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Sample records for mature sage brush

  1. Uptake and kinetics of 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po in big sage brush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, S.L.

    1985-01-01

    Root uptake of 226 Pb and 210 Po by mature sage brush was studied using a soil injection method for spiking the soil with minimal root disturbance. The main objective was to measure vegetation concentrations and determine concentration ratios (CR's) due to root uptake as a function of time in mature big sage brush. Concentration ratios obtained in mature vegetation and in steady-state situations may be valuable in assessing the impact of uranium mining and milling. The vegetation was sampled approximately every 3 mo for A 2 y period. Significant levels of activity were detected in the vegetation beginning at the first sampling (81 d after soil injection for 226 Ra, 28 d for 210 Pb and 210 Po). There was an exponential decrease in concentration to an apparent steady state value. Mean values (geometric) of the data pooled over the second year period indicated that steady-state Cr's for 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po, as determined in mature sage brush, were 0.04, 0.009, and 0.08, respectively. Investigations were also carried out to verify the suitability of soil injection for uptake studies and to evaluate the time dependence of 226 Ra leaching from sage brush leaves. The soil injection method was determined to produce, on the average, uptake equivalent to that produce by a uniform soil distribution, however, the variety of uptake for plants growing in injected soil was higher than for plants growing in uniformly contaminated soil. A three compartment mathematical model was formulated to help understand mechanisms of plant uptake and to predict, if possible, the concentration of 226 Ra, 210 Po in vegetation as a function of time after soil spiking

  2. Contributions: SAGE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Contributions: SAGE. Space Alternating Generalized Expectation (SAGE) Maximization algorithm provides an iterative approach to parameter estimation when direct maximization of the likelihood function may be infeasible. Complexity is less in those applications ...

  3. Sage grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Shawna; Timmer, Jennifer M.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Braun, Clait E.; Young, Jessica R.

    2017-01-01

    Sage grouse are a group of chicken-sized birds with a unique breeding behavior and dependence on sagebrush shrubs (genus Artemisia) for food and shelter throughout their life cycle. In the last century, human population expansion throughout western North America has reduced the amount of sagebrush and degraded and fragmented the remaining areas. Vanishing sagebrush has resulted in sage grouse (genus Centrocercus) population declines and elevated conservation concern. Western Colorado is home to both species of sage grouse: greater sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and Gunnison sage grouse (Centrocercus minimus). Populations in the state, and throughout their range, have declined sufficiently to warrant consideration for federal protection for both species under the Endangered Species Act.

  4. Polymer Brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de W.M.; Kleijn, J.M.; Keizer, de A.; Cosgrove, T.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    A polymer brush can be defined as a dense array of polymers end-attached to an interface that stretch out into the surrounding medium. Polymer brushes have been investigated for the past 30 years and have shown to be an extremely useful tool to control interfacial properties. This review is intended

  5. SAGE results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.

    1996-01-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) is described. The solar neutrino flux measured by 31 extractions through October, 1993 is presented. The result of 69+/-10(stat)+5/-7(syst) SNU is to be compared with a Standard Solar Model prediction of 132 SNU. The initial results of a measurement of experimental efficiencies are also discussed by exposing the gallium target to neutrinos from an artificial source. The capture rate of neutrinos from this source is very close to that which is expected. The result can be expressed as a ratio of the measured capture rate to the anticipated rate from the source activity. This ratio is 0.93+0.15, -0.17 where the systematic and statistical errors have been combined. To first order the experimental efficiencies are in agreement with those determined during solar neutrino measurements and in previous auxiliary measurements. One must conclude that the discrepancy between the measured solar neutrino flux and that predicted by the solar models can not arise from an experimental artifact. (author)

  6. SAGE IV Pathfinder

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Utilizing a unique, new occultation technique involving imaging, the SAGE IV concept will meet or exceed the quality of previous SAGE measurements at a small...

  7. Results from SAGE II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nico, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first nine runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 66 -13 +18 (stat) -7 +5 (sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result of 73 -16 +18 (stat) -7 5 (sys) SNU, the capture rate is 69 -11 +11 (stat) -7 +5 (sys) SNU. This represents only 52%--56% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models

  8. The SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Konki, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Herzberg, R.D.; Butler, P.A.; Cox, D.M.; Cresswell, J.R.; Mistry, A.; Page, R.D.; Parr, E.; Sampson, J.; Seddon, D.A.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Coleman-Smith, P.J.; Lazarus, I.H.; Letts, S.C.; Pucknell, V.F.E.; Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    The SAGE spectrometer has been constructed for in-beam nuclear structure studies. SAGE combines a Ge-detector array and an electron spectrometer for detection of γ-rays and internal conversion electrons, respectively, and allows simultaneous observation of both electrons and γ-rays emitted from excited nuclei. SAGE is set up in the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae and works in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator and the GREAT focal-plane spectrometer allowing the use of the recoil-decay tagging method. (orig.)

  9. The SAGE spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Konki, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Herzberg, R.D.; Butler, P.A.; Cox, D.M.; Cresswell, J.R.; Mistry, A.; Page, R.D.; Parr, E.; Sampson, J.; Seddon, D.A.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D.; Coleman-Smith, P.J.; Lazarus, I.H.; Letts, S.C.; Pucknell, V.F.E.; Simpson, J.

    2014-01-01

    The SAGE spectrometer has been constructed for in-beam nuclear structure studies. SAGE combines a Ge-detector array and an electron spectrometer for detection of γ-rays and internal conversion electrons, respectively, and allows simultaneous observation of both electrons and γ-rays emitted from excited nuclei. SAGE is set up in the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae and works in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator and the GREAT focal-plane spectrometer allowing the use of the recoil-decay tagging method. (orig.)

  10. Results from SAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurashitov, J.N.; Gavrin, V.N.; Girin, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    The Russian-American Gallium Solar Neutrino Experiment (SAGE) is described. Beginning in September 1992, SAGE II data were taken with 55 tons of Ga and with significantly reduced backgrounds. The solar neutrino flux measured by 31 extractions through October 1993 is presented. The result of 69 ± 10 +5/-7 SNU is to be compared with a Standard Solar Model prediction of 132 SNU

  11. Numerical analysis using Sage

    CERN Document Server

    Anastassiou, George A

    2015-01-01

    This is the first numerical analysis text to use Sage for the implementation of algorithms and can be used in a one-semester course for undergraduates in mathematics, math education, computer science/information technology, engineering, and physical sciences. The primary aim of this text is to simplify understanding of the theories and ideas from a numerical analysis/numerical methods course via a modern programming language like Sage. Aside from the presentation of fundamental theoretical notions of numerical analysis throughout the text, each chapter concludes with several exercises that are oriented to real-world application.  Answers may be verified using Sage.  The presented code, written in core components of Sage, are backward compatible, i.e., easily applicable to other software systems such as Mathematica®.  Sage is  open source software and uses Python-like syntax. Previous Python programming experience is not a requirement for the reader, though familiarity with any programming language is a p...

  12. Sage for undergraduates

    CERN Document Server

    Bard, Gregory V

    2015-01-01

    Professor Bard has provided a valuable service by carefully explaining everything an undergraduate student of mathematics, or a teacher of these topics, needs to get started with Sage quickly and easily. It will also be useful for any student or teacher of another STEM discipline. There is an excellent mix of the most frequently used commands, along with warnings about common pitfalls or caveats. I highly recommend it for anyone new to Sage, or who desires an overview of the system's impressive capabilities. -Robert A. Beezer, University of Puget Sound This book is a sort of "Missing Manual"

  13. Solar neutrino results from SAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.

    1999-01-01

    We report the status of the Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE). The solar neutrino result for SAGE III, 20 runs during the measuring period May 1995 through December 1997, is 56.7 +9.3/-8.7(stat.)+4.6/-4.8(syst.) SNU. The combined result for 57 measurements from 1990 through 1997 (SAGE I+II+III) is 66.9 +7.1/-6.8 (stat) +5.4/-5.7 (syst) SNU. The final result of the SAGE 51 Cr experiment to check the response of SAGE to low energy neutrinos is also presented

  14. SAGE Version 7.0 Algorithm: Application to SAGE II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damadeo, R. P; Zawodny, J. M.; Thomason, L. W.; Iyer, N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper details the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiments (SAGE) version 7.0 algorithm and how it is applied to SAGE II. Changes made between the previous (v6.2) and current (v7.0) versions are described and their impacts on the data products explained for both coincident event comparisons and time-series analysis. Users of the data will notice a general improvement in all of the SAGE II data products, which are now in better agreement with more modern data sets (e.g. SAGE III) and more robust for use with trend studies.

  15. First results from SAGE II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurashitov, J.N.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.

    1994-01-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first five runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 76 -18 +21 (stat) -7 +5 (sys) SNU. combined with the SAGE I result, the capture rate is 74 -12 +13 (stat) -7 +5 (sys) SNU. This represents only 56%--60% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models

  16. First results from SAGE II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburashitov, J.N.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.; Gusev, A.O.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Knyshenko, I.I.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Mirmov, I.N.; Pshukov, A.M.; Shalagin, A.M.; Shikhin, A.A.; Timofeyev, P.V.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Bowles, T.J.; Nico, J.S.; Teasdale, W.A.; Wark, D.L.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Cleveland, B.T.; Daily, T.; Davis, R. Jr.; Lande, K.; Lee, C.K.; Wildenhain, P.W.; Elliott, S.R.; Cherry, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) began the second phase of operation (SAGE II) in September of 1992. Monthly measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos have been made with 55 tonnes of gallium. The K-peak results of the first five runs of SAGE II give a capture rate of 76 +21 -18 (stat) +5 -7 (sys) SNU. Combined with the SAGE I result, the capture rate is 74 +13 -12 (stat) +5 -7 (sys) SNU. This represents only 56%--60% of the capture rate predicted by different Standard Solar Models. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  17. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruissen, Fred; Baas, Frank

    2007-01-01

    In 1995, serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was developed as a versatile tool for gene expression studies. SAGE technology does not require pre-existing knowledge of the genome that is being examined and therefore SAGE can be applied to many different model systems. In this chapter, the SAGE

  18. Endobiliary brush biopsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Sven; Olsen, Marianne; Jendresen, Marianne Bille

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obtaining cytological specimens by wire-guided endobiliary brushing at the time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a convenient way to reach a diagnosis. Sensitivity for malignant disease is generally around 50% and specificity around 100%. The present study wa...

  19. Simulation of the SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D.M.; Herzberg, R.D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Konki, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sorri, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hauschild, K. [Universite Paris-Sud, CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Orsay (France)

    2015-06-15

    The SAGE spectrometer combines a Ge-detector array with a Si detector to allow simultaneous detection of γ-rays and electrons. A comprehensive GEANT4 simulation package of the SAGE spectrometer has been developed with the ability to simulate the expected datasets based on user input files. The measured performance of the spectrometer is compared to the results obtained from the simulations. (orig.)

  20. Simulation of the SAGE spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.M.; Herzberg, R.D.; Konki, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sorri, J.; Hauschild, K.

    2015-01-01

    The SAGE spectrometer combines a Ge-detector array with a Si detector to allow simultaneous detection of γ-rays and electrons. A comprehensive GEANT4 simulation package of the SAGE spectrometer has been developed with the ability to simulate the expected datasets based on user input files. The measured performance of the spectrometer is compared to the results obtained from the simulations. (orig.)

  1. Water Soluble Responsive Polymer Brushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Parnell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Responsive polymer brushes possess many interesting properties that enable them to control a range of important interfacial behaviours, including adhesion, wettability, surface adsorption, friction, flow and motility. The ability to design a macromolecular response to a wide variety of external stimuli makes polymer brushes an exciting class of functional materials, and has been made possible by advances in modern controlled polymerization techniques. In this review we discuss the physics of polymer brush response along with a summary of the techniques used in their synthesis. We then review the various stimuli that can be used to switch brush conformation; temperature, solvent quality, pH and ionic strength as well as the relatively new area of electric field actuation We discuss examples of devices that utilise brush conformational change, before highlighting other potential applications of responsive brushes in real world devices.

  2. Biomolecule-functionalized polymer brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Xu, Fu-Jian

    2013-04-21

    Functional polymer brushes have been utilized extensively for the immobilization of biomolecules, which is of crucial importance for the development of biosensors and biotechnology. Recent progress in polymerization methods, in particular surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), has provided a unique means for the design and synthesis of new biomolecule-functionalized polymer brushes. This current review summarizes such recent research activities. The different preparation strategies for biomolecule immobilization through polymer brush spacers are described in detail. The functional groups of the polymer brushes used for biomolecule immobilization include epoxide, carboxylic acid, hydroxyl, aldehyde, and amine groups. The recent research activities indicate that functional polymer brushes become versatile and powerful spacers for immobilization of various biomolecules to maximize their functionalities. This review also demonstrates that surface-initiated ATRP is used more frequently than other polymerization methods in the designs of new biomolecule-functionalized polymer brushes.

  3. Bottle-Brush Brushes: Cylindrical Molecular Brushes of Poly(2-oxazoline) on Glassy Carbon

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ning; Steenackers, Marin; Luxenhofer, Robert; Jordan, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of brushes of bottle-brushes of poly(2-oxazoline)s on polished glassy carbon (GC) substrates. First, homogeneous and stable poly(2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline) (PIPOx) brush layers with thicknesses up to 160 nm were created directly onto GC by the self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization (SIPGP) of 2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline (IPOx). Kinetic studies reveal a linear increase in thickness with the polymerization time. In a second reaction, the pendant 2-oxazoline ring of the PIPOx brushes were used for the living cationic ring-opening polymerization (LCROP) with different substituted 2-oxazoline monomers to form the side chains. Also for the second surface-initiatedLCROPfrom the surface-bound macroinitiator brushes, the thickness increase with the polymerization time was found to be linear and reproducible. Characterization of the resulting bottle-brush brushes by FTIR spectroscopy,contact angle, and AFM indicates a high side chain grafting density and quantitative reactions. Finally, we have demonstrated the possibility of functionalizing the bottle-brush brushes side chain end groups with sterically demanding molecules. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  4. Bottle-Brush Brushes: Cylindrical Molecular Brushes of Poly(2-oxazoline) on Glassy Carbon

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ning

    2009-07-28

    We report on the synthesis of brushes of bottle-brushes of poly(2-oxazoline)s on polished glassy carbon (GC) substrates. First, homogeneous and stable poly(2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline) (PIPOx) brush layers with thicknesses up to 160 nm were created directly onto GC by the self-initiated photografting and photopolymerization (SIPGP) of 2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline (IPOx). Kinetic studies reveal a linear increase in thickness with the polymerization time. In a second reaction, the pendant 2-oxazoline ring of the PIPOx brushes were used for the living cationic ring-opening polymerization (LCROP) with different substituted 2-oxazoline monomers to form the side chains. Also for the second surface-initiatedLCROPfrom the surface-bound macroinitiator brushes, the thickness increase with the polymerization time was found to be linear and reproducible. Characterization of the resulting bottle-brush brushes by FTIR spectroscopy,contact angle, and AFM indicates a high side chain grafting density and quantitative reactions. Finally, we have demonstrated the possibility of functionalizing the bottle-brush brushes side chain end groups with sterically demanding molecules. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  5. Shroud brushing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamaki, Kazuo; Takabayashi, Jun-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    A roller screw is assembled at an axial center of the inside of a device main body. A nut is assembled to the axial center of the roller screw secured so as not to be rotated, and a base is integrally connected to the nut. An air cylinder is pivoted to the base by a pin, and an arm is disposed to a piston rod of the air cylinder. The top end of the arm is secured to a motor case, and a brush is rotated by an electric motor in the motor case. The device main body is suspended into the reactor pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor, and seated on the upper surface of a fuel support metal fitting. The roller screw is rotated to move vertically the arm by way of the nut and the base. The device main body is rotated to rotate the arm. The arm is extended and then the electric motor is driven to rotate the brush thereby polishing the inner surface of the shroud. (I.N.)

  6. Shroud brushing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamaki, Kazuo; Takabayashi, Jun-ichi

    1996-07-12

    A roller screw is assembled at an axial center of the inside of a device main body. A nut is assembled to the axial center of the roller screw secured so as not to be rotated, and a base is integrally connected to the nut. An air cylinder is pivoted to the base by a pin, and an arm is disposed to a piston rod of the air cylinder. The top end of the arm is secured to a motor case, and a brush is rotated by an electric motor in the motor case. The device main body is suspended into the reactor pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor, and seated on the upper surface of a fuel support metal fitting. The roller screw is rotated to move vertically the arm by way of the nut and the base. The device main body is rotated to rotate the arm. The arm is extended and then the electric motor is driven to rotate the brush thereby polishing the inner surface of the shroud. (I.N.)

  7. SAGE 1 data user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcmaster, L.R.; Chu, W.P.; Rowland, M.W.

    1992-08-01

    A guide for using the data products from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 1 (SAGE 1) for scientific investigations of stratospheric chemistry related to aerosol, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, dynamics, and climate change is presented. A detailed description of the aerosol profile tape, the ozone profile tape, and the nitrogen dioxide profile tape is included. These tapes are the SAGE 1 data products containing aerosol extinction data and ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentration data for use in the different scientific investigations. Brief descriptions of the instrument operation, data collection, processing, and validation, and some of the scientific analyses that were conducted are also included

  8. ``Smart'' Surfaces of Polymer Brushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Meng, Dong

    2009-03-01

    ``Smart'' surfaces, also known as stimuli-responsive surfaces, can change their properties (e.g., wettability, adhesion, friction, elasticity, and biocompatibility) in response to external stimuli (e.g., temperature, pressure, light, solvent selectivity, ionic strength, type of salt, pH, applied electric field, etc.). In this work, we use numerical self-consistent field calculations to study in detail the structure and stimuli- responses of various polymer brushes, including (1) the thermo- response of PNIPAM brushes in water, (2) solvent-response of uncharged diblock copolymer brushes, and (3) the stimuli- response of charged two-component polymer brushes (including both the binary A/B brushes and diblock copolymer A-B brushes) to ionic strength, pH, and applied electric field. Among the many design parameters (e.g., chain lengths, grafting densities, A-B incompatibility, degree of ionization of charged polymers, etc.) we identify those that strongly affect the surface switchability. Such knowledge is useful to the experimental design of these smart polymer brushes for their applications.

  9. Interaction between two polyelectrolyte brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, N Arun; Seidel, Christian

    2007-08-01

    We report molecular dynamics simulations on completely charged polyelectrolyte brushes grafted to two parallel surfaces. The pressure Pi is evaluated as a function of separation D between the two grafting planes. For decreasing separation, Pi shows several regimes distinguished by their scaling with D which reflects the different physical nature of the various regimes. At weak compression the pressure obeys the 1D power law predicted by scaling theory of an ideal gas of counterions in the osmotic brush regime. In addition we find that the brushes shrink as they approach each other trying to avoid interpenetration. At higher compressions where excluded volume interactions become important, we obtain scaling exponents between -2 at small grafting density rho(a) and -3 at large rho(a). This behavior indicates a transition from a brush under good solvent condition to the melt regime with increasing grafting density.

  10. The Mouse SAGE Site: database of public mouse SAGE libraries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Divina, Petr; Forejt, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 32, - (2004), s. D482-D483 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A079; GA ČR GV204/98/K015 Grant - others:HHMI(US) 555000306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : mouse SAGE libraries * web -based database Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.260, year: 2004

  11. Brush seal performance measurement system

    OpenAIRE

    Aksoy, Serdar; Akşit, Mahmut Faruk; Aksit, Mahmut Faruk; Duran, Ertuğrul Tolga; Duran, Ertugrul Tolga

    2009-01-01

    Brush seals are rapidly replacing conventional labyrinth seals in turbomachinery applications. Upon pressure application, seal stiffness increases drastically due to frictional bristle interlocking. Operating stiffness is critical to determine seal wear life. Typically, seal stiffness is measured by pressing a curved shoe to brush bore. The static-unpressurized measurement is extrapolated to pressurized and high speed operating conditions. This work presents a seal stiffness measurement syste...

  12. Post-translational suppression of expression of intestinal brush border enzymes by fructose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1989-01-01

    The two major dietary sugars, fructose and sucrose, were found to suppress effectively the biosynthetic renewal of brush border enzymes in the gut. When studied in cultured explants of pig small intestine mucosa, 10-50 mM concentrations of fructose completely prevented the expression of mature...... cotranslational glycosylation that in turn triggers a rapid proteolytic breakdown. Our findings suggest that renewal of digestive brush border enzymes is transiently suppressed during intake of fructose- or sucrose-rich meals....

  13. Sage Russet: A new high yielding dual-purpose russet variety, with cold-sweetening resistance, high vitamin C and protein contents and excellent fresh pack and processing potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage Russet was released in 2009 by Oregon State University, in cooperation with the USDA-ARS and the Agricultural Experiment Stations of Idaho and Washington. It is a product of the Northwest Potato Variety (Tri-State) Development Program. Sage Russet has a medium-early maturity and produces long, ...

  14. Technology Tips: Building Interactive Demonstrations with Sage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Maura

    2013-01-01

    Sage is an open-source software package that can be used in many different areas of mathematics, ranging from algebra to calculus and beyond. One of the most exciting pedagogical features of Sage (http://www.sagemath.org) is its ability to create interacts--interactive examples that can be used in a classroom demonstration or by students in a…

  15. Solar neutrino results from SAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.

    2001-01-01

    The results of ten years of solar neutrino observation by the Russian-American gallium solar neutrino experiment (SAGE) are reported. The overall result of 70 runs during the measurement period from January 1990 to October 1999 is 75.4 -6.8 +7.0 (stat.) -3.0 +3.5 (syst) SNU. This represents only slightly more than half of the predicted standard solar model rate of 129 SNU. The individual results on each run, and the results of combined analysis of all runs during each year, as well as the results of combined analysis of all runs during monthly and bimonthly periods are presented

  16. Solar neutrino results from SAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.

    2000-01-01

    We report the results of ten years of solar neutrino observation by the Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE). The overall result of 70 runs during the measurement period January 1990 to October 1999 is 75.4 + 7.0/-6.8 (stat.) +3.5/-3.0 (syst.) SNU. This represents only slightly more than half of the predicted standard solar model rate of 129 SNU. The individual results of each run, and the results of combined analysis of all runs during each year, as well as the results of combined analysis of all runs during monthly and bimonthly periods are presented

  17. Sweet brushes and dirty proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, Wouter T. E.; Patzsch, Katja; Stuart, Martien A. Cohen; Norde, Willem

    2007-01-01

    We studied the protein repellency of dextran brushes. Dextran was grafted to a polystyrene surface in a broad range of grafting densities using polystyrene - dextran block copolymers and the Langmuir - Blodgett deposition technique. Ellipsometry measurements confirmed a successful transfer of the

  18. Sage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oil is considered a toxic dose. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care providers about any ... Privacy and Policies Accessibility en Español FOIA Site Map Contact Us U.S. Department of Health & Human Services , ...

  19. The radon influence of SAGE results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.; Gorbachev, V.V.; Mirmov, I.N.

    2002-01-01

    The method for evaluating systematic errors, connected with radon, is described in the experiment on determining the SAGE solar neutrino flux. The systematic error by the measured neutrino capture rate in the gallium 75 SNU target does not exceed 0.3 SNU. The obtained value (0.3 SNU) is the upper limit of the radon systematic error. Its low value means, that radon does not contribute significantly to the SAGE result [ru

  20. Polymer Brushes: Synthesis, Characterization, Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advincula, Rigoberto C.; Brittain, William J.; Caster, Kenneth C.; Rühe, Jürgen

    2004-09-01

    Materials scientists, polymer chemists, surface physicists and materials engineers will find this book a complete and detailed treatise on the field of polymer brushes, their synthesis, characterization and manifold applications. In a first section, the various synthetic pathways and different surface materials are introduced and explained, followed by a second section covering important aspects of characterization and analysis in both flat surfaces and particles. These specific surface initiated polymerization (SIP) systems such as linear polymers, homopolymers, block copolymers, and hyperbranched polymers are unique compared to previously reported systems by chemisorption or physisorption. They have found their way in both large-scale and miniature applications of polymer brushes, which is covered in the last section. Such 'hairy' surfaces offer fascinating opportunities for addressing numerous problems of both academic and, in particular, industrial interest: high-quality, functional or protective coatings, composite materials, surface engineered particles, metal-organic interfaces, biological applications, micro-patterning, colloids, nanoparticles, functional devices, and many more. It is the desire of the authors that this book will be of benefit to readers who want to "brush-up on polymers".

  1. Slow brushing reduces heat pain in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljencrantz, J; Strigo, I; Ellingsen, D M; Krämer, H H; Lundblad, L C; Nagi, S S; Leknes, S; Olausson, H

    2017-08-01

    C-tactile (CT) afferents are unmyelinated low-threshold mechanoreceptors optimized for signalling affective, gentle touch. In three separate psychophysical experiments, we examined the contribution of CT afferents to pain modulation. In total, 44 healthy volunteers experienced heat pain and CT optimal (slow brushing) and CT sub-optimal (fast brushing or vibration) stimuli. Three different experimental paradigms were used: Concurrent application of heat pain and tactile (slow brushing or vibration) stimulation; Slow brushing, applied for variable duration and intervals, preceding heat pain; Slow versus fast brushing preceding heat pain. Slow brushing was effective in reducing pain, whereas fast brushing or vibration was not. The reduction in pain was significant not only when the CT optimal touch was applied simultaneously with the painful stimulus but also when the two stimuli were separated in time. For subsequent stimulation, the pain reduction was more pronounced for a shorter time interval between brushing and pain. Likewise, the effect was more robust when pain was preceded by a longer duration of brush stimulation. Strong CT-related pain reduction was associated with low anxiety and high calmness scores obtained by a state anxiety questionnaire. Slow brushing - optimal for CT activation - is effective in reducing pain from cutaneous heating. The precise mechanisms for the pain relief are as yet unknown but possible mechanisms include inhibition of nociceptive projection neurons at the level of the dorsal horn as well as analgesia through cortical mechanisms. Slow brushing stimuli - optimal for activation of C-tactile fibres - can reduce pain from cutaneous heating. No such effect was seen with fast brushing or vibration. These observations indicate the role of C-tactile fibres in pain modulation. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  2. Metabolism of monoterpenes in cell cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, K.L.; Gershenzon, J.; Croteau, R.

    1990-01-01

    Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes ( 14 C]sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+)-camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+)-camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1,000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism

  3. Nanopatterned polymer brushes: conformation, fabrication and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qian; Ista, Linnea K.; Gu, Renpeng; Zauscher, Stefan; López, Gabriel P.

    2015-12-01

    Surfaces with end-grafted, nanopatterned polymer brushes that exhibit well-defined feature dimensions and controlled chemical and physical properties provide versatile platforms not only for investigation of nanoscale phenomena at biointerfaces, but also for the development of advanced devices relevant to biotechnology and electronics applications. In this review, we first give a brief introduction of scaling behavior of nanopatterned polymer brushes and then summarize recent progress in fabrication and application of nanopatterned polymer brushes. Specifically, we highlight applications of nanopatterned stimuli-responsive polymer brushes in the areas of biomedicine and biotechnology.

  4. SAGE: String-overlap Assembly of GEnomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Lucian; Haider, Bahlul; Molnar, Michael; Solis-Oba, Roberto

    2014-09-15

    De novo genome assembly of next-generation sequencing data is one of the most important current problems in bioinformatics, essential in many biological applications. In spite of significant amount of work in this area, better solutions are still very much needed. We present a new program, SAGE, for de novo genome assembly. As opposed to most assemblers, which are de Bruijn graph based, SAGE uses the string-overlap graph. SAGE builds upon great existing work on string-overlap graph and maximum likelihood assembly, bringing an important number of new ideas, such as the efficient computation of the transitive reduction of the string overlap graph, the use of (generalized) edge multiplicity statistics for more accurate estimation of read copy counts, and the improved use of mate pairs and min-cost flow for supporting edge merging. The assemblies produced by SAGE for several short and medium-size genomes compared favourably with those of existing leading assemblers. SAGE benefits from innovations in almost every aspect of the assembly process: error correction of input reads, string-overlap graph construction, read copy counts estimation, overlap graph analysis and reduction, contig extraction, and scaffolding. We hope that these new ideas will help advance the current state-of-the-art in an essential area of research in genomics.

  5. SAGE as a Source for Undergraduate Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutz, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the use of the computer algebra system SAGE for undergraduate student research projects. After reading this article, the reader should understand the benefits of using SAGE as a source of research projects and how to commence working with SAGE. The author proposes a tiered working group model to allow maximum benefit to the…

  6. Dual wound dc brush motor gearhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Barrie W.

    1986-01-01

    The design requirements, the design, development tests and problems, the qualification and life test and the findings of the strip examination of a dual wound DC brushed motor gearhead are described. It is the only space qualified dual wound dc brushed motor gearhead in Europe.

  7. The SAGE Model of Social Psychological Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Séamus A; Velez, Gabriel; Qadafi, Ahmad; Tennant, Joseph

    2018-05-01

    We propose a SAGE model for social psychological research. Encapsulated in our acronym is a proposal to have a synthetic approach to social psychological research, in which qualitative methods are augmentative to quantitative ones, qualitative methods can be generative of new experimental hypotheses, and qualitative methods can capture experiences that evade experimental reductionism. We remind social psychological researchers that psychology was founded in multiple methods of investigation at multiple levels of analysis. We discuss historical examples and our own research as contemporary examples of how a SAGE model can operate in part or as an integrated whole. The implications of our model are discussed.

  8. Validation of SAGE II ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnold, D. M.; Chu, W. P.; Mccormick, M. P.; Veiga, R. E.; Barnes, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    Five ozone profiles from the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II are compared with coincident ozonesonde measurements obtained at Natal, Brazil, and Wallops Island, Virginia. It is shown that the mean difference between all of the measurements is about 1 percent and that the agreement is within 7 percent at altitudes between 20 and 53 km. Good agreement is also found for ozone mixing ratios on pressure surfaces. It is concluded that the SAGE II profiles provide useful ozone information up to about 60 km altitude.

  9. The SAGE Model of Social Psychological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Séamus A.; Velez, Gabriel; Qadafi, Ahmad; Tennant, Joseph

    2018-01-01

    We propose a SAGE model for social psychological research. Encapsulated in our acronym is a proposal to have a synthetic approach to social psychological research, in which qualitative methods are augmentative to quantitative ones, qualitative methods can be generative of new experimental hypotheses, and qualitative methods can capture experiences that evade experimental reductionism. We remind social psychological researchers that psychology was founded in multiple methods of investigation at multiple levels of analysis. We discuss historical examples and our own research as contemporary examples of how a SAGE model can operate in part or as an integrated whole. The implications of our model are discussed. PMID:29361241

  10. Technology evaluation: SAGE, Genzyme molecular oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, J

    2001-02-01

    Genzyme Molecular Oncology (GMO) is using its SAGE (Serial Analysis of Gene Expression) combinatorial chemistry technology to screen compound libraries. SAGE is a high-throughput, high-efficiency method to simultaneously detect and measure the expression levels of genes expressed in a cell at a given time, including rare genes. SAGE can be used in a wide variety of applications to identify disease-related genes, to analyze the effect of drugs on tissues and to provide insights into disease pathways. It works by isolating short fragments of genetic information from the expressed genes that are present in the cell being studied. These short sequences, called SAGE tags, are linked together for efficient sequencing. The sequence data are then analyzed to identify each gene expressed in the cell and the levels at which each gene is expressed. This information forms a library that can be used to analyze the differences in gene expression between cells [293437]. By December 1999, GMO had identified a set of 40 genes from 3.5 million transcripts that were expressed at elevated levels in all cancer tissue but not seen in normal tissue. The company hope these may provide diagnostic markers or therapeutic targets. The studies also provided data furthering the understanding of the way cells use their genome [349968]. GMO has signed a collaborative agreement with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to search for new drug candidates in the field of cancer chemotherapy. The collaboration combines GMO's SAGE technology with the NCI's extensive array of 60 cell-based cancer screens. Under the agreement, the NCI will evaluate Genzyme's library consisting of one million compounds against selected cancer screens to identify compounds with anticancer properties [255082]. Xenometrix granted a license agreement for gene expression profiling to GMO in February 1999, giving company access to claims covered in issued US and European patents. The license is non-exclusive and covers the

  11. Involvement of detergent-insoluble complexes in the intracellular transport of intestinal brush border enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1995-01-01

    A number of transmembrane digestive enzymes of the porcine small intestinal brush border membrane were found to be partially Triton X-100-insoluble at 0 degree C and colocalized in gradient centrifugation experiments with the GPI-anchored alkaline phosphatase in low-density, detergent-insoluble c...... intracellularly. I therefore propose that, in the enterocyte, the brush border enzymes are targeted directly from the trans-Golgi network toward the apical cell surface......., and their insolubility increased to that of the steady-state level soon after they achieved their mature, complex glycosylation, i.e., after passage through the Golgi complex. Detergent-insoluble complexes isolated by density gradient centrifugation were highly enriched in brush border enzymes, and the enrichment...

  12. OCT2, SSX and SAGE1 reveal the phenotypic heterogeneity of spermatocytic seminoma reflecting distinct subpopulations of spermatogonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Jasmine; Goriely, Anne; Turner, Gareth Dh

    2011-01-01

    in the normal adult testis. We analysed the expression pattern of OCT2, SSX2-4, and SAGE1 in 36 SS cases and four intratubular SS (ISS) as well as a series of normal testis samples throughout development. We describe for the first time two different types of SS characterized by OCT2 or SSX2-4 immunoexpression......, whilst SAGE1 was exclusively present in a subset of post-pubertal germ cells, most likely B spermatogonia. The presence of OCT2 and SSX2-4 in distinct subsets of germ cells implies that these markers represent germ cells at different maturation stages. Analysis of SAGE1 and SSX2-4 in ISS showed spatial...... differences suggesting ongoing maturation of germ cells during progression of SS tumourigenesis. We conclude that the expression pattern of OCT2, SSX2-4, and SAGE1 supports the origin of SS from spermatogonia and provides new evidence for heterogeneity of this tumour, potentially linked either to the cellular...

  13. Interfacial Friction and Adhesion of Polymer Brushes

    KAUST Repository

    Landherr, Lucas J. T.

    2011-08-02

    A bead-probe lateral force microscopy (LFM) technique is used to characterize the interfacial friction and adhesion properties of polymer brushes. Our measurements attempt to relate the physical structure and chemical characteristics of the brush to their properties as thin-film, tethered lubricants. Brushes are synthesized at several chain lengths and surface coverages from polymer chains of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polystyrene (PS), and a poly(propylene glycol)-poly(ethylene glycol) block copolymer (PPG/PEG). At high surface coverage, PDMS brushes manifest friction coefficients (COFs) that are among the lowest recorded for a dry lubricant film (μ ≈ 0.0024) and close to 1 order of magnitude lower than the COF of a bare silicon surface. Brushes synthesized from higher molar mass chains exhibit higher friction forces than those created using lower molar mass polymers. Increased grafting density of chains in the brush significantly reduces the COF by creating a uniform surface of stretched chains with a decreased surface viscosity. Brushes with lower surface tension and interfacial shear stresses manifest the lowest COF. In particular, PDMS chains exhibit COFs lower than PS by a factor of 3.7 and lower than PPG/PEG by a factor of 4.7. A scaling analysis conducted on the surface coverage (δ) in relation to the fraction (ε) of the friction force developing from adhesion predicts a universal relation ε ∼ δ4/3, which is supported by our experimental data. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Binary Polymer Brushes of Strongly Immiscible Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Elza; Babar, Tashnia; Bruist, Michael F; Sidorenko, Alexander

    2015-06-17

    The phenomenon of microphase separation is an example of self-assembly in soft matter and has been observed in block copolymers (BCPs) and similar materials (i.e., supramolecular assemblies (SMAs) and homo/block copolymer blends (HBCs)). In this study, we use microphase separation to construct responsive polymer brushes that collapse to generate periodic surfaces. This is achieved by a chemical reaction between the minor block (10%, poly(4-vinylpyridine)) of the block copolymer and a substrate. The major block of polystyrene (PS) forms mosaic-like arrays of grafted patches that are 10-20 nm in size. Depending on the nature of the assembly (SMA, HBC, or neat BCP) and annealing method (exposure to vapors of different solvents or heating above the glass transition temperature), a range of "mosaic" brushes with different parameters can be obtained. Successive grafting of a secondary polymer (polyacrylamide, PAAm) results in the fabrication of binary polymer brushes (BPBs). Upon being exposed to specific selective solvents, BPBs may adopt different conformations. The surface tension and adhesion of the binary brush are governed by the polymer occupying the top stratum. The "mosaic" brush approach allows for a combination of strongly immiscible polymers in one brush. This facilitates substantial contrast in the surface properties upon switching, previously only possible for substrates composed of predetermined nanostructures. We also demonstrate a possible application of such PS/PAAm brushes in a tunable bioadhesion-bioadhesive (PS on top) or nonbioadhesive (PAAm on top) surface as revealed by Escherichia coli bacterial seeding.

  15. SAGES Guidelines: Prevention and management of gastro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAGES Guidelines: Prevention and management of gastro-oesophageal varices and variceal haemorrhage in cirrhosis. J F Botha. Abstract. No Abstract South African Gastroenterology Review Vol. 6 (1) 2008: pp. 23-25. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  16. Effect of radon on SAGE results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.; Gorbachev, V.V.; Mirmov, I.N.

    2002-01-01

    A method for estimating the systematic uncertainty associated with radon in the SAGE experiment aimed at observing the solar-neutrino flux is described. For the gallium target used in this experiment, the systematic uncertainty in the measured neutrino-capture rate of 75 SNU is below 0.3 SNU

  17. Lessons learned with the SAGE spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorri, J; Greenlees, P T; Jones, P; Julin, R; Konki, J; Pakarinen, J; Rahkila, P; Sandzelius, M; Uusitalo, J; Papadakis, P; Cox, D M; Herzberg, R D

    2012-01-01

    The SAGE spectrometer combines a high-efficiency γ-ray detection system with an electron spectrometer. Some of the design features have been known to be problematic and surprises have come up during the early implementation of the spectrometer. Tests related to bismuth germanate Compton-suppression shields, electron detection efficiency and an improved cooling system are discussed in the paper. (paper)

  18. Sage grouse on the Idaho National Environmental Research Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connelly, J.W.; Ball, I.J.

    1983-01-01

    A comprehensive study of sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) ecology was conducted on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site between June 1977 and May 1981. Sage grouse used lawns surrounding INEL facilities for feeding and loafing throughot the summer. Mean summer home range was 406 ha for adult female sage grouse and 94 ha for juveniles. Radionuclide concentrations in grouse summering near a liquid radioactive waste disposal area (N = 29) were significantly higher than those in grouse summering near a solid radioactive waste disposal area (N = 14) or control areas (N = 20). Sage grouse moved from 2 to 83 km during seasonal migration. Fall movements from INEL facilities to winter range were slow and meandering. Spring movements of females from leks to summer range were also slow and meandering but male movements appeared rapid and direct. Sage grouse remained in segregated flocks during early summer but the number of mixed sex flocks increased in late summer. Sage grouse occurred in segregated flocks throughout the winter. Both flock type and habitat influenced winter sage grouse flock size. Mean flock size remained relatively constant as winter weather became more severe. Agricultural aras were an important component of sage grouse summer range and were preferred by all sage grouse sex and age classes. Sage grouse winter range was generally characterized by sagebrush stands with 11 to 30% canopy coverage

  19. AFM-based force spectroscopy on polystyrene brushes: effect of brush thickness on protein adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Carsten; Wagner, Hendrik; Smiatek, Jens; Heuer, Andreas; Fuchs, Harald; Zhang, Xi; Studer, Armido; Chi, Lifeng

    2013-02-12

    Herein we present a study on nonspecific binding of proteins at highly dense packed hydrophobic polystyrene brushes. In this context, an atomic force microscopy tip was functionalized with concanavalin A to perform single-molecule force spectroscopy measurements on polystyrene brushes with thicknesses of 10 and 60 nm, respectively. Polystyrene brushes with thickness of 10 nm show an almost two times stronger protein adsorption than brushes with a thickness of 60 nm: 72 pN for the thinner and 38 pN for the thicker layer, which is in qualitative agreement with protein adsorption studies conducted macroscopically by fluorescence microscopy.

  20. Interfacial Friction and Adhesion of Polymer Brushes

    KAUST Repository

    Landherr, Lucas J. T.; Cohen, Claude; Agarwal, Praveen; Archer, Lynden A.

    2011-01-01

    higher molar mass chains exhibit higher friction forces than those created using lower molar mass polymers. Increased grafting density of chains in the brush significantly reduces the COF by creating a uniform surface of stretched chains with a decreased

  1. Design and Testing of High Performance Brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    shows an example. What ordinarily serves as a ’brush’. applitations such as homopolar motors / generators and in transmitting current across an interface...speed current collection bricating layer of silver and graphite debris. systems for homopolar electrical machines. Use The other, associated with the...performantc hornopolar by examining the origin of the power losses when electrical motors and generators, based either on superconducting or brushes

  2. Water driven turbine/brush pipe cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlink, Rudy J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Assemblies are disclosed for cleaning the inside walls of pipes and tubes. A first embodiment includes a small turbine with angled blades axially mounted on one end of a standoff support. An O-ring for stabilizing the assembly within the pipe is mounted in a groove within the outer ring. A replaceable circular brush is fixedly mounted on the opposite end of the standoff support and can be used for cleaning tubes and pipes of various diameters, lengths and configurations. The turbine, standoff support, and brush spin in unison relative to a hub bearing that is fixedly attached to a wire upstream of the assembly. The nonrotating wire is for retaining the assembly in tension and enabling return of the assembly to the pipe entrance. The assembly is initially placed in the pipe or tube to be cleaned. A pressurized water or solution source is provided at a required flow-rate to propel the assembly through the pipe or tube. The upstream water pressure propels and spins the turbine, standoff support and brush. The rotating brush combined with the solution cleans the inside of the pipe. The solution flows out of the other end of the pipe with the brush rotation controlled by the flow-rate. A second embodiment is similar to the first embodiment but instead includes a circular shaped brush with ring backing mounted in the groove of the exterior ring of the turbine, and also reduces the size of the standoff support or eliminates the standoff support.

  3. 78 FR 59368 - Notice of Public Meeting: Northeast California Resource Advisory Council Sage Grouse Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Public Meeting: Northeast California Resource Advisory Council Sage Grouse Conservation Subcommittee and...) Northeast California Resource Advisory Council's sage grouse conservation subcommittee and the full Resource... conservation of sage grouse habitat. On November 12, the subcommittee will develop a recommendation for...

  4. Shaping asteroid models using genetic evolution (SAGE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartczak, P.; Dudziński, G.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we present SAGE (shaping asteroid models using genetic evolution), an asteroid modelling algorithm based solely on photometric lightcurve data. It produces non-convex shapes, orientations of the rotation axes and rotational periods of asteroids. The main concept behind a genetic evolution algorithm is to produce random populations of shapes and spin-axis orientations by mutating a seed shape and iterating the process until it converges to a stable global minimum. We tested SAGE on five artificial shapes. We also modelled asteroids 433 Eros and 9 Metis, since ground truth observations for them exist, allowing us to validate the models. We compared the derived shape of Eros with the NEAR Shoemaker model and that of Metis with adaptive optics and stellar occultation observations since other models from various inversion methods were available for Metis.

  5. Cold plasma brush generated at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yixiang; Huang, C.; Yu, Q. S.

    2007-01-01

    A cold plasma brush is generated at atmospheric pressure with low power consumption in the level of several watts (as low as 4 W) up to tens of watts (up to 45 W). The plasma can be ignited and sustained in both continuous and pulsed modes with different plasma gases such as argon or helium, but argon was selected as a primary gas for use in this work. The brush-shaped plasma is formed and extended outside of the discharge chamber with typical dimension of 10-15 mm in width and less than 1.0 mm in thickness, which are adjustable by changing the discharge chamber design and operating conditions. The brush-shaped plasma provides some unique features and distinct nonequilibrium plasma characteristics. Temperature measurements using a thermocouple thermometer showed that the gas phase temperatures of the plasma brush are close to room temperature (as low as 42 deg. C) when running with a relatively high gas flow rate of about 3500 ml/min. For an argon plasma brush, the operating voltage from less than 500 V to about 2500 V was tested, with an argon gas flow rate varied from less than 1000 to 3500 ml/min. The cold plasma brush can most efficiently use the discharge power as well as the plasma gas for material and surface treatment. The very low power consumption of such an atmospheric argon plasma brush provides many unique advantages in practical applications including battery-powered operation and use in large-scale applications. Several polymer film samples were tested for surface treatment with the newly developed device, and successful changes of the wettability property from hydrophobic to hydrophilic were achieved within a few seconds

  6. Stratified polymer brushes from microcontact printing of polydopamine initiator on polymer brush surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qiangbing; Yu, Bo; Wang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Feng

    2014-06-01

    Stratified polymer brushes are fabricated using microcontact printing (μCP) of initiator integrated polydopamine (PDOPBr) on polymer brush surfaces and the following surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP). It is found that the surface energy, chemically active groups, and the antifouling ability of the polymer brushes affect transfer efficiency and adhesive stability of the polydopamine film. The stickiness of the PDOPBr pattern on polymer brush surfaces is stable enough to perform continuous μCP and SI-ATRP to prepare stratified polymer brushes with a 3D topography, which have broad applications in cell and protein patterning, biosensors, and hybrid surfaces. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. LM2500+ Brush Seal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaser, Fred G.

    2006-01-01

    The LM2500+ industrial aeroderivative gas turbine, a 25% enhanced power derivative of the LM2500 gas turbine, recently completed its development test program during the period 5/96 - 10/96. Early in the engine program a Quality Function Deployment (QFD) process was used to determine customer needs for this project.The feedback obtained from the QFD process showed without doubt that gas turbine customers now emphasize product reliability and availability at the top of their needs. One area of development on the LM2500+ was to investigate the use of a brush seal as a means to reduce undesirable turbine cooling leakages within the turbine mid frame in order to enhance part life. This presentation presents a case study on the factors that went into evaluating a brush seal during engine test, test results, and the ultimate decision not to implement the brush seal for cost and other reasons.

