (algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). According to Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) proposed by the European Commission (L-PFOS) and to Provisional Health Advisory (PHA) values (PFOA, L-PFOS) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), only two water samples exceeded PHA concentration for L-PFOS. - Highlights: • Distribution of 21 PFASs in water, sediment, biota of Llobregat River is investigated. • High L-PFOS concentration in the Anoia River related to industrial activities • PFAS concentration was sediment ≫ water, suggesting accumulation in river's mouth. • Highest PFAS values in biota observed after the Cardener River's confluence • Barbus graellsii accumulates more PFHxA and Cyprinus carpio more L-PFOS. • None of the calculated HQs indicates potential risk for the

  17. Sampling little fish in big rivers: Larval fish detection probabilities in two Lake Erie tributaries and implications for sampling effort and abundance indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Jeremy J.; DuFour, Mark R.; Mayer, Christine M.; Roseman, Edward F.; DeBruyne, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Larval fish are frequently sampled in coastal tributaries to determine factors affecting recruitment, evaluate spawning success, and estimate production from spawning habitats. Imperfect detection of larvae is common, because larval fish are small and unevenly distributed in space and time, and coastal tributaries are often large and heterogeneous. We estimated detection probabilities of larval fish from several taxa in the Maumee and Detroit rivers, the two largest tributaries of Lake Erie. We then demonstrated how accounting for imperfect detection influenced (1) the probability of observing taxa as present relative to sampling effort and (2) abundance indices for larval fish of two Detroit River species. We found that detection probabilities ranged from 0.09 to 0.91 but were always less than 1.0, indicating that imperfect detection is common among taxa and between systems. In general, taxa with high fecundities, small larval length at hatching, and no nesting behaviors had the highest detection probabilities. Also, detection probabilities were higher in the Maumee River than in the Detroit River. Accounting for imperfect detection produced up to fourfold increases in abundance indices for Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis and Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum. The effect of accounting for imperfect detection in abundance indices was greatest during periods of low abundance for both species. Detection information can be used to determine the appropriate level of sampling effort for larval fishes and may improve management and conservation decisions based on larval fish data.

  18. Physical-chemical modeling of elements' behavior in mixing sea and fresh waters of minor rivers in the White Sea catchment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, Victoria V; Mazukhina, Svetlana I; Cherepanova, Tatiana A; Gorbacheva, Tamara T

    2017-07-29

    The physical-chemical stage of marginal filters in minor rivers of the White Sea catchment area by the example of the Umba River, flowing to Kandalaksha Gulf, has been explored. Application of the method of physical-chemical modeling on the basis of field data allowed establishing migration forms of a number of elements in the "river-sea" system and deposition of solid phases when mixing waters. The mixing of river and sea water is accompanied by the sedimentation of predominantly goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. Sediments in mixing river and sea waters were found to be mainly composed by goethite, hydromuscovite, and hydroxylapatite. The research has added to the knowledge of the role of the abiotic part in the marginal filters of small rivers in the Arctic.

  19. Infant mortality among offspring of individuals living in the radioactively contaminated Techa River Area, Southern Urals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostroumova, E.; Akleyev, A.; Hall, P.

    2005-01-01

    Massive discharge of liquid radioactive wastes into the Techa River in 1949-1956 by the industrial complex Mayak for production of plutonium for weapon resulted in protracted internal and external radiation exposure of the population living along the river. The Techa River Offspring Cohort comprises individuals born after December 31, 1949, whose one or both parents were exposed in the Techa riverside villages. The study group includes 7,897 individuals. About 40% of the Techa River Offspring Cohort members born in 1950-1956 could be exposed in utero and after birth. The mean dose estimates based on the Techa River Dosimetry System 2000 were: 0.07 Gy for parental gonads, 0.01 Gy for fetus and 0.02 Gy for postnatal exposure of bone marrow. Over 46 years of follow-up from 1950-1995, 916 subjects died and the cause of death was known in 93% of them. Out of 916 subjects dead, 456 (53%) died under 1 year of age, mainly due to respiratory tract diseases (38% of all infant deaths), infections (27%) and perinatal disorders (13%). It has been shown that the baseline infant mortality rate depends on gender, ethnicity and birth year. Radiation risk analysis was based on a simple parametric linear excess relative risk model with adjustment for gender, ethnicity and birth year. There was no evidence of increasing infant mortality risk with parental gonadal dose. The infant mortality rate significantly depended on fetal dose and dose to bone marrow received during the first year of life with a 3% increase in risk per 1 cGy of intrauterine and postnatal doses. (author)

  20. QMRAcatch - faecal microbial quality of water resources in a river-floodplain area affected by urban sources and recreational visitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derx, Julia; Schijven, Jack; Sommer, Regina; Kirschner, Alexander; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Blaschke, Alfred Paul

    2016-04-01

    QMRAcatch, a tool to simulate microbial water quality including infection risk assessment, was previously developed and successfully tested at a Danube river site (Schijven et al. 2015). In the tool concentrations of target faecal microorganisms and viruses (TMVs) are computed at a point of interest (PI) along the main river and the floodplain river at daily intervals for a one year period. Even though faecal microbial pathogen concentrations in water resources are usually below the sample limit of detection, this does not ensure, that the water quality complies with a certain required health based target. The aim of this study was therefore to improve the predictability of relevant human pathogenic viruses, i.e. enterovirus and norovirus, in the studied river/floodplain area. This was done by following an innovative calibration strategy based on human-associated microbial source tracking (MST) marker data which were determined following the HF183 TaqMan assay (Green et al. 2011). The MST marker is strongly associated with human faeces and communal sewage, occurring there in numbers by several magnitudes higher than for human enteric pathogens (Mayer et al 2015). The calibrated tool was then evaluated with measured enterovirus concentrations at the PI and in the floodplain river. In the simulation tool the discharges of 5 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were considered with point discharges along a 200 km reach of the Danube river. The MST marker and target virus concentrations at the PI at a certain day were computed based on the concentrations of the previous day, plus the wastewater concentrations times the WWTP discharge divided by the river discharge. A ratio of the river width was also considered, over which the MST marker and virus particles have fully mixed with river water. In the tool, the excrements from recreational visitors frequenting the floodplain area every day were assumed to be homogeneously distributed in the area. A binomial distributed

  1. Hourly Water Quality Dynamics in Rivers Downstream of Urban Areas: Quantifying Seasonal Variation and Modelling Impacts of Urban Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, M.; McGrane, S. J.; Miller, J. D.; Hitt, O.; Bowes, M.

    2016-12-01

    Continuous monitoring of water flows and quality is invaluable in improving understanding of the influence of urban areas on river health. When used to inform predictive modelling, insights can be gained as to how urban growth may affect the chemical and biological quality of rivers as they flow downstream into larger waterbodies. Water flow and quality monitoring in two urbanising sub-catchments (long term flow records are available, but particular focus is given to monitoring of an extended set of sites during prolonged winter rainfall. In the Ray sub-catchment streams were monitored in which urban cover varied across a range of 7-78%. A rural-urban gradient in DO was apparent in the low flow period prior to the storms. Transient low DO (works (STW). In this respect temperature- and respiration-driven DO sags in summer were at least if not more severe than those driven by the winter storms. Likewise, although winter storm NH4 concentrations violated EU legislation downstream of the STW, they were lower than summer concentrations in pollutant flushes following dry spells. In contrast the predominant phenomenon affecting water quality in the Cut during the storms was dilution. Here, a river water quality model was calibrated and applied over the course of a year to capture the importance of periphyton photosynthesis and respiration cycles in determining water quality and to predict the influence of hypothetical urban growth on downstream river health. The periods monitored intensively, dry spells followed by prolonged rainfall, represent: (i) marked changes in conditions likely to become more prevalent in future, (ii) situations under which water quality in urban areas is likely to be particularly vulnerable, being influenced for example by first flush effects followed by capacity exceedance at STW. Despite this, whilst being somewhat long lasting in places, impacts on DO were not severe.

  2. Isotopic evidence for induced river recharge to the Dupi Tila aquifer in the Dhaka urban area, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darling, W.G.; Burgess, W.G.; Hasan, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    The population of the greater Dhaka metropolitan area is over 8 million and growing at a rate of six percent per year. Much of the water supply for the area is obtained from the underlying Dupi Tila sand aquifer. Intensive exploitation of the aquifer has led to a progressive decline in water levels beneath the parts of the city. The resulting cone of depression is thought likely to be causing the infiltration of surface water, largely from the polluted Buriganga waterway. The use of oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes in unravelling the subsurface hydrology of the Dhaka area is hindered by the lack of data regarding 'baseline' conditions. Nevertheless it is clear from the evidence obtained from tubewells across the city that there is leakage from the Buriganga river extending several kilometres beneath parts of the urban area, possibly as far as the centre of the city. Carbon stable isotopes and major ion chemistry confirm this general picture; though appear to indicate that polluted river water has not penetrated quite so far towards the city centre. The Dupi Tila is regarded as a multi-layer aquifer on the basis of its hydrogeology and water quality variations with depth. Since there is little stable isotopic evidence for stratification, future investigations should include sensitive recent age indicators to investigate this, and the rates of groundwater movement in general. (author)

  3. Linked Climatic, Environmental, and Societal Changes in the Lower Yellow River Area during the Neolithic-Bronze Age Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding human-environment interactions during times of large and rapid climatic changes in the second half of the Holocene may deepen our insight into human adaptation and resilience against potential climate anomalies in the future. However, the drivers and societal responses tend to be different from area to area, and the degree and nature of this link are still a matter of debate. Flooding sediments preserved within the cultural stratigraphical context at archaeological sites in the lower Yellow River area may offer an ideal framework for evaluating the association between evolution of Neolithic cultures and climate fluctuations. Here, we present evidence from a mound site for the prevalence of extreme overbank floods during the Neolithic-Bronze Age transition most likely triggered by excessive summer precipitation in the Yellow River valley when prolonged weak El Niño condition prevailed. Repeated flooding during around 4000-3500 cal yr BP substantially modified the floodplain landscape, thereby driving people to disperse to areas dominated by the Erlitou culture and eventually giving rise to a state-level society in central China historiographically identified as the Xia Dynasty. Changes in the drainage network due to repeated flooding also exerted a profound impact on the rice farming-based communities centered in the region of the floods. Our results provide a precise past analogue of the linked climatic, environmental, and societal changes at a time when human societies were evolving into a hierarchy similar to those of today.

  4. An evaluation of the zooplankton community at the Sheboygan River Area of Concern and non-Area of Concern comparison sites in western Lake Michigan rivers and harbors in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Hayley T.; Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Burns, Daniel J.; Bell, Amanda H.

    2017-12-22

    The Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are considered to be the most severely degraded areas within the Great Lakes basin, as defined in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and amendments. Among the 43 designated AOCs are four Lake Michigan AOCs in the State of Wisconsin. The smallest of these AOCs is the Sheboygan River AOC, which was designated as an AOC because of sediment contamination from polychlorinated biphenyl compounds (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and heavy metals. The Sheboygan River AOC has 9 of 14 possible Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs), which must be addressed to improve overall water-quality, and to ultimately delist the AOC. One of the BUIs associated with this AOC is the “degradation of phytoplankton and zooplankton populations,” which can be removed from the list of impairments when it has been determined that zooplankton community composition and structure at the AOC do not differ significantly from communities at non-AOC comparison sites. In 2012 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey collected plankton (phytoplankton and zooplankton) community samples at the Sheboygan River AOC and selected non-AOC sites as part of a larger Great Lakes Restoration Initiative study evaluating both the benthos and plankton communities in all four of Wisconsin’s Lake Michigan AOCs. Although neither richness nor diversity of phytoplankton or zooplankton in the Sheboygan River AOC were found to differ significantly from the non-AOC sites in 2012, results from the 2014 data indicated that zooplankton diversity was significantly lower, and so rated as degraded, when compared to the Manitowoc and Kewaunee Rivers, two non-AOC sites of similar size, land use, and close geographic proximity.As a follow-up to the 2014 results, zooplankton samples were collected at the same locations in the AOC and non-AOC sites during three sampling trips in spring, summer, and fall 2016. An analysis of similarity indicated

  5. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: conservation planning for river and estuarine biodiversity in the Fish to Tsitsikamma water management area

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, D

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available for river and estuarine biodiversity in the Fish- to-Tsitsikamma water management area Project Aims To put in practice and refine, through a pilot study in the Eastern Cape Province, the policy and planning tools developed for systematic conservation... engagement in developing the technical approach to river prioritization and selection, as well as the reviewing of results to facilitate buy-in and ownership of the product. Project Description The Fish to Tsitsikamma Water Management Area is one...

  6. Application of 2-D sediment model to fluctuating backwater area of Yangtze River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Fan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the characteristics of backflow, a two-dimensional mathematical model of sediment movement was established. The complexity of the watercourse boundary at the confluence of the main stream and the tributary was dealt with using a boundary-fitting orthogonal coordinate system. The basic equation of the two-dimensional total sediment load model, the numerical calculation format, and key problems associated with using the orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system were discussed. Water and sediment flow in the Chongqing reach of the Yangtze River were simulated. The calculated water level, flow velocity distribution, amount of silting and scouring, and alluvial distribution are found to be in agreement with the measured data, which indicates that the numerical model and calculation method are reasonable. The model can be used for calculation of flow in a relatively complicated river network.

  7. Pollution and health risk in urban areas of La Sabana River, Acapulco, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Herrera, America; Olivier Salome, Branly; Lopez Velasco, Rocio; Barragan Mendoza, Maria del Carmen; Canedo Villareal, Roberto; Valera Perez, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    We often find cities whose development is associated with the occupation of a river basin on with no public actions and policies to stop processes of environmental and social degradation caused by land use change. The case studies are two communities on the periphery of the city of Acapulco, influenced by insufficient infrastructure and lack of health and environment of the river La Sabana, which develop their lives in a degraded and polluted environment. The data provided confirm that respiratory and digestive tract diseases, recognized by WHO-as pollution-related diseases, are the most recurrent. However pollution also accelerates deterioration and environmental degradation, because it touches directly on the eutrophication of the lagoonal ecosystems of Tres Palos and Negra de Puerto Marques, generating biodiversity loss and effects on the quality of life of the population. The health risk mitigation, attention should focus on the situation of vulnerability in a holistic perspective

  8. Comparison of fishes in nearshore areas of the St. Lawrence River, New York over 35 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Douglas M.; McKenna, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Fishes of the nearshore waters of the St. Lawrence River provide forage for valuable sport fisheries and are important biological indicators of condition and change. This fish community differs slightly among various reaches of the St. Lawrence River from New York to Quebec (Carlson et al. 2006, Eckert and Hanlon 1977, Kapuscinski 2011, LaViolette et al. 2003, Mandrak et al. 2006, McKenna et al. 2005). Nearshore habitat has been described by McKenna et al. (2012), and others have suggested that there were changes over the last few decades (Clapsadl 1993, Kapuscinski and Farrell 2013). More definitive work needs to be completed on submerged aquatic vegetation habitats. In this paper, changes in the nearshore fish species composition for the New York reach from Cape Vincent to Moses-Saunders Dam are examined through comparison of results from 2009-2010 (McKenna et al. 2012) and 1976 surveys (Eckert and Hanlon 1977).

  9. Fish communities in the Poodří Protected Landscape Area (the Odra River basin)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lojkásek, B.; Lusk, Stanislav; Halačka, Karel; Lusková, Věra

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2004), s. 121-130 ISSN 1212-1819 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093105; GA ČR GA206/00/0824; GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : fish communities * River Odra * floodplain Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.227, year: 2004 http://www.cazv.cz/attachments/5-Lojkásek.pdf

  10. Statistical Characteristics of Mesoscale Convective Systems over the Middle Reaches area of the Yellow River During 2005-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guixiang

    2017-04-01

    Based on the hourly TBB and cloud images of FY-2E, meteorological observation data, and NCEP reanalysis data with 1°×1° spatial resolution from May to October during 2005-2014, the climatic characteristics of mesoscale convective systems (MCS) over the middle reaches area of the Yellow River were analyzed, including mesoscale convective complex (MCC), persistent elongated convective systems (PECS), meso-βscale MCC (MβCCS) and Meso-βscale PECS (MβECS). The results are as follows: (1) MCS tended to occur over the middle and south of Gansu, the middle and south of Shanxi, the middle and north of Shaanxi, and the border of Shanxi, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia. MCS over the middle reaches area of the Yellow River formed in May to October, and was easy to develop the mature in summer. MCC and MβECS were main MCS causing precipitation in summer. (2) The daily variation of MCS was obvious, and usually formed and matured in the afternoon and the evening to early morning of the next day. Most MCS generated fast and dissipated slowly, and were mainly move to the easterly and southeasterly, but the moving of round shape MCS was less than the elongated shape's. (3) The average TBB for the round shape MCS was lower than the elongated shape MCS. The development of MCC was most vigorous and strong, and it was the strongest in August, while that of MβECS wasn't obviously influenced by the seasonal change. The average eccentricity of the mature MCC and PECS over the middle reaches area of the Yellow River was greater than that in USA, and the former was greater than in the lower reaches area of the Yellow River, while the latter was smaller. (4) The characteristics of rainfall caused by MCS were complex over the middle reaches area of the Yellow River, and there were obvious regional difference. There was wider, stronger and longer precipitation when the multiple MCS merged. The rainfall in the center of cloud area was obviously greater than in other region of cloud area. The

  11. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Chlorophyll-a in the Adjacent Sea Area of the Yangtze River Estuary Influenced by Yangtze River Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Jiang, Hong; Jin, Jiaxin; Zhang, Xiuying; Lu, Xuehe; Wang, Yueqi

    2015-01-01

    Carrying abundant nutrition, terrigenous freshwater has a great impact on the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of phytoplankton in coastal waters. The present study analyzed the spatial-temporal variations of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration under the influence of discharge from the Yangtze River, based on remotely sensed Chl-a concentrations. The study area was initially zoned to quantitatively investigate the spatial variation patterns of Chl-a. Then, the temporal variation of Chl-a in each zone was simulated by a sinusoidal curve model. The results showed that in the inshore waters, the terrigenous discharge was the predominant driving force determining the pattern of Chl-a, which brings the risk of red tide disasters; while in the open sea areas, Chl-a was mainly affected by meteorological factors. Furthermore, a diversity of spatial and temporal variations of Chl-a existed based on the degree of influences from discharge. The diluted water extended from inshore to the east of Jeju Island. This process affected the Chl-a concentration flowing through the area, and had a potential impact on the marine environment. The Chl-a from September to November showed an obvious response to the discharge from July to September with a lag of 1 to 2 months. PMID:26006121

  12. Assessing condition of macroinvertebrate communities and sediment toxicity in the St. Lawrence River at Massena Area-of-Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Brian T.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Smith, Alexander J.; George, Scott D.; David, Anthony M.

    2016-01-01

    In 1972, the USA and Canada agreed to restore the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes ecosystem under the first Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. In subsequent amendments, part of the St. Lawrence River at Massena, New York and segments of three tributaries, were designated as an Area of Concern (AOC) due to the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead and copper contamination, and habitat degradation and resulting impairment to several beneficial uses. Because sediments have been largely remediated, the present study was initiated to evaluate the current status of the benthic macroinvertebrate (benthos) beneficial use impairment (BUI). Benthic macroinvertebrate communities and sediment toxicity tests using Chironomus dilutus were used to test the hypotheses that community condition and sediment toxicity at AOC sites were not significantly different from those of adjacent reference sites. Grain size was found to be the main driver of community composition and macroinvertebrate assemblages, and bioassessment metrics did not differ significantly between AOC and reference sites of the same sediment class. Median growth of C. dilutus and its survival in three of the four river systems did not differ significantly in sediments from AOC and reference sites. Comparable macroinvertebrate assemblages and general lack of toxicity across most AOC and reference sites suggest that the quality of sediments should not significantly impair benthic macroinvertebrate communities in most sites in the St. Lawrence River AOC.

  13. Distribution of total mercury and methylmercury around the small-scale gold mining area along the Cikaniki River, Bogor, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyasu, Takashi; Kodamatani, Hitoshi; Hamada, Yuriko Kono; Matsuyama, Akito; Imura, Ryusuke; Taniguchi, Yoko; Hidayati, Nuril; Rahajoe, Joeni Setijo

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the distribution of total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in the soil and water around the artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) area along the Cikaniki River, West Java, Indonesia. The concentration of T-Hg and MeHg in the forest soil ranged from 0.07 to 16.7 mg kg -1 and from <0.07 to 2.0 μg kg -1 , respectively, whereas it ranged from 0.40 to 24.9 mg kg -1 and from <0.07 to 56.3 μg kg -1 , respectively, in the paddy field soil. In the vertical variation of the T-Hg of forest soil, the highest values were observed at the soil surface, and these values were found to decrease with increasing depth. A similar variation was observed for MeHg and total organic carbon content (TOC), and a linear relationship was observed between them. Mercury deposited on the soil surface can be trapped and retained by organic matter and subjected to methylation. The slope of the line obtained for the T-Hg vs. TOC plot became larger near the ASGM villages, implying a higher rate of mercury deposition in these areas. In contrast, the plots of MeHg vs. TOC fell along the same trend line regardless of the distance from the ASGM village. Organic carbon content may be a predominant factor in controlling MeHg formation in forest soils. The T-Hg concentration in the river water ranged from 0.40 to 9.6 μg L -1 . River water used for irrigation can prove to be a source of mercury for the paddy fields. The concentrations of Hg 0 and Hg 2+ in river water showed similar variations as that observed for the T-Hg concentration. The highest Hg 0 concentration of 3.2 μg L -1 can be attributed to the waste inflow from work sites. The presence of Hg 0 in river water can become a source of mercury present in the atmosphere along the river. MeHg concentration in the river water was found to be 0.004-0.14% of T-Hg concentration, which was considerably lower than the concentrations of other Hg species. However, MeHg comprised approximately 0.2% of the T

  14. Documentation of a groundwater flow model (SJRRPGW) for the San Joaquin River Restoration Program study area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traum, Jonathan A.; Phillips, Steven P.; Bennett, George L.; Zamora, Celia; Metzger, Loren F.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand the potential effects of restoration flows on existing drainage problems, anticipated as a result of the San Joaquin River Restoration Program (SJRRP), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), developed a groundwater flow model (SJRRPGW) of the SJRRP study area that is within 5 miles of the San Joaquin River and adjacent bypass system from Friant Dam to the Merced River. The primary goal of the SJRRP is to reestablish the natural ecology of the river to a degree that restores salmon and other fish populations. Increased flows in the river, particularly during the spring salmon run, are a key component of the restoration effort. A potential consequence of these increased river flows is the exacerbation of existing irrigation drainage problems along a section of the river between Mendota and the confluence with the Merced River. Historically, this reach typically was underlain by a water table within 10 feet of the land surface, thus requiring careful irrigation management and (or) artificial drainage to maintain crop health. The SJRRPGW is designed to meet the short-term needs of the SJRRP; future versions of the model may incorporate potential enhancements, several of which are identified in this report. The SJRRPGW was constructed using the USGS groundwater flow model MODFLOW and was built on the framework of the USGS Central Valley Hydrologic Model (CVHM) within which the SJRRPGW model domain is embedded. The Farm Process (FMP2) was used to simulate the supply and demand components of irrigated agriculture. The Streamflow-Routing Package (SFR2) was used to simulate the streams and bypasses and their interaction with the aquifer system. The 1,300-square mile study area was subdivided into 0.25-mile by 0.25-mile cells. The sediment texture of the aquifer system, which was used to distribute hydraulic properties by model cell, was refined from that used in the CVHM to better represent

  15. Flood Simulation based on ArcGIS in the Ungauged Area from Fugu to Wubao of the middle Yellow River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shuangyan; Yan, Yiqi; Jiang, Xinhui

    2017-12-01

    The Qingliangsigou and Jialuhe in the middle Yellow River are selected as the typical tributaries, history flood data in 1980-2013 and Horton infiltration capacity curve are used to calculate the stable infiltration rate and establish the model of runoff yield and concentration, the parameters are calibrated and applied in the ungauged area from Fugu to Wubao. The study area is divided into 20 units based on ArcGIS, Muskingum method parameters in each unit are calibrated, and typical floods of ungauged area from Fugu to Wubao are simulated. The results show that the simulation effects are good: the average error of peak time is about -0.4h, the error of peak discharge is in the forecasting allowable range, and the deterministic coefficient is 0.66.

  16. Runoff and sediment variation in the areas with high and coarse sediment yield of the middle Yellow River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan; Yao, Wenyi; Xiao, Peiqing; Sun, Weiying

    2018-02-01

    Massive water and soil conservation works (WSCW) have been conducted in the areas with high and coarse sediment yield of the middle Yellow River since 1982. With the impending effects of climate change, it is necessary to reconsider the effects of WSCW on runoff and sediment variation at decadal and regional scales. Using long-term official and synthesized data, the WSCW impacts on reducing water and soil loss were studied in Sanchuanhe River watershed. Results showed that the sediment and runoff generated from this area showed a decreasing trend in the past 50 years. A great progress has been achieved in erosion control since the 1970s. After the 4 soil and water conservation harnessing stages during the period from 1970 to 2006, the sediment and runoff yield showed decreases with the extension of harnessing. The results revealed that human activities exerted the largest effects on the sediment reduction and explained 66.6% of the variation in the specific sediment yield. The contribution of rainfall variation to runoff reduction was as large as human activities. A great benefit have been obtained in water and soil loss control in this area.

  17. Ranking contributing areas of salt and selenium in the Lower Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, using multiple linear regression models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linard, Joshua I.

    2013-01-01

    Mitigating the effects of salt and selenium on water quality in the Grand Valley and lower Gunnison River Basin in western Colorado is a major concern for land managers. Previous modeling indicated means to improve the models by including more detailed geospatial data and a more rigorous method for developing the models. After evaluating all possible combinations of geospatial variables, four multiple linear regression models resulted that could estimate irrigation-season salt yield, nonirrigation-season salt yield, irrigation-season selenium yield, and nonirrigation-season selenium yield. The adjusted r-squared and the residual standard error (in units of log-transformed yield) of the models were, respectively, 0.87 and 2.03 for the irrigation-season salt model, 0.90 and 1.25 for the nonirrigation-season salt model, 0.85 and 2.94 for the irrigation-season selenium model, and 0.93 and 1.75 for the nonirrigation-season selenium model. The four models were used to estimate yields and loads from contributing areas corresponding to 12-digit hydrologic unit codes in the lower Gunnison River Basin study area. Each of the 175 contributing areas was ranked according to its estimated mean seasonal yield of salt and selenium.

  18. Annotated bibliography of the geology of the Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt) and adjacent areas of Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bela, J.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography containing approximately 2000 entries was prepared by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries under Subcontract SA-913 with Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. The objective of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program is to determine the feasibility of storing nuclear waste within the Columbia River Basalt Group. Under the geologic portion of this program, the stratigraphic, structural, tectonic, seismic, and hydrologic aspects of the Columbia Plateau are being examined. Other aspects of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program are concerned with systems integration, engineered barriers, engineering testing, and construction of a near-surface test facility. The area covered in this bibliography comprises that area north of 43 0 30' latitude and east of the Willamette Meridian, which is located just west of Portland. The bibliographic entries are presented in two forms. The first is an alphabetized listing of all articles dealing with the geology of the Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt) and adjacent areas of Oregon. The second form consists of an alphabetized listing of the entries subdivided under fourteen categories

  19. Ecological risk assessment and source identification for heavy metals in surface sediment from the Liaohe River protected area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xin; Gui, Shaofeng; Huang, Hao; Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Chunyong; Guo, Wei

    2017-05-01

    Surface sediment samples collected from 19 sites in the Liaohe River protected area were analysed for heavy metals to evaluate their potential ecological risk. The results demonstrated that the degree of pollution from seven heavy metals decreases in the following sequence: cadmium(Cd)>arsenic(As)>copper(Cu)>nickel(Ni)>lead(Pb)>chromium(Cr)>zinc(Zn). The metal speciation analysis indicated that Cd, Pb and Zn were dominated by non-residual fractions and have high mobility and bioavailability, indicating significant anthropogenic sources. Based on the potential ecological risk index (PERI), geo-accumulation index (I geo ) and risk assessment code (RAC), Cd made the most dominant contribution, with a high to very high potential ecological risk being determined in this studied area. Moreover, in reference to the results of multivariate statistical analyses, we deduced that Cd and Zn originated from agriculture sources within the Liaohe River protected area, whereas Cu, Cr and Ni primarily originated from natural sources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Occurrence of organotin compounds in river sediments under the dynamic water level conditions in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun-Min; Zhang, Ke; Chen, You-Peng; Guo, Jin-Song; Wei, Yun-Mei; Jiang, Wen-Chao; Zhou, Bin; Qiu, Hui

    2015-06-01

    The Three Gorges Project is the largest hydro project in the world, and the water level of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is dynamic and adjustable with the aim of flood control and electrical power generation. It is necessary to investigate the pollutants and their underlying contamination processes under dynamic water levels to determine their environmental behaviors in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA). Here, we report the assessment of organotin compounds (OTs) pollution in the river sediments of the TGRA. Surface sediment samples were collected in the TGRA at low and high water levels. Tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT), and their degradation products in sediments were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Butyltins (BTs) and phenyltins (PhTs) were detected in sediments, and BTs predominated over PhTs in the whole study area under dynamic water level conditions. The concentrations of OTs in sediments varied markedly among locations, and significant concentrations were found in river areas with high levels of boat traffic and wastewater discharge. Sediments at all stations except Cuntan were lightly contaminated with TBT, and total organic carbon (TOC) was a significant factor affecting the fate of TBT in the TGRA. The butyltin and phenyltin degradation indices showed no recent inputs of TBT or TPhT into this region, with the exception of fresh TPhT input at Xiakou Town. Shipping activity, wastewater discharge, and agriculture are the most likely sources of OTs in the TGRA.

  1. Validation of a simple distributed sediment delivery approach in selected sub-basins of the River Inn catchment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lucas; Kittlaus, Steffen; Scherer, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    For large areas without highly detailed data the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) is widely used to quantify soil loss. The problem though is usually the quantification of actual sediment influx into the rivers. As the USLE provides long-term mean soil loss rates, it is often combined with spatially lumped models to estimate the sediment delivery ratio (SDR). But it gets difficult with spatially lumped approaches in large catchment areas where the geographical properties have a wide variance. In this study we developed a simple but spatially distributed approach to quantify the sediment delivery ratio by considering the characteristics of the flow paths in the catchments. The sediment delivery ratio was determined using an empirical approach considering the slope, morphology and land use properties along the flow path as an estimation of travel time of the eroded particles. The model was tested against suspended solids measurements in selected sub-basins of the River Inn catchment area in Germany and Austria, ranging from the high alpine south to the Molasse basin in the northern part.

  2. Annotated bibliography of the geology of the Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt) and adjacent areas of Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bela, J.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography containing approximately 2000 entries was prepared by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries under Subcontract SA-913 with Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. The objective of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program is to determine the feasibility of storing nuclear waste within the Columbia River Basalt Group. Under the geologic portion of this program, the stratigraphic, structural, tectonic, seismic, and hydrologic aspects of the Columbia Plateau are being examined. Other aspects of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program are concerned with systems integration, engineered barriers, engineering testing, and construction of a near-surface test facility. The area covered in this bibliography comprises that area north of 43/sup 0/30' latitude and east of the Willamette Meridian, which is located just west of Portland. The bibliographic entries are presented in two forms. The first is an alphabetized listing of all articles dealing with the geology of the Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt) and adjacent areas of Oregon. The second form consists of an alphabetized listing of the entries subdivided under fourteen categories. (RWR)

  3. Aerial radiological survey of the Savannah River Plant and surrounding area, Aiken, South Carolina. Date of survey: June 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyns, P.K.; Smith, D.B.

    1982-07-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Savannah River Plant (SRP) was conducted during June 1979 by EG and G Energy Measurements Group for the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The survey consisted of an airborne measurement of both natural and man-made gamma radiation from the terrain surface in and around the plant site. These measurements allowed a determination of the surface terrestrial spatial distribution of isotopic concentrations and equivalent gamma ray exposure rates from 60 Co and 137 Cs contaminants. The results are reported as exposure rate isopleths for the two isotopes and are superimposed on 1:48,000 scale maps of the area. Gamma ray energy spectra are also presented for the net man-made radioelements. This was the second survey of the entire Savannah River Plant site. The first survey was conducted in June 1974. A comparison of the surveys indicates a decrease in the exposure rates due to man-made isotopes. All areas of man-made activity were in the same location as indicated by the results of the first survey. It appears that no detectable new man-made activity has been released in the survey area since the 1974 survey

  4. Safety analysis--200 Area Savannah River Site: Separations Area operations Building 211-H Outside Facilities. Supplement 11, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The H-Area Outside Facilities are located in the 200-H Separations Area and are comprised of a number of processes, utilities, and services that support the separations function. Included are enriched uranium loadout, bulk chemical storage, water handling, acid recovery, general purpose evaporation, and segregated solvent facilities. In addition, services for water, electricity, and steam are provided. This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the H-Area Outside Facilities and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the SR Implementation Plan for DOE order 5481.1A. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the facility can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations, to the environment, and to operating personnel. In this report, risks are defined as the expected frequencies of accidents, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequences in person-rem. Following the summary description of facility and operations is the site evaluation including the unique features of the H-Area Outside Facilities. The facility and process design are described in Chapter 3.0 and a description of operations and their impact is given in Chapter 4.0. The accident analysis in Chapter 5.0 is followed by a list of safety related structures and systems (Chapter 6.0) and a description of the Quality Assurance program (Chapter 7.0). The accident analysis in this report focuses on estimating the risk from accidents as a result of operation of the facilities. The operations were evaluated on the basis of three considerations: potential radiological hazards, potential chemical toxicity hazards, and potential conditions uniquely different from normal industrial practice.