  8. Dimeric assembly of enterocyte brush border enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    The noncovalent, dimeric assembly of small intestinal brush border enzymes was studied by sedimentation analysis in density gradients of extracts of pulse-labeled pig jejunal mucosal explants. Like aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2), sucrase-isomaltase (EC 3.2.1.48-10), aminopeptidase A (EC 3...... appearance of the liposome-reconstituted enzyme [Norén et al. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 12306-12309], showing only the inner, membrane-anchored domains of the monomers to be in close contact with one another while the outer domains are far apart. In contrast to the other brush border enzymes studied...

  9. SAGE 2.1: SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE: USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The guide provides instruction for using the SAGE (Solvent Alternatives GuidE) software system, version 2.1. SAGE recommends solvent replacements in cleaning and degreasing operations. It leads the user through a question-and-answer session. The user's responses allow the system ...

  10. Ecology of greater sage-grouse in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. Swanson

    2009-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations and the sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities that they rely on have dramatically declined from historic levels. Moreover, information regarding sage-grouse annual life-history requirements at the eastern-most extension of sagebrush steppe communities is lacking....

  11. Statistical evaluation of SAGE libraries: consequences for experimental design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijter, Jan M.; van Kampen, Antoine H. C.; Baas, Frank

    2002-01-01

    Since the introduction of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) as a method to quantitatively analyze the differential expression of genes, several statistical tests have been published for the pairwise comparison of SAGE libraries. Testing the difference between the number of specific tags

  12. A Geant4 simulation package for the SAGE spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadakis, P; Cox, D M; Butler, P A; Herzberg, R-D; Pakarinen, J; Konki, J; Greenlees, P T; Hauschild, K; Rahkila, P; Sandzelius, M; Sorri, J

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive Geant4 simulation was built for the SAGE spectrometer. The simulation package includes the silicon and germanium detectors, the mechanical structure and the electromagnetic fields present in SAGE. This simulation can be used for making predictions through simulating experiments and for comparing simulated and experimental data to better understand the underlying physics.

  13. Antifouling Properties of Fluoropolymer Brushes toward Organic Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Zhanhua; Zuilhof, Han

    2016-01-01

    Fluoropolymer brushes are widely used to prevent nonspecific adsorption of commercial polymeric or biological materials due to their strongly hydrophobic character. Herein, a series of fluoropolymer brushes with different compositions, thicknesses and molecular architectures was prepared via

  14. Molecular insights into the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Quinn, Thomas W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research on Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) genetics has revealed some important findings. First, multiple paternity in broods is more prevalent than previously thought, and leks do not comprise kin groups. Second, the Greater Sage-Grouse is genetically distinct from the congeneric Gunnison sage-grouse (C. minimus). Third, the Lyon-Mono population in the Mono Basin, spanning the border between Nevada and California, has unique genetic characteristics. Fourth, the previous delineation of western (C. u. phaios) and eastern Greater Sage-Grouse (C. u. urophasianus) is not supported genetically. Fifth, two isolated populations in Washington show indications that genetic diversity has been lost due to population declines and isolation. This chapter examines the use of molecular genetics to understand the biology of Greater Sage-Grouse for the conservation and management of this species and put it into the context of avian ecology based on selected molecular studies.

  15. Supporting Adolescents with Guidance and Employment (SAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwalt, C L; Graham, L A; Paschall, M J; Flewelling, R L; Browne, D C

    1996-01-01

    Supporting Adolescents with Guidance and Employment (SAGE) is a multifaceted, community-based violence-prevention program. Its target is African-American male adolescents in Durham, North Carolina. Public health professionals, county government officials, and local businessmen collaborated in its development and implementation. The program is based on the paradigm of risk and protective factors, in which various risk factors for youth violence are buffered by modifiable, protective psychosocial processes. SAGE includes an eight-month African-American Rites of Passage program (adult mentoring, African-American culture and history lessons, and manhood and conflict-resolution training), a six-week summer employment component, and a 12-week entrepreneurial experience. Of the 260 youth recruited, 88 were randomly assigned to receive all three program components, 85 were assigned to the summer employment and entrepreneurial components only, and 87 were assigned to a delayed program or control condition. We compared these three groups' psychosocial and behavioral outcomes using survey data and archival records. Program implementation data include attendance records; mentor-youth activity logs pre- and postprogram focus group discussions; and telephone interviews with parents, program staff, and participants. The mean age of the adolescents recruited into the program was 14. Half reported receiving free lunches at school; half were not living with a father; and one quarter reported that their mothers had not completed high school. During the previous year, many had engaged in various violence-related behaviors, including fighting (49%) and carrying a gun (22%). Youths in each program condition were similar with respect to key demographic and behavioral characteristics. The key components of the SAGE program represent increasingly popular but untested approaches. Preliminary results reveal that these youths are involved in violent behavior both as perpetrators and as

  16. The Soviet-American gallium experiment (SAGE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garvey, G.T.

    1989-01-01

    The Soviet-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE) undertaking is a multi-institutional collaboration among scientists from the Institute for Nuclear Research, Moscow (INR), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), and several US universities. It's purpose is to measure the number of low-energy electron neutrinos emitted from the Sun that arrive at this planet. As such, it is an extremely important experiment, touching on fundamental physics issues as well as solar dynamics. In contrast to the strategic overviews, plans, and hopes for intentional collaboration presented earlier today, SAGE is an ongoing working effort with high hopes of producing the first measurement of the Sun's low-energy flux. There are several international physics collaborations involving US and Soviet scientists at the large accelerator installations throughout the world. As the scale of research gets ever larger, requiring ever more resources and then larger collaborations. Much physics research lies solely in the realm of basic research so that governments feel easier about collaborations. Contacts between the US and USSR scientists interested in nuclear and particle physics goes back to the nineteen fifties and have continued with only minor interruptions since then. Over the past two decades the principal oversight of these activities has been through the Joint Coordinating Committee on the Fundamental Properties of Matter, supported by the DOE in the US and the State Committee for Atomic Energy in the USSR. The Academies of Science of both countries have been very helpful and supportive. Each venture has some distinguishing features; in the case of SAGE, the unique aspects are the collaboration between Soviet scientists and scientists at a DOE weapons laboratory and the fact that the experiment is carried out in a remote region of the USSR. The particular problems caused are discussed. 3 refs., 3 figs

  17. Superhydrophilic Polyelectrolyte Brush Layers with Imparted Anti-Icing Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernyy, Sergey; Järn, Mikael; Shimizu, Kyoko

    2014-01-01

    . In general, superhydrophilic polyelectrolyte brushes exhibit better anti-icing property at -10 °C compared to partially hydrophobic brushes such as poly(methyl methacrylate) and surfactant exchanged polyelectrolyte brushes. The data are interpreted using the concept of a quasi liquid layer (QLL...

  18. Brushes and soap : grafted polymers and their interactions with nanocolloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Currie, E.P.K.

    2000-01-01

    Layers of polymer chains end-attached to a grafting plane at high densities, so-called brushes, are a curious state of matter. The (average) monomer density within the brush is as high as in a semi-dilute polymer solution, resulting in a high osmotic pressure in the brush. Due to the

  19. Cigarette smoking, tooth brushing characteristics, and perceived ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted among four hundred non-dental undergraduates of University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria to assess the prevalence of cigarette smoking, tooth brushing characteristics, perceived efficacy in oral self-care and preventing gingivodental diseases among them. The result showed that the perceived ...

  20. 21 CFR 884.1100 - Endometrial brush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endometrial brush. 884.1100 Section 884.1100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL...) Indication: Only to evaluate the endometrium, and (ii) Contraindications: Pregnancy, history of uterine...

  1. SAGE II measurements of early Pinatubo aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Veiga, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    SAGE II satellite measurements of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption cloud in the stratosphere during June, July, and early August 1991 show that aerosols in the tropics reached as high as 29 km altitude with most of the cloud between 20 and 25 km. The most optically thick portions of the cloud covered latitudes from 10 deg S to 30 deg N during the early part of this period. By late July, high stratospheric optical depths were observed to at least 70 deg N, with the high values north of about 30 deg N from layers below 20 km. High pressure systems in both hemispheres were observed to be correlated with the movement of volcanic material at 21 km into the westerly jet stream at high southern latitudes and similarly to high northern latitudes at 16 km. By August, the entire Southern Hemisphere had experienced a 10-fold increase in optical depth relative to early July due to layers above 20 km. Initial mass calculations using SAGE II data place the aerosol produced from this eruption at 20 to 30 megatons, well above the 12 megatons produced by El Chichon.

  2. Automatic Deduction in Dynamic Geometry using Sage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Botana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a symbolic tool that provides robust algebraic methods to handle automatic deduction tasks for a dynamic geometry construction. The main prototype has been developed as two different worksheets for the open source computer algebra system Sage, corresponding to two different ways of coding a geometric construction. In one worksheet, diagrams constructed with the open source dynamic geometry system GeoGebra are accepted. In this worksheet, Groebner bases are used to either compute the equation of a geometric locus in the case of a locus construction or to determine the truth of a general geometric statement included in the GeoGebra construction as a boolean variable. In the second worksheet, locus constructions coded using the common file format for dynamic geometry developed by the Intergeo project are accepted for computation. The prototype and several examples are provided for testing. Moreover, a third Sage worksheet is presented in which a novel algorithm to eliminate extraneous parts in symbolically computed loci has been implemented. The algorithm, based on a recent work on the Groebner cover of parametric systems, identifies degenerate components and extraneous adherence points in loci, both natural byproducts of general polynomial algebraic methods. Detailed examples are discussed.

  3. Nonlinearity in the rotational dynamics of Haidinger's brushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothmayer, Mark; Dultz, Wolfgang; Frins, Erna; Zhan, Qiwen; Tierney, Dennis; Schmitzer, Heidrun

    2007-10-01

    Haidinger's brushes are an entoptic effect of the human visual system that enables us to detect polarized light. However, individual perceptions of Haidinger's brushes can vary significantly. We find that the birefringence of the cornea influences the rotational motion and the contrast of Haidinger's brushes and may offer an explanation for individual differences. We have devised an experimental setup to simulate various phase shifts of the cornea and found a switching effect in the rotational dynamics of Haidinger's brushes. In addition, age related macular degeneration reduces the polarization effect of the macula and thus also leads to changes in the brush pattern.

  4. Anthrax Cases Associated with Animal-Hair Shaving Brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szablewski, Christine M; Hendricks, Kate; Bower, William A; Shadomy, Sean V; Hupert, Nathaniel

    2017-05-01

    During the First World War, anthrax cases in the United States and England increased greatly and seemed to be associated with use of new shaving brushes. Further investigation revealed that the source material and origin of shaving brushes had changed during the war. Cheap brushes of imported horsehair were being made to look like the preferred badger-hair brushes. Unfortunately, some of these brushes were not effectively disinfected and brought with them a nasty stowaway: Bacillus anthracis. A review of outbreak summaries, surveillance data, and case reports indicated that these cases originated from the use of ineffectively disinfected animal-hair shaving brushes. This historical information is relevant to current public health practice because renewed interest in vintage and animal-hair shaving brushes has been seen in popular culture. This information should help healthcare providers and public health officials answer questions on this topic.

  5. Friction Properties of Carbon Fiber Brush

    OpenAIRE

    大塚, 由佳; 月山, 陽介; 野老山, 貴行; 梅原, 徳次; OHTSUKA, Yuka; TSUKIYAMA, Yosuke; TOKOROYAMA, Takayuki; UMEHARA, Noritsugu

    2011-01-01

    直径数μmのカーボンファイバーを束ねたカーボンファイバーブラシ材料と金属材料のすべり摩擦におけるすべり出しの摩擦及び平均摩擦特性と,金属同士のそれらの摩擦特性の相違を調べ,カーボンファイバーブラシ材料の摩擦の特異性を明らかにした. Friction properties as initial and average friction coefficient were investigated for carbon brush materials. Experimental results shows that static friction coefficient of carbon fiber brush is smaller than kinetic friction after a macro slip. This phenomena is different from the usual friction properties between metals. I...

  6. Fouling-resistant polymer brush coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Thérien-Aubin, Héloïse

    2011-11-01

    A major problem to be addressed with thin composite films used in processes such as coatings or water purification is the biofouling of the surface. To address this problem in a model system, functionalized polyaramide membranes containing an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator were synthesized as a versatile approach to easily modify the surface properties of the polyaramide. Poly(methacrylic acid) brushes were grown using surface initiated ATRP followed by the functionalization of the poly(methacrylic acid) brushes with different side-chains chosen to reduce adhesion between the membrane and foulant. The relation between membrane fouling and the physicochemical properties of the surface was investigated in detail. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vision, healing brush, and fiber bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Todor

    2005-03-01

    The Healing Brush is a tool introduced for the first time in Adobe Photoshop (2002) that removes defects in images by seamless cloning (gradient domain fusion). The Healing Brush algorithms are built on a new mathematical approach that uses Fibre Bundles and Connections to model the representation of images in the visual system. Our mathematical results are derived from first principles of human vision, related to adaptation transforms of von Kries type and Retinex theory. In this paper we present the new result of Healing in arbitrary color space. In addition to supporting image repair and seamless cloning, our approach also produces the exact solution to the problem of high dynamic range compression of17 and can be applied to other image processing algorithms.

  8. Fouling-resistant polymer brush coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Thé rien-Aubin, Hé loï se; Chen, Lin; Ober, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    A major problem to be addressed with thin composite films used in processes such as coatings or water purification is the biofouling of the surface. To address this problem in a model system, functionalized polyaramide membranes containing an atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) initiator were synthesized as a versatile approach to easily modify the surface properties of the polyaramide. Poly(methacrylic acid) brushes were grown using surface initiated ATRP followed by the functionalization of the poly(methacrylic acid) brushes with different side-chains chosen to reduce adhesion between the membrane and foulant. The relation between membrane fouling and the physicochemical properties of the surface was investigated in detail. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phototriggered functionalization of hierarchically structured polymer brushes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Kostina, Nina Yu.; Bruns, M.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Barner-Kowollik, C.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 21 (2015), s. 5899-5907 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21545 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer brushes * antifouling * click chemistry Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.993, year: 2015

  10. Hierarchical antifouling brushes for biosensing applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Riedel, Tomáš; Brynda, Eduard; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 202, 31 October (2014), s. 1313-1321 ISSN 0925-4005 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/1702; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0029; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : hierarchically structured brushes * affinity biosensors * fouling Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.097, year: 2014

  11. Antifouling polymer brushes displaying antithrombogenic surface properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Sheikh, S.; Blaszykowski, C.; Pop-Georgievski, Ognen; Fedorov, K.; Thompson, M.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2016), s. 1179-1185 ISSN 1525-7797 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21545 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer brushes * surface characterization * antifouling surfaces Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.246, year: 2016

  12. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wise, Mitchell Lynn (Pullman, WA); Katahira, Eva Joy (Pullman, WA); Savage, Thomas Jonathan (Christchurch 5, NZ)

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  13. Metastatic urachal carcinoma in bronchial brush cytology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Zahra Aly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urachal carcinoma is rare comprising less than 1% of all bladder carcinomas. Metastases of urachal carcinoma have been reported to meninges, brain, ovary, lung, and maxilla. Cytologic features of metastatic urachal carcinoma have not been previously reported. We present a case of metastatic urachal adenocarcinoma in bronchial brushings and review the use of immunohistochemistry in its diagnosis. A 47-year-old female was seen initially in 2007 with adenocarcinoma of the bladder dome for which she underwent partial cystectomy. She presented in 2011 with a left lung mass and mediastinal adenopathy. Bronchoscopy showed an endobronchial lesion from which brushings were obtained. These showed numerous groups of columnar cells with medium sized nuclei and abundant cytoplasm. The cells were positive for CK20 and CDX2 and negative for CK7. The cytomorphological findings were similar to those in the previous resection specimen and concurrent biopsy. This is the first case report of bronchial brushings containing metastatic urachal carcinoma. No specific immunohistochemical profile is available for its diagnosis. The consideration of a second primary was a distinct possibility in this case due to the lapse of time from primary resection, absence of local disease, and lack of regional metastases.

  14. The Russian-American Gallium solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Russian-American Gallium Experiment (SAGE) began measurements of the integral flux of solar neutrinos using 30 tons of metallic gallium as the target in January 1990. The mass of the gallium was increased to 57 tons in September 1991 and SAGE began to count the decay of 71 Ge using both the K and L peaks in September 1992. The results indicate a deficit of about 40% of the flux predicted by the Standard Solar Model. The chemical extraction and counting techniques used by SAGE are presented, with particular attention on backgrounds. The present status, results, and future plans of SAGE are presented, along with a discussion of the possible physics implications

  15. Long SAGE analysis of genes differentially expressed in the midgut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Long SAGE analysis of genes differentially expressed in the midgut and silk gland between the sexes of the silkwormBombyx mori. Liping Gan, Ying Wang, Jian Xi, Yanshan Niu, Hongyou Qin, Yanghu Sima, Shiqing Xu ...

  16. SAGE - MULTIDIMENSIONAL SELF-ADAPTIVE GRID CODE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C. B.

    1994-01-01

    SAGE, Self Adaptive Grid codE, is a flexible tool for adapting and restructuring both 2D and 3D grids. Solution-adaptive grid methods are useful tools for efficient and accurate flow predictions. In supersonic and hypersonic flows, strong gradient regions such as shocks, contact discontinuities, shear layers, etc., require careful distribution of grid points to minimize grid error and produce accurate flow-field predictions. SAGE helps the user obtain more accurate solutions by intelligently redistributing (i.e. adapting) the original grid points based on an initial or interim flow-field solution. The user then computes a new solution using the adapted grid as input to the flow solver. The adaptive-grid methodology poses the problem in an algebraic, unidirectional manner for multi-dimensional adaptations. The procedure is analogous to applying tension and torsion spring forces proportional to the local flow gradient at every grid point and finding the equilibrium position of the resulting system of grid points. The multi-dimensional problem of grid adaption is split into a series of one-dimensional problems along the computational coordinate lines. The reduced one dimensional problem then requires a tridiagonal solver to find the location of grid points along a coordinate line. Multi-directional adaption is achieved by the sequential application of the method in each coordinate direction. The tension forces direct the redistribution of points to the strong gradient region. To maintain smoothness and a measure of orthogonality of grid lines, torsional forces are introduced that relate information between the family of lines adjacent to one another. The smoothness and orthogonality constraints are direction-dependent, since they relate only the coordinate lines that are being adapted to the neighboring lines that have already been adapted. Therefore the solutions are non-unique and depend on the order and direction of adaption. Non-uniqueness of the adapted grid is

  17. Polyelectrolyte brushes: a novel stable lubrication system in aqueous conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Motoyasu; Terada, Masami; Takahara, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Surface-initiated controlled radical copolymerizations of 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC), 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride) (MTAC), and 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium salt (SPMK) were carried out on a silicon wafer and glass ball to prepare polyelectrolyte brushes with excellent water wettability. The frictional coefficient of the polymer brushes was recorded on a ball-on-plate type tribometer by linear reciprocating motion of the brush specimen at a selected velocity of 1.5 x 10(-3) m s-1 under a normal load of 0.49 N applied to the stationary glass ball (d = 10 mm) at 298 K. The poly(DMAEMA-co-MPC) brush partially cross-linked by bis(2-iodoethoxy)ethane maintained a relatively low friction coefficient around 0.13 under humid air (RH > 75%) even after 200 friction cycles. The poly(SPMK) brush revealed an extremely low friction coefficient around 0.01 even after 450 friction cycles. We supposed that the abrasion of the brush was prevented owing to the good affinity of the poly(SPMK) brush for water forming a water lubrication layer, and electrostatic repulsive interactions among the brushes bearing sulfonic acid groups. Furthermore, the poly(SPMK-co-MTAC) brush with a chemically cross-linked structure showed a stable low friction coefficient in water even after 1400 friction cycles under a normal load of 139 MPa, indicating that the cross-linking structure improved the wear resistance of the brush layer.

  18. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Jennifer L.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Boyce, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  19. Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in set theory and readily available software have enabled social science researchers to bridge the variable-centered quantitative and case-based qualitative methodological paradigms in order to analyze multi-dimensional associations beyond the linearity assumptions, aggregate...... effects, unicausal reduction, and case specificity. Based on the developments in set theoretical thinking in social sciences and employing methods like Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA), and set visualization techniques, in this position paper, we propose...... and demonstrate a new approach to maturity models in the domain of Information Systems. This position paper describes the set-theoretical approach to maturity models, presents current results and outlines future research work....

  20. Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus Urophasianus) Hen Survival: Effects of Raptors, Anthropogenic and Landscape Features, and Hen Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Conover, Michael R.; Kirol, Christopher P.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Frey, S. Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Survival of breeding-age hens has been identified as the demographic rate with the greatest potential to influence population growth of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte, 1827); hereafter “Sage-Grouse”). During 2008–2011, we collected summer survival data from 427 Sage-Grouse hens in southern Wyoming, USA. We assessed the effects of raptor densities, anthropogenic features, landscape features, and Sage-Grouse hen behavior on Sage-Grouse hen survival. Survival of Sage-G...

  1. Clinical evaluation of a newly designed orthodontic tooth brush - A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C S Saimbi

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the newly designed orthodontic tooth brush is compared with an ordinary tooth brush. Results of this study show that the newly designed orthodontic tooth brush is superior in its cleaning efficiency as compared to the ordinary tooth brush. The results show that plaque removing capacity of orthodontic tooth brush is nearly 95-99%.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic instability of a cylindrical liquid-metal brush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.H.; Wilhelm, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    The stability of a homopolar generator brush, consisting of a liquid-metal-filled cavity between rotating (rotor) and fixed (stator) cylinder electrodes, is analyzed in the presence of radial current transport and an axial homogeneous magnetic field. Within the frame of linear magnetohydrodynamics, it is shown that the liquid-metal flow in the brush is always unstable if the brush transports current. In the absence of current flow (infinite load) the axial magnetic field stabilizes the liquid-metal flow in the brush if the magnetic energy density is larger than a certain fraction of the energy density of the rotating fluid

  3. Antifouling Properties of Fluoropolymer Brushes toward Organic Polymers: The Influence of Composition, Thickness, Brush Architecture, and Annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhanhua; Zuilhof, Han

    2016-07-05

    Fluoropolymer brushes are widely used to prevent nonspecific adsorption of commercial polymeric or biological materials due to their strongly hydrophobic character. Herein, a series of fluoropolymer brushes with different compositions, thicknesses and molecular architectures was prepared via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Subsequently, the antifouling properties of these fluoropolymer brushes against organic polymers were studied in detail using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements and polystyrene as a representative fouling polymer. Among all of the molecular architectures studied, homopolymerized methacrylate-based fluoropolymer brushes (PMAF17) show the best antifouling properties. Annealing the fluoropolymer brushes improves the antifouling property dramatically due to the reregulated surface composition. These fluoropolymer brushes can be combined with, e.g., micro- and nanostructuring and other advanced materials properties to yield even better long-term antifouling behavior under harsh environments.

  4. Brush head composition, wear profile, and cleaning efficacy: an assessment of three electric brush heads using in vitro methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Eva; Meyners, Michael; Markgraf, Dirk; Stoerkel, Ulrich; von Koppenfels, Roxana; Adam, Ralf; Soukup, Martin; Wehrbein, Heinrich; Erbe, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate a current store brand (SB) brush head for composition/physical characteristics, Wear Index (WI), and cleaning efficacy versus the previous SB brush head refill design (SB control) and the Oral-B Precision Clean brush head (positive control, PC). This research consisted of three parts: 1) Analytical analysis using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry to evaluate the chemical composition of the current SB brush head bristles relative to the SB control. In addition, physical parameters such as bristle count and diameter were determined. 2) Wear Index (WI) investigation to determine the Wear Index scores of in vitro-aged brush heads at four weeks (one month) and 13 weeks (three months) by a trained investigator. To "age" the brush heads, a robot system was used as a new alternative in vitro method to simulate aging by consumer use. 3) Robot testing to determine the cleaning performance of in vitro-aged brush heads, comparing one month-aged current SB brush heads with the SB control (one and three months-aged) and the PC brush heads (three months-aged) in a standardized fashion. 1) FT-IR analysis revealed that the chemical composition of the current and control SB refill brush heads is identical. In terms of physical parameters, the current SB brush head has 12% more bristles and a slightly oval brush head compared to the round brush head of the SB control. 2) Wear Index analysis showed there was no difference in the one month-aged current SB brush head versus the one month-aged SB control (1.67 vs. 1.50, p = 0.65) or versus the three months-aged PC brush head (1.67 vs. 1.50, p = 0.65). The one month-aged current SB brush head demonstrated statistically significantly less wear than the three months-aged SB control (1.67 vs. 2.67, p = 0.01). 3) Analysis of cleaning efficacy shows that the one month-aged current SB brush head had improved cleaning performance over the one month-aged SB control brush head (p < 0

  5. Measurement of fast neutron background in SAGE

    CERN Document Server

    Abdurashitov, J N; Kalikhov, A V; Matushko, V L; Shikhin, A A; Yants, V E; Zaborskaia, O S

    2002-01-01

    The spectrometer intended for direct measurements of ultra low fluxes of fast neutrons is described. It is sensitive to neutron fluxes of 10 sup - sup 7 cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 and lower. The detection efficiency of fast neutrons with simultaneous energy measurement was determined from Monte-Carlo simulation to be equal to 0.11 +- 0.01. The background counting rate in the detector corresponds to a neutron flux of (6.5 +- 2.1) x 10 sup - sup 7 cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 in the range 1.0-11.0 MeV. The natural neutron flux from the surrounding mine rock at the depth of 4700 meters of water equivalent was measured to be (7.3 +- 2.4) x 10 sup - sup 7 cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 in the range 1.0-11.0 MeV. The flux of fast neutrons in the SAGE main room was measured to be < 2.3 x 10 sup - sup 7 cm sup - sup 2 s sup - sup 1 in 1.0-11.0 MeV energy range.

  6. Measurement of fast neutron background in SAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurashitov, J.N.; Gavrin, V.N.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Matushko, V.L.; Shikhin, A.A.; Yants, V.E.; Zaborskaia, O.S.

    2002-01-01

    The spectrometer intended for direct measurements of ultra low fluxes of fast neutrons is described. It is sensitive to neutron fluxes of 10 -7 cm -2 s -1 and lower. The detection efficiency of fast neutrons with simultaneous energy measurement was determined from Monte-Carlo simulation to be equal to 0.11 ± 0.01. The background counting rate in the detector corresponds to a neutron flux of (6.5 ± 2.1) x 10 -7 cm -2 s -1 in the range 1.0-11.0 MeV. The natural neutron flux from the surrounding mine rock at the depth of 4700 meters of water equivalent was measured to be (7.3 ± 2.4) x 10 -7 cm -2 s -1 in the range 1.0-11.0 MeV. The flux of fast neutrons in the SAGE main room was measured to be -7 cm -2 s -1 in 1.0-11.0 MeV energy range

  7. Effect of Frequency of Brushing Teeth on Plaque and Calculus Accumulation, and Gingivitis in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Colin; Serfilippi, Laurie; Barnvos, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of brushing the teeth of beagle dogs in a randomized, controlled, blinded study design using a clearly-defined brushing technique was evaluated for 4 brushing frequencies: brushing daily, brushing every other day, brushing weekly and brushing every other week, compared with no brushing in a control group of dogs. All dogs were fed a standard dry kibble diet during the study. Standard plaque, calculus, and gingivitis indices were used to score the teeth. A 'clean tooth' model was used. No gingival or non-gingival lacerations or other signs of injury to oral tissues were found at the end of the 28 day trial period. Brushing more frequently had greater effectiveness in retarding accumulation of plaque and calculus, and reducing the severity of pre-existing gingivitis. Brushing daily or every other day produced statistically significant improved results compared with brushing weekly or every other week. Based on the results of this study, daily brushing is recommended.

  8. Stratospheric ozone profile and total ozone trends derived from the SAGE I and SAGE II data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Veiga, Robert E.; Chu, William P.

    1992-01-01

    Global trends in both stratospheric column ozone and as a function of altitude are derived on the basis of SAGE I/II ozone data from the period 1979-1991. A statistical model containing quasi-biennial, seasonal, and semiannual oscillations, a linear component, and a first-order autoregressive noise process was fit to the time series of SAGE I/II monthly zonal mean data. The linear trend in column ozone above 17-km altitude, averaged between 65 deg S and 65 deg N, is -0.30 +/-0.19 percent/yr, or -3.6 percent over the time period February 1979 through April 1991. The data show that the column trend above 17 km is nearly zero in the tropics and increases towards the high latitudes with values of -0.6 percent/yr at 60 deg S and -0.35 percent/yr at 60 deg N. Both these results are in agreement with the recent TOMS results. The profile trend analyses show that the column ozone losses are occurring below 25 km, with most of the loss coming from the region between 17 and 20 km. Negative trend values on the order of -2 percent/yr are found at 17 km in midlatitudes.

  9. Taurocholate transport by brush-border membrane vesicles from the developing rabbit ileum: Structure/function relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, S.M.; Watkins, J.B.; Ling, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    To examine the ontogenesis of bile acid transport in the rabbit ileum, brush-border membrane vesicles (12- to 20-fold purified) were prepared from 14- to 49-day-old animals. Taurocholate uptake was characterized by the emergence of secondary active, Na(+)-dependent transport at the start of weaning (21 days). Transient intravesicular accumulation (overshoot) of taurocholate occurred at 5-10 s of incubation, and the overshoot maximum increased significantly from 21 days (349.2 +/- 22.4 nmol/mg protein) to 35 days (569.0 +/- 84.3 nmol/mg protein; p less than 0.001), without further increase at maturity (49 days, not equal to 607.6 +/- 136.7 nmol/mg protein). No significant taurocholate active uptake component was noted at 14 days; however, ileal vesicles from sucklings showed carrier-mediated, Na+ D-glucose cotransport. In greater than or equal to 35-day-old rabbits, osmolarity studies at 20 s of incubation showed that only approximately 12% of [14C]taurocholate uptake was secondary to bile acid-to-membrane binding. Conversely, at 20 min, greater than 95% of radiolabel incorporation represented solute bound to the external and/or internal membrane surface. Arrhenius plots establish brush-border membrane taurocholate uptake as an intrinsic, lipid-dependent process, with a slope discontinuity between 24 and 28 degrees C, similar to the membrane lipid thermotropic transition region. Steady-state fluorescence polarization studies (1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene) demonstrate a temporal association between the maturation of taurocholate uptake and age-related decreases in ileal brush-border membrane fluidity. These data indicate that maturation of bile acid secondary active transport in the rabbit ileum may be regulated, at least in part, by changes in brush-border membrane lipid dynamics

  10. Four Intoxication Cases Related to the Misuse of Sage Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Gündüz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Infantile colic is excessive crying of infants younger than 4 months. Families of children suffering from infantile colic attend to the emergency department frequently and the etiology is not well-known. However many families of chil­dren suffering from infantile colic try pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatment, they are sleepless and ex­hausted and are affected negatively. Sage oil is in volatile form and it is recommended to apply 1-2 drops on plantar and tummy region of the body by massage for the treat­ment of infantile colic. Most of drugs used for infantile colic are drops and used orally. Families who do not learn detailed usage information may use it orally or may pre­sumed another drug while suffering from sleepless and drowsiness. Herein we reported 4 cases of sage oil intoxi­cation because of wrong information of wrong application of sage oil. We aimed to reduce the prescribing of sage oil in the treatment of infantile colic and emphasize to give more information about proper use of sage oil.

  11. Karyotype analysis and sex determination in Australian Brush-turkeys (Alectura lathami.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madison T Ortega

    Full Text Available Sexual differentiation across taxa may be due to genetic sex determination (GSD and/or temperature sex determination (TSD. In many mammals, males are heterogametic (XY; whereas females are homogametic (XX. In most birds, the opposite is the case with females being heterogametic (ZW and males the homogametic sex (ZZ. Many reptile species lack sex chromosomes, and instead, sexual differentiation is influenced by temperature with specific temperatures promoting males or females varying across species possessing this form of sexual differentiation, although TSD has recently been shown to override GSD in Australian central beaded dragons (Pogona vitticeps. There has been speculation that Australian Brush-turkeys (Alectura lathami exhibit TSD alone and/or in combination with GSD. Thus, we sought to determine if this species possesses sex chromosomes. Blood was collected from one sexually mature female and two sexually mature males residing at Sylvan Heights Bird Park (SHBP and shipped for karyotype analysis. Karyotype analysis revealed that contrary to speculation, Australian Brush-turkeys possess the classic avian ZW/ZZ sex chromosomes. It remains a possibility that a biased primary sex ratio of Australian Brush-turkeys might be influenced by maternal condition prior to ovulation that result in her laying predominantly Z- or W-bearing eggs and/or sex-biased mortality due to higher sensitivity of one sex in environmental conditions. A better understanding of how maternal and extrinsic factors might differentially modulate ovulation of Z- or W-bearing eggs and hatching of developing chicks possessing ZW or ZZ sex chromosomes could be essential in conservation strategies used to save endangered members of Megapodiidae.

  12. Beyond maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessmer, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Industry has undergone to decades of evolution in experience, technology and business practices. Link-Miles Simulation Corporation (LMSC) has been contracted to build 68 Full Scope Nuclear Simulators during the 1970's and 1980's. Traditional approaches to design, development and testing have been used to satisfy specifications for initial customer requirements. However, the Industry has matured. All U.S. Nuclear Utilities own, or have under contract, at least one simulator. Other industrial nations have centralized training facilities to satisfy the simulator training needs. The customer of the future is knowledgeable and experienced in the development and service of nuclear simulators. The role of the simulator vendor is changing in order to alter the traditional approach for development. Covenants between the vendors and their customers solidify new complementary roles. This paper presents examples of current simulator project development with recommendations for future endeavors

  13. Carbazole functionalized isocyanide brushes in heterojunction photovoltaic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, E.; Gao, F.; Schwartz, E.; Schwartz, E.; Cornelissen, Jeroen Johannes Lambertus Maria; Nolte, R.J.M.; Rowan, A.E.; Greenham, N.C.; Do, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, carbazole-containing polyisocyanide (PIACz) brushes were used for photovoltaic devices. A photovoltaic device was fabricated on top of the brushes by spin-coating a suitable acceptor and evaporating an Al cathode. Devices with a poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) bulk polymer were also

  14. Wildlife responses to brush management: a contemporary evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brush management has been widely practiced with the general intent of curtailing or reversing the proliferation of shrubs and trees in grasslands and savannas. The traditional aim of brush management has been to increase livestock forage or to improve water yield. Its potential role for restoring h...

  15. Current control by a homopolar machine with moving brushes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, H.

    1978-01-01

    The equation for TNS Doublet's E-coil circuit with moving brush homopolar machine is integrated in the flux of the homopolar for a monotonically increasing current function extending beyond the current reversal into the burn period. The results show that the moving brush feature is not useful for controlling the burn

  16. The Effects of a Brushing Procedure on Stereotypical Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tonya N.; Durand, Shannon; Chan, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the effects of a brushing protocol on stereotyped behavior of a young boy with autism. First, a functional analysis was conducted which showed that the participant's stereotypy was maintained by automatic reinforcement. Next, the Wilbarger Protocol, a brushing intervention, was implemented. An ABA design was implemented…

  17. Spontaneous bending of 2D molecular bottle-brush

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subbotin, A; Jong, J; ten Brinke, G

    Using a scaling approach we consider a 2D comb copolymer brush under bending deformations. We show that the rectilinear brush is locally stable and can be characterized by a persistence length lambda increasing with the molecular weight of grafting side chains as lambda similar to M-3. A bending

  18. Keep Kids' Mouths Healthy: Brush 2min2X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Make sure your kids brush for 2 minutes, twice a day. En Español facebook twitter instagram Kids’ Healthy Mouths Health Watch & Brush! Watch ... About Kids’ Teeth Teeth Helpful Resources Links Keep Kids’ Mouths Healthy Roll over or click the time ...

  19. 21 CFR 868.5795 - Tracheal tube cleaning brush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheal tube cleaning brush. 868.5795 Section 868.5795 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5795 Tracheal tube cleaning brush. (a...

  20. Nesting success and resource selection of Greater Sage-Grouse [chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas W. Kaczor; Kent C. Jensen; Robert W. Klaver; Mark A. Rumble; Katie M. Herman-Brunson; Christopher C. Swanson

    2011-01-01

    Declines of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in South Dakota are a concern because further population declines may lead to isolation from populations in Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, little information exists about reproductive ecology and resource selection of sage grouse on the eastern edge of their distribution. We investigated Greater Sage-Grouse...

  1. 78 FR 65936 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for Gunnison Sage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-04

    ... and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for Gunnison Sage-Grouse AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule... rules to list the Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) as endangered and to designate critical...

  2. 78 FR 2539 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Gunnison Sage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Gunnison Sage-Grouse; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 8 / Friday, January 11, 2013...; Designation of Critical Habitat for Gunnison Sage-Grouse AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... the Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended...

  3. Lek ecology of male greater sage-grouse in Carbon County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshia Lynn Fremgen

    2014-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter "sage-grouse") have experienced range-wide population declines for several decades, and as a result they were considered warranted for listing under the Endangered Species Act in 2010. Therefore, wildlife managers need to understand how sage-grouse breeding behavior influences long-term reproductive...

  4. Resource selection during brood-rearing by Greater Sage-Grouse [chapter 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas W. Kaczor; Katie M. Herman-Brunson; Kent C. Jensen; Mark A. Rumble; Robert W. Klaver; Christopher C. Swanson

    2011-01-01

    Understanding population dynamics and resource selection is crucial in developing wildlife resource management plans for sensitive species such as Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). Little is known about sage grouse habitats on the eastern edge of their range. We investigated resource selection of Greater Sage-Grouse during brood- rearing in North and...

  5. Method for making a high current fiber brush collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuro, S. J.

    1986-05-01

    An axial-type homopolar motor having high density, high current fiber brush collectors affording efficient, low contact resistance and low operating temperatures is discussed. The collectors include a ring of concentric row of brushes in equally spaced beveled holes soldered in place using a fixture for heating the ring to just below the solder melting point at a soldering iron for the local application of additional heat at each brush. Prior to soldering, an oxide film is formed on the surfaces of the brushes and ring, and the bevels are burnished to form a wetting surface. Flux applied with the solder at each bevel removes to an effective soldering depth the oxide film on the brushes and the holes.

  6. Virtual hairy brush for digital painting and calligraphy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Songhua; Lau Francis C. M.; XU Congfu; PAN Yunhe

    2005-01-01

    The design of user friendly and expressive virtual brush systems for interactive digital painting and calligraphy has attracted a lot of attention and effort in both computer graphics and human-computer interaction circles for a long time. Providing a digital environment for paper-less artwork creation is not only challenging in terms of algorithmic design, but also promising for its potential market values. This paper proposes a novel algorithmic framework for interactive digital painting and calligraphy based a novel virtual hairy brush model. The algorithms in the kernel of our simulation framework are built upon solid modeling techniques. Implementing the algorithms, we have developed a virtual hairy brush prototype system with which end users can interactively produce high-quality digital paintings and calligraphic artwork. (The latest progress of our virtual brush project is reported at the website "http://www.cs.hku.hk/~songhua/e-brush/".)

  7. Surface grafted polymer brushes: potential applications in dengue biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baratela, Fernando Jose Costa; Higa, Olga Zazuco, E-mail: ozahiga@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Faria, Henrique Antonio Mendonca de; Queiroz, Alvaro Antonio Alencar de, E-mail: alencar@unifei.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica e Quimica

    2013-07-01

    A polymer brush membrane-based ultrasensitive biosensor for dengue diagnosis was constructed using poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brushes immobilized onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) films. LDPE surface films were initially modified by Ar{sup +} ion irradiation to activate the polymer surface. Subsequently, graft polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto the activated LDPE surface was carried out under aqueous conditions to create patterned polymer brushes of PHEMA. The grafted PHEMA brushes were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle analysis. The SEM observations showed that selective surface activation with Ar+ implantation and graft polymerization on the selectively activated surface had occurred. The PHEMA brushes were electrically characterized in the presence of concentrations of human immunoglobulin (IgG). The proposed amperometric biosensor was successfully used for determination of IgG in physiologic samples with excellent responses. (author)

  8. Surface grafted polymer brushes: potential applications in dengue biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratela, Fernando Jose Costa; Higa, Olga Zazuco; Faria, Henrique Antonio Mendonca de; Queiroz, Alvaro Antonio Alencar de

    2013-01-01

    A polymer brush membrane-based ultrasensitive biosensor for dengue diagnosis was constructed using poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brushes immobilized onto low density polyethylene (LDPE) films. LDPE surface films were initially modified by Ar + ion irradiation to activate the polymer surface. Subsequently, graft polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate onto the activated LDPE surface was carried out under aqueous conditions to create patterned polymer brushes of PHEMA. The grafted PHEMA brushes were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle analysis. The SEM observations showed that selective surface activation with Ar+ implantation and graft polymerization on the selectively activated surface had occurred. The PHEMA brushes were electrically characterized in the presence of concentrations of human immunoglobulin (IgG). The proposed amperometric biosensor was successfully used for determination of IgG in physiologic samples with excellent responses. (author)

  9. An overview af SAGE I and II ozone measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Zawodny, J. M.; Veiga, R. E.; Larsen, J. C.; Wang, P. H.

    1989-01-01

    The stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiments (SAGE) I and II measure Mie, Rayleigh, and gaseous extinction profiles using the solar occultation technique. These global measurements yield ozone profiles with a vertical resolution of 1 km which have been routinely obtained for the periods from February 1979 to November 1981 (SAGE I) and October 1984 to the present (SAGE II). The long-term periodic behavior of the measured ozone is presented as well as case studies of the observed short-term spatial and temporal variability. A linear regression shows annual, semiannual, and quasi-biennial oscillation features at various altitudes and latitudes which, in general, agree with past work. Also, ozone, aerosol, and water vapor data are described for the Antarctic springtime, showing large variation relative to the vortex. Cross-sections in latitude and altitude and polar plots at various altitudes clearly delineate the ozone hole vertically and areally.

  10. How do SAGES members rate its guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, William W; Richardson, William; Fanelli, Robert; Stefanidis, Dimitrios

    2014-04-01

    The development of practice guidelines should take into consideration the opinions of end users. The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) has implemented several changes in its guideline development and dissemination process based on previous end-user input. An anonymous electronic survey was conducted via e-mail solicitation in September 2011. Respondents were asked to submit their feedback on the 26 guidelines produced by our society using a 32-item questionnaire and to suggest topics for new guideline development and areas of improvement. Responses from the survey were received by 494 people, of whom 474 (96 %) were clinicians; 373 (75 %) were general, laparoscopic, or bariatric surgeons; and 324 (65 %) held leadership roles within their institution. Most respondents were 35-44 years old (36 %), male (83 %), and had been in practice for over 10 years (54 %). A total of 383 (81 %) had used our guidelines, and, of those, 96 % agreed with their content. Guideline quality was rated 4.34; value 4.27; and ease of access 3.97 on a five-point Likert scale. The most commonly referenced guideline in the survey regarded surgical treatment of reflux (67 %), followed by laparoscopy during pregnancy (51 %). The three most common reasons guidelines were accessed were to update knowledge (68 %), to maximize patient care through evidence-based treatment (51 %), and to obtain a critical literature review. The majority of respondents indicated they greatly value and agree with our guidelines. These results indicate that recent efforts to improve our guidelines have succeeded.

  11. 75 FR 13489 - Natural Bristle Paint Brushes and Brush Heads from the People's Republic of China: Final Results...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Brushes and Brush Heads from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review... from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (``the Act''). See Initiation of Five-year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 56593 (November 2, 2009...

  12. Efficiency of the surgical washing of hands with brush and without brush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresia Canales Carmona

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to establish the answer to a clinical question regarding the effectiveness ofpreoperative hygiene with hand washing brush or without it. This first technique has been performed on the skinto reduce transient bacteria and to inhibit the growth of resident microorganisms as a common and required actbefore any surgical procedure. Despite this measure and others such as prophylactic antibiotics, the mainoperative complication continues to be the surgical wound infection. Today, it is as prevalent as in the past withthe consequent negative effects derived from it, both for the institutions and for patients. Being controversialtoday which one is the most effective and safe surgical hand washing method for the binomial: professionalsurgical team/ patient, this study is done under the criteria of the Evidence-Based Nursing.A question was builtin PICO format (Personal, Intervention, Comparison and Outcome. After this is done, continues informationsearch in the databases GOOGLE ACADÉMICO, Pub Med, Cochrane y Base de Datos para la Investigación enEnfermería (BDIE We obtained 20 articles related to the topic of them 8, which fulfilled the set CASPe criteriato answer the clinical question, were analyzed. We conclude that washing hands with a brush is equally effectiveas without brush technique in terms of decreased of the superficial skin bacterial flora, although this technique hasadvantages over the traditional practice.

  13. Brushes and soap : grafted polymers and their interactions with nanocolloids

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, E.P.K.

    2000-01-01

    Layers of polymer chains end-attached to a grafting plane at high densities, so-called brushes, are a curious state of matter. The (average) monomer density within the brush is as high as in a semi-dilute polymer solution, resulting in a high osmotic pressure in the brush. Due to the grafting, however, this isotropic osmotic pressure results in an anisotropic stretching of the chains normal to the surface. This degree of stretching can be quite extensive; in this thesis PEO-chains of...

  14. SAGE 2.0 SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE - USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The guide provides instruction for using the SAGE (Solvent Alternatives Guide) software system, version 2.O. It assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating a personal computer under the Microsoft disk operating system (MS-DOS). AGE recommends solvent repl...

  15. Male greater sage-grouse detectability on leks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshia L. Fremgen; Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; R. Scott Gamo; Joshua J. Millspaugh

    2016-01-01

    It is unlikely all male sage-grouse are detected during lek counts, which could complicate the use of lek counts as an index to population abundance. Understanding factors that influence detection probabilities will allow managers to more accurately estimate the number of males present on leks. We fitted 410 males with global positioning system and very high...