  5. Safety analysis--200 Area Savannah River Site: Separations Area operations Building 211-H Outside Facilities. Supplement 11, Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The H-Area Outside Facilities are located in the 200-H Separations Area and are comprised of a number of processes, utilities, and services that support the separations function. Included are enriched uranium loadout, bulk chemical storage, water handling, acid recovery, general purpose evaporation, and segregated solvent facilities. In addition, services for water, electricity, and steam are provided. This Safety Analysis Report (SAR) documents an analysis of the H-Area Outside Facilities and is one of a series of documents for the Separations Area as specified in the SR Implementation Plan for DOE order 5481.1A. The primary purpose of the analysis was to demonstrate that the facility can be operated without undue risk to onsite or offsite populations, to the environment, and to operating personnel. In this report, risks are defined as the expected frequencies of accidents, multiplied by the resulting radiological consequences in person-rem. Following the summary description of facility and operations is the site evaluation including the unique features of the H-Area Outside Facilities. The facility and process design are described in Chapter 3.0 and a description of operations and their impact is given in Chapter 4.0. The accident analysis in Chapter 5.0 is followed by a list of safety related structures and systems (Chapter 6.0) and a description of the Quality Assurance program (Chapter 7.0). The accident analysis in this report focuses on estimating the risk from accidents as a result of operation of the facilities. The operations were evaluated on the basis of three considerations: potential radiological hazards, potential chemical toxicity hazards, and potential conditions uniquely different from normal industrial practice

  6. Combined impact of ocean acidification and corrosive waters in a river-influenced coastal upwelling area off Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, C.; De La Hoz, M.; San Martin, V.; Contreras, P.; Navarro, J. M.; Lagos, N. A.; Lardies, M.; Manríquez, P. H.; Torres, R.

    2012-12-01

    Elevated CO2 in the atmosphere promotes a cascade of physical and chemical changes affecting all levels of biological organization, and the evidence from local to global scales has shown that such anthropogenic climate change has triggered significant responses in the Earth's biota. The increased concentration of CO2 is likely to cause a corresponding increase in ocean acidification (OA). In addition, economically valuable shellfish species predominantly inhabit coastal regions both in natural stocks and/or in managed stocks and farming areas. Many coastal ecosystems may experience seawater pCO2 levels significantly higher than expected from equilibrium with the atmosphere, which in this case are strongly linked to biological processes and/or the impact of two important processes; river plumes and coastal upwelling events, which indeed interplay in a very dynamic way on continental shelves, resulting in both source or sink of CO2 to the atmosphere. Coastal ecosystems receive persistent acid inputs as a result of freshwater discharges from river basins into the coastal domain. In this context, since shellfish resources and shellfish aquaculture activities predominantly occur in nearshore areas, it is expected that shellfish species inhabiting river-influenced benthic ecosystems will be exposed persistently to acidic conditions that are suboptimal for its development. In a wider ecological context, little is also known about the potential impacts of acid waters on the performance of larvae and juveniles of almost all the marine species inhabiting this benthic ecosystem in Eastern Southern Pacific Ocean. We present here the main results of a research study aimed to investigate the environmental conditions to which economically valuable calcifiers shellfish species are exposed in a river-influenced continental shelf off Central Chile. By using isotopic measurements in the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) pool (d13C-DIC) we showed the effect of the remineralization of

  7. Monitoring of Deep Foundation Pit Support and Construction Process in Soft Soil Area of Pearl River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiyi, Xie; Pengcheng

    2018-03-01

    The deep foundation pit supporting technology in the soft soil area of the Pearl River Delta is more complicated, and many factors influence and restrict it. In this project as an example, according to the geological conditions and the surrounding circumstances, the main foundation using bored piles and pre-stressed anchor cable supporting structure + five axis cement mixing pile curtain supporting form; partial use of double row piles supporting structure + five axis cement mixing pile curtain support type. Through the monitoring results of construction show that the foundation pit, the indicators of environmental changes are in the design range, the supporting scheme of deep foundation pit technology is feasible and reliable.

  8. Eco-physiological Study on the Influence of Contaminated Waters from the Topolnitza River Catchment Area on Some Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana Velcheva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a small part of a program for an investigation of the water conditions in the Topolnitza Dam Lake, Topolnitza River and its catchment area. The sensitivity of seeds and young wheat, sunflower and mustard plants to heavy metal stress was examined at laboratory conditions. Our results showed that seedling growth was more sensitive to heavy metals in comparison to seed germination. The length of shoot and root has been adversely affected due to water contamination when compared to the control. A certain negative effect on the photosynthetic pigments content was registered.

  9. Feasibility of estimate sediment yield in the non-sediment monitoring station area - A case study of Alishan River watershed,Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, ChiaChi; Chan, HsunChuan; Jia, YaFei; Zhang, YaoXin

    2017-04-01

    Due to the steep topography, frail geology and concentrated rainfall in wet season, slope disaster occurred frequently in Taiwan. In addition, heavy rainfall induced landslides in upper watersheds. The sediment yield on the slopeland affects the sediment transport in the river. Sediment deposits on the river bed reduce the river cross section and change the flow direction. Furthermore, it generates risks to residents' lives and property in the downstream. The Taiwanese government has been devoting increasing efforts on the sedimentary management issues and on reduction in disaster occurrence. However, due to the limited information on the environmental conditions in the upper stream, it is difficult to set up the sedimentary monitoring equipment. This study used the upper stream of the Qingshuei River, the Alishan River, as a study area. In August 2009, Typhoon Morakot caused the sedimentation of midstream and downstream river courses in the Alishan River. Because there is no any sediment monitoring stations within the Alishan River watershed, the sediment yield values are hard to determine. The objective of this study is to establish a method to analyze the event-landslide sediment transport in the river on the upper watershed. This study numerically investigated the sediment transport in the Alishan River by using the KINEROS 2 model developed by the United States Department of Agriculture and the CCHE1D model developed by the National Center for Computational Hydroscience and Engineering. The simulated results represent the morphology changes in the Alishan River during the typhoon events. The results consist of a critical strategy reference for the sedimentary management for the Alishan River watershed.

  10. Characteristics of GHG flux from water-air interface along a reclaimed water intake area of the Chaobai River in Shunyi, Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Baonan; He, Jiangtao; Wang, Jian; Li, Jie; Wang, Fei

    2018-01-01

    To understand greenhouse gas (GHG) flux in reclaimed water intake area impact on urban climate, 'static chamber' method was used to investigate the spatio-diurnal variations and the influence factors of GHG fluxes at water-air interface from Jian River to Chaobai River. Results showed that the average fluxes of CO2 from the Jian River and the Chaobai River were 73.46 mg(m2·h)-1 and -64.75 mg(m2·h)-1, respectively. CO2 was emitted the most in the Jian River, but it was absorbed from the atmosphere in the Chaobai River. Unary linear regression analyses demonstrated that Chlorophyll a (Chl a) and pH variation controlled the carbon source and sink from the Jian River to the Chaobai River. The diurnal variation of CO2 fluxes was higher at night than in the daytime in the Jian River, and it was the inverse in the Chaobai River, which highly correlated with dissociative CO2 and HCO3- transformation to CO32-. The average fluxes of CH4 from the Jian River and Chaobai River were 0.973 mg(m2·h)-1 and 5.556 mg(m2·h)-1, respectively, which increased along the water flow direction. Unary and multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that Chl a and total organic carbon (TOC) controlled the increase of CH4 along the flow direction. The diurnal variation of CH4 fluxes was slightly higher in the daytime than at night due to the effect of water temperature.

  11. Allochthonous subsidies of organic matter across a lake-river-fjord landscape in the Chilean Patagonia: Implications for marine zooplankton in inner fjord areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Cristian A.; Martinez, Rodrigo A.; San Martin, Valeska; Aguayo, Mauricio; Silva, Nelson; Torres, Rodrigo

    2011-03-01

    Ecosystems can act as both sources and sinks of allochthonous nutrients and organic matter. In this sense, fjord ecosystems are a typical interface and buffer zone between freshwater systems, glaciated continents, and the coastal ocean. In order to evaluate the potential sources and composition of organic matter across fjord ecosystems, we characterized particulate organic matter along a lake-river-fjord corridor in the Chilean Patagonia using stable isotope (δ 13C) and lipid (fatty acid composition) biomarker analyses. Furthermore, estimates of zooplankton carbon ingestion rates and measurements of δ 13C and δ 15N in zooplankton (copepods) were used to evaluate the implications of allochthonous subsidies for copepods inhabiting inner fjord areas. Our results showed that riverine freshwater flows contributed an important amount of dissolved silicon but, scarce nitrate and phosphate to the brackish surface layer of the fjord ecosystem. Isotopic signatures of particulate organic matter from lakes and rivers were distinct from their counterparts in oceanic influenced stations. Terrestrial allochthonous sources could support around 68-86% of the particulate organic carbon in the river plume and glacier melting areas, whereas fatty acid concentrations were maximal in the surface waters of the Pascua and Baker river plumes. Estimates of carbon ingestion rates and δ 13C in copepods from the river plume areas indicated that terrestrial carbon could account for a significant percentage of the copepod body carbon (20-50%) during periods of food limitation. Particulate organic matter from the Pascua River showed a greater allochthonous contribution of terrigenous/vascular plant sources. Rivers may provide fjord ecosystems with allochthonous contributions from different sources because of the distinct vegetation coverage and land use along each river's watershed. These observations have significant implications for the management of local riverine areas in the context of

  12. WATER QUALITY ANALYSIS OF LOTIC ECOSYSTEMS FROM UPPER MUREŞ RIVER CATCHMENT AREA USING DIFFERENT BIOTIC INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milca PETROVICI

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Present paper approach the issue of assessing the water quality of tributaries located in the upper basin of the river Mureş, taking into account changes in the value of biotic indices. In this sense, have been selected the next five biotic indices: Ephemeroptera Plecoptera Trichoptera index (EPT, Total Invertebrates index (T, Chironomidae index (Ch, EPT / Total invertebrates index (EPT / T, EPT / Chironomidae index (EPT / Ch and % Chironomidae index (% Chironomidae. Considering all these indices, it was found existence of a medium to best quality water in Mureş tributaries from Harghita Mountains and a good quality water which comes from the Maramureş Mountains and Transylvania Plateau.

  13. Retrospective EPR dosimetry on the basis of tooth enamel analyses of Techa river area residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, A.; Romanyukha, A.A.; Kozheurov, V.P.; Degteva, M.O.

    2000-01-01

    The dose in tooth enamel from residents of villages along the Techa river was measured by EPR dosimetry. The results were correlated to the 90 Sr whole body burden as measured about 30 years after ingestion. Based on the results of this preliminary investigation the ingestion dose coefficient of tooth enamel for 90 Sr is estimated and compared with the value for bone surface given in ICRP. The results of the preliminary study suppose a similar metabolism of strontium for tooth dentine and the skeleton. (author)

  14. A new perspective on soil erosion: exploring a thermodynamic approach in a small area of the River Inn catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Lucas; Scherer, Ulrike; Zehe, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion modeling has always struggled with compensating for the difference in time and spatial scale between model, data and the actual processes involved. This is especially the case with non-event based long-term models based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE), yet USLE based soil erosion models are among the most common and widely used for they have rather low data requirements and can be applied to large areas. But the majority of mass from soil erosion is eroded within short periods of times during heavy rain events, often within minutes or hours. Advancements of the USLE (eg. the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation, MUSLE) allow for a daily time step, but still apply the same empirical methods derived from the USLE. And to improve the actual quantification of sediment input into rivers soil erosion models are often combined with a Sediment Delivery Ratio (SDR) to get results within the range of measurements. This is still a viable approach for many applications, yet it leaves much to be desired in terms of understanding and reproducing the processes behind soil erosion and sediment input into rivers. That's why, instead of refining and retuning the existing methods, we explore a more comprehensive, physically consistent description on soil erosion. The idea is to describe soil erosion as a dissipative process (Kleidon et al., 2013) and test it in a small sub-basin of the River Inn catchment area in the pre-Alpine foothills. We then compare the results to sediment load measurements from the sub-basin and discuss the advantages and issues with the application of such an approach.

  15. 77 FR 6133 - Sector Upper Mississippi River Area Maritime Security Committee; Vacancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... Port in the review, update, and exercising of the Area Maritime Security (AMS) Plan for their area of..., including labor; other port stakeholders having a special competence in maritime security; and port...

  16. Geology and geophysics of the southern Raft River Valley geothermal area, Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul L.; Mabey, Don R.; Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Ackermann, Hans D.; Hoover, Donald B.; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Oriel, Steven S.

    1976-01-01

    The Raft River valley, near the boundary of the Snake River plain with the Basin and Range province, is a north-trending late Cenozoic downwarp bounded by faults on the west, south, and east. Pleistocene alluvium and Miocene-Pliocene tuffaceous sediments, conglomerate, and felsic volcanic rocks aggregate 2 km in thickness. Large gravity, magnetic, and total field resistivity highs probably indicate a buried igneous mass that is too old to serve as a heat source. Differing seismic velocities relate to known or inferred structures and to a suspected shallow zone of warm water. Resistivity anomalies reflect differences of both composition and degree of alteration of Cenozoic rocks. Resistivity soundings show a 2 to 5 ohm·m unit with a thickness of 1 km beneath a large part of the valley, and the unit may indicate partly hot water and partly clayey sediments. Observed self-potential anomalies are believed to indicate zones where warm water rises toward the surface. Boiling wells at Bridge, Idaho are near the intersection of north-northeast normal faults which have moved as recently as the late (?) Pleistocene, and an east-northeast structure, probably a right-lateral fault. Deep circulation of ground water in this region of relatively high heat flow and upwelling along faults is the probable cause of the thermal anomaly.

  17. Microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in estuarine sediment of Tama River in Tokyo urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Akiko; Hosomi, Masaaki; Murakami, Akihiko; Sakakibara, Koji

    1997-01-01

    Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons, i.e., hexadecane (HEX), phenanthrene (PHE), and anthracene (ANT), were determined in estuarine sediment of the Tama River in urban Tokyo, followed by estimating their respective degradation potential. While in a sediment slurry, the aerobic biodegradation rates of these petroleum hydrocarbons ranged from 40 to 70 μg.g -1 dry sediment:day -1 . The anaerobic biodegradation rate of HEX was found to be 5 -8 μg.g -1 dry sediment.day -1 , whereas that of PHE and ANT could not be detected following a 2-month incubation. Aerobic degradation of HEX was not affected by coexistence with either PHE or ANT, nor by the salinity level. The number of HEX-, PHE-, or ANT-utilizing bacteria ranged from 5 - 10% of the total number of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. We calculated their biodegradation potentials using the biomass of naturally existing petroleum hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria present in the sampled sediment, with results for HEX, PHE, and ANT being 1.0 -3.5, 4.2 x 10 -2 , and 1.2 x 10 -2 -9.4 x 10 -1 μg.g -1 dry sediment day -1 , respectively. In the aerobic tidal sediment of the Tama River, the purification potentials of HEX, PHE, and ANT were assessed to be approximately equal to their accumulation potentials occurring at the normal water level. (Author)

  18. Restoration Effects of the Riparian Forest on the Intertidal Fish Fauna in an Urban Area of the Amazon River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Stephen F.; Vasconcelos, Huann C. G.; Mendes-Junior, Raimundo N. G.; Araújo, Andrea S.; Costa-Campos, Carlos Eduardo; Nascimento, Walace S.; Isaac, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    Urbanization causes environmental impacts that threaten the health of aquatic communities and alter their recovery patterns. In this study, we evaluated the diversity of intertidal fish in six areas affected by urbanization (areas with native vegetation, deforested areas, and areas in process of restoration of vegetation) along an urban waterfront in the Amazon River. 20 species were identified, representing 17 genera, 14 families, and 8 orders. The different degrees of habitat degradation had a major effect on the composition of the fish fauna; the two least affected sectors were the only ones in that all 20 species were found. Eight species were recorded in the most degraded areas. The analysis revealed two well-defined groups, coinciding with the sectors in better ecological quality and degraded areas, respectively. The native vegetation has been identified as the crucial factor to the recovery and homeostasis of the studied ecosystem, justifying its legal protection and its use in the restoration and conservation of altered and threatened environments. These results reinforce the importance of maintaining the native vegetation as well as its restoration in order to benefit of the fish populations in intertidal zones impacted by alterations resulting from inadequate urbanization. PMID:27699201

  19. Restoration Effects of the Riparian Forest on the Intertidal Fish Fauna in an Urban Area of the Amazon River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. Sá-Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization causes environmental impacts that threaten the health of aquatic communities and alter their recovery patterns. In this study, we evaluated the diversity of intertidal fish in six areas affected by urbanization (areas with native vegetation, deforested areas, and areas in process of restoration of vegetation along an urban waterfront in the Amazon River. 20 species were identified, representing 17 genera, 14 families, and 8 orders. The different degrees of habitat degradation had a major effect on the composition of the fish fauna; the two least affected sectors were the only ones in that all 20 species were found. Eight species were recorded in the most degraded areas. The analysis revealed two well-defined groups, coinciding with the sectors in better ecological quality and degraded areas, respectively. The native vegetation has been identified as the crucial factor to the recovery and homeostasis of the studied ecosystem, justifying its legal protection and its use in the restoration and conservation of altered and threatened environments. These results reinforce the importance of maintaining the native vegetation as well as its restoration in order to benefit of the fish populations in intertidal zones impacted by alterations resulting from inadequate urbanization.

  20. The current threat level of fish in river network of individual sea-drainage areas in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusk Stanislav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of changes in the population spread of individual ichthyofauna species (lampreys and fishes as well as the identification of unfavourable impacts is the necessary prerequisite for the correct selection of corrective measures. The river network in the Czech Republic belongs to the three sea-drainage areas (North Sea, Baltic Sea, and Black Sea. The species composition of the original ichthyofauna and the extent of the threat to some species differs in the individual sea-drainage areas. The original ichthyofauna in the Czech Republic consists of 4 lamprey species and 55 fish species. Out of this, only one lamprey species and 31 fish species originate in all three sea-drainage areas. There are 37 fish species considered as the original ones in the North Sea drainage area, there of 4 species are EX, 1 species EW, and 11 species (29.7% are threatened. In the Baltic Sea drainage area, there are 4 species EX, 1 species EW, and 8 species (22.8% threatened out of the total 35 assessed species. Out of 49 species in the Black Sea drainage area, there are 4 species EX and 23 species (46.9 % threatened.

  1. An aerial radiological survey of the Savannah River Site and surrounding area, Aiken, South Carolina, October--November 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojtech, R.J.

    1993-12-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted during the period of October 14 to November 23, 1991, over an area surrounding the United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). The area is situated 15 kilometers south of Aiken, South Carolina. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the gamma ray environment of the SRS and surrounding areas. Contour maps showing gamma radiation exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level were constructed from the aerial data and overlaid on a United States Geological Survey map of the area. The exposure rates measured within the survey region are generally uniform and typical of natural background. The reported exposure rate values include an estimated cosmic ray contribution. Enhanced exposure rates not attributable to natural background were measured over several areas within the survey region. The manmade radionuclides detected in these areas, cesium-137, cobalt-60, and protactinium-234m, were produced by the reactor operations and material processing conducted at the SRS. The radiation levels produced by these nuclides are consistent with those levels measured during previous SRS aerial surveys. Radionuclide assays of soil samples and pressurized ion chamber measurements were obtained at four locations within the survey boundaries

  2. 33 CFR 165.1171 - Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River-Regulated Navigation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu... Guard District § 165.1171 Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu, Colorado River—Regulated Navigation Area. (a) Location. The following is a regulated navigation area: (1) In the water area of Copper Canyon, Lake Havasu...

  3. A GIS based estimation of loss of particulate nitrogen and phosphorus in typical drainage area of Pearl River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaonan; Wu, Zhifeng; Cheng, Jiong; Liu, Ping

    2008-10-01

    The output of nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural activities is the main source for water eutrophication. The fully developed agriculture in vegetables, fruits and flowers in Pearl River Delta gives rise to excessive use of chemical matter such as fertilizer and pesticide and thus bring about the serious water pollution because of the loss of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from the farmland in the region. Based on Geographic Information System (GIS) and soil pollution data, Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and source type method are used to estimate the loads of particulate N and P from the soil of different land use types in the drainage area of Liuxi River in Guangzhou, China. So the key regions those the NPS pollution occurred can be confirmed and the technical support for the pollution control target and the capital flow concentration can be provided by the results. The study shows that, (1) The total loss of particulate N and P in the drainage area is 582.49 t/a and 424.74 t/a respectively. Among them the loss of particulate N from paddy soil occupies 40.02% and that of forest 6.31%, while the loss of particulate P from the soil of dry-land accounts for 28.75% and that of paddy soil 26.31%. (2) There are significantly different losses of particulate N and P per unit area from the soils of different source land use types in the drainage area. The losses of particulate N and P per unit area are both the highest from the soil of dry-land, which is 7.72 kg/hm2 and 9.50 kg/hm2 respectively, followed by those of orchard, which is 7.20 kg/hm2 and 6.56 kg/hm2 respectively. The causes are excessive use of chemical matter, unreasonable cultivation pattern, and the soil erosion of different land use. (3) The excessive N and P come from the loss of particulate N and P from the fertilization in agricultural production, and they are the main source of the pollutants in Liuxi River water.

  4. Assessing suitable area for Acacia dealbata Mill. in the Ceira River Basin (Central Portugal based on maximum entropy modelling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasion by exotic organisms became a key issue, a concern associated to the deep impacts on several domains described as resultant from such processes. A better understanding of the processes, the identification of more susceptible areas, and the definition of preventive or mitigation measures are identified as critical for the purpose of reducing associated impacts. The use of species distribution modeling might help on the purpose of identifying areas that are more susceptible to invasion. This paper aims to present preliminary results on assessing the susceptibility to invasion by the exotic species Acacia dealbata Mill. in the Ceira river basin. The results are based on the maximum entropy modeling approach, considered one of the correlative modelling techniques with better predictive performance. Models which validation is based on independent data sets present better performance, an evaluation based on the AUC of ROC accuracy measure.

  5. Sedimentology and Rock Magnetism of Bailey River Peat Cores, Sudbury Area: Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtseven, A.; Cioppa, M. T.; Dean, K.

    2009-05-01

    Magnetic measurements on peat can reveal atmospheric anthropogenic contamination. Two cores were collected from a marsh surrounding the Bailey River, 10 km north of Sudbury, Ontario, using a Russian peat borer. The BR1 core (1.4 m) was collected right at the river's edge, whereas the BR2 core (2.5 m) was collected about 50 m away from the river's edge, close to the edge of the marsh and near the forest. Significant sedimentological variation between the two cores was observed: core BR1 had several centimeter to decimeter scale fine to coarse grey sand layers at 0.14 m, 0.46 m and 0.87 m between thicker organic-rich (peat) zones, whereas core BR2 had only one 5 cm sand-rich layer at 0.94 m within the organic-rich material. The cores were subsampled at 2.5 cm intervals for laboratory magnetic analysis. Volume susceptibility was measured using a Bartington MS2B meter, and mass-specific susceptibility was then calculated. In core BR1, the sand layers had relatively higher susceptibility (13 x 10-8 m3/kg) , while the organic rich layers had very low susceptibility (0 - 2 x 10-8 m3/kg). In core BR2, which had little sand, the susceptibility variation was dominated by higher values near-surface (10 x 10-8 m3/kg), and very low susceptibility (0.3 x 10-8 m3/kg) below 0.3 m depth. Since the lithology in this core did not vary substantially, susceptibility variations may be controlled by anthropogenic deposition in the near-surface during the peak mining and smelting decades. These preliminary results suggest that any anthropogenic signal in core BR1 appears to be masked by the sedimentological variation. On pilot results from eight samples in core BR1, saturation isothermal remanence acquisition showed 95% saturation by 200 mT, and the S-ratios (0.3T/0.9T) were above 0.93, suggesting that magnetite is the major magnetization carrier. In core BR2, six out of eight samples showed similar results; however, two samples had slightly more higher coercivity minerals (90% saturation

  6. High Recharge Areas in the Choushui River Alluvial Fan (Taiwan Assessed from Recharge Potential Analysis and Average Storage Variation Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Pin Tsai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available High recharge areas significantly influence the groundwater quality and quantity in regional groundwater systems. Many studies have applied recharge potential analysis (RPA to estimate groundwater recharge potential (GRP and have delineated high recharge areas based on the estimated GRP. However, most of these studies define the RPA parameters with supposition, and this represents a major source of uncertainty for applying RPA. To objectively define the RPA parameter values without supposition, this study proposes a systematic method based on the theory of parameter identification. A surrogate variable, namely the average storage variation (ASV index, is developed to calibrate the RPA parameters, because of the lack of direct GRP observations. The study results show that the correlations between the ASV indexes and computed GRP values improved from 0.67 before calibration to 0.85 after calibration, thus indicating that the calibrated RPA parameters represent the recharge characteristics of the study area well; these data also highlight how defining the RPA parameters with ASV indexes can help to improve the accuracy. The calibrated RPA parameters were used to estimate the GRP distribution of the study area, and the GRP values were graded into five levels. High and excellent level areas are defined as high recharge areas, which composed 7.92% of the study area. Overall, this study demonstrates that the developed approach can objectively define the RPA parameters and high recharge areas of the Choushui River alluvial fan, and the results should serve as valuable references for the Taiwanese government in their efforts to conserve the groundwater quality and quantity of the study area.

  7. Artisanal Fisheries in the Ndumo Area of the Lower Phongolo River Floodplain, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri C. Coetzee

    2015-06-01

    Conservation implications: Given that Ndumo residents predominantly catch fish by means of non-commercial methods, that they do so for reasons of personal consumption and subsistence, and that they mostly target rivers and dams rather than the ecologically sensitive pans in the region, it would seem likely that fishing in the region might be sustainable for the moment. However, it is recommended that studies on the local fish populations and their reproductive rates be conducted so that the actual impact on local fish populations can be determined more accurately. This study serves to provide the necessary baseline data on fish utilisation in the region, which would enable the impact of artisanal fishing on fish reserves in the Ndumo region to be determined once population studies have been completed.

  8. Chlorine demand and residual chlorine decay kinetics of Kali river water at Kaiga project area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna Bhat, D.; Prakash, T.R.; Thimme Gowda, B.; Sherigara, B.S.; Khader, A.M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear power plant at Kaiga would use Kali river water for condenser cooling. This necessitated studies on the chemistry of chlorination such as chlorine demand, kinetics of chlorination and other water characteristics aimed at obtaining base line data. The study revealed significant seasonal variation of chlorine demand ranging from 0.5 ppm to 1.7 ppm (3.0 ppm dose, 30 min contact time) and total consumption of 5.0 ppm (10.0 ppm dose, 48 hours contact time). The reaction follows first order kinetics in chlorine. High correlation of chlorine demand with chlorophyll a, suspended matter, turbidity, silica, nitrite, phosphate and sulphate indicated that chlorine demand is greatly influenced by water quality. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab

  9. Source areas and chemical composition of fine particulate matter in the Pearl River Delta region of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, G. S. W.; Bergin, M. H.; Salmon, L. G.; Yu, J. Z.; Wan, E. C. H.; Zheng, M.; Zeng, L. M.; Kiang, C. S.; Zhang, Y. H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Schauer, J. J.

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) was measured for 4 months during 2002-2003 at seven sites located in the rapidly developing Pearl River Delta region of China, an area encompassing the major cities of Hong Kong, Shenzhen and Guangzhou. The 4-month average fine particulate matter concentration ranged from 37 to 71 μg m -3 in Guangdong province and from 29 to 34 μg m -3 in Hong Kong. Main constituents of fine particulate mass were organic compounds (24-35% by mass) and sulfate (21-32%). With sampling sites strategically located to monitor the regional air shed patterns and urban areas, specific source-related fine particulate species (sulfate, organic mass, elemental carbon, potassium and lead) and daily surface winds were analyzed to estimate influential source locations. The impact of transport was investigated by categorizing 13 (of 20 total) sampling days by prevailing wind direction (southerly, northerly or low wind-speed mixed flow). The vicinity of Guangzhou is determined to be a major source area influencing regional concentrations of PM 2.5, with levels observed to increase by 18-34 μg m -3 (accounting for 46-56% of resulting particulate levels) at sites immediately downwind of Guangzhou. The area near Guangzhou is also observed to heavily impact downwind concentrations of lead. Potassium levels, related to biomass burning, appear to be controlled by sources in the northern part of the Pearl River Delta, near rural Conghua and urban Guangzhou. Guangzhou appears to contribute 5-6 μg m -3 of sulfate to downwind locations. Guangzhou also stands out as a significant regional source of organic mass (OM), adding 8.5-14.5 μg m -3 to downwind concentrations. Elemental carbon is observed to be strongly influenced by local sources, with highest levels found in urban regions. In addition, it appears that sources outside of the Pearl River Delta contribute a significant fraction of overall fine particulate matter in Hong Kong and Guangdong province. This is evident

  10. [Prediction and simulation of urban area expansion in Pearl River Delta Region under the RCPs climate scenarios].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Oun-ou; Deng, Xiang-zheng; Ke, Xin-li; Zhao, Chun-hong; Zhang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    The sizes and number of cities in China are increasing rapidly and complicated changes of urban land use system have occurred as the social economy develops rapidly. This study took the urban agglomeration of Pearl River Delta Region as the study area to explore the driving mechanism of dynamic changes of urban area in the urbanization process under the joint influence of natural environment and social economic conditions. Then the CA (cellular automata) model was used to predict and simulate the urban area changes until 2030 under the designed scenarios of planning and RCPs (representative concentration pathways). The results indicated that urbanization was mainly driven by the non-agricultural population growth and social-economic development, and the transportation had played a fundamental role in the whole process, while the areas with high elevation or steep slope restricted the urbanization. Besides, the urban area would keep an expanding trend regardless of the scenarios, however, the expanding speed would slow down with different inflection points under different scenarios. The urban expansion speed increased in the sequence of the planning scenario, MESSAGE scenario and AIM scenario, and that under the MESSAGE climate scenario was more consistent with the current urban development trend. In addition, the urban expansion would mainly concentrate in regions with the relatively high urbanization level, e.g., Guangzhou, Dongguan, Foshan, Shenzhen, Zhanjiang and Chaoshan.

  11. 75 FR 33239 - Rangeland Allotment Management Planning on the Fall River West and Oglala Geographic Areas, Fall...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ...The USDA, Forest Service, will prepare an environmental impact statement (EIS) analyzing the management of rangeland vegetation resources, which includes livestock grazing, on the National Forest System (NFS) lands within the Oglala Geographic Area (OGA) of the Oglala National Grassland on the Pine Ridge Ranger District and the West Geographic Area (WGA) of the Buffalo Gap National Grassland on the Fall River Ranger District of the Nebraska National Forest (Analysis Area) areas as mapped by the 2001 Nebraska National Forest Revised Land and Resource Management Plan (Forest Plan). A Notice of Intent (NOI) for this project was published February 22, 2008 (73 No. 36 FR 9760- 9762). More than six months have elapsed since the projected draft environmental impact statement (DEIS) date in that original NOI. This revised NOI is being issued to update the project schedule. There will be a record of decision (ROD) for each geographic area. Proposed management actions would be implemented beginning in the year 2012. The agency gives notice of the full environmental analysis and decision-making process that will occur on the proposal so interested and affected people may become aware of how they may participate in the process and contribute to the final decision.

  12. Land cover changes in catchment areas of lakes situated in headwaters of the Tyśmienica River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzywna Antoni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the history of land cover changes in the catchment area of lakes situated in the headwaters of the Tyśmienica River. The basis of the study were topographic maps in scale 1:50 000, from 1936 and 2014. We analyzed the quantitative aspect of these changes. The study was conducted in three natural lakes (Rogóźno, Krasne, Łukcze, and in one lake transformed into a storage reservoir (Krzczeń. The technical issues of georeferencing maps in the Geographic Information System (GIS software are addressed first. In the landscape of Łęczna and Włodawa Lake District, to the end of the 19th century wetlands and bushes dominated. The first type of human pressure on this area was agriculture. Another type of pressure was recreation. In the catchment areas of studied lakes increased mainly the area of buildings and forests. Significantly increased also the length of roads and watercourses. Almost completely disappeared bushes and wastelands. In most of the analyzed basins, the area of wetlands and arable lands decreased. The probable cause of the changes in catchment use was decline in the water table, and thus overgrowing of meadows and wetlands.

  13. METHODOLOGY FOR AUTOMATICALLY DELIMITING PERMANENT PRESERVATION AREAS ALONG WATER COURSES - THE USE OF GIS IN THE HYDROLOGICAL BASIN OF THE SERGIPE RIVER, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janisson Batista de Jesus

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Permanent Preservation Areas (PPAs along watercourses have been the focus of numerous studies, not only because of the fragility and ecological relevance of riverine vegetation, but also because of the inefficiency demonstrated in conforming to the legislation protecting it. One of the major difficulties encountered in terms of guaranteeing the effective conservation of these riverside areas is the absence of methodologies that can be used to define them rapidly and accurately without manually determining the widths of the rivers or assigning only uniform linear values for the entire watercourse. The present work sought to develop a spatial analysis methodology capable of automatically defining permanent preservation areas along watercourses using geographic information system (GIS software. The present study was undertaken in the Sergipe River basin, "considering the river itself and its principal affluents. We used the database of the Digital Atlas of Hydrological Resources (SEMARH/SE, and the delimitations of the PPAs were performed using ArcGIS 10.1 and the XToolPro 9.0 extension. A total of 5,003.82 hectares of Permanent Preservation Areas were delimited along the margins of the rivers analyzed, with a margin of error of <1% in delimiting the widths of the rivers within the entire area considered. The methodology described here can be used to define PPAs efficiently, relatively rapidly, and with very small margins of error, thus representing a technological advance in terms of using GIS for land management.

  14. Assessing remediation of contaminated sediments using multiple biological endpoints: sediment toxicity, food web tissue contamination, biotic condition and DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ottawa River is a component of the Maumee River Area of Concern (AOC) as defined by the International Joint Commission’s Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. A sediment remediation project took place in the lower 14.2 km of the river where urban and industrial activitie...

  15. A weight of evidence approach for assessing remediation of contaminated sediments using food web tissue contamination, biotic condition and DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ottawa River lies in extreme northwest Ohio, flowing into Lake Erie’s western basin at the city of Toledo. The Ottawa River is a component of the Maumee River Area of Concern (AOC) as defined by the International Joint Commission. In 2009-2010 a sediment remediation pro...

  16. Additions and corrections to the bibliography of geologic studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Besalt) and adjacent Areas, in Idaho, 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strowd, W.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography is an update to Idaho Bureau of Mines and Geology Open-File Report 78-6, Bibliography of Geological Studies, Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt Group) and adjacent areas in Idaho (also known as Rockwell Hanford Operations' contractor report RHO-BWI-C-44). To keep the original document current, this additions and corrections report was prepared for the Basalt Waste Isolation Project of Rockwell Hanford Operations. This update is supplementary; therefore, references cited in the original document have not been included here. What is included are materials that have become available since the original publication and pertinent literature that had originally been overlooked. Accompany this updated bubliography are index maps that show locations of geologic studies and geochemical petrographic, remanent paleomagnetic, and radiometric age-dated sites within the Columbia River Basalt Group field within Idaho; also identified are archeological sites, test wells, mines, quarries, and other types of excavations. References on the index maps are keyed to the bibliography and cover the Spokane, Pullman, Hamilton, Grangeville, Elk City, Baker, Boise, and Jordan Valley Army Map Service two-degree quadrangles

  17. Mercury profiles in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area of South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jianbo; Ip, Carman C.M.; Zhang Gan; Jiang Guibin; Li Xiangdong

    2010-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variations of mercury (Hg) in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and the surrounding coastal area (South China Sea) were studied. In surface sediments, the concentrations of Hg ranged from 1.5 to 201 ng/g, with an average of 54.4 ng/g, displaying a decreasing trend with the distance from the estuary to the open sea. This pattern indicates that the anthropogenic emissions from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region are probably the main sources of Hg in this coastal region. Using the 210 Pb dating technique, the historical changes in the concentrations and influxes of Hg in the last 100 years were also investigated. The variations in Hg influxes in sediment cores obviously correlate with the economic development and urbanization that has occurred the PRD region, especially in the last three decades. - The spatial and historical changes of Hg in sediment reflect the industrial development and urbanization of the region in south China.

  18. STUDY REGARDING DELINEATION OF FLOOD HAZARD ZONES IN THE HYDROGRAPHIC BASIN OF THE SOMEŞ RIVER, BORDER AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOICA F.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological studies will provide the characteristic parameters for the floods occurred for the calculus discharges with overflow probabilities of 0,1%; 1%, 5%, 10%. The hydrologic and hydraulic models will be made by using the hydro-meteorological data base and the topographical measurements on site; them calibration will be done according to the records of the historical floods. The studies on the hydrologic and hydraulic models will be necessary for the establishment of the carrying capacity of the riverbeds, for the delimitation of the flood plains and for the detection of the transit discharges at the hydro-technical installations, but also for the establishment of the parameters needed for the structural measures’ projects. These will be based on the 1D and 2D unstable hydro-dynamic models. Therefore, the users would be able to assess the proposed measures and the impact over the river’s system; of course with the potential combination of the 1D and 2D. The main objectives followed by the project are: • identification of the river basins or river sub-basins with flood risks; • regionalization of the flood hazard; • presentation of the main flash floods occurred during the last 30 years, which induced floods; • assessment of the consequences of eventual flood over the population, properties and environment; • the establishment of the protection degree, accepted for the human settlements, for the economic and social objectives, for the farm areas, etc.;

  19. Hydrological modeling of a watershed affected by acid mine drainage (Odiel River, SW Spain). Assessment of the pollutant contributing areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, L.; Olías, M.; Cánovas, C. R.; Sarmiento, A. M.; Nieto, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Odiel watershed drains materials belonging to the Iberian Pyrite Belt, where significant massive sulfide deposits have been mined historically. As a result, a huge amount of sulfide-rich wastes are deposited in the watershed, which suffer from oxidation, releasing acidic lixiviates with high sulfate and metal concentrations. In order to reliably estimate the metal loadings along the watershed a complete series of discharge and hydrochemical data are essential. A hydrological model was performed with SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to solve the scarcity of gauge stations along the watershed. The model was calibrated and validated from daily discharge data (from 1980 to 2010) at the outlet of the watershed, river inputs into an existent reservoir, and a flow gauge station close to the northern area of the watershed. Discharge data obtained from the hydrological model, together with analytical data, allowed the estimation of the dissolved pollutant load delivered annually by the Odiel River (e.g. 9140 t of Al, 2760 t of Zn). The pollutant load is influenced strongly by the rainfall regime, and can even double during extremely rainy years. Around 50% of total pollution comes from the Riotinto Mining District, so the treatment of Riotinto lixiviates reaching the Odiel watershed would reduce the AMD (Acid Mine Drainages) in a remarkable way, improving the water quality downstream, especially in the reservoir of Alcolea, currently under construction. The information obtained in this study will allow the optimization of remediation efforts in the watershed, in order to improve its water quality.

  20. Trace metal distribution in sediments of the Pearl River Estuary and the surrounding coastal area, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, Carman C.M.; Li Xiangdong; Zhang Gan; Wai, Onyx W.H.; Li, Y.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Surface sediments and sediment cores collected at the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and its surrounding coastal area were analysed for total metal concentrations, chemical partitioning, and Pb isotopic compositions. The distribution of Cu, Cr, Pb, and Zn demonstrated a typical diffusion pattern from the land to the direction of the sea. Two hotspots of trace metal contamination were located at the mixed zone between freshwater and marine waters. The enrichment of metals in the sediments could be attributed to the deposition of the dissolved and particulate trace metals in the water column at the estuarine area. The similar Pb isotopic signatures of the sediments at the PRE and its surrounding coastal area offered strong evidence that the PRE was a major source of trace metals to the adjacent coastal area. Slightly lower 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios in the coastal sediments may indicate other inputs of Pb in addition to the PRE sources, including the inputs from Hong Kong and other parts of the region. - The distribution of trace metals in sediments reflected contaminant sources, physical and chemical deposition processes

  1. Surface water quality and isotopic study at a section of the Lower Volta River (Akuse to Sogakope area), Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gampson, E. K.

    2012-01-01

    The water quality examination at a section of the Lower Volta River (Akuse to the Sogakope area), Ghana, was conducted by determining the physicochemical parameters at 38 sampling sites in September (2011) during the wet season and February (2012) during the dry season. Isotope analysis was also conducted during the same period. The ranges of physicochemical parameters analysed in the surface water were 6.45 to 7.26 for pH, -053 to -010 mV for Eh, 23.6 to 27 degrees celsius for temperature, 61.7 to 83.6 μS/cm for EC, 0% 0 for salinity, 29.7-39.4 mg/L for TDS, 0.63 to 2.28 mg/L for DO, 0 to 4 NTU for turbidity, 0 to 8mg/L for TSS, 36 to 108mg/L for total hardness, 0.8 to 5mg/L for BOD 5 , 23.16 to 46.33mg/L for HCO 3 - , 2.92 to 23.33mg/L for Mg 2+ , 7.8 to 11.0mg/L for Na + , 4.0 to 5.9mg/L for K + , 1.99 to 13.99mg/L for CI - , 3.2 to 14.4MG/L for Ca 2+ , 1.0 to 24.889mg/L for NO 3 - , 6.556 to 28.111mg/L for SO 4 2- and 1.333 to 11.667mg/L for PO 4 3- . While the results for dissolved metals (μg/L) were 32 to 348 for Fe, 12 to 278 for Mn, 16 to 84 for Cu, 4 to 38 for Pb, 20 to 162 for Ni, 12 to 32 for Cd and 12μg/L to 98 for Cd, Hg, Se, V and Zn were below detection limit. The river water will support agricultural activities. Except Cu which was low, about 37%, 89%, 29%, 33%, 8% and 29% of the sampled sites had Pb, Ni, Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn values respectively above the WHO (2004) standard for drinking water. Therefore, water quality monitoring and control of release of untreated anthropogenic wastes into the river is strongly needed. Stable isotope data of water (δ 2 H and δ 18 O) obtained showed stream waters are depleted and possibly recharge by rain and waters from the Akwapim Mountains than the isotopically heavy evaporated waters found within the Lower Volta River. (au)

  2. Soil organic matter and soil acidity in Mangrove areas in the river Paraiba Estuary, Cabedelo, Paraiba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wilma Vasconcelos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystems are of great environmental significance, because of their fragility and role in feeding and breeding various animal species. In northeastern Brazil, the disorderly occupation of estuarine areas and the urban sprawl have led to a considerable loss of the original area occupied by mangroves. In the municipality of Cabedelo, State of Paraíba, there are about 4,900 ha of remnant mangrove areas in the estuarine complex of the Paraíba River. However, information about the attributes of mangrove soils at this location is quite scarce. The aim of this study was to quantify the soil organic matter and soil acidity in mangroves located in the estuary of the Paraíba River, State of Paraíba, Brazil, in order to increase the database of soil attributes in this region. The study area is in local influence of the Restinga de Cabedelo National Forest (Flona, an environmental conservation unit of the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation. For the choice of sampling points, we considered an area that receives direct influence of the eviction of domestic and industrial effluents. The soil of the study area is an “Organossolo Háplico” in Brazilian Soil Classification (Histosol, and was sampled at four point sites: one upstream of the effluent discharge (P1, one in the watercourse receiving effluent water (P2, one downstream of the effluent discharge (P3 and another near Flona (P4, at 0-20 and 20-40 cm, in four replications in time (28/08/2012 in the morning and afternoon, and 21/01/2013 in the morning and afternoon. Potential acidity, pH and soil organic matter (SOM were determined. No significant differences were detected in the potential acidity of the four collection sites, which ranged from 0.38 to 0.45 cmolc dm-3. Soil pH was greatest at point P4 (7.0 and lowest at point P1 (5.8. The SOM was highest at point P1 (86.4 % and lowest at P2 (77.9 %. The attributes related to soil acidity were not sensitive to indicate

  3. FLOODPLAIN MAPPING SUBMISSION FOR INDIAN RIVER COUNTY, FLORIDA AND INCORPORATED AREAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  4. Hydrostratigraphy of the General Separations Area, Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aadland, R.K.; Harris, M.K.; Lewis, C.M.; Gaughan, T.F. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Westbrook, T.M. (Dames and Moore, Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Detailed analysis and synthesis of geophysical, core, and hydrologic data from 230 wells were used to delineate the hydrostratigraphy and aquifer characteristics of the General Separations Area at SRS. The study area is hydrologically bounded on the north and northwest by Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and on the south by Fourmile Branch (FB). The Cretaceous-Tertiary sedimentary sequence underlying the study area is divided into two Aquifer Systems; in ascending order, Aquifer Systems I and 11. The study concentrated on Aquifer System U, which includes all the Tertiary sediments above the Black Mingo Group (Paleocene) to the water table. This report includes a series of lithostratigraphic cross-sections, piezometric gradient profiles, head ratio contour maps, aquifer isopach maps, and potentiometric surface maps which illustrate the aquifer characteristics of the study area.

  5. LBA-ECO LC-03 Hypsography, Rivers, Roads, and DEM, Four Areas across Brazilian Amazon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides four related spatial data products for four study areas across the Brazilian Amazon: Manaus, Amazonas; Tapajos National Forest, Para Western...

  6. Hydrostratigraphy of the General Separations Area, Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aadland, R.K.; Harris, M.K.; Lewis, C.M.; Gaughan, T.F.; Westbrook, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    Detailed analysis and synthesis of geophysical, core, and hydrologic data from 230 wells were used to delineate the hydrostratigraphy and aquifer characteristics of the General Separations Area at SRS. The study area is hydrologically bounded on the north and northwest by Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) and on the south by Fourmile Branch (FB). The Cretaceous-Tertiary sedimentary sequence underlying the study area is divided into two Aquifer Systems; in ascending order, Aquifer Systems I and 11. The study concentrated on Aquifer System U, which includes all the Tertiary sediments above the Black Mingo Group (Paleocene) to the water table. This report includes a series of lithostratigraphic cross-sections, piezometric gradient profiles, head ratio contour maps, aquifer isopach maps, and potentiometric surface maps which illustrate the aquifer characteristics of the study area

  7. 77 FR 20295 - United States Navy Restricted Area, Menominee River, Marinette Marine Corporation Shipyard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... to the point of origin. The restricted area will be marked by a lighted and signed floating buoy line... supervision or contract to a local military or Naval authority, vessels of the United States Coast Guard, and...

  8. Characterization of phosphorus sorption on the sediments of Yangtze River Estuary and its adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Xiaoyan; Liu, Xiaoyue; Zhu, Jiamei; Wang, Lisha; Liu, Sumei; Yang, Guipeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper studied the kinetics, isotherm and thermodynamics of phosphorus sorption onto the sediments of the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent waters, as well as the sediments' compositions and physicochemical properties. The process could be described well by a two-compartment first order equation. The sorbed phosphorus mainly consisted of Ex-P and Fe-P, with Ex-P being the dominant. The equilibrium isotherms could be fitted well with a modified Langmuir equation. The calculations of the thermodynamic parameters indicated that the process was spontaneous and exothermic. The CEC and the fractions of clay, calcite and organic matter were correlated with the sorption parameters, while the surface proton charge of the sediments was significantly negatively correlated with them. Considering the kinetics and phosphorus forms changes during the process, the sorption in our study could be considered that the physical process plays an important role. - Highlights: • The kinetic curves and phosphorus fractions changes during sorption were studied. • The sorbed phosphorus mainly consisted of Ex − P and Fe-P, with Ex − P being dominant. • The equilibrium isotherms and thermodynamic parameters were investigated. • Sediment composition and surface characteristics influenced phosphorus sorption parameters.

  9. Biofouling of microfilters at the Savannah River Site F/H-Area Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, D.J.; Wiggins, A.W.; Poirier, M.R.; Hazen, T.C.

    1991-01-01

    The F/H-Effluent Treatment Facility uses state-of-the-art water treatment processes to remove contaminants from low-level radioactive wastewater at the Savannah River Site. The plant replaces seepage basins that were closed to comply with the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The facility removes both radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants from the effluents orginating from onsite waste management facilities. The unit processes involve filtration, ion exchange, activated carbon absorption, and reverse osmosis. The filtration step is prone to considerable fouling, reducing the overall throughput of the facility. The filters utilized in the process are Norton Ceraflo trademark ceramic microfilters. It was discovered that bacteria were primarily responsible for the severe filter fouling. Inorganic fouling was also observed, but was not normally as severe as the bacterial fouling. The bacteria densities necessary to induce severe fouling were not significantly higher than those often found in surface water streams. Diversion of waste streams containing the highest quantity of bacteria, and various methods of source reduction were implemented, which dramatically improved the filter performance. Addition of aluminum nitrate at low pH further improved the filter performance

  10. Biofouling of microfilters at the Savannah River Site F/H-area effluent treatment facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, D.J.; Wiggins, A.W.; Poirier, M.R.; Hazen, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    The F/H-Effluent Treatment Facility uses state-of-the-art water treatment processes to remove contaminants from low-level radioactive wastewater at the Savannah River Site, The plant replaces seepage basins that were closed to comply with the 1984 amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The facility removes both radioactive and nonradioactive contaminants from the effluents originating from onsite waste management facilities. The unit processes involve filtration, ion exchange, activated carbon absorption, and reverse osmosis. The filtration step is prone to considerable fouling, reducing the overall throughput of the facility. The Filters utilized in the process are Norton Ceraflo ceramic microfilters. It was discovered that bacteria were primarily responsible for the severe filter fouling. Inorganic fouling was also observed, but was not normally as severe as the bacterial fouling. The bacteria densities necessary to induce severe fouling were not significantly higher than those often found in surface water streams. Diversion of waste streams containing the highest quantity of bacteria, and various methods of source reduction were implemented, which dramatically unproved the filter performance. Addition of aluminum nitrate at low pH further improved the filter performance. (author)

  11. Closure plan for the M-Area settling basin and vicinity at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colven, W.P.; Pickett, J.B.

    1985-07-01

    The areas addressed in this closure plan include a process sewer line, surface impoundment (settling basin), overflow ditch, seepage area, and a Carolina Bay known as Lost Lake. Since it is proposed that the basin and vicinity be closed with the hazardous wastes placed and stabilized in the basin, it will be closed pursuant to regulations for closing a hazardous waste landfill. No free liquids will remain in the impoundment after closure is completed

  12. Stream water quality in coal mined areas of the lower Cheat River Basin, West Virginia and Pennsylvania, during low-flow conditions, July 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Donald R.; Clark, Mary E.; Brown, Juliane B.

    1999-01-01

    IntroductionThe Cheat River Basin is in the Allegheny Plateau and Allegheny Mountain Sections of the Appalachian Plateau Physiographic Province (Fenneman, 1946) and is almost entirely within the state of West Virginia. The Cheat River drains an area of 1,422 square miles in Randolph, Tucker, Preston, and Monongalia Counties in West Virginia and Fayette County in Pennsylvania. From its headwaters in Randolph County, W.Va., the Cheat River flows 157 miles north to the Pennsylvania state line, where it enters the Monongahela River. The Cheat River drainage comprises approximately 19 percent of the total Monongahela River Basin. The Cheat River and streams within the Cheat River Basin are characterized by steep gradients, rock channels, and high flow velocities that have created a thriving white-water rafting industry for the area. The headwaters of the Cheat River contain some of the most pristine and aesthetic streams in West Virginia. The attraction to the area, particularly the lower part of the Cheat River Basin (the lower 412 square miles of the basin), has been suppressed because of poor water quality. The economy of the Lower Cheat River Basin has been dominated by coal mining over many decades. As a result, many abandoned deep and surface mines discharge untreated acid mine drainage (AMD), which degrades water quality, into the Cheat River and many of its tributary streams. Approximately 60 regulated mine-related discharges (West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection, 1996) and 185 abandoned mine sites (U.S. Office of Surface Mining, 1998) discharge treated and untreated AMD into the Cheat River and its tributaries.The West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection (WVDEP) Office of Abandoned Mine Lands and Reclamation (AML&R) has recently completed several AMD reclamation projects throughout the Cheat River Basin that have collectively improved the mainstem water quality. The AML&R office is currently involved in acquiring grant funds and

  13. Impact of hydrological alterations on river-groundwater exchange and water quality in a semi-arid area: Nueces River, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgulet, Dorina; Murgulet, Valeriu; Spalt, Nicholas; Douglas, Audrey; Hay, Richard G

    2016-12-01

    There is a lack of understanding and methods for assessing the effects of anthropogenic disruptions, (i.e. river fragmentation due to dam construction) on the extent and degree of groundwater-surface water interaction and geochemical processes affecting the quality of water in semi-arid, coastal catchments. This study applied a novel combination of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and elemental and isotope geochemistry in a coastal river disturbed by extended drought and periodic flooding due to the operation of multiple dams. Geochemical analyses show that the saltwater barrier causes an increase in salinity in surface water in the downstream river as a result of limited freshwater inflows, strong evaporation effects on shallow groundwater and mostly stagnant river water, and is not due to saltwater intrusion by tidal flooding. Discharge from bank storage is dominant (~84%) in the downstream fragment and its contribution could increase salinity levels within the hyporheic zone and surface water. When surface water levels go up due to upstream freshwater releases the river temporarily displaces high salinity water trapped in the hyporheic zone to the underlying aquifer. Geochemical modeling shows a higher contribution of distant and deeper groundwater (~40%) in the upstream river and lower discharge from bank storage (~13%) through the hyporheic zone. Recharge from bank storage is a source of high salt to both upstream and downstream portions of the river but its contribution is higher below the dam. Continuous ERT imaging of the river bed complements geochemistry findings and indicate that while lithologically similar, downstream of the dam, the shallow aquifer is affected by salinization while fresher water saturates the aquifer in the upstream fragment. The relative contribution of flows (i.e. surface water releases or groundwater discharge) as related to the river fragmentation control changes of streamwater chemistry and likely impact the interpretation

  14. Preliminary Geologic/spectral Analysis of LANDSAT-4 Thematic Mapper Data, Wind River/bighorn Basin Area, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, H. R.; Conel, J. E.; Paylor, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    A LIDQA evaluation for geologic applications of a LANDSAT TM scene covering the Wind River/Bighorn Basin area, Wyoming, is examined. This involves a quantitative assessment of data quality including spatial and spectral characteristics. Analysis is concentrated on the 6 visible, near infrared, and short wavelength infrared bands. Preliminary analysis demonstrates that: (1) principal component images derived from the correlation matrix provide the most useful geologic information. To extract surface spectral reflectance, the TM radiance data must be calibrated. Scatterplots demonstrate that TM data can be calibrated and sensor response is essentially linear. Low instrumental offset and gain settings result in spectral data that do not utilize the full dynamic range of the TM system.

  15. Aerial radiological survey of the area surrounding the UNC Recovery Systems Facility, Wood River Junction, Rhode Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluitt, C.M.

    1981-05-01

    An aerial radiological survey to measure terrestrial gamma radiation was carried out over the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Recovery Systems Facility located near Wood River Junction, Rhode Island. At the time of the survey (August 1979) materials were being processed at the facility. Gamma ray data were collected over a 3.28 km 2 area centered on the facility by flying north-south lines spaced 60 m apart. Processed data indicated that detected radioisotopes and their associated gamma ray exposure rates were consistent with those expected from normal background emitters, except directly over the UNC Facility. Average exposure rates 1 m above the ground, as calculated from the aerial data, are presented in the form of an isopleth map. No ground sample data were taken at the time of the aerial survey

  16. LDL (Landscape Digital Library) a Digital Photographic Database of a Case Study Area in the River Po Valley, Northern Italy

    CERN Document Server

    Papotti, D

    2001-01-01

    Landscapes are both a synthesis and an expression of national, regional and local cultural heritages. It is therefore very important to develop techniques aimed at cataloguing and archiving their forms. This paper discusses the LDL (Landscape Digital Library) project, a Web accessible database that can present the landscapes of a territory with documentary evidence in a new format and from a new perspective. The method was tested in a case study area of the river Po valley (Northern Italy). The LDL is based on a collection of photographs taken following a systematic grid of survey points identified through topographic cartography; the camera level is that of the human eye. This methodology leads to an innovative landscape archive that differs from surveys carried out through aerial photographs or campaigns aimed at selecting "relevant" points of interest. Further developments and possible uses of the LDL are also discussed.

  17. From Midges to Spiders: Mercury Biotransport in Riparian Zones Near the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennuto, C M; Smith, M

    2015-12-01

    Riparian communities can receive environmental contaminants from adjacent aquatic 'donor' habitats. We investigated mercury biotransport from aquatic to terrestrial habitats via aquatic insect emergence and uptake by riparian spiders at sites within and upstream of the Buffalo River Area of Concern (AOC), a site with known sediment Hg contamination. Mercury concentration in emerging midges was roughly 10× less than contaminated sediment levels with the AOC, but biomagnification factors from midges to spiders ranged from 2.0 to 2.65 between sites. There was a significantly negative body mass:total mercury relationship in spiders (p Spiders contained significantly more mercury than their midge prey and spiders upstream of the AOC had higher mercury concentrations than spiders from within the AOC. Collectively, these data indicate that riparian spiders can be good mercury sentinels in urban environments, and that riparian communities upstream from the AOC may be at greater risk to mercury than has been previously considered.

  18. [Influence of 175-m-impoundment in Three Gorges Reservoir area on the food web energy sources of main commercial fishes in backwater area of xiaojiang River].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wang, Zhi-Jian; Yue, Xing-Jian; Wang, Yong-Ming; Jin, Li; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2013-06-01

    The impoundment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) was first reached 175 m in 2010. To approach the influence of this impoundment on the food web energy sources of fishes in the tributaries of TRGA, an analysis was made on the food web energy sources of seven economically important fishes (Carassius auratus, Cyprinus carpio, Silurus asotus, Culter mongolicus mongolicus, Mystus macropterus, Pelteobagrus vachelli, and Pelteobagrus nitidus) in the backwater area of Xiaojiang River by using stable isotope method in combining with IsoSource Model. The results showed that before this impoundment (July 2010), microalgae were the main energy sources for the seven species. After this impoundment (December 2010), the contribution ratio of the microalgae decreased somewhat, while the relative contribution of terrestrial C4 plants had an obvious increase. Especially for crucian carp (C. auratus) and catfish (S. asotus), the contribution rate of the C4 plants reached 38-54% and 32-50%, respectively. After the impoundment, at least 30% of the energy resources of these two fishes were come from terrestrial C4 plants, suggesting that the impoundment in TGRA increased the contribution rate of exogenous terrestrial C4 plants as the energy sources of fishes.

  19. The River Valleys as Biodiversity Reservoirs for Land Snails in Highly Anthropic Areas – The Case of Cisnădie River (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheoca Voichiţa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the snail fauna of a river valley passing through two closely located settlements. Thirty six species of terrestrial gastropods were identified. Species such as Macrogastra borealis, Alinda fallax, Alinda viridana, Bulgarica vetusta, Monachoides vicinus, Drobacia banatica, are present along the river and abundant in the sampling stations downstream of Cisnădie town. The high specific diversity and the presence of typical forest species demonstrate the presence of fragments of habitat that can preserve populations of terrestrial gastropods, underlining the importance of river valleys in conservation and dispersion of these species.

  20. An appraisal of the Permian palaeobiodiversity and geology of the Ib-River Basin, eastern coastal area, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Shreerup; Saxena, Anju; Singh, Kamal Jeet; Chandra, Shaila; Cleal, Christopher J.

    2018-05-01

    The Ib-River Basin situated in the east coastal area of India, in Odisha State is a south-eastern part of the Mahanadi Master Basin. A large number of plant macrofossils belonging to the Glossopteris flora were described and documented between 2006 and 2010 from various localities of the Barakar and Lower Kamthi formations of this basin. The floral components representing leaves, roots and fructifications in these assemblages belong to the Lycopodiales, Equisetales, Sphenophyllales, Filicales, Cordaitales, Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Coniferales and Glossopteridales. In the present study, all the available data pertaining to the biological remains, petrological analyses as well as the geology of this basin are reviewed and analyzed to deduce and reconstruct the biostratigraphy, palaeoclimate, palaeoenvironment and the landscape of this basin during Permian time in general and during the deposition of Barakar (Artinskian - Kungurian) and Lower Kamthi (Lopingian) formations in particular. The floral composition suggests the prevalence of a temperate climate with a slight change from warm moist to warm dry conditions during the deposition of the Barakar Formation and warm and humid during the deposition of Lower Kamthi sediments. Distribution of various plant groups in the Barakar and Lower Kamthi formations have been shown to depict the biodiversity trends. Vegetational reconstructions during the deposition of the Barakar and Lower Kamthi formations around the Ib-River Basin have also been attempted based on all the fossil records from this area. The status of unclassified Barakar and Kamthi formations has been redefined. Apart from megafloristics, the palynology of the basin is also discussed. Possible marine incursions and marine marginal environment in the Ib-Basin during Permian are overtly summarized on the basis of records of acritarchs, typical marine ichnofossils and evidences of wave activity in Lower Gondwana sediments of this Basin.

  1. Contaminant variability in a sedimentation area of the river Rhine = Variabiliteit van verontreinigingen in een sedimentatiegebied van de Rijn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    Aquatic sediments in sedimentation zones of major rivers are in general sinks for pollutants. The sedimentation zone Ketelmeer/IJsselmeer is an important sink for contaminants of the river Rhine (i.e. river IJssel). Recent and historical pollution interact here. Redistribution of suspended

  2. Population genetic structure of the malaria vector Anopheles funestus, in a recently re-colonized area of the Senegal River basin and human-induced environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samb, Badara; Dia, Ibrahima; Konate, Lassana; Ayala, Diego; Fontenille, Didier; Cohuet, Anna

    2012-09-05

    Anopheles funestus is one of the major malaria vectors in tropical Africa. Because of several cycles of drought events that occurred during the 1970s, this species had disappeared from many parts of sahelian Africa, including the Senegal River basin. However, this zone has been re-colonized during the last decade by An. funestus, following the implementation of two dams on the Senegal River. Previous studies in that area revealed heterogeneity at the biological and chromosomal level among these recent populations. Here, we studied the genetic structure of the newly established mosquito populations using eleven microsatellite markers in four villages of the Senegal River basin and compared it to another An. funestus population located in the sudanian domain. Our results presume Hardy Weinberg equilibrium in each An. funestus population, suggesting a situation of panmixia. Moreover, no signal from bottleneck or population expansion was detected across populations. The tests of genetic differentiation between sites revealed a slight but significant division into three distinct genetic entities. Genetic distance between populations from the Senegal River basin and sudanian domain was correlated to geographical distance. In contrast, sub-division into the Senegal River basin was not correlated to geographic distance, rather to local adaptation. The high genetic diversity among populations from Senegal River basin coupled with no evidence of bottleneck and with a gene flow with southern population suggests that the re-colonization was likely carried out by a massive and repeated stepping-stone dispersion starting from the neighboring areas where An. funestus endured.

  3. Geomorphic effectiveness of a long profile shape and the role of inherent geological controls in the Himalayan hinterland area of the Ganga River basin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonam; Jain, Vikrant

    2018-03-01

    Long profiles of rivers provide a platform to analyse interaction between geological and geomorphic processes operating at different time scales. Identification of an appropriate model for river long profile becomes important in order to establish a quantitative relationship between the profile shape, its geomorphic effectiveness, and inherent geological characteristics. This work highlights the variability in the long profile shape of the Ganga River and its major tributaries, its impact on stream power distribution pattern, and role of the geological controls on it. Long profile shapes are represented by the sum of two exponential functions through the curve fitting method. We have shown that coefficients of river long profile equations are governed by the geological characteristics of subbasins. These equations further define the spatial distribution pattern of stream power and help to understand stream power variability in different geological terrains. Spatial distribution of stream power in different geological terrains successfully explains spatial variability in geomorphic processes within the Himalayan hinterland area. In general, the stream power peaks of larger rivers lie in the Higher Himalaya, and rivers in the eastern hinterland area are characterised by the highest magnitude of stream power.

  4. The “Mari” Hypothesis in the Study of the Toponymy of the Oka and Unzha Rivers and the Western Borders of the Old Mari Toponymic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Smirnov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Referring to toponymic data, the article aims to verify the hypothesis of the western origin of the Mari people who, presumably, migrated to their present-day settlement area from the territory of Kostroma Region and the Oka River basin. The author critically examines the possibility of Mari origin of some place names in the territory in question, namely, of hydronyms ending in -ingir'. To verify the “Mari” hypothesis, the author uses the method of ethnic modelling which consists in the isolation of typical toponymic stems in present-day Mari toponymy and searching for their traces in the substrate toponymy of the studied area. The analysis leads to conclude that it is unlikely that the toponymy of the western part of Kostroma Region and the Oka River basin could be of Mari origin. The area of distribution of typical Mari place names does not display any evidence of Mari substrate or superstrate to the west of the Kerzhanets River basin. On the Western bank of the Volga, some traces of substratal Mari toponymy can be found along the banks of the Sura River as far as the city of Alatyr, however, no Mari “residue” can be found west of the Sura. The absence of Mari substrate in the toponymy of the Oka and Unzha Rivers area makes it possible to refute the hypothesis of the western origin of the Mari and their migration from the area of Gorodets and Dyakovo archaeological cultures. At the same time, the study of phonetic correspondences reflected in place names reveals evidence of close kinship of the substratal dialects of Western Kostroma Region, the low Oka and Klyazma Rivers area with the Mari (Proto-Mari language.

  5. Permafrost conditions at the Upper Kuskokwim river area and its influence on local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholodov, A. L.; Panda, S. K.; Hanson, T.