  16. USDA Forest Service Sage-Grouse Conservation Science Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah Finch; Douglas Boyce; Jeanne Chambers; Chris Colt; Clint McCarthy; Stanley Kitchen; Bryce Richardson; Mary Rowland; Mark Rumble; Michael Schwartz; Monica Tomosy; Michael Wisdom

    2015-01-01

    Numerous federal and state agencies, research institutions and stakeholders have undertaken tremendous conservation and research efforts across 11 States in the western United States to reduce threats to Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and sagebrush (Artemisia spp) habitats. In 2010, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) determined that the Greater...

  17. Inhibitory effect of aromatic herbs, lavender, sage and chamomile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study demonstrated anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity of lavender, sage and chamomile extracts. Green monkey kidney cells were protected from HSV-2 infection by dichloromethane and methanol extract of lavender with therapeutic indices (TI) of 1.98 and 2.90, respectively when the cells were treated before ...

  18. Composition of the essential oil of White sage, Salvia apiana.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2003-08-01

    The essential oil of white sage, Salvia apiana, was obtained by steam distillation and analysed by GC-MS. A total of 13 components were identified, accounting for >99.9% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole, accounting for 71.6% of the oil.

  19. Effect of sage extract ( Salvia officinalis ) on growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of different doses of sage extract on the growth and blood parameters, oxidative stress and DNA damage in partridges. In total, 252 day-old partridges (Alectoris chukar) were used. The birds were divided into four groups: 0.1% flavomycin was included in the diet of the control ...

  20. Field Geophysics at SAGE: Strategies for Effective Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braile, L. W.; Baldridge, W. S.; Jiracek, G. R.; Biehler, S.; Ferguson, J. F.; Pellerin, L.; McPhee, D. K.; Bedrosian, P. A.; Snelson, C. M.; Hasterok, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience) is a unique program of education and research in geophysical field methods for undergraduate and graduate students from any university and for professionals. The core program is held for 4 weeks each summer in New Mexico and for an additional week in the following academic year in San Diego for U.S. undergraduates supported by the NSF Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program. Since SAGE was initiated in 1983, 730 students have participated in the program. NSF REU funding for SAGE began in 1990 and 319 REU students have completed SAGE through 2011. The primary objectives of SAGE are to teach the major geophysical exploration methods (seismic, gravity, magnetics, electromagnetics); apply these methods to the solution of specific problems (environmental, archaeological, hydrologic, geologic structure and stratigraphy); gain experience in processing, modeling and interpretation of geophysical data; and integrate the geophysical models and interpretations with geology. Additional objectives of SAGE include conducting research on the Rio Grande rift of northern New Mexico, and providing information on geophysics careers and professional development experiences to SAGE participants. Successful education, field and research strategies that we have implemented over the years include: 1. learn by doing; 2. mix lecture/discussion, field work, data processing and analysis, modeling and interpretation, and presentation of results; 3. a two-tier team approach - method/technique oriented teams and interpretation/integration teams (where each team includes persons representing different methods), provides focus, in-depth study, opportunity for innovation, and promotes teamwork and a multi-disciplinary approach; 4. emphasis on presentations/reports - each team (and all team members) make presentation, each student completes a written report; 5. experiment design discussion - students help design field program and consider

  1. SAGES climate survey: results and strategic planning for our future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telem, Dana A; Qureshi, Alia; Edwards, Michael; Jones, Daniel B

    2018-03-30

    While SAGES prides itself on diversity and inclusivity, we also recognize that as an organization we are not impervious to blind spots impacting equity within the membership. To address this, the We R Sages task force was formed to identify the barriers and facilitators to creating a diverse organization and develop a strategic plan for the implementation of programing and opportunities that promote diversity and inclusivity within our membership. As the first step in the process, a survey was administered to gauge the current organizational climate. In September of 2017, a validated climate survey was administered to 704 SAGES committee members via SurveyMonkey®. Climate was assessed on: overall SAGES experience, consideration of leaving the organization, mentorship within the organization, resources and opportunities within the organization, and attitudes and experiences within the organization. Additional free text responses were encouraged to generate qualitative themes. The survey response rate was 52.1% (n = 367). Respondent self-identified demographics were: male (73%), white (63%), heterosexual (95.5%), and non-disabled (98%). Average overall satisfaction was 8.1/10. 12.5% of respondents had considered leaving the organization and 74.4% had not identified a formal mentor within the organization. Average agreement with equitable distribution of resources and opportunities was 5.8/10. 93.6% of respondents had not experienced bias within the organization. Overall SAGES has a very positive climate; however, several key issues were identified from the quantitative survey as well as the free text responses. Strategic planning to address issues of membership recruitment, committee engagement, advancement transparency, diversity awareness, leadership development, and formal mentorship are being implemented.

  2. Electroosmotic Flow in Mixed Polymer Brush-Grafted Nanochannels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Cao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixed polymer brush-grafted nanochannels—where two distinct species of polymers are alternately grafted on the inner surface of nanochannels—are an interesting class of nanostructured hybrid materials. By using a coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation method, we are able to simulate the electrokinetic transport dynamics of the fluid in such nanochannels as well as the conformational behaviors of the mixed polymer brush. We find that (1 the brush adopts vertically-layered and longitudinally-separated structures due to the coupling of electroosmotic flow (EOF and applied electric field; (2 the solvent quality affects the brush conformations and the transport properties of the EOF; (3 the EOF flux non-monotonically depends on the grafting density, although the EOF velocity in the central region of the channel monotonically depends on the grafting density.

  3. Anthrax in Vintage Animal-hair Shaving Brushes

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-08

    Dr. Kate Hendricks, a CDC anthrax expert, discusses anthrax in vintage shaving brushes.  Created: 8/8/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/8/2017.

  4. Galectin-4 and small intestinal brush border enzymes form clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; van Deurs, B

    1997-01-01

    that galectin-4 is indeed an intestinal brush border protein; we also localized galectin-4 throughout the cell, mainly associated with membraneous structures, including small vesicles, and to the rootlets of microvillar actin filaments. This was confirmed by subcellular fractionation, showing about half...... by a nonclassical pathway, and the brush border enzymes represent a novel class of natural ligands for a member of the galectin family. Newly synthesized galectin-4 is rapidly "trapped" by association with intracellular structures prior to its apical secretion, but once externalized, association with brush border......Detergent-insoluble complexes prepared from pig small intestine are highly enriched in several transmembrane brush border enzymes including aminopeptidase N and sucrase-isomaltase, indicating that they reside in a glycolipid-rich environment in vivo. In the present work galectin-4, an animal lectin...

  5. Tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-08-12

    Aug 12, 2010 ... frequency, duration and technique of tooth brushing and tongue cleaning as well as information on ... All the students in Year 1Б4 were included in the study. .... agents which are beneficial for prevention and treatment.

  6. Polyelectrolyte brushes in mixed ionic medium studied via intermolecular forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Robert; Laugel, Nicolas; Pincus, Philip; Tirrell, Matthew

    2011-03-01

    The vast uses and applications of polyelectrolyte brushes make them an attractive field of research especially with the growing interest in responsive materials. Polymers which respond via changes in temperature, pH, and ionic strength are increasingly being used for applications in drug delivery, chemical gating, etc. When polyelectrolyte brushes are found in either nature (e.g., surfaces of cartilage and mammalian lung interiors) or commercially (e.g., skin care products, shampoo, and surfaces of medical devices) they are always surrounded by mixed ionic medium. This makes the study of these brushes in varying ionic environments extremely relevant for both current and future potential applications. The polyelectrolyte brushes in this work are diblock co-polymers of poly-styrene sulfonate (N=420) and poly-t-butyl styrene (N=20) which tethers to a hydrophobic surface allowing for a purely thermodynamic study of the polyelectrolyte chains. Intermolecular forces between two brushes are measured using the SFA. As multi-valent concentrations are increased, the brushes collapse internally and form strong adhesion between one another after contact (properties not seen in a purely mono-valent environment).

  7. Polyelectrolyte brushes at the air/water interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Hideki

    2005-01-01

    The nanostructure of amphiphilic diblock copolymer monolayer on water surface was investigated by in situ X-ray and neutron reflectivity. The diblock copolymers used have a long hydrophobic chain and a polyelectrolyte chain as a hydrophilic block. The monolayer was found not to have a simple double layer structure (hydrophobic layer / hydrophilic (carpet) layer) but to have a three layer structure consisting of hydrophobic layer, hydrophilic dense carpet layer, and polyelectrolyte brush layer when the polyelectrolyte block is long enough and the surface pressure (i.e. brush density) is high enough. The transition from carpet only to carpet/brush double layer structure in hydrophilic layer was observed as a function of polyelectrolyte chain length, the surface pressure. When the hydrophilic chain is a weak polyelectrolyte, the monolayer first expanded and then shrunk with increasing salt concentration in the subphase. For the strongly ionic polyelectrolyte, the monolayer structure was not affected by salt addition up to ∼0.2 M. These observations can be explained by a balance of the charged state of the brush chain, an electrostatic repulsion between brush chains and salt concentration in the brush layer

  8. Macroion induced dehydration of weak polyelectrolyte brushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhongli; Zhu, Y. Elaine

    2014-03-01

    The interaction of macroions, including polyelectrolytes, DNAs, and proteins, with polymer and cellular surfaces is critically related to many biomolecular activities, such as protein adsorption and DNA hybridization at probe surfaces. In an experimental approach to examine the macroion electrostatic interaction with a polymer surface while minimizing the long-debated hydrophobic interaction, we study the interaction of molybdenum-based inorganic polyoxometalate (POM) nanoclusters carrying 42 negative charges as model hydrophilic macroions with surface-tethered poly-2-vinylpyridine (P2VP) brushes immersed in aqueous solutions. By AFM, QCM, and contact goniometer, we have observed the collapse of P2VP chains by adding POM macroions at a constant pH. Surprisingly, added POM macroions can cause the shift of swollen-to-collapse transition pH to a lower value, in contrast to the shift to high pH value by adding simple monovalent salts. At sufficiently high POM concentration, a stable POM-P2VP composite layer, showing little dependence on solution pH and additional salts, can be formed, suggesting a simple route to construct meso-porous polymer membranes.

  9. Development of 13 microsatellites for Gunnison Sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) using next-generation shotgun sequencing and their utility in Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, Jennifer A.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Zimmerman, Shawna J; Castoe, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    Gunnison Sage-grouse are an obligate sagebrush species that has experienced significant population declines and has been proposed for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. In order to examine levels of connectivity among Gunnison Sage-grouse leks, we identified 13 novel microsatellite loci though next-generation shotgun sequencing, and tested them on the closely related Greater Sage-grouse. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 12. No loci were found to be linked, although 2 loci revealed significant departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium or evidence of null alleles. While these microsatellites were designed for Gunnison Sage-grouse, they also work well for Greater Sage-grouse and could be used for numerous genetic questions including landscape and population genetics.

  10. hSAGEing: an improved SAGE-based software for identification of human tissue-specific or common tumor markers and suppressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Hong; Chuang, Li-Yeh; Shih, Tsung-Mu; Chang, Hsueh-Wei

    2010-12-17

    SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) is a powerful method of analyzing gene expression for the entire transcriptome. There are currently many well-developed SAGE tools. However, the cross-comparison of different tissues is seldom addressed, thus limiting the identification of common- and tissue-specific tumor markers. To improve the SAGE mining methods, we propose a novel function for cross-tissue comparison of SAGE data by combining the mathematical set theory and logic with a unique "multi-pool method" that analyzes multiple pools of pair-wise case controls individually. When all the settings are in "inclusion", the common SAGE tag sequences are mined. When one tissue type is in "inclusion" and the other types of tissues are not in "inclusion", the selected tissue-specific SAGE tag sequences are generated. They are displayed in tags-per-million (TPM) and fold values, as well as visually displayed in four kinds of scales in a color gradient pattern. In the fold visualization display, the top scores of the SAGE tag sequences are provided, along with cluster plots. A user-defined matrix file is designed for cross-tissue comparison by selecting libraries from publically available databases or user-defined libraries. The hSAGEing tool provides a combination of friendly cross-tissue analysis and an interface for comparing SAGE libraries for the first time. Some up- or down-regulated genes with tissue-specific or common tumor markers and suppressors are identified computationally. The tool is useful and convenient for in silico cancer transcriptomic studies and is freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/hSAGEing.

  11. hSAGEing: an improved SAGE-based software for identification of human tissue-specific or common tumor markers and suppressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression is a powerful method of analyzing gene expression for the entire transcriptome. There are currently many well-developed SAGE tools. However, the cross-comparison of different tissues is seldom addressed, thus limiting the identification of common- and tissue-specific tumor markers. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To improve the SAGE mining methods, we propose a novel function for cross-tissue comparison of SAGE data by combining the mathematical set theory and logic with a unique "multi-pool method" that analyzes multiple pools of pair-wise case controls individually. When all the settings are in "inclusion", the common SAGE tag sequences are mined. When one tissue type is in "inclusion" and the other types of tissues are not in "inclusion", the selected tissue-specific SAGE tag sequences are generated. They are displayed in tags-per-million (TPM and fold values, as well as visually displayed in four kinds of scales in a color gradient pattern. In the fold visualization display, the top scores of the SAGE tag sequences are provided, along with cluster plots. A user-defined matrix file is designed for cross-tissue comparison by selecting libraries from publically available databases or user-defined libraries. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The hSAGEing tool provides a combination of friendly cross-tissue analysis and an interface for comparing SAGE libraries for the first time. Some up- or down-regulated genes with tissue-specific or common tumor markers and suppressors are identified computationally. The tool is useful and convenient for in silico cancer transcriptomic studies and is freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/hSAGEing.

  12. Alcohol versus brush PRK: visual outcomes and adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sia, Rose K; Ryan, Denise S; Stutzman, Richard D; Psolka, Maximilian; Mines, Michael J; Wagner, Melvin E; Weber, Eric D; Wroblewski, Keith J; Bower, Kraig S

    2012-08-01

    A smooth corneal surface prior to laser ablation is important in order to achieve a favorable refractive outcome. In this study, we compare PRK outcomes following two commonly used methods of epithelial debridement: Amoils epithelial scrubber (brush) versus 20% ethanol (alcohol). We reviewed records of patients who underwent wavefront-optimized PRK for myopia or myopic astigmatism between January 2008 and June 2010. Two treatment groups (brush vs. alcohol) were compared in terms of uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), manifest refraction spherical equivalent (MRSE), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), and complications at postoperative months 1, 3, 6, and 12. One thousand five hundred ninety-three eyes of 804 patients underwent PRK during the study period: 828 brush-treated eyes and 765 alcohol-treated eyes. At 6 months postoperatively UDVA was ≥20/20 in 94.7% of brush-treated eyes versus 94.4% of alcohol-treated eyes (P = 0.907). At 1 month a higher percentage of brush-treated eyes maintained or gained one or more lines CDVA compared to alcohol-treated eyes (P = 0.007), but there were no other differences in UDVA, MRSE, or CDVA at any point postoperatively. At 1 month 75.4% of brush-treated eyes versus 70.4% of alcohol-treated eyes were free of complications (P = 0.032), and there were fewer brush-treated eyes with corneal haze (4.0% vs. 6.9%, P = 0.012) and dry eye (8.9% vs. 14.4%, P = 0.001). Although corneal haze was slightly more frequent in the alcohol group, most was trace and not significant. Although alcohol-assisted PRK had more minor complications in the early postoperative period, including corneal haze and dry eye, results for both groups beyond 1 month were comparable. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorri, J., E-mail: juha.m.t.sorri@jyu.fi [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Greenlees, P.T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Cox, D.M. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaskyla, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FI-40014 University of Jyvaskyla (Finland); Herzberg, R.-D. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P.J.; Barton, C.J.; Jenkins, D.G. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-11

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of {sup 154}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 166}Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  14. Determination of absolute internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Papadakis, P.; Konki, J.; Cox, D.M.; Auranen, K.; Partanen, J.; Sandzelius, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Uusitalo, J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Smallcombe, J.; Davies, P.J.; Barton, C.J.; Jenkins, D.G.

    2016-01-01

    A non-reference based method to determine internal conversion coefficients using the SAGE spectrometer is carried out for transitions in the nuclei of "1"5"4Sm, "1"5"2Sm and "1"6"6Yb. The Normalised-Peak-to-Gamma method is in general an efficient tool to extract internal conversion coefficients. However, in many cases the required well-known reference transitions are not available. The data analysis steps required to determine absolute internal conversion coefficients with the SAGE spectrometer are presented. In addition, several background suppression methods are introduced and an example of how ancillary detectors can be used to select specific reaction products is given. The results obtained for ground-state band E2 transitions show that the absolute internal conversion coefficients can be extracted using the methods described with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases of less intense transitions only an upper limit for the internal conversion coefficient could be given.

  15. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) in rat liver regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cimica, Velasco; Batusic, Danko; Haralanova-Ilieva, Borislava; Chen, Yonglong; Hollemann, Thomas; Pieler, Tomas; Ramadori, Giuliano

    2007-01-01

    We have applied serial analysis of gene expression for studying the molecular mechanism of the rat liver regeneration in the model of 70% partial hepatectomy. We generated three SAGE libraries from a normal control liver (NL library: 52,343 tags), from a sham control operated liver (Sham library: 51,028 tags), and from a regenerating liver (PH library: 53,061 tags). By SAGE bioinformatics analysis we identified 40 induced genes and 20 repressed genes during the liver regeneration. We verified temporal expression of such genes by real time PCR during the regeneration process and we characterized 13 induced genes and 3 repressed genes. We found connective tissue growth factor transcript and protein induced very early at 4 h after PH operation before hepatocytes proliferation is triggered. Our study suggests CTGF as a growth factor signaling mediator that could be involved directly in the mechanism of liver regeneration induction

  16. Sage-Grouse and Wind Energy: Biology, Habits, and Potential Effects from Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, James M.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Duberstein, Corey A.; Downs, Janelle L.

    2009-07-15

    Proposed development of domestic energy resources, including wind energy, is expected to impact the sagebrush steppe ecosystem in the western United States. The greater sage-grouse relies on habitats within this ecosystem for survival, yet very little is known about how wind energy development may affect sage-grouse. The purpose of this report is to inform organizations of the impacts wind energy development could have on greater sage-grouse populations and identify information needed to fill gaps in knowledge.

  17. Smart and Green Energy (SAGE) for Base Camps Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Matthias; Boyd, Paul A.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Goel, Supriya; Sisk, Daniel R.; Hatley, Darrel D.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Hail, John C.

    2014-02-11

    The U.S. Army Logistics Innovation Agency’s (LIA’s) Smart and Green Energy (SAGE) for Base Camps project was to investigate how base camps’ fuel consumption can be reduced by 30% to 60% using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies for power generation, renewables, and energy efficient building systems. Field tests and calibrated energy models successfully demonstrated that the fuel reductions are achievable.

  18. Interspecific nest parasitism by chukar on greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Michelle L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2014-01-01

    Nest parasitism occurs when a female bird lays eggs in the nest of another and the host incubates the eggs and may provide some form of parental care for the offspring (Lyon and Eadie 1991). Precocial birds (e.g., Galliformes and Anseriformes) are typically facultative nest parasites of both their own and other species (Lyon and Eadie 1991). This behavior increases a female’s reproductive success when she parasitizes other nests while simultaneously raising her own offspring. Both interspecific and conspecific nest parasitism have been well documented in several families of the order Galliformes, particularly the Phasianidae (Lyon and Eadie 1991, Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001, Krakauer and Kimball 2009). The Chukar (Alectoris chukar) has been widely introduced as a game bird to western North America from Eurasia and is now well established within the Great Basin from northeastern California east to Utah and north to Idaho and Oregon (Christensen 1996). Over much of this range the Chukar occurs with other phasianids, including the native Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), within sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999, Connelly et al. 2000). Chukar typically exploit a broader range of habitats than do sage-grouse, but both species use the same species of sagebrush and other shrubs for nesting cover (Christensen 1996, Schroeder et al. 1999). Chukar are known to parasitize nests of other individuals of their own species (Geffen and Yom-Tov 2001), but we are unaware of reported evidence that Chukar may parasitize nests of sage-grouse. Here we describe a case of a Chukar parasitizing a sage-grouse nest in the sagebrush steppe of western Nevada.

  19. The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Clait E.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Nehring, Jennifer A.; Commons, Michelle L.; Young, Jessica R.; Potter, Kim M.

    2014-01-01

    The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) in Colorado is described based on published literature, observations, museum specimens, and the known distribution of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.). Historically, Gunnison Sage-Grouse were widely but patchily distributed in up to 22 counties in south-central and southwestern Colorado. The historical distribution of this species was south of the Colorado-Eagle river drainages primarily west of the Continental Divide. Potential contact areas with Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus) were along the Colorado-Eagle river system in Mesa, Garfield, and Eagle counties, west of the Continental Divide. Gunnison Sage-Grouse historically occupied habitats that were naturally highly fragmented by forested mountains and plateaus/mesas, intermountain basins without robust species of sagebrush, and river systems. This species adapted to use areas with more deciduous shrubs (i.e., Quercus spp., Amelanchier spp., Prunus spp.) in conjunction with sagebrush. Most areas historically occupied were small, linear, and patchily distributed within the overall landscape matrix. The exception was the large intermountain basin in Gunnison, Hinsdale, and Saguache counties. The documented distribution east of the Continental Divide within the large expanse of the San Luis Valley (Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande counties) was minimal and mostly on the eastern, northern, and southern fringes. Many formerly occupied habitat patches were vacant by the mid 1940s with extirpations continuing to the late 1990s. Counties from which populations were recently extirpated include Archuleta and Pitkin (1960s), and Eagle, Garfield, Montezuma, and Ouray (1990s).

  20. SAGES's advanced GI/MIS fellowship curriculum pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Joshua J; Goldblatt, Matthew; Pryor, Aurora; Dunkin, Brian J; Brunt, L Michael; Jones, Daniel B; Scott, Daniel J

    2018-06-01

    The American health care system faces deficits in quality and quantity of surgeons. SAGES is a major stakeholder in surgical fellowship training and is responsible for defining the curriculum for the Advanced GI/MIS fellowship. SAGES leadership is actively adapting this curriculum. The process of reform began in 2014 through a series of iterative meetings and discussions. A working group within the Resident and Fellow Training Committee reviewed case log data from 2012 to 2015. These data were used to propose new criteria designed to provide adequate exposure to core content. The working group also proposed using video assessment of an MIS case to provide objective assessment of competency. Case log data were available for 326 fellows with a total of 85,154 cases logged (median 227 per fellow). The working group proposed new criteria starting with minimum case volumes for five defined categories including foregut (20), bariatrics (25), inguinal hernia (10), ventral hernia (10), and solid organ/colon/thoracic (10). Fellows are expected to perform an additional 75 complex MIS cases of any category for a total of 150 required cases overall. The proposal also included a minimum volume of flexible endoscopy (50) and submission of an MIS foregut case for video assessment. The new criteria more clearly defined which surgeon roles count for major credit within individual categories. Fourteen fellowships volunteered to pilot these new criteria for the 2017-2018 academic year. The new SAGES Advanced GI/MIS fellowship has been crafted to better define the core content that should be contained in these fellowships, while still allowing sufficient heterogeneity so that individual learners can tailor their training to specific areas of interest. The criteria also introduce innovative, evidence-based methods for assessing competency. Pending the results of the pilot program, SAGES will consider broad implementation of the new fellowship criteria.

  1. Essential oil composition of wild growing Sage from R. Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjoshe Stefkov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze and identify the essential oil composition of S. officinalis populations growing in Republic of Macedonia and to evaluate these data according to different standards’ requirements for, commercially most utilized, Dalmatian sage. The essential oil yield, obtained after hydrodestilation from leaves, of three different populations of Salvia officinalis L. from Republic of Macedonia was determined, varying from 1.40 to 3.46%. The GC/FID/MS analysis of the composition of the essential oils revealed 63, 57 and 51 components in Galicica Mtn., Jablanica Mtn. and Karaorman Mtn. sage populations, respectively. The main components of the oil, in all three samples, were the terpene hydrocarbons, encompassing the monoterpenes: camphor (13.15 - 25.91%, α-thujone (19.25 - 26.33%, β-thujone (2.03 - 5.28%, 1,8-cineole (6.51 – 13.60%, α-pinene (0.93 – 1.47%, borneol (1.07 – 4.67%, then sesquiterpenes: trans (E-caryophyllene (1.72 – 5.33%, α-humulene (2.89 – 7.99%, viridiflorol (4.27 – 7.99%, and the diterpene manool (2.13 - 3.79%. Thus, our results for the essential oil composition of sage complied with the reference values specified in the DAC 86 monograph for Salvia essential oil.

  2. The effect of sage, sodium erythorbate and a mixture of sage and sodium erythorbate on the quality of turkey meatballs stored under vacuum and modified atmosphere conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpińska-Tymoszczyk, M

    2010-12-01

    1. The combined effect of sage (S), sodium erythorbate (SE), a mixture of sage and sodium erythorbate (MIX) and vacuum packaging (VP) and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality of cooked turkey meatballs stored at 4°C was investigated. The physicochemical properties (colour, MDA, AV, pH, water activity), microbiological quality characteristics (counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, fungi, coliforms and Clostridium sp.) and flavour attributes of meatballs were determined. 2. The values of the colour parameters L*, a* and b* were affected by the additives and packaging method. The colour of meatballs was better protected by sodium erythorbate than by sage or a mixture of sage and sodium erythorbate. The additives effectively stabilised lipids against oxidation and slowed down hydrolytic changes in turkey meatballs. Sage and a mixture of sage and sodium erythorbate showed stronger antioxidant properties than sodium erythorbate added alone. Products with additives were characterised by better sensory quality than control samples. Sage and MIX prevented the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria. All additives inhibited the growth of coliforms. 3. MAP was more effective than VP in maintaining the microbial and sensory quality stability of cooked turkey meatballs. However, VP appears to be a better method as regards the maintaining of lipid stability in turkey meatballs.

  3. Endobiliary brush biopsy: Intra- and interobserver variation in cytological evaluation of brushings from bile duct strictures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, S; Olsen, M; Jendresen, MB

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obtaining cytological specimens by wire-guided endobiliary brushing at the time of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a convenient way to reach a diagnosis. Sensitivity for malignant disease is generally around 50% and specificity around 100%. The present study...... was designed to assess the reproducibility of the cytological examination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples were obtained from 55 consecutive patients with biliary duct strictures that eventually turned out to be caused by malignant disease in 41 patients (73%). The cytology specimens were evaluated twice...... in different random order with an interval of at least 4 months by two pathologists blinded to the final diagnoses. Suitability for diagnosis (suitable, suboptimal or unsuitable) and cytologic diagnosis (benign, atypical, suspicious for malignancy and malignant cells) were registered. Kappa analysis...

  4. Polyacrylic acid polymer brushes as substrates for the incorporation of anthraquinone derivatives. Unprecedented application of decorated polymer brushes on organocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Muelle, Ana Belén; Contreras-Cáceres, Rafael; Oña-Burgos, Pascual; Rodríguez-Dieguez, Antonio; López-Romero, Juan Manuel; Fernández, Ignacio

    2018-01-01

    The synthesis of amino-terminated anthraquinone derivatives and their incorporation onto polymer brushes for the fabrication of silicon-based nanometric functional coatings are described for the first time. The general process involves the covalent grafting of anthraquinone 1 onto two different polymer-brushes by amidation reactions. They are composed by amino- and carboxy-terminated poly(acrylic acid) chains (PAA-NH2- and PAA-COOH, respectively) tethered by one end to an underlying silicon oxide (SiO2) substrate in a polymer brush configuration. A third substrate is fabricated by UV induced hydrosilylation reaction using undecenoic acid as adsorbate on hydrogen-terminated Si(111) surfaces. One- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), FT-IR, MS and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize anthraquinone 1. Ellipsometric and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements demonstrated the presence of the polymer brushes on the silicon wafers, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study its surface morphology. The covalent linkage between anthraquinone and polymer brushes was proven by XPS and confocal fluorescence microscopy. The resulting surfaces were assayed in the heterogenous organocatalytic transformation of (1H)-indole into 3-benzyl indole with moderate yields but with high recyclability.

  5. A Nanosecond Pulsed Plasma Brush for Surface Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuber, Johanna; Malik, Muhammad; Song, Shutong; Jiang, Chunqi

    2015-11-01

    This work optimizes a non-thermal, atmospheric pressure plasma brush for surface decontamination. The generated plasma plumes with a maximum length of 2 cm are arranged in a 5 cm long, brush-like array. The plasma was generated in ambient air with Acinetobacter baumannii. Laminate surfaces inoculated with over-night cultured bacteria were subject to the plasma treatment for varying water concentrations in He, flow rates and discharge voltages. It was found that increasing the water content of the feed gas greatly enhanced the bactericidal effect. Emission spectroscopy was performed to identify the reactive plasma species that contribute to this variation. Additional affiliation: Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics

  6. Surface changes of enamel after brushing with charcoal toothpaste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertiwi, U. I.; Eriwati, Y. K.; Irawan, B.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the surface roughness changes of tooth enamel after brushing with charcoal toothpaste. Thirty specimens were brushed using distilled water (the first group), Strong® Formula toothpaste (the second group), and Charcoal® Formula toothpaste for four minutes and 40 seconds (equivalent to one month) and for 14 minutes (equivalent to three months) using a soft fleece toothbrush with a mass of 150 gr. The roughness was measured using a surface roughness tester, and the results were tested with repeated ANOVA test and one-way ANOVA. The value of the surface roughness of tooth enamel was significantly different (penamel.

  7. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Nesensohn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  8. Slab replacement maturity guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the use of maturity method to determine early age strength of concrete in slab : replacement application. Specific objectives were (1) to evaluate effects of various factors on the compressive : maturity-strength relationship ...

  9. Using DNA from hairs left at depredated greater sage-grouse nests to detect mammalian nest predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher P. Kirol; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Andrew L. Sutphin; Thomas L. Maechtle

    2018-01-01

    Despite a multitude of studies on sage-grouse (Centrocercus spp.), there is still sparse information on the predator communities that influence sage-grouse productivity and how these predator communities may change when sagebrush habitats are altered by human activities. As a proof-of-concept, we used mammalian hairs collected at depredated greater sage-grouse (C....

  10. 77 FR 71396 - Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest; Nevada and California Greater Sage Grouse Bi-State Distinct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... Greater Sage Grouse Bi-State Distinct Population Segment Forest Plan Amendment Environmental Impact... Sage Grouse Bi- State Distinct Population Segment. DATES: Comments concerning the scope of the analysis..., but precluded'' Endangered Species Act (ESA) listing petition decision for the Greater Sage grouse Bi...

  11. 78 FR 65703 - Notice of Availability of the Idaho and Southwestern Montana Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Idaho and Southwestern Montana Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use Plan... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for managing Greater Sage- Grouse (GRSG) in the Idaho and Southwestern... Southwestern Montana Greater Sage-Grouse Draft LUP Amendments/Draft EIS by any of the following methods: Email...

  12. 78 FR 50088 - Notice of Availability of the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Availability of the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage- Grouse Draft Resource Management Plan Amendment and Draft... Land Management (BLM) has prepared a Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Resource Management.../or mailings. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments related to the Northwest Colorado Greater Sage-Grouse...

  13. 77 FR 12792 - Notice of Forest Service Land Management Plans To Be Amended To Incorporate Greater Sage-Grouse...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Forest Service Land Management Plans To Be Amended To Incorporate Greater Sage-Grouse Conservation... sage-grouse conservation measures into land use plans and land management plans. The BLM is the lead... submitted in writing until March 23, 2012. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments related to the greater sage...

  14. SAGE FOR MACINTOSH (MSAGE) VERSION 1.0 SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE - USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The guide provides instructions for using the Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE) for Macintosh, version 1.0. The guide assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating aMacintosh personal computer under the System 7.0 (or higher) operating system. SAGE for ...

  15. Sage-Grouse on the edge: understanding and managing western landscapes for their survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen Parks; Michael J. Wisdom

    2012-01-01

    Populations of greater sage-grouse have declined dramatically across their North American range for many decades in response to harmful effects of a plethora of human activities and land uses, prompting legal actions to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). To evaluate the impacts of land-uses and habitat changes on sage-grouse, Michael Wisdom, a...

  16. Microhabitat selection of brood-rearing sites by greater sage-grouse in Carbon County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie A. Schreiber; Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh; R. Scott Gamo; Jon W. Kehmeier; Nate Wojcik

    2015-01-01

    Declines in Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter sage-grouse) populations could be attributed to low chick survival, which may be influenced by the availability of food and cover at sites used by females rearing broods. Habitat attributes important to broods may vary regionally; thus, it is necessary to understand factors affecting...

  17. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat use on the eastern edge of their range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. Swanson; Mark A. Rumble; Nicholas W. Kaczor; Robert W. Klaver; Katie M. Herman-Brunson; Jonathan A. Jenks; Kent C. Jensen

    2013-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) at the western edge of the Dakotas occur in the transition zone between sagebrush and grassland communities. These mixed sagebrush (Artemisia sp.) and grasslands differ from those habitats that comprise the central portions of the sage-grouse range; yet, no information is available on winter habitat selection within this...

  18. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, Joseph; Walker, Richard; Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Cheek, Dianne; Thornton, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will extend the SAGE data record from the ideal vantage point of the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS orbital inclination is ideal for SAGE measurements providing coverage between 70 deg north and 70 deg south latitude. The SAGE data record includes an extensively validated data set including aerosol optical depth data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) experiments in 1975 and 1978 and stratospheric ozone profile data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) in 1979. These and subsequent data records, notably from the SAGE II experiment launched on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite in 1984 and the SAGE III experiment launched on the Russian Meteor-3M satellite in 2001, have supported a robust, long-term assessment of key atmospheric constituents. These scientific measurements provide the basis for the analysis of five of the nine critical constituents (aerosols, ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), water vapor (H2O), and air density using O2) identified in the U.S. National Plan for Stratospheric Monitoring. SAGE III on ISS was originally scheduled to fly on the ISS in the same timeframe as the Meteor-3M mission, but was postponed due to delays in ISS construction. The project was re-established in 2009.

  19. SAGE ANALYSIS OF TRANSCRIPTOME RESPONSES IN ARABIDOPSIS ROOTS EXPOSED TO 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) was used to profile transcript levels in Arabidopsis thaliana roots and assess their responses to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) exposure. SAGE libraries representing control and TNT-exposed seedling root transcripts were constructed, and ea...

  20. Greater sage-grouse apparent nest productivity and chick survival in Carbon County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie A. Schreiber; Christopher P. Hansen; Mark A. Rumble; Joshua J. Millspaugh; Frank R. Thompson; R. Scott Gamo; Jon W. Kehmeier; Nate Wojik

    2016-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus populations across North America have been declining due to degradation and fragmentation of sagebrush habitat. As part of a study quantifying greater sage-grouse demographics prior to construction of a wind energy facility, we estimated apparent net nest productivity and survival rate of chicks associated with...

  1. Evaluation of the similarity of gene expression data estimated with SAGE and Affymetrix GeneChips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruissen, Fred; Ruijter, Jan M.; Schaaf, Gerben J.; Asgharnegad, Lida; Zwijnenburg, Danny A.; Kool, Marcel; Baas, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Background: Serial Analysis of Gene Expression ( SAGE) and microarrays have found awidespread application, but much ambiguity exists regarding the evaluation of these technologies. Cross-platform utilization of gene expression data from the SAGE and microarray technology could reduce the need for

  2. Statistical comparison of two or more SAGE libraries: one tag at a time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, Gerben J.; van Ruissen, Fred; van Kampen, Antoine; Kool, Marcel; Ruijter, Jan M.

    2008-01-01

    Several statistical tests have been introduced for the comparison of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) libraries to quantitatively analyze the differential expression of genes. As each SAGE library is only one measurement, the necessary information on biological variation or experimental

  3. A Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) database analysis of chemosensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Wilfred D; Litman, Thomas; Fojo, Tito

    2004-01-01

    are their corresponding solid tumors. We used the Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) database to identify differences between solid tumors and cell lines, hoping to detect genes that could potentially explain differences in drug sensitivity. SAGE libraries were available for both solid tumors and cell lines from...

  4. Observations of territorial breeding common ravens caching eggs of greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kristy B.; Coates, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations using continuous video monitoring of greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus nests have unambiguously identified common ravens Corvus corax as an important egg predator within the western United States. The quantity of greater sage-grouse eggs an individual common raven consumes during the nesting period and the extent to which common ravens actively hunt greater sage-grouse nests are largely unknown. However, some evidence suggests that territorial breeding common ravens, rather than nonbreeding transients, are most likely responsible for nest depredations. We describe greater sage-grouse egg depredation observations obtained opportunistically from three common raven nests located in Idaho and Nevada where depredated greater sage-grouse eggs were found at or in the immediate vicinity of the nest site, including the caching of eggs in nearby rock crevices. We opportunistically monitored these nests by counting and removing depredated eggs and shell fragments from the nest sites during each visit to determine the extent to which the common raven pairs preyed on greater sage-grouse eggs. To our knowledge, our observations represent the first evidence that breeding, territorial pairs of common ravens cache greater sage-grouse eggs and are capable of depredating multiple greater sage-grouse nests.

  5. The background of external γ radiation in the proportional counters in SAGE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.; Gorbachev, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of external γ radiation on the process of 71 Ge-decay counting in proportional counters in SAGE experiment of solar neutrino flux measurement is examined. One determines the systematic error of SAGE result, connected with radon decays inside the air volume surrounding the counters, and the background counting rate of proportional counters from γ radiation of passive and active shield [ru

  6. Stimuli-Responsive Polyelectrolyte Brushes As a Matrix for the Attachment of Gold Nanoparticles: The Effect of Brush Thickness on Particle Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Christau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of brush thickness on the loading of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs within stimuli-responsive poly-(N,N-(dimethylamino ethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA polyelectrolyte brushes is reported. Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP was used to grow polymer brushes via a “grafting from” approach. The brush thickness was tuned by varying the polymerization time. Using a new type of sealed reactor, thick brushes were synthesized. A systematic study was performed by varying a single parameter (brush thickness, while keeping all other parameters constant. AuNPs of 13 nm in diameter were attached by incubation. X-ray reflectivity, electron scanning microscopy and ellipsometry were used to study the particle loading, particle distribution and interpenetration of the particles within the brush matrix. A model for the structure of the brush/particle hybrids was derived. The particle number densities of attached AuNPs depend on the brush thickness, as do the optical properties of the hybrids. An increasing particle number density was found for increasing brush thickness, due to an increased surface roughness.

  7. Greater sage-grouse nest predators in the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockyer, Zachary B.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Espinosa, Shawn; Delehanty, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter sage-grouse, populations have declined across their range due to the loss, degradation, and fragmentation of habitat. Habitat alterations can lead not only to vegetative changes but also to shifts in animal behavior and predator composition that may influence population vital rates, such as nest success. For example, common ravens Corvus corax are sage-grouse nest predators, and common raven abundance is positively associated with human-caused habitat alterations. Because nest success is a central component to sage-grouse population persistence, research that identifies factors influencing nest success will better inform conservation efforts. We used videography to unequivocally identify sage-grouse nest predators within the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada, USA, from 2009 to 2011 and used maximum likelihood to calculate daily probability of nest survival. In the Virginia Mountains, fires, energy exploration, and other anthropogenic activities have altered historic sage-grouse habitat. We monitored 71 sage-grouse nests during the study, placing video cameras at 39 nests. Cumulative nest survival for all nests was 22.4% (95% CI, 13.0–33.4%), a survival rate that was significantly lower than other published results for sage-grouse in the Great Basin. Depredation was the primary cause for nest failure in our study (82.5%), and common ravens were the most frequent sage-grouse nest predator, accounting for 46.7% of nest depredations. We also successfully documented a suite of mammalian and reptilian species depredating sage-grouse nests, including some predators never previously confirmed in the literature to be sage-grouse nest predators (i.e., bobcats Lynx rufus and long-tailed weasels Mephitis frenata). Within the high elevation, disturbed habitat of the Virginia Mountains, low sage-grouse nest success may be limiting sage-grouse population growth. These results suggest that management actions that

  8. Headspace screening: A novel approach for fast quality assessment of the essential oil from culinary sage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Acevska, Jelena; Karapandzova, Marija; Dimitrovska, Aneta; Kulevanova, Svetlana

    2016-07-01

    Quality assessment of essential oil (EO) from culinary sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is limited by the long pharmacopoeial procedure. The aim of this study was to employ headspace (HS) sampling in the quality assessment of sage EO. Different populations (30) of culinary sage were assessed using GC/FID/MS analysis of the hydrodistilled EO (pharmacopoeial method) and HS sampling directly from leaves. Compound profiles from both procedures were evaluated according to ISO 9909 and GDC standards for sage EO quality, revealing compliance for only 10 populations. Factors to convert HS values, for the target ISO and GDC components, into theoretical EO values were calculated. Statistical analysis revealed a significant relationship between HS and EO values for seven target components. Consequently, HS sampling could be used as a complementary extraction technique for rapid screening in quality assessment of sage EOs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Conservation buffer distance estimates for Greater Sage-Grouse: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manier, Daniel J.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Casazza, Michael L.; Coates, Peter S.; Deibert, Patricia A.; Hanser, Steven E.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2014-01-01

    This report was prepared at the request of the U.S. Department of the Interior and is a compilation and summary of published scientific studies that evaluate the influence of anthropogenic activities and infrastructure on Greater Sage-Grouse(Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter, sage-grouse) populations. The purpose of this report is to provide a convenient reference for land managers and others who are working to develop biologically relevant and socioeconomically practical buffer distances around sage-grouse habitats. The framework for this summary includes (1) addressing the potential effects of anthropogenic land use and disturbances on sage-grouse populations, (2) providing ecologically based interpretations of evidence from the scientific literature, and (3) informing implementation of conservation buffers around sage-grouse communal breeding locations—known as leks.

  10. Sparse Variational Bayesian SAGE Algorithm With Application to the Estimation of Multipath Wireless Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shutin, Dmitriy; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a sparse variational Bayesian (VB) extension of the space-alternating generalized expectation-maximization (SAGE) algorithm for the high resolution estimation of the parameters of relevant multipath components in the response of frequency and spatially selective wireless...... channels. The application context of the algorithm considered in this contribution is parameter estimation from channel sounding measurements for radio channel modeling purpose. The new sparse VB-SAGE algorithm extends the classical SAGE algorithm in two respects: i) by monotonically minimizing...... parametric sparsity priors for the weights of the multipath components. We revisit the Gaussian sparsity priors within the sparse VB-SAGE framework and extend the results by considering Laplace priors. The structure of the VB-SAGE algorithm allows for an analytical stability analysis of the update expression...

  11. Effect of radiation processing on the antioxidant activity of Sage and Cinnamon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Niley, H. F. G.; Farag, M. D. H.

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of radiation processing on dried sage leaves and cinnamon barks samples were carried out at dose level of 25 kGy. Total phenolic content was determined in the extracts of these herbs alongside the antioxidant properties of their methanoic extracts were assessed using reducing power assay and by DPPH radical test within an extract concentration range 2.5 to 40 mg/ml of methanol. The result showed the total phenolic compounds were increased by 11.18% and 10.19% for irradiated sage and cinnamon, respectively. The values of EC 50 estimated from the results of reducing power assay and DPPH radical test showed the sage extracts had higher antioxidant activity tham cinnamon extracts. In summary, gamma- irradiation of dried sage leaves and cinnamon barks was found to be significantly increase the antioxidant properties of dried sage leaves and cinnamon barks but also enhanced the antioxidant properties, to some extent. (Author)

  12. 46 CFR 108.187 - Ventilation for brush type electric motors in classified spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for brush type electric motors in classified... Ventilation for brush type electric motors in classified spaces. Ventilation for brush type electric motors in... Electrical Equipment in Hazardous Locations”, except audible and visual alarms may be used if shutting down...

  13. Comparison of Three types of Tooth Brushes on Plaque and Gingival Indices: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeintaghavi, Amir; Sargolzaie, Naser; Rostampour, Mehrnoosh; Sarvari, Sara; Kargozar, Sanaz; Gharaei, Shideh

    2017-01-01

    To compare clinical results of three types of manual tooth brushes on plaque removal efficacy and gingivitis. This study is a single blind randomized trial with crossover design which involved 30 periodontaly healthy individuals. Professional plaque removal and oral hygiene instruction were performed for all the participants in the first step of our study followed by asking them to avoid brushing for 2 days. Thereafter plaque and gingivitis scores were measured using plaque and gingival indices (PI and GI). Then subjects were instructed to use Pulsar tooth brush for a two-week period and then, GI and PI indices were assessed again. After passing one-week period for wash out, subjects didn't brush for 2 days and indices were recorded again. The same procedure was done for CrossAction, and Butler 411 tooth brushes respectively and at the end of the study these variables were analyzed using SPSS software ver.16. Repeated measurement ANOVA test was used to compare the scores between different brushes. Finding of this study reveals that using all three types of tooth brushes resulted in significant plaque and gingivitis reduction compared to baseline levels. Pulsar tooth brush was significantly more effective in diminishing PI and GI than Butler tooth brush (p=0.044 and 0.031 respectively). According to our findings all 3 types of tooth brushes are effective in reduction of plaque and gingivitis and this reduction is significantly greater for Pulsar tooth brush compared to Butler and CrossAction tooth brushes.

  14. Oral Health: Brush Up on Dental Care Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mayo Clinic Staff Your smile depends on simple dental care habits, such as brushing and flossing. But are you using the right techniques? Follow these steps to protect your oral health. Oral health begins with clean teeth. Keeping the area where your teeth meet your ...