    2017-12-01

    Research area located within the zone of discontinuous permafrost distribution. Recent mean annual air temperature here is close to the 0C. It means, that taking in consideration warming influence of the snow cower during winter, mean annual temperature at the ground surface is well above freezing point. It means that presence or absence of permafrost here completely controlled by the ecological conditions. Based on remote sensing data and the surveys conducted in 2016-17 we selected 6 main ecotypes typical for this area: black spruce boreal forest, wetlands, low and tall shrubs, deciduous and mixed forest. Most of them (low shrubs, deciduous and mixed forest) represent different stages of area recovering after forest fires that was confirmed by the presence of ashy layer close to ground surface in soil pits had been dug within these landscapes. Permafrost was observed only within 2 of them: low shrubs and black spruce boreal forest. Within these types of terrain temperature at the bottom of active layer varies from -0.2/-0.5C at the areas of low shrubs, recovered after relatively recent (approximately 30-50 years old) fires to -1/-1.5 within black spruce forest. Active (seasonally thawed) layer as thick as 0.6 to 0.8 m. Warmest ecotypes for the area are tall shrubs and deciduous forest, temperature at the depth close to 1 m is about +3C. At the mixed forest temperature at the same depth consists of +1/+2C. Active (seasonally frozen) layer thickness within permafrost free areas is 1-1.5 m at the drained sites and about 0.5 within wetlands. Ice-rich permafrost underlying the active layer was noticed only within the black spruce forest. Areas which are free of permafrost are much better drained, typical moisture of mineral soil is less than 30% versus 45-50% in seasonally thawed layer. The current state of permafrost and the fact that it presence completely depends on ecosystems limits land use abilities of local inhabitants. Any changes of forest coverage or organic

  6. A comparison of four aerial radiological surveys of Par Pond and the surrounding area, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feimster, E.L.

    1993-09-01

    A series of gamma radiation surveys was conducted over Par Pond at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in August 1993, October 1991, and August 1992 as part of an effort to monitor the radiological changes around Par Pond as its water level was lowered. The results of an April 1989 survey, which was about one-half the area of those surveys listed above, were used as baseline data for the comparison. Gamma energy spectrum analysis revealed that the only man-made gamma ray emitter detected during the four surveys in the Par Pond area was cesium-137. The comparisons revealed that: (1) significant change in the radiological environment occurred along the Par Pond shoreline as the water levels were lowered, (2) the activity in Lower Three Runs Creek varied slightly as the level/flow rate changed during the pumping process, (3) minor changes occurred in areas adjacent to the Par Pond, and (4) little or no change occurred between surveys in the spatial distribution or kind of sources detected. All changes were directly related to the moisture variations (Par Pond water lowering, rainfall, waterway flow rates) between the survey periods. The distribution, kind, and activity of sources detected beyond the pond bed were consistent between surveys. 60 figs., 14 tabs

  7. CORRELATION BETWEEN RAINFALL PATTERNS AND THE WATER TABLE IN THE GENERAL SEPARATIONS AREA OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate rainfall and water table elevation data in search of a correlation that could be used to understand and predict water elevation changes. This information will be useful in placing screen zones for future monitoring wells and operations of groundwater treatment units. Fifteen wells in the General Separations Area (GSA) at Savannah River Site were evaluated from 1986 through 2001. The study revealed that the water table does respond to rainfall with minimal delay. (Water level information was available monthly, which restricted the ability to evaluate a shorter delay period.) Water elevations were found to be related to the cumulative sum (Q-Delta Sum) of the difference between the average rainfall for a specific month and the actual rainfall for that month, calculated from an arbitrary starting point. Water table elevations could also be correlated between wells, but using the right well for correlation was very important. The strongest correlation utilized a quadratic equation that takes into account the rainfall in a specific area and the rainfall from an adjacent area that contributes through a horizontal flow. Specific values vary from well to well as a result of geometry and underground variations. R2's for the best models ranged up to 0.96. The data in the report references only GSA wells but other wells (including confined water tables) on the site have been observed to return similar water level fluctuation patterns

  8. Report of conceptual design for TRU solid waste facilities adjacent to 200H Area: Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-02-01

    Facilities for consolidating Savannah River Plant solid transuranic (TRU) waste and placing in long-term safe, retrievable storage have been designed conceptually. A venture guidance appraisal of cost for the facilities has been prepared. The proposed site of the new processing area is adjacent to existing H Area facilities. The scopes of work comprising the conceptual design describe facilities for: exhuming high-level TRU waste from buried and pad-stored locations in the plant burial ground; opening, emptying, and sorting waste containers and their contents within shielded, regulated enclosures; volume-reducing the noncombustibles by physical processes and decontaminating the metal waste; burning combustibles; fixing the consolidated waste forms in a concrete matrix within a double-walled steel container; placing product containers in a retrievable surface storage facility adjacent to the existing plant burial ground; and maintaining accountability of all special nuclear materials. Processing, administration, and auxiliary service buildings are to be located adjacent to existing H Area facilities where certain power and waste liquid services will be shared

  9. Geology and coal resources of the Hanging Woman Creek Study Area, Big Horn and Powder River Counties, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, William Craven; Hatch, Joseph R.; Affolter, Ronald H.

    1978-01-01

    In an area of 7,200 acres (29 sq km) In the Hanging Woman Creek study area, the Anderson coal bed contains potentially surface minable resources of 378 million short tons (343 million metric tons) of subbituminous C coal that ranges in thickness from 26 to 33 feet (7.9-10.1 m) at depths of less than 200 feet (60 m). Additional potentially surface minable resources of 55 million short tons (50 million metric tons) are contained in the 9-12 foot (2.7-3.7 m) thick Dietz coal bed which lies 50-100 feet (15-30 m) below the Anderson. Analyses of coal from 5 core holes indicates that the Anderson bed contains 0.4 percent sulfur, 5 percent ash, and has a heating value of 8,540 Btu/lb (4,750 Kcal/kg). The trace element content of the coal is generally similar to other coals in the Powder River Basin. The two coal beds are in the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age which consists of sandstone, siltstone, shale, coal beds, and locally impure limestone. A northeast-trending normal fault through the middle of the area, downthrown on the southeast side, has displaced the generally flat lying strata as much as 300 feet (91 m). Most of the minable coal lies northwest of this fault.

  10. Sacramento River Flood Control Project, California Mid-Valley Area, Phase 3. Design Memorandum Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-01

    in the study area. Plants that are candidates for Federal listing are the Suisun aster, heart-scale, California hibiscus , delta tule-pea. Mason’s...agricultural chemicals. According to Sutter County Environmental Health , the State Water Resources Control Board tested a sediment sample taken under the

  11. 77 FR 40547 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Chattahoochee River National Recreation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... acres of park land, including riverside units and upland forested areas with hiking trails and other... final trail plan has 3 miles of hiking-only trails and 6.7 miles of multi-use trails allowing both... purposes. This certification is based on the cost-benefit and regulatory flexibility analysis found in the...

  12. Expanding protected areas beyond their terrestrial comfort zone: identifying spatial options for river conservation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JL

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available and processes in both new and existing protected areas. Data to address these objectives were collated in a Geographic Information System (GIS) and a conservation planning algorithm was used as a means of integrating the multiple objectives in a spatially...

  13. 76 FR 30024 - United States Navy Restricted Area, Menominee River, Marinette Marine Corporation Shipyard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Executive Order 12866. This rule is issued with respect to a military function of the Department of Defense...; thence easterly along the Marinette Marine Corporation pier to the point of origin. The restricted area... local military or Naval authority, vessels of the United States Coast Guard, and local or state law...

  14. Geology of the Pumpkin Buttes Area of the Powder River Basin, Campbell and Johnson Counties, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, William Neil; White, Amos McNairy

    1956-01-01

    About 200 uranium occurrences have been examined in the Pumpkin Buttes area, Wyoming. Uranium minerals are visible at most of these places and occur in red and buff sandstone lenses in the Wasatch formation of Eocene age. The uranium minerals are disseminated in buff sandstone near red sandstone, and also occur in red sandstone in manganese oxide concretions and uraninite concretions.

  15. Mega drought in the Colorado River Basin, water supply, and adaptive scenario planning for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area; simulations using WaterSim 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Decision Center for a Desert City (DCDC), a boundary organization, bridges science and policy (to foster knowledge-based decision making); we study how decisions are made in the face of uncertainty. Our water policy and management model for the Phoenix Metropolitan Area (hereafter "Phoenix"), termed WaterSim, represents one such bridging mechanism. We evaluated the effect of varying the length of drought on water availability for Phoenix. We examined droughts (starting in 2000) lasting 15, 25, and 50 years. We picked a 60-year window of runoff estimates from the paleo reconstruction data for the Colorado River (CO) (1121 through 1180 A.D.), and the two local rivers (1391 through 1450 A.D.), and assumed that the proportional difference in median flow between these periods and the long-term record represented an estimate of potential drought reductions on river flows. This resulted in a 12%, and 19% reduction in flows for the CO River and the Salt-Verde (SV) Rivers, respectively. WaterSim uses 30-year trace periods from the historical flow records to simulate river flow for future projections. We used each 30-year trace from the historical record (1906 to present, CO River; 1945 to present SV Rivers) , and default settings, to simulate 60 year projections of Lake Mead elevation and the accompanying Colorado River water shortages to Phoenix. Overall, elevations for Lake Mead fell below the 1st shortage sharing tier (1075 ft) in 83% of the simulations; 74% of the simulations fell below the 2nd tier (1050 ft), and 64% fell below the 3rd (1025 ft). Length of drought, however, determined the shortage tiers met. Median elevations for droughts ending in 2015, 2025, and 2050 were 1036, 1019, and 967 feet msl, respectively. We present the plausible water futures with adaptive anticipatory scenario planning for the projected reductions in surface water availability to demonstrate decision points for water conservation measures to effectively manage shortage conditions.

  16. The Importance of Hunting and Hunting Areas for Big and Small Game (Food) for the Tourism Development in the Crna River Basin in the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Koteski, Cane; Josheski, Dushko; Jakovlev, Zlatko; Bardarova, Snezana; Serafimova, Mimoza

    2014-01-01

    The Crna River is a river in the Republic of Macedonia, right tributary to Vardar. Its source is in the mountains of Western Macedonia, west of Krusevo. It flows through the village of Sopotnica, and southwards through the plains east of Bitola. The name means “black river” in Macedonian, which is translation for its former Thracian name. The purpose of this paper is to show the hunting and hunting areas for big and small Game (food), the structure of the areas of certain hunting, fi...

  17. Recharge and discharge areas of the Floridan Aquifer in the St. Johns River Water Management District and vicinity, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer is the principal source of most of the freshwater used in the St. Johns River Water Management District. An important step in managing water resources is the delineation of recharge and discharge areas. Geohydrologic factors to be considered when delineating recharge and discharge areas include: altitude and configuration of the potentiometric surface; direction and magnitude of the gradient between the water table and the potentiometric surface; and thickness and permeability of the overlying sediments. Recharge to the aquifer comes almost entirely from rainfall within the Water Management District. Significant recharge occurs where the aquifer is at or very near land surface, and where the overlying sediments are very permeable sand so that recharge takes place downward leakage. Recharge also occurs through sinkholes, sinkhole lakes, and other lakes that have a good connection to the aquifer. Major recharge areas are delineated on the map. Discharge occurs in areas of artesian flow (where the potentiometric surface is above land surface), primarily by diffuse upward leakage and by discharge from springs. Fifty-five springs, with total discharge of about 1,600 million gallons per day, are in the Water Management District. Areas of discharge and the location of springs are shown on the map. In 1980, total pumpage in the Water Management District was about 1,000 million gallons per day. Under predevelopment conditions, discharge by springs and upward leakage approximately balanced recharged. Additional discharge by pumpage may or may not be balanced by decreased spring discharge of increased downward leakage. Examination of long-term water level trends can indicate if recharge and discharge balance. Graphs of rainfall, water levels, and municipal pumpage for Jacksonville, Orlando, and Daytona Beach are shown on the map. (USGS)

  18. [Prevalence of hypertension and its influencing factors in rural areas along the Yangtze River in Anhui Province in 2014-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Mingjun; Zhou, Mengmeng; Yang, Yuwei; Liang, Ling; Zhong, Qi; Qin, Qirong; Wang, Xiaodong; Huang, Fen

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the prevalence, awareness, treatment, control and related influence factors of hypertension among rural adult residents in areas along the Yangtze River in Anhui Province. Totally 2873 rural adult residents in seven typical towns along the Yangtze River of Chizhou, Tongling and Ma'anshan Cities, Anhui Province were selected, with multistage-stratified random cluster sampling, to perform questionnaires and physical measurements from year 2014 to 2015. The prevalence of hypertension was 30. 7%( standardized prevalence was 18. 4%), the awareness rate was 50. 6%( standardized rate was 29. 0%), the treatment rate was40. 4%( standardized rate was 18. 7%), the control rate was 17. 7%( standardized ratewas 9. 3%) in rural areas along the Yangtze River in Anhui Province. The prevalence, awareness, treatment and control rates of hypertension were increased with age increase. Abdominal obesity( OR = 1. 855, 95% CI 1. 467-2. 344), family history of hypertension( OR = 1. 594, 95% CI 1. 265-2. 008), the average annual household income Yangtze River. Female( OR = 0. 734, 95% CI 0. 604-0. 891) was its protective factors. While the factors of awareness, treatment and control rates of hypertension were not same. The prevalence of hypertension is higher in the areas along the Yangtze River in Anhui Province. However, the awareness, treatment and control rate of hypertension are lower.

  19. Groundwater monitoring program evaluation For A/M Area, Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiergesell, R.A.; Bollinger, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken with the primary purpose of assessing the groundwater monitoring program within the A/M Area to identify ways in which the monitoring program could be improved. The task was difficult due to the large number of wells located within the A/M Area and the huge database of analytical data. It was recognized early in this investigation that one of the key tasks was to develop a way to gain access to the groundwater databases so that recommendations could be made. To achieve this, geographic information systems (GIS) technology was used to extract pertinent groundwater quality information from the Geochemical Information Management System (GIMS) groundwater database and display the extracted information spatially. GIS technology was also used to determine the location of well screen and annular material zones within the A/M Area hydrostratigraphy and to identify wells that may breach confining units. Recommendations developed from this study address: (1) wells that may not be providing reliable data but continue to be routinely sampled (2) wells that may be inappropriately located but continue to be routinely sampled and (3) further work that should be undertaken, including well development, evaluation of wells that may be breaching confining units, and development of an automated link to GIMS using GIS so that GIMS data can easily be accessed and displayed geographically

  20. Relations between DNA- and RNA-based molecular methods for cyanobacteria and microcystin concentration at Maumee Bay State Park Lakeside Beach, Oregon, Ohio, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzer, Erin A.; Loftin, Keith A.; Struffolino, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Water samples were collected from Maumee Bay State Park Lakeside Beach, Oregon, Ohio, during the 2012 recreational season and analyzed for selected cyanobacteria gene sequences by DNA-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and RNA-based quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results from the four DNA assays (for quantifying total cyanobacteria, total Microcystis, and Microcystis and Planktothrix strains that possess the microcystin synthetase E (mcyE) gene) and two RNA assays (for quantifying Microcystis and Planktothrix genera that are expressing the microcystin synthetase E (mcyE) gene) were compared to microcystin concentration results determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Concentrations of the target in replicate analyses were log10 transformed. The average value of differences in log10 concentrations for the replicates that had at least one detection were found to range from 0.05 to >0.37 copy per 100 milliliters (copy/100 mL) for DNA-based methods and from >0.04 to >0.17 copy/100 mL for RNA-based methods. RNA has a shorter half-life than DNA; consequently, a 24-hour holding-time study was done to determine the effects of holding time on RNA concentrations. Holding-time comparisons for the RNA-based Microcystis toxin mcyE assay showed reductions in the number of copies per 100 milliliters over 24 hours. The log difference between time 2 hours and time 24 hours was >0.37 copy/100 mL, which was higher than the analytical variability (log difference of >0.17 copy/100 mL). Spearman’s correlation analysis indicated that microcystin toxin concentrations were moderately to highly related to DNA-based assay results for total cyanobacteria (rho=0.69), total Microcystis (rho=0.74), and Microcystis strains that possess the mcyE gene (rho=0.81). Microcystin toxin concentrations were strongly related with RNA-based assay results for Microcystis mcyE gene expression (rho=0.95). Correlation analysis could

  1. Mixing effects on geothermometric calculations of the Newdale geothermal area in the Eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghanashayam Neupane; Earl D. Mattson; Travis L. McLing; Cody J. Cannon; Thomas R. Wood; Trevor A. Atkinson; Patrick F. Dobson; Mark E. Conrad

    2016-02-01

    The Newdale geothermal area in Madison and Fremont Counties in Idaho is a known geothermal resource area whose thermal anomaly is expressed by high thermal gradients and numerous wells producing warm water (up to 51 °C). Geologically, the Newdale geothermal area is located within the Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) that has a time-transgressive history of sustained volcanic activities associated with the passage of Yellowstone Hotspot from the southwestern part of Idaho to its current position underneath Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming. Locally, the Newdale geothermal area is located within an area that was subjected to several overlapping and nested caldera complexes. The Tertiary caldera forming volcanic activities and associated rocks have been buried underneath Quaternary flood basalts and felsic volcanic rocks. Two southeast dipping young faults (Teton dam fault and an unnamed fault) in the area provide the structural control for this localized thermal anomaly zone. Geochemically, water samples from numerous wells in the area can be divided into two broad groups – Na-HCO3 and Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 type waters and are considered to be the product of water-rhyolite and water-basalt interactions, respectively. Each type of water can further be subdivided into two groups depending on their degree of mixing with other water types or interaction with other rocks. For example, some bivariate plots indicate that some Ca-(Mg)-HCO3 water samples have interacted only with basalts whereas some samples of this water type also show limited interaction with rhyolite or mixing with Na-HCO3 type water. Traditional geothermometers [e.g., silica variants, Na-K-Ca (Mg-corrected)] indicate lower temperatures for this area; however, a traditional silica-enthalpy mixing model results in higher reservoir temperatures. We applied a new multicomponent equilibrium geothermometry tool (e.g., Reservoir Temperature Estimator, RTEst) that is based on inverse geochemical modeling which

  2. Overview of mine drainage geochemistry at historical mines, Humboldt River basin and adjacent mining areas, Nevada. Chapter E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. Thomas; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2004-01-01

    Reconnaissance hydrogeochemical studies of the Humboldt River basin and adjacent areas of northern Nevada have identified local sources of acidic waters generated by historical mine workings and mine waste. The mine-related acidic waters are rare and generally flow less than a kilometer before being neutralized by natural processes. Where waters have a pH of less than about 3, particularly in the presence of sulfide minerals, the waters take on high to extremely high concentrations of many potentially toxic metals. The processes that create these acidic, metal-rich waters in Nevada are the same as for other parts of the world, but the scale of transport and the fate of metals are much more localized because of the ubiquitous presence of caliche soils. Acid mine drainage is rare in historical mining districts of northern Nevada, and the volume of drainage rarely exceeds about 20 gpm. My findings are in close agreement with those of Price and others (1995) who estimated that less than 0.05 percent of inactive and abandoned mines in Nevada are likely to be a concern for acid mine drainage. Most historical mining districts have no draining mines. Only in two districts (Hilltop and National) does water affected by mining flow into streams of significant size and length (more than 8 km). Water quality in even the worst cases is naturally attenuated to meet water-quality standards within about 1 km of the source. Only a few historical mines release acidic water with elevated metal concentrations to small streams that reach the Humboldt River, and these contaminants and are not detectable in the Humboldt. These reconnaissance studies offer encouraging evidence that abandoned mines in Nevada create only minimal and local water-quality problems. Natural attenuation processes are sufficient to compensate for these relatively small sources of contamination. These results may provide useful analogs for future mining in the Humboldt River basin, but attention must be given to

  3. Anthropogenic impact on diffuse trace metal accumulation in river sediments from agricultural reclamation areas with geochemical and isotopic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Wei; Ouyang, Wei, E-mail: wei@itc.nl; Hao, Fanghua; Lin, Chunye

    2015-12-01

    A better understanding of anthropogenic impact can help assess the diffuse trace metal accumulation in the agricultural environment. In this study, both river sediments and background soils were collected from a case study area in Northeast China and analyzed for total concentrations of six trace metals, four major elements and three lead isotopes. Results showed that Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr and Ni have accumulated in the river sediments after about 40 years of agricultural development, with average concentrations 1.23–1.71 times higher than local soil background values. Among them Ni, Cr and Cu were of special concern and they may pose adverse biological effects. By calculating enrichment factor (EF), it was found that the trace metal accumulation was still mainly ascribed to natural weathering processes, but anthropogenic contribution could represent up to 40.09% of total sediment content. For Pb, geochemical and isotopic approaches gave very similar anthropogenic contributions. Principal component analysis (PCA) further suggested that the anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni inputs were mostly related to the regional atmospheric deposition of industrial emissions and gasoline combustion, which had a strong affinity for iron oxides in the sediments. Concerning Cd, however, it mainly originated from local fertilizer applications and was controlled by sediment carbonates. - Graphical abstract: The trace metal accumulation was mainly ascribed to natural weathering processes, but anthropogenic contribution could represent up to 40.09% of total sediment content. Anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni mostly came from atmospheric deposition, while fertilizer application was the main anthropogenic source of Cd. - Highlights: • Trace metals have accumulated in the Naolihe sediments. • Natural weathering was still a major contributor to metal accumulation. • Anthropogenic Pb, Cu, Cr and Ni mostly came from atmospheric deposition. • Local fertilizer application was the main

  4. Development of a relative risk model for evaluating ecological risk of water environment in the Haihe River Basin estuary area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiuying; Liu, Jingling; Ho, Kin Chung; Yang, Zhifeng

    2012-03-15

    Ecological risk assessment for water environment is significant to water resource management of basin. Effective environmental management and systems restoration such as the Haihe River Basin require holistic understanding of the relative importance of various stressor-related impacts throughout the basin. As an effective technical tool for evaluating the ecological risk, relative risk model (RRM) was applied in regional scale successfully. In this study, the risk transfer from upstream of basin was considered and the RRM was developed through introducing the source-stressor-habitat exposure filter (SSH), the endpoint-habitat exposure filter (EH) and the stressor-endpoint effect filter (SE) to reflect the meaning of exposure and effect more explicit. Water environment which includes water quality, water quantity and aquatic ecosystems was selected as the assessment endpoints. We created a conceptual model which depicting potential and effect pathways from source to stressor to habitat to endpoint. The Haihe River Basin estuary (HRBE) was selected as the model case. The results showed that there were two low risk regions, one medium risk region and two high risk regions in the HRBE. The results also indicated that urbanization was the biggest source, the second was shipping and the third was industry, their risk scores are 5.65, 4.71 and 3.68 respectively. Furthermore, habitat destruction was the largest stressor with the risk scores (2.66), the second was oxygen consuming organic pollutants (1.75) and the third was pathogens (1.75). So these three stressors were the main influencing factors of the ecological pressure in the study area. For habitats, open waters (9.59) and intertidal mudflat were enduring the bigger pressure and should be taken considerable attention. Ecological service values damaged (30.54) and biodiversity decreased were facing the biggest risk pressure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical elements in soils of riverside areas of the Piracicaba river basin, São Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    França, Elvis J.; Lira, Marcelo B.G.; Paiva, José D.S.; Fernandes, Elisabete A. de N.; Fonseca, Felipe Y.; Rodrigues, Vanessa S.; Cavalca, Isabel P.O.; Camilli, Leandro

    2017-01-01

    The monitoring of the soil quality of the Piracicaba River Basin, located in the State of São Paulo, is of extreme environmental importance, as it ensures the functionality of the basin ecosystems and environmental protection. However, there are few studies focused on the concentration of chemical elements in soils of environmental protection zones of highly populated riverside regions. In view of the above, this work aims to determine the concentration of chemical elements in the soils located on the banks of the Piracicaba River by the Instrumental Neutronic Activation Analysis - INAA. Soil samples were collected in the 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-15 cm profiles. Subsequently, the samples were dried in an oven at 80 deg C and comminuted with the aid of mortar and pistil. 250 mg portions were transferred to polyethylene capsules and irradiated in 10 13 cm -2 .s -1 neutron flux for 4 hours at the IEA-R1 Nuclear Research Reactor of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute -IPEN / SP, Brazil. The determination of the chemical elements was conducted by the k0-INAA method from the Quantu program. Comparing the results obtained with the soil values of an untouched area of Atlantic Forest - Carlos Botelho State Park, the maximum values obtained of As (29 mg / kg) and Zn (185 mg / kg) were about 5 times greater. However, concentrations of terrigenous elements such as Fe and Sc were also high in some cases, indicating that there is also a contribution of the source material (rocks) to the high concentrations observed in the riverside soils

  6. Remote Sensing of Hydrological Changes in Tian-e-Zhou Oxbow Lake, an Ungauged Area of the Yangtze River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological pattern changes have a great influence on the wetland environment. However, some important wetland areas often lack historical observations due to economic and physical conditions. The Tian-e-Zhou oxbow lake wetland is an important habitat for two endangered species and also has very little historical hydrological data. Remote sensing images can be used to explore the historical water area fluctuation of lakes. In addition, remote sensing can also be used to obtain historical water levels based on the water boundary elevation integrated with a topographic data (WBET method or the level-surface area relationship curve (LRC method. In order to minimize the uncertainty of the derived results, both methods were introduced in the extraction of the water level of Tian-e-Zhou during 1992–2015. The results reveal that the hydrological regime of the oxbow lake has experienced a significant change after the Shatanzi Levee construction in 1998. With the impact of the levee, the mean annual water surface area of the lake was reduced by 5.8 km2 during the flood season, but, during the non-flood season, it was increased by 1.35 km2. For the same period, the water level of the lake during the flood season also showed a 1.47 m (WBET method or 3.21 m (LRC method decrease. The mean annual water level increased by 1.12 m (WBET method or 0.75 m (LRC method. Both results had a good accuracy with RMSE (root-mean-square errors of less than 0.4 m. Furthermore, the water level differences between the Yangtze River channel and the oxbow lake increased by at least 0.5 m. It is found that the hydrological pattern of the oxbow lake changed significantly after the levee construction, which could bring some disadvantages to the habitats of the two endangered species.

  7. The role of domestic dogs in the transmission of zoonotic helminthes in a rural area of Mekong river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake Sato, Marcello; Sato, Megumi; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Kounnavong, Sengchanh; Maipanich, Wanna; Chigusa, Yuichi; Moji, Kazuhiko; Waikagul, Jitra

    2017-06-01

    Dogs have been bred since ancient times for companionship, hunting, protection, shepherding and other human activities. Some canine helminth parasites can cause significant clinical diseases in humans as Opisthorchis viverrini causing cholangiocarcinoma in Southeast Asian Countries. In this study, socio-cultural questionnaire, canine parasitological analysis, necropsy, parasite molecular confirmation and dog roaming data were evaluated in Savannakhet, Lao-PDR, a typical Mekong Basin area. Dog owners comprised 48.8% of the studied population, with 61.2% owning one dog, 25.1% 2 dogs, 8.5% 3 dogs and 1.8% owning more than 4 dogs. Data from GPS logger attached to dogs showed they walked from 1.4 to 13.3 km per day, covering an area of 3356.38m2 average, with a routine of accessing water sources. Thirteen zoonotic helminth species were observed. Causative agents of visceral and cutaneous larva migrans occurred in 44.1% and 70% of the samples respectively. Spirometra erinaceieuropaei was detected in 44.1% of samples. Importantly, O. viverrini was found in 8.8% of samples. Besides the known importance of dogs in the transmission of Ancylostoma spp., Toxocara spp. and S. erinaceieuropaei, the observed roaming pattern of dogs confirmed it as an important host perpetuating O. viverrini in endemic areas; their routine access to waterbodies may spread O. viverrini eggs in a favorable environment for the fluke development, facilitating the infection of fishes, and consequently infecting humans living in the same ecosystem. Therefore, parasitic NTDs control programs in humans should be done in parallel with parasite control in animals, especially dogs, in the Mekong River basin area.

  8. Long term effect of metal pollution in the catchment area of Tisza River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Győri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In January and March 2000 two tailings dam failures occurred in the upper Tisza catchment area near Baia Mare and Baia Borsa (Romania. These accidents focused attention on the metal pollution of the Tisza catchment area, and the short term effects of them were studied by many researchers. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effects of these pollutions by determining the Lakanen-Erviö extractable easily available metal contents of samples collected in 2011 from floodplains and pastures along the Tisza (Tivadar, Vásárosnamény, Rakamaz, Tiszacsege, and comparing them to our earlier results. Cu and Zn contents were measured by Optima 3300 DV ICP-OES (Perkin-Elmer. The measurement of Pb and Cd was conducted by QZ 939 GF-AAS (Unicam in 2000 and by an X7 ICP-MS (Thermo Fisher in 2011. We found that the Cd, Zn and Pb contents of the pasture near Vásárosnamény exceed limit values and natural background values. In addition, during a 11 year period the easily available Cd, Zn and Pb contents increased significantly, suggesting that the hazard of this pollution should not be neglected.

  9. Mercury transport between sediments and the overlying water of the St. Lawrence River area of concern near Cornwall, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delongchamp, Tania M., E-mail: tdelongchamp@intrinsikscience.co [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Ridal, Jeffrey J. [St. Lawrence River Institute of Environmental Sciences, 2 Belmont Street, Cornwall, Ontario, K6H 4Z1 (Canada); Lean, David R.S. [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada); Poissant, Laurier [Meteorological Service of Canada, Atmospheric Toxic Processes Section, Environment Canada, 105 McGill 7th floor (Youville), Montreal, Quebec H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Blais, Jules M., E-mail: jules.blais@uottawa.c [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 150 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, Ontario K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    Contaminated sediments in the St. Lawrence River remain a difficult problem despite decreases in emissions. Here, sediment and pore water phases were analyzed for total mercury (THg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) and diffusion from the sediment to the overlying water was 17.5 +- 10.6 SE ng cm{sup -2} yr{sup -1} for THg and 3.8 +- 1.7 SE ng cm{sup -2} yr{sup -1} for MeHg. These fluxes were very small when compared to the particle-bound mercury flux accumulating in the sediment (183 +- 30 SE ng cm{sup -2} yr{sup -1}). Studies have reported that fish from the westernmost site have higher Hg concentrations than fish collected from the other two sites of the Cornwall Area of Concern, which could not be explained by differences in the Hg flux or THg concentrations in sediments, but the highest concentrations of sediment MeHg, and the greatest proportions of MeHg to THg in both sediment and pore water were observed where fish had highest MeHg concentrations. - Sediments in the St. Lawrence area of concern near Cornwall are a net sink for mercury.

  10. Phosphorous as the major yield limiting nutrient for maize in the river basin areas of western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Bhakta Pokharel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize is a heavy feeder crop but not always higher quantity of chemical fertilizers leads for higher grain yield. Objective of the study was to identify the major yield limiting macro nutrient for maize in the river basis areas. Field experiments were conducted at four locations viz. Dasharathpur, Ramghat, Mehelkuna, and Gumi VDCs of Surkhet district, under research command areas of Agriculture Research Station, Surkhet. Different doses of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium fertilizers were applied. Planting was done in the summer season of 2010 and 2011. All field experiments were laid out in randomized complete block designs with three replications at each site and year. Deuti variety of maize was used in the experiment. Days to tasseling, silking, and physiological maturity due to fertilizer application were found significant. One week earlier silking, tasseling, and physiological maturity was observed due to use of 100:100 kg ha-1 nitrogen and phosphorous as compared to the most late maturity with application of 100 kg nitrogen ha-1. The highest grain yield (6802 kg ha-1 was found with application of 100:100 kg nitrogen and phosphorous ha-1 and the lowest grain yield (4174 kg ha-1 was found with the normal recommended fertilizer dose. Phosphorous was observed as the major yield limiting factor in this study.

  11. Climate change impacts on water availability in the Red River Basin and critical areas for future water conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani Sabzi, H.; Moreno, H. A.; Neeson, T. M.; Rosendahl, D. H.; Bertrand, D.; Xue, X.; Hong, Y.; Kellog, W.; Mcpherson, R. A.; Hudson, C.; Austin, B. N.

    2017-12-01

    Previous periods of severe drought followed by exceptional flooding in the Red River Basin (RRB) have significantly affected industry, agriculture, and the environment in the region. Therefore, projecting how climate may change in the future and being prepared for potential impacts on the RRB is crucially important. In this study, we investigated the impacts of climate change on water availability across the RRB. We used three down-scaled global climate models and three potential greenhouse gas emission scenarios to assess precipitation, temperature, streamflow and lake levels throughout the RRB from 1961 to 2099 at a spatial resolution of 1/10°. Unit-area runoff and streamflow were obtained using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model applied across the entire basin. We found that most models predict less precipitation in the western side of the basin and more in the eastern side. In terms of temperature, the models predict that average temperature could increase as much as 6°C. Most models project slightly more precipitation and streamflow values in the future, specifically in the eastern side of the basin. Finally, we analyzed the projected meteorological and hydrologic parameters alongside regional water demand for different sectors to identify the areas on the RRB that will need water-environmental conservation actions in the future. These hotspots of future low water availability are locations where regional environmental managers, water policy makers, and the agricultural and industrial sectors must proactively prepare to deal with declining water availability over the coming decades.

  12. Hydrology and numerical simulation of groundwater flow and streamflow depletion by well withdrawals in the Malad-Lower Bear River Area, Box Elder County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolp, Bernard J.; Brooks, Lynette E.; Solder, John

    2017-03-28

    The Malad-Lower Bear River study area in Box Elder County, Utah, consists of a valley bounded by mountain ranges and is mostly agricultural or undeveloped. The Bear and Malad Rivers enter the study area with a combined average flow of about 1,100,000 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr), and this surface water dominates the hydrology. Groundwater occurs in consolidated rock and basin fill. Groundwater recharge occurs from precipitation in the mountains and moves through consolidated rock to the basin fill. Recharge occurs in the valley from irrigation. Groundwater discharge occurs to rivers, springs and diffuse seepage areas, evapotranspiration, field drains, and wells. Groundwater, including springs, is a source for municipal and domestic water supply. Although withdrawal from wells is a small component of the groundwater budget, there is concern that additional groundwater development will reduce the amount of flow in the Malad River. Historical records of surface-water diversions, land use, and groundwater levels indicate relatively stable hydrologic conditions from the 1960s to the 2010s, and that current groundwater development has had little effect on the groundwater system. Average annual recharge to and discharge from the groundwater flow system are estimated to be 164,000 and 228,000 acre-ft/yr, respectively. The imbalance between recharge and discharge represents uncertainties resulting from system complexities, and the possibility of groundwater inflow from surrounding basins.This study reassesses the hydrologic system, refines the groundwater budget, and creates a numerical groundwater flow model that is used to analyze the effects of groundwater withdrawals on surface water. The model uses the detailed catalog of locations and amounts of groundwater recharge and discharge defined during this study. Calibrating the model to adequately simulate recharge, discharge, and groundwater levels results in simulated aquifer properties that can be used to understand

  13. Effects of fluvial processes in different order river valleys on redistribution and storage of particle-bound radioactive caesium-137 in area of significant Chernobyl fallout and impact on linked rivers with lower contamination levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Golosov, Valentin; Shamshurina, Evgeniya; Ivanov, Maxim; Ivanova, Nadezhda; Bezukhov, Dmitry; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Evrard, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Detailed investigations of the post-fallout fate of radionuclide contamination represent an important task in terms of environmental quality assessment. In addition, particle-bound radionuclides such as the most widespread anthropogenic isotope caesium-137 can be used as tracers for quantitative assessment of different sediment redistribution processes. In landscapes of humid plains with agriculture-dominated land use the post-fallout redistribution of caesium-137 is primarily associated with fluvial activity of various scales in cascade systems starting from soil erosion on cultivated hillslopes through gully and small dry valley network into different order perennial streams and rivers. Our investigations in the so-called Plavsk hotspot (area of very high Chernobyl caesium-137 contamination within the Plava River basin, Tula Region, Central European Russia) has been continuing for more than 15 years by now, while the time passed since the Chernobyl disaster and associated radioactive fallout (1986) is almost 29 years. Detailed information on the fluvial sediment and associated caesium-137 redistribution has been obtained for case study sites of different size from individual cultivated slopes and small catchments of different size (2-180 km2) to the entire Plava River basin scale (1856 km2). It has been shown that most of the contaminated sediment over the time passed since the fallout has remained stored within the small dry valleys of the 1-4 Hortonian order and local reservoirs (>70%), while only about 5% reached the 5-6 order valleys (main tributaries of the Plava River) and storage of the Plava floodplain itself represents as low as 0.3% of the basin-scale total sediment production from eroded cultivated hillslopes. Nevertheless, it has been shown that contaminated sediment yield from the Plava River basin exerts significant influence on less polluted downstream-linked river system. Recent progress of the investigations involved sampling of 7 detailed depth

  14. Scientific information in support of water resource management of the Big River area, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David S.; Masterson, John P.; Robinson, Keith W.; Crawley, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    The Rhode Island Water Resources Board (RIWRB) is concerned that the demand for water may exceed the available public water supply in central and southern Rhode Island. Although water is often assumed to be plentiful in Rhode Island because of abundant rainfall, an adequate supply of water is not always available everywhere in the state during dry periods. Concerns that water demand may exceed supply are greatest during the summer, when lower water levels and increased drought potential combine with seasonal increases in peak water demand (Rhode Island Water Resources Board, 2012). High summer water demands are due to increases in outdoor water use, such as lawn watering and agricultural irrigation, and to increased summer population in coastal areas. Water-supply concerns are particularly acute in central and southern Rhode Island, where groundwater is the primary source of drinking water.

  15. The movement of water, arsenic, and radium at a Chalk River waste management area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killey, R.W.D.; Myrand, D.

    1985-05-01

    Area F is a storage site at CRNL for 119 000 tonnes of soil contaminated with low levels of arsenic and radium-226. The site was closed in 1979, and a clayey silt cover was installed in an attempt to minimize infiltration of available precipitation. Results of studies in 1980 and 1983 are used to show that the low-permeability cover has been largely ineffective in reducing infiltration. Radium has remained immobile, but arsenic is being transported by infiltrating waters into unsaturated sands beneath the contaminated soil. Iron oxyhydroxide coatings on the sand grains are sorbing the transported arsenic, and have reduced dissolved arsenic concentrations in pore waters in the sands to natural background levels

  16. Closure plan for the M-Area settling basin and vicinity at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colven, W.P.; Pickett, J.B.; Muska, C.F.; Boone, L.F.

    1988-03-01

    The closure plan for the M-Area settling basin and vicinity was originally submitted to the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) Bureau of Solid and Hazardous Waste Management in September 1984. The plan was revised in July and November 1985 in response to SCDHEC comments. After public comment in April through July 1986, the closure plan was conditionally approved by SCDHEC in March 1987. The conditions included (1) providing a temporary wastewater treatment facility to process the water remaining in the basin, (2) using a burn box to limit ash emissions from burning in the basin, (3) obtaining SCDHEC approval prior to operating the leach field, and (4) completing all closure activities within three years of the startup date

  17. Assessment of skin and liver neoplasms in brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) collected at the Ashtabula River Area of Concern and associated reference site, Ohio, in 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, Vicki S.; Walsh, Heather L.; Braham, Ryan P.

    2018-05-21

    Brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) is a commonly used indicator species for tumor surveys at Great Lakes Areas of Concern. The “fish tumors or other deformities” is one of the beneficial use impairments at the Ashtabula River Area of Concern. In May 2016, 150 brown bullhead were collected in the lower Ashtabula River and 150 were collected in the nearby Conneaut Creek as a reference. Length, weight and external visible abnormalities were documented. Fish were euthanized, and skin lesions and liver tissue preserved for histopathological analyses. Otoliths were collected for age analyses. The percentage of bullhead with raised external lesions on lips, barbels and body surface was 34.7 percent at the Ashtabula River and 23.3 percent at Conneaut Creek. At the Ashtabula River, 26.7 percent of the bullhead collected had skin neoplasms, including papillomas, melanomas and squamous cell carcinomas, whereas at Conneaut Creek 18.6 percent had only papillomas, benign skin tumors. Liver neoplasms were observed in 7.3 percent of the bullhead from the Ashtabula River and 4.7 percent of those from Conneaut Creek. These neoplasms were observed in fish 6 years of age or older at both sites.

  18. Parenting Styles as Correlates of Adolescents Drug Addiction among Senior Secondary School Students in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onukwufor, Jonathan N.; Chukwu, Mercy Anwuri

    2017-01-01

    The study was conducted to find out the relationship between parenting styles and secondary students' drug addiction among adolescents in secondary schools in Obio-Akpor Local Government Area (L.G.A.) of Rivers State Nigeria. The study was guided by three research questions and similar number of null hypotheses. The study adopted a correlation…

  19. Water quality, sediment, and soil characteristics near Fargo-Moorhead urban areas as affected by major flooding of the Red River of the north

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.C. Guy; T.M. DeSutter; F.X.M. Casey; R. Kolka; H. Hakk

    2012-01-01

    Spring flooding of the Red River of the North (RR) is common, but little information exits on how these flood events affect water and overbank sediment quality within an urban area. With the threat of the spring 2009 flood in the RR predicted to be the largest in recorded history and the concerns about the flooding of farmsteads, outbuildings, garages, and basements,...

  20. Field Dependence-Field Independence Cognitive Style, Gender, Career Choice and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyekuru, Bruno Uchenna

    2015-01-01

    This is a descriptive study that investigated the relationships among field dependence-field independence cognitive style and gender, career choice and academic achievement of secondary school students in Emohua Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. From the initial sample of 320 senior secondary school one (SS1) students drawn from the…

  1. Teaching Trajectories and Students' Understanding of Difficult Concepts in Biology in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area in Rivers State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumuni, Abosede Anthonia Olufemi; Dike, John Worlu; Uzoma-Nwogu, Azibaolanari

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of teaching trajectories on students' understanding of difficult concepts in Biology. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study which was carried out in Obio/Akpor Local Government Area of Rivers State. Two public coeducational schools out of thirteen drawn through purposive sampling…

  2. Ground-water flow directions and estimation of aquifer hydraulic properties in the lower Great Miami River Buried Valley aquifer system, Hamilton Area, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets, Rodney A.; Bossenbroek, Karen E.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System is one of the most productive sources of potable water in the Midwest, yielding as much as 3,000 gallons per minute to wells. Many water-supply wells tapping this aquifer system are purposely placed near rivers to take advantage of induced infiltration from the rivers. The City of Hamilton's North Well Field consists of 10 wells near the Great Miami River, all completed in the lower Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System. A well-drilling program and a multiple-well aquifer test were done to investigate ground-water flow directions and to estimate aquifer hydraulic properties in the lower part of the Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System. Descriptions of lithology from 10 well borings indicate varying amounts and thickness of clay or till, and therefore, varying levels of potential aquifer confinement. Borings also indicate that the aquifer properties can change dramatically over relatively short distances. Grain-size analyses indicate an average bulk hydraulic conductivity value of aquifer materials of 240 feet per day; the geometric mean of hydraulic conductivity values of aquifer material was 89 feet per day. Median grain sizes of aquifer material and clay units were 1.3 millimeters and 0.1 millimeters, respectively. Water levels in the Hamilton North Well Field are affected by stream stage in the Great Miami River and barometric pressure. Bank storage in response to stream stage is evident. Results from a multiple-well aquifer test at the well field indicate, as do the lithologic descriptions, that the aquifer is semiconfined in some areas and unconfined in others. Transmissivity and storage coefficient of the semiconfined part of the aquifer were 50,000 feet squared per day and 5x10-4, respectively. The average hydraulic conductivity (450 feet per day) based on the aquifer test is reasonable for glacial outwash but is higher than calculated from grain-size analyses, implying a scale effect

  3. Thermal impact of a small alas-valley river in a continuous permafrost area - insights and issues raised from a field monitoring Site in Syrdakh (Central Yakutia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Christophe; Nicolas, Roux; Fedorov, Alexander; Konstantinov, Pavel; Séjourné, Antoine; Costard, François; Marlin, Christelle; Khristoforov, Ivan; Saintenoy, Albane

    2017-04-01

    Lakes are probably the most prominent surface water bodies in continuous permafrost areas. As a consequence, they are also the most studied features in these regions (e.g. Fedorov et al. 2014). They are indeed of great interest, not only for local populations that use the water resource they represent both in winter and summer, but also from a climatic point of view as they can be a specific source of green-house gases due to the relatively warmer environment they create, especially associated with their taliks (thawed zone surrounded by permafrost located beneath large enough lakes). From a hydrogeological perspective, such taliks can form complex groundwater networks, thus possibly connecting sub-permafrost groundwater with surface water in the present context of climate change. On the other hand, rivers, another important feature of permafrost landscapes providing similar challenges, have drawn less attention so that only a few studies focus on river interactions with permafrost (e.g. Costard et al. 2014, Grenier et al. 2013). However, the processes of heat transfer at stake between river and permafrost strongly differ from lake systems for several reasons. The geometries differ, the river water flow and thermal regimes and interactions with the lateral slopes (valley) are specific. Of particular importance is the fact that the water, in the case of rivers, is in motion leading to specific heat exchange phenomena between water and soil. (Roux et al., accepted) addressed this issue recently by means of an experimental study in a cold room and associated numerical simulations. The present study focuses on a real river-permafrost system with its full natural complexity. A small alas-valley in the vicinity of Yakutsk (Central Yakutia, Siberia) was chosen. Monitoring was started in October 2012 to study the thermal and hydrological interactions between a river and its underground in this continuous permafrost environment. Thermal sensors were installed inside the

  4. 2012 Annual Report: Simulate and Evaluate the Cesium Transport and Accumulation in Fukushima-Area Rivers by the TODAM Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2013-03-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory initiated the application of the time-varying, one-dimensional sediment-contaminant transport code, TODAM (Time-dependent, One-dimensional, Degradation, And Migration) to simulate the cesium migration and accumulation in the Ukedo River in Fukushima. This report describes the preliminary TODAM simulation results of the Ukedo River model from the location below the Ougaki Dam to the river mouth at the Pacific Ocean. The major findings of the 100-hour TODAM simulation of the preliminary Ukedo River modeling are summarized as follows:

  5. Preliminary study of river water in gold mining areas of Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Satoshi; Nishiyama, Fumitaka; Sieng, Sotham

    2004-01-01

    In Cambodia, artisanal mining has recently come to a social concern because of the possibility to cause environmental degradation and human health problems. The General Department of Mineral Resources of Cambodia is collecting environmental specimens in mining sites to watch the situation. This time, four water samples from Sampov Loon and one from Memong mining site were sent from the Department to Hiroshima University, Japan, and the samples were analyzed by means of PIXE at the University. A volume of 10 μl from each sample was separated and dropped onto 4 μm polypropylene backing foil. The measurement was carried out by using 2.5 MV single-ended Vande Graaff accelerator. A Si(Li) detector (active area, 80mm 2 ; sensitive depth, 5 mm; Be-window's thickness, 25 μm; resolution, 167 eV fwhm at 5.9 keV) was used for both of in vacuo PIXE and non-vacuum external beam PIXE measurement. A computer code PIXS was used for the quantification. The result indicates that there are at least two kinds of water in Sampov Loon and one of them possibly represents polluted condition. (author)

  6. Long-term impacts of aerosols on precipitation and lightning over the Pearl River Delta megacity area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Seven-year measurements of precipitation, lightning flashes, and visibility from 2000 to 2006 have been analyzed in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region, China, with a focus on the Guangzhou megacity area. Statistical analysis shows that the occurrence of heavy rainfall (>25 mm per day and frequency of lightning strikes are reversely correlated to visibility during this period. To elucidate the effects of aerosols on cloud processes, precipitation, and lightning activity, a cloud resolving – Weather Research and Forecasting (CR-WRF model with a two-moment bulk microphysical scheme is employed to simulate a mesoscale convective system occurring on 28 Match 2009 in the Guangzhou megacity area. The model predicted evolutions of composite radar reflectivity and accumulated precipitation are in agreement with measurements from S-band weather radars and automatic gauge stations. The calculated lightning potential index (LPI exhibits temporal and spatial consistence with lightning flashes recorded by a local lightning detection network. Sensitivity experiments have been performed to reflect aerosol conditions representative of polluted and clean cases. The simulations suggest that precipitation and LPI are enhanced by about 16% and 50%, respectively, under the polluted aerosol condition. Our results suggest that elevated aerosol loading suppresses light and moderate precipitation (less than 25 mm per day, but enhances heavy precipitation. The responses of hydrometeors and latent heat release to different aerosol loadings reveal the physical mechanism for the precipitation and lightning enhancement in the Guangzhou megacity area, showing more efficient mixed phase processes and intensified convection under the polluted aerosol condition.

  7. Geohydrologic Investigations and Landscape Characteristics of Areas Contributing Water to Springs, the Current River, and Jacks Fork, Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugel, Douglas N.; Richards, Joseph M.; Schumacher, John G.

    2009-01-01

    The Ozark National Scenic Riverways (ONSR) is a narrow corridor that stretches for approximately 134 miles along the Current River and Jacks Fork in southern Missouri. Most of the water flowing in the Current River and Jacks Fork is discharged to the rivers from springs within the ONSR, and most of the recharge area of these springs is outside the ONSR. This report describes geohydrologic investigations and landscape characteristics of areas contributing water to springs and the Current River and Jacks Fork in the ONSR. The potentiometric-surface map of the study area for 2000-07 shows that the groundwater divide extends beyond the surface-water divide in some places, notably along Logan Creek and the northeastern part of the study area, indicating interbasin transfer of groundwater between surface-water basins. A low hydraulic gradient occurs in much of the upland area west of the Current River associated with areas of high sinkhole density, which indicates the presence of a network of subsurface karst conduits. The results of a low base-flow seepage run indicate that most of the discharge in the Current River and Jacks Fork was from identified springs, and a smaller amount was from tributaries whose discharge probably originated as spring discharge, or from springs or diffuse groundwater discharge in the streambed. Results of a temperature profile conducted on an 85-mile reach of the Current River indicate that the lowest average temperatures were within or downstream from inflows of springs. A mass-balance on heat calculation of the discharge of Bass Rock Spring, a previously undescribed spring, resulted in an estimated discharge of 34.1 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), making it the sixth largest spring in the Current River Basin. The 13 springs in the study area for which recharge areas have been estimated accounted for 82 percent (867 ft3/s of 1,060 ft3/s) of the discharge of the Current River at Big Spring during the 2006 seepage run. Including discharge from

  8. Baseline mapping study of the Steed Pond aquifer and vadose zone beneath A/M Area, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.G. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the second phase of a baseline mapping project conducted for the Environmental Restoration Department (ERD) at Savannah River Site. The purpose of this second phase is to map the structure and distribution of mud (clay and silt-sized sediment) within the vadose zone beneath A/M Area. The results presented in this report will assist future characterization and remediation activities in the vadose zone and upper aquifer zones in A/M Area

  9. Characteristis of Soil Water and Salt Spatial Variations in the Spring Season in Typical Yellow River Delta Areas of Kenli County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Zhuo-ran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Yellow River Delta as an important area of reserved land resources, is faced with the problem of soil salinization. Grasping the status of soil water and salt as well as their spatial variation rules is an important foundation of prevention, control and use of soil salinization. This study selected Kenli County of the Yellow River Delta, obtained soil water and salt content data through field survey and lab experiments, and analyzed the status of soil water and salt as well as their spatial variation rules using statistics, GIS interpolation and buffer analysis methods. The results showed that the general salt content in the study area was mainly moderate. Salt content increased from soil surfacelayer to underlayer and salt content in each layer was significantly correlated. The areas with high saltness in surfacelayer, middlelayer and underlayer soil mainly distributed in the east near the Bohai Sea in Kenli County, while the areas with lower saltness mainly distributed in the southwest. Soil salt contents showed the trends of decrease, and soil water contents showed the trends of decrease first and then increase with the increase in distance to Bohai Sea. Stretching from the Yellow River, soil salt content showed increase tendency with the increase in distance to the Yellow River, and water content decreased first and then increased. The order from high saltness to low of different vegetation types was naked land>suaeda glauca>tamarix>vervain>reed>couch grass>paddy>cotton>winter wheat>maize, the order of different geomorphic types was depression>slightly sloping ground>slow hillock>beach heights. This study preliminary delineates soil water and salt status as well as their spatial variation rules in the spring season of the study area, and provides scientific basis for soil resource sustainable utilization in the Yellow River Delta.

  10. Petroleum hydrocarbons in a water-sediment system from Yellow River estuary and adjacent coastal area, China: Distribution pattern, risk assessment and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Wang, Chuanyuan; Li, Yuanwei

    2017-09-15

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), biomarker and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) concentrations of surface water and sediment samples collected from Yellow River Estuary and adjacent coastal area in China were measured to determine their spatial distributions, analyze their sources and evaluate the ecological risk of PAHs in the water-sediment system. The spatial distributions of n-alkane in sediments are mainly controlled by the mixing inputs of terrigenous and marine components. In comparison with AHs, the total concentrations of Σ16PAHs in surface sediments from a transect of the offshore area were noticeably higher than that of the riverine and estuary areas. Additionally, the AHs and total PAHs concentrations all indicated an overall pattern of a seaward decrease. The PAHs concentrations during the dry season (mainly in the form of dissolved phase) were higher than that of PAHs (mainly dissolved phase and particulate phase form) in the flooding season. In comparison with global concentration levels of PAHs, the level of PAHs in suspended particulate matter and sediments from the Yellow River Estuary was lower than those from other countries, while the concentration of PAHs in the dissolved phase were in the middle range. Petroleum contamination, mainly from oil exploration and discharge of pollutants from rivers, was the main source of n-alkanes. The PAHs in the river were mostly of petrogenic origin, while those in the estuarial and marine areas originated mainly from pyrogenic sources. The results of the toxicology assessment suggested that the PAHs in sediments from Yellow River Estuary and adjacent coastal area exhibited a low potential eco-toxicological contamination level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Water-quality assessment of part of the upper Mississippi River basin, Minnesota and Wisconsin - Ground-water quality in an urban part of the Twin Cities Metropolitan area, Minnesota, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, W.J.; Fong, A.L.; Harrod, Leigh; Dittes, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    In the spring of 1996, the Upper Mississippi River Basin Study Unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program drilled 30 shallow monitoring wells in a study area characterized by urban residential and commercial land uses. The monitoring wells were installed in sandy river-terrace deposits adjacent to the Mississippi River in Anoka and Hennepin Counties, Minnesota, in areas where urban development primarily occurred during the past 30 years.

  12. Morphological changes and hydrodynamic effects of the urbanization process of river Tamanduateí watershed – Metropolitan area of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Moroz-Caccia Gouveia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Relying on Anthropogenic and Historical Geomorphology, this paper presents methodology applied to the River Tamanduateí watershed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of changes resulting from the urbanization process in physical systems, from the geomorphological cartography. The approach has as its main premise consider the human actions into the landscape as geomorphological nature of actions whose effects can be measured using indicators and benchmarks. Among other analysis, the identification of the original or pre-urban characteristics and anthropogenic changes allowed us to estimate the loss of the water storage capacity due to the suppression of river plains and changes in hydrodynamic balance in the areas of hydrographic basin.

  13. Hydrogeology of the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system in the Endicott-Vestal area of southwestern Broome County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Allan D.; Kappel, William M.

    2015-07-29

    The village of Endicott, New York, and the adjacent town of Vestal have historically used groundwater from the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system for municipal water supply, but parts of some aquifers in this urban area suffer from legacy contamination from varied sources. Endicott would like to identify sites distant from known contamination where productive aquifers could supply municipal wells with water that would not require intensive treatment. The distribution or geometry of aquifers within the Susquehanna River valley fill in western Endicott and northwestern Vestal are delineated in this report largely on the basis of abundant borehole data that have been compiled in a table of well records.

  14. Geohydrology and potential effects of coal mining in 12 coal-lease areas, Powder River structural basin, northeastern Wyoming. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogg, J.L.; Martin, M.W.; Daddow, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the report is to describe the geohydrology of 12 coal-lease areas in the Powder River structural basin in relation to the mining proposed for each area. The description of the geohydrology of each of the lease areas focuses on the shallow ground-water system and includes identification of recharge and discharge areas, directions of ground-water movement, and potential effects of mining. The shallow ground-water system in the Powder River structural basin is not well defined because of the discontinuous nature of the aquifers in the basin. Understanding the ground-water hydrology of these 12 coal-lease areas will improve understanding of the shallow ground-water system in the basin. The first part of the report is a description of the general geohydrology of the Wyoming part of the Powder River structural basin. The second part of the report is a general discussion of the effects of coal mining on ground-water hydrology. The third part of the report contains site-specific discussions of the ground-water hydrology and potential effects of mining for each of the 12 coal-lease areas

  15. Retrospection of recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area of North China using Cesium-137

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhifan [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China) and College of Environment and Planning, Henan University, Kaifeng 475001 (China)], E-mail: chenzhf0604@163.com; Zhao Ye [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China)], E-mail: zhaoye@bnu.edu.cn; Qiao Jiejuan [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang Qing [National Institute for Radiological Protection, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Protection, Beijing 100088 (China); Zhu Yuen [State Key Laboratory of Water Environment Simulation, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, 19 Xin Jie Kou Wai St., Beijing 100875 (China); Xu Cuihua [National Institute for Radiological Protection, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Protection, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2009-10-15

    The Luanhe River Source Area belongs to typical semi-arid, agro-pastoral ecotone of North China. It is very important for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion in North China to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in this area. Based on long field observations, soil samples from different depths in a representative wind-deposited soil profile in the Luanhe River Source Area were collected. Then the {sup 137}Cs activity of soil samples from different depths in the soil profile was determined using a GEM series HPGe (high-purity germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCAM-100), and their soil properties, such as the soil particle fraction and so on, were analyzed. According to the detected {sup 137}Cs activity of different depths, a continuous time sequence of the wind-deposited soil profile in the study area was established. Furthermore, through assumption on a soil relative wind erosion intensity index (SWEI), recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area were retrospected . The analysis results revealed that weaker soil wind erosion occurred in the study area from the 1970s to the early 1980s and from the late 1980s to the mid to late 1990s. Conversely, intense periods of soil wind erosion occurred in the mid-1980s and from the late 1990s to 2002.

  16. Retrospection of recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area of North China using Cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhifan; Zhao Ye; Qiao Jiejuan; Zhang Qing; Zhu Yuen; Xu Cuihua

    2009-01-01

    The Luanhe River Source Area belongs to typical semi-arid, agro-pastoral ecotone of North China. It is very important for the prevention and treatment of soil erosion in North China to analyze and evaluate quantitatively the recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in this area. Based on long field observations, soil samples from different depths in a representative wind-deposited soil profile in the Luanhe River Source Area were collected. Then the 137 Cs activity of soil samples from different depths in the soil profile was determined using a GEM series HPGe (high-purity germanium) coaxial detector system (ADCAM-100), and their soil properties, such as the soil particle fraction and so on, were analyzed. According to the detected 137 Cs activity of different depths, a continuous time sequence of the wind-deposited soil profile in the study area was established. Furthermore, through assumption on a soil relative wind erosion intensity index (SWEI), recent 30-year changes in the process of soil wind erosion in the Luanhe River Source Area were retrospected . The analysis results revealed that weaker soil wind erosion occurred in the study area from the 1970s to the early 1980s and from the late 1980s to the mid to late 1990s. Conversely, intense periods of soil wind erosion occurred in the mid-1980s and from the late 1990s to 2002.

  17. Late Pleistocene and Holocene-Age Columbia River Sediments and Bedforms: Hanford Reach Area, Washington - Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.R. Fecht, T.E. Marceau

    2006-03-28

    This report presents the results of a geologic study conducted on the lower slopes of the Columbia River Valley in south-central Washington. The study was designed to investigate glaciofluvial and fluvial sediments and bedforms that are present in the river valley and formed subsequent to Pleistocene large-scale cataclysmic flooding of the region.

  18. Application of Mat Traps to Determine the Present Speed of Accumulation of Alluvium at the Ryazan Area in the Middle Reaches of the Oka River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivtsov V.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the processes of channel sedimentation in riverbeds of lowland rivers has important fundamental and practical importance. In the economic development of river valleys a lot of attention is paid to the dynamics of the major reliefforming processes within the floodplain. A typical example showing the pattern of forming landforms and type of floodplain processes is deposition and redeposition of riverine sediment. In the future sedimentation of alluvium in areas of riverine floodplain makes the growth rate of natural levees, islands and shoals. For the average flow of the Oka river the pace of modern dynamics of accumulation of alluvium in the riverine areas is clarified. For the first time in this area the method of mat traps is applied. Rubber and coconut fiber were selected as the main materials for the traps. Specific features of the application methods and the difficulties encountered in its application were defined. The authors obtained the data about thickness of the layer of sediment accumulation of river flood of 2015, the results of particle size analysis of alluvial material with traps. The main patterns of distribution of fractions of alluvium and the pace of accumulation of various forms of riverine floodplain accumulation were identified. Tested methodology has proven its effectiveness and was found promising for use in the future in this region.

  19. MULTI-TEMPORAL LAND USE ANALYSIS OF AN EPHEMERAL RIVER AREA USING AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK APPROACH ON LANDSAT IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aquilino

    2014-01-01

    The historical archive of LANDSAT imagery dating back to the launch of ERTS in 1972 provides a comprehensive and permanent data source for tracking change on the planet‟s land surface. In this study case the imagery acquisition dates of 1987, 2002 and 2011 were selected to cover a time trend of 24 years. Land cover categories were based on classes outlined by the Curve Number method with the aim of characterizing land use according to the level of surface imperviousness. After comparing two land use classification methods, i.e. Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC and Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP neural network, the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN approach was found the best reliable and efficient method in the absence of ground reference data. The ANN approach has a distinct advantage over statistical classification methods in that it is non-parametric and requires little or no a priori knowledge on the distribution model of input data. The results quantify land cover change patterns in the river basin area under study and demonstrate the potential of multitemporal LANDSAT data to provide an accurate and cost-effective means to map and analyse land cover changes over time that can be used as input in land management and policy decision-making.

  20. Land use effects on quality and quantity aspects of water resources in headwater areas of the Jaguari River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, R. D. O.; Camargo, P. B. D.; Piccolo, M. C.; Zuccari, M. L.; Ferracini, V. L.; Cruz, P. P. N. D.; Green, T. R.; Costa, C. F. G. D.; Reis, L. D. C.

    2015-12-01

    In the context of the recent drought conditions in southeastern Brazil, EMBRAPA (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation) in partnership with two Brazilian universities (USP/CENA and UNIFAL) planned a research project, called BaCaJa, to understand the hydrobiogeochemistry processes that occur in small catchments (management of water resources in this region. Sampling stations were established on rivers and streams ranging from one to five order channels as well as selected small catchments to conduct studies on overland flow, soil solution, soil quality, aquatic biota and pesticide dynamic. The research team is huge and their goals are specific, diverse and complementary, being summed up as: characterize land use, topography and soils; evaluate erosive potential in agriculture areas; measure soil carbon and nitrogen contents; characterize hydrogeochemistry fluxes; apply hydrological modeling and simulate different land use and management scenarios; monitor possible pesticides contamination; and survey macro invertebrates as indicators of water quality. Based on a synthesis of the results, the project team intends to point out the environmental impacts and contribute recommendations of management for the focused region to conserve water resources in terms of quality and quantity.

  1. Concentrations of nitrate in drinking water in the lower Yakima River Basin, Groundwater Management Area, Yakima County, Washington, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Raegan L.

    2018-05-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the lower Yakima River Basin Groundwater Management Area (GWMA) group, conducted an intensive groundwater sampling collection effort of collecting nitrate concentration data in drinking water to provide a baseline for future nitrate assessments within the GWMA. About every 6 weeks from April through December 2017, a total of 1,059 samples were collected from 156 wells and 24 surface-water drains. The domestic wells were selected based on known location, completion depth, ability to collect a sample prior to treatment on filtration, and distribution across the GWMA. The drains were pre-selected by the GWMA group, and further assessed based on ability to access sites and obtain a representative sample. More than 20 percent of samples from the domestic wells and 12.8 percent of drain samples had nitrate concentrations that exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. At least one nitrate concentration above the MCL was detected in 26 percent of wells and 33 percent of drains sampled. Nitrate was not detected in 13 percent of all samples collected.

  2. Glacier changes between 1976-2015 in the source area of the Ayayarwady River and implications to water availability in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taft, Linda; Kühle, Laila; Evers, Mariele

    2017-04-01

    The Ayeyarwady River in Myanmar is one of the largest rivers in Asia, but it is at the same time the least known river in that region. The mighty river with a length of about 2.170 km, serves for transportation, domestic and industrial water supply, irrigation, a high biodiversity and fishing. The headwaters of the Ayeyarwady River are fed by glacial meltwater from the Himalayan Mountains (China and Myanmar) and it has not been studied yet, whether these glaciers have been changed in size and volume during the last decades. We here present a first assessment of glacier changes in the river source area for the period between 1976-2015 by using and analyzing Landsat (1-3, 4-5, 7, 8) images. 130 glaciers were identified for the years 1976, 1990, 2002 and 2015 and the results indicate that the average volume of these glaciers show a very dramatic loss up to -68% since 1976. Thereby, the highest volume loss could be detected in the period 2002-2015. If the present declining trend will continue, the glaciers will be disappeared completely by around 2050. Although glacial meltwater input is only the second relevant contribution to the river discharge after monsoon precipitation, the glacial input is still visible in the hydrographs of the Ayeyarwady. Already now, the people in Myanmar are affected by climate (monsoon rain) variability and the decreasing glacier volumes imply additional modifications in water availability and supply to which they have to adapt their water management and agricultural land use.

  3. First data on the uranium content in water of the Yenisei River basin in the area affected by the operation of Rosatom plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsunovskii, A. Ya.; Zhizhaev, A. M.; Saprykin, A. I.; Degermendzhi, A. G.; Rubailo, A. I.

    2011-07-01

    This study is devoted to investigating the content of uranium isotopes in water of the Yenisei River and its tributaries within the territories affected by the operation of Rosatom plants (mining chemical combine, and electrochemical plant). Long-term monitoring of the 238U content by mass spectrometry carried out in two institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences first revealed the multiple excess of 238U over the background content in different areas of the Yenisei River basin, such as the region of the Yenisei River near the effluents of the mining and chemical combine (MCC), and the territories of the Bol'shaya Tel' and Kan rivers. In these regions, the 238U content in water reaches 2.1-4.0 μg/l, which exceeds its content upstream from the MCC (0.3-0.6 μg/l) by almost an order of magnitude. The studies of the isotopic composition of uranium in water samples, which were carried out at the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, showed the presence of a technogenic isotope of uranium 236U in the samples from the Bolshaya Tel' River and revealed the deviation of the isotope ratio 238U/235U (167 ± 3 and 177 ± 3) from the equilibrium natural ratio (238U/235U = 138). These facts attest to the technogenic origin of part of the uranium in water of the Bol'shaya Tel' River connected with the activity of MCC. The excess uranium content in the Kan River requires additional studies to ascertain the fraction of uranium of technogenic origin connected with the activity of the electrochemical plant (ECP) (Fig. 1, Table 4).