  15. Suppressing Pseudomonas aeruginosa adhesion via non-fouling polymer brushes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Decker, A.; Surman, František; Preuss, C. M.; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Zydziak, N.; Barner-Kowollik, C.; Schwartz, T.; Barner, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 110 (2014), s. 64781-64790 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR GAP106/12/1451 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer brushes * tissue engineering * biology Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2014

  16. Dendritic brushes under theta and poor solvent conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergidis, Leonidas N.; Kalogirou, Andreas; Charalambopoulos, Antonios; Vlahos, Costas

    2013-07-01

    The effects of solvent quality on the internal stratification of polymer brushes formed by dendron polymers up to third generation were studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations with Langevin thermostat. The distributions of polymer units, of the free ends, the radii of gyration, and the back folding probabilities of the dendritic spacers were studied at the macroscopic states of theta and poor solvent. For high grafting densities we observed a small decrease in the height of the brush as the solvent quality decreases. The internal stratification in theta solvent was similar to the one we found in good solvent, with two and in some cases three kinds of populations containing short dendrons with weakly extended spacers, intermediate-height dendrons, and tall dendrons with highly stretched spacers. The differences increase as the grafting density decreases and single dendron populations were evident in theta and poor solvent. In poor solvent at low grafting densities, solvent micelles, polymeric pinned lamellae, spherical and single chain collapsed micelles were observed. The scaling dependence of the height of the dendritic brush at high density brushes for both solvents was found to be in agreement with existing analytical results.

  17. Radiocesium movement in a gray rabbit brush community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, B.; Rogers, L.E.; Hedlund, J.D.; Schreckhise, R.G.; Price, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    Gray rabbit brush, Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Compositae), is the dominant shrub on disturbed land surfaces on much of the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation in south-central Washington State. A stand of rabbit brush growing on an inactive liquid-waste-disposal crib was studied. Thirty percent of the shrubs showed low but detectable radiation levels in a field survey. The primary radionuclide was 137 Cs. The source of 137 Cs in shrubs was the gravel drain field in the crib, at least 2.4 m below the surface, which was the approximate maximum depth of penetration of rabbit brush taproots. Cesium-137 was observed in roots of certain rabbit brush plants, in the upper 1 cm of soil, and in litter beneath contaminated plants but was not detectable in soil samples taken at depths of 15, 50, 100, and 150 cm. Invertebrates associated with a contaminated shrub showed higher concentrations of 137 Cs than did wider-ranging species. Two of seven pocket mice trapped on the crib contaminated detectable amounts of 137 Cs

  18. Clickable antifouling polymer brushes for polymer pen lithography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bog, U.; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Mueller, S. L.; Havenridge, S.; Parrillo, Viviana; Bruns, M.; Holmes, A. E.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, C.; Fuchs, H.; Hirtz, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 13 (2017), s. 12109-12117 ISSN 1944-8244 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : antifouling * biofunctional interfaces * polymer brushes Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 7.504, year: 2016

  19. Salt dependence of compression normal forces of quenched polyelectrolyte brushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Zapata, Ernesto; Tamashiro, Mario N.; Pincus, Philip A.

    2001-03-01

    We obtained mean-field expressions for the compression normal forces between two identical opposing quenched polyelectrolyte brushes in the presence of monovalent salt. The brush elasticity is modeled using the entropy of ideal Gaussian chains, while the entropy of the microions and the electrostatic contribution to the grand potential is obtained by solving the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation for the system in contact with a salt reservoir. For the polyelectrolyte brush we considered both a uniformly charged slab as well as an inhomogeneous charge profile obtained using a self-consistent field theory. Using the Derjaguin approximation, we related the planar-geometry results to the realistic two-crossed cylinders experimental set up. Theoretical predictions are compared to experimental measurements(Marc Balastre's abstract, APS March 2001 Meeting.) of the salt dependence of the compression normal forces between two quenched polyelectrolyte brushes formed by the adsorption of diblock copolymers poly(tert-butyl styrene)-sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) [PtBs/NaPSS] onto an octadecyltriethoxysilane (OTE) hydrophobically modified mica, as well as onto bare mica.

  20. Polymer brush-functionalized chitosan hydrogels as antifouling implant coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buzzacchera, I.; Vorobii, M.; Kostina, N. Yu.; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Riedel, Tomáš; Bruns, M.; Ogieglo, W.; Möller, M.; Wilson, C. J.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 6 (2017), s. 1983-1992 ISSN 1525-7797 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP205/12/G118 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : chitosan * hemocompatible * polymer brushes Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 5.246, year: 2016

  1. Amphiphilic brushes from metallo-supramolecular block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guillet, P.; Fustin, C.A.; Wouters, D.; Höppener, S.; Schubert, U.S.; Gohy, J.M.W.

    2009-01-01

    A novel strategy to control the formation of amphiphilic brushes from metallo-supramol. block copolymers is described. The investigated copolymer consists of a polystyrene block linked to a poly(ethylene oxide) one via a charged bis-terpyridine ruthenium(ii) complex (PS-[Ru]-PEO). The initial

  2. Organic monolayers and fluoropolymer brushes : functionalization, stability and tribology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhairamadgi, N.S.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the adhesion and friction properties of densely grafted and covalently bound fluoropolymer brushes on silicon surfaces with varying thickness and fluorine content. A novel surface-functionalizing method is described using the thiol-yne click (TYC) reaction. The TYC

  3. Wetting phase diagrams of polyacid brush with a triple point.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mercurieva, A.A.; Iakovlev, P.A.; Zhulina, E.B.; Birshtein, T.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.

    2006-01-01

    The (pre)wetting behavior of an annealed polyelectrolyte (PE) brush by an electrolyte solution that is strongly segregated from an apolar phase is analyzed. In this complex interface, there are interactions on various length scales. There are short-range interactions with the (uncharged) surface,

  4. Polymer Brush-Functionalized Chitosan Hydrogels as Antifouling Implant Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzacchera, Irene; Vorobii, Mariia; Kostina, Nina Yu; de Los Santos Pereira, Andres; Riedel, Tomáš; Bruns, Michael; Ogieglo, Wojciech; Möller, Martin; Wilson, Christopher J; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar

    2017-06-12

    Implantable sensor devices require coatings that efficiently interface with the tissue environment to mediate biochemical analysis. In this regard, bioinspired polymer hydrogels offer an attractive and abundant source of coating materials. However, upon implantation these materials generally elicit inflammation and the foreign body reaction as a consequence of protein fouling on their surface and concomitant poor hemocompatibility. In this report we investigate a strategy to endow chitosan hydrogel coatings with antifouling properties by the grafting of polymer brushes in a "grafting-from" approach. Chitosan coatings were functionalized with polymer brushes of oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate using photoinduced single electron transfer living radical polymerization and the surfaces were thoroughly characterized by XPS, AFM, water contact angle goniometry, and in situ ellipsometry. The antifouling properties of these new bioinspired hydrogel-brush coatings were investigated by surface plasmon resonance. The influence of the modifications to the chitosan on hemocompatibility was assessed by contacting the surfaces with platelets and leukocytes. The coatings were hydrophilic and reached a thickness of up to 180 nm within 30 min of polymerization. The functionalization of the surface with polymer brushes significantly reduced the protein fouling and eliminated platelet activation and leukocyte adhesion. This methodology offers a facile route to functionalizing implantable sensor systems with antifouling coatings that improve hemocompatibility and pave the way for enhanced device integration in tissue.

  5. Tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental technology and therapist students. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on ...

  6. Badger hair in shaving brushes comes from protected Eurasian badgers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domingo-Roura, X.; Marmi, J.; Ferrando, A.; López-Giráldez, F.; Macdonald, D.W.; Jansman, H.A.H.

    2006-01-01

    The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) is included in Appendix III of the Bern Convention and protected by national laws in many European countries. Badger hair is used to manufacture luxury shaving brushes, although it is frequently argued that the hog badger (Arctonyx collaris), which in Europe is an

  7. Immunoelectrophoretic studies on pig intestinal brush border proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Erik Michael; Sjöström, H; Norén, O

    1977-01-01

    Brush borders were prepared from pig intestinal mucosa and the membrane proteins solubilized with either Triton X-100 or papain. Proteins, thus released, were used as antigens to raise antisera in rabbits. The immunoglobulin G fractions were isolated and shown by the double layer immunofluorescence...

  8. Thermal Modeling Method Improvements for SAGE III on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Kaitlin; Amundsen, Ruth; Davis, Warren; McLeod, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring aerosols and gaseous constituents in the stratosphere and troposphere. SAGE III will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) via the SpaceX Dragon vehicle. A detailed thermal model of the SAGE III payload, which consists of multiple subsystems, has been developed in Thermal Desktop (TD). Many innovative analysis methods have been used in developing this model; these will be described in the paper. This paper builds on a paper presented at TFAWS 2013, which described some of the initial developments of efficient methods for SAGE III. The current paper describes additional improvements that have been made since that time. To expedite the correlation of the model to thermal vacuum (TVAC) testing, the chambers and GSE for both TVAC chambers at Langley used to test the payload were incorporated within the thermal model. This allowed the runs of TVAC predictions and correlations to be run within the flight model, thus eliminating the need for separate models for TVAC. In one TVAC test, radiant lamps were used which necessitated shooting rays from the lamps, and running in both solar and IR wavebands. A new Dragon model was incorporated which entailed a change in orientation; that change was made using an assembly, so that any potential additional new Dragon orbits could be added in the future without modification of the model. The Earth orbit parameters such as albedo and Earth infrared flux were incorporated as time-varying values that change over the course of the orbit; despite being required in one of the ISS documents, this had not been done before by any previous payload. All parameters such as initial temperature, heater voltage, and location of the payload are defined based on the case definition. For one component, testing was performed in both air and vacuum; incorporating the air convection in a submodel that was

  9. Clustering-based approaches to SAGE data mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Haiying

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE is one of the most powerful tools for global gene expression profiling. It has led to several biological discoveries and biomedical applications, such as the prediction of new gene functions and the identification of biomarkers in human cancer research. Clustering techniques have become fundamental approaches in these applications. This paper reviews relevant clustering techniques specifically designed for this type of data. It places an emphasis on current limitations and opportunities in this area for supporting biologically-meaningful data mining and visualisation.

  10. Greater sage-grouse population trends across Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, David; Aldridge, Cameron L.; O'Donnell, Michael; Monroe, Adrian

    2018-01-01

    The scale at which analyses are performed can have an effect on model results and often one scale does not accurately describe the ecological phenomena of interest (e.g., population trends) for wide-ranging species: yet, most ecological studies are performed at a single, arbitrary scale. To best determine local and regional trends for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Wyoming, USA, we modeled density-independent and -dependent population growth across multiple spatial scales relevant to management and conservation (Core Areas [habitat encompassing approximately 83% of the sage-grouse population on ∼24% of surface area in Wyoming], local Working Groups [7 regional areas for which groups of local experts are tasked with implementing Wyoming's statewide sage-grouse conservation plan at the local level], Core Area status (Core Area vs. Non-Core Area) by Working Groups, and Core Areas by Working Groups). Our goal was to determine the influence of fine-scale population trends (Core Areas) on larger-scale populations (Working Group Areas). We modeled the natural log of change in population size ( peak M lek counts) by time to calculate the finite rate of population growth (λ) for each population of interest from 1993 to 2015. We found that in general when Core Area status (Core Area vs. Non-Core Area) was investigated by Working Group Area, the 2 populations trended similarly and agreed with the overall trend of the Working Group Area. However, at the finer scale where Core Areas were analyzed separately, Core Areas within the same Working Group Area often trended differently and a few large Core Areas could influence the overall Working Group Area trend and mask trends occurring in smaller Core Areas. Relatively close fine-scale populations of sage-grouse can trend differently, indicating that large-scale trends may not accurately depict what is occurring across the landscape (e.g., local effects of gas and oil fields may be masked by increasing

  11. Ecological Restoration of Coastal Sage Scrub and Its Potential Role in Habitat Conservation Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOWLER

    2000-07-01

    Extensive acreage loss of coastal sage scrub (CSS), isolation of surviving stands, and the federal listing of several animal species with obligate relationships to this plant community, particularly the threatened California gnatcatcher (Polioptila californica), have led to attempts to create CSS to mitigate habitat lost to urban development and other causes. Many of these creations lie within habitat conservation plan (HCP) sites, and they could play a more prominent role by being repositories for plants taken from a single site having site-specific genetics. Among others, one technique that increases initial resemblance to natural stands uses digitized, to-scale photography, which has been ground-truthed to verify vascular plant associations, which appear as mosaics on a landscape. A combination of placing patches of salvaged, mature canopy plants within larger matrices of imprinted or container plant plots appears to significantly enhance immediate use by CSS obligate bird species, accelerate "spread" or expansion of CSS, and can also introduce many epiphytic taxa that otherwise would be slow or unable to occupy developing CSS creations. Reptile, amphibian, butterfly, and rodent diversity in a salvaged canopy restoration case study at the University of California, Irvine, showed CSS species foraging and inhabiting transplanted canopy patches. Using restoration techniques to expand existing CSS stands has more promise than creating isolated patches, and the creation of canopies resembling CSS mid-fire cycle stands is now common. Gnatcatchers and other birds use restorations for foraging and occasional nesting, and in some cases created stands along "biological corridors" appear to be useful to bird movement. Patches of transplanted sage scrub shrubs along habitat edges appear to break up linear edge effects. There are no data on which long-term survival, succession, or postfire behavior can be predicted for CSS restoration sites, and postfire community changes

  12. The Chemotaxonomy of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis) Based on the Volatile Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Jonathan D; Satyal, Prabodh; Setzer, William N

    2017-06-29

    Background: Common sage ( Salvia officinalis ) is a popular culinary and medicinal herb. A literature survey has revealed that sage oils can vary widely in their chemical compositions. The purpose of this study was to examine sage essential oil from different sources/origins and to define the possible chemotypes of sage oil. Methods: Three different samples of sage leaf essential oil have been obtained and analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. A hierarchical cluster analysis was carried out on 185 sage oil compositions reported in the literature as well as the three samples in this study. Results: The major components of the three sage oils were the oxygenated monoterpenoids α-thujone (17.2-27.4%), 1,8-cineole (11.9-26.9%), and camphor (12.8-21.4%). The cluster analysis revealed five major chemotypes of sage oil, with the most common being a α-thujone > camphor > 1,8-cineole chemotype, of which the three samples in this study belong. The other chemotypes are an α-humulene-rich chemotype, a β-thujone-rich chemotype, a 1,8-cineole/camphor chemotype, and a sclareol/α-thujone chemotype. Conclusions: Most sage oils belonged to the "typical", α-thujone > camphor > 1,8-cineole, chemotype, but the essential oil compositions do vary widely and may have a profound effect on flavor and fragrance profiles as well as biological activities. There are currently no studies correlating sage oil composition with fragrance descriptions or with biological activities.

  13. The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE III) on the International Space Station (ISS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Gasbarre, Joseph; Eckman, Richard; Topiwala, Nandkishore; Rodriquez-Alvarez, Otilia; Cheek, Dianne; Hall, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will provide the science community with high-vertical resolution and nearly global observations of ozone, aerosols, water vapor, nitrogen dioxide, and other trace gas species in the stratosphere and upper-troposphere. SAGE III/ISS measurements will extend the long-term Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) and SAGE data record begun in the 1970s. The multi-decadal SAGE ozone and aerosol data sets have undergone intense scrutiny and are considered the international standard for accuracy and stability. SAGE data have been used to monitor the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol. Key objectives of the mission are to assess the state of the recovery in the distribution of ozone, to re-establish the aerosol measurements needed by both climate and ozone models, and to gain further insight into key processes contributing to ozone and aerosol variability. The space station mid-inclination orbit allows for a large range in latitude sampling and nearly continuous communications with payloads. The SAGE III instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring atmospheric constituents with high vertical resolution. The SAGE III instrument is a moderate resolution spectrometer covering wavelengths from 290 nm to 1550 nm. Science data is collected in solar occultation mode, lunar occultation mode, and limb scatter measurement mode. A SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicle will provide access to space. Mounted in the unpressurized section of the Dragon trunk, SAGE III will be robotically removed from the Dragon and installed on the space station. SAGE III/ISS will be mounted to the ExPRESS Logistics Carrier-4 (ELC-4) location on the starboard side of the station. To facilitate a nadir view from this location, a Nadir Viewing Platform (NVP) payload was developed which mounts between the carrier and the SAGE III Instrument Payload (IP).

  14. Design optimization of a brush turbine with a cleaner/water based solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rhyn H.

    1995-01-01

    Recently, a turbine-brush was analyzed based on the energy conservation and the force momentum equation with an empirical relationship of the drag coefficient. An equation was derived to predict the rotational speed of the turbine-brush in terms of the blade angle, number of blades, rest of geometries of the turbine-brush and the incoming velocity. Using the observed flow conditions, drag coefficients were determined. Based on the experimental values as boundary conditions, the turbine-brush flows were numerically simulated to understand first the nature of the flows, and to extend the observed drag coefficient to a flow without holding the turbine-brush.

  15. SAGE III on ISS Lessons Learned on Thermal Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Warren

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument - the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring vertical distribution of aerosols, ozone, and other trace gases in the Earth's stratosphere and troposphere - is currently scheduled for delivery to the International Space Station (ISS) via the SpaceX Dragon vehicle in 2016. The Instrument Adapter Module (IAM), one of many SAGE III subsystems, continuously dissipates a considerable amount of thermal energy during mission operations. Although a portion of this energy is transferred via its large radiator surface area, the majority must be conductively transferred to the ExPRESS Payload Adapter (ExPA) to satisfy thermal mitigation requirements. The baseline IAM-ExPA mechanical interface did not afford the thermal conductance necessary to prevent the IAM from overheating in hot on-orbit cases, and high interfacial conductance was difficult to achieve given the large span between mechanical fasteners, less than stringent flatness specifications, and material usage constraints due to strict contamination requirements. This paper will examine the evolution of the IAM-ExPA thermal interface over the course of three design iterations and will include discussion on design challenges, material selection, testing successes and failures, and lessons learned.

  16. J.D.Bernal the sage of science

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Desmond Bernal - or ''Sage'', as he was known, was an extraordinary man by any account - a brilliant scientist, a fervent Marxist, and a colourful, bohemian figure. This biography includes previously unpublished material from his diaries, and sheds new light on his international influence during both WWII and the ensuing peace movement. - ;J. D. Bernal, known as ''Sage'', was an extraordinary man and multifaceted character. A scientist of dazzling intellectual ability and a leading figure in the development of X-ray crystallography, he was a polymath, a fervent Marxist, and much admired worldwide. Although he himself never won a Nobel Prize, several of his distinguished students went on to do so, including Dorothy Hodgkin, Max Perutz, and Aaron Klug. Andrew Brown has had unprecedented access to Bernal''s papers and. diaries, and this biography includes previously unpublished material on Bernal''s role during the Second World War. Bernal not only changed the course of science, but was witness to (and often a p...

  17. SAGE CALCULATIONS OF THE TSUNAMI THREAT FROM LA PALMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galen Gisler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available With the LANL multiphysics hydrocode SAGE, we have performed several two-dimensional calculations and one three-dimensional calculation using the full Navier-Stokes equations, of a hypothetical landslide resembling the event posited by Ward and Day (2001, a lateral flank collapse of the Cumbre Vieja Volcano on La Palma that would produce a tsunami. The SAGE code has previously been used to model the Lituya Bay landslide-generated tsunami (Mader & Gittings, 2002, and has also been used to examine tsunami generation by asteroid impacts (Gisler, Weaver, Mader, & Gittings, 2003. This code uses continuous adaptive mesh refinement to focus computing resources where they are needed most, and accurate equations of state for water, air, and rock. We find that while high-amplitude waves are produced that would be highly dangerous to nearby communities (in the Canary Islands, and the shores of Morocco, Spain, and Portugal, the wavelengths and periods of these waves are relatively short, and they will not propagate efficiently over long distances.

  18. Evaluation of multi-brush anode systems in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lanas, Vanessa

    2013-11-01

    The packing density of anodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was examined here using four different graphite fiber brush anode configurations. The impact of anodes on performance was studied in terms of carbon fiber length (brush diameter), the number of brushes connected in parallel, and the wire current collector gage. MFCs with different numbers of brushes (one, three or six) set perpendicular to the cathode all produced similar power densities (1200±40mW/m2) and coulombic efficiencies (60%±5%). Reducing the number of brushes by either disconnecting or removing them reduced power, demonstrating the importance of anode projected area covering the cathode, and therefore the need to match electrode projected areas to maintain high performance. Multi-brush reactors had the same COD removal as single-brush systems (90%). The use of smaller Ti wire gages did not affect power generation, which will enable the use of less metal, reducing material costs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) in normal human trabecular meshwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yutao; Munro, Drew; Layfield, David; Dellinger, Andrew; Walter, Jeffrey; Peterson, Katherine; Rickman, Catherine Bowes; Allingham, R Rand; Hauser, Michael A

    2011-04-08

    To identify the genes expressed in normal human trabecular meshwork tissue, a tissue critical to the pathogenesis of glaucoma. Total RNA was extracted from human trabecular meshwork (HTM) harvested from 3 different donors. Extracted RNA was used to synthesize individual SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression) libraries using the I-SAGE Long kit from Invitrogen. Libraries were analyzed using SAGE 2000 software to extract the 17 base pair sequence tags. The extracted sequence tags were mapped to the genome using SAGE Genie map. A total of 298,834 SAGE tags were identified from all HTM libraries (96,842, 88,126, and 113,866 tags, respectively). Collectively, there were 107,325 unique tags. There were 10,329 unique tags with a minimum of 2 counts from a single library. These tags were mapped to known unique Unigene clusters. Approximately 29% of the tags (orphan tags) did not map to a known Unigene cluster. Thirteen percent of the tags mapped to at least 2 Unigene clusters. Sequence tags from many glaucoma-related genes, including myocilin, optineurin, and WD repeat domain 36, were identified. This is the first time SAGE analysis has been used to characterize the gene expression profile in normal HTM. SAGE analysis provides an unbiased sampling of gene expression of the target tissue. These data will provide new and valuable information to improve understanding of the biology of human aqueous outflow.

  20. Gene expression profiling of human breast tissue samples using SAGE-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenhua Jeremy; Meyer, Clifford A; Choudhury, Sibgat; Shipitsin, Michail; Maruyama, Reo; Bessarabova, Marina; Nikolskaya, Tatiana; Sukumar, Saraswati; Schwartzman, Armin; Liu, Jun S; Polyak, Kornelia; Liu, X Shirley

    2010-12-01

    We present a powerful application of ultra high-throughput sequencing, SAGE-Seq, for the accurate quantification of normal and neoplastic mammary epithelial cell transcriptomes. We develop data analysis pipelines that allow the mapping of sense and antisense strands of mitochondrial and RefSeq genes, the normalization between libraries, and the identification of differentially expressed genes. We find that the diversity of cancer transcriptomes is significantly higher than that of normal cells. Our analysis indicates that transcript discovery plateaus at 10 million reads/sample, and suggests a minimum desired sequencing depth around five million reads. Comparison of SAGE-Seq and traditional SAGE on normal and cancerous breast tissues reveals higher sensitivity of SAGE-Seq to detect less-abundant genes, including those encoding for known breast cancer-related transcription factors and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). SAGE-Seq is able to identify genes and pathways abnormally activated in breast cancer that traditional SAGE failed to call. SAGE-Seq is a powerful method for the identification of biomarkers and therapeutic targets in human disease.

  1. Preliminary assessment of possible aerosol contamination effects on SAGE ozone trends in the lower stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnold, Derek M.; Veiga, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    An investigation of the validity of long-term ozone trends in the lower stratosphere derived from SAGE I and II measurements is described. At altitudes below approximately 20 km, it is important to separate the ozone and aerosol contributions to SAGE extinction at 600 nm. The correlation between SAGE II measurements of ozone and aerosols indicates that most of the variability in these parameters is associated with physically induced variations resulting from quasi-horizontal motions of air parcels. The SAGE ozone measurements are however found to be as much as 20 percent larger than coincident ozonesonde measurements between 15 and 20 km altitude. A sudden change in the difference at approximately 14.5 km altitude for which there is a change in the SAGE aerosol retrieval procedure suggests that SAGE ozone trends below 20 km altitude may be more sensitive to aerosol variations. Between 20 and 25 km altitude, however, both SAGE and the ozonesondes indicate a reduction in ozone of approximately 0.5 percent/year over the period 1979 to 1989 at midlatitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.

  2. Preliminary analysis of Greater Sage-grouse reproduction in the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Lockyer, Zachary B.; Farinha, Melissa A.; Sweeney, Joelle M.; Johnson, Valerie M.; Meshriy, Matthew G.; Espinosa, Shawn P.; Delehanty, David J.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Relationships between habitat selection and population vital rates of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter sage-grouse), recently designated as a candidate species under the Endangered Species Act, within the Great Basin are not well-understood. The growing development of renewable energy infrastructure within areas inhabited by sage-grouse is thought to influence predator and vegetation communities. For example, common ravens (Corvus corax), a synanthropic sage-grouse nest predator, are increasing range-wide and select transmission lines and other tall structures for nesting and perching. In the Virginia Mountains of northwestern Nevada, we collected preliminary information of space-use, habitat selection, and population vital rates during the nesting and brood-rearing period over two years on 56 sage-grouse. Additionally, videography at nest sites (n = 22) was used to identify sage-grouse nest predators. The study area is a potential site for renewable energy developments (i.e., wind and solar), and we plan to continue monitoring this population using a before-after-control-impact study design. The results reported here are preliminary and further data are required before conclusions can be drawn from this population of sage-grouse.

  3. Conservation of greater sage-grouse- a synthesis of current trends and future management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, John W.; Knick, Steven T.; Braun, Clait E.; Baker, William L.; Beever, Erik A.; Christiansen, Thomas J.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Garton, Edward O.; Hagen, Christian A.; Hanser, Steven E.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Leu, Matthias; Miller, Richard F.; Naugle, David E.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Pyke, David A.; Reese, Kerry P.; Schroeder, Michael A.; Stiver, San J.; Walker, Brett L.; Wisdorn, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent analyses of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) populations indicate substantial declines in many areas but relatively stable populations in other portions of the species? range. Sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats neces-sary to support sage-grouse are being burned by large wildfires, invaded by nonnative plants, and developed for energy resources (gas, oil, and wind). Management on public lands, which con-tain 70% of sagebrush habitats, has changed over the last 30 years from large sagebrush control projects directed at enhancing livestock grazing to a greater emphasis on projects that often attempt to improve or restore ecological integrity. Never-theless, the mandate to manage public lands to provide traditional consumptive uses as well as recreation and wilderness values is not likely to change in the near future. Consequently, demand and use of resources contained in sagebrush land-scapes plus the associated infrastructure to sup-port increasing human populations in the western United States will continue to challenge efforts to conserve Greater Sage-Grouse. The continued widespread distribution of sage-grouse, albeit at very low densities in some areas, coupled with large areas of important sagebrush habitat that are relatively unaffected by the human footprint, sug-gest that Greater Sage-Grouse populations may be able to persist into the future. We summarize the status of sage-grouse populations and habitats, provide a synthesis of major threats and chal-lenges to conservation of sage-grouse, and suggest a roadmap to attaining conservation goals.

  4. ORGANIZATIONAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Derenskaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article is aimed at developing a set of recommendations for achieving a higher level of organizational project maturity at a given enterprise. Methodology. For the purposes of the current research, the available information sources on the components of project management system are analysed; the essence of “organizational maturity” and the existing models of organizational maturity are studied. The method of systemic and structural analysis, as well as the method of logical generalization, are employed in order to study the existing models of organizational maturity, to describe levels of organizational maturity, and finally to develop a set of methodological recommendations for achieving a higher level of organizational project maturity at a given enterprise. The results of the research showed that the core elements of project management system are methodological, organizational, programtechnical, and motivational components. Project management encompasses a wide range of issues connected with organizational structure, project team, communication management, project participants, etc. However, the fundamental basis for developing project management concept within a given enterprise starts with defining its level of organizational maturity. The present paper describes various models of organizational maturity (staged, continuous, petal-shaped and their common types (H. Кеrzner Organizational Maturity Model, Berkeley PM Maturity Model, Organizational Project Management Maturity Model, Portfolio, Program & Project Management Maturity Model. The analysis of available theoretic works showed that the notion “organizational project maturity” refers to the capability of an enterprise to select projects and manage them with the intention of achieving its strategic goals in the most effective way. Importantly, the level of maturity can be improved by means of formalizing the acquired knowledge, regulating project-related activities

  5. Defining the Human Macula Transcriptome and Candidate Retinal Disease Genes UsingEyeSAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, Catherine Bowes; Ebright, Jessica N.; Zavodni, Zachary J.; Yu, Ling; Wang, Tianyuan; Daiger, Stephen P.; Wistow, Graeme; Boon, Kathy; Hauser, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To develop large-scale, high-throughput annotation of the human macula transcriptome and to identify and prioritize candidate genes for inherited retinal dystrophies, based on ocular-expression profiles using serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE). Methods Two human retina and two retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroid SAGE libraries made from matched macula or midperipheral retina and adjacent RPE/choroid of morphologically normal 28- to 66-year-old donors and a human central retina longSAGE library made from 41- to 66-year-old donors were generated. Their transcription profiles were entered into a relational database, EyeSAGE, including microarray expression profiles of retina and publicly available normal human tissue SAGE libraries. EyeSAGE was used to identify retina- and RPE-specific and -associated genes, and candidate genes for retina and RPE disease loci. Differential and/or cell-type specific expression was validated by quantitative and single-cell RT-PCR. Results Cone photoreceptor-associated gene expression was elevated in the macula transcription profiles. Analysis of the longSAGE retina tags enhanced tag-to-gene mapping and revealed alternatively spliced genes. Analysis of candidate gene expression tables for the identified Bardet-Biedl syndrome disease gene (BBS5) in the BBS5 disease region table yielded BBS5 as the top candidate. Compelling candidates for inherited retina diseases were identified. Conclusions The EyeSAGE database, combining three different gene-profiling platforms including the authors’ multidonor-derived retina/RPE SAGE libraries and existing single-donor retina/RPE libraries, is a powerful resource for definition of the retina and RPE transcriptomes. It can be used to identify retina-specific genes, including alternatively spliced transcripts and to prioritize candidate genes within mapped retinal disease regions. PMID:16723438

  6. A randomized clinical trial evaluating gingivitis and plaque reduction of an oscillating-rotating power brush with a new brush head with angled bristles versus a marketed sonic brush with self-adjusting technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukowska, Malgorzata; Grender, Julie M; Conde, Erinn; Ccahuana-Vasquez, Renzo Alberto; Ram Goyal, C

    2014-08-01

    To compare the efficacy of an oscillating-rotating power toothbrush with a novel brush head incorporating angled CrissCross bristles (Oral-B Pro 7000 SmartSeries and Oral-B CrossAction brush head) versus a marketed sonic toothbrush (Colgate ProClinical A1500 with the Triple Clean brush head) in the reduction of gingivitis and plaque over a 6-week period. This was a single center, randomized, open label, examiner-blind, 2-treatment, parallel group study. Study participants who met the entrance criteria were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to one of the two toothbrush groups. Study participants brushed with their assigned toothbrush and a marketed fluoride dentifrice for 2 minutes twice daily at home for 6 weeks. Gingivitis and plaque were evaluated at baseline and Week 6. Gingivitis was assessed using the Modified Gingival Index (MGI) and Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and plaque was assessed using the Rustogi Modified Navy Plaque Index (RMNPI). Data was analyzed using the ANCOVA with baseline as the covariate. In total, 130 study participants were randomized to treatment resulting in 64 study participants per group completing the study. Both brushes produced statistically significant (P gingivitis and plaque measures relative to baseline. The oscillating-rotating,brush with the novel brush head demonstrated statistically significantly (P gingivitis measures, as well as whole mouth and interproximal plaque measures, compared to the sonic toothbrush. The benefit for the oscillating- rotating brush over the sonic brush was 21.3% for gingivitis, 35.7% for gingival bleeding, 34.7% for number of bleeding sites, 17.4% for whole mouth plaque, and 21.2% for interproximal plaque. There were no adverse events reported or observed for either brush.

  7. Ecology of sage grouse on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connelly, J.W.; Ball, I.J.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the sage grouse ecology was initiated on the INEL Site in 1977. Objectives include documentation of radionuclide concentrations, population size, habitat use, and movement patterns of sage grouse on the Site. Sixteen grouse have been collected and radionuclide concentrations determined. Only part of the Site and surrounding area have been adequately searched for strutting grounds (leks), but 32 have been located to date. Trapping success has been strongly influenced by weather conditions and by the season; 121 sage grouse have been captured, banded, and color- and radio-marked

  8. Preparing polymer brushes on polytetrafluoroethylene films by free radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei; Chen Yiwang; Deng Qilan; Chen Lie; Zhou Lang

    2006-01-01

    Films of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were exposed to sodium naphthalenide (Na/naphtha) etchant so as to defluorinate the surface for obtaining hydroxyl functionality. Surface-initiators were immobilized on the PTFE films by esterification of 4,4'-azobis(4-cyanopentanoic acid) (ACP) and the hydroxyl groups covalently linked to the surface. Grafting of polymer brushes on the PTFE films was carried out by the surface-initiated free radical polymerization. Homopolymers brushes of methyl methacrylate (MMA) were prepared by free radical polymerization from the azo-functionalized PTFE surface. The chemical composition and topography of the graft-functionalized PTFE surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FT-IR spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Water contact angles on PTFE films were reduced by surface grafting of MMA

  9. Manufacturing of copper-graphite brushes for automobile applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Answar, M.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Copper-graphite brushes are used in high-volume automotive applications, such as ignition switches, window lifts, wiper motors, engine cooling fans, ABS break system and seat actuators etc. The amount of graphite in these brushes may range from 5 -20 wt. %. In this paper, some of the results of a study carried out using locally produced electrolytic copper powder and imported graphite powder are being summarized. The green compacts were produced by compaction at 650 MPa. These compacts were sintered at temperatures between 950 to 1050 degree C for various time intervals. The effects of sintering temperatures and time on the properties are analyzed. The influence of small additions of zinc on hardness of the sintered alloy compacts is also investigated. (author)

  10. Brushed Target on Rock 'Champagne' in Gusev Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this microscopic image of a target called 'Bubbles' on a rock called 'Champagne' after using its rock abrasion tool to brush away a coating of dust. The circular brushed area is about 5 centimeters (2 inches) across. This rock is different from rocks out on the plains of Gusev Crater but is similar to other rocks in this area of the 'Columbia Hills' in that it has higher levels of phosphorus. Plagioclase, a mineral commonly found in igneous rocks, is also present in these rocks, according to analysis with the minature thermal emission spectrometer. By using the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer to collect data over multiple martian days, or sols, scientists are also beginning to get measurements of trace elements in these rocks. Spirit took the images that are combined into this mosaic on sol 354 (Dec. 30, 2004).

  11. Numerical simulation of flow in Brush Creek Valley, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leone, J.M. Jr.; Lee, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    In this paper, we present some results from our three-dimensional, non-hydrostatic, finite element model applied to simulations of flow in Brush Creek Valley. These simulations are not intended to reproduce any particular experiment, but rather are to evaluate the qualitative performance of the model, to explore the major difficulties involved, and to begin sensitivity studies of the flows of interest. 2 refs., 11 figs

  12. A test for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease using nasal brushings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrú, Christina D; Bongianni, Matilde; Tonoli, Giovanni; Ferrari, Sergio; Hughson, Andrew G; Groveman, Bradley R; Fiorini, Michele; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Monaco, Salvatore; Caughey, Byron; Zanusso, Gianluigi

    2014-08-07

    Definite diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in living patients remains a challenge. A test that detects the specific marker for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, the prion protein (PrP(CJD)), by means of real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) testing of cerebrospinal fluid has a sensitivity of 80 to 90% for the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. We have assessed the accuracy of RT-QuIC analysis of nasal brushings from olfactory epithelium in diagnosing sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in living patients. We collected olfactory epithelium brushings and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with and patients without sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and tested them using RT-QuIC, an ultrasensitive, multiwell plate-based fluorescence assay involving PrP(CJD)-seeded polymerization of recombinant PrP into amyloid fibrils. The RT-QuIC assays seeded with nasal brushings were positive in 30 of 31 patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (15 of 15 with definite sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, 13 of 14 with probable sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and 2 of 2 with inherited Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease) but were negative in 43 of 43 patients without Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, indicating a sensitivity of 97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82 to 100) and specificity of 100% (95% CI, 90 to 100) for the detection of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. By comparison, testing of cerebrospinal fluid samples from the same group of patients had a sensitivity of 77% (95% CI, 57 to 89) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 90 to 100). Nasal brushings elicited stronger and faster RT-QuIC responses than cerebrospinal fluid (PCreutzfeldt-Jakob disease and indicated substantial prion seeding activity lining the nasal vault. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others.).

  13. A Test for Creutzfeldt–Jakob Disease Using Nasal Brushings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrú, Christina D.; Bongianni, Matilde; Tonoli, Giovanni; Ferrari, Sergio; Hughson, Andrew G.; Groveman, Bradley R.; Fiorini, Michele; Pocchiari, Maurizio; Monaco, Salvatore; Caughey, Byron; Zanusso, Gianluigi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Definite diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in living patients remains a challenge. A test that detects the specific marker for Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, the prion protein (PrPCJD), by means of real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) testing of cerebrospinal fluid has a sensitivity of 80 to 90% for the diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. We have assessed the accuracy of RT-QuIC analysis of nasal brushings from olfactory epithelium in diagnosing sporadic Creutzfeldt– Jakob disease in living patients. METHODS We collected olfactory epithelium brushings and cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with and patients without sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and tested them using RT-QuIC, an ultrasensitive, multiwell plate–based fluorescence assay involving PrPCJD-seeded polymerization of recombinant PrP into amyloid fibrils. RESULTS The RT-QuIC assays seeded with nasal brushings were positive in 30 of 31 patients with Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (15 of 15 with definite sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, 13 of 14 with probable sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, and 2 of 2 with inherited Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease) but were negative in 43 of 43 patients without Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, indicating a sensitivity of 97% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82 to 100) and specificity of 100% (95% CI, 90 to 100) for the detection of Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. By comparison, testing of cerebrospinal fluid samples from the same group of patients had a sensitivity of 77% (95% CI, 57 to 89) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI, 90 to 100). Nasal brushings elicited stronger and faster RT-QuIC responses than cerebrospinal fluid (PCreutzfeldt–Jakob disease and indicated substantial prion seeding activity lining the nasal vault. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others.) PMID:25099576

  14. Structural analysis of paintings based on brush strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sablatnig, Robert; Kammerer, Paul; Zolda, Ernestine

    1998-05-01

    The origin of works of art can often not be attributed to a certain artist. Likewise it is difficult to say whether paintings or drawings are originals or forgeries. In various fields of art new technical methods are used to examine the age, the state of preservation and the origin of the materials used. For the examination of paintings, radiological methods like X-ray and infra-red diagnosis, digital radiography, computer-tomography, etc. and color analyzes are employed to authenticate art. But all these methods do not relate certain characteristics in art work to a specific artist -- the artist's personal style. In order to study this personal style of a painter, experts in art history and image processing try to examine the 'structural signature' based on brush strokes within paintings, in particular in portrait miniatures. A computer-aided classification and recognition system for portrait miniatures is developed, which enables a semi- automatic classification and forgery detection based on content, color, and brush strokes. A hierarchically structured classification scheme is introduced which separates the classification into three different levels of information: color, shape of region, and structure of brush strokes.

  15. Male brush-turkeys attempt sexual coercion in unusual circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, David A; Jones, Darryl N; Bulger, David; Brown, Culum

    2014-07-01

    Sexual coercion by males is generally understood to have three forms: forced copulation, harassment and intimidation. We studied Australian brush-turkeys, Alectura lathami, to determine whether some male behaviours towards females at incubation mounds could be classified as aggressive, whether males were attempting sexual coercion and, if so, whether the coercion was successful. We found that some male behaviours towards females were significantly more likely to be followed by the cessation of female mound activity, and hence could be classified as aggressive, while others were significantly more likely to be followed by the commencement of female mound activity, and hence could be classified as enticing. Copulation was preceded by higher rates of male enticement and by higher rates of certain types of male aggression. It therefore seemed that males were attempting sexual coercion. There was little evidence, however, that this combination of coercion and enticement was successful in obtaining copulations. While forced copulation did occur, it was infrequent, and no evidence could be found for intimidation. We conclude that harassment is the primary form of sexual coercion by male brush-turkeys. Although sexual coercion is understood to be a sub-optimal tactic, brush-turkey sexual coercion was employed as a primary tactic by dominant males who owned incubation mounds. One possible explanation for this apparent paradox is that aggression is the default solution for social conflicts in this species, and hence can be interpreted as a behavioural syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Technology of high-speed combined machining with brush electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillov, O. N.; Smolentsev, V. P.; Yukhnevich, S. S.

    2018-03-01

    The new method was proposed for high-precision dimensional machining with a brush electrode when the true position of bundles of metal wire is adjusted by means of creating controlled centrifugal forces appeared due to the increased frequency of rotation of a tool. There are the ultimate values of circumferential velocity at which the bundles are pressed against a machined area of a workpiece in a stable manner despite the profile of the machined surface and variable stock of the workpiece. The special aspects of design of processing procedures for finishing standard parts, including components of products with low rigidity, are disclosed. The methodology of calculation and selection of processing modes which allow one to produce high-precision details and to provide corresponding surface roughness required to perform finishing operations (including the preparation of a surface for metal deposition) is presented. The production experience concerned with the use of high-speed combined machining with an unshaped tool electrode in knowledge-intensive branches of the machine-building industry for different types of production is analyzed. It is shown that the implementation of high-speed dimensional machining with an unshaped brush electrode allows one to expand the field of use of the considered process due to the application of a multipurpose tool in the form of a metal brush, as well as to obtain stable results of finishing and to provide the opportunities for long-term operation of the equipment without its changeover and readjustment.

  17. Frequency of daily tooth brushing: predictors of change in 9- to 11-year old US children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, D E; Geng, M; Levy, S; Koerber, A; Flay, B R

    2014-09-01

    To investigate whether an increase in daily tooth brushing frequency in children was predicted by either a) having a strong intention to brush twice a day or b) their parents receiving information about their new caries experience. Secondary data analyses were conducted on two waves of data from the Aban Aya Youth Project and the Iowa Fluoride Study. The Aban Aya study included 576 10- and 11-year olds from Chicago, Illinois. The Iowa Fluoride Study included a convenience sample of 709 babies born in Iowa. The present study includes those children at age 9. In both studies, reported daily tooth brushing frequency was assessed twice six months apart. In the Aban Aya data, compared with children with a weak intention at wave 1 to brush twice a day, children with a strong intention to brush twice a day were more likely to increase their brushing frequency by wave 2, OR 7.0, 95%CI 1.5,32.9. In the Iowa Fluoride Study, compared with children who did not have new caries at wave 1, children who had new caries experience were less likely to increase their brushing frequency by wave 2, OR 0.4, 95%CI 0.2,0.9. Strengthening intention to brush twice a day might increase children's brushing frequency. However, simply providing parents with information about new caries probably will not. Future studies should assess tooth brushing frequency, habit strength, intention, and situational cues at closely-spaced waves.

  18. Solar neutrino and 51Cr results from SAGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.; Abdurashitov, J.N.; Girin, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    The Russian-American solar neutrino Experiment (SAGE) has carried out measurements of the capture rate of solar neutrinos on metallic gallium in a radiochemical experiment at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory during the period January 1990 to December 1994. The measured capture rate on 71 Ga is 72+12/-10 (stat) +5/-7 (syst) SNU. This represents only 53-59 % of the predicted Standard Solar Model (SSM) rates. Taken together with the measurements of the other solar neutrino experiments, this deficit would appear to be best interpreted as due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein neutrino oscillations. A measurement of the production rate of 71 Ge by an intense 51 Cr source to test the overall operation of the experiment showed the extraction efficiency was 0.95 ± 0.11 (stat) +0.05/-0.08 (syst), indicating that the experiment is operating as expected. (orig.)

  19. Identifying novel genes in C. elegans using SAGE tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Nansheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite extensive efforts devoted to predicting protein-coding genes in genome sequences, many bona fide genes have not been found and many existing gene models are not accurate in all sequenced eukaryote genomes. This situation is partly explained by the fact that gene prediction programs have been developed based on our incomplete understanding of gene feature information such as splicing and promoter characteristics. Additionally, full-length cDNAs of many genes and their isoforms are hard to obtain due to their low level or rare expression. In order to obtain full-length sequences of all protein-coding genes, alternative approaches are required. Results In this project, we have developed a method of reconstructing full-length cDNA sequences based on short expressed sequence tags which is called sequence tag-based amplification of cDNA ends (STACE. Expressed tags are used as anchors for retrieving full-length transcripts in two rounds of PCR amplification. We have demonstrated the application of STACE in reconstructing full-length cDNA sequences using expressed tags mined in an array of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE of C. elegans cDNA libraries. We have successfully applied STACE to recover sequence information for 12 genes, for two of which we found isoforms. STACE was used to successfully recover full-length cDNA sequences for seven of these genes. Conclusions The STACE method can be used to effectively reconstruct full-length cDNA sequences of genes that are under-represented in cDNA sequencing projects and have been missed by existing gene prediction methods, but their existence has been suggested by short sequence tags such as SAGE tags.

  20. Metabolism of monoterpanes: metabolic fate of (+)-camphor in sage (Salvia officinalis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croteau, R.; El-Bialy, H.; Dehal, S.S.