  4. Study on groundwater flow system in a sedimentary rock area (part 2). Case study for the Yoro river basin, Chiba prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Ryutaro; Munakata, Masahiro; Kimura, Hideo

    2008-01-01

    In the safety assessment for a geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste such as high-level radioactive waste and TRU waste etc, it is important to estimate radionuclide migration to human environment through groundwater flow system. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has investigated a sedimentary rock area in the Yoro river basin, in Chiba Prefecture. The hydrological and geo-chemical approach is necessary for revealing the conditions of the groundwater flow system. For the purpose of establishing a methodology for these approach, investigations of flow rates and chemical compositions, isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen for water samples collected from wells, rivers and springs were carried out in the 3 feeder streams as Urajiro, Imohara and Umegase river locating at the central part of the Yoro river basin. As a result, flow rates and chemical composition data suggested that considerable amount of ground water cultivated at the high permeable sand dominant layer (Daifuku Mt.) preferentially flows toward its strike direction discharging at the downstream region of Imohara and the Umegase river. The rest of the ground water was inferred to form different flowpath toward the dipping direction of bedrock more than 100m at depth and to upwell to the Urajiro River through the low permeable mud layer. Chemical composition and isotopic data indicated that most of the ground water in meteoric water origin is NaCa-HCO 3 type as represented by surface water or the evolved Ca-HCO 3 type water but the part of the upwelling water at the downstream region of Urajiro river is Na-HCO 3 type water with long residence time. This study shows that both hydrological and geo-chemical approach could be available to evaluate the relationships between shallow water and deep-seated groundwater, so it is necessary to apply this approach to regional ground water flow systems. (author)

  5. Flood Inundation Mapping and Management using RISAT-1 derived Flood Inundation Areas, Cartosat-1 DEM and a River Flow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuldeep, K.; Garg, P. K.; Garg, R. D.

    2017-12-01

    The frequent occurrence of repeated flood events in many regions of the world causing damage to human life and property has augmented the need for effective flood risk management. Microwave satellite data is becoming an indispensable asset for monitoring of many environmental and climatic applications as numerous space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) sensors are offering the data with high spatial resolutions and multi-polarization capabilities. The implementation and execution of Flood mapping, monitoring and management applications has become easier with the availability of SAR data which has obvious advantages over optical data due to its all weather, day and night capabilities. In this study, the exploitation of the SAR dataset for hydraulic modelling and disaster management has been highlighted using feature extraction techniques for water area identification and water level extraction within the floodplain. The availability of high precision digital elevation model generated from the Cartosat-1 stereo pairs has enhanced the capability of retrieving the water depth maps by incorporating the SAR derived flood extent maps. This paper illustrates the flood event on June 2013 in Yamuna River, Haryana, India. The water surface profile computed by combining the topographic data with the RISAT-1 data accurately reflects the true water line. Water levels that were computed by carrying out the modelling using hydraulic model in HECRAS also suggest that the water surface profiles provided by the combined use of topographic data and SAR accurately reflect the true water line. The proposed approach has also been found better in extraction of inundation within vegetated areas.

  6. Identifying mismatches between institutional perceptions of water-related risk drivers and water management strategies in three river basin areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Aleksi; Juhola, Sirkku; Monge Monge, Adrián; Käkönen, Mira; Kanninen, Markku; Nygren, Anja

    2017-07-01

    Water-related risks and vulnerabilities are driven by variety of stressors, including climate and land use change, as well as changes in socio-economic positions and political landscapes. Hence, water governance, which addresses risks and vulnerabilities, should target multiple stressors. We analyze the institutional perceptions of the drivers and strategies for managing water-related risks and vulnerabilities in three regionally important river basin areas located in Finland, Mexico, and Laos. Our analysis is based on data gathered through participatory workshops and complemented by qualitative content analysis of relevant policy documents. The identified drivers and proposed risk reduction strategies showed the multidimensionality and context-specificity of water-related risks and vulnerabilities across study areas. Most of the identified drivers were seen to increase risks, but some of the drivers were positive trends, and drivers also included also policy instruments that can both increase or decrease risks. Nevertheless, all perceived drivers were not addressed with suggested risk reduction strategies. In particular, most of the risk reduction strategies were incremental adjustments, although many of the drivers classified as most important were large-scale trends, such as climate change, land use changes and increase in foreign investments. We argue that there is a scale mismatch between the identified drivers and suggested strategies, which questions the opportunity to manage the drivers by single-scale incremental adjustments. Our study suggests that for more sustainable risk and vulnerability reduction, the root causes of water-related risks and vulnerabilities should be addressed through adaptive multi-scale governance that carefully considers the context-specificity and the multidimensionality of the associated drivers and stressors.

  7. Urban green areas as the starting point for planning hydroelectric and urban developments: The case of the Sava River in the City of Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Mlakar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the landscape and urbanistic layout of the Sava River space and North part of the Bežigrad stretch of Ljubljana. Focus is on methodological and content starting points for the layout preparation and development of urban green areas of the wider Sava River space, which as a connecting link and simultaneously independent spatial and functional entity represents the starting point for planning hydro-energetic and urban arrangements. The necessity of recognising and resolving real spatial planning issues, formulation of clear goals and concepts, confrontation of different spatial systems and interests, as well as the sensibility of devising alternative development scenarios are emphasised. One of the most important starting points of the proposed layout is comprehensive design of public open spaces and green areas. The urbanistic solution relies on a programmatically strong, distinct and structured Dunajska Street, which should transform into the public space of a modern urban artery, with a clear ending that simultaneously gradually adapts to the morphology akin to the surroundings and Sava River space. Because of its natural characteristics, preserved cultural landscape and good accessibility, this area has great potential for development of leisure activities. The proposed solution stems from the fact that the chain of hydro-electric plants shouldn't be seen as buildings with negative environmental effects, but also as development opportunities – the actual execution of a recreation area along the Sava River and a method for rehabilitating the degraded spaces. Comprehensive solutions along the river have been proposed as parts of the hydro-electric developments, with special attention focusing on active design of various riverbank types.

  8. The Western Borderlands of the Bulgar Ulus of the Golden Horde (based on materials of sites located on the left bank of the lower Sura river area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gribov Nikolay N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of medieval settlements Kurmysh-4 and Murzitsyy-1, located on the left bank of the Sura river in Nizhny Novgorod oblast. The sites were discovered and surveyed in 2007-2009. These are large unfortified settlements, founded in the border area between the Russian lands and the Bulgar Ulus in the 14th century. According to written sources, the Lower Sura river area belonged to the Nizhny Novgorod princes at the time. The sites reveal a number of urban features, such as a large area, multiethnic population, traces of varied craft and trade activities. The data obtained during the preliminary investigation of these sites make it possible to add new features regarding the specificity of populating the Western borderlands of the Bulgar Ulus in the Golden Horde period.

  9. Do rivers really obey power-laws? Using continuous high resolution measurements to define bankfull channel and evaluate downstream hydraulic-scaling over large changes in drainage area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, C.; Tennant, C.; Larsen, L.; Bellugi, D. G.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in remote-sensing technology allow for cost-effective, accurate, high-resolution mapping of river-channel topography and shallow aquatic bathymetry over large spatial scales. A combination of near-infrared and green spectra airborne laser swath mapping was used to map river channel bathymetry and watershed geometry over 90+ river-kilometers (75-1175 km2) of the Greys River in Wyoming. The day of flight wetted channel was identified from green LiDAR returns, and more than 1800 valley-bottom cross-sections were extracted at regular 50-m intervals. The bankfull channel geometry was identified using a "watershed-based" algorithm that incrementally filled local minima to a "spill" point, thereby constraining areas of local convergence and delineating all the potential channels along the cross-section for each distinct "spill stage." Multiple potential channels in alluvial floodplains and lack of clearly defined channel banks in bedrock reaches challenge identification of the bankfull channel based on topology alone. Here we combine a variety of topological measures, geometrical considerations, and stage levels to define a stage-dependent bankfull channel geometry, and compare the results with day of flight wetted channel data. Initial results suggest that channel hydraulic geometry and basin hydrology power-law scaling may not accurately capture downstream channel adjustments for rivers draining complex mountain topography.

  10. Uniqueness Deposit of Sediment on Floodplain Resulting From Lateral Accretion on Tropical Area : Study Case at Kampar River, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniarti Yuskar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kampar rivers has a length of 413 km with average depth of 7.7 m and width of 143 m. Sixty percent of  this rivers are meandering fluvial system which transport and deposit a mixture of suspended and bed-load (mixed load along low energy. River channel that moving sideways by erosion is undergoing lateral migration and the top of the point bar becomes the edge of the floodplain and the fining-upward succession of the point bar will be capped by overbank deposits of Kampar River. Along the Kampar Rivers, there are more than 60% of floodplain sediments and almost all of the floodplain formed by bend migration on the suspended-load channels of Kampar watershed. This formation consist of succession of fine to medium sand and silt/mud, with root traces, that form as drapes on the prograding bank. These beds dip mostly channel wards and quickly wedge out as they grade up and onto the floodplain. The depositional model is presented showing how lateral accretion can make a significant contribution to the preservation of fine-grained within channel deposits in contemporary floodplains. The examples presented here demonstrate that analogues to ancient point-bar deposits containing alternating sandstone and shale sequences are common in the low-energy fluvial environments of Riau rivers especially Kampar rivers.

  11. Study of Determination of Reference Area in Sub of the Stream Area of Ciliwung River's Upstream Based on Macro invertebrata Composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri-Unon-Purwati; Ignasius-DA-Sutapa

    2001-01-01

    The upper Ciliwung Sub River Basin has specific structure of biota community can used as indicator for the ecosystem stability value or the waters pollution level where the aquatic biota exist. Reference site determination is very necessary for test site executing base assess. In this research done studied for 30 branches of rivers in the upper Ciliwung Sub River Basin, Bogor region. The grouping and calculation result from seven variables: diversity index (H'); % EPT, family number, species richness, COD value, DO value and total N showed 7 criteria of water quality as reference site. This criteria is used to determine water quality level from 30 branches of rivers in upper Ciliwung Sub River Basin. The biotic index calculation for ASPT (Average Score Per Taxon) is used to assess water quality based on macro invertebrate composition indicator. The water quality level is described as fellow: station number 4; 10 is assume as true reference site, station number 7; 11; 13; 14; 15; 16; 28; 30 are the first alternative reference site, station number 3; 5; 8; 9; 18; 19; 20; 23; 24; 27; 29 are the second alternative reference site and station number {2; 12; 17; 25; 26;}; station {1; 21; 22} are the site which relatively good water quality, but is not recommended as reference site (test site). Station number 6 is site with lot of pollution from human activities (test site). (author)

  12. Study of Water Quality Value in Sub of the Stream Area of Cisadane Rivers Upstream as Reference Area Based on Macro invertebrate Composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri-Unon-Purwati

    2001-01-01

    Specific structure of biota community condition can used as indicator for the ecosystem stability value or the waters pollution level where the aquatic biota exist. the macro invertebrates as bio indicator organism can used to assess the upper Cisadane Sub River Basin water quality. The grouping and calculation result from family number, Ept presences (sensitive macro invertebrate), Diversity index (H ' ), DO value and TOC value showed 5 criteria of water quality as reference site. This criteria is used to determine water quality level from ten branches of rivers in the upper Cisadane Sub River Basin, Cijeruk districts. The biotic index calculation for ASPT (Average Score Per Taxon) and T and T (index Trihadiningrum and Tjindronegoro) is used to asses water quality based on macro invertebrate composition indicator. Both biotic index system support and give the similar evaluation to water quality level from ten branches of river on the upper Cisadane Sub River Basin. The water quality level is described as fellows: station number 4 is assumed as the true reference site, station number 3, 5, 8 are the first alternative reference site, station number 2, 7, 9 are the second alternative reference site and station 1, 6, 10 are the sites which relatively good water quality, but it is not recommended as reference site. The grouping result bases on the cluster system with macro invertebrate similarity composition are described as fellows: 9=10>3=7>1=6>2=8>>5>>4. (author)

  13. River Areas - USACE IENC

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These inland electronic Navigational charts (IENCs) were developed from available data used in maintenance of Navigation channels. Users of these IENCs should be...

  14. Projecting water resources changes in potential large-scale agricultural investment areas of the Kafue River Basin in Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Trainor, A. M.; Baker, T. J.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change impacts regional water availability through the spatial and temporal redistribution of available water resources. This study focuses on understanding possible response of water resources to climate change in regions where potentials for large-scale agricultural investments are planned in the upper and middle Kafue River Basin in Zambia. We used historical and projected precipitation and temperature to assess changes in water yield, using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model. Some of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate model outputs for the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios project a temperature warming range from 1.8 - 5.7 °C over the region from 2020 to 2095. Precipitation projection patterns vary monthly but tend toward drier dry seasons with a slight increase in precipitation during the rainy season as compared to the historical time series. The best five calibrated parameter sets generated for the historical record (1965 - 2005) were applied for two future periods, 2020 - 2060 and 2055 - 2095, to project water yield change. Simulations projected that the 90th percentile water yield would be exceeded across most of the study area by up to 800% under the medium-low (RCP4.5) CO2 emission scenario, whereas the high (RCP8.5) CO2 emission scenario resulted in a more spatially varied pattern mixed with increasing (up to 500%) and decreasing (up to -54%) trends. The 10th percentile water yield indicated spatially varied pattern across the basin, increasing by as much as 500% though decreasing in some areas by 66%, with the greatest decreases during the dry season under RCP8.5. Overall, available water resources in the study area are projected to trend toward increased floods (i.e. water yields far exceeding 90th percentile) as well as increasing drought (i.e. water yield far below 10th percentile) vulnerability. Because surface water is a primary source for agriculture

  15. The Analysis Of The Heavy Metals Pollution In The River Water For Fishing Accusative The Surrounding UJUNG LEMAH ABANG Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hariani, Sri; Susiati, Heni; Sjarmufni, A.

    2001-01-01

    Metals are introduced into aquatic systems as a result of the weathering of soils or rocks, from volcanic eruptions and from a variety of human activities involving the mining, processing, or use of metals and/or substances that contain metal contaminants. The metal natural contents will changeable depends on the pollutant which is proportionally occurred in the environment. The extremely heavy metals absorption by organisms Directly or indirectly through the food chain will give the significant impact to the human lives. For this purpose an investigation was carried out to take samples of heavy metals from the river (Doplang, Balong, and Pacitran) surrounding the Ujung Lemah abang area, and to see how far was the impact of pollutants to the community who live nearby from the food-chain point of view. Results showed that the heavy metals content of Cd, Fe, Cu and Hg in the water and sediment are higher than the permissible concentration for fish nursery. It is found that the concentration of Cd between 0.91 - 1.85 μg/ml, Cu: 0.03 μg/ml, and Fe: 0.16 - 2.51 μg/ml, whereas concentration of Hg in sediment between 0.036 - 0.118 mg/g. Up to now there are no report yet to the death fish caused by the more content of heavy metals in their body or the sickness related to it in the community around the location, but nevertheless this condition need to be took attention

  16. Electrical Resistivity Studies Between Subarnarekha And Kansabati Rivers, Paschim Medinipur (W.B.), India: Implication To Groundwater Problems In The Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, K. P.; Jha, M. K.; Sharma, S. P.

    2017-12-01

    Various parts of the world face acute shortage of groundwater. To solve groundwater problems various approaches are followed. Interlinking of the river is one of the approaches. The southern part of the West Bengal province of India receives huge amount of rainfall (annual 1200mm). Instead of huge amount of rainfall some parts of the area are problematic for groundwater occurrence. Characterization of aquifer in this area is very important for sustainable development of water supply and artificial recharge schemes. Electrical resistivity survey was performed at regular interval from Kharagpur (north) to Subarnrekha River (south) to map the lithological variations in this area. It covers around 25 kilometers distance from Kharagpur with latitude and longitude (22°19'7.3"N 87°18'40"E) to Subarnrekha River (22°15'49.4" N 87°16'45.1" E). To locating a suitable area for artificial recharge and for the characterization of aquifers vertical electrical sounding is a robust method. Resistivity soundings were carried out with an interval of 2 to 3 kilometers. Subsurface resistivity distribution has been interpreted by using very fast simulated annealing (VFSA) global optimization technique. The study reveals that northern part of the area is problematic and does not have suitable aquifer systems. Resistivity distribution is suitable in the southern part of area and corresponds to clayey sand. Interpreted resistivity in the northern part of the area is relatively high and reveals impervious laterite layer. In southern part of the area resistivity varies between 5-10 Ohm-m at depth below 80 m. Based on the resistivity model different types of geologic units are classified and the zone of interests for aquifer has been demarcated.

  17. Modern landscape processes affecting archaeological sites along the Colorado River corridor downstream of Glen Canyon Dam, Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Amy E.; Sankey, Joel B.; Fairley, Helen C.; Caster, Joshua J.; Kasprak, Alan

    2017-08-29

    The landscape of the Colorado River through Glen Canyon National Recreation Area formed over many thousands of years and was modified substantially after the completion of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Changes to river flow, sediment supply, channel base level, lateral extent of sedimentary terraces, and vegetation in the post-dam era have modified the river-corridor landscape and have altered the effects of geologic processes that continue to shape the landscape and its cultural resources. The Glen Canyon reach of the Colorado River downstream of Glen Canyon Dam hosts many archaeological sites that are prone to erosion in this changing landscape. This study uses field evaluations from 2016 and aerial photographs from 1952, 1973, 1984, and 1996 to characterize changes in potential windblown sand supply and drainage configuration that have occurred over more than six decades at 54 archaeological sites in Glen Canyon and uppermost Marble Canyon. To assess landscape change at these sites, we use two complementary geomorphic classification systems. The first evaluates the potential for aeolian (windblown) transport of river-derived sand from the active river channel to higher elevation archaeological sites. The second identifies whether rills, gullies, or arroyos (that is, overland drainages that erode the ground surface) exist at the archaeological sites as well as the geomorphic surface, and therefore the relative base level, to which those flow paths drain. Results of these assessments are intended to aid in the management of irreplaceable archaeological resources by the National Park Service and stakeholders of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program.

  18. On the impact of the development of the Verkhnyaya Sukhona river catchment area (the Vologda Region on the chemical composition of the waters in its tributaries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivicheva Ksenya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study the influence of anthropogenic burden on the catchment areas of the rivers in Vologda Region and to establish the dependence of the chemical composition of water on pollution sources in the rivers of the Verkhnyaya Sukhona basin. In the catchment areas hydro chemical samples were taken, population density was calculated as well as the automated and visual interpretation of the main elements of the landscape was carried out. At that, forests, populated areas, farmlands and other territories changed by economic activities were identified. An increase in the pollutants concentration in the catchment areas on drawing near the regional center was detected. The development of the catchment areas varies depending on the landscape pattern and on the proximity to the city of Vologda. The population density and the relative area of settlements and farmlands increase while approaching to the city, at the same time the ratio of forests decreases. The positive correlation dependence between the phosphate content and the relative size of farmlands was shown. The main source of pollutants in the catchment areas of the Verkhnyaya Sukhona basin is the presence of settlements and high population density. Under such conditions, high concentration of sodium, chlorine, nitrogen-containing compounds as well as permanganate oxidizability are observed in water.

  19. Estimate of throughput of bridge transitions and pipe passages built on minor rivers of piedmont areas of Krasnodar Territory-Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryukhan Fedor

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stability and accident-free operation of engineering road structures including bridge transitions and pipe passages built on mountain rivers mostly depends on a stream regime and lack of obstructions for water flow. Such structures pose a prominent potential hazard being built in piedmont areas of Caucasus Mountains characterized by flash floods and blockage of structures by floating debris, mudflow deposits and wastes of construction. This notwithstanding, the threats caused by these phenomena are poorly studied. The purpose of this study is in estimation of throughput of bridge transitions and pipe passages built on minor rivers of piedmont areas and analysis of hazards caused by floods and obstructions to water flow. The results of calculation of capacities of existing road structures are provided herein. A qualitative assessment of potential emergencies in case of severe flood is also given. A major hazard of possible blockage of waterways that can cause emergency even in regular flood conditions is noted.

  20. Environmental measurement-while-drilling-gamma ray spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system technology demonstration plan for use at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Gruebel, R.D.

    1996-08-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling-Gamma Ray Spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drillbit data during drilling operations. This demonstration plan presents information on the EMWD-GRS technology, demonstration design, Cs-137 contamination at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin, responsibilities of demonstration participants, and the policies and procedures for the demonstration to be conducted at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin. The EMWD-GRS technology demonstration will consist of continuously monitoring for gamma-radiation contamination while drilling two horizontal boreholes below the backfilled retention basin. These boreholes will pass near previously sampled vertical borehole locations where concentrations of contaminant levels are known. Contaminant levels continuously recorded by the EMWD-GRS system during drilling will be compared to contaminant levels previously determined through quantitative laboratory analysis of soil samples

  1. Using GIS techniques for surface runoff potential analysis in the Subcarpathian area between Buzãu and Slãnic rivers, in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIA FONTANINE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Subcarpathian area between Buzău and Slănic rivers, located in the south-eastern part of Romania, is one of the most affected areas by the torrential related phenomena. This occurs due to physical-geographical and economical-geographical factors, such as: slope, curvature profile, lithology, soil texture and land use. In order to calculate and spatially model the surface runoff potential index, these factors were integrated and worked in GIS enviroment. Each characteristic of the factors was given a bonitation score, according to the way that it influences surface runoff. By applying the methodology mainly taken after Smith (2003 [1], the Flash-Flood Potential Index was obtained, with values between 19.4 - 44.5. The highest values of the index correspond to deforestated slopes, which exceed 15º, located in Bălăneasa and Sărățel river basins.

  2. Environmental measurement-while-drilling-gamma ray spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system technology demonstration plan for use at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruebel, R.D. [Tech Reps, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling-Gamma Ray Spectrometer (EMWD-GRS) system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drillbit data during drilling operations. This demonstration plan presents information on the EMWD-GRS technology, demonstration design, Cs-137 contamination at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin, responsibilities of demonstration participants, and the policies and procedures for the demonstration to be conducted at the Savannah River Site F-Area Retention Basin. The EMWD-GRS technology demonstration will consist of continuously monitoring for gamma-radiation contamination while drilling two horizontal boreholes below the backfilled retention basin. These boreholes will pass near previously sampled vertical borehole locations where concentrations of contaminant levels are known. Contaminant levels continuously recorded by the EMWD-GRS system during drilling will be compared to contaminant levels previously determined through quantitative laboratory analysis of soil samples.

  3. Remotely-Sensed Mapping of Irrigation Area in the Chu-Talas River Basin in Central Asia and Application to Compliance Monitoring of Transboundary Water Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragettli, S.; Siegfried, T.; Herberz, T.

    2017-12-01

    In the Central Asian Chu-Talas River Basin, farmers depend on freshwater from international rivers to irrigate their fields during the summer growing season. While the allocation percentages of water sharing between up- and downstream are defined for both rivers, marked interannual supply variability plus inadequate monitoring renders the compliance with these quotas difficult. In such circumstances, data on irrigated area obtained by remote sensing can be used to map the extent of irrigation in terms of its area on at national and subnational scales. Due to its transparency on how the data was obtained (freely available satellite data) and processed, this objective measure could potentially be used as a data product for confidence building and for compliance monitoring. This study assesses the extent and location of irrigated areas over the period 2000 - 2016 in the basins by using state-of-the-art remote sensing technology. Using a random forest classifier, an automated irrigated cropland mapping algorithm was implemented in Google Earth Engine using Landsat 7 data. First, a training set was established through visual interpretation (irrigated and non-irrigated classes for the year 2015) and the classifier then trained. The classier was then applied on a series of seasonal greenest pixels image mosaics from 2000 to 2016. A four-stepped accuracy assessment confirmed that the classifier yielded robust, reliable and reproducible results. Outcomes indicate that irrigated areas in the Kyrgyz side of the Talas Basin approximately doubled by 2016 since 2000 while the irrigated area in the Kazakh part of the basin did not significantly change over the 17 year time period. In the Chu River Basin, total irrigated area tripled since 2000. Comparison with officially reported statistics shows differences and points to reporting issues in both countries. We conclude that remote sensing of irrigated areas in arid and semi-arid regions in combination with cloud computing offers

  4. [Distributions and air-sea fluxes of dissolved nitrous oxide in the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent marine area in spring and summer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Zhang, Gui-ling; Sun, Ming-shuang; Ren, Jing-ling

    2014-12-01

    Distributions and air-sea fluxes of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the seawaters of the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent marine area were investigated during two cruises in March and July 2012. Dissolved N2O concentrations in surface waters ranged from 9.34 to 49.08 nmol x L(-1) with an average of (13.27 ± 6.40) nmol x L(-1) in spring and ranged from 7.27 to 27.81 nmol x L(-1) with an average of (10.62 ± 5.03) nmol x L(-1) in summer. There was no obvious difference between surface and bottom N2O concentrations. N2O concentrations in both surface and bottom waters decreased along the freshwater plume from the river mouth to the open sea. High values of dissolved N2O were found in turbidity maximum zone, which suggests that maximal turbidity enhances nitrification. Temperature had dual effects on dissolved N2O concentrations. N2O saturations in surface waters ranged from 86.9% to 351.3% with an average of (111.5 ± 41.4)% in spring and ranged from 111.7% to 396.0% with an average of (155.9 ± 68.4)% in summer. N2O were over-saturated at most stations. The sea-to-air fluxes of N2O were estimated to be (3.2 ± 10.9), (5.5 ± 19.3) and (12.2 ±52.3) μmol x (m2 x d)(-1) in spring and (7.3 ± 12.4), (12.7 ± 20.4) and (20.4 ± 35.9) μmol x (m2 x d)(-1) in summer using the LM86, W92 and RC01 relationships, respectively. The annual emissions of N2O from the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent marine area were estimated to be 0.6 x 10(-2) Tg x a(-1) (LM86), 1.1 x 10(-2) Tg x a(-1) (W92) and 2.0 x 10(-2) Tg x a(-1) (RC01). Although the area of the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent marine area only accounts for 0.02% of the total area of the world's oceans, their emission of N2O accounts for 0.06% of global oceanic N2O emission, indicating that the Yangtze River estuary and its adjacent marine area is an active area to produce and emit N2O.

  5. [Characteristics of mercury pollution in soil and atmosphere in Songhua River upstream Jia-pi-gou gold mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Te; Ai, Jian-Chao

    2012-09-01

    In the studied area of Jia-pi-gou at the upstream area of Songhua River, algamation process has been applied as a dominant method to extract gold for more than one hundred and eighty years, resulting in severe mercury environmental pollution. The total mercury contents in the atmosphere and soil have been determined by mercury analyzer (Zeeman RA915+) and cold atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GB/T 17136-1997), respectively. To study the pollution characteristics of mercury in the soil and atmosphere, the mercury flux at the interface between the soil and the atmosphere of 4 sampling sites Lao-jin-chang, Er-dao-gou, Er-dao-cha and community of Jia-pi-gou have been determined with the method of dynamic flux chamber. Furthermore, linear regression analyses on the total mercury contents between soil and atmosphere have been carried out and the correlation coefficient of mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere and meteorological factors has been studied. The results are as follows: (1) The mean value of mercury content in the atmosphere is (71.08 +/- 38.22) ng x m(-3). (2) The mean value of mercury content in the soil is (0.913 1 +/- 0.040 8) mg x kg(-1); it shows remarkably positive correlation between the mercury contents in soil and in the atmosphere. (3) The mercury exchange flux between soil and atmosphere in different locations are Lao-jin-chang [(129.13 +/- 496.07) ng (m2 x h)(-1)], Er-dao-gou [(98.64 +/- 43.96) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)], Er-dao-cha [(23.17 +/- 171.23) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)], and community of Jia-pi-gou [(7.12 +/- 46.33) ng x (m2 x h)(-1)]. (4) Solar radiation is the major influential factor in the mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere in Lao-jin-chang, Er-dao-cha and community of Jia-pi-gou. Solar radiation, air temperature and soil temperature jointly influence the process of the mercury exchange flux between the soil and atmosphere in Er-dao-gou. Under the disturbance of terrain, three noticeably distinctive trend features

  6. First identification of a possible nursery area for diadromous Coilia nasus in the Poyang Lake nearly 1000 km away from the Yangtze River Estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Estuarine tapertail anchovy Coilia nasus is a small-sized anadromous species in the Yangtze River, China. It is probably the most expensive fish in the world with price as high as $1000/kg and even $9600 for a single extremely large individual with a total length of 45.3 cm and body weight of 0.325 kg in the Jiangsu section of the river in 2012. However, when and where C. nasus spawn along the Yangtze River has still remained a mystery so far. In our field surveys of 2014 and 2015, some highly mature female and male C. nasus with stage V or VI gonads were firstly collected in the water region around Xingzi County in the Poyang Lake, which is nearly 1000 km away from the mouth of the Yangtze River. Although previous studies believed that all C. nasus in the Poyang Lake were freshwater residents, the otolith microchemistry signatures of the present study determined with EPMA and LA-ICPMS further clearly demonstrated that these fish were anadromous individuals. The findings indicated that the C. nasus migrated over nearly 1000 km upstream, with an extremely strong migration ability, passing through the lower reaches of the Yangtze River from the adjacent Yellow sea (even from the areas nearly straight line for as far as ca. 300 km off the Chinese coast line or East China Sea (Figure 1. The aforementioned evidence strongly suggests that the water region around Xingzi County in the Poyang Lake is a possible spawning/nursery area for anadromous C. nasus. It will be critical to ensure the protection of this region of the Poyang Lake being free from the environmental destruction of anthropogenic activities, especially hydraulic structure (especially dam construction and sand mining.

  7. Up-to-date concentrations of long-lived artificial radionuclides in the Tom and Ob rivers in the area influenced by discharges from Siberian chemical combine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, A.I.; Kryshev, I.I.; Bashkirov, N.I.; Valetova, N.K.; Dunaev, G.E.; Kabanov, A.I.; Katrich, I.Yu; Krutovsky, A.O.; Nikitin, V.A.; Petrenko, G.I.; Polukhina, A.M.; Selivanova, G.V.; Shkuro, V.N.

    2012-01-01

    The Siberian Chemical Combine (SCC) is located in Seversk (formerly known as Tomsk-7) in the Tomsk Region of the Russian Federation. The main contribution of radionuclides in the SCC process water discharged into the Tom River was from the single-pass reactors, now removed from service (the last SCC reactor was shutdown on June 5, 2008). The data on the concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239,240 Pu and other artificial radionuclides in water, bottom sediments and flood-plain soils of the Tom and Ob rivers from Tomsk to the confluence of the rivers, are presented and discussed. The results of measurements carried out after shutdown of the last SCC single-pass reactor indicated no radiologically significant consequences of SCC activities for the studied water environment compartments. Contemporary activity concentrations of long-lived artificial radionuclides 3 H, 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu in river water were below the intervention levels established by current regulations of the Russian Federation for these radionuclides. The results of 3 H analysis in water from the Tom and Samuska rivers demonstrated no inflow of contaminated formation water to surface water from the sites where liquid radioactive wastes of the SCC were injected below the surface. However, the density of flood-plain soil contamination by long-lived 137 Cs in the area influenced by SCC liquid discharges was higher than regional technogenic background. There were local flood-plain areas contaminated not only by 137 Cs, but also other gamma-emitters, such as 60 Co and 152 Eu.

  8. Estimated monthly streamflows for selected locations on the Kabul and Logar Rivers, Aynak copper, cobalt, and chromium area of interest, Afghanistan, 1951-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Kevin C.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, used the stochastic monthly water-balance model and existing climate data to estimate monthly streamflows for 1951–2010 for selected streamgaging stations located within the Aynak copper, cobalt, and chromium area of interest in Afghanistan. The model used physically based, nondeterministic methods to estimate the monthly volumetric water-balance components of a watershed. A comparison of estimated and recorded monthly streamflows for the streamgaging stations Kabul River at Maidan and Kabul River at Tangi-Saidan indicated that the stochastic water-balance model was able to provide satisfactory estimates of monthly streamflows for high-flow months and low-flow months even though withdrawals for irrigation likely occurred. A comparison of estimated and recorded monthly streamflows for the streamgaging stations Logar River at Shekhabad and Logar River at Sangi-Naweshta also indicated that the stochastic water-balance model was able to provide reasonable estimates of monthly streamflows for the high-flow months; however, for the upstream streamgaging station, the model overestimated monthly streamflows during periods when summer irrigation withdrawals likely occurred. Results from the stochastic water-balance model indicate that the model should be able to produce satisfactory estimates of monthly streamflows for locations along the Kabul and Logar Rivers. This information could be used by Afghanistan authorities to make decisions about surface-water resources for the Aynak copper, cobalt, and chromium area of interest.

  9. Cleveland-Akron Metropolitan and Three Rivers Watershed Area. Wastewater Management Survey Scope Study. Appendix V. Land Treatment. Phase I Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-08-01

    Service provided the foundation for this I inventory of potential land treatment areas. The analysis and inventory of these data resulted in the...degree required for bedrock derived ground water. Chemical analysis was available from only one well water sample in the buried river valley aquifer...as lignin, waxes, tannins , cutins and fats are more resistant to decomposition. I I I ’I I I 168 I I I NUTRIENT UPTAKE Interactions between organic

  10. Interpretation of Geological Correlation Borings 1, 2, 3 in the A/M Area of the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, D.E.; Cumbest, R.J.; Aadland, R.K.; Syms, F.H.; Stephenson, D.E.; Sherrill, J.C.

    1997-06-01

    The Geophysical Correlation Boring (GCB) Program was organized to provide a comprehensive correlation capability between geological core and advanced borehole geophysical data, surface high resolution reflection seismic information and, when available, borehole geochemical and cone penetrometer data. This report provides results and initial geological interpretations of borings one, two, and three (GCB-1, GCB-2, GCB-3) located within the Upper Three Runs Watershed (A/M Area) of the Savannah River Site

  11. Identification of fish nursery areas in a free tributary of an impoundment region, upper Uruguay River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Alves da Silva

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the importance of different environments of the Ligeiro River (upper Uruguay River, Brazil in fish reproduction. For this purpose, three environments (sampling sites were selected: rapids, a pool, and the mouth of the Ligeiro River. Ichthyoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos were sampled six times per month from September, 2006 to March, 2007. Zooplankton and ichthyoplankton samples were collected early in the evening with plankton nets (64 µm and 500 µm, respectively. Benthos samples were also collected early in the evening with a Van Veen dredge. Local abiotic variables (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, electrical conductivity, water speed, alkalinity, water hardness, and water transparency were measured simultaneously with the biotic data sampling and were complemented by regional variables (water flow and precipitation. A total of 43,475 eggs and 2,269 larvae were captured. Of these larvae, 80.1% were in the pre-flexion and larval yolk stages. Digestive tract content showed that the greatest degree of repletion among the larvae in more advanced phases occurred in the pool environment. Water speed was the main characteristic used to differentiate the river's rapids and mouth from the pool. The abundance of zooplankton and benthos was not related to the distribution of densities among the different components of the ichthyoplankton. A greater abundance of eggs and larvae with yolk was found in the rapids and river mouth. Ordination analyses showed a connection between the advanced stage larvae and the pool environment. In conclusion, the rapids and river mouth of the Ligeiro River's are important locations for fish reproduction, particularly in regard to spawning and drifting of the ichthyoplankton's initial stages, whereas the pool represents a nursery place for larval growth.

  12. Wandering gravel-bed rivers and high-constructive stable channel sandy fluvial systems in the Ross River area, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrel G.F. Long

    2011-07-01

    Gravel-dominated strata, inter-bedded with, and overlying coal-bearing units, are interpreted as deposits of wandering gravel-bed rivers, with sinuosity approaching 1.4. In most exposures they appear to be dominated by massive and thin planar-bedded granule to small pebble conglomerates, which would traditionally be interpreted as sheet-flood or longitudinal bar deposits of a high-gradient braided stream or alluvial fan. Architectural analysis of exposures in an open-pit shows that the predominance of flat bedding is an artefact of the geometry of the roadside exposures. In the pit the conglomerates are dominated by large scale cross stratification on a scale of 1–5.5 m. These appear to have developed as downstream and lateral accretion elements on side-bars and on in-channel bars in water depths of 2–12 m. Stacking of strata on domed 3rd order surfaces suggests development of longitudinal in-channel bar complexes similar to those observed in parts of the modern Rhône River system. Mudstone preserved in some of the channels reflects intervals of channel abandonment or avulsion. Minimum channel width is from 70 to 450 m.

  13. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI, Cd, As, and Pb analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I and Nemerow pollution index (NI. The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS. The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream.

  14. Risk Assessment and Prediction of Heavy Metal Pollution in Groundwater and River Sediment: A Case Study of a Typical Agricultural Irrigation Area in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuang; Geng, Hui; Zhang, Fengjun; Liu, Zhaoying; Wang, Tianye; Song, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    The areas with typical municipal sewage discharge river and irrigation water function were selected as study sites in northeast China. The samples from groundwater and river sediment in this area were collected for the concentrations and forms of heavy metals (Cr(VI), Cd, As, and Pb) analysis. The risk assessment of heavy metal pollution was conducted based on single-factor pollution index (I) and Nemerow pollution index (NI). The results showed that only one groundwater sampling site reached a polluted level of heavy metals. There was a high potential ecological risk of Cd on the N21-2 sampling site in river sediment. The morphological analysis results of heavy metals in sediment showed that the release of heavy metals can be inferred as one of the main pollution sources of groundwater. In addition, the changes in the concentration and migration scope of As were predicted by using the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS). The predicted results showed that As will migrate downstream in the next decade, and the changing trend of As polluted areas was changed with As content districts because of some pump wells downstream to form groundwater depression cone, which made the solute transfer upstream. PMID:26366176

  15. Evaluating prediction uncertainty of areas contributing recharge to well fields of multiple water suppliers in the Hunt-Annaquatucket-Pettaquamscutt River Basins, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesz, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Three river basins in central Rhode Island-the Hunt River, the Annaquatucket River, and the Pettaquamscutt River-contain 15 production wells clustered in 4 pumping centers from which drinking water is withdrawn. These high-capacity production wells, operated by three water suppliers, are screened in coarse-grained deposits of glacial origin. The risk of contaminating water withdrawn by these well centers may be reduced if the areas contributing recharge to the well centers are delineated and these areas protected from land uses that may affect the water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Rhode Island Department of Health, began an investigation in 2009 to improve the understanding of groundwater flow and delineate areas contributing recharge to the well centers as part of an effort to protect the source of water to these well centers. A groundwater-flow model was calibrated by inverse modeling using nonlinear regression to obtain the optimal set of parameter values, which provide a single, best representation of the area contributing recharge to a well center. Summary statistics from the calibrated model were used to evaluate the uncertainty associated with the predicted areas contributing recharge to the well centers. This uncertainty analysis was done so that the contributing areas to the well centers would not be underestimated, thereby leaving the well centers inadequately protected. The analysis led to contributing areas expressed as a probability distribution (probabilistic contributing areas) that differ from a single or deterministic contributing area. Groundwater flow was simulated in the surficial deposits and the underlying bedrock in the 47-square-mile study area. Observations (165 groundwater levels and 7 base flows) provided sufficient information to estimate parameters representing recharge and horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the glacial deposits and hydraulic conductance of streambeds. The calibrated value for recharge

  16. Analysis on biomass and productivity of epilithic algae and their relations to environmental factors in the Gufu River basin, Three Gorges Reservoir area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jiwen; Wu, Shuyuan; Touré, Dado; Cheng, Lamei; Miao, Wenjie; Cao, Huafen; Pan, Xiaoying; Li, Jianfeng; Yao, Minmin; Feng, Liang

    2017-12-01

    The main purpose of this study conducted from August 2010 was to find biomass and productivity of epilithic algae and their relations to environmental factors and try to explore the restrictive factors affecting the growth of algae in the Gufu River, the one of the branches of Xiangxi River located in the Three Gorges Reservoir of the Yangtze River, Hubei Province, Central China. An improved method of in situ primary productivity measurement was utilized to estimate the primary production of the epilithic algae. It was shown that in rivers, lakes, and reservoirs, algae are the main primary producers and have a central role in the ecosystem. Chlorophyll a concentration and ash-free dry mass (AFDM) were estimated for epilithic algae of the Gufu River basin in Three Gorges Reservoir area. Environmental factors in the Gufu River ecosystem highlighted differences in periphyton chlorophyll a ranging from 1.49 mg m -2 (origin) to 69.58 mg m -2 (terminal point). The minimum and maximum gross primary productivity of epilithic algae were 96.12 and 1439.89 mg C m -2  day -1 , respectively. The mean net primary productivity was 290.24 mg C m -2  day -1 . The mean autotrophic index (AFDM:chlorophyll a) was 407.40. The net primary productivity, community respiration ratio (P/R ratio) ranged from 0.98 to 9.25 with a mean of 2.76, showed that autotrophic productivity was dominant in the river. Relationship between physicochemical characteristics and biomass was discussed through cluster and stepwise regression analysis which indicated that altitude, total nitrogen (TN), NO 3 - -N, and NH 4 + -N were significant environmental factors affecting the biomass of epilithic algae. However, a negative logarithmic relationship between altitude and the chlorophyll a of epilithic algae was high. The results also highlighted the importance of epilithic algae in maintaining the Gufu River basin ecosystems health.

  17. Sources contributing to radioactive contamination of the Techa river and areas surrounding the Mayak production association, Urals, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    A Russian-Norwegian expert group has performed joint investigations of possible impacts of the Mayak plant on the contamination of the Arctic Ocean. This plant that was the first in the former Soviet Union to produce nuclear weapons material, had five special nuclear reactors for production of plutonium and a facility for separation of the plutonium as weapons material. A system of dams along the upper part of Techa River was constructed in order to retain most of the radioactivity, creating several artificial water reservoirs along the old river bed. The paper describes the results of the investigations of the working group. it is concluded that sediment samples from reservoir No. 10 and 11, and from the floodplain along the upper Techa River, have the highest radioactivities (more than 2 MBq/kg d.w. of cesium-137). Flooding of the surrounding swamp and rupture in the reservoirs may cause substantial releases to the river system and thus contaminate the Arctic waters. Also transport of radioactivity by underground water from the reservoirs may contaminate the river system. The future work of the group will be focussed on risk assessment of potential accident scenarios, and possible long-term consequences for man and the environment. 21 refs.

  18. Modeling biogeochemical processes in sediments from the Rhône River prodelta area (NW Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pastor

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In situ oxygen microprofiles, sediment organic carbon content, and pore-water concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, iron, manganese, and sulfides obtained in sediments from the Rhône River prodelta and its adjacent continental shelf were used to constrain a numerical diagenetic model. Results showed that (1 the organic matter from the Rhône River is composed of a fraction of fresh material associated to high first-order degradation rate constants (11–33 yr−1; (2 the burial efficiency (burial/input ratio in the Rhône prodelta (within 3 km of the river outlet can be up to 80 %, and decreases to ~20 % on the adjacent continental shelf 10–15 km further offshore; (3 there is a large contribution of anoxic processes to total mineralization in sediments near the river mouth, certainly due to large inputs of fresh organic material combined with high sedimentation rates; (4 diagenetic by-products originally produced during anoxic organic matter mineralization are almost entirely precipitated (>97 % and buried in the sediment, which leads to (5 a low contribution of the re-oxidation of reduced products to total oxygen consumption. Consequently, total carbon mineralization rates as based on oxygen consumption rates and using Redfield stoichiometry can be largely underestimated in such River-dominated Ocean Margins (RiOMar environments.

  19. Sources contributing to radioactive contamination of the Techa river and areas surrounding the Mayak production association, Urals, Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A Russian-Norwegian expert group has performed joint investigations of possible impacts of the Mayak plant on the contamination of the Arctic Ocean. This plant that was the first in the former Soviet Union to produce nuclear weapons material, had five special nuclear reactors for production of plutonium and a facility for separation of the plutonium as weapons material. A system of dams along the upper part of Techa River was constructed in order to retain most of the radioactivity, creating several artificial water reservoirs along the old river bed. The paper describes the results of the investigations of the working group. it is concluded that sediment samples from reservoir No. 10 and 11, and from the floodplain along the upper Techa River, have the highest radioactivities (more than 2 MBq/kg d.w. of cesium-137). Flooding of the surrounding swamp and rupture in the reservoirs may cause substantial releases to the river system and thus contaminate the Arctic waters. Also transport of radioactivity by underground water from the reservoirs may contaminate the river system. The future work of the group will be focussed on risk assessment of potential accident scenarios, and possible long-term consequences for man and the environment. 21 refs

  20. Manganese and Mercury Levels in Water, Sediments, and Children Living Near Gold-Mining Areas of the Nangaritza River Basin, Ecuadorian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Merizalde, Max V; Menezes-Filho, José A; Cruz-Erazo, Claudia Teresa; Bermeo-Flores, Santos Amable; Sánchez-Castillo, María Obdulia; Hernández-Bonilla, David; Mora, Abrahan

    2016-08-01

    Artisanal and small-scale gold-mining activities performed in mountain areas of the Southern Ecuadorian Amazon have incorporated several heavy metals into the aquatic systems, thus increasing the risk of exposure in populations living in adjacent zones. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination levels of mercury (Hg) and manganese (Mn) in several rivers of the Nangaritza River basin and assess the exposure in school-aged children residing near the gold-mining zones. River water and sediment samples were collected from a highly contaminated (HEx) and a moderately contaminated (MEx) zones. Hair Mn (MnH) and urinary Hg (HgU) levels were determined in school-aged children living in both zones. High concentrations of dissolved Mn were found in river waters of the HEx zone (between 2660 and 3990 µg l(-1)); however, Hg levels, in general, were lower than the detection limit (DL; MnH in children of the HEx and MEx zones were 5.5 and 3.4 µg g(-1), respectively, whereas the median values of HgU concentrations in children living in the HEx and MEx zones were 4.4 and 0.62 µg g-creat(-1), respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed between both biomarkers in children from the HEx and MEx zones. In addition, boys presented significantly greater MnH levels in both zones. The greater MnH values were found in children living in alluvial areas, whereas children living in the high mountain areas, where some ore-processing plants are located close to or inside houses and schools, had the greater HgU concentrations. In summary, the data reported in this paper highlights that artisanal and small-scale gold-mining activities can not only produce mercurial contamination, that can also release other heavy metals (such as Mn) that may pose a risk to human health.

  1. Performance Assessment/Composite Analysis Modeling to Support a Holistic Strategy for the Closure of F Area, a Large Nuclear Complex at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COOK, JAMES

    2004-01-01

    A performance-based approach is being used at the Savannah River Site to close the F area Complex. F Area consists of a number of large industrial facilities including plutonium separations, uranium fuel fabrication, tanks for storing high level waste and a number of smaller operations. A major part of the overall closure strategy is the use of techniques derived from the Performance Assessment and Composite Analysis requirements for low level waste disposal at DOE sites. This process will provide a means of demonstrating the basis for deactivation, decommissioning and closure decisions to management, stakeholders and regulators

  2. Investigation of sediment movement in the North Navigation Channel Area of the estuary of the Yangtze river using natural radiotracers and INAA methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yunhui; Li Guiqun; Zhang Qixing, Sun Maoyi

    1996-01-01

    This is a preliminary investigation of sediment in the North Navigation Channel Area of the estuary of the Yangtze river, which has been made by determining the natural radioisotopes and the INAA of 30 natural sand samples. Multivariate statistical method was used to process and analyze the data obtained. It can be seen that there are tow sediment movement routes in the investigation area. The orientation of the main sediment movement is from northwest to southeast in accordance with the results obtained from the field submarine drag-monitorings after the radiotracer injection. Besides, there is also another sand movement route existed. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Association of long-lived radioactivity with sediment along the Columbia River shoreline, islands, bottom and slough areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Since deactivation of the last once-through cooling production reactor in January 1971, radioactivity associated with sediments or biota in the Columbia River attributable to past Hanford operations decreased to very low levels. Currently only a few long-lived radionuclides are measurable and generally due to the association of these radionuclides with sediments in the river. The data available from several different monitoring programs provide a preliminary description of the extent, concentration, and physical form of these radionuclides. Data are presented on 137 Cs, 60 Co, 65 Zn, and 152 Eu in sediments sampled in 1974

  4. Two-dimensional simulation of the June 11, 2010, flood of the Little Missouri River at Albert Pike Recreational Area, Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    In the early morning hours of June 11, 2010, substantial flooding occurred at Albert Pike Recreation Area in the Ouachita National Forest of west-central Arkansas, killing 20 campers. The U.S. Forest Service needed information concerning the extent and depth of flood inundation, the water velocity, and flow paths throughout Albert Pike Recreation Area for the flood and for streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent. The two-dimensional flow model Fst2DH, part of the Federal Highway Administration’s Finite Element Surface-water Modeling System, and the graphical user interface Surface-water Modeling System (SMS) were used to perform a steady-state simulation of the flood in a 1.5-mile reach of the Little Missouri River at Albert Pike Recreation Area. Peak streamflows of the Little Missouri River and tributary Brier Creek served as inputs to the simulation, which was calibrated to the surveyed elevations of high-water marks left by the flood and then used to predict flooding that would result from streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent. The simulated extent of the June 11, 2010, flood matched the observed extent of flooding at Albert Pike Recreation Area. The mean depth of inundation in the camp areas was 8.5 feet in Area D, 7.4 feet in Area C, 3.8 feet in Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area, and 12.5 feet in Lowry’s Camp Albert Pike. The mean water velocity was 7.2 feet per second in Area D, 7.6 feet per second in Area C, 7.2 feet per second in Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area, and 7.6 feet per second in Lowry’s Camp Albert Pike. A sensitivity analysis indicated that varying the streamflow of the Little Missouri River had the greatest effect on simulated water-surface elevation, while varying the streamflow of tributary Brier Creek had the least effect. Simulated water-surface elevations were lower than those modeled by the U.S. Forest Service using the standard-step method, but the

  5. Distribution and Source Apportionment of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Forest Soils from Urban to Rural Areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yihua; Tong, Fuchun; Kuang, Yuanwen; Chen, Bufeng

    2014-01-01

    The upper layer of forest soils (0–20 cm depth) were collected from urban, suburban, and rural areas in the Pearl River Delta of Southern China to estimate the distribution and the possible sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Total concentrations of PAHs in the forest soils decreased significantly along the urban–suburban–rural gradient, indicating the influence of anthropogenic emissions on the PAH distribution in forest soils. High and low molecular weight PAHs dominated in the urban and rural forest soils, respectively, implying the difference in emission sources between the areas. The values of PAH isomeric diagnostic ratios indicated that forest soil PAHs were mainly originated from traffic emissions, mixed sources and coal/wood combustion in the urban, suburban and rural areas, respectively. Principal component analysis revealed that traffic emissions, coal burning and residential biomass combustion were the three primary contributors to forest soil PAHs in the Pearl River Delta. Long range transportation of PAHs via atmosphere from urban area might also impact the PAHs distribution in the forest soils of rural area. PMID:24599040

  6. Wide-area estimates of evapotranspiration by red gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and associated vegetation in the Murray-Darling River Basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, Pamela L.; Doody, Tanya M.; Glenn, Edward P.; Jarchow, Christopher J.; Barreto-Munoz, Armando; Didan, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    Floodplain red gum forests (Eucalyptus camaldulensis plus associated grasses, reeds and sedges) are sites of high biodiversity in otherwise arid regions of southeastern Australia. They depend on periodic floods from rivers, but dams and diversions have reduced flood frequencies and volumes, leading to deterioration of trees and associated biota. There is a need to determine their water requirements so environmental flows can be administered to maintain or restore the forests. Their water requirements include the frequency and extent of overbank flooding, which recharges the floodplain soils with water, as well as the actual amount of water consumed in evapotranspiration (ET). We estimated the flooding requirements and ET for a 38 134 ha area of red gum forest fed by the Murrumbidgee River in Yanga National Park, New South Wales. ET was estimated by three methods: sap flux sensors placed in individual trees; a remote sensing method based on the Enhanced Vegetation Index from MODIS satellite imagery and a water balance method based on differences between river flows into and out of the forest. The methods gave comparable estimates yet covered different spatial and temporal scales. We estimated flood frequency and volume requirements by comparing Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values from Landsat images with flood history from 1995 to 2014, which included both wet periods and dry periods. ET during wet years is about 50% of potential ET but is much less in dry years because of the trees' ability to control stomatal conductance. Based on our analyses plus other studies, red gum trees at this location require environmental flows of 2000 GL yr−1 every other year, with peak flows of 20 000 ML d−1, to produce flooding sufficient to keep them in good condition. However, only about 120–200 GL yr−1 of river water is consumed in ET, with the remainder flowing out of the forest where it enters the Murray River system.

  7. 75 FR 53266 - United States Army Restricted Area, Designated Portions of Eagle Bay and Eagle River, Fort...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... Richardson, Alaska as well as an adjacent portion of Eagle Bay in the Knik Arm. More specifically, the... affected waters of Eagle Bay and Eagle River in order to enhance safety and security. This portion of Eagle... B. Olson), 441 G Street, NW., Washington, DC 20314-1000. Hand Delivery/Courier: Due to security...

  8. 78 FR 8018 - Establishment of the Indiana Uplands Viticultural Area and Modification of the Ohio River Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... comments from industry members whose wine labels would potentially be affected by the proposed Ohio River... origin of their wines and to allow consumers to better identify wines they may purchase. DATES: Effective... Secretary of the Treasury to prescribe regulations for the labeling of wine, distilled spirits, and malt...

  9. Effects of Hyporheic Exchange Flows on Egg Pocket Water Temperature in Snake River Fall Chinook Salmon Spawning Areas, 2002-2003 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanrahan, T.; Geist, D.; Arntzen, C. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2004-09-01

    The development of the Snake River hydroelectric system has affected fall Chinook salmon smolts by shifting their migration timing to a period (mid- to late-summer) when downstream reservoir conditions are unfavorable for survival. Subsequent to the Snake River Chinook salmon fall-run Evolutionary Significant Unit being listed as Threatened under the Endangered Species Act, recovery planning has included changes in hydrosystem operations (e.g., summer flow augmentation) to improve water temperature and flow conditions during the juvenile Chinook salmon summer migration period. In light of the limited water supplies from the Dworshak reservoir for summer flow augmentation, and the associated uncertainties regarding benefits to migrating fall Chinook salmon smolts, additional approaches for improved smolt survival need to be evaluated. This report describes research conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that evaluated relationships among river discharge, hyporheic zone characteristics, and egg pocket water temperature in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas. This was a pilot-scale study to evaluate these relationships under existing operations of Hells Canyon Dam (i.e., without any prescribed manipulations of river discharge) during the 2002-2003 water year. The project was initiated in the context of examining the potential for improving juvenile Snake River fall Chinook salmon survival by modifying the discharge operations of Hells Canyon Dam. The potential for improved survival would be gained by increasing the rate at which early life history events proceed (i.e., incubation and emergence), thereby allowing smolts to migrate through downstream reservoirs during early- to mid-summer when river conditions are more favorable for survival. PNNL implemented this research project at index sites throughout 160 km of the Hells Canyon Reach (HCR) of the Snake River. The HCR extends from Hells Canyon Dam (river kilometer [rkm] 399

  10. Groundwater well inventory and assessment in the area of the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project, Green River Basin, Wyoming, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweat, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    During May through September 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, inventoried and assessed existing water wells in southwestern Wyoming for inclusion in a possible groundwater-monitor network. Records were located for 3,282 wells in the upper Green River Basin, which includes the U.S. Geological Survey study area and the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project area. Records for 2,713 upper Green River Basin wells were determined to be unique (not duplicated) and to have a Wyoming State Engineers Office permit. Further, 376 of these wells were within the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area. Of the 376 wells in the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area, 141 well records had sufficient documentation, such as well depth, open interval, geologic log, and depth to water, to meet many, but not always all, established monitor well criteria. Efforts were made to locate each of the 141 wells and to document their current condition. Field crews were able to locate 121 of the wells, and the remaining 20 wells either were not located as described, or had been abandoned and the site reclaimed. Of the 121 wells located, 92 were found to meet established monitor well criteria. Results of the field efforts during May through September 2012, and specific physical characteristics of the 92 wells, are presented in this report.

  11. Sound velocity profiles in the St. Clair and St. Mary's Rivers in the Great Lakes area by the National Ocean Service's Navigation Response Team 4, May 2006 (NODC Accession 0006777)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sound velocity profile data were collected using sound velocimeter in the St. Clair and St. Mary rivers in the Great Lakes area by the NAVIGATION RESPONSE TEAM 4...

  12. Health benefit from decreasing exposure to heavy metals and metalloid after strict pollution control measures near a typical river basin area in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Ma, Yingqun; Zhao, Xiuge; Qin, Yanwen; Liu, Yan; Li, Sai; Zheng, Binghui; Wei, Fusheng

    2017-10-01

    The metal(loid) pollution still is a great concern due to the effects from urbanization and industrialization. While, the health risks from the toxic metal(loid)s could decrease if strict pollution control measures were adopted. However, few studies to date investigate the health risks of heavy metal(loid)s in a systematic river basin for the dependent residents, after taking pollution control measures. Thus, the contents of metal(loid)s (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, As) in surface water along a typical river basin were investigated in this study, and the potential non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic health risks posed to the residents were assessed. Although the soluble contents of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd exceeded the respective thresholds in two sites located downstream the mine area, they were greatly decreased in comparison with previous contamination levels, and the soluble concentrations of all the metal(loid)s were within the relevant thresholds in the sites far away from the mining area. Moreover, the closer to the mining area, the higher the pollution levels of metal(loid)s. The total hazard index for non-carcinogenic risks of metal(loid)s were basically lower than the threshold (1) for the local population. Whereas, although the content of metal(loid)s were low (such as As), they could pose relative higher non-carcinogenic health risks. The result illustrated that pollution levels, toxicity of the contaminants and exposure behavior patterns all could contribute to the potential detrimental health risks. Additionally, the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from ingestion exposure were ∼2-∼4 orders of magnitude higher than those from dermal contact. The total carcinogenic risks were basically lower than the maximum tolerable levels (1.0 × 10 -4 ), indicating carcinogenic risks from most areas of the river could also be accepted. Among different population groups, heavy metal(loid)s posed relative higher non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to the children in

  13. WATER QUALITY INDEX AS AN TOOL FOR RIVER ASSESSMENT IN AGRICULTURAL AREAS IN THE PAMPEAN PLAINS OF ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Moscuzza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The contributions of nutrients and xenobiotics by anthropogenic activities developed in riverside deteriorate water quality. In this context, the impact of different agroindustry effluents on the water quality of Salado River in Buenos Aires Province (Argentina was analyzed applying water quality indexes (WQI. Water quality index is an efficient a simple monitoring tool to instrument corrective and remediation policies. Winter and summer samplings were performed. A minimal water quality index (WQImin was calculated using only two parameters which can be easy determined in situ. The use of WQImin may be a useful methodology for river management. Meat industry appears as the most pollutant source. Since it is considered as point pollution source, effluents should be treated previous to its disposal with the available technologies.

  14. Geochemical distribution and fate of arsenic in water and sediments of rivers from the Hokusetsu area, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Even

    2017-02-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The geochemical mapping showed that As in river water exceeded the maximum limit concentration of 10 ppb in several places. The highest As levels (waters and sediments correlated well with the surface geologies, concentrating in a halo around granitic intrusion and nearby faults. The isotopic analysis of sulfur revealed the occurrence of two kinds of sulfide mineralizations responsible for As contamination: one from Late Paleozoic submarine volcanism in sedimentary rocks, and one from Late Cretaceous igneous activities in contact-metamorphosed rocks disseminated with sulfides. The transport of As along river courses occurred mainly as a dissolved species rather than absorbed on Fe/Mn/Al particles, signifying the least role of iron oxy-hydroxides in As adsorption.

  15. Archaeological Survey and Site Testing in Sloughing Easement Areas along the Sac River Downstream from Stockton Dam, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Inventories from Sites Outside of the Easement 288 28. Summary of Artifact Frequencies by Functional Category 290 29. Proportions of General Tool...farming community to that of a resort town, with its week-end and holiday crowds of skiers , fishermen, and sightseers. Also but on a more permanent...the Sac River drainage and adjacent drainages has identified a number of specific problems and gaps In our knowledge of the prehistory of the region

  16. Peculiarities of hydrobiont mutagenesis in complicated ecological areas of the Nemunas river and the Kurshiu marios lagoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barshiene, J.

    1992-01-01

    Cytogenetic disturbances of Viviparus contectus, Dreisena polymorpha, various bivalves, fish and trematodes species collected from the Nemunas river above Smalininkai, Tilzhe, Rusne, Kurshiu marios lagoon at Nida, Preila, Juodkrante, estuaries of Smiltele (Klaipeda), Vente have been studied. The data show that the highest level of chromosome sets changes was presented at Smalininkai, Vente, Preila and in biotopes of Klaipeda environs. It was marked that 50 % of clams from Smalininkai site were polyploidy and possessed cancer cells in their tissues. The great instability of chromosome sets in snails and unchangeable karyotypes of their parasites were detected. In fish tissues there were 12-21 % of altered cells with aneuploid or polyploid sets. The existence of polyploid, mosaic and hermaphroditic specimens of clams as well as the presence of high amount of cancer cells and mitotic suppression in their tissues, enable to state about complicated ecological zones in the Nemunas river: below Kaunas, Smalininkai, Tilzhe, in the Kurshiu marios lagoon: Vente, environs of Klaipeda and estuaries of the Shventoji river additionally. The highest level of β activity was detected in soft tissues of bivalve specimens containing 24-58 % of hypoploid cells. (author). 5 tabs., 1 fig., 4 refs

  17. Risk Assessment of Pollution Emergencies in Water Source Areas of the Hanjiang-to-Weihe River Diversion Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Luyao; Feng, Minquan

    2018-03-01

    [Objective] This study quantitatively evaluated risk probabilities of sudden water pollution accidents under the influence of risk sources, thus providing an important guarantee for risk source identification during water diversion from the Hanjiang River to the Weihe River. [Methods] The research used Bayesian networks to represent the correlation between accidental risk sources. It also adopted the sequential Monte Carlo algorithm to combine water quality simulation with state simulation of risk sources, thereby determining standard-exceeding probabilities of sudden water pollution accidents. [Results] When the upstream inflow was 138.15 m3/s and the average accident duration was 48 h, the probabilities were 0.0416 and 0.0056 separately. When the upstream inflow was 55.29 m3/s and the average accident duration was 48 h, the probabilities were 0.0225 and 0.0028 separately. [Conclusions] The research conducted a risk assessment on sudden water pollution accidents, thereby providing an important guarantee for the smooth implementation, operation, and water quality of the Hanjiang-to-Weihe River Diversion Project.

  18. Sequential extraction of heavy metals in river sediments of an abandoned pyrite mining area: pollution detection and affinity series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagnanelli, F.; Moscardini, E.; Giuliano, V.; Toro, L.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper heavy metal pollution at an abandoned Italian pyrite mine has been investigated by comparing total concentrations and speciation of heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb and As) in a red mud sample and a river sediment. Acid digestions show that all the investigated heavy metals present larger concentrations in the sediment than in the tailing. A modified Tessier's procedure has been used to discriminate heavy metal bound to organic fraction from those originally present in the mineral sulphide matrix and to detect a possible trend of metal mobilisation from red mud to river sediment. Sequential extractions on bulk and size fractionated samples denote that sediment samples present larger percent concentrations of the investigated heavy metals in the first extractive steps (I-IV) especially in lower dimension size fractionated samples suggesting that heavy metals in the sediment are significantly bound by superficial adsorption mechanisms. - Capsule: A modified Tessier's procedure, discriminating organic and sulphide bound metals, was used to detect pollutant mobilisation from red mud to river sediment in an abandoned pyrite mine

  19. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AT THE AREA OF MUNIM RIVER DRAINAGE BASIN AT THE TOWN OF CHAPADINHA – MA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlo Pereira Lima

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays it is discussed the necessity of preservation of the hydro resources availablefor consumption. Once the human beings have the consumption of water as somethingessencial for the life, since early they valued water near their houses. This preocupationcontinue, although during the last decade, the progressive destructions of nature waterreservoirs are observated. Among the depredating actions are: polution, contaminated riversand deforestation of ciliary woods near the rivers that become easy and fast the erosiveprocesses.The state of Maranhão, besides is in Northeast, has different physical characteristicsfrom the rest of the region. The drainage basins that are distributed through the Maranhão arecomposed of principal perennial rivers and tributaries that are sometimes perennial andtemporary. In the Munin river basin, the growing urbane evolution results in seriousenvironmental consequences in its way. The stretch studied, in Chapadinha-Maranhão, hassuffered quick erosive process and consequently the silting on the riverbanks.So in this work we intend to identify the principal agents and processes that spoil thefluvial environment provoking the erosion on the banks and the silting of the watercourse.

  20. Organotins in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and sediments of the Quebec City Harbour area of the St. Lawrence River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regoli, L; Chan, H M; de Lafontaine, Y; Mikaelian, I

    2001-07-01

    Toxic antifouling agents such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT) have been released in aquatic ecosystems through the use of antifouling paint applied to ship hulls, pleasure crafts and fish nets and these compounds can bioaccumulate in aquatic organisms. The purpose of this study was 1) to assess the extent of the distribution of organotins from a contaminated marina to the St. Lawrence River system by measuring organotin concentrations in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and in sediments collected from 9 sites along the St. Lawrence River near Quebec City in July 1998, and 2) to examine the histopathological condition of zebra mussel tissues from these sites. TBT concentrations in zebra mussels were between 37 and 1078 ng Sn g(-1) wet weight, with the highest value found in the Bassin Louise marina. Elevated concentrations were also found in two other marinas. The concentrations decreased sharply to background levels just outside the marinas. All butyltins were detected in all sediments analysed, with highest values found in the Bassin Louise marina. Phenyltins were detected in three of the nine sites in low concentrations (zebra mussels. There was a significant correlation between TBT in sediments and mussels. Gonadal development of zebra mussels varied largely between sites, and was negatively associated to TBT levels in mussel tissue. This study shows that TBT contamination remains a problem in localised freshwater sectors of the St. Lawrence River.