    1987-01-01

    The bicyclic monoterpene ketone (+)-camphor undergoes lactonization to 1,2-campholide in mature sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves followed by conversion to the β-D-glucoside-6-O-glucose ester of the corresponding hydroxy acid (1-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane). Analysis of the disposition of (+)-[G- 3 H]camphor applied to midstem leaves of intact flowering plants allowed the kinetics of synthesis of the bis-glucose derivative and its transport from leaf to root to be determined, and gave strong indication that the transport derivative was subsequently metabolized in the root. Root extracts were shown to possess β-glucosidase and acyl glucose esterase activities, and studies with (+)-1,2[U- 14 C]campholide as substrate, using excised root segments, revealed that the terpenoid was converted to lipid materials. Localization studies confirmed the radiolabeled lipids to reside in the membranous fractions of root extracts, and analysis of this material indicated the presence of labeled phytosterols and labeled fatty acids (C 14 to C 20 ) of acyl lipids. Although it was not possible to detail the metabolic steps between 1,2-campholide and the acyl lipids and phytosterols derived therefrom because of the lack of readily detectable intermediates, it seemed likely that the monoterpene lactone was degraded to acetyl CoA which was reincorporated into root membrane components via standard acyl lipid and isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways. Monoterpene catabolism thus appears to represent a salvage mechanism for recycling mobile carbon from senescing oil glands on the leaves to the roots

  1. IMPACT OF COSOLVENT FLUSHING ON SUBSURFACE MICROBIAL ECOLOGY AT THE FORMER SAGE'S DRY CLEANER SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Solvent Extraction Residual Biotreatment (SERB) technology was evaluated at the former Sage's Dry Cleaner site in Jacksonville, FL where an area of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) contamination was identified. The SERB technology is a treatment train approach to complete site rest...

  2. Maximum likelihood reconstruction in fully 3D PET via the SAGE algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollinger, J.M.; Goggin, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    The SAGE and ordered subsets algorithms have been proposed as fast methods to compute penalized maximum likelihood estimates in PET. We have implemented both for use in fully 3D PET and completed a preliminary evaluation. The technique used to compute the transition matrix is fully described. The evaluation suggests that the ordered subsets algorithm converges much faster than SAGE, but that it stops short of the optimal solution

  3. Importance of regional variation in conservation planning: A rangewide example of the Greater Sage-Grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Kevin E.; Evans, Jeffrey S.; Coates, Peter S.; Juliusson, Lara; Fedy, Bradley C.

    2016-01-01

    We developed rangewide population and habitat models for Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) that account for regional variation in habitat selection and relative densities of birds for use in conservation planning and risk assessments. We developed a probabilistic model of occupied breeding habitat by statistically linking habitat characteristics within 4 miles of an occupied lek using a nonlinear machine learning technique (Random Forests). Habitat characteristics used were quantified in GIS and represent standard abiotic and biotic variables related to sage-grouse biology. Statistical model fit was high (mean correctly classified = 82.0%, range = 75.4–88.0%) as were cross-validation statistics (mean = 80.9%, range = 75.1–85.8%). We also developed a spatially explicit model to quantify the relative density of breeding birds across each Greater Sage-Grouse management zone. The models demonstrate distinct clustering of relative abundance of sage-grouse populations across all management zones. On average, approximately half of the breeding population is predicted to be within 10% of the occupied range. We also found that 80% of sage-grouse populations were contained in 25–34% of the occupied range within each management zone. Our rangewide population and habitat models account for regional variation in habitat selection and the relative densities of birds, and thus, they can serve as a consistent and common currency to assess how sage-grouse habitat and populations overlap with conservation actions or threats over the entire sage-grouse range. We also quantified differences in functional habitat responses and disturbance thresholds across the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) management zones using statistical relationships identified during habitat modeling. Even for a species as specialized as Greater Sage-Grouse, our results show that ecological context matters in both the strength of habitat selection (i

  4. U.S. Geological Survey sage-grouse and sagebrush ecosystem research annual report for 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Steven E.

    2017-09-08

    The sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystem extends across a large portion of the Western United States, and the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is one of the iconic species of this ecosystem. Greater sage-grouse populations occur in 11 States and are dependent on relatively large expanses of sagebrush-dominated habitat. Sage-grouse populations have been experiencing long-term declines owing to multiple stressors, including interactions among fire, exotic plant invasions, and human land uses, which have resulted in significant loss, fragmentation, and degradation of landscapes once dominated by sagebrush. In addition to the sage-grouse, over 350 species of plants and animals are dependent on the sagebrush ecosystem.Increasing knowledge about how these species and the sagebrush ecosystem respond to these stressors and to management actions can inform and improve strategies to maintain existing areas of intact sagebrush and restore degraded landscapes. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a broad research program focused on providing the science needed to inform these strate-gies and to help land and resource managers at the Federal, State, Tribal, and local levels as they work towards sustainable sage-grouse populations and restored landscapes for the broad range of uses critical to stakeholders in the Western United States.USGS science has provided a foundation for major land and resource management decisions including those that precluded the need to list the greater sage-grouse under the Endangered Species Act. The USGS is continuing to build on that foundation to inform science-based decisions to help support local economies and the continued conservation, management, and restoration of the sagebrush ecosystem.This report contains descriptions of USGS sage-grouse and sagebrush ecosystem research projects that are ongoing or were active during 2017 and is organized into five thematic areas: Fire, Invasive Species, Restoration, Sagebrush and Sage

  5. Does Wyoming's Core Area Policy Protect Winter Habitats for Greater Sage-Grouse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kurt T.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Pratt, Aaron C.

    2016-10-01

    Conservation reserves established to protect important habitat for wildlife species are used world-wide as a wildlife conservation measure. Effective reserves must adequately protect year-round habitats to maintain wildlife populations. Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Area policy was established to protect breeding habitats for greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus). Protecting only one important seasonal habitat could result in loss or degradation of other important habitats and potential declines in local populations. The purpose of our study was to identify the timing of winter habitat use, the extent which individuals breeding in Core Areas used winter habitats, and develop resource selection functions to assess effectiveness of Core Areas in conserving sage-grouse winter habitats in portions of 5 Core Areas in central and north-central Wyoming during winters 2011-2015. We found that use of winter habitats occured over a longer period than current Core Area winter timing stipulations and a substantial amount of winter habitat outside of Core Areas was used by individuals that bred in Core Areas, particularly in smaller Core Areas. Resource selection functions for each study area indicated that sage-grouse were selecting habitats in response to landscapes dominated by big sagebrush and flatter topography similar to other research on sage-grouse winter habitat selection. The substantial portion of sage-grouse locations and predicted probability of selection during winter outside small Core Areas illustrate that winter requirements for sage-grouse are not adequately met by existing Core Areas. Consequently, further considerations for identifying and managing important winter sage-grouse habitats under Wyoming's Core Area Policy are warranted.

  6. Background of external γ radiation in the proportional counters of the SAGE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.; Gorbachev, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of external γ radiation on the process of counting 71 Ge decays in the proportional counters of the SAGE experiment measuring the solar-neutrino flux is considered. The systematic uncertainty in the SAGE result due to radon decays inside the air volume surrounding the counters is estimated. The background counting rate in the proportional counters that is caused by γ radiation from the enclosing shield is also determined

  7. Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE): results from two feasibility pilot studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; Parker, Nathan H; Soltero, Erica G; Ledoux, Tracey A; Mama, Scherezade K; McNeill, Lorna

    2017-03-10

    Low physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption in early childhood are continued public health challenges. This manuscript describes outcomes from two pilot studies for Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE), a program designed to increase PA and F&V consumption among 3 to 5 year old children. SAGE was developed using community-based participatory research (CBPR) and delivered to children (N = 89) in early care and education centers (ECEC, N = 6) in two US cities. Children participated in 12 one-hour sessions that included songs, games, and interactive learning activities involving garden maintenance and taste tests. We evaluated reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and potential for maintenance of SAGE following the RE-AIM framework. Reach was evaluated by comparing demographic characteristics among SAGE participants and residents of target geographic areas. Efficacy was evaluated with accelerometer-measured PA, F&V consumption, and eating in the absence of hunger among children, parenting practices regarding PA, and home availability of F&V. Adoption was evaluated by the number of ECEC that participated relative to the number of ECEC that were recruited. Implementation was evaluated by completion rates of planned SAGE lessons and activities, and potential for maintenance was evaluated with a parent satisfaction survey. SAGE reached ECEC in neighborhoods representing a wide range of socioeconomic status, with participants' sociodemographic characteristics representing those of the intervention areas. Children significantly increased PA during SAGE lessons compared to usual lessons, but they also consumed more calories in the absence of hunger in post- vs. pre-intervention tests (both p nutrition guidelines for young children. SAGE successfully translated national PA guidelines to practice for young children but was less successful with nutrition guidelines. High adoption and implementation and favorable parent

  8. Connections between Transcription Downstream of Genes and cis-SAGe Chimeric RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwalenia, Katarzyna; Qin, Fujun; Singh, Sandeep; Tangtrongstittikul, Panjapon; Li, Hui

    2017-11-22

    cis-Splicing between adjacent genes (cis-SAGe) is being recognized as one way to produce chimeric fusion RNAs. However, its detail mechanism is not clear. Recent study revealed induction of transcriptions downstream of genes (DoGs) under osmotic stress. Here, we investigated the influence of osmotic stress on cis-SAGe chimeric RNAs and their connection to DoGs. We found,the absence of induction of at least some cis-SAGe fusions and/or their corresponding DoGs at early time point(s). In fact, these DoGs and their cis-SAGe fusions are inversely correlated. This negative correlation was changed to positive at a later time point. These results suggest a direct competition between the two categories of transcripts when total pool of readthrough transcripts is limited at an early time point. At a later time point, DoGs and corresponding cis-SAGe fusions are both induced, indicating that total readthrough transcripts become more abundant. Finally, we observed overall enhancement of cis-SAGe chimeric RNAs in KCl-treated samples by RNA-Seq analysis.

  9. Data resource profile: the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties

    2012-12-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18-49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007-2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18-49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO's SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO's archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata).

  10. Generation of Chimeric RNAs by cis-splicing of adjacent genes (cis-SAGe) in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Jian-Shu; Jing, Xiao-Yan; Du, Xin; Yang, Xiu-Qin

    2018-02-20

    Chimeric RNA molecules, possessing exons from two or more independent genes, are traditionally believed to be produced by chromosome rearrangement. However, recent studies revealed that cis-splicing of adjacent genes (cis- SAGe) is one of the major mechanisms underlying the formation of chimeric RNAs. cis-SAGe refers to intergenic splicing of directly adjacent genes with the same transcriptional orientation, resulting in read-through transcripts, termed chimeric RNAs, which contain sequences from two or more parental genes. cis-SAGe was first identified in tumor cells, since then its potential in carcinogenesis has attracted extensive attention. More and more scientists are focusing on it. With the development of research, cis-SAGe was found to be ubiquitous in various normal tissues, and might make a crucial contribution to the formation of novel genes in the evolution of genomes. In this review, we summarize the splicing pattern, expression characteristics, possible mechanisms, and significance of cis-SAGe in mammals. This review will be helpful for general understanding of the current status and development tendency of cis-SAGe.

  11. The Art and Science of Polymer Brushes: Recent Developments in Patterning and Characterization Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarasa, Guido

    2017-06-28

    Polymer brushes are dense arrays of macromolecular chains tethered by one end at a surface. They are at the cutting edge of polymer nanotechnology since the dawn of controlled surface-initiated polymerization techniques unlocked new prospects for the synthesis of polymer brushes with tailorable properties. More recently, thanks to the growing interest in the use of brushes for the generation of functional surfaces, the need for advanced patterning and characterization approaches rapidly increased. Meeting these needs requires the contribution of experts from different disciplines: polymer chemistry, surface science, electrochemistry and particle physics. The focus of this review is to highlight recent developments in the field of polymer brushes, specifically the application of photocatalytic lithography as a versatile patterning strategy, the study of grafted-from polymer brushes by electrochemical methods and, most importantly, the introduction of positron annihilation spectroscopy as a powerful technique for the investigation of the structure of polymer brushes and of their composites with nanoparticles.

  12. Tooth brushing among 11- to 15-year-olds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bast, L. S.; Holstein, B. E.; Nordahl, Helene

    2015-01-01

    brushing. Results: 10,607 respondents: a response rate of 88.3%. Boys of lower social class had higher odds ratio (OR) of infrequent tooth brushing than girls: 1.98 (95% confidence interval 1.62-2.41) vs 1.80 (1.53-2.24). Immigrants and descendants had higher odds compared to adolescents of Danish origin......Objective: Regular tooth brushing in adolescence predicts stable tooth brushing habits later in life. Differences in tooth brushing habits by ethnic background and socioeconomic position have been suggested. We investigated migration status and social class in relation to infrequent tooth brushing...... both separately and combined. Methods: The study population was 11-15 year-olds chosen from a clustered random sample of schools. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses estimated the separate and combined effects of migration status and social class on less than twice daily tooth...

  13. Functional patterns obtained by nanoimprinting lithography and subsequent growth of polymer brushes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genua, A; AlduncIn, J A; Pomposo, J A; Grande, H; Kehagias, N; Reboud, V; Sotomayor, C; Mondragon, I; Mecerreyes, D

    2007-01-01

    In this work the growth of polymer brushes was combined with nanoimprint lithography (NIL) in order to obtain new functional nanopatterns. First, a functional thermoplastic methacrylic copolymer poly(methyl methacrylate-co-2-bromoisobutyryl-oxy-ethyl methacrylate) was synthesized. This copolymer was successfully patterned by NIL using a silicon stamp at 160 deg. C and 60 bar. Next, hydrophilic polymer brushes based on poly(3-sulfopropylmethacrylate) and hydrophobic polymer brushes based on a poly(fluorinated methacrylate) were grown on the imprinted surfaces. The surface properties of the patterned polymer were accordingly modified and, as a consequence, the water contact angle was modified from 80.3 deg. to 32.5 deg. in the case of the hydrophilic brushes and to 118.1 deg. in the case of the hydrophobic brushes. As an application we demonstrated the use of hydrophobic polymer brushes in order to modify the surface of polymeric stamps for NIL with self-demoulding properties

  14. Tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental technology and therapist students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement C. Azodo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the tooth brushing, tongue cleaning and snacking behaviour of dental technology and therapist students. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study of students of Federal School of Dental Therapy and Technology Enugu, Nigeria. Self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on demography, frequency, duration and technique of tooth brushing and tongue cleaning as well as information on consumption of snacks. Results: A total of 242 students responded. Dental technology students made up 52.5% of the respondents and dental therapist in training made up 47.5%. Majority (63.2% of the respondents considered the strength of tooth brush when purchasing a tooth brush and 78.9% use tooth brushes with medium strength. Seven-tenth (71.9% of the respondents brush their teeth twice daily and 52.1% brush for 3–5 minutes. About one-third (30.2% brush their teeth in front of a mirror. Chewing stick was used by 51.7% of respondents in addition to the use of tooth brush. Tongue cleaning was done by 94.2% with only 9.5% using a tongue cleaner. Only 20.2% reported regular snacks consumption. Nine-tenth (90.4% of respondents were previously involved in educating others, apart from their colleagues, on tooth brushing. Conclusion: This survey revealed that most of the dental therapy and technology students had satisfactory tooth-brushing behaviour. The zeal to educate others about proper tooth brushing revealed in this study suggests that the students may be helpful in oral health promotion.

  15. Maturity of the PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.; Rapin, M.; Aboudarham, L.; Bitsch, D.

    1983-03-01

    Figures illustrating the predominant position of the PWR system are presented. The question is whether on the basis of these figures the PWR can be considered to have reached maturity. The following analysis, based on the French program experience, is an attempt to pinpoint those areas in which industrial maturity of the PWR has been attained, and in which areas a certain evolution can still be expected to take place

  16. Analysis of carbon fiber brush loading in anodes on startup and performance of microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hutchinson, Adam J.

    2011-11-01

    Flat carbon anodes placed near a cathode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) are adversely affected by oxygen crossover, but graphite fiber brush anodes placed near the cathode produce high power densities. The impact of the brush size and electrode spacing was examined by varying the distance of the brush end from the cathode and solution conductivity in multiple MFCs. The startup time was increased from 8 ± 1 days with full brushes (all buffer concentrations) to 13 days (50 mM), 14 days (25 mM) and 21 days (8 mM) when 75% of the brush anode was removed. When MFCs were all first acclimated with a full brush, up to 65% of the brush material could be removed without appreciably altering maximum power. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the main source of internal resistance (IR) was diffusion resistance, which together with solution resistance reached 100 Ω. The IR using EIS compared well with that obtained using the polarization data slope method, indicating no major components of IR were missed. These results show that using full brush anodes avoids adverse effects of oxygen crossover during startup, although brushes are much larger than needed to sustain high power. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Analysis of carbon fiber brush loading in anodes on startup and performance of microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Hutchinson, Adam J.; Tokash, Justin C.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    Flat carbon anodes placed near a cathode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC) are adversely affected by oxygen crossover, but graphite fiber brush anodes placed near the cathode produce high power densities. The impact of the brush size and electrode spacing was examined by varying the distance of the brush end from the cathode and solution conductivity in multiple MFCs. The startup time was increased from 8 ± 1 days with full brushes (all buffer concentrations) to 13 days (50 mM), 14 days (25 mM) and 21 days (8 mM) when 75% of the brush anode was removed. When MFCs were all first acclimated with a full brush, up to 65% of the brush material could be removed without appreciably altering maximum power. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the main source of internal resistance (IR) was diffusion resistance, which together with solution resistance reached 100 Ω. The IR using EIS compared well with that obtained using the polarization data slope method, indicating no major components of IR were missed. These results show that using full brush anodes avoids adverse effects of oxygen crossover during startup, although brushes are much larger than needed to sustain high power. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Contaminated tooth brushes-potential threat to oral and general health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Naik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tooth brushing is most common method of maintaining oral hygiene. In removing plaque and other soft debris from the teeth, tooth brushes become contaminated with bacteria, blood, saliva and oral debris. These contaminated tooth brushes can be a source of infection. Aims and objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of microorganisms in the tooth brushes and to investigate the effect of disinfectants such as chlorhexidine gluconate, sodium hypochlorite and water to decontaminate them. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one children were asked to brush their teeth for 5 days with a tooth brush. The tooth brushes were put in Robertson′s Cooked Meat broth and were observed for growth of Streptococcal microorganisms. These tooth brushes were then placed in disinfectants such as 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate (Group I, 1% sodium hypochlorite (Group II and water (Group III for 24 hrs and then cultured again. Reduction of growth of microorganisms was seen in Group I, Group II and remnants of growth seen in Group III. Conclusion: We conclude that the use of disinfectant for a tooth brush is a must for every individual at least at regular intervals.

  19. The Effect of Machining Conditions on the Forces in the Process of Roller Brush Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Matuszak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of its advantages, brushing processing has many uses. The main ones include the removal of corrosion products, surface cleaning, deburring and shaping the properties of the surface layer. The intensity of these processes depends on the degree of impact of brush fibres on the work surface. In the case of tools, in which the resilient fibres are the working elements, forces in the brushing process, apart from the machining parameters, depend on the characteristics and overall dimensions of individual fibres. The paper presents the results of studies of the influence of technological parameters and type of fibres on the radial force in the brushing process.

  20. Behavioral Determinants of Brushing Young Children's Teeth: Implications for Anticipatory Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Colleen E.; Riedy, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The purposes of this study were to identify parents' motivation, support, and barriers to twice daily tooth-brushing of infants and preschool-age children and to discover new approaches to encourage this important health behavior. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 44 rural parents about tooth-brushing habits and experiences. Results Forty of 44 parents reported that they had begun to brush their child's teeth; 24 (55%) reported brushing twice a day or more. Parents who brushed twice a day, vs less often, were more likely to describe specific skills to overcome barriers; they expressed high self-efficacy and held high self-standards for brushing. Parents who brushed their children's teeth less than twice daily were more likely to: hold false beliefs about the benefits of twice daily tooth-brushing; report little normative pressure or social support for the behavior; have lower self-standards; describe more external constraints; and offer fewer ideas to overcome barriers. Conclusions The findings support an integrative framework in which barriers and support for parents' twice daily brushing of their young children's teeth are multiple and vary among individuals. Knowledge of behavioral determinants specific to individual parents could strengthen anticipatory guidance and recommendations about at-home oral hygiene of young children. PMID:20298653

  1. Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE: results from two feasibility pilot studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low physical activity (PA and fruit and vegetable (F&V consumption in early childhood are continued public health challenges. This manuscript describes outcomes from two pilot studies for Sustainability via Active Garden Education (SAGE, a program designed to increase PA and F&V consumption among 3 to 5 year old children. Methods SAGE was developed using community-based participatory research (CBPR and delivered to children (N = 89 in early care and education centers (ECEC, N = 6 in two US cities. Children participated in 12 one-hour sessions that included songs, games, and interactive learning activities involving garden maintenance and taste tests. We evaluated reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation, and potential for maintenance of SAGE following the RE-AIM framework. Reach was evaluated by comparing demographic characteristics among SAGE participants and residents of target geographic areas. Efficacy was evaluated with accelerometer-measured PA, F&V consumption, and eating in the absence of hunger among children, parenting practices regarding PA, and home availability of F&V. Adoption was evaluated by the number of ECEC that participated relative to the number of ECEC that were recruited. Implementation was evaluated by completion rates of planned SAGE lessons and activities, and potential for maintenance was evaluated with a parent satisfaction survey. Results SAGE reached ECEC in neighborhoods representing a wide range of socioeconomic status, with participants’ sociodemographic characteristics representing those of the intervention areas. Children significantly increased PA during SAGE lessons compared to usual lessons, but they also consumed more calories in the absence of hunger in post- vs. pre-intervention tests (both p < .05. Parent reports did not suggest changes in F&V consumption, parenting PA practices, or home F&V availability, possibly due to low parent engagement. ECEC had moderate

  2. Spatial heterogeneity in response of male greater sage-grouse lek attendance to energy development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Gregory

    Full Text Available Landscape modification due to rapidly expanding energy development, in particular oil and gas, in the westernUSA, have prompted concerns over how such developments may impact wildlife. One species of conservation concern across much of the Intermountain West is the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercusurophasianus. Sage-grouse have been petitioned for listing under provisions of the Endangered Species Act 7 times and the state of Wyoming alone represents 64% of the extant sage-grouse population in the eastern portion of their range. Consequently, the relationship between sage-grouse populations and oil and gas development in Wyoming is an important component to managing the long-term viability of this species. We used 814 leks from the Wyoming Game and Fish Department's lek survey database and well pad data from the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission to evaluate changes in sage-grouse lek counts as a function of oil and gas development since 1991.From 1991-2011 we found that oil and gas well-pad density increased 3.6-fold across the state and was associated with a 24% decline in the number of male sage-grouse. Using a spatial and temporally structured analysis via Geographically Weighted Regression, we found a 1-to-4 year time lag between development density and lek decline. Sage-grouse also responded to development densities at multiple spatial neighborhoods surrounding leks, including broad scales of 10 km. However, sage-grouse lek counts do not always decline as a result of oil and gas development. We found similar development densities resulting in different sage-grouse lek count responses, suggesting that development density alone is insufficient to predict the impacts that oil and gas development have on sage-grouse. Finally, our analysis suggests a maximum development density of 1 well-pad within 2 km of leks to avoid measurable impacts within 1 year, and <6 well-pads within 10 km of leks to avoid delayed impacts.

  3. SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience): Learning Geophysics by Doing Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiracek, G. R.; Baldridge, W. S.; Biehler, S.; Braile, L. W.; Ferguson, J. F.; Gilpin, B. E.; Pellerin, L.

    2005-12-01

    SAGE, a field-based educational program in applied geophysical methods has been an REU site for 16 years and completed its 23rd year of operation in July 2005. SAGE teaches the major geophysical exploration methods (including seismics, gravity, magnetics, and electromagnetics) and applies them to the solution of specific local and regional geologic problems. These include delineating buried hazardous material; mapping archaeological sites; and studying the structure, tectonics, and water resources of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico. Nearly 600 graduates, undergraduates, and professionals have attended SAGE since 1983. Since 1990 REU students have numbered 219 coming from dozens of different campuses. There have been 124 underrepresented REU students including 100 women, 14 Hispanics, 7 Native Americans, and 3 African Americans. Tracking of former REU students has revealed that 81% have gone on to graduate school. Keys to the success of SAGE are hands-on immersion in geophysics for one month and a partnership between academia, industry, and a federal laboratory. Successful approaches at SAGE include: 1) application of the latest equipment by all students; 2) continued updating of equipment, computers, and software by organizing universities and industry affiliates; 3) close ties with industry who provide supplemental instruction, furnish new equipment and software, and alert students to the current industry trends and job opportunities; 4) two-team, student data analysis structure that simultaneously addresses specific geophysical techniques and their integration; and 5) oral and written reports patterned after professional meetings and journals. An eight member, 'blue ribbon' advisory panel from academia, industry, and the federal government has been set up to maintain the vitality of SAGE by addressing such issues as funding, new faculty, organization, and vision. SAGE is open to students from any university (or organization) with backgrounds including

  4. Determination of the biologically active flavour substances thujone and camphor in foods and medicines containing sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Walch, Stephan G.; Kuballa, Thomas; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The sage plant Salvia officinalis L. is used as ingredient in foods and beverages as well as in herbal medicinal products. A major use is in the form of aqueous infusions as sage tea, which is legal to be sold as either food or medicine. Sage may contain two health relevant substances, thujone and camphor. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology to determine these active principles of sage and give a first overview of their concentration...

  5. A Modified Tactile Brush Algorithm for Complex Touch Gestures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragan, Eric [Texas A& M University

    2015-01-01

    Several researchers have investigated phantom tactile sensation (i.e., the perception of a nonexistent actuator between two real actuators) and apparent tactile motion (i.e., the perception of a moving actuator due to time delays between onsets of multiple actuations). Prior work has focused primarily on determining appropriate Durations of Stimulation (DOS) and Stimulus Onset Asynchronies (SOA) for simple touch gestures, such as a single finger stroke. To expand upon this knowledge, we investigated complex touch gestures involving multiple, simultaneous points of contact, such as a whole hand touching the arm. To implement complex touch gestures, we modified the Tactile Brush algorithm to support rectangular areas of tactile stimulation.

  6. Investigation of brush seals for application in steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zorn, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Brush seals have high potential for efficiency increase compared to conventional labyrinth seals in steam turbines. Due to less experience in operation today there is a lot of scepticism with customers of steam turbine manufacturers. Therefore this thesis is investigating characteristics of this type of seal. Experiments and numerical models will be presented, which lead to better knowledge about leakages and influence of flow through seal onto dynamics of rotor in comparison to labyrinth seals. This thesis is increasing area of experience and one more positive reference.

  7. Infrared radiation emerging from smoke produced by brush fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinman, J. A.; Olson, W. S.; Harshvardhan, M.

    1981-01-01

    The IR radiative transport properties of brush fire smoke clouds, computed for a model with finite horizontal dimensions as well as the more common plane-parallel model, are presented. The finite model is a three-dimensional version of the two-stream approximation applied to cubic clouds of steam, carbon, and silicates. Assumptions are made with regard to the shape and size distributions of the smoke particles. It is shown that 11.5-micron radiometry can detect fires beneath smoke clouds if the path integrated mass density of the smoke is less than or equal to 3 g/sq m.

  8. A feature selection approach for identification of signature genes from SAGE data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Paulo JS

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One goal of gene expression profiling is to identify signature genes that robustly distinguish different types or grades of tumors. Several tumor classifiers based on expression profiling have been proposed using microarray technique. Due to important differences in the probabilistic models of microarray and SAGE technologies, it is important to develop suitable techniques to select specific genes from SAGE measurements. Results A new framework to select specific genes that distinguish different biological states based on the analysis of SAGE data is proposed. The new framework applies the bolstered error for the identification of strong genes that separate the biological states in a feature space defined by the gene expression of a training set. Credibility intervals defined from a probabilistic model of SAGE measurements are used to identify the genes that distinguish the different states with more reliability among all gene groups selected by the strong genes method. A score taking into account the credibility and the bolstered error values in order to rank the groups of considered genes is proposed. Results obtained using SAGE data from gliomas are presented, thus corroborating the introduced methodology. Conclusion The model representing counting data, such as SAGE, provides additional statistical information that allows a more robust analysis. The additional statistical information provided by the probabilistic model is incorporated in the methodology described in the paper. The introduced method is suitable to identify signature genes that lead to a good separation of the biological states using SAGE and may be adapted for other counting methods such as Massive Parallel Signature Sequencing (MPSS or the recent Sequencing-By-Synthesis (SBS technique. Some of such genes identified by the proposed method may be useful to generate classifiers.

  9. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkins, Jonathan B; Smith, Kurt T; Beck, Jeffrey L; Kirol, Christopher P; Pratt, Aaron C; Conover, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to identify microhabitat characteristics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) nest site selection and survival to determine the quality of sage-grouse habitat in 5 regions of central and southwest Wyoming associated with Wyoming's Core Area Policy. Wyoming's Core Area Policy was enacted in 2008 to reduce human disturbance near the greatest densities of sage-grouse. Our analyses aimed to assess sage-grouse nest selection and success at multiple micro-spatial scales. We obtained microhabitat data from 928 sage-grouse nest locations and 819 random microhabitat locations from 2008-2014. Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and sage-grouse were selecting different nest sites in Core Areas relative to areas outside of Core. The Kaplan-Meier nest success estimate for a 27-day incubation period was 42.0% (95% CI: 38.4-45.9%). Risk of nest failure was negatively associated with greater rock and more medium-sized gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥2.0 m and <3.0 m). Within our study areas, Wyoming's Core Areas did not have differing microhabitat quality compared to outside of Core Areas. The close proximity of our locations within and outside of Core Areas likely explained our lack of finding differences in microhabitat quality among locations within these landscapes. However, the Core Area Policy is most likely to conserve high quality habitat at larger spatial scales, which over decades may have cascading effects on microhabitat quality available between areas within and outside of Core Areas.

  10. Antioxidant properties of biohybrids based on liposomes and sage silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbinta-Patrascu, Marcela Elisabeta; Bunghez, Ioana-Raluca; Iordache, Stefan Marian; Badea, Nicoleta; Fierascu, Radu-Claudiu; Ion, Rodica Mariana

    2013-03-01

    This paper is aimed to describe a simple and rapid eco-friendly bottom-up approach for the preparation of antioxidant silver bionanostructures using a leaf extract from sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The bioreduction property of sage in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was investigated by UV-VIS and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. During their preparation, the particle size analysis was performed by using Dynamic Light Scattering technique. Ultrasonic irradiation was used to obtain sage silver nanoparticles. The morphology (size and shape) of the herbal silver nanoparticles was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy that revealed the formation of spherical phytonanoparticles with size less than 80 nm. In order to increase their stability and their biocompatibility, the sage silver nanoparticles were introduced in two types of liposomes: soybean lecithin- and Chla-DPPC-lipid vesicles which were prepared by thin film hydration method. X-Ray Fluorescence analysis confirmed the silver presence in liposomes/sage-AgNPs biohybrids. The stability of liposomes/herbal AgNPs bioconstructs was checked by zeta potential measurements. The most stable biohybrids: Chla-DPPC/sage-AgNPs with zeta potential value of -34.2 mV, were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy revealing the spherical and quasi-spherical shaped profiles of these nanobiohybrids with size less than 96 nm. The antioxidant activity of the silver bionanostructures was evaluated using chemiluminescence assay. The developed eco-friendly silver phytonanostructures based on lipid membranes, nanosilver and sage extract, manifest strong antioxidant properties (between 86.5% and 98.6%).

  11. Mitigation effectiveness for improving nesting success of greater sage-grouse influenced by energy development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirol, Christopher P.; Sutphin, Andrew L.; Bond, Laura S.; Fuller, Mark R.; Maechtle, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush Artemisia spp. habitats being developed for oil and gas reserves are inhabited by sagebrush obligate species — including the greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus (sage-grouse) that is currently being considered for protection under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Numerous studies suggest increasing oil and gas development may exacerbate species extinction risks. Therefore, there is a great need for effective on-site mitigation to reduce impacts to co-occurring wildlife such as sage-grouse. Nesting success is a primary factor in avian productivity and declines in nesting success are also thought to be an important contributor to population declines in sage-grouse. From 2008 to 2011 we monitored 296 nests of radio-marked female sage-grouse in a natural gas (NG) field in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, and compared nest survival in mitigated and non-mitigated development areas and relatively unaltered areas to determine if specific mitigation practices were enhancing nest survival. Nest survival was highest in relatively unaltered habitats followed by mitigated, and then non-mitigated NG areas. Reservoirs used for holding NG discharge water had the greatest support as having a direct relationship to nest survival. Within a 5-km2 area surrounding a nest, the probability of nest failure increased by about 15% for every 1.5 km increase in reservoir water edge. Reducing reservoirs was a mitigation focus and sage-grouse nesting in mitigated areas were exposed to almost half of the amount of water edge compared to those in non-mitigated areas. Further, we found that an increase in sagebrush cover was positively related to nest survival. Consequently, mitigation efforts focused on reducing reservoir construction and reducing surface disturbance, especially when the surface disturbance results in sagebrush removal, are important to enhancing sage-grouse nesting success.

  12. Landscape characteristics and livestock presence influence common ravens: Relevance to greater sage-grouse conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Howe, Kristy; Gustafson, K. Ben; Casazza, Michael L.; Delehanty, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Common raven (Corvus corax; hereafter, raven) population abundance in the sagebrush steppe of the American West has increased threefold during the previous four decades, largely as a result of unintended resource subsidies from human land-use practices. This is concerning because ravens frequently depredate nests of species of conservation concern, such as greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter, sage-grouse). Grazing by livestock in sagebrush ecosystems is common practice on most public lands, but associations between livestock and ravens are poorly understood. The primary objective of this study was to identify the effects of livestock on raven occurrence while accounting for landscape characteristics within human-altered sagebrush steppe habitat, particularly in areas occupied by breeding sage-grouse. Using data from southeastern Idaho collected during spring and summer across 3 yr, we modeled raven occurrence as a function of the presence of livestock while accounting for multiple landscape covariates, including land cover features, topographical features, and proximity to sage-grouse lek sites (breeding grounds), as well as site-level anthropogenic features. While accounting for landscape characteristics, we found that the odds of raven occurrence increased 45.8% in areas where livestock were present. In addition, ravens selected areas near sage-grouse leks, with the odds of occurrence decreasing 8.9% for every 1-km distance, increase away from the lek. We did not find an association between livestock use and distance to lek. We also found that ravens selected sites with relatively lower elevation containing increased amounts of cropland, wet meadow, and urbanization. Limiting raven access to key anthropogenic subsidies and spatially segregating livestock from sage-grouse breeding areas would likely reduce exposure of predatory ravens to sage-grouse nests and chicks.

  13. Low footwall accelerations and variable surface rupture behavior on the Fort Sage Mountains fault, northeast California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Richard W.; Wesnousky, Steven G.; Brune, James N.; Purvance, Matthew D.; Mahan, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    The Fort Sage Mountains fault zone is a normal fault in the Walker Lane of the western Basin and Range that produced a small surface rupture (L 5.6 earthquake in 1950. We investigate the paleoseismic history of the Fort Sage fault and find evidence for two paleoearthquakes with surface displacements much larger than those observed in 1950. Rupture of the Fort Sage fault ∼5.6  ka resulted in surface displacements of at least 0.8–1.5 m, implying earthquake moment magnitudes (Mw) of 6.7–7.1. An older rupture at ∼20.5  ka displaced the ground at least 1.5 m, implying an earthquake of Mw 6.8–7.1. A field of precariously balanced rocks (PBRs) is located less than 1 km from the surface‐rupture trace of this Holocene‐active normal fault. Ground‐motion prediction equations (GMPEs) predict peak ground accelerations (PGAs) of 0.2–0.3g for the 1950 rupture and 0.3–0.5g for the ∼5.6  ka paleoearthquake one kilometer from the fault‐surface trace, yet field tests indicate that the Fort Sage PBRs will be toppled by PGAs between 0.1–0.3g. We discuss the paleoseismic history of the Fort Sage fault in the context of the nearby PBRs, GMPEs, and probabilistic seismic hazard maps for extensional regimes. If the Fort Sage PBRs are older than the mid‐Holocene rupture on the Fort Sage fault zone, this implies that current GMPEs may overestimate near‐fault footwall ground motions at this site.

  14. Scaling features of the tribology of polymer brushes of increasing grafting density around the mushroom-to-brush transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, E; Klapp, J; Gama Goicochea, A

    2017-01-01

    Nonequilibrium coarse-grained, dissipative particle dynamics simulations of complex fluids, made up of polymer brushes tethered to planar surfaces immersed in a solvent yield nonmonotonic behavior of the friction coefficient as a function of the polymer grating density on the substrates, Γ, while the viscosity shows a monotonically increasing dependence on Γ. This effect is shown to be independent of the degree of polymerization, N, and the size of the system. It arises from the composition and the structure of the first particle layer adjacent to each surface that results from the confinement of the fluid. Whenever such layers are made up of as close a proportion of polymer beads to solvent particles as there are in the fluid, the friction coefficient shows a minimum, while for disparate proportions the friction coefficient grows. At the mushroom-to-brush transition (MBT) the viscosity scales with an exponent that depends on the characteristic exponent of the MBT (6/5) and the solvent quality exponent (ν=0.5, for θsolvent), but it is independent of the polymerization degree (N). On the other hand, the friction coefficient at the MBT scales as μ∼N^{6/5}, while the grafting density at the MBT scales as Γ∼N^{-6/5} when friction is minimal, in agreement with previous scaling theories. We argue these aspects are the result of cooperative phenomena that have important implications for the understanding of biological brushes and the design of microfluidics devices, among other applications of current academic and industrial interest.

  15. Dynamic Properties of Star-Branched Polymer Brushes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikorski, A.; Romiszowski, P.

    2004-01-01

    We studied a simplified model of a polymer brush. It consisted of star-branched chains, which were restricted to a simple cubic lattice. Each star-branched macromolecule consisted of three linear arms of equal length emanating from a common origin (the branching point). The chains were grafted to an impenetrable surface, i.e. they were terminally attached to the surface with one arm. The number of chains was varied from low to high grafting density. The model system was studied at good solvent conditions because the excluded volume effect was the only potential of interaction included in the model. The properties of this model system were studied by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The sampling algorithm was based on local changes of chain conformations. The dynamic properties of the polymer brush were studied and correlated with its structure. The differences in relaxation times of particular star arms were shown. The short-time mobility of polymer layers was analyzed. The lateral self-diffusion of chains was also studied and discussed. (author)

  16. Simulations of linear and Hamming codes using SageMath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timur, Tahta D.; Adzkiya, Dieky; Soleha

    2018-03-01

    Digital data transmission over a noisy channel could distort the message being transmitted. The goal of coding theory is to ensure data integrity, that is, to find out if and where this noise has distorted the message and what the original message was. Data transmission consists of three stages: encoding, transmission, and decoding. Linear and Hamming codes are codes that we discussed in this work, where encoding algorithms are parity check and generator matrix, and decoding algorithms are nearest neighbor and syndrome. We aim to show that we can simulate these processes using SageMath software, which has built-in class of coding theory in general and linear codes in particular. First we consider the message as a binary vector of size k. This message then will be encoded to a vector with size n using given algorithms. And then a noisy channel with particular value of error probability will be created where the transmission will took place. The last task would be decoding, which will correct and revert the received message back to the original message whenever possible, that is, if the number of error occurred is smaller or equal to the correcting radius of the code. In this paper we will use two types of data for simulations, namely vector and text data.

  17. Visualization of Atmospheric Water Vapor Data for SAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Mou-Liang; Chu, W. P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop visualization tools to study the water vapor dynamics using the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 11 (SAGE 11) water vapor data. During the past years, we completed the development of a visualization tool called EZSAGE, and various Gridded Water Vapor plots, tools deployed on the web to provide users with new insight into the water vapor dynamics. Results and experiences from this project, including papers, tutorials and reviews were published on the main Web page. Additional publishing effort has been initiated to package EZSAGE software for CD production and distribution. There have been some major personnel changes since Fall, 1998. Dr. Mou-Liang Kung, a Professor of Computer Science assumed the PI position vacated by Dr. Waldo Rodriguez who was on leave. However, former PI, Dr. Rodriguez continued to serve as a research adviser to this project to assure smooth transition and project completion. Typically in each semester, five student research assistants were hired and trained. Weekly group meetings were held to discuss problems, progress, new research direction, and activity planning. Other small group meetings were also held regularly for different objectives of this project. All student research assistants were required to submit reports for conference submission.

  18. Organ-specific gene expression: the bHLH protein Sage provides tissue specificity to Drosophila FoxA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Rebecca M; Vaishnavi, Aria; Maruyama, Rika; Andrew, Deborah J

    2013-05-01

    FoxA transcription factors play major roles in organ-specific gene expression, regulating, for example, glucagon expression in the pancreas, GLUT2 expression in the liver, and tyrosine hydroxylase expression in dopaminergic neurons. Organ-specific gene regulation by FoxA proteins is achieved through cooperative regulation with a broad array of transcription factors with more limited expression domains. Fork head (Fkh), the sole Drosophila FoxA family member, is required for the development of multiple distinct organs, yet little is known regarding how Fkh regulates tissue-specific gene expression. Here, we characterize Sage, a bHLH transcription factor expressed exclusively in the Drosophila salivary gland (SG). We show that Sage is required for late SG survival and normal tube morphology. We find that many Sage targets, identified by microarray analysis, encode SG-specific secreted cargo, transmembrane proteins, and the enzymes that modify these proteins. We show that both Sage and Fkh are required for the expression of Sage target genes, and that co-expression of Sage and Fkh is sufficient to drive target gene expression in multiple cell types. Sage and Fkh drive expression of the bZip transcription factor Senseless (Sens), which boosts expression of Sage-Fkh targets, and Sage, Fkh and Sens colocalize on SG chromosomes. Importantly, expression of Sage-Fkh target genes appears to simply add to the tissue-specific gene expression programs already established in other cell types, and Sage and Fkh cannot alter the fate of most embryonic cell types even when expressed early and continuously.

  19. Greater sage-grouse science (2015–17)—Synthesis and potential management implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanser, Steven E.; Deibert, Patricia A.; Tull, John C.; Carr, Natasha B.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Bargsten, Travis D.; Christiansen, Thomas J.; Coates, Peter S.; Crist, Michele R.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Ellsworth, Ethan A.; Foster, Lee J.; Herren, Vicki A.; Miller, Kevin H.; Moser, Ann; Naeve, Robin M.; Prentice, Karen L.; Remington, Thomas E.; Ricca, Mark A.; Shinneman, Douglas J.; Truex, Richard L.; Wiechman , Lief A.; Wilson, Dereck C.; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2018-02-15

    Executive SummaryThe greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter called “sage-grouse”), a species that requires sagebrush (Artemisia spp.), has experienced range-wide declines in its distribution and abundance. These declines have prompted substantial research and management investments to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and reverse declines in distribution and population numbers.Over the past two decades, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) has responded to eight petitions to list the sage-grouse under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, with the completion of the most recent listing determination in September 2015. At that time, the USFWS determined that the sage-grouse did not warrant a listing, primarily because of the large scale science-based conservation and planning efforts completed or started by Federal, State, local agencies, private landowners, and other entities across the range. The planning efforts culminated in the development of the 2015 Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and U.S. Forest Service Land Use Plan Amendments, which provided regulatory certainty and commitment from Federal land-management agencies to limit, mitigate, and track anthropogenic disturbance and implement other sage-grouse conservation measures.After these policy decisions, the scientific community has continued to refine and expand the knowledge available to inform implementation of management actions, increase the efficiency and effectiveness of those actions, and continue developing an overall understanding of sage-grouse populations, habitat requirements, and their response to human activity and other habitat changes. The development of science has been driven by multiple prioritization documents including the “Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy” (Hanser and Manier, 2013) and, most recently, the “Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy Actionable Science Plan” (Integrated Rangeland Fire Management

  20. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found...... to be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support...... for the affine term structure model....

  1. Self-consistent field theory of protein adsorption in a non-Gaussian polyelectrolyte brush

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Stuart, M.A.C.

    2006-01-01

    To describe adsorption of globular protein molecules in a polyelectrolyte brush we use the strong-stretching approximation of the Edwards self-consistent field equation, combined with corrections for a non-Gaussian brush. To describe chemical potentials in this mixture of (globular) species of

  2. Changes in intestinal absorption of nutrients and brush border glycoproteins after total parenteral nutrition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, S; Tanaka, S; Yoshioka, M; Serizawa, H; Tashiro, H; Shiozaki, H; Imaeda, H; Tsuchiya, M

    1992-01-01

    The effect of total parenteral nutrition on nutrients absorption and glycoprotein changes of brush border membrane was examined in rat small intestine. In total parenteral nutrition rats, a marked decrease in activity of brush border enzymes was observed mainly in the proximal and middle segments of the intestine. Galactose perfusion of jejunal segment showed that hexose absorption was significantly inhibited, while intestinal absorption of glycine or dipeptide, glycylglycine was not significantly affected by total parenteral nutrition treatment. When brush border membrane glycoprotein profile was examined by [3H]-glucosamine or [3H]-fucose incorporation into jejunal loops, significant changes were observed in the glycoprotein pattern of brush border membrane especially in the high molecular weight range over 120 kDa after total parenteral nutrition treatment, suggesting strong dependency of glycoprotein synthesis on luminal substances. Molecular weight of sucrase isomaltase in brush border membrane detected by specific antibody showed no significant difference, however, in total parenteral nutrition and control rats. Also, molecular weight of specific sodium glucose cotransporter of intestinal brush border membrane detected by selective photoaffinity labelling was not altered in total parenteral nutrition rats. It may be that prolonged absence of oral food intake may produce significant biochemical changes in brush border membrane glycoprotein and absorptive capacity of small intestine, but these changes were not observed in all brush border membrane glycoproteins. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1582592

  3. Description of fuel element brush assembly's fabrication for 105-K west

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maassen, D.P.

    1997-01-01

    This report is a description of the process to redesign and fabricate, as well as, describe the features of the Fuel Element Brush Assembly used in the 105-K West Basin. This narrative description will identify problems that occurred during the redesigning and fabrication of the 105-K West Basin Fuel Element Brush Assembly and specifically address their solutions

  4. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase: selective endocytosis from the enterocyte brush border during fat absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte; Immerdal, Lissi

    2007-01-01

    explants. By immunofluorescence microscopy, fat absorption caused a translocation of IAP from the enterocyte brush border to the interior of the cell, whereas other brush-border enzymes were unaffected. By electron microscopy, the translocation occurred by a rapid (5 min) induction of endocytosis via...