  1. The elements distribution of Fe, Cd, Ca, Co and Cr on the well water and river in area Wonosari Gunung Kidul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosidi; Agus Taftazani; Sukirno

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of Fe, Cd, Ca, Co and Cr on the well water and river were detected by γ spectrometer with HPGe detector using NAA method. The main objective of this research was carried out to characterize the Fe, Cd, Ca, Co and Cr on the well water and river in area Gunung Kidul Yogyakarta, which accommodate of the present of environment data in support the clean water program. The result indicated that concentration of elements in well and river water at the Wonosari were still in standard level by Govenor of Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta no 214/KPTS/1991, were Cd = 0,005 mg/L; Ca = 200 mg/L; Fe = 0,5 mg/L; Co = 0,2 mg/L and Cr = 0,050 mg/L. The concentration in water of Cd, Fe, Ca, Co, and Cr were (0.0002-0.006), (16-40), (5-20), (0.0002-0.37) and (0.0003-0.005) mg/L respectively. The result of analysis give the information that these elements concentration were still proper to use for domestic activities. (author)

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND DELIMITATION OF THE PRESERVATION AREA STANDING IN ESPINHARAS RIVER IN THE URBAN STRETCH OF THE CITY OF PATOS-PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Alves

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to present and evaluate the proposal of the delimitation of the permanent preservation area (APP of the urban stretch of Espinharas River in the city of Patos-PB, carried out by the Superintendence and Management of the Environment - SUDEMA - Paraíba and to diagnose the main environmental impacts The demarcation was made from georeferenced points collected on the river, and the identification of the main environmental impacts. It identified a wide variation in the river rail between 10 and 50 meters, due to impacts and changes occurring in the anthropic process. The delimitation of PPA was 50 meters from the widest rail. The main impacts observed were: removal of riparian vegetation; pollution by the dumping of sewage and solid waste, siltation, invading of the banks with buildings and agricultural uses. It infers even though the lack of oversight occurs, failure of public authorities and of the local population in the search for solutions to the problems identified.

  3. Concentration and distribution patterns of naturally occurring radionuclides in sediments and flood plain soils of the catchment area of the river Elbe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, A.; Jurk, M.; Weiß, D.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of uranium mining and milling as well as that of traditional mining activities on river sediments and flood plain soils in the catchment area of the river Elbe was investigated over the years 1994 to 1995. Contamination resulting from mining activities has been identified by comparing the median values for the measured radionuclides, and by establishing the ratio between Ra-226 and Ra-228. The transport and deposition of contaminated materials as a result of high water events, and river discharge of waste water from mining and milling facilities, can be considered to be the main paths of sediment and soil contamination. Sediments and flood plain soils located in the vicinity of former uranium mining and milling sites are primarily influenced by discharges of waste water. Long distance transport and deposition at dams, barrages and on flood plains has mainly been caused by high water events. In many cases the radionuclide concentrations were higher in the subsurface layer than in the top layer of flood plain soil. Due to termination of uranium mining and milling activities, no significant contamination of newer or fresh sediments was found. Radiation exposure arising in relation to angling or walking on flood plains is low

  4. Effects of variations in cadmium and lead levels in river sediments on local foods and body burden of local residents in non-polluted areas in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masayuki; Watanabe, Takao; Ohashi, Fumiko; Shimbo, Shinichiro

    2010-03-01

    This study was initiated to examine if variations in the concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in water environment may affect metal levels in local foods and body burden of local residents in non-polluted areas in Japan. Two nationwide databases have been made available on concentrations of Cd in locally harvested brown rice and of Cd and Pb in sediments in local river beds. These data were combined with published data on metal concentrations in polished rice, food duplicates, and blood and urine from the residents. Cd in river sediments correlated significantly with those in brown rice, food duplicates, blood, and urine. Cd in food duplicates correlated with Cd in rice. In contrast, Pb concentrations in the river sediments either did not correlate or correlated only weakly with Pb in biological materials or food duplicates. Possible implication of the different behavior between Cd and Pb regarding the intensity of correlation was discussed with reference to the different routes of exposure to the elements. In conclusions, the Cd body burden on local residents in Japan is significantly influenced by Cd levels in water in the general environment, whereas water-borne Pb did not show clear correlation with the Pb body burden.

  5. Linking river nutrient concentrations to land use and rainfall in a paddy agriculture-urban area gradient watershed in southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yongqiu; Ti, Chaopu; She, Dongli; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-10-01

    The effects of land use and land-use changes on river nutrient concentrations are not well understood, especially in the watersheds of developing countries that have a mixed land use of rice paddy fields and developing urban surfaces. Here, we present a three-year study of a paddy agricultural-urban area gradient watershed in southeast China. The annual anthropogenic nitrogen (N) input from the agricultural region to the urban region was high, yet the results showed that the monthly nutrient concentrations in the river were low in the rainy seasons. The nutrient concentrations decreased continuously as the river water passed through the traditional agriculture region (TAR; paddy rice and wheat rotation) and increased substantially in the city region (CR). The traditional agricultural reference region exported most of the nutrient loads at high flows (>1mmd(-1)), the intensified agricultural region (IAR, aquaculture and poultry farming) exported most of the nutrient loads at moderate flows (between 0.5 and 1mmd(-1)), and the CR reference area exported most of the nutrient loads under low to moderate flows. We developed a statistical model to link variations in the nutrient concentrations to the proportion of land-use types and rainfall. The statistical results showed that impervious surfaces, which we interpret as a proxy for urban activities including sewage disposal, were the most important drivers of nutrient concentrations, whereas water surfaces accounted for a substantial proportion of the nutrient sinks. Therefore, to efficiently reduce water pollution, sewage from urban areas must be addressed as a priority, although wetland restoration could also achieve substantial pollutant removal. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Coexisting sea-based and land-based sources of contamination by PAHs in the continental shelf sediments of Coatzacoalcos River discharge area (Gulf of Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Portela, Julián Mauricio Betancourt; Sericano, José Luis; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Espinosa, Luisa Fernanda; Cardoso-Mohedano, José Gilberto; Pérez-Bernal, Libia Hascibe; Tinoco, Jesús Antonio Garay

    2016-02-01

    The oldest refinery and the major petrochemical complexes of Mexico are located in the lower reach of the Coatzacoalcos River, considered the most polluted coastal area of Mexico. A (210)Pb-dated sediment core, from the continental shelf of the Coatzacoalcos River, was studied to assess the contamination impact by the oil industry in the southern Gulf of Mexico. The sedimentary record showed the prevalence of petrogenic PAHs between 1950s and 1970s, a period during which waste discharges from the oil industry were not regulated. Later on, sediments exhibited higher contents of pyrogenic PAHs, attributed to the incineration of petrochemical industry wastes and recurrent wildfires in open dumpsites at the nearby swamps. The total concentration of the 16 EPA-priority PAHs indicated low levels of contamination (1000 ng g(-1)) during the late 1970s, most likely due to the major oil spill produced by the blowout of the Ixtoc-I offshore oil rig in deep waters of the southwestern Gulf of Mexico. Most of the PAH congeners did not show defined temporal trends but, according to a Factor Analysis, apparently have a common origin, probably waste released from the nearby oil industry. The only exceptions were the pyrogenic benzo(b)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene, and the biogenic perylene, that showed increasing concentration trends with time, which we attributed to erosional input of contaminated soil from the catchment area. Our study confirmed chronic oil contamination in the Coatzacoalcos River coastal area from land based sources for more than 60 years (since 1950s). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Flood Damage Assessment in Pearl River Delta Rural Area Application in Huashan Town, Huadu District,Guanghzou during the 2017 5.7 Heavy Rain Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China, the summer rain storm occurs frequently, the flood damage is very serious. Damage assessment is the basis of scientific decision-making in disaster mitigation. All approaches of flood damage analysis contain uncertainties due to the inaccuracies and generalisations used, the lack of data aggravates this problem, making methods very rough. This study presents a detailed flood damage assessment framework in Pearl River Delta rural area, using 2017 "5.7" heavy rain storm event to simulate the process and estimate the flood loss in resident building and property, agriculture production. The framework integrates four modules,1) utilize the remote sensing and statistical yearbook and so on to construct the disaster bearing bodies GIS database; 2) using hydraulics model to simulate the flood extent and depth spatial distribution;3)through field investigation to obtain the flood loss data for all kinds of hazard-affected body, using statistical analysis method to get the damage curves;4)Integrate flood scenarios, disaster bearing bodies GIS database and damage curves to calculate the flood loss estimation value. Using this methodology, in the 2017 "5.7" heavy rain storm event, Huashan Town flood damage loss is underestimate compared with the government report, because of not considering the damage of water conservancy facilities. But the disaster loss value on the spatial distribution is consistent with actual situation. In terms of aggregated values in the whole town, the model is capable of obtaining figures that are within the same order of magnitude. This study produce a flood damage assessment framework taking into account the regional characteristics of PRD rural area, provide a template for future practice. This study only considers the current impacts, the framework should be improved by taking into account socio-economic and climatic changes, as well as implementing adaptation measures to be applied to assess the potential

  8. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 4): Savannah River Site (USDOE) D-Area Oil Seepage Basin (631-G), Aiken, SC, August 14, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    The D-Area Oil Seepage Basin (D-Area OSB) Operable Unit (OU) is listed as a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3004(u) Solid Waste Management Unit/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) unit in Appendix C of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Savannah River Site (SRS). No Action is the selected remedy for shallow soil, surface water and sediment, because no constituents of concern (COCs) were identified for them in the RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation/Baseline Risk Assessment (RFI/RI/BRA). The selected remedy for D-Area OSB groundwater is Alternative GW-2: Natural Attenuation/Groundwater Mixing Zone (GWMZ) with Institutional Controls

  9. Development of a regional groundwater flow model for the area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, J.M.; Arnett, R.C.; Neupauer, R.M.

    1995-03-01

    This report documents a study conducted to develop a regional groundwater flow model for the Eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer in the area of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The model was developed to support Waste Area Group 10, Operable Unit 10-04 groundwater flow and transport studies. The products of this study are this report and a set of computational tools designed to numerically model the regional groundwater flow in the Eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. The objective of developing the current model was to create a tool for defining the regional groundwater flow at the INEL. The model was developed to (a) support future transport modeling for WAG 10-04 by providing the regional groundwater flow information needed for the WAG 10-04 risk assessment, (b) define the regional groundwater flow setting for modeling groundwater contaminant transport at the scale of the individual WAGs, (c) provide a tool for improving the understanding of the groundwater flow system below the INEL, and (d) consolidate the existing regional groundwater modeling information into one usable model. The current model is appropriate for defining the regional flow setting for flow submodels as well as hypothesis testing to better understand the regional groundwater flow in the area of the INEL. The scale of the submodels must be chosen based on accuracy required for the study

  10. Seasonal Variation of Arsenic Concentration in Natural Water of the Source Area of the Yellow River on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C.; Wen, L.; Yu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Seasonal variation in the arsenic (As) concentration of natural water has been studied the first time in the source area of the Yellow River (SAYR) in Tibet, China. Samples were collected in the lake, river and spring across the whole area in April (spring) and July (summer), 2014. In April the average values of arsenic concentration in SAYR from high to low were: lake (38.1μg/L, n=47, range 8.6-131.0μg/L) > river (24.3μg/L, n=83, range 4.3-77.1μg/L) > spring (19.1μg/L, n=12, range 12.0-29.4μg/L). In July the same order of the average values of arsenic concentration in SAYR was found: lake (14.1μg/L, n=57, range 5.8-68.5μg/L) > river (7.3μg/L, n=106, range 3.6-22.9μg/L)> spring (6.7μg/L, n=9, range 4.8-8.2μg/L).The average arsenic concentrations in April were almost three times higher than those in July. In both season, the higher concentrations of arsenic were distributed in the upper reaches above the two biggest lakes of Gyaring and Ngoring Lakes in SAYR. The two big lakes buffered the naturally generated arsenic concentration in surface water, suggesting the important ecological role of the lakes. Generally, the lower concentrations in July probably were due to 1. the dilution effect of the precipitation; 2 the change of water sources. In April when the permafrost and mountain snow started to thaw and melt, ground water with high arsenic concentration was the main water source with high concentration of arsenic; but in July, with the increase of the temperature, mountain snow, permafrost would contribute more than in April, in addition, the main arsenic contributor groundwater was diluted by the precipitation recharge. Since in spring, lake and river water arsenic concentration decreased with almost the same magnitude., assuming the dilution effect dominant. The exported arsenic from SAYR in April (903.4Kg) were twice more than it in July (449.1Kg), because the flowrates were similar in the two months, the water source of the runoff components was

  11. Hydrogeology of the Ramapo River-Woodbury Creek valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Orange County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer system and surrounding watershed areas was investigated within a 23-mile long, fault-controlled valley in eastern Orange County, New York. Glacial deposits form a divide within the valley that is drained to the north by Woodbury Creek and is drained to the south by the Ramapo River. Surficial geology, extent and saturated thickness of sand and gravel aquifers, extent of confining units, bedrock-surface elevation beneath valleys, major lineaments, and the locations of wells for which records are available were delineated on an interactive map.

  12. Data Management Plan and Functional System Design for the Information Management System of the Clinch River Remedial Investigation and Waste Area Grouping 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, T.; Brandt, C.; Calfee, J.; Garland, M.; Holladay, S.; Nickle, B.; Schmoyer, D.; Serbin, C.; Ward, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The Data Management Plan and Functional System Design supports the Clinch River Remedial Investigation (CRRI) and Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 Environmental Monitoring Program. The objective of the Data Management Plan and Functional System Design is to provide organization, integrity, security, traceability, and consistency of the data generated during the CRRI and WAG 6 projects. Proper organization will ensure that the data are consistent with the procedures and requirements of the projects. The Information Management Groups (IMGs) for these two programs face similar challenges and share many common objectives. By teaming together, the IMGs have expedited the development and implementation of a common information management strategy that benefits each program.

  13. Mixing state of oxalic acid containing particles in the rural area of Pearl River Delta, China: implication for seasonal formation mechanism of Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA)

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chunlei; Li, Mei; Chan, Chak K.; Tong, Haijie; Chen, Changhong; Chen, Duohong; Wu, Dui; Li, Lei; Cheng, Peng; Gao, Wei; Huang, Zhengxu; Li, Xue; Fu, Zhong; Bi, Yanru; Zhou, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The formation of oxalic acid and its mixing state in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were studied using a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) in the summer and winter of 2014 in Heshan, a supersite in the rural area of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in China. Oxalic acid-containing particles accounted for 2.5 % and 2.7 % in total detected ambient particles in summer and winter, respectively. Oxalic acid was measured in particles classified as elemental carb...

  14. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  15. A geological and hydrogeochemical investigation of the uranium potential of an area between the Orange and Kuruman Rivers, northwestern Cape Province. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, M.

    1980-04-01

    An extensive geological, hydrological and hydrochemical study was conducted to determine the uranium potential of an area which includes the greater part of the Gordonia District and part of the bordering Kuruman District. The area is situated between 21 and 22 degrees east, the Kuruman River in the north and the Orange River in the south. All berohole information germane to the area, such as Government and private drill records have been studied. As a result of this study maps of the area have been compiled, showing surface and pre-Karoo geology, the pre-Karoo and pre-Kalahari topography and the thickness of the Karoo and post-Karoo cover. Contour maps of water levels were compiled from which a regional east-west flow pattern was deduced, indicating a large groundwater basin which could be divided into four smaller basins. Hydrochemical studies substantiate the inferred flow pattern of the groundwater. Of prime importance in this investigation was the study of the distribution of uranium in the groundwater of the area and its association with the various lithologies encountered. Radiometric borehole logging of all accessible boreholes in the most promising areas delineated by this study confirmed the presence of uranium mineralisation in the depositional basins (in particular the Dwyka Tillite Formation) west of the granite-gneiss ridge. Uranium mineralisation in surficial deposits was also discovered as a result of the reassessment of radiometric airborne data obtained previously. It is concluded that potential economic uranium deposits may exist in the Dwyka Tillite Formation northwest of Upington and in the surficial diatomaceous earth deposits on the farm Rus-en-Vrede [af

  16. Measurement of Iodine-129 concentration in environmental water samples around Fukushima area - Role of river system in the global iodine cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Tokuyama, Hironori; Miyake, Yasuto; Honda, Maki; Yamagata, Takeyasu; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki

    2013-04-01

    According to Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident, vast amount of radioactive nuclides including radioactive iodine were spilled out into the environment. There is no question about that detailed observation of distribution of radioactive nuclides and evaluation of the radiation exposure of residents is extremely important. On the other hand, from the view of an elemental dynamics in the environment, this event can be considered as a spike of the radioactive isotope. It is also the case for the iodine. A rare isotope Iodine-129 was widely distributed in a very short time by the FDNPP accident. Iodine-129 directly landing on the soil surface had been trapped in the upper layer of the soil and the depth profile should indicate the migration in and the interaction with the soil. If Iodine-129 was trapped in the woods, it seems to take rather longer time to landing on the ground. Either way, a certain portion of the Iodine-129 should be moving downward and finally washed out by the groundwater or river with a certain rate and transported into the sea. The concentration of Iodine-129 in environmental water samples taken from rivers and ponds are considered to reflect the iodine transportation process by the fluvial system. For the detailed discussion of the role of the fluvial system in the global iodine cycle, Iodine-129 concentration of various water samples collected from Fukushima area was measured by means of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. The results ranged from 3E06 atoms/L to 3E09 atoms/L. Samples from Abukuma area (South West of FDNPP) showed lower concentration. On the other hand, samples collected from North West part (Iitate village and Minami Soma region) showed higher concentration (more than 1E8 atoms/L). Delayed enhancement of Iodine-129 concentration over a year in river systems surrounded by woods was also observed which is considered to correspond to the delayed release from the woods.

  17. Using stable isotopes in tracing contaminant sources in an industrial area: A case study on the hydrological basin of the Olt River, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popescu, Raluca [National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, ICSI Ramnicu Valcea, 4 Uzinei Str, RO-240050 Ramnicu-Valcea (Romania); Mimmo, Tanja [Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, University Plaza no. 5, I-39100 Bolzano (Italy); Dinca, Oana Romina [National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, ICSI Ramnicu Valcea, 4 Uzinei Str, RO-240050 Ramnicu-Valcea (Romania); Capici, Calogero [Faculty of Science and Technology, Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, University Plaza no. 5, I-39100 Bolzano (Italy); Costinel, Diana; Sandru, Claudia [National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, ICSI Ramnicu Valcea, 4 Uzinei Str, RO-240050 Ramnicu-Valcea (Romania); Ionete, Roxana Elena, E-mail: roxana.ionete@icsi.ro [National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, ICSI Ramnicu Valcea, 4 Uzinei Str, RO-240050 Ramnicu-Valcea (Romania); Stefanescu, Ioan [National Research and Development Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies, ICSI Ramnicu Valcea, 4 Uzinei Str, RO-240050 Ramnicu-Valcea (Romania); Axente, Damian [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65–103 Donath Str., RO-400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-11-15

    Tracing pollution sources and transformation of nitrogen compounds in surface- and groundwater is an issue of great significance worldwide due to the increased human activity, translated in high demand of water resources and pollution. In this work, the hydrological basin of an important chemical industrial platform in Romania (Ramnicu Valcea industrial area) was characterized in terms of the physico-chemical and isotope composition of δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 2}H in water samples and δ{sup 15}N of the inorganic nitrogen species. Throughout a period of one year, water samples from the Olt River and its more important tributaries were collected monthly in the industrial area, when the seasonal and spatial isotope patterns of the surface waters and the main sources of pollution were determined. Higher inorganic nitrogen concentrations (up to 10.2 mg N L{sup −1}) were measured between November 2012 and April 2013, which were designated as anthropogenic additions using the mixing calculations. The main sources of pollution with inorganic nitrogen were agriculture and residential release. The inorganic nitrogen from the industrial waste water duct had a distinct δ{sup 15}N fingerprint (mean of − 8.6‰). Also, one industrial release into the environment was identified for Olt River, at Ionesti site, in November 2012. The mean precipitation samples had the lowest inorganic nitrogen concentrations (less than 5.5 mg N L{sup −1}) with a distinct δ{sup 15}N fingerprint compared to the surface and industrial waters. - Highlights: • The main source of nitrogen pollution was agriculture/residential. • Anthropogenic additions of nitrogen were identified in the colder months. • Industrial nitrogen source was differentiated from the agriculture/residential one. • One industrial nitrogen release in the Olt River was observed during the study.

  18. Larvae occurrences of Rhamdia quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae in an area under dam influence in the upper Paraná River region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn B. da Silva

    Full Text Available Rhamdia quelen (Jundiá is a catfish species of great interest to fish producers and researchers due to several favorable characteristics for inclusion in the Brazilian list of commercially raised fish. It has a wide geographical distribution, with occurrences reported from Central Argentina to South Mexico. Studies on the biological aspects of this species have been limited to captive adult fishes that were researched for farming purposes. Research related to ichthyoplankton has provided valuable information on spawning periods and sites and other aspects of breeding for numerous species of fish. This information is crucial for implementing management and protection strategies for these species. The studied floodplain is located in a lotic remnant between the Reservoirs of Itaipu and Engenheiro Sérgio Motta. This area is located inside a protected area (Ilha Grande National Park in the last portion of dam-free land along the Paraná River in the Brazilian territory; however, it is still threatened by the negative effects of the dams. We conducted monthly nocturnal collections during four periods from October to March, 2003 to 2007, in 22 locations along the main channel, secondary lakes and main tributaries of the Paraná River. After collection, the individuals were classified according to the degree of development and the notochord flexion and caudal fin support elements. Data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA, ANOVA and Pearson correlation to relate abiotic and larval density data. The increase of capture abundances in the four studied stages suggests that R. quelen is finding conditions that are favorable to its reproduction. The increase in captures can generate questions regarding R. quelen reproductive activity, for instance, whether the species is adapting or is influenced by environmental changes created by the Paraná River dams.

  19. Using stable isotopes in tracing contaminant sources in an industrial area: A case study on the hydrological basin of the Olt River, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Raluca; Mimmo, Tanja; Dinca, Oana Romina; Capici, Calogero; Costinel, Diana; Sandru, Claudia; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Stefanescu, Ioan; Axente, Damian

    2015-01-01

    Tracing pollution sources and transformation of nitrogen compounds in surface- and groundwater is an issue of great significance worldwide due to the increased human activity, translated in high demand of water resources and pollution. In this work, the hydrological basin of an important chemical industrial platform in Romania (Ramnicu Valcea industrial area) was characterized in terms of the physico-chemical and isotope composition of δ 18 O and δ 2 H in water samples and δ 15 N of the inorganic nitrogen species. Throughout a period of one year, water samples from the Olt River and its more important tributaries were collected monthly in the industrial area, when the seasonal and spatial isotope patterns of the surface waters and the main sources of pollution were determined. Higher inorganic nitrogen concentrations (up to 10.2 mg N L −1 ) were measured between November 2012 and April 2013, which were designated as anthropogenic additions using the mixing calculations. The main sources of pollution with inorganic nitrogen were agriculture and residential release. The inorganic nitrogen from the industrial waste water duct had a distinct δ 15 N fingerprint (mean of − 8.6‰). Also, one industrial release into the environment was identified for Olt River, at Ionesti site, in November 2012. The mean precipitation samples had the lowest inorganic nitrogen concentrations (less than 5.5 mg N L −1 ) with a distinct δ 15 N fingerprint compared to the surface and industrial waters. - Highlights: • The main source of nitrogen pollution was agriculture/residential. • Anthropogenic additions of nitrogen were identified in the colder months. • Industrial nitrogen source was differentiated from the agriculture/residential one. • One industrial nitrogen release in the Olt River was observed during the study

  20. Biomarker and carbon isotope constraints (δ13C, Δ14C) on sources and cycling of particulate organic matter discharged by large Siberian rivers draining permafrost areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterfeld, Maria

    2014-08-01

    Circumpolar permafrost soils store about half of the global soil organic carbon pool. These huge amounts of organic matter (OM) could accumulate due to low temperatures and water saturated soil conditions over the course of millennia. Currently most of this OM remains frozen and therefore does not take part in the active carbon cycle, making permafrost soils a globally important carbon sink. Over the last decades mean annual air temperatures in the Arctic increased stronger than the global mean and this trend is projected to continue. As a result the permafrost carbon pool is under climate pressure possibly creating a positive climate feedback due to the thaw-induced release of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. Arctic warming will lead to increased annual permafrost thaw depths and Arctic river runoff likely resulting in enhanced mobilization and export of old, previously frozen soil-derived OM. Consequently, the great arctic rivers play an important role in global biogeochemical cycles by connecting the large permafrost carbon pool of their hinterlands with the arctic shelf seas and the Arctic Ocean. The first part of this thesis deals with particulate organic matter (POM) from the Lena Delta and adjacent Buor Khaya Bay. The Lena River in central Siberia is one of the major pathways translocating terrestrial OM from its southernmost reaches near Lake Baikal to the coastal zone of the Laptev Sea. The permafrost soils from the Lena catchment area store huge amounts of pre-aged OM, which is expected to be remobilized due to climate warming. To characterize the composition and vegetation sources of OM discharged by the Lena River, the lignin phenol and carbon isotopic composition (δ 13 C and Δ 14 C) in total suspended matter (TSM) from surface waters, surface sediments from the Buor Khaya Bay along with soils from the Lena Delta's first (Holocene) and third terraces (Pleistocene ice complex) were analyzed. The lignin compositions of these samples are

  1. Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Ramapo and Mahwah rivers area, Rockland County, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Richard Bridge; Cadwell, D.H.; Stelz, W.G.; Belli, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    This report is the eighth in a series of 11 map sets depicting geohydrologic conditions in selected aquifers in upstate New York. Geohydrologic data are compiled on six maps at 1:24,000 scale. Together, the maps provide a comprehensive overview of a major valley-fill aquifer in southeastern Rockland County. The maps include surficial geology, geologic sections, water-infiltration potential of soil zone, aquifer thickness, water-table elevations, well yields, and land use. The valley-fill deposits consists of alluvial silt and sand, glacial outwash (sand and gravel), ice-contact sand and gravel, till, and lacustrine silt and clay. The sand and gravel beds have relatively high permeabilities, whereas the till, silt, and clay deposits have relatively low permeabilities. Water-table conditions prevail in unconfined sand and gravel along the Ramapo River valley and much of the Mahwah River valley. Artesian conditions prevail in confined sand and gravel buried under silt and clay and till in parts of the Mahway valley. The aquifer is recharged throughout, where the land surface is most permeable and is greatest along the margin of the valley, where runoff from the hillsides is concentrated. The use of land overlying the aquifer is predominantly commercial, agricultural and residential, with lesser industrial uses. (USGS)

  2. [Evaluation on the eco-economic benefits of small watershed in Beijing mountainous area: a case of Yanqi River watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hui-Jie; Wei, Zi-Gang; Wang, Qing; Zhu, Xiao-Bo

    2012-12-01

    Based on the theory of harmonious development of ecological economy, a total of 13 evaluation indices were selected from the ecological, economic, and social sub-systems of Yanqi River watershed in Huairou District of Beijing. The selected evaluation indices were normalized by using trapezoid functions, and the weights of the evaluation indices were determined by analytic hierarchy process. Then, the eco-economic benefits of the watershed were evaluated with weighted composite index method. From 2004 to 2011, the ecological, economic, and social benefits of Yanqi River watershed all had somewhat increase, among which, ecological benefit increased most, with the value changed from 0.210 in 2004 to 0.255 in 2011 and an increment of 21.5%. The eco-economic benefits of the watershed increased from 0.734 in 2004 to 0.840 in 2011, with an increment of 14.2%. At present, the watershed reached the stage of advanced ecosystem, being in beneficial circulation and harmonious development of ecology, economy, and society.

  3. Cadmium mobility in sediments and soils from a coal mining area on Tibagi River watershed: Environmental risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galunin, Evgeny; Ferreti, Jeferson; Zapelini, Iago; Vieira, Isadora; Ricardo Teixeira Tarley, César [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rod. Celso Garcia Cid – PR 445, 86051-990 Londrina (Brazil); Abrão, Taufik [Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rod. Celso Garcia Cid – PR 445, 86051-990 Londrina (Brazil); Santos, Maria Josefa, E-mail: mjyabe@uel.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Rod. Celso Garcia Cid – PR 445, 86051-990 Londrina (Brazil)

    2014-01-30

    Highlights: • The cadmium sorption–desorption behavior on environmental samples was investigated. • The sorption decreased due to competition between Cd and protons in aqueous medium. • The experimental data were successfully adjusted to the Langmuir–Freundlich model. • The role of low-energy non-specific sites on the sample surfaces was elucidated. • The desorption rate and hysteresis index suggested a high risk of cadmium pollution. -- Abstract: The risk of cadmium contamination in the Tibagi River watershed (Parana State, Brazil) affected by past coal mining activities was assessed through sorption–desorption modeling for sediment and soil samples. The acidic character of the samples resulted in more competition between the cadmium ions and protons, thereby influencing the cadmium sorption–desorption. The sorption isotherms were fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich single models and to the dual-site Langmuir–Freundlich (or Sips) model. The single-site models indicated a low-energy character of sorption sites on the sample sorption sites, whereas the dual-site model explained the availability of higher-affinity and lower-affinity non-specific sites. The correlation of the sorption and desorption constants with the physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the samples showed that the cadmium sorption behavior was significantly affected by the pH, point of zero charge, and also by the magnesium, aluminum, calcium and manganese amounts. Besides, the desorption rate and hysteresis index suggested a high risk of cadmium mobilization along the Tibagi River basin.

  4. Tracking historical lead pollution in the coastal area adjacent to the Yangtze River Estuary using lead isotopic compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yunchao; Guo Zhigang; Yang Zuosheng; Fan, Dejiang; Fang Ming; Li Xiangdong

    2008-01-01

    The rapid economic development in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), China in the last three decades has had a significant impact on the environment of the East China Sea (ECS). Lead isotopic compositions of a 210 Pb dated sediment core collected from the coastal ECS adjacent to the Yangtze River Estuary were analyzed to track the Pb pollution in the region. The baseline Pb concentration in the coastal ECS sediments before the industrialization in China was 32 μg g -1 , and the corresponding 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratio was 1.195. The high-resolution profiles of Pb flux and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios had close relationships with the economic development and the history of the use of leaded gasoline in China, and they were clearly different from those of most European countries and United States. - The combination of Pb concentration, sedimentary flux, Pb isotopic composition and 210 Pb dating in the coastal ECS sediments revealed the historical Pb pollution in China

  5. Handling of Astyanax sp. for biomonitoring in Cangüiri Farm within a fountainhead (Iraí River Environment Preservation Area) through the use of genetic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsdorf, Wanessa Algarte; Vicari, Taynah; de Almeida, Marina I M; Artoni, Roberto Ferreira; Cestari, Marta Margarete

    2012-10-01

    Aquatic environmental pollution may cause biodiversity loss. Thus, monitoring studies are very important because fish health reflects both quality and sustainability of the environment, as well as of the individuals that live there. In the present report, genetic biomarkers (piscine micronucleus test; comet assay with blood, liver, and kidney cells) were used in specimens of Astyanax sp. to analyze the contamination level of the Cangüiri Farm through biomonitoring. The Cangüiri Farm, the old school farm of the Federal University of Paraná, is inside the Iraí River Environment Preservation Area, created in 1996 to preserve the sources of public water supply in Curitiba and metropolitan area. We verified that the fishes collected within the Cangüiri Farm area presented high damage levels, showing more environment contamination when compared to the specimens collected in the Costa Ecologic Park, used as reference in the present report. The results indicate that the Cangüiri Farm, which is inside an environment protection area, created especially for the protection of the fountainhead for water supply, may be contaminated. These toxic residues, which were remarkably persistent in the environment, are possibly derived from agricultural activities in the wider area. Thus, we suggest the analysis of the area with other biomarkers and for a longer time period.

  6. Using stable isotopes in tracing contaminant sources in an industrial area: A case study on the hydrological basin of the Olt River, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Raluca; Mimmo, Tanja; Dinca, Oana Romina; Capici, Calogero; Costinel, Diana; Sandru, Claudia; Ionete, Roxana Elena; Stefanescu, Ioan; Axente, Damian

    2015-11-15

    Tracing pollution sources and transformation of nitrogen compounds in surface- and groundwater is an issue of great significance worldwide due to the increased human activity, translated in high demand of water resources and pollution. In this work, the hydrological basin of an important chemical industrial platform in Romania (Ramnicu Valcea industrial area) was characterized in terms of the physico-chemical and isotope composition of δ(18)O and δ(2)H in water samples and δ(15)N of the inorganic nitrogen species. Throughout a period of one year, water samples from the Olt River and its more important tributaries were collected monthly in the industrial area, when the seasonal and spatial isotope patterns of the surface waters and the main sources of pollution were determined. Higher inorganic nitrogen concentrations (up to 10.2 mg N L(-1)) were measured between November 2012 and April 2013, which were designated as anthropogenic additions using the mixing calculations. The main sources of pollution with inorganic nitrogen were agriculture and residential release. The inorganic nitrogen from the industrial waste water duct had a distinct δ(15)N fingerprint (mean of -8.6‰). Also, one industrial release into the environment was identified for Olt River, at Ionesti site, in November 2012. The mean precipitation samples had the lowest inorganic nitrogen concentrations (less than 5.5 mg N L(-1)) with a distinct δ(15)N fingerprint compared to the surface and industrial waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pollution Prevention, Waste Minimization and Material Recycling Successes Realized during Savannah River Site's K Area Materials Storage (KAMS) Project, W226

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El