  5. Evaluation of multi-brush anode systems in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Lanas, Vanessa; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    ), the number of brushes connected in parallel, and the wire current collector gage. MFCs with different numbers of brushes (one, three or six) set perpendicular to the cathode all produced similar power densities (1200±40mW/m2) and coulombic efficiencies (60

  6. Production rates for United States Forest Service brush disposal planning in the northern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Stu Hoyt; Nathaniel Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Timber harvesting operations generate brush and other vegetative debris, which often has no marketable value. In many western U.S. forests, these materials represent a fire hazard and a potential threat to forest health and must be removed or burned for disposal. Currently, there is no established, consistent method to estimate brush disposal production rates in the U....

  7. Using resilience and resistance concepts to manage threats to sagebrush ecosystems, Gunnison sage-grouse, and Greater sage-grouse in their eastern range: A strategic multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Jeffrey L. Beck; Steve Campbell; John Carlson; Thomas J. Christiansen; Karen J. Clause; Jonathan B. Dinkins; Kevin E. Doherty; Kathleen A. Griffin; Douglas W. Havlina; Kenneth F. Henke; Jacob D. Hennig; Laurie L. Kurth; Jeremy D. Maestas; Mary Manning; Kenneth E. Mayer; Brian A. Mealor; Clinton McCarthy; Marco A. Perea; David A. Pyke

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a strategic approach developed by a Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies interagency working group for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems, Greater sage-grouse, and Gunnison sage-grouse. It uses information on (1) factors that influence sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to nonnative invasive annual grasses...

  8. Using resilience and resistance concepts to manage threats to sagebrush ecosystems, Gunnison sage-grouse, and Greater sage-grouse in their eastern range: A strategic multi-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jeanne C.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Campbell, Steve; Carlson, John; Christiansen, Thomas J.; Clause, Karen J.; Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Doherty, Kevin E.; Griffin, Kathleen A.; Havlina, Douglas W.; Mayer, Kenneth F.; Hennig, Jacob D.; Kurth, Laurie L.; Maestas, Jeremy D.; Manning, Mary E.; Mealor, Brian A.; McCarthy, Clinton; Perea, Marco A.; Pyke, David A.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides a strategic approach developed by a Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies interagency working group for conservation of sagebrush ecosystems, Greater sage-grouse, and Gunnison sage-grouse. It uses information on (1) factors that influence sagebrush ecosystem resilience to disturbance and resistance to nonnative invasive annual grasses and (2) distribution and relative abundance of sage-grouse populations to address persistent ecosystem threats, such as invasive annual grasses and wildfire, and land use and development threats, such as oil and gas development and cropland conversion, to develop effective management strategies. A sage-grouse habitat matrix links relative resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems with modeled sage-grouse breeding habitat probabilities to help decisionmakers assess risks and determine appropriate management strategies at both landscape and site scales. Areas for targeted management are assessed by overlaying matrix components with Greater sage-grouse Priority Areas for Conservation and Gunnison sage-grouse critical habitat and linkages, breeding bird concentration areas, and specific habitat threats. Decision tools are discussed for determining the suitability of target areas for management and the most appropriate management actions. A similar approach was developed for the Great Basin that was incorporated into the Federal land use plan amendments and served as the basis of a Bureau of Land Management Fire and Invasives Assessment Tool, which was used to prioritize sage-grouse habitat for targeted management activities.

  9. Investigating impacts of oil and gas development on greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam; Aldridge, Cameron L.; O'Donnell, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystem is one of the largest ecosystems in western North America providing habitat for species found nowhere else. Sagebrush habitats have experienced dramatic declines since the 1950s, mostly due to anthropogenic disturbances. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is a sagebrush-obligate species that has experienced population declines over the last several decades, which are attributed to a variety of disturbances including the more recent threat of oil and gas development. We developed a hierarchical, Bayesian state-space model to investigate the impacts of 2 measures of oil and gas development, and environmental and habitat conditions, on sage-grouse populations in Wyoming, USA using male lek counts from 1984 to 2008. Lek attendance of male sage-grouse declined by approximately 2.5%/year and was negatively related to oil and gas well density. We found little support for the influence of sagebrush cover and precipitation on changes in lek counts. Our results support those of other studies reporting negative impacts of oil and gas development on sage-grouse populations and our modeling approach allowed us to make inference to a longer time scale and larger spatial extent than in previous studies. In addition to sage-grouse, development may also negatively affect other sagebrush-obligate species, and active management of sagebrush habitats may be necessary to maintain some species. 

  10. The effect of clary sage oil on staphylococci responsible for wound infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Monika; Głowacka, Anna; Poznańska-Kurowska, Katarzyna; Kaszuba, Andrzej; Urbaniak, Anna; Kowalczyk, Edward

    2015-02-01

    The spreading of bacterial antibiotic resistance among clinical strains of pathogenic bacteria has made investigators to search for other active antibacterial agents which could provide a valuable complement to the existing therapies. To determine the antibacterial activity of clary sage oil (Salvia sclarea L.) against Staphylococcus clinical strains which were isolated from patients with wound infections. A comprehensive evaluation of Staphylococcus clinical strain resistance to antibiotics was performed. The constituents of clary sage oil were assayed by GC-FID-MS analysis. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the tested essential oil against staphylococci by the micro-dilution broth method was determined. The clary sage oil was active against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and S. xylosus with MIC values ranging from 3.75 to 7.00 µl/ml. The results of the in vitro tests encourage to use formulations containing sage oil as the active natural antimicrobial agent. Because of its antimicrobial properties clary sage oil may be applied to treat wounds and skin infections.

  11. Mapping SAGE questionnaire to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Quintas, Rui; Russo, Emanuela; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Costardi, Daniela; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Franco, Maria Grazia; Andreotti, Alessandra; Ojala, Matti; Peña, Sebastián; Perales, Jaime; Chatterji, Somnath; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Koskinen, Seppo; Frattura, Lucilla; Leonardi, Matilde

    2014-01-01

    The collaborative research on ageing in Europe protocol was based on that of the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) project that investigated the relationship between health and well-being and provided a set of instruments that can be used across countries to monitor health and health-related outcomes of older populations as well as the strategies for addressing issues concerning the ageing process. To evaluate the degree to which SAGE protocol covered the spectrum of disability given the scope of the World Health Organization International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), a mapping exercise was performed with SAGE protocol. Results show that the SAGE protocol covers ICF domains in a non-uniform way, with environmental factors categories being underrepresented, whereas mental, cardiovascular, sensory functions and mobility were overrepresented. To overcome this partial coverage of ICF functioning categories, new assessment instruments have been developed. PRACTITIONER MESSAGE: Mapping exercises are valid procedures to understand the extent to which a survey protocol covers the spectrum of functioning. The mapping exercise with SAGE protocol shows that it provides only a partial representation of body functions and activities and participation domains, and the coverage of environmental factors is poor. New instruments are therefore needed for researchers to properly understand the health and disability of ageing populations. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Patterns in Greater Sage-grouse population dynamics correspond with public grazing records at broad scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Adrian P; Aldridge, Cameron L; Assal, Timothy J; Veblen, Kari E; Pyke, David A; Casazza, Michael L

    2017-06-01

    Human land use, such as livestock grazing, can have profound yet varied effects on wildlife interacting within common ecosystems, yet our understanding of land-use effects is often generalized from short-term, local studies that may not correspond with trends at broader scales. Here we used public land records to characterize livestock grazing across Wyoming, USA, and we used Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as a model organism to evaluate responses to livestock management. With annual counts of male Sage-grouse from 743 leks (breeding display sites) during 2004-2014, we modeled population trends in response to grazing level (represented by a relative grazing index) and timing across a gradient in vegetation productivity as measured by the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI). We found grazing can have both positive and negative effects on Sage-grouse populations depending on the timing and level of grazing. Sage-grouse populations responded positively to higher grazing levels after peak vegetation productivity, but populations declined when similar grazing levels occurred earlier, likely reflecting the sensitivity of cool-season grasses to grazing during peak growth periods. We also found support for the hypothesis that effects of grazing management vary with local vegetation productivity. These results illustrate the importance of broad-scale analyses by revealing patterns in Sage-grouse population trends that may not be inferred from studies at finer scales, and could inform sustainable grazing management in these ecosystems. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  13. Colon Cancer Chemoprevention by Sage Tea Drinking: Decreased DNA Damage and Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Dalila F N; Ramos, Alice A; Lima, Cristovao F; Baltazar, Fatima; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Salvia officinalis and some of its isolated compounds have been found to be preventive of DNA damage and increased proliferation in vitro in colon cells. In the present study, we used the azoxymethane model to test effects of S. officinalis on colon cancer prevention in vivo. The results showed that sage treatment reduced the number of ACF formed only if administered before azoxymethane injection, demonstrating that sage tea drinking has a chemopreventive effect on colorectal cancer. A decrease in the proliferation marker Ki67 and in H2 O2 -induced and azoxymethane-induced DNA damage to colonocytes and lymphocytes were found with sage treatment. This confirms in vivo the chemopreventive effects of S. officinalis. Taken together, our results show that sage treatment prevented initiation phases of colon carcinogenesis, an effect due, at least in part, to DNA protection, and reduced proliferation rates of colon epithelial cell that prevent mutations and their fixation through cell replication. These chemopreventive effects of S. officinalis on colon cancer add to the many health benefits attributed to sage and encourage its consumption. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Better living through conifer removal: A demographic analysis of sage-grouse vital rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Severson

    Full Text Available Sagebrush (Artemisia spp. obligate wildlife species such as the imperiled greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus face numerous threats including altered ecosystem processes that have led to conifer expansion into shrub-steppe. Conifer removal is accelerating despite a lack of empirical evidence on grouse population response. Using a before-after-control-impact design at the landscape scale, we evaluated effects of conifer removal on two important demographic parameters, annual survival of females and nest survival, by monitoring 219 female sage-grouse and 225 nests in the northern Great Basin from 2010 to 2014. Estimates from the best treatment models showed positive trends in the treatment area relative to the control area resulting in an increase of 6.6% annual female survival and 18.8% nest survival relative to the control area by 2014. Using stochastic simulations of our estimates and published demographics, we estimated a 25% increase in the population growth rate in the treatment area relative to the control area. This is the first study to link sage-grouse demographics with conifer removal and supports recommendations to actively manage conifer expansion for sage-grouse conservation. Sage-grouse have become a primary catalyst for conservation funding to address conifer expansion in the West, and these findings have important implications for other ecosystem services being generated on the wings of species conservation.

  15. Sulfobetaine-based polymer brushes in marine environment: Is there an effect of the polymerizable group on the antifouling performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quintana, R.; Janczewski, D.; Vasantha, V.A.; Jana, S.; Lee, S.S.C.; Parra-Velandia, F.J.; Guo, S.; Parthiban, A.; Teo, S.L-M.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2014-01-01

    Three different zwitterionic polymer brush coatings for marine biofouling control were prepared bysurface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of sulfobetaine-based monomers includingmethacrylamide (SBMAm), vinylbenzene (SBVB) and vinylimidazolium (SBVI). None of these brush

  16. Ecology of Greater Sage-Grouse in the Bi-State Planning Area Final Report, September 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Michael L.; Overton, Cory T.; Farinha, Melissa A.; Torregrosa, Alicia; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Miller, Michael R.; Sedinger, James S.; Kolada, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Conservation efforts for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), hereafter sage-grouse, are underway across the range of this species. Over 70 local working groups have been established and are implementing on-the-ground sage-grouse oriented conservation projects. Early on in this process, the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG) recognized the need to join in these efforts and received funding from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) under the Candidate Species Conservation Program to help develop a species conservation plan for sage-grouse in the Mono County area. This conservation plan covers portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo counties in California and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, and Mineral counties in Nevada. A concurrent effort underway through the Nevada Governor's Sage-grouse Conservation Team established Local Area Working Groups across Nevada and eastern California. The Mono County populations of sage-grouse were encompassed by the Bi-State Local Planning Area, which was comprised of six population management units (PMUs). The state agencies from California (CDFG) and Nevada (Nevada Department of Wildlife; NDOW) responsible for the management of sage-grouse agreed to utilize the process that had begun with the Nevada Governor's Team in order to develop local plans for conservation planning and implementation. Resources from the USFWS were applied to several objectives in support of the development of the Bi-State Local Area Sage-grouse Conservation Plan through a grant to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Objectives included: (1) participate in the development of the Bi-State Conservation Plan, (2) compile and synthesize existing sage-grouse data, (3) document seasonal movements of sage-grouse, (4) identify habitats critical to sage-grouse, (5) determine survival rates and identify causal factors of mortality, (6) determine nest success and brood success of sage-grouse, and (7) identify sage-grouse lek sites. Progress reports

  17. Microsecond MD Simulations of Nano-patterned Polymer Brushes on Self-Assembled Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buie, Creighton; Qiu, Liming; Cheng, Kwan; Park, Soyeun

    2010-03-01

    Nano-patterned polymer brushes end-grafted onto self-assembled monolayers have gained increasing research interests due to their unique thermodynamic properties and their chemical and biomedical applications in colloids, biosensing and tissue engineering. So far, the interactions between the polymer brushes with the surrounding environments such as the floor and solvent at the nanometer length scale and microsecond time scale are still difficult to obtained experimentally and computationally. Using a Coarse-Grained MD approach, polymer brushes of different monomeric lengths, grafting density and hydrophobicity of the monomers grafted on self-assembled monolayers and in explicit solvent were studied. Molecular level information, such as lateral diffusion, transverse height and volume contour of the brushes, were calculated from our microsecond-MD simulations. Our results demonstrated the significance of the hydration of the polymer in controlling the conformational arrangement of the polymer brushes.

  18. Characterization of swollen structure of high-density polyelectrolyte brushes in salt solution by neutron reflectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Motoyasu; Takahara, Atsushi [Institute for Materials Chemistry and Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Terayama, Yuki [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University (Japan); Hino, Masahiro [Reactor Research Institute, Kyoto University (Japan); Ishihara, Kazuhiko, E-mail: takahara@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-08-01

    Zwitterionic and cationic polyelectrolyte brushes on quartz substrate were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyltrimethylammonium chloride (METAC), respectively. The effects of ionic strength on brush structure and surface properties of densely grafted polyelectrolyte brushes were analysed by neutron reflectivity (NR) measurements. NR at poly(METAC)/D{sub 2}O and poly(MPC)/D{sub 2}O interface revealed that the grafted polymer chains were fairly extended from the substrate surface, while the thickness reduction of poly(METAC) brush was observed in 5.6 M NaCl/D{sub 2}O solution due to the screening of the repulsive interaction between polycations by hydrated salt ions. Interestingly, no structural change was observed in poly(MPC) brush even in a salt solution probably due to the unique interaction properties of phosphorylcholine units.

  19. Rangeland Brush Estimation Toolbox (RaBET): An Approach for Evaluating Brush Management Conservation Efforts in Western Grazing Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holifield Collins, C.; Kautz, M. A.; Skirvin, S. M.; Metz, L. J.

    2016-12-01

    There are over 180 million hectares of rangelands and grazed forests in the central and western United States. Due to the loss of perennial grasses and subsequent increased runoff and erosion that can degrade the system, woody cover species cannot be allowed to proliferate unchecked. The USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) has allocated extensive resources to employ brush management (removal) as a conservation practice to control woody species encroachment. The Rangeland-Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) has been tasked with determining how effective the practice has been, however their land managers lack a cost-effective means to conduct these assessments at the necessary scale. An ArcGIS toolbox for generating large-scale, Landsat-based, spatial maps of woody cover on grazing lands in the western United States was developed through a collaboration with NRCS Rangeland-CEAP. The toolbox contains two main components of operation, image generation and temporal analysis, and utilizes simple interfaces requiring minimum user inputs. The image generation tool utilizes geographically specific algorithms developed from combining moderate-resolution (30-m) Landsat imagery and high-resolution (1-m) National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP) aerial photography to produce the woody cover scenes at the Major Land Resource (MLRA) scale. The temporal analysis tool can be used on these scenes to assess treatment effectiveness and monitor woody cover reemergence. RaBET provides rangeland managers an operational, inexpensive decision support tool to aid in the application of brush removal treatments and assessing their effectiveness.

  20. Grammar Maturity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaytsev, V.; Pierantonio, A.; Schätz, B.; Tamzalit, D.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of a software language (whether modelled by a grammar or a schema or a metamodel) is not limited to development of new versions and dialects. An important dimension of a software language evolution is maturing in the sense of improving the quality of its definition. In this paper, we

  1. Maturing interorganisational information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313946809

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of nine chapters, divided over five parts. PART I is an introduction and the last part contains the conclusions. The remaining, intermediate parts are: PART II: Developing a maturity model for chain digitisation. This part contains two related studies concerning the development

  2. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  3. Greater sage-grouse: general use and roost site occurrence with pellet counts as a measure of relative abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven E. Hanser; Cameron L. Aldridge; Matthias Leu; Mary M. Rowland; Scott E. Nielsen; Steven T. Knick

    2011-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have been declining both spatially and numerically throughout their range because of anthropogenic disturbance and loss and fragmentation of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats. Understanding how sage-grouse respond to these habitat alterations and disturbances, particularly the...

  4. Conservation and restoration of sagebrush ecosystems and sage-grouse: An assessment of USDA Forest Service Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch; Douglas A. Boyce; Jeanne C. Chambers; Chris J. Colt; Kas Dumroese; Stanley G. Kitchen; Clinton McCarthy; Susan E. Meyer; Bryce A. Richardson; Mary M. Rowland; Mark A. Rumble; Michael K. Schwartz; Monica S. Tomosy; Michael J. Wisdom

    2016-01-01

    Sagebrush ecosystems are among the largest and most threatened ecosystems in North America. Greater sage-grouse has served as the bellwether for species conservation in these ecosystems and has been considered for listing under the Endangered Species Act eight times. In September 2015, the decision was made not to list greater sage-grouse, but to reevaluate its status...

  5. USAGE: a web-based approach towards the analysis of SAGE data. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kampen, A. H.; van Schaik, B. D.; Pauws, E.; Michiels, E. M.; Ruijter, J. M.; Caron, H. N.; Versteeg, R.; Heisterkamp, S. H.; Leunissen, J. A.; Baas, F.; van der Mee, M.

    2000-01-01

    MOTIVATION: SAGE enables the determination of genome-wide mRNA expression profiles. A comprehensive analysis of SAGE data requires software, which integrates (statistical) data analysis methods with a database system. Furthermore, to facilitate data sharing between users, the application should

  6. The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP): a test of state-and-transition theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    James D. McIver; Mark Brunson; Steve C. Bunting; Jeanne Chambers; Nora Devoe; Paul Doescher; James Grace; Dale Johnson; Steve Knick; Richard Miller; Mike Pellant; Fred Pierson; David Pyke; Kim Rollins; Bruce Roundy; Eugene Schupp; Robin Tausch; David Turner

    2010-01-01

    The Sagebrush Steppe Treatment Evaluation Project (SageSTEP) is a comprehensive, integrated, long-term study that evaluates the ecological effects of fire and fire surrogate treatments designed to reduce fuel and to restore sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities of the Great Basin and surrounding areas. SageSTEP has several features that make it ideal for testing...

  7. Effects of whitening dentifrice on yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal surfaces after simulating brushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Lígia Antunes Pereira; Gimenes Olbera, Amanda Caroline; Candido, Lucas Miguel; Miotto, Larissa Natiele; Antonio, Selma Gutierrez; Fais, Laiza Maria Grassi

    2017-01-01

    The changes that occur after brushing yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) are unknown. These changes may favor the retention of microorganisms and chemisorption of water, impairing its longevity. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of a whitening dentifrice on Y-TZP surfaces after simulating 10 years of brushing. Seventy-two bar-shaped specimens (20×4×1.2 mm) were divided into 4 groups: storage in distilled water (SW, control), brushing with distilled water (BW), brushing with dentifrice (BD), and brushing with whitening dentifrice (BWD). Brushing was conducted using a linear brushing machine (878400 cycles, 0.98 N, soft toothbrush). The mean roughness (Ra) was analyzed with a profilometer and the superficial topography with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at baseline and after treatment. Crystalline phases were characterized using x-ray diffraction. Baseline and posttreatment Ra were analyzed using the 1-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD multiple comparison test; the paired t test was used for intragroup comparison (all α=.05). The Ra (μm) means (before/after treatment) were SW 0.28/0.28; BW 0.32/0.31; BD 0.28/0.36; BWD 0.30/0.20. No statistically significant difference was found for Ra at baseline (P=.108) than for posttreatment results (P<.001); the BD group had higher Ra values when compared with baseline (P=.019); the BWD group had the lowest values (P<.001). The BD surfaces showed pronounced scratches and detachment of the surface, while BWD showed smoother surfaces; similar crystallographic results among groups were observed. Brushing Y-TZP with conventional dentifrice increased roughness, while brushing with whitening dentifrice reduced roughness. Neither dentifrice changed the crystallographic phases after brushing. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Experience of racism and tooth brushing among pregnant Aboriginal Australians: exploring psychosocial mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, J; Jamieson, L M; Priest, N; Parker, E J; Roberts-Thomson, K F; Lawrence, H P; Broughton, J; Paradies, Y

    2014-09-01

    Despite burgeoning evidence regarding the pathways by which experiences of racism influence health outcomes, little attention has been paid to the relationship between racism and oral health-related behaviours in particular. We hypothesised that self-reported racism was associated with tooth brushing, and that this association was mediated by perceived stress and sense of control and moderated by social support. Data from 365 pregnant Aboriginal Australian women were used to evaluate tooth brushing behaviour, sociodemographic factors, psychosocial factors, general health, risk behaviours and racism exposure. Bivariate associations were explored and hierarchical logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for tooth brushing. Perceived stress and sense of control were examined as mediators of the association between self-reported racism and tooth brushing using binary mediation with bootstrapping. High levels of self-reported racism persisted as a risk indicator for tooth brushing (OR 0.51, 95%CI 0.27,0.98) after controlling for significant covariates. Perceived stress mediated the relationship between self-reported racism and tooth brushing: the direct effect of racism on tooth brushing was attenuated, and the indirect effect on tooth brushing was significant (beta coefficient -0.09; bias-corrected 95%CI -0.166,-0.028; 48.1% of effect mediated). Sense of control was insignificant as a mediator of the relationship between racism and tooth brushing. High levels of self-reported racism were associated with non-optimal tooth brushing behaviours, and perceived stress mediated this association among this sample of pregnant Aboriginal women.. Limitations and implications are discussed.

  9. Effect of γ-irradiation on bioactivity, fatty acid compositions and volatile compounds of clary sage seed (Salvia sclarea L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Hasan; Ozturk, Ismet; Tulukcu, Eray; Sagdic, Osman

    2011-09-01

    Clary sage seeds (Salvia sclarea L.) were obtained from plants cultivated, and 2.5, 4.0, 5.5, and 7.0 kGy doses of γ-irradiation were applied to the clary sage seeds. They were then analyzed for their protein, ash, oil and dry matter contents, and fatty acid composition. Additionally, the total phenolic contents, antiradical, antioxidant activities, and volatile compounds of the clary sage seed extract were determined. There was no significant difference in protein content. However, the moisture, oil, and ash contents of the samples were affected by irradiation. While the 7 kGy dose had a positive effect on the total phenolic content and antiradical activity of the sage seed extract, all doses have negative effects on the antioxidant activity of the sage seed. The main fatty acid of the sage seed was remarkably found as α-linolenic acid. The four irradiation levels caused significant differences in fatty acid composition by affecting all fatty acids except palmitic, palmitoleic, and eicosenoic acids. The dominant volatile compounds of control sage seed were found as β-pinene (18.81%) and limonene (15.60%). Higher doses of the irradiation decreased volatile components of sage seed. Clary sage seed including high omega-3 can be irradiated with low doses (≤ 2.5 kGy) of γ-irradiation. Clary sage is one of the most popular Salvia species in Turkey and many countries. Clary sage seed has approximately 29% oil content and this oil contains >50% of α-linolenic acid. γ-Irradiation is widely applied in the preservation of spice quality. The present study shows that the antioxidant activity of the clary sage seed is decreased by γ-irradiation. Additionally, higher doses of irradiation also decreased the volatile components of sage seed. Therefore, we suggest that clary sage seed which includes high levels of omega-3 should be irradiated with low doses (≤ 2.5 kGy) of γ-irradiation. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Comparison of aerosol extinction between lidar and SAGE II over Gadanki, a tropical station in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kulkarni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An extensive comparison of aerosol extinction has been performed using lidar and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II data over Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E, a tropical station in India, following coincident criteria during volcanically quiescent conditions from 1998 to 2005. The aerosol extinctions derived from lidar are higher than SAGE II during all seasons in the upper troposphere (UT, while in the lower-stratosphere (LS values are closer. The seasonal mean percent differences between lidar and SAGE II aerosol extinctions are > 100% in the UT and Ba (sr−1, the ratio between aerosol backscattering and extinction, are needed for the tropics for a more accurate derivation of aerosol extinction.

  11. Brine saturation technique for extraction of light filth from rubbed, ground, and whole sage: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, C C

    1985-01-01

    A new approach to the isolation of light filth from the 3 commercial forms of sage was studied collaboratively. It incorporates a simple isopropanol defatting, followed by saturation of the product with brine by alternately heating and cooling, and subsequent trapping of filth from tap water with olive oil. This method circumvents the use of hazardous, expensive solvents and more time-consuming pretreatment procedures. Overall recoveries were 92.1% for rodent hair and 78.7% for insect fragments on clean, easy-to-read papers. An additional blending step was necessary to obtain satisfactory recovery of rodent hair fragments from whole sage. The method has been adopted official first action for light filth in rubbed and ground sage only.

  12. Phenology largely explains taller grass at successful nests in greater sage-grouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph T; Tack, Jason D; Doherty, Kevin E; Allred, Brady W; Maestas, Jeremy D; Berkeley, Lorelle I; Dettenmaier, Seth J; Messmer, Terry A; Naugle, David E

    2018-01-01

    Much interest lies in the identification of manageable habitat variables that affect key vital rates for species of concern. For ground-nesting birds, vegetation surrounding the nest may play an important role in mediating nest success by providing concealment from predators. Height of grasses surrounding the nest is thought to be a driver of nest survival in greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus ; sage-grouse), a species that has experienced widespread population declines throughout their range. However, a growing body of the literature has found that widely used field methods can produce misleading inference on the relationship between grass height and nest success. Specifically, it has been demonstrated that measuring concealment following nest fate (failure or hatch) introduces a temporal bias whereby successful nests are measured later in the season, on average, than failed nests. This sampling bias can produce inference suggesting a positive effect of grass height on nest survival, though the relationship arises due to the confounding effect of plant phenology, not an effect on predation risk. To test the generality of this finding for sage-grouse, we reanalyzed existing datasets comprising >800 sage-grouse nests from three independent studies across the range where there was a positive relationship found between grass height and nest survival, including two using methods now known to be biased. Correcting for phenology produced equivocal relationships between grass height and sage-grouse nest survival. Viewed in total, evidence for a ubiquitous biological effect of grass height on sage-grouse nest success across time and space is lacking. In light of these findings, a reevaluation of land management guidelines emphasizing specific grass height targets to promote nest success may be merited.

  13. Deep analysis of cellular transcriptomes – LongSAGE versus classic MPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Simon J

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Deep transcriptome analysis will underpin a large fraction of post-genomic biology. 'Closed' technologies, such as microarray analysis, only detect the set of transcripts chosen for analysis, whereas 'open' e.g. tag-based technologies are capable of identifying all possible transcripts, including those that were previously uncharacterized. Although new technologies are now emerging, at present the major resources for open-type analysis are the many publicly available SAGE (serial analysis of gene expression and MPSS (massively parallel signature sequencing libraries. These technologies have never been compared for their utility in the context of deep transcriptome mining. Results We used a single LongSAGE library of 503,431 tags and a "classic" MPSS library of 1,744,173 tags, both prepared from the same T cell-derived RNA sample, to compare the ability of each method to probe, at considerable depth, a human cellular transcriptome. We show that even though LongSAGE is more error-prone than MPSS, our LongSAGE library nevertheless generated 6.3-fold more genome-matching (and therefore likely error-free tags than the MPSS library. An analysis of a set of 8,132 known genes detectable by both methods, and for which there is no ambiguity about tag matching, shows that MPSS detects only half (54% the number of transcripts identified by SAGE (3,617 versus 1,955. Analysis of two additional MPSS libraries shows that each library samples a different subset of transcripts, and that in combination the three MPSS libraries (4,274,992 tags in total still only detect 73% of the genes identified in our test set using SAGE. The fraction of transcripts detected by MPSS is likely to be even lower for uncharacterized transcripts, which tend to be more weakly expressed. The source of the loss of complexity in MPSS libraries compared to SAGE is unclear, but its effects become more severe with each sequencing cycle (i.e. as MPSS tag length increases

  14. Spectroscopic study of a DNA brush synthesized in situ by surface initiated enzymatic polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Nuruzzaman; Tjong, Vinalia; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Zharnikov, Michael

    2013-08-29

    We used a combination of synchrotron-based X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and angle-resolved near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to study the chemical integrity, purity, and possible internal alignment of single-strand (ss) adenine deoxynucleotide (poly(A)) DNA brushes. The brushes were synthesized by surface-initiated enzymatic polymerization (SIEP) on a 25-mer of adenine self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on gold (A25-SH), wherein the terminal 3'-OH of the A25-SH serve as the initiation sites for SIEP of poly(A). XPS and NEXAFS spectra of poly(A) brushes were found to be almost identical to those of A25-SH initiator, with no unambiguous traces of contamination. Apart from the well-defined chemical integrity and contamination-free character, the brushes were found to have a high degree of orientational order, with an upright orientation of individual strands, despite their large thickness up to ~55 nm, that corresponds to a chain length of at least several hundred nucleotides for individual ssDNA molecules. The orientational order exhibited by these poly(A) DNA brushes, mediated presumably by base stacking, was found to be independent of the brush thickness as long as the packing density was high enough. The well-defined character and orientational ordering of the ssDNA brushes make them a potentially promising system for different applications.

  15. Hydration of poly( N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes on micro-silica beads measured by a fluorescent probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yusuke; Nagase, Kenichi; Kobayashi, Jun; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Akiyama, Yoshikatsu; Kanazawa, Hideko; Okano, Teruo

    2010-05-01

    Hydration of poly( N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes on silica micro-beads was investigated using a fluorescent probe method. The free ends, the bottom, and the random of brushes were labeled with dansyl group. The emission spectra at the thin brushes were reduced with increasing temperature regardless of their labeling locations. At the free ends of thick brushes, the emission intensity was enhanced at 500 nm and reduced at 455 nm by heating, which was corresponding to the local micro-environmental change around the free ends. The spectral shift was speculated to be due to the enhancement of the flexibility and the hydration of thick brushes.

  16. Synergy of brushing mode and antibacterial use on in vivo biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsma, Marije A; van de Lagemaat, Marieke; Busscher, Henk J; Geertsema-Doornbusch, Gesinda I; Atema-Smit, Jelly; van der Mei, Henny C; Ren, Yijin

    2015-12-01

    Orthodontic, multi-strand retention-wires are used as a generalized model for oral retention sites to investigate whether biofilm left-behind after powered toothbrushing in-vivo enabled better penetration of antibacterials as compared with manual brushing. 2-cm multi-strand, stainless-steel retention-wires were placed in brackets bonded bilaterally in the upper arches of 10-volunteers. Volunteers used NaF-sodium-lauryl-sulphate-containing toothpaste and antibacterial, triclosan-containing toothpaste supplemented or not with an essential-oils containing mouthrinse. Opposite sides of the dentition including the retention-wires, were brushed manually or with a powered toothbrush. Health-care-regimens were maintained for 1-week, after which wires were removed and oral biofilm was collected. When powered toothbrushing was applied, slightly less bacteria were collected than after manual brushing, regardless whether an antibacterial-regimen was used or not. Powered-toothbrushing combined with antibacterial-regimens yielded lower biofilm viability than manual brushing, indicating better antibacterial penetration into biofilm left-behind after powered brushing. Major shifts in biofilm composition, with a decrease in prevalence of both cariogenic species and periodontopathogens, were induced after powered brushing using an antibacterial-regimen. Oral biofilm left-behind after powered brushing in-vivo enabled better penetration of antibacterials than after manual brushing. Mechanical removal of oral biofilm is important for prevention of dental pathologies, but biofilm is always left-behind, such as in fissures, buccal pits, interproximal areas and gingival margins and around orthodontic appliances. Use of antibacterial toothpastes or mouthrinses can contribute to removal or killing of biofilm bacteria, but biofilm structure hampers antibacterial penetration. A synergy between brushing mode and antibacterial-regimen applied exists with clinically demonstrable effects

  17. Features of Running Brush Motors in Dry Nitrogen Environment When Using in Electrohydraulic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Petrov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work concerns the constructive characteristics optimization of brushless D.C. (direct current motors used in electromechanical spacecraft drives.The spacecraft electromechanical drives and units use rather widely the brushless D.C. motors in which a motor commutator is replaced with more reliable semiconductor commutator controlled by the rotor position sensors. However, these motors are of low power.Electrohydraulic actuators (EHA use simple permanent-magnet motors (PMM of rather high power and commutator motors with graphite brush variable contacts.High reliability of brush motors, and, therefore a reliability of EHA in general, substantially depends on the quality of motor commutator operation. There are different reasons for a possible impact on the normal motor commutator operation. One of them is brush wear. Sparking brushes and burning commutator bars are possible in case brushes are poorly grinded to fit, brushes cannot freely move true in the brush holder box, and in case an incorrect force to clamp brushes to the commutator is chosen.It is established that drive wear resistance and operability depends on the gas environment composition being under sealed motor housing. In dry nitrogen environment brush wear suddenly raises because of the changing tribological performances of the commutator thus leading to essentially falling isolation resistance and no motor start.It is recommended to fill a space under sealed motor housing with air. Positive experience of operating spacecraft device containers with mobile electromechanical couples allowed us to find that in this case a dew point of filled air must be minus 20˚C.The paper offers an electromechanical alternative of design to the electrohydraulic actuators, with a ball-screw gear of the actuation mechanism, possessing a number of advantages.

  18. Gingival abrasion and recession in manual and oscillating-rotating power brush users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosema, N A M; Adam, R; Grender, J M; Van der Sluijs, E; Supranoto, S C; Van der Weijden, G A

    2014-11-01

    To assess gingival recession (GR) in manual and power toothbrush users and evaluate the relationship between GR and gingival abrasion scores (GA). This was an observational (cross-sectional), single-centre, examiner-blind study involving a single-brushing exercise, with 181 young adult participants: 90 manual brush users and 91 oscillating-rotating power brush users. Participants were assessed for GR and GA as primary response variables. Secondary response variables were the level of gingival inflammation, plaque score reduction and brushing duration. Pearson correlation was used to describe the relationship between number of recession sites and number of abrasions. Prebrushing (baseline) and post-brushing GA and plaque scores were assessed and differences analysed using paired tests. Two-sample t-test was used to analyse group differences; ancova was used for analyses of post-brushing changes with baseline as covariate. Overall, 97.8% of the study population had at least one site of ≥1 mm of gingival recession. For the manual group, this percentage was 98.9%, and for the power group, this percentage was 96.7% (P = 0.621). Post-brushing, the power group showed a significantly smaller GA increase than the manual group (P = 0.004); however, there was no significant correlation between number of recession sites and number of abrasions for either group (P ≥ 0.327). Little gingival recession was observed in either toothbrush user group; the observed GR levels were comparable. Lower post-brushing gingival abrasion levels were seen in the power group. There was no correlation between gingival abrasion as a result of brushing and the observed gingival recession following use of either toothbrush. © 2014 The Authors International Journal of Dental Hygiene Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Development of the Upgraded DC Brush Gear Motor for Spacebus Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berning, Robert H.; Viout, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    The obsolescence of materials and processes used in the manufacture of traditional DC brush gear motors has necessitated the development of an upgraded DC brush gear motor (UBGM). The current traditional DC brush gear motor (BGM) design was evaluated using Six-Sigma process to identify potential design and production process improvements. The development effort resulted in a qualified UBGM design which improved manufacturability and reduced production costs. Using Six-Sigma processes and incorporating lessons learned during the development process also improved motor performance for UBGM making it a more viable option for future use as a deployment mechanism in space flight applications.

  20. A hybrid floating brush seal (HFBS) for improved sealing and wear performance in turbomachinery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattime, Scott Byran

    A conceptually new type of seal has been developed for gas turbine applications which dramatically reduces wear and leakage associated with current labyrinth and brush seal technologies. The Hybrid Floating Brush Seal (HFBS) combines brush seal and film riding face seal technologies to create a hybrid seal that allows both axial and radial excursions of the sealed shaft, while simultaneously eliminating interface surface speeds (friction and heat) between the rotor and the brush material that characterize standard brush seal technology. A simple test rig was designed to evaluate feasibility of the HFBS under relatively low pressures and rotational speeds (50psig, 5krpm). A second test stand was created to study the effects of centrifugal force on bristle deflection. A third test facility was constructed for prototype development and extensive room temperature testing at moderate pressures and fairly high rotational speeds (100psig, 40krpm). This test rig also allowed the evaluation of the HFBS during axial movement of a rotating shaft. An analytical model to predict the effects of centrifugal force on the bristles of a rotating brush seal was developed. Room temperature analysis of the HFBS proved successful for relatively high operating rotational velocities at moderate pressures with very acceptable leakage rates for gas turbine engines. Brush seals were able to track rotor speeds up to 24krpm while maintaining sealing integrity. The HFBS's ability to function under axial shaft displacement and synchronous dynamic radial loading was also proven successful. Hydrodynamic performance of the face seal was proven to provide adequate stiffness and load carrying capacity to keep the brush seal from contacting the face seal at pressure drops across the brush of up to 100psi. Leakage performance over standard brush seal and labyrinth technology was quite dramatic. The HFBS showed its sealing advantage using much higher radial interference between the rotor and the bristle

  1. Probing endocytosis from the enterocyte brush border using fluorescent lipophilic dyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael

    2015-01-01

    The small intestinal brush border is a specialized cell membrane that needs to withstand the solubilizing effect of bile salts during assimilation of dietary nutrients and to achieve detergent resistance; it is highly enriched in glycolipids organized in lipid raft microdomains. In the present work......-toluenesulfonate), and CellMask Orange plasma membrane stain were used to study endocytosis from the enterocyte brush border of organ-cultured porcine mucosal explants. All the dyes readily incorporated into the brush border but were not detectably endocytosed by 5 min, indicating a slow uptake compared with other cell types...

  2. People Capability Maturity Model. SM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    tailored so it consumes less time and resources than a traditional software process assessment or CMU/SEI-95-MM-02 People Capability Maturity Model...improved reputation or customer loyalty. CMU/SEI-95-MM-02 People Capability Maturity Model ■ L5-17 Coaching Level 5: Optimizing Activity 1...Maturity Model CMU/SEI-95-MM-62 Carnegie-Mellon University Software Engineering Institute DTIC ELECTE OCT 2 7 1995 People Capability Maturity

  3. Daylong Effect of Tooth Brushing or Combination Tooth Brushing and Tongue Cleaning Using Antiplaque®Toothpaste on Volatile Sulphur Compound Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriasti Indah Wardhany

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the daylong effect of Antiplaque® toothpaste active copound and the effect of tooth brushing or combination of tooth brushing and tongue cleaning on Volatile Sulphur Compounds (VSC levels. Methods: Clinical experimental double blinded microbiological and clinical examination. Subjects mainly from dental faculty student with or without a chief complain of halitosis. One hundred and twenty subjects were divided into four groups that consist of thirty samples each group. Two group are treatment subjects were divided into four groups that consist thirty samples each group. Two groups are treatment groups using Antiplaque® toothpaste and two groups are control groups using placebo toothpaste. The daylong effects of VSC levels are measured by Halimeter and organoleptic. The intraoral status were measured including periodontal status and tongue index. Result: There are a reduction of VSC levels in both treatment and control group, but the reduction only significant in group using Antiplaque® toothpaste (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p<0.05. There are a reduction of VSC levels in both treatment using Antiplaque® toothpaste, but the combination of tooth brushing and tongue cleaning reduced VSC levels significantly lower than tooth brushing treatment (Mann Whitney U test, P,0.05. Conclusion: Tooth brushing and tongue cleaning using Antiplaque® toothpaste significantly reduced VSC levels.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i2.95

  4. Maturity effects in energy futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos (Calgary Univ., AB (CA). Dept. of Economics)

    1992-04-01

    This paper examines the effects of maturity on future price volatility and trading volume for 129 energy futures contracts recently traded in the NYMEX. The results provide support for the maturity effect hypothesis, that is, energy futures prices to become more volatile and trading volume increases as futures contracts approach maturity. (author).

  5. Antioxidant Capacity and Polyphenolic Composition as Quality Indicators for Aqueous Infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephan G; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Zimmermann, Benno F; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-01-01

    Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is used as an herbal medicinal product, with the most typical form of application as infusion with boiling water (sage tea). The well-established traditional uses include symptomatic treatment of mild dyspeptic complaints, the treatment of inflammations in the mouth and the throat, and relief of excessive sweating and relief of minor skin inflammations. In this study, sage teas prepared from commercially available products were chemically analyzed for polyphenolic content using liquid chromatography, for antioxidant potential using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method, and for the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) index. The sage teas showed a high variation for all parameters studied (up to 20-fold differences for rosmarinic acid). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the antioxidant potential, which varied between 0.4 and 1.8 mmol trolox equivalents/100 mL, was highly dependent on rosmarinic acid and its derivatives. The FC index also showed a high correlation to these polyphenols, and could therefore be used as a screening parameter for sage tea quality. The considerable differences in polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity between the brands lead to a demand for quality standardization, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Further research also appears to be necessary to characterize the dose-benefit relationship, as sage may also contain a constituent (thujone) with potentially adverse effects.

  6. Antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic composition as quality indicators for aqueous infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan G Walch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sage (Salvia officinalis L. is used as an herbal medicinal product, with the most typical form of application as infusion with boiling water (sage tea. The well-established traditional uses include symptomatic treatment of mild dyspeptic complaints, the treatment of inflammations in the mouth and the throat, and relief of excessive sweating and relief of minor skin inflammations. In this study, sage teas prepared from commercially available products were chemically analysed for polyphenolic content using liquid chromatography, for antioxidant potential using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC method, and for the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC index. The sage teas showed a high variation for all parameters studied (up to 20-fold differences for rosmarinic acid. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the antioxidant potential, which varied between 0.4 and 1.8 mmol trolox equivalents/100 mL, was highly dependent on rosmarinic acid and its derivatives. The FC index also showed a high correlation to these polyphenols, and could therefore be used as a screening parameter for sage tea quality. The considerable differences in polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity between the brands lead to a demand for quality standardisation, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Further research also appears to be necessary to characterise the dose-benefit relationship, as sage may also contain a constituent (thujone with potentially adverse effects.

  7. Multi-species benefits of the proposed North American sage-grouse management plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clait E. Braun

    2005-01-01

    The population size and distribution of the two species of sage-grouse (Greater – Centrocercus urophasianus and Gunnison – C. minimus) populations have become greatly reduced throughout western North America because of habitat changes. Threats are ongoing to the remaining sagebrush (Artemisia ...

  8. Methodology optimizing SAGE library tag-to-gene mapping: application to Leishmania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smandi Sondos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leishmaniasis are widespread parasitic-diseases with an urgent need for more active and less toxic drugs and for effective vaccines. Understanding the biology of the parasite especially in the context of host parasite interaction is a crucial step towards such improvements in therapy and control. Several experimental approaches including SAGE (Serial analysis of gene expression have been developed in order to investigate the parasite transcriptome organisation and plasticity. Usual SAGE tag-to-gene mapping techniques are inadequate because almost all tags are normally located in the 3'-UTR outside the CDS, whereas most information available for Leishmania transcripts is restricted to the CDS predictions. The aim of this work is to optimize a SAGE libraries tag-to-gene mapping technique and to show how this development improves the understanding of Leishmania transcriptome. Findings The in silico method implemented herein was based on mapping the tags to Leishmania genome using BLAST then mapping the tags to their gene using a data-driven probability distribution. This optimized tag-to-gene mappings improved the knowledge of Leishmania genome structure and transcription. It allowed analyzing the expression of a maximal number of Leishmania genes, the delimitation of the 3' UTR of 478 genes and the identification of biological processes that are differentially modulated during the promastigote to amastigote differentiation. Conclusion The developed method optimizes the assignment of SAGE tags in trypanosomatidae genomes as well as in any genome having polycistronic transcription and small intergenic regions.

  9. SAGE FOR WINDOWS (WSAGE) VERSION 1.0 SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE - USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The guide provides instructions for using the Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE) for Windows, version 1.0. The guide assumes that the user is familiar with the fundamentals of operating Windows 3.1 (or higher) on a personal computer under the DOS 5.0 (or higher) operating system. ...

  10. Landscape restoration for greater sage-grouse: implications for multiscale planning and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael J. Wisdom; Mary M. Rowland; Miles A. Hemstrom; Barbara C. Wales

    2005-01-01

    Habitats and populations of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have declined throughout western North America in response to a myriad of detrimental land uses. Successful restoration of this species' habitat, therefore, is of keen interest to Federal land agencies who oversee management of most remaining habitat. To illustrate the...

  11. Salvia officinalis l. (sage) Ameliorates Radiation-Induced Oxidative Brain Damage In Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, N. N.; Abd El Azime, A.Sh.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the oxidative stress and the role of antioxidant system in the management of gamma irradiation induced whole brain damage in rats . Also, to elucidate the potential role of Salvia officinalis (sage) in alleviating such negative effects. Rats were subjected to gamma radiation (6 Gy). Sage extract was daily given to rats during 14 days before starting irradiation and continued after radiation exposure for another 14 days. The results revealed that the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl content (PCC) and nitric oxide (NO) content were significantly increased, while the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as the reduced glutathione (GSH) content were significantly decreased in the brain homogenate of irradiated rats. Additionally, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) as well as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were significantly increased. On the other hand, the results showed that, administration of sage extract to rats was able to ameliorate the mentioned parameters and the values returned close to the normal ones. It could be concluded that sage extract, by its antioxidant constituents, could modulate radiation induced oxidative stress and enzyme activities in the brain.

  12. SAGE SOLVENT ALTERNATIVES GUIDE: SYSTEM IMPROVEMENTS FOR SELECTING INDUSTRIAL SURFACE CLEANING ALTERNATIVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes computer software, called SAGE, that can provide not only cleaning recommendations but also general information on various surface cleaning options. In short, it is an advisory system which can provide users with vital information on the cleaning process optio...

  13. Restoration handbook for sagebrush steppe ecosystems with emphasis on greater sage-grouse habitat - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Pyke; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mike Pellant; Steven T. Knick; Richard F. Miller; Jeffrey L. Beck; Paul S. Doescher; Eugene W. Schupp; Bruce A. Roundy; Mark Brunson; James D. McIver

    2015-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the United States currently occur on only about one-half of their historical land area because of changes in land use, urban growth, and degradation of land, including invasions of non-native plants. The existence of many animal species depends on the existence of sagebrush steppe habitat. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus...

  14. Hierarchical population structure in greater sage-grouse provides insight into management boundary delineation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd B. Cross; David E. Naugle; John C. Carlson; Michael K. Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    Understanding population structure is important for guiding ongoing conservation and restoration efforts. The greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) is a species of concern distributed across 1.2 million km2 of western North America. We genotyped 1499 greater sagegrouse from 297 leks across Montana, North Dakota and South Dakota using a 15 locus...

  15. Information Retrieval from SAGE II and MFRSR Multi-Spectral Extinction Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacis, Andrew A.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Direct beam spectral extinction measurements of solar radiation contain important information on atmospheric composition in a form that is essentially free from multiple scattering contributions that otherwise tend to complicate the data analysis and information retrieval. Such direct beam extinction measurements are available from the solar occultation satellite-based measurements made by the Stratospheric and Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE II) instrument and by ground-based Multi-Filter Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSRs). The SAGE II data provide cross-sectional slices of the atmosphere twice per orbit at seven wavelengths between 385 and 1020 nm with approximately 1 km vertical resolution, while the MFRSR data provide atmospheric column measurements at six wavelengths between 415 and 940 nm but at one minute time intervals. We apply the same retrieval technique of simultaneous least-squares fit to the observed spectral extinctions to retrieve aerosol optical depth, effective radius and variance, and ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and water vapor amounts from the SAGE II and MFRSR measurements. The retrieval technique utilizes a physical model approach based on laboratory measurements of ozone and nitrogen dioxide extinction, line-by-line and numerical k-distribution calculations for water vapor absorption, and Mie scattering constraints on aerosol spectral extinction properties. The SAGE II measurements have the advantage of being self-calibrating in that deep space provides an effective zero point for the relative spectral extinctions. The MFRSR measurements require periodic clear-day Langley regression calibration events to maintain accurate knowledge of instrument calibration.

  16. Greater sage-grouse as an umbrella species for sagebrush-associated vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary M. Rowland; Michael J. Wisdom; Lowell Suring; Cara W. Meinke

    2006-01-01

    Widespread degradation of the sagebrush ecosystem in the western United States, including the invasion of cheatgrass, has prompted resource managers to consider a variety of approaches to restore and conserve habitats for sagebrush-associated species. One such approach involves the use of greater sage-grouse, a species of prominent conservation interest, as an umbrella...

  17. Characteristics of coastal sage scrub in relation to fire history and use by California gnatcatchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan L. Beyers; Ginger C. Pena

    1995-01-01

    Abstract: Plant cover and vegetation structure were examined at two inland coastal sage scrub sites differing in fire history and use by California gnatcatchers. Salvia mellifera and Eriogonum fasciculatum dominated one site; shrub cover on gnatcatcher occupied plots averaged 50 percent greater than on unoccupied plots. At the other site, gnatcatcher-occupied plots had...

  18. Revealing the Mind of the Sage: The Narrative Rhetoric of the "Chuang Tzu."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, William G.

    1992-01-01

    Argues that one of the formative texts of Taoism, the "Chuang Tzu," is worthy of study by rhetoric scholars because it reveals a unique approach to rhetoric in its attempt to disclose the mind of the sage not through logic but through intuition, and it shows how storytelling can acquaint people with previously unsuspected possibilities of thought…

  19. Microhabitat Conditions in Wyoming's Sage-Grouse Core Areas: Effects on Nest Site Selection and Success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Dinkins

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to identify microhabitat characteristics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus nest site selection and survival to determine the quality of sage-grouse habitat in 5 regions of central and southwest Wyoming associated with Wyoming's Core Area Policy. Wyoming's Core Area Policy was enacted in 2008 to reduce human disturbance near the greatest densities of sage-grouse. Our analyses aimed to assess sage-grouse nest selection and success at multiple micro-spatial scales. We obtained microhabitat data from 928 sage-grouse nest locations and 819 random microhabitat locations from 2008-2014. Nest success was estimated from 924 nests with survival data. Sage-grouse selected nests with greater sagebrush cover and height, visual obstruction, and number of small gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥0.5 m and <1.0 m, while selecting for less bare ground and rock. With the exception of more small gaps between shrubs, we did not find any differences in availability of these microhabitat characteristics between locations within and outside of Core Areas. In addition, we found little supporting evidence that sage-grouse were selecting different nest sites in Core Areas relative to areas outside of Core. The Kaplan-Meier nest success estimate for a 27-day incubation period was 42.0% (95% CI: 38.4-45.9%. Risk of nest failure was negatively associated with greater rock and more medium-sized gaps between shrubs (gap size ≥2.0 m and <3.0 m. Within our study areas, Wyoming's Core Areas did not have differing microhabitat quality compared to outside of Core Areas. The close proximity of our locations within and outside of Core Areas likely explained our lack of finding differences in microhabitat quality among locations within these landscapes. However, the Core Area Policy is most likely to conserve high quality habitat at larger spatial scales, which over decades may have cascading effects on microhabitat quality available

  20. Sagebrush, greater sage-grouse, and the occurrence and importance of forbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Victoria E.; Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Bradford, John B.; Palmquist, Kyle A.; Lauenroth, William K.

    2016-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) ecosystems provide habitat for sagebrush-obligate wildlife species such as the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). The understory of big sagebrush plant communities is composed of grasses and forbs that are important sources of cover and food for wildlife. The grass component is well described in the literature, but the composition, abundance, and habitat role of forbs in these communities is largely unknown. Our objective was to synthesize information about forbs and their importance to Greater Sage-Grouse diets and habitats, how rangeland management practices affect forbs, and how forbs respond to changes in temperature and precipitation. We also sought to identify research gaps and needs concerning forbs in big sagebrush plant communities. We searched for relevant literature including journal articles and state and federal agency reports. Our results indicated that in the spring and summer, Greater Sage-Grouse diets consist of forbs (particularly species in the Asteraceae family), arthropods, and lesser amounts of sagebrush. The diets transition to sagebrush in fall and winter. Forbs provide cover for Greater Sage-Grouse individuals at their lekking, nesting, and brood-rearing sites, and the species has a positive relationship with arthropod presence. The effect of grazing on native forbs may be compounded by invasion of nonnative species and differs depending on grazing intensity. The effect of fire on forbs varies greatly and may depend on time elapsed since burning. In addition, chemical and mechanical treatments affect annual and perennial forbs differently. Temperature and precipitation influence forb phenology, biomass, and abundance differently among species. Our review identified several uncertainties and research needs about forbs in big sagebrush ecosystems. First, in many cases the literature about forbs is reported only at the genus or functional type level. Second, information about forb

  1. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    Yeast surface display is an effective tool for antibody affinity maturation because yeast can be used as an all-in-one workhorse to assemble, display and screen diversified antibody libraries. By employing the natural ability of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently recombine multiple DNA...... laboratory conditions. A particular emphasis was put on using molecular techniques in conjunction with microenvironmental measurements (O2, pH, irradiance), a combination that is rarely found but provides a much more detailed understanding of “cause and effect” in complex natural systems...

  2. Everybody Brush! Consumer Satisfaction with a Tooth Decay Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Cunha-Cruz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionTwice-daily caregiver-supervised toothbrushing with fluoridated toothpaste is an effective and widely recommended strategy to prevent tooth decay in children. Qualitative research suggests that low-income caregivers know the recommendation but would benefit from toothbrushing supplies and advice about how to introduce this health behavior especially as the child becomes older and asserts autonomy to do it “myself.” Our objective is to assess consumer satisfaction with the evidence-based theory-informed campaign and usefulness of materials that were home delivered. The focus of the evaluation was families with children <36 months of age because of the high incidence of disease in this population.MethodsA dental care organization designed and implemented Everybody Brush! in three counties of Central Oregon. Participants were families of Medicaid-insured children <21 years of age. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the three study groups: test (supplies, voice/printed messages, telephone support, active (supplies, and a waitlist control. Program materials were in English and Spanish. Caregivers of children <36 months were interviewed at the beginning and end of the program.ResultsA total of 83,148 toothbrushing kits were mailed to 21,743 families. In addition, 93,766 printed messages and 110,367 recorded messages were sent to half of the families. Caregivers were highly satisfied. On a global rating scale from 0 to 10 (worst to best program possible, they rated the program 9.5 on average (median: 10, SD 0.9. On a scale from 0 to 10 (not at all to very useful, mean ratings for usefulness of the toothbrushing supplies was 9.5 (SD = 1.5, for the printed postcard messages was 7.2 (SD 3.6, and for the voice telephone messages was 6.5 (SD 3.9.DiscussionA dental care organization carried out a complex community intervention designed to address excess tooth decay among low-income children. Caregivers were highly

  3. Interaction between two parallel plates covered with a polyelectrolyte brush layer in an electrolyte solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    An approximate analytic expression is derived for the interaction energy between two parallel plates covered with a polyelectrolyte brush layer in an electrolyte solution. The interaction energy has three components: electrostatic interaction energy between two brush layers before and after their contact, steric interaction energy between two brush layers after their contact, and the van der Waals interaction energy between the cores of the plates. It is shown that these three components are of the same order of magnitude and contribute equally to the total interaction energy between two polyelectrolyte-coated plates in an electrolyte solution. On the basis of Derjaguin's approximation, an approximate expression for the interaction energy between two spherical particles covered with polyelectrolyte brush layers is also derived.

  4. Molecular Velcro constructed from polymer loop brushes showing enhanced adhesion force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Han, Biao; Han, Lin; Li, Christopher; Department of Materials Science; Engineering Team; School of Biomedical Engineering, Science; Health Systems Team

    2015-03-01

    Molecular Velcro is commonly seen in biological systems as the formation of strong physical entanglement at molecular scale could induce strong adhesion, which is crucial to many biological processes. To mimic this structure, we designed, and fabricated polymer loop brushes using polymer single crystals with desired surface functionality and controlled chain folding. Compared with reported loop brushes fabricated using triblock copolymers, the present loop bushes have precise loop sizes, loop grafting density, and well controlled tethering locations on the solid surface. Atomic force microscopy-based force spectroscopy measurements using a polymer chain coated probe reveal that the adhesion force are significantly enhanced on the loop brush surface as compared with its single-strand counterpart. This study directly shows the effect of polymer brush conformation on their properties, and suggests a promising strategy for advanced polymer surface design.

  5. Gallium-containing polymer brush film as efficient supported Lewis acid catalyst in a glass microreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Munirathinam

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Polystyrene sulfonate polymer brushes, grown on the interior of the microchannels in a microreactor, have been used for the anchoring of gallium as a Lewis acid catalyst. Initially, gallium-containing polymer brushes were grown on a flat silicon oxide surface and were characterized by FTIR, ellipsometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. XPS revealed the presence of one gallium per 2–3 styrene sulfonate groups of the polymer brushes. The catalytic activity of the Lewis acid-functionalized brushes in a microreactor was demonstrated for the dehydration of oximes, using cinnamaldehyde oxime as a model substrate, and for the formation of oxazoles by ring closure of ortho-hydroxy oximes. The catalytic activity of the microreactor could be maintained by periodic reactivation by treatment with GaCl3.

  6. Peptides Displayed as High Density Brush Polymers Resist Proteolysis and Retain Bioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We describe a strategy for rendering peptides resistant to proteolysis by formulating them as high-density brush polymers. The utility of this approach is demonstrated by polymerizing well-established cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and showing that the resulting polymers are not only resistant to proteolysis but also maintain their ability to enter cells. The scope of this design concept is explored by studying the proteolytic resistance of brush polymers composed of peptides that are substrates for either thrombin or a metalloprotease. Finally, we demonstrate that the proteolytic susceptibility of peptide brush polymers can be tuned by adjusting the density of the polymer brush and offer in silico models to rationalize this finding. We contend that this strategy offers a plausible method of preparing peptides for in vivo use, where rapid digestion by proteases has traditionally restricted their utility. PMID:25314576

  7. Thermo-responsive and fluorescent cellulose nanocrystals grafted with polymer brushes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Weibing [Nanjing Forestry Univ. (China); Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Huang, Fang [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Pan, Shaobo [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Mu, Wei [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Meng, Xianzhi [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Yang, Haitao [Hubei Univ. of Technology, Wuhan (China); Xu, Zhaoyang [Nanjing Forestry Univ. (China); Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Deng, Yulin [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-11-24

    Fluorescent and thermo-responsive cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) with tuned polymer brushes were preparedviasurface initiated activators generated by electron transfer for atom transfer radical polymerization.

  8. Surface Grafted Glycopolymer Brushes to Enhance Selective Adhesion of HepG2 Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernyy, Sergey; Jensen, Bettina Elisabeth Brøgger; Shimizu, Kyoko

    2013-01-01

    on the polymerization kinetics of 2-lactobionamidoethyl methacrylate) (LAMA) monomer on thermally oxidized silicon wafer. Both monolayer and multilayered aminosilane precursor layers have been prepared followed by reaction with 2-bromoisobutyrylbromide to form the ATRP initiator layer. It is inferred from the kinetic...... studies that the rate of termination is low on a multilayered initiator layer compared to a disordered monolayer structure. However both initiator types results in similar graft densities. Furthermore, it is shown that thick comb-like poly(LAMA) brushes can be constructed by initiating a second ATRP...... process on a previously formed poly(LAMA) brushes. The morphology of human hepatocellular carcinoma cancer cells (HepG2) on the comb-like poly(LAMA) brush layer has been studied. The fluorescent images of the HepG2 cells on the glycopolymer brush surface display distinct protrusions that extend outside...

  9. Cylindrical polymer brushes with dendritic side chains by iterative anionic reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Hefeng; Qu, Chengke; He, Junpo

    2015-01-01

    We report in this paper an easy method for the synthesis of cylindrical polymer brushes with dendritic side chains through anionic reaction. The synthesis is accomplished by iteratively grafting a living block copolymer, polyisoprene-. b

  10. Preparing high-density polymer brushes by mechanically assisted polymer assembly (MAPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Efimenko, Kirill; Genzer, Jan

    2001-03-01

    We introduce a novel method of modifying the surface properties of materials. This technique, called MAPA (="mechanically assisted polymer assembly"), is based on: 1) chemically attaching polymerization initiators to the surface of an elastomeric network that has been previously stretched by a certain length, Δx, and 2) growing end-anchored macromolecules using surface initiated ("grafting from") atom transfer living radical polymerization. After the polymerization, the strain is removed from the substrate, which returns to its original size causing the grafted macromolecules to stretch away from the substrate and form a dense polymer brush. We demonstrate the feasibility of the MAPA method by preparing high-density polymer brushes of poly(acryl amide), PAAm. We show that, as expected, the grafting density of the PAAm brushes can be increased by increasing Δx. We demonstrate that polymer brushes with extremely high grafting densities can be successfully prepared by MAPA.

  11. Novel Strategy for Photopatterning Emissive Polymer Brushes for Organic Light Emitting Diode Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Zachariah A; Narupai, Benjaporn; Pester, Christian W; Bou Zerdan, Raghida; Sokolov, Anatoliy; Laitar, David S; Mukhopadhyay, Sukrit; Sprague, Scott; McGrath, Alaina J; Kramer, John W; Trefonas, Peter; Hawker, Craig J

    2017-06-28

    A light-mediated methodology to grow patterned, emissive polymer brushes with micron feature resolution is reported and applied to organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays. Light is used for both initiator functionalization of indium tin oxide and subsequent atom transfer radical polymerization of methacrylate-based fluorescent and phosphorescent iridium monomers. The iridium centers play key roles in photocatalyzing and mediating polymer growth while also emitting light in the final OLED structure. The scope of the presented procedure enables the synthesis of a library of polymers with emissive colors spanning the visible spectrum where the dopant incorporation, position of brush growth, and brush thickness are readily controlled. The chain-ends of the polymer brushes remain intact, affording subsequent chain extension and formation of well-defined diblock architectures. This high level of structure and function control allows for the facile preparation of random ternary copolymers and red-green-blue arrays to yield white emission.

  12. Brushes and picks used on nails during the surgical scrub to reduce bacteria: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J; Khan, D; Walsh, S; Chernova, J; Lamont, S; Laurent, T

    2009-03-01

    Though brushes are no longer used on the hands and forearms during the surgical scrub, they are still widely used on the nails. The aim of this study was to determine whether nail picks and nail brushes are effective in providing additional decontamination during a surgical hand scrub. A total of 164 operating department staff were randomised to undertake one of the following three surgical hand-scrub protocols: chlorhexidine only; chlorhexidine and a nail pick; or chlorhexidine and a nail brush. Bacterial hand sampling was conducted before and 1h after scrubbing using a modified version of the glove juice method. No statistically significant differences in bacterial numbers were found between any two of the three intervention groups. Nail brushes and nail picks used during surgical hand scrubs do not decrease bacterial numbers and are unnecessary.

  13. Trends in Social Inequality in Tooth Brushing among Adolescents: 1991-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Bast, Lotus Sofie; Brixval, Carina Sjöberg

    2015-01-01

    This study examines whether social inequality in tooth brushing frequency among adolescents changed from 1991 to 2014. The data material was seven comparable cross-sectional studies of nationally representative samples of 11- to 15-year-olds in Denmark with data about frequency of tooth brushing...... and occupation of parents. The total number of participants was 31,464, of whom 21.7% brushed their teeth less than the recommended 2 times a day. The absolute social inequality measured as prevalence difference between low and high social class increased from 7.7% in 1991 to 14.6% in 2014. The relative social...... inequality assessed by odds ratios for infrequent tooth brushing also increased from 1991 to 2014....

  14. The SAGE spectrometer: A tool for combined in-beam γ-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadakis, P; Herzberg, R-D; Pakarinen, J; Butler, P A; Cox, D; Cresswell, J R; Parr, E; Sampson, J; Greenlees, P T; Sorri, J; Hauschild, K; Jones, P; Julin, R; Peura, P; Rahkila, P; Sandzelius, M; Coleman-Smith, P J; Lazarus, I H; Letts, S C; Pucknell, V F E

    2011-01-01

    The SAGE spectrometer allows simultaneous in-beam γ-ray and internal conversion electron measurements, by combining a germanium detector array with a highly segmented silicon detector and an electron transport system. SAGE is coupled with the ritu gas-filled recoil separator and the great focal-plane spectrometer for recoil-decay tagging studies. Digital electronics are used both for the γ ray and the electron parts of the spectrometer. SAGE was commissioned in the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae in the beginning of 2010.

  15. Bioaccessibility and inhibitory effects on digestive enzymes of carnosic acid in sage and rosemary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Pınar; El, Sedef Nehir

    2018-04-28

    In this study, the aim was to determine the bioaccessibilities of carnosic acid in sage and rosemary and in vitro inhibitory effects of these samples on lipid and starch digestive enzymes by evaluating the lipase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition activities. The content of carnosic acid in rosemary (18.72 ± 0.33 mg/g) was found to be higher than that content of that in sage (3.76 ± 0.13 mg/g) (p sage and rosemary, respectively. The tested sage and rosemary showed inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase (Concentration of inhibitor required to produce a 50% inhibition of the initial rate of reaction - IC 50 88.49 ± 2.35, 76.80 ± 1.68 μg/mL, respectively), α-amylase (IC 50 107.65 ± 12.64, 95.65 ± 2.73 μg/mL, respectively) and lipase (IC 50 6.20 ± 0.63, 4.31 ± 0.62 μg/mL, respectively). Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that carnosic acid standard equivalent inhibition capacities (CAEIC 50 ) for these food samples were determined and these values were in agreement with the IC 50 values. These results show that sage and rosemary are potent inhibitors of lipase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase digestive enzymes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Gravity in the Century of Light: The Gravitation Theory of Georges-Louis Le Sage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, James

    2006-05-01

    Each generation of physicists, or natural philosophers, has sought to place universal gravitation in the context of its own worldview. Often this has entailed an effort to reduce gravitation to something more fundamental. But what is deemed fundamental has, of course, changed with time. Each generation attacked the problem of universal gravitation with the tools of its day and brought to bear the concepts of its own standard model. The most successful eighteenth-century attempt to provide a mechanical explanation of gravity was that of Georges-Louis Le Sage (1724-1803) of Geneva. Le Sage postulated a sea of ultramundane corpuscles, streaming in all directions and characterized by minute mass, great velocity, and complete inelasticity. Mostly these corpuscles just pass through gross bodies such as apples or planets, but a few are absorbed, leading to all the phenomena of attraction. In a voluminous correspondence with nearly all the savants of the day, Le Sage constantly reshaped his arguments for his system in order to appeal to metaphysicians, mechanicians and Newtonians of several varieties. Le Sage's theory is an especially interesting one, for several reasons. First, it serves as the prototype of a dynamical explanation of Newtonian gravity. Second, the theory came quite close to accomplishing its aim. Third, the theory had a long life and attracted comment by the leading physical thinkers of several successive generations, including Laplace, Kelvin, Maxwell and Feynman. Le Sage's theory therefore provides an excellent opportunity for the study of the evolution of attitudes toward physical explanation. The effects of national style in science and generational change take on a new clarity.

  17. Effects of Bristle Hardness & Duration of Manual Tooth brushing on Plaque Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Sunny

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral health is an integral part of general health. Poor oral health can have adverse effect on general health hence a good oral health is very essential, which in turn is achieved by good oral hygiene. Even though, the concept of good oral hygiene evolved 5000 years back, it is only in the beginning of 19th century it gained more importance. (1 Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most commonly occurring diseases affecting mankind. Dental plaque is a very important factor in the causation of both the diseases. (2 Aims & Objectives: To evaluate efficacy of four different types of toothbrushes, with difference in duration of brushing along with different bristle hardness in removal of microbial plaque. Material & Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, four groups with 40 subjects used manual toothbrushes with either hard, medium, soft and ultra-soft bristles. On baseline examination, clinical parameter plaque index (Sillness & Loe, 1964 was recorded. Selected subjects were refrained from all kinds of oral hygiene measures for 24 hrs before clinical appointment. On the day of clinical appointment scores of pre and post brushing were recorded in each patient when brushing time was set for 1 minute and same procedure was repeated after a wash off period of 3 days and similar recordings were made with brushing time of 11/2minute. Primary outcome was measured with differences in the plaque index (Sillness & Loe, 1964 compared to baseline. Results: Significant reduction in mean value of plaque score was observed on comparing pre-brushing and post-brushing data in all the subjects irrespective of bristle hardness in both 1 minute and 11/2 minute groups. On increasing time duration from 1 minute to 11/2 minute intergroup comparison revealed that significant correlation exist in mean plaque score reduction in subjects using medium bristle brush, soft bristle brush, ultra-soft bristle brush. However, no significant reduction in

  18. Uptake of pH-Sensitive Gold Nanoparticles in Strong Polyelectrolyte Brushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikran Kesal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of electrostatic attraction on the uptake of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs into positively charged strong poly-[2-(Methacryloyloxy ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride (PMETAC polyelectrolyte brushes was investigated. In this work, PMETAC brushes were synthesized via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (Si-ATRP. PMETAC/AuNP composite materials were prepared by incubation of the polymer brush coated samples into 3-mercaptopropionic acid-capped AuNP (5 nm in diameter suspension. The electrostatic interactions were tuned by changing the surface charge of the AuNPs through variations in pH value, while the charge of the PMETAC brush was not affected. Atomic-force microscopy (AFM, ellipsometry, UV/Vis spectroscopy, gravimetric analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM were employed to study the loading and penetration into the polymer brush. The results show that the number density of attached AuNPs depends on the pH value and increases with increasing pH value. There is also strong evidence that the particle assembly is dependent on the pH value of the AuNP suspension. Incubation of PMETAC brushes in AuNP suspension at pH 4 led to the formation of a surface layer on top of the brush (2D assembly due to sterical hindrance of the clustered AuNPs, while incubation in AuNP suspension at pH 8 led to deeper particle penetration into the brush (3D assembly. The straightforward control of particle uptake and assembly by tuning the charge density of the nanoparticle surface is a valuable tool for the development of materials for colorimetric sensor applications.

  19. Endocytic trafficking from the small intestinal brush border probed with FM dye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert H; Rasmussen, Karina; Niels-Christiansen, Lise-Lotte

    2009-01-01

    -linking galectins/intelectin, but little is known about the dynamic properties of this highly specialized membrane. Here, we probed the endocytic membrane trafficking from the brush border of organ cultured pig intestinal mucosal explants by use of a fixable, lipophilic FM dye. The fluorescent dye readily......, contributes to the overall permeability barrier of the gut. Key words: FM dye, small intestine, brush border, endocytosis....

  20. Applications of functional polymer brushes for nanoparticle uptake and prevention of protein adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arifuzzaman, Shafi M.

    The central theme of this Ph.D. dissertation is to develop novel multifunctional polymer coatings for understanding partition of proteins and nanoparticles on polymers grafted to flat surfaces (so-called brushes). Systematic investigation of the adsorption phenomena is accomplished by utilizing surface-anchored assemblies comprising grafted polymers with variation in physical properties (i.e., length or/and grafting density) and chemical functionality. The chemical composition of the brush is tailored by either "chemical coloring" of a parent homopolymer brush with selective chemical moieties or by sequential growth of two chemically dissimilar polymer blocks. We present preparation of two types of tailor-made, surface-grafted copolymers: (1) those composed of hydrophilic and hydrophobic blocks (so-called amphiphilic polymer brushes), and (2) those comprising of anionic and cationic polymer segments (so-called polyampholyte brushes). We describe the organization of functionality in the grafted polymer brushes and the partitioning of proteins and nanoparticles using a battery of complementary analytical probes. Specifically, we address how varying the molecular weight, grafting density, and chemical composition of the brush affects adsorbtion and desorbtion of model proteins and gold nanoparticles. Our observations indicate densely-populated responsive amphiphilic polymers are very efficient in suppressing protein adsorption. In addition, we have established that the length of poly(ethylene glycol) spacers attached to a parent homopolymer brush is a key factor governing uptake of gold nanoparticles. Both grafting density and molecular weight of the coating are important in controlling the kinetics and thermodynamics of protein adsorption on surfaces. Our findings and methodologies can lead to the development of next generation environmentally friendly antifouling surfaces and will find application in medical devices, antifouling coatings and anti reflection finishes.

  1. Changes to Glazed Dental Ceramic Shade, Roughness, and Microhardness after Bleaching and Simulated Brushing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Carlos Roberto Teixeira; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes

    2017-09-05

    To evaluate shade stability, surface roughness, microhardness, and compressive strength of a glazed feldspathic ceramic subjected to bleaching and simulated brushing. Eighty-eight glazed feldspathic ceramic specimens were made from microparticulate leucite and divided into eight groups (n = 10). The whitening products used were: Opalescence Trèswhite Supreme (Ultradent), Opalescence®\\ PF 15% (Ultradent), and Oral-B 3D White Whitestrips. All substances for whitening were used for 4 hours/day for a period of 14 days; the control group was not bleached. Next, half of the specimens were individually brushed. Microhardness and surface roughness data were subjected to three-way ANOVA and Tukey test. The diametrical tensile strength data were subjected to two-way ANOVA. The shade change data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and the Student-Newman-Keuls test. The significance level was set at 5%. Glazed feldspathic ceramic surface microhardness was significantly affected by bleaching agents (p = 0.007). Initially, glazed ceramic microhardness was significantly higher than that observed after contact with the bleaching agents, whether or not brushing was performed. The specimens submitted to bleaching in preloaded trays presented lower surface roughness values after brushing (p = 0.037). The surface roughness was significantly lower in the brushed specimens (p = 0.044). The diametrical tensile strength was not significantly affected by the application of bleaching agents (p = 0.563) or by brushing (p = 0.477). When the specimens were brushed, however, shade change was significantly influenced by the bleaching agent used (p = 0.041). Bleaching agents associated with brushing cycles can alter surface properties and shade stability of glazed feldspathic ceramics, though such findings may not reflect the performance of unglazed feldspathic ceramics. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  2. Plaque-left-behind after brushing: intra-oral reservoir for antibacterial toothpaste ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Marieke P T; Busscher, Henk J; Abbas, Frank; van der Mei, Henny C; van Hoogmoed, Chris G

    2012-10-01

    Plaque is never fully removed by brushing and may act as a reservoir for antibacterial ingredients, contributing to their substantive action. This study investigates the contribution of plaque-left-behind and saliva towards substantivity of three antibacterial toothpastes versus a control paste without antibacterial claims. First, volunteers brushed 2 weeks with a control or antibacterial toothpaste. Next, plaque and saliva samples were collected 6 and 12 h after brushing and bacterial concentrations and viabilities were measured. The contributions of plaque and saliva towards substantivity were determined by combining control plaques with experimental plaque or saliva samples and subsequently assessing their viabilities. Bacterial compositions in the various plaque and saliva samples were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The viabilities of plaques after brushing with Colgate-Total® and Crest-Pro-Health® were smaller than of control plaques and up to 12 h after brushing with Crest-Pro-Health® plaques still contained effective, residual antibacterial activity against control plaques. No effective, residual antibacterial activity could be measured in saliva samples after brushing. There was no significant difference in bacterial composition of plaque or saliva after brushing with the different toothpastes. Plaque-left-behind after mechanical cleaning contributes to the substantive action of an antibacterial toothpaste containing stannous fluoride (Crest-Pro-Health®). The absorptive capacity of plaque-left-behind after brushing is of utmost clinical importance, since plaque is predominantly left behind in places where its removal and effective killing matter most. Therewith this study demonstrates a clear and new beneficial effect of the use of antibacterial toothpastes.

  3. Plaque-left-behind after brushing: intra-oral reservoir for antibacterial toothpaste ingredients

    OpenAIRE

    Otten, Marieke P. T.; Busscher, Henk J.; Abbas, Frank; van der Mei, Henny C.; van Hoogmoed, Chris G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Plaque is never fully removed by brushing and may act as a reservoir for antibacterial ingredients, contributing to their substantive action. This study investigates the contribution of plaque-left-behind and saliva towards substantivity of three antibacterial toothpastes versus a control paste without antibacterial claims. Materials and methods First, volunteers brushed 2 weeks with a control or antibacterial toothpaste. Next, plaque and saliva samples were collected 6 and 12 h af...

  4. Brush competition retards early stand development of planted ponderosa pine: update on a 24-year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    William W. Oliver

    1990-01-01

    Growth of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) was monitored for 24 years after planting at five different square spacings (6, 9. 12, 15, and 18 ft) in the presence or absence of competing brush on the westside Sierra Nevada. Spacing strongly influenced both mean dbh and basal area/ac. In plots maintained free of brush, diameters ranged from 5.1 in. at the 6-ft spacing to...

  5. Well-defined polyethylene molecular brushes by polyhomologation and ring opening metathesis polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Hefeng; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2014-01-01

    A novel strategy using polyhomologation and ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) has been developed for the synthesis of well-defined polyethylene (PE) molecular brushes. Polyhomologation was used to afford an OH-terminated PE, which after transformation to the norbornyl PE macromonomer was subjected to ROMP. Kinetics of ROMP of the PE macromonomer was studied by in situ1H NMR monitoring. The brush structure was proved from HT-GPC, 1H NMR and DSC results.

  6. Minimum free-energy paths for the self-organization of polymer brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleria, Ignacio; Mocskos, Esteban; Tagliazucchi, Mario

    2017-03-22

    A methodology to calculate minimum free-energy paths based on the combination of a molecular theory and the improved string method is introduced and applied to study the self-organization of polymer brushes under poor solvent conditions. Polymer brushes in a poor solvent cannot undergo macroscopic phase separation due to the physical constraint imposed by the grafting points; therefore, they microphase separate forming aggregates. Under some conditions, the theory predicts that the homogeneous brush and the aggregates can exist as two different minima of the free energy. The theoretical methodology introduced in this work allows us to predict the minimum free-energy path connecting these two minima as well as the morphology of the system along the path. It is shown that the transition between the homogeneous brush and the aggregates may involve a free-energy barrier or be barrierless depending on the relative stability of the two morphologies and the chain length and grafting density of the polymer. In the case where a free-energy barrier exists, one of the morphologies is a metastable structure and, therefore, the properties of the brush as the quality of the solvent is cycled are expected to display hysteresis. The theory is also applied to study the adhesion/deadhesion transition between two opposing surfaces modified by identical polymer brushes and it is shown that this process may also require surpassing a free-energy barrier.

  7. Polyethyleneimine brushes effectively inhibit encrustation on polyurethane ureteral stents both in dynamic bioreactor and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gultekinoglu, Merve [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, Ankara 06100 (Turkey); Bioengineering Division, Institute for Graduate Studies in Science and Engineering, Hacettepe University, Ankara 06532 (Turkey); Kurum, Barış [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kırıkkale University, Kırıkkale 71450 (Turkey); Karahan, Siyami [Department of Histology and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kırıkkale University, Kırıkkale 71450 (Turkey); Kart, Didem; Sagiroglu, Meral [Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, Ankara 06100 (Turkey); Ertaş, Nusret [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Gazi University, Ankara 06330 (Turkey); Haluk Ozen, A. [Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara 06100 (Turkey); Ulubayram, Kezban, E-mail: ukezban@hacettepe.edu.tr [Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hacettepe University, Ankara 06100 (Turkey); Bioengineering Division, Institute for Graduate Studies in Science and Engineering, Hacettepe University, Ankara 06532 (Turkey)

    2017-02-01

    Polyurethane (PU) ureteral stents have been widely used as biomedical devices to aid the flow of the urine. Due to the biofilm formation and encrustation complications it has been hindered their long term clinical usage. To overcome these complications, in this study, cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI) brushes grafted on PU stents and their performances were tested both in a dynamic biofilm reactor system (in vitro) and in a rat model (in vivo). Thus, we hypothesized that PEI brushes inhibit bacterial adhesion owing to the dynamic motion of brushes in liquid environment. In addition, cationic structure of PEI disrupts the membrane and so kills the bacteria on time of contact. Cationic PEI brushes decreased the biofilm formation up to 2 orders of magnitude and approximately 50% of encrustation amount in respect to unmodified PU, in vitro. In addition, according to Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) results, approximately 90% of encrustation was inhibited on in vivo animal models. Decrease in encrustation was clearly observed on the stents obtained from rat model, by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Also, histological evaluations showed that; PEI brush grafting decreased host tissue inflammation in close relation to decrease in biofilm formation and encrustation. As a results; dual effect of anti-adhesive and contact-killing antibacterial strategy showed high efficiency on PEI brushes grafted PU stents both in vitro and in vivo.

  8. Calves Use an Automated Brush and a Hanging Rope When Pair-Housed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosia Zobel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calf housing often only meets the basic needs of calves, but there is a growing interest in providing enrichments. This study described the behaviour of calves when they were given the opportunity to interact with two commonly available enrichment items. Female and male calves (approximately 11 days old were pair-housed in 8 identical pens fitted with an automated brush and a hanging rope. Frequency and duration of behaviours were recorded on 3 separate days (from 12:00 until 08:00 the following day. Calves spent equal time using the brush and rope (27.1 min/day, but there was less variation in the use of the brush as opposed to the rope (coefficient of variation, CV: 23 vs. 78%, respectively. Calves had more frequent (94 bouts, CV: 24% and shorter (17.8 s/bout, CV: 24% brush use bouts compared to fewer (38 bouts, CV: 43% and longer (38.3 s/bout, CV: 53% rope use bouts. There was a diurnal pattern of use for both items. Frequency of play was similar to rope use, but total time playing was 8% of rope and brush use. Variability among calves suggested that individual preference existed; however, the social dynamics of the pair-housed environment were not measured and therefore could have influenced brush and rope use. Multiple enrichment items should be considered when designing improvements to calf housing.

  9. Polyethyleneimine brushes effectively inhibit encrustation on polyurethane ureteral stents both in dynamic bioreactor and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gultekinoglu, Merve; Kurum, Barış; Karahan, Siyami; Kart, Didem; Sagiroglu, Meral; Ertaş, Nusret; Haluk Ozen, A.; Ulubayram, Kezban

    2017-01-01

    Polyurethane (PU) ureteral stents have been widely used as biomedical devices to aid the flow of the urine. Due to the biofilm formation and encrustation complications it has been hindered their long term clinical usage. To overcome these complications, in this study, cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI) brushes grafted on PU stents and their performances were tested both in a dynamic biofilm reactor system (in vitro) and in a rat model (in vivo). Thus, we hypothesized that PEI brushes inhibit bacterial adhesion owing to the dynamic motion of brushes in liquid environment. In addition, cationic structure of PEI disrupts the membrane and so kills the bacteria on time of contact. Cationic PEI brushes decreased the biofilm formation up to 2 orders of magnitude and approximately 50% of encrustation amount in respect to unmodified PU, in vitro. In addition, according to Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) results, approximately 90% of encrustation was inhibited on in vivo animal models. Decrease in encrustation was clearly observed on the stents obtained from rat model, by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Also, histological evaluations showed that; PEI brush grafting decreased host tissue inflammation in close relation to decrease in biofilm formation and encrustation. As a results; dual effect of anti-adhesive and contact-killing antibacterial strategy showed high efficiency on PEI brushes grafted PU stents both in vitro and in vivo.

  10. Sulfate uptake by crustacean hepatopancreatic brush border membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerencser, G.A.; Cattey, M.A; Ahearn, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Purified brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were prepared from Atlantic lobster (Homarus americanus) hepatopancreas using differential centrifugation and Mg +2 precipitation techniques. Uptake of 0.1 mM 35 SO 4 -2 was stimulated by pre-loading vesicles with Cl - leading to a transient accumulation of isotope more than twice that at equilibrium. Pre-loading with HCO 3 - or gluconate had no effect on sulfate uptake. No stimulation of 35 SO 4 -2 was observed in the presence of inwardly directed Na + or tetramethylammonium + gradients. Uptake of the divalent anion was strongly stimulated by inwardly directed proton gradients (pH o i ) and markedly inhibited by outwardly directed proton gradients (pH o > pH i ). 35 SO 4 -2 /Cl - exchange was enhanced by imposing a transmembrane inside positive K + diffusion potential and inhibited by a membrane potential of the opposite polarity (K + /valinomycin). Results suggest the presence of a proton-dependent, electrogenic anion antiport mechanism in BBMV isolated from the crustacean hepatopancreas

  11. Effectiveness of dental checkups incorporating tooth brushing instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Masahiro; Takahashi, Jun-ichi; Isoyama, Motoko; Kitamura, Yoshiko; Kashima, Tomoko; Ueshima, Fumie; Nakahama, Noriko; Araki, Misako; Rokukawa, Yasuko; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Makiishi, Takemi; Yatabe, Ken-ichi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of dental checkups incorporating tooth-brushing instruction (TBI) with that of conventional dental checkups. A team consisting of one dentist and three dental hygienists saw an average of 60 employees per day on-site at an airline company. The patient's teeth were stained with a disclosing tablet and the results recorded on a Plaque Control Record (PCR) chart. The patient was then given TBI. After recording the relevant data, including TBI given and PCR scores, the charts were stored. Checkups were performed in a total of 3,854 patients between 2001 and 2005 and changes in annual scores investigated. In addition, annual shifts in mean score in patients receiving checkups over all five years were compared with those in patients receiving checkups for the first time in each of the five years. The mean score in patients receiving a checkup in 2001 was 35.1%, declining by 2.6 points to 32.5% in 2005. Among patients receiving checkups over all five years, the mean score in 2001 was 34.0%, declining by 11.2 points to 22.8% in 2005. Over the five-year period, the mean score in patients receiving checkups was 34.1%. In patients receiving checkups over all five years, the proportion with PCR scores dental checkups that simply check for caries. In future, this type of checkup should contribute to improved preventative dentistry with minimal intervention.

  12. Tooth-brushing intervention programme among children with mental handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovska, E; Nakova, M; Radojkova-Nikolovska, V; Ristoska, S

    2010-01-01

    For realizing our study the supervised tooth-brushing program was carried out among 100 schoolchildren at the age of 9-12 and 13-16 years with low and moderate mental handicap in Skopje. To evaluate the results of six months intervention program, concentrated on encouragement of independent manual skills, OHI levels were detected by Green-Vermillion and CPITN index levels to characterize the gingival and periodontal health. For comparative analyzes of date-base OHI levels and after six months of intervention program, we detected that the mean date-base OHI index level for mentally handicaped children are 2.46, and at the end of the program (after six months) it was 0.73. CPITN index levels at the beginning and after six months of intervention programmed for mentally handicaped children in both age groups, also confirmed r statistical significance for this examined parameter, with evident reduction of CPITN mean levels from 2.11 to 0.95. Correlation among date-base OHI levels and levels at the end of our intervention program means high positive correlation between these index levels at the beginningand final examinations. This program gave promising results and was effective in reducing the plaque and gingivitis scores, so the key to long-term success of the program is to maintain the subjects' motivation to make oral hygiene a part of their daily routine and thus sustain this improvement (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 12). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  13. Library of monoclonal antibodies against brush border membrane epithelial antigens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behar, M.; Katz, A.; Silverman, M.

    1986-01-01

    A purified fraction of proximal tubule brush border membranes (BBM) was prepared from dog kidney and used to immunize mice. The standard technique of hybridoma production was followed as described by Kohler and Milstein. Production of antibodies was detected by indirect immunofluorescence on dog kidney slices and by immunodot against the purified fraction on nitrocellulose. Five hybrids exhibited anti BBM activity. These were cloned twice and yielded stable cell lines producing IgG type monoclonal antibodies against BBM. They were designated A 1 , C 7 , D 3 , D 7 and H 4 . As a family these five monoclonals have broad tissue specificity, i.e. positive staining of the surface mucosa of intestinal kidney proximal tubules. D 3 exhibits even broader specificity for epithelium reacting with bile canaliculi and choroid plexus. The authors have verified that at least 4/5 antibodies are directed against BBM protein as revealed by immunoprecipitation of solubilized BBM and detected by Coomassie blue staining or autoradiography of lactoperoxidase labelled BBM. Most interestingly all antibodies bind to the surface of LL CPK 1 cells, a continuous pig kidney cell line of undefined origin but exhibiting many characteristics of proximal tubule cells. The library of monoclonal antibodies obtained provide important probes with which to study membrane biogenesis and polarization in epithelial cells

  14. Correlation between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwei; Hu, Haikun; Guo, Jing; Liu, Zeping; Liu, Renkai; Li, Fan; Zou, Shujuan

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dental and skeletal maturity. Digital panoramic radiographs and lateral skull cephalograms of 302 patients (134 boys and 168 girls, ranging from 8 to 16 years of age) were examined. Dental maturity was assessed by calcification stages of the mandibular canines, first and second premolars, and second molars, whereas skeletal maturity was estimated by the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient was used to measure the association between CVM stage and dental calcification stage of individual teeth. The mean chronologic age of girls was significantly lower than that of boys in each CVM stage. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity ranged from 0.391 to 0.582 for girls and from 0.464 to 0.496 for boys (P cervical vertebral maturation stage. The development of the mandibular second molar in females and that of the mandibular canine in males had the strongest correlations with cervical vertebral maturity. Therefore, it is practical to consider the relationship between dental and skeletal maturity when planning orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Mature Cystic Renal Teratoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, Alpaslan; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Akkaya, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Teratomas are rare germline tumors that originate from one or more embryonic germ cell layers. Teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and less than 30 cases of primary intrarenal teratomas have been published to date. We report the main radiologic features of an unusual case of mature cystic teratoma arising from the left kidney in a two-year-old boy. A left-sided abdominal mass was detected on physical examination and B-Mod Ultrasound (US) examination revealed a heterogeneous mass with central cystic component. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a lobulated, heterogeneous, hypodense mass extending craniocaudally from the splenic hilum to the level of the left iliac fossa. Nephrectomy was performed and a large, fatty mass arising from the left kidney was excised. The final pathologic diagnosis was confirmed as cystic renal teratoma

  16. 75 FR 59803 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination for the Gunnison Sage-grouse as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... sage-grouse do not possess muscular gizzards and, therefore, lack the ability to grind and digest seeds...-grouse exhibit a polygamous mating system where a male mates with several females. Males perform...

  17. Developing maturity grids for assessing organisational capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John

    2009-01-01

    Keyword: Maturity Model,Maturity Grid,Maturity Matrix,Organisational Capabilities,Benchmarking,New Product Development,Perfirmance Assessment......Keyword: Maturity Model,Maturity Grid,Maturity Matrix,Organisational Capabilities,Benchmarking,New Product Development,Perfirmance Assessment...

  18. Modeling non-maturing liabilities

    OpenAIRE

    von Feilitzen, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Non‐maturing liabilities, such as savings accounts, lack both predetermined maturity and reset dates due to the fact that the depositor is free to withdraw funds at any time and that the depository institution is free to change the rate. These attributes complicate the risk management of such products and no standardized solution exists. The problem is important however since non‐maturing liabilities typically make up a considerable part of the funding of a bank. In this report different mode...

  19. 76 FR 37826 - Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment and Notice of Public Hearing for the Sage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ...In accordance with the Federal coal management regulations, the Sage Creek Holdings, LLC, Federal Coal Lease-By-Application (LBA) Environmental Assessment (EA) is available for public review and comment. The Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Colorado State Office, will hold a public hearing to receive comments on the EA, Fair Market Value (FMV), and Maximum Economic Recovery (MER) of the coal resources for Sage Creek Holdings, LLC, COC- 74219.

  20. 75 FR 49512 - Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment and Notice of Public Hearing for the Sage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ...In accordance with the Federal coal management regulations, the Sage Creek Holdings, LLC Federal Coal Lease-By-Application (LBA) Environmental Assessment (EA) is available for public review and comment. The Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Colorado State Office will hold a public hearing to receive comments on the EA, Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), Fair Market Value (FMV), and Maximum Economic Recovery (MER) of the coal resources for Sage Creek Holdings, LLC LBA COC-74219.

  1. Deodorant effects of a sage extract stick: Antibacterial activity and sensory evaluation of axillary deodorancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahtalebi, Mohammad Ali; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Farzan, Ali; Shiri, Niloufar; Shokri, Dariush; Fatemi, Syed Ali

    2013-10-01

    Deodorant products prevent the growth and activity of the degrading apocrine gland bacteria living in the armpit. Common antibacterial agents in the market like triclosan and aluminum salts, in spite of their suitable antibacterial effects, increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease, breast and prostate cancers or induce contact dermatitis. Therefore, plant extracts possessing antibacterial effects are of interest. The aim of the present study was to verify the in vitro antimicrobial effects of different sage extracts against two major bacteria responsible for axillary odor, and to evaluate the deodorant effect of a silicon-based stick containing sage extracts in different densities in humans. Different fractions of methanolic extract of Salvia officinalis (sage) were evaluated on a culture of armpit skin surface of volunteers through agar microdilution antimicrobial assay. Then, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial with the best antibacterial fraction was conducted on 45 female healthy volunteers. Participants were treated with a single dose in four groups, each containing 15 individuals: Group 1 (200 μg/mL), 2 (400 μg/mL), 3 (600 μg/mL) of dichloromethane sage extract, and placebo (without extract). A standard sensory evaluation method for the evaluation of deodorant efficacy was used before, and two hours, four hours, and eight hours after single application of a deodorant or placebo (ASTM method E 1207-87 Standard Practice for the Sensory Evaluation of Axillary Deodorancy). The data were analyzed with two factors relating to densities and time. In 45 participants with a mean [± standard deviation (SD)] age of 61.5±11.8 years, statistically significant within-group differences were observed before and two, four, and eight hours after deodorant treatment for groups 1, 2, and 3. Groups 1, 2, and 3 had a significantly smaller odor score than placebo after two, four, and eight hours (P sage extract sticks (P sage extract of 200, 400, or 600

  2. Unexpected observations after mapping LongSAGE tags to the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duret Laurent

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SAGE has been used widely to study the expression of known transcripts, but much less to annotate new transcribed regions. LongSAGE produces tags that are sufficiently long to be reliably mapped to a whole-genome sequence. Here we used this property to study the position of human LongSAGE tags obtained from all public libraries. We focused mainly on tags that do not map to known transcripts. Results Using a published error rate in SAGE libraries, we first removed the tags likely to result from sequencing errors. We then observed that an unexpectedly large number of the remaining tags still did not match the genome sequence. Some of these correspond to parts of human mRNAs, such as polyA tails, junctions between two exons and polymorphic regions of transcripts. Another non-negligible proportion can be attributed to contamination by murine transcripts and to residual sequencing errors. After filtering out our data with these screens to ensure that our dataset is highly reliable, we studied the tags that map once to the genome. 31% of these tags correspond to unannotated transcripts. The others map to known transcribed regions, but many of them (nearly half are located either in antisense or in new variants of these known transcripts. Conclusion We performed a comprehensive study of all publicly available human LongSAGE tags, and carefully verified the reliability of these data. We found the potential origin of many tags that did not match the human genome sequence. The properties of the remaining tags imply that the level of sequencing error may have been under-estimated. The frequency of tags matching once the genome sequence but not in an annotated exon suggests that the human transcriptome is much more complex than shown by the current human genome annotations, with many new splicing variants and antisense transcripts. SAGE data is appropriate to map new transcripts to the genome, as demonstrated by the high rate of cross

  3. Deodorant effects of a sage extract stick: Antibacterial activity and sensory evaluation of axillary deodorancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Shahtalebi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deodorant products prevent the growth and activity of the degrading apocrine gland bacteria living in the armpit. Common antibacterial agents in the market like triclosan and aluminum salts, in spite of their suitable antibacterial effects, increase the risk of Alzheimer′s disease, breast and prostate cancers or induce contact dermatitis. Therefore, plant extracts possessing antibacterial effects are of interest. The aim of the present study was to verify the in vitro antimicrobial effects of different sage extracts against two major bacteria responsible for axillary odor, and to evaluate the deodorant effect of a silicon-based stick containing sage extracts in different densities in humans. Materials and Methods: Different fractions of methanolic extract of Salvia officinalis (sage were evaluated on a culture of armpit skin surface of volunteers through agar microdilution antimicrobial assay. Then, randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial with the best antibacterial fraction was conducted on 45 female healthy volunteers. Participants were treated with a single dose in four groups, each containing 15 individuals: Group 1 (200 μg/mL, 2 (400 μg/mL, 3 (600 μg/mL of dichloromethane sage extract, and placebo (without extract. A standard sensory evaluation method for the evaluation of deodorant efficacy was used before, and two hours, four hours, and eight hours after single application of a deodorant or placebo (ASTM method E 1207-87 Standard Practice for the Sensory Evaluation of Axillary Deodorancy. Results: The data were analyzed with two factors relating to densities and time. In 45 participants with a mean [± standard deviation (SD] age of 61.5±11.8 years, statistically significant within-group differences were observed before and two, four, and eight hours after deodorant treatment for groups 1, 2, and 3. Groups 1, 2, and 3 had a significantly smaller odor score than placebo after two, four, and eight hours

  4. Drilling Deeper into tooth brushing skills: Is proactive interference an under-recognized factor in oral hygiene behavior change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Rooban; Kumar, Madan; Mohandoss, Anusa Arunachalam; Vernon, Lance T

    2015-09-01

    Proper tooth brushing is a seemingly simple motor activity that can promote oral health. Applying health theories, such as the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model, Motivational Interviewing (MI) and Integrated Health Coaching (IHC), may help optimize tooth brushing technique in those with suboptimal skills. Some motor activities, including tooth brushing, may over time become rote and unconscious actions, such that an existing habit can inhibit new learning, i.e., exert proactive interference on learning the new skill. Proactive interference may impede the acquisition of new tooth brushing skills; thus, in this report, we: (1) Review how the habit of tooth brushing is formed; (2) Postulate how proactive interference could impede the establishment of proper tooth brushing retraining; (3) Discuss the merits of this hypothesis; and (4) Provide guidance for future work in this topic within the context of an approach to behavior change that integrates IMB, MI and IHC methodology.

  5. Contamination Impact of Station Brush Fire on Cleanroom Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Phil; Blakkolb, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Brush and forest fires, both naturally occurring and anthropogenic in origin, in proximity to space flight hardware processing facilities raise concerns about the threat of contamination resulting from airborne particulate and molecular components of smoke. Perceptions of the severity of the threat are possibly heightened by the high sensitivity of the human sense of smell to some components present in the smoke of burning vegetation.On August 26th, 2009, a brushfire broke out north of Pasadena, California, two miles from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Station Fire destroyed over 160,000 acres, coming within a few hundred yards of JPL. Smoke concentrations on Lab were very heavy over several days. All Lab operations were halted, and measures were taken to protect personnel, critical hardware, and facilities. Evaluation of real-time cleanroom monitoring data, visualinspection of facilities, filter systems, and analysis of surface cleanliness samples revealed facility environments andhardware were minimally effected.Outside air quality easily exceeded Class Ten Million. Prefilters captured most large ash and soot; multi-stage filtration greatly minimized the impact on the HEPA/ULPA filters. Air quality in HEPA filtered spacecraft assembly cleanrooms remained within Class 10,000 specification throughout. Surface cleanliness was inimally affected, as large particles were effectively removed from the airstream, and sub-micron particles have extremely long settling rates. Approximate particulate fallout within facilities was 0.00011% area coverage/day compared to 0.00038% area coverage/day during normal operations. Deposition of condensable airborne components, as measured in real time, peaked at approximately1.0 ng/cm2/day compared to 0.05 ng/cm2/day nominal.

  6. Unconventional ordering behavior of semi-flexible polymers in dense brushes under compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milchev, Andrey; Binder, Kurt

    2014-06-07

    Using a coarse-grained bead-spring model for semi-flexible macromolecules which form a polymer brush, the structure and dynamics of the polymers were investigated, varying the chain stiffness and the grafting density. The anchoring conditions for the grafted chains were chosen such that their first bonds were oriented along the normal to the substrate plane. The compression of such a semi-flexible brush by a planar piston was observed to be a two-stage process: for a small compression the chains were shown to contract by "buckling" deformation whereas for a larger compression the chains exhibited a collective (almost uniform) bending deformation. Thus, the stiff polymer brush underwent a 2nd order phase transition of collective bond reorientation. The pressure, required to keep the stiff brush at a given degree of compression, was thereby significantly smaller than for an otherwise identical brush made of entirely flexible polymer chains! While both the brush height and the chain linear dimensions in the z-direction perpendicular to the substrate increased monotonically with an increase in the chain stiffness, the lateral (xy) chain linear dimensions exhibited a maximum at an intermediate chain stiffness. Increasing the grafting density led to a strong decrease of these lateral dimensions which is compatible with an exponential decay. Also the recovery kinetics after removal of the compressing piston were studied, and were found to follow a power-law/exponential decay with time. A simple mean-field theoretical consideration, accounting for the buckling/bending behavior of semi-flexible polymer brushes under compression was suggested.

  7. The use of non-bronchoscopic brushings to study the paediatric airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kicic Anthony

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of cytology brushes for the purpose of obtaining respiratory cells from adults for clinical and research purposes is well established. However, the safety and utility of non-bronchoscopic brushings to study the paediatric airway has not been assessed. The purpose of this study was to assess the practicality of using non-bronchoscopic brushing to sample epithelial cells from children for investigation of epithelial function in health and disease using a wide range of molecular and cellular techniques. Methods Non-bronchoscopic brushing was investigated in a non-selected cohort of healthy, and mildly asthmatic children presenting for surgery unrelated to respiratory conditions, at the major children's hospital in Perth. Safety and side-effects of the procedure were assessed. Cell number, phenotype and viability were measured for all samples. The potential of these cells for use in long-term cell culture, immunohistochemistry, western blotting, quantitative PCR and gene arraying was examined. Results Non-bronchoscopic brushing was well tolerated in all children. The only significant side effect following the procedure was cough: nursing staff reported cough in 20% of patients; parents reported cough in 40% of patients. Cells sampled were of sufficient quantity and quality to allow cell culture in 93% of samples. Similarly, protein and RNA extracted from the cells was suitable for investigation of both gene and protein expression using micro-array and real-time PCR. Conclusion Non-bronchoscopic brushing in children is safe and easy to perform, and is not associated with any complications. Using this technique, adequate numbers of epithelial cells can be retrieved to allow cell culture, western blotting, real time PCR, and microarray analysis. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the utility of non-bronchoscopic airway brushing to obtain and study epithelial cells and to encourage others so that we can accelerate

  8. Development of Self-Assembled Nanoscale Templates via Microphase Separation Induced by Polymer Brushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Elza

    Phase separation in soft matter has been the crucial element in generating hybrid materials, such as polymer blends and mixed polymer brushes. This dissertation discusses two methods of developing self-assembled nanoscale templates via microphase separation induced by polymer brush synthesis. This work introduces a novel soft substrate approach with renewable grafting sites where polyacrylamide is "grafted through" chitosan soft substrates. The mechanism of grafting leads to ordered arrays of filament-like nanostructures spanning the chitosan-air interface. Additionally, the chemical composition of the filaments allows for post-chemical modification to change the physical properties of the filaments, and subsequently tailor surfaces for specific application. Unlike traditional materials, multi-functional or "smart" materials, such as binary polymer brushes (BPB) are capable of spontaneously changing the spatial distribution of functional groups and morphology at the surface upon external stimuli. Although promising in principle, the limited range of available complementary polymers with common non-selective solvents confines the diversity of usable materials and restricts any further advancement in the field. This dissertation also covers the fabrication and characterization of responsive nanoscale polystyrene templates or "mosaic" brushes that are capable of changing interfacial composition upon exposure to varying solvent qualities. Using a "mosaic" brush template is a unique approach that allows the fabrication of strongly immiscible polymer BPB without the need for a common solvent. The synthesis of such BPB is exemplified by two strongly immiscible polymers, i.e. polystyrene (polar) and polyacrylamide (non-polar), where polyacrylamide brush is "graft through" a Si-substrate modified with the polystyrene collapsed "mosaic" brush. The surface exhibits solvent-triggered responses, as well as application potential for anti-biofouling.

  9. Single-chain-in-mean-field simulations of weak polyelectrolyte brushes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léonforte, F.; Welling, U.; Müller, M.

    2016-12-01

    Structural properties of brushes which are composed of weak acidic and basic polyelectrolytes are studied in the framework of a particle-based approach that implicitly accounts for the solvent quality. Using a semi-grandcanonical partition function in the framework of the Single-Chain-in-Mean-Field (SCMF) algorithm, the weak polyelectrolyte is conceived as a supramolecular mixture of polymers in different dissociation states, which are explicitly treated in the partition function and sampled by the SCMF procedure. One obtains a local expression for the equilibrium acid-base reaction responsible for the regulation of the charged groups that is also incorporated to the SCMF sampling. Coupled to a simultaneous treatment of the electrostatics, the approach is shown to capture the main features of weak polyelectrolyte brushes as a function of the bulk pH in the solution, the salt concentration, and the grafting density. Results are compared to experimental and theoretical works from the literature using coarse-grained representations of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(2-vinyl pyridine) (P2VP) polymer-based brushes. As the Born self-energy of ions can be straightforwardly included in the numerical approach, we also study its effect on the local charge regulation mechanism of the brush. We find that its effect becomes significant when the brush is dense and exposed to high salt concentrations. The numerical methodology is then applied (1) to the study of the kinetics of collapse/swelling of a P2VP brush and (2) to the ability of an applied voltage to induce collapse/swelling of a PAA brush in a pH range close to the pKa value of the polymer.

  10. Evaluation of brushing cytology in the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori gastritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ahmad Mostaghni

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helicobacter pylori (HP is the cause of the most common infection in the world. It has been recognized as the major cause of peptic ulcer and an important risk factor for gastric malignancy. A variety of reliable methods are available for detecting HP during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Rapid urease test (RUT is the cheapest method and histology is the most expensive brush cytology is faster and cheaper than histology. Methods: The brushing cytology materials were obtained from the antrum of the stomach in 109 patients who suffered from dyspepsia and were candidates for endoscopy. The RUT and histology with hematoxylin-eosin staining were also performed on each patient separately. The infection status for each patient was established by a concordance of two test results. Results: Seventy-eight of 100 patients (78% were diagnosed as positive for Helicobacter pylori organisms using brushing cytology. The sensitivity and specificity of brushing cytology were 96% and 72% respectively. Sensitivity of brush cytology (96% was higher than RUT (77.4%, and RUT was more specific than histology (100% vs 90%. Conclusion: Gastric brushing cytology provides an accurate, inexpensive and easy technique in the rapid detection of Helicobacter pylori infection. When additional information about the severity of mucosal damage or the presence of cell atypias is not necessary, histologic examination can be omitted, and a cost effective strategy for assessing HP status might consist of taking antral biopsies, the former for RUT and performing brush cytology slide, which should be stained and examined only when the RUT result is negative.

  11. Evaluation of a parent-designed programme to support tooth brushing of infants and young children*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, CE; Milgrom, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study developed and tested an intervention to help parents establish a routine of brushing their young children’s teeth twice a day. Methods Community-based participatory research methods were used to engage parents in the design of the intervention to maximize its relevance and acceptability to others. Input was obtained by interviews and focus groups. The resulting intervention was four 90-min small-group sessions that provided educational information, direct instruction, practice and peer-to-peer problem-solving. A pre- to post-non-randomized design was used to evaluate the intervention’s effect to increase or maintain parents’ twice daily brushing. Results Intervention participants were 67 primary caregivers of children under six years of age. Of the 67 initial participants, 50 completed a post-intervention questionnaire administered 4 to 8 weeks following the intervention. The proportion of parents who reported brushing their young children’s teeth twice a day increased significantly from 59 per cent prior to the intervention to 89 per cent post-intervention (McNemar’s X2 = 10.71, P = 0.002). There were concomitant and statistically significant increases over the study period in parents’ confidence for brushing twice a day, attitudes about the importance of brushing and their self-efficacy for tooth brushing. Parents’ knowledge of children’s oral health, assessed by a 15-item scale developed for this study (‘Things to Know About Baby Teeth’), also increased significantly. Conclusions Twice daily tooth brushing is a low-cost, effective strategy to reduce the risk of childhood caries. As demonstrated here, community-based efforts can help parents achieve this important health behaviour. PMID:25070036

  12. Multilayer affinity adsorption of albumin on polymer brushes modified membranes in a continuous-flow system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Meng-Xin; Li, Xiang; Li, Ji-Nian; Huang, Jing-Jing; Ren, Ge-Rui

    2018-02-23

    Polymer brushes modified surfaces have been widely used for protein immobilization and isolation. Modification of membranes with polymer brushes increases the surface concentration of affinity ligands used for protein binding. Albumin is one of the transporting proteins and shows a high affinity to bile acids. In this work, the modified membranes with cholic acid-containing polymer brushes can be facilely prepared by the immobilization of cholic acid on the poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) grafted microporous polypropylene membranes (MPPMs) for affinity adsorption of albumin. ATR/FT-IR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to characterize the chemical composition of the modified membranes. Water contact angle measurements were used to analyze the hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties of the membrane surface. The modified MPPMs show a high affinity to albumin and have little non-specific adsorption of hemoglobin. The dynamic binding capacity of albumin in the continous-flow system increases with the cycle number and feed rate as the binding degree of cholic acid is moderate. The highest binding capacity of affinity membranes is about 52.49 g/m 2 membrane, which is about 24 times more than the monolayer binding capacity. These results reveal proteins could be captured in multilayers by the polymer brushes containing affinity ligands similar to the polymer brushes containing ion-exchange groups, which open up the potential of the polymer brushes containing affinity ligands in protein or another components separation. And the cholic acid containing polymer brushes modified membranes has the promising potential for albumin separation and purification rapidly from serum or fermented solution in medical diagnosis and bioseparation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of a parent-designed programme to support tooth brushing of infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, C E; Milgrom, P

    2015-02-01

    This study developed and tested an intervention to help parents establish a routine of brushing their young children's teeth twice a day. Community-based participatory research methods were used to engage parents in the design of the intervention to maximize its relevance and acceptability to others. Input was obtained by interviews and focus groups. The resulting intervention was four 90-min small-group sessions that provided educational information, direct instruction, practice and peer-to-peer problem-solving. A pre- to post-non-randomized design was used to evaluate the intervention's effect to increase or maintain parents' twice daily brushing. Intervention participants were 67 primary caregivers of children under six years of age. Of the 67 initial participants, 50 completed a post-intervention questionnaire administered 4 to 8 weeks following the intervention. The proportion of parents who reported brushing their young children's teeth twice a day increased significantly from 59 per cent prior to the intervention to 89 per cent post-intervention (McNemar's X(2)  = 10.71, P = 0.002). There were concomitant and statistically significant increases over the study period in parents' confidence for brushing twice a day, attitudes about the importance of brushing and their self-efficacy for tooth brushing. Parents' knowledge of children's oral health, assessed by a 15-item scale developed for this study ('Things to Know About Baby Teeth'), also increased significantly. Twice daily tooth brushing is a low-cost, effective strategy to reduce the risk of childhood caries. As demonstrated here, community-based efforts can help parents achieve this important health behaviour. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of carbon brush anode size and loading on microbial fuel cell performance in batch and continuous mode

    KAUST Repository

    Lanas, Vanessa; Ahn, Yongtae; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Larger scale microbial fuel cells (MFCs) require compact architectures to efficiently treat wastewater. We examined how anode-brush diameter, number of anodes, and electrode spacing affected the performance of the MFCs operated in fed-batch and continuous flow mode. All anodes were initially tested with the brush core set at the same distance from the cathode. In fed-batch mode, the configuration with three larger brushes (25 mm diameter) produced 80% more power (1240 mW m-2) than reactors with eight smaller brushes (8 mm) (690 mW m-2). The higher power production by the larger brushes was due to more negative and stable anode potentials than the smaller brushes. The same general result was obtained in continuous flow operation, although power densities were reduced. However, by moving the center of the smaller brushes closer to the cathode (from 16.5 to 8 mm), power substantially increased from 690 to 1030 mW m-2 in fed batch mode. In continuous flow mode, power increased from 280 to 1020 mW m-2, resulting in more power production from the smaller brushes than the larger brushes (540 mW m-2). These results show that multi-electrode MFCs can be optimized by selecting smaller anodes, placed as close as possible to the cathode. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of carbon brush anode size and loading on microbial fuel cell performance in batch and continuous mode

    KAUST Repository

    Lanas, Vanessa

    2014-02-01

    Larger scale microbial fuel cells (MFCs) require compact architectures to efficiently treat wastewater. We examined how anode-brush diameter, number of anodes, and electrode spacing affected the performance of the MFCs operated in fed-batch and continuous flow mode. All anodes were initially tested with the brush core set at the same distance from the cathode. In fed-batch mode, the configuration with three larger brushes (25 mm diameter) produced 80% more power (1240 mW m-2) than reactors with eight smaller brushes (8 mm) (690 mW m-2). The higher power production by the larger brushes was due to more negative and stable anode potentials than the smaller brushes. The same general result was obtained in continuous flow operation, although power densities were reduced. However, by moving the center of the smaller brushes closer to the cathode (from 16.5 to 8 mm), power substantially increased from 690 to 1030 mW m-2 in fed batch mode. In continuous flow mode, power increased from 280 to 1020 mW m-2, resulting in more power production from the smaller brushes than the larger brushes (540 mW m-2). These results show that multi-electrode MFCs can be optimized by selecting smaller anodes, placed as close as possible to the cathode. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The association between parents' perceived social norms for toothbrushing and the frequency with which they report brushing their child's teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubey, R J; Moore, S C; Chestnutt, I G

    2015-06-01

    To determine whether parents' judgements on how often other parents brush their children's teeth are associated with the frequency with which they brush their own children's teeth, and their satisfaction with their child's brushing routine. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey completed by 297 parents of children aged 3-6. Parents were asked how often they brushed their own child's teeth per week, how often they thought other parents did so, and how satisfied they were with their child's toothbrushing routine. Demographic data were also collected. The mean frequency that parents brushed their children's teeth was 12.5 times per week. Multiple regression analysis tested the relationship between parents' perceptions of other parents brushing frequency (mean 10.5 times per week) and how often they brushed their own child's teeth, controlling for socio-demographic factors, and yielded a positive association (p parents' satisfaction with their child's brushing routine and the extent to which they thought it was better than that of the average child (p Parents' judgements on how frequently other parents brush their children's teeth are associated with their own behaviour and satisfaction. Re-framing oral health messages to include some form of social normative information ("most parents do this") may prove more persuasive than simple prescriptive advice ("you should do this").

  17. Measurement of Tooth Brushing Frequency, Time of Day and Duration of Adults and Children in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Rahardjo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological study of tooth brushing is essential to evaluate dental health of a country. Objective: To obtain data on tooth brushing frequency, time of day and duration from adults and children in Jakarta, Indonesia. Methods: Toothbrushes containing data loggers were distributed to 120 random families in Jakarta to record how many times a day, when and for how long subjects brushed their teeth. The families were each composed of a mother, father and two children aged between 6 and 15 years. Results: The mean brushing frequency of the population was 1.27 times per day. The majority of the tooth brushing (46% was performed in the morning. The mean tooth brushing duration of this population was 57.29 seconds. The mothers’ tooth brushing frequencies tended to be higher than that of the other family members, and the fathers tended to brush their teeth longer. Conclusion: Effective education aimed at increasing both the duration and frequency of tooth brushing from once to twice per day is urgently required in Indonesia.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v21i3.251

  18. Identification of irradiated sage tea (Salvia officinalis L.) by ESR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepe Cam, Semra; Engin, Birol

    2010-01-01

    The use of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy to accurately distinguish irradiated from unirradiated sage tea was examined. Before irradiation, sage tea samples exhibit one asymmetric singlet ESR signal centered at g=2.0037. Besides this central signal, two weak satellite signals situated about 3 mT left and right to it in radiation-induced spectra. Irradiation with increasing doses caused a significant increase in radiation-induced ESR signal intensity at g=2.0265 (the left satellite signal) and this increase was found to be explained by a polynomial varying function. The stability of that radiation-induced ESR signal at room temperature was studied over a storage period of 9 months. Also, the kinetic of signal at g=2.0265 was studied in detail over a temperature range 313-353 K by annealing samples at different temperatures for various times.

  19. Opportunities of Gallium Sage experiment with artificial neutrino sources for investigation of neutrino to sterile states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.; Gorbachiev, V.V.; Veretenkin, E.P.

    2011-01-01

    The unexpectedly low capture rate of neutrino in Ga source experiments in SAGE and GALLEX can be explained assuming electron neutrino transitions to sterile states with a mass-squared difference ∼ 1eV 2 . To test this oscillation hypothesis, we propose to place a very intense 51 Cr source at the center of a 50 tonne target of gallium metal that is divided into two zones and to measure the neutrino capture rate in each zone. The Experiment has the potential to test neutrino oscillation transitions with mass-squared difference Δm 2 > 0.5 eV 2 . An optimized SAGE setup and 3 MCi source of 51 Cr would provide a sensitivity to electron neutrino disappearance of a few percent.

  20. Identification of irradiated sage tea (Salvia officinalis L.) by ESR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepe Cam, Semra, E-mail: stepe06@gmail.co [Gazi University, Faculty of Medicine, Biophysics Department, 06500 Besevler, Ankara (Turkey); Engin, Birol [Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Saraykoey Nuclear Research and Training Center, 06983 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    The use of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy to accurately distinguish irradiated from unirradiated sage tea was examined. Before irradiation, sage tea samples exhibit one asymmetric singlet ESR signal centered at g=2.0037. Besides this central signal, two weak satellite signals situated about 3 mT left and right to it in radiation-induced spectra. Irradiation with increasing doses caused a significant increase in radiation-induced ESR signal intensity at g=2.0265 (the left satellite signal) and this increase was found to be explained by a polynomial varying function. The stability of that radiation-induced ESR signal at room temperature was studied over a storage period of 9 months. Also, the kinetic of signal at g=2.0265 was studied in detail over a temperature range 313-353 K by annealing samples at different temperatures for various times.

  1. Rate of germanium-isotope production by background processes in the SAGE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.; Gorbachev, V.V.; Ibragimova, T.V.; Cleveland, B.T.

    2002-01-01

    Data on a direct determination of systematic uncertainties caused by the background production of germanium isotopes in the radiochemical SAGE experiment measuring the solar-neutrino flux are analyzed. The result obtained for the rate of 68 Ge production is 6.5(1±1.0) times greater than the expected one; the rate of 69 Ge production does not exceed preliminary estimates. The above result for 68 Ge corresponds to the systematic uncertainty that is caused by the interaction of cosmic-ray muons and which is equal to 5.8% (4.5 SNU) at a solar-neutrino-capture rate of 77.0 SNU. An experiment is proposed that would test the effect of cosmic-ray muon influence on the SAGE systematic uncertainty and which would be performed at the location of the underground scintillation telescope facilities of the Baksan Neutrino Observatory (Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences)

  2. The germanium isotopes production rate in background process in SAGE experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrin, V.N.; Gorbachev, V.V.; Ibragimova, T.V.; Cleveland, B.T.

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of the direct determination of systematics connected with the germanium isotopes generation of in background processes in radiochemical SAGE experiments on measuring solar neutrinos is described. The found 68 Ge generation rate is 6.5 (1 ± 1.0) times higher than expected; the generation rate of 69 Ge does not exceed preliminary evaluations. The result on 68 Ge corresponds to the systematic of cosmic ray muons of 5.8% (4.5 SNU) for the measured capture rate of solar neutrino of 77.0 SNU. To check the cosmic-ray muon influence of the SAGE systematic one suggests the experiment in place of underground scintillation telescope of the Baksan neutrino observatory on the Institute for Nuclear Research of the RAS [ru

  3. Connaissance des pharmaciens d'officine à propos du droit de prescription des sages-femmes

    OpenAIRE

    Gache, Brune

    2012-01-01

    Introduction : La profession de sage-femme est une profession médicale à compétences définies. L'une d'entre elles nous intéresse particulièrement : le droit de prescription. Nous avons voulu évaluer les connaissances des pharmaciens d'officine, principaux intéressés de la mise en application de cette compétence. Matériel et méthode : L'objectif de ce travail de recherche était d'évaluer les connaissances des pharmaciens d'officine à propos du droit de prescription des sages-femmes ainsi que ...

  4. The synthesis of hydrogels with controlled distribution of polymer brushes in hydrogel network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, YuWei; Zhou, Chao; Zhang, AoKai; Xu, LiQun; Yao, Fang [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Jiangning District, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, 211189 (China); Cen, Lian, E-mail: cenlian@hotmail.com [National Tissue Engineering Center of China, No.68, East Jiang Chuan Road, Shanghai, 200241 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, No.130, Mei Long Road, Shanghai, 200237 (China); Fu, Guo-Dong, E-mail: fu7352@seu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University, Jiangning District, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, 211189 (China)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Many biological tissues are 3-dimensionally asymmetric in structure and properties, it would be desirable if hydrogels could bear such structural similarity with specialized surface and bulk properties. Moreover, gradual but continuous variation in spatial structural and property is also a common phenomenon in biological tissues, such as interfaces between bone and tendon, or between bone and cartilage. Hence, the development of a method to introduce well-defined functional polymer brushes on PEG hydrogels, especially with precisely controlled spatial structure in 3-dimensions, would impart the hydrogels with special functionalities and wider applications. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels with 3-dimensionally controlled well-defined poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (poly(NIPAAm)) brushes were prepared by combined copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (“Click Chemistry”) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The resulting hydrogels were presented as representatives with their detailed synthesis routes and characterization. H{sub PEG}-S-poly(NIPAAm) is a hydrogel with poly(NIPAAm) brushes mainly grafted on surface, whereas H{sub PEG}-G-poly(NIPAAm) has a gradiently decreased poly(NIPAAm) brushes in their chain length from surface to inside. On the other hand, poly(NIPAAm) brushes in H{sub PEG}-U-poly(NIPAAm) are uniformly dispersed throughout the whole hydrogel network. Successful preparation of H{sub PEG}-S-poly(NIPAAm), H{sub PEG}-G-poly(NIPAAm) and H{sub PEG}-U-poly(NIPAAm) were ascertained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and water contact angle measurement. Hence, the flexibility and controllability of the synthetic strategy in varying the distribution of polymer brushes and hydrogel surface properties was demonstrated. Hydrogels with tunable and well-defined 3-dimensional poly(NIPAAm) polymer brushes could be tailor-designed to find potential applications in smart devices or skin dressing, such as for diabetics

  5. Whose Maturity is it Anyway?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results from an ongoing empirical study that seeks to understand the influence of different quantitative methods on the design and assessment of maturity models. Although there have been many academic publications on maturity models, there exists a significant lack of understa...

  6. Linking occurrence and fitness to persistence: Habitat-based approach for endangered Greater Sage-Grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Cameron L.; Boyce, Mark S.

    2007-01-01

    Detailed empirical models predicting both species occurrence and fitness across a landscape are necessary to understand processes related to population persistence. Failure to consider both occurrence and fitness may result in incorrect assessments of habitat importance leading to inappropriate management strategies. We took a two-stage approach to identifying critical nesting and brood-rearing habitat for the endangered Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Alberta at a landscape scale. First, we used logistic regression to develop spatial models predicting the relative probability of use (occurrence) for Sage-Grouse nests and broods. Secondly, we used Cox proportional hazards survival models to identify the most risky habitats across the landscape. We combined these two approaches to identify Sage-Grouse habitats that pose minimal risk of failure (source habitats) and attractive sink habitats that pose increased risk (ecological traps). Our models showed that Sage-Grouse select for heterogeneous patches of moderate sagebrush cover (quadratic relationship) and avoid anthropogenic edge habitat for nesting. Nests were more successful in heterogeneous habitats, but nest success was independent of anthropogenic features. Similarly, broods selected heterogeneous high-productivity habitats with sagebrush while avoiding human developments, cultivated cropland, and high densities of oil wells. Chick mortalities tended to occur in proximity to oil and gas developments and along riparian habitats. For nests and broods, respectively, approximately 10% and 5% of the study area was considered source habitat, whereas 19% and 15% of habitat was attractive sink habitat. Limited source habitats appear to be the main reason for poor nest success (39%) and low chick survival (12%). Our habitat models identify areas of protection priority and areas that require immediate management attention to enhance recruitment to secure the viability of this population. This novel

  7. Stratospheric aerosol effects from Soufriere Volcano as measured by the SAGE satellite system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccormick, M. P.; Kent, G. S.; Yue, G. K.; Cunnold, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    During its April 1979 eruption series, Soufriere Volcano produced two major stratospheric plumes that the SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) satellite system tracked to West Africa and the North Atlantic Ocean. The total mass of these plumes, whose movement and dispersion are in agreement with those deduced from meteorological data and dispersion theory, was less than 0.5 percent of the global stratospheric aerosol burden; no significant temperature or climate perturbation is therefore expected.

  8. SAGES Foregut Surgery Masters Program: a surgeon's social media resource for collaboration, education, and professional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Hope T; Young, Monica T; Rodriguez, H Alejandro; Wright, Andrew S

    2018-06-01

    Facebook is a popular online social networking platform increasingly used for professional collaboration. Literature regarding use of Facebook for surgeon professional development and education is limited. The Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) has established a Facebook group dedicated to discussion of surgery of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine-the "SAGES Foregut Surgery Masters Program." The aim of this study is to examine how this forum is used for professional development, education, and quality improvement. Member and post statistics were obtained from https://grytics.com , a Facebook group analytics service. All posts added to the Foregut forum since its creation in April 2015 through December 2016 were reviewed and categorized for content and topic. Posts were reviewed for potential identifiable protected health information. As of December 2016, there were 649 total members in the group. There have been a total of 411 posts and 4116 comments with a median of 10.1 comments/post (range 0-72). Posts were categorized as operative technique (64%), patient management (52%), continuing education (10%), networking (10%), or other (6%). Video and/or photos were included in 53% of posts with 4% of posts depicting radiologic studies and 13% with intraoperative photos or videos. An additional 40 posts included links to other pages, such as YouTube, journal articles, or the SAGES website. One post (0.2%) contained identifiable protected health information and was deleted once recognized by the moderators of the group. Social media is a unique, real-time platform where surgeons can learn, discuss, and collaborate towards the goal of optimal treatment of surgical disease. Active online surgical communities such as the SAGES Foregut Surgery Masters Program have the potential to enhance communication between surgeons and are a potential innovative adjunct to traditional methods of continuing surgical education. Surgical societies

  9. Successes and Challenges in the SAGE (Summer of Applied Geophysical Experience) REU Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braile, L. W.; Baldridge, W. S.; Pellerin, L.; Ferguson, J. F.; Bedrosian, P.; Biehler, S.; Jiracek, G. R.; Snelson, C. M.; Kelley, S.; McPhee, D.

    2014-12-01

    The SAGE program was initiated in 1983 to provide an applied geophysics research and education experience for students. Since 1983, 820 students have completed the SAGE summer program. Beginning in 1992, with funding from the NSF, SAGE has included an REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates) experience for selected undergraduate students from U.S. colleges and universities. Since 1992, 380 undergraduate REU students have completed the SAGE program. The four week, intensive, summer program is based in Santa Fe, New Mexico, and involves students in learning geophysical theory and applications; collection of geophysical field data in the northern Rio Grande Rift area; data processing, modeling and interpretation; and presentation (oral and written) of results of each student's research results. Students (undergraduates, graduates and professionals) and faculty are together on a school campus for the summer program. Successful strategies (developed over the years) of the program include teamwork experience, mentoring of REUs (by faculty and more senior students), cultural interchange due to students from many campuses across the U.S. and international graduate students, including industry visitors who work with the students and provide networking, a capstone experience of the summer program that includes all students making a "professional-meeting" style presentation of their research and submitting a written report, a follow-up workshop for the REU students to enhance and broaden their experience, and providing professional development for the REUs through oral or poster presentations and attendance at a professional meeting. Program challenges include obtaining funding from multiple sources; significant time investment in program management, reporting, and maintaining contact with our many funding sources and industry affiliates; and, despite significant efforts, limited success in recruiting racial and ethnic minority students to the program.

  10. Utilisation du partographe modifie de l'oms par les sages-femmes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) de l'OMS par les sages-femmes de Lomé et leur position face à cet outil de surveillance du travail. Matériel et méthode : Il s'agit d'une étude prospective, transversale descriptive, menée du 01er juillet au 30 septembre 2011 (soit une période ...

  11. Obstructive jaundice: a comparative study of forceps and brush biopsy under percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongdong; Han Xinwei; Wu Gang; Ma Bo; Xing Gusheng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare the sensitivity between forceps biopsy and brushing, and to explore a feasible approach to pathological diagnosis of the obstructive jaundice. Methods: 92 consecutive patients with obstructive jaundice underwent transluminal forceps biopsy and brushing during percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage. The technique was performed through a preexisting percutaneous transhepatic tract with multiple specimens obtained after passing the forceps biopsy or brush into a 8-French sheath. Finally the specimens were fixed with formalin for pathologic or cytologic diagnosis. Results: The histopathologic diagnosis was acquired in 81 out of 92 patients with forceps biopsy reaching the successful rate of 97.83%. Sensitivity of forceps biopsy in 92 patients was higher than that of brush in 84 patients (88.04% vs 76.19% χ 2 =4.251, P= <0.05). Conclusions: Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiobiopsy is a simple technique with minimal invasion, high sensitivity and worthy to be used spread extensively. Percutaneous transluminal brush cytology is also an useful method for establishing a diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. (authors)

  12. Strong Stretching of Poly(ethylene glycol) Brushes Mediated by Ionic Liquid Solvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mengwei; Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M

    2017-09-07

    We have measured forces between mica surfaces coated with a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) brush solvated by a vacuum-dry ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide, with a surface forces apparatus. At high grafting density, the solvation mediated by the ionic liquid causes the brush to stretch twice as much as in water. Modeling of the steric repulsion indicates that PEG behaves as a polyelectrolyte; the hydrogen bonding between ethylene glycol and the imidazolium cation seems to effectively charge the polymer brush, which justifies the strong stretching. Importantly, under strong polymer compression, solvation layers are squeezed out at a higher rate than for the neat ionic liquid. We propose that the thermal fluctuations of the PEG chains, larger in the brush than in the mushroom configuration, maintain the fluidity of the ionic liquid under strong compression, in contrast to the solid-like squeezing-out behavior of the neat ionic liquid. This is the first experimental study of the behavior of a polymer brush solvated by an ionic liquid under nanoconfinement.

  13. Fast discharging homopolar drum-type generator with gas bearing and flexible copper-fiber brushes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibardin, A.S.; Komin, A.V.; Sojkin, V.F.; Frolkin, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    The description and results of testing schock-excited homopolar generator (SEHG) with a drum-type rotor, a gas bearing and flexible copper-fiber brushes are presented. SEHG has a magnetic core with two excitation coils with the designed field of 1.8-2 T in the gap. The drum-type titanium rotor has 80 kg, is 0.5 m in diameter, 0.25 m length and 0.05 m thick. SEHG power is 3.6 MJ, overall dimensions are 0.8x1 m. Single- and double-row bearings, representing an aluminium shell of 15 mm thick, established inside an external backward current lead and isolated from it, are used to control serviceability of a radial gas-static bearing, which is a support for an SEHG rotor. The bearing surface was covered with the colloidal graphite and had one or two rows by 24 openings for swelling. Brush units represent a bronze brush ring, containing 44 copper-fiber brushes. Tests results confirm serviceability of copper-fiber brushes with quite large dimensions and permit to count on producing the 2.4 MA electric discharge and 12 ms pulse rise time

  14. Molecular Design of Antifouling Polymer Brushes Using Sequence-Specific Peptoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, King Hang Aaron; Sileika, Tadas S; Park, Sung Hyun; Sousa, Ana Maria Leal; Burch, Patrick; Szleifer, Igal; Messersmith, Phillip B

    2015-01-07

    Material systems that can be used to flexibly and precisely define the chemical nature and molecular arrangement of a surface would be invaluable for the control of complex biointerfacial interactions. For example, progress in antifouling polymer biointerfaces that prevent non-specific protein adsorption and cell attachment, which can significantly improve the performance of an array of biomedical and industrial applications, is hampered by a lack of chemical models to identify the molecular features conferring their properties. Poly(N-substituted glycine) "peptoids" are peptidomimetic polymers that can be conveniently synthesized with specific monomer sequences and chain lengths, and are presented as a versatile platform for investigating the molecular design of antifouling polymer brushes. Zwitterionic antifouling polymer brushes have captured significant recent attention, and a targeted library of zwitterionic peptoid brushes with a different charge densities, hydration, separations between charged groups, chain lengths, and grafted chain densities, is quantitatively evaluated for their antifouling properties through a range of protein adsorption and cell attachment assays. Specific zwitterionic brush designs were found to give rise to distinct but subtle differences in properties. The results also point to the dominant roles of the grafted chain density and chain length in determining the performance of antifouling polymer brushes.

  15. A novel approach for UV-patterning with binary polymer brushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lifu; Nakaji-Hirabayashi, Tadashi; Kitano, Hiromi; Ohno, Kohji; Saruwatari, Yoshiyuki; Matsuoka, Kazuyoshi

    2018-01-01

    A mixed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of an initiator (3-(2-bromo-2-isobutyryloxy)propyl triethoxysilane) for atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and an agent (6-(triethoxysilyl)hexyl 2-(((methylthio)carbonothioyl)thio)-2-phenylacetate) for reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization was constructed on the surface of a silicon wafer or glass plate by a silane coupling reaction. When a UV light at 254nm was irradiated at the mixed SAM through a photomask, the surface density of the bromine atom at the end of BPE in the irradiated region was drastically reduced by UV-driven scission of the BrC bond, as observed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Consequently, the surface-initiated (SI)-ATRP of 2-ethylhexyl methacrylate (EHMA) was used to easily construct the poly(EHMA) (PEHMA) brush domain. Subsequently, SI-RAFT polymerization of a zwitterionic vinyl monomer, carboxymethyl betaine (CMB), was performed. Using the sequential polymerization, the PCMB and PEHMA brush domains on the solid substrate could be very easily patterned. Patterning proteins and cells with the binary polymer brush is expected because the PCMB brush indicated strong suppression of protein adsorption and cell adhesion, and the PEHMA brush had non-polar properties. This technique is very simple and useful for regulating the shape and size of bio-fouling and anti-biofouling domains on solid surfaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Molecular dynamics simulations of polyelectrolyte brushes under poor solvent conditions: origins of bundle formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gui-Li; Merlitz, Holger; Sommer, Jens-Uwe

    2014-03-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations are applied to investigate salt-free planar polyelectrolyte brushes under poor solvent conditions. Starting above the Θ-point with a homogeneous brush and then gradually reducing the temperature, the polymers initially display a lateral structure formation, forming vertical bundles of chains. A further reduction of the temperature (or solvent quality) leads to a vertical collapse of the brush. By varying the size and selectivity of the counterions, we show that lateral structure formation persists and therefore demonstrate that the entropy of counterions being the dominant factor for the formation of the bundle phase. By applying an external compression force on the brush we calculate the minimal work done on the polymer phase only and prove that the entropy gain of counterions in the bundle state, as compared to the homogeneously collapsed state at the same temperature, is responsible for the lateral microphase segregation. As a consequence, the observed lateral structure formation has to be regarded universal for osmotic polymer brushes below the Θ-point.

  17. Profilometric analysis of two composite resins' surface repolished after tooth brush abrasion with three polishing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Mudit; Ganesh, Arathi; Balagopal, Suresh; Kaur, Gurleen

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of three polishing protocols that could be implemented at recall on the surface roughness of two direct esthetic restorative materials. Specimens (n = 40) measuring 8 mm (length) × 5 mm (width) × 4 mm (height) were fabricated in an acrylic mold using two light-cured resin-based materials (microfilled composite and microhybrid composite). After photopolymerization, all specimens were finished and polished with one of three polishing protocols (Enhance, One Gloss, and Sof-Lex polishing systems). The average surface roughness of each treated specimen was determined using 3D optical profilometer. Next all specimens were brushed 60,000 times with nylon bristles at 7200 rpm using crosshead brushing device with equal parts of toothpaste and water used as abrasive medium. The surface roughness of each specimen was measured after brushing followed by repolishing with one of three polishing protocols, and then, the final surface roughness values were determined. The data were analyzed using one-way and two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD). Significant difference (P < 0.05) in surface roughness was observed. Simulated brushing following initial polishing procedure significantly roughened the surface of restorative material (P < 0.05). Polishing protocols can be used to restore a smooth surface on esthetic restorative materials following simulated tooth brushing.

  18. Probability of lek collapse is lower inside sage-grouse Core Areas: Effectiveness of conservation policy for a landscape species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Suzuki Spence

    Full Text Available Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus occupy sagebrush (Artemisia spp. habitats in 11 western states and 2 Canadian provinces. In September 2015, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced the listing status for sage-grouse had changed from warranted but precluded to not warranted. The primary reason cited for this change of status was that the enactment of new regulatory mechanisms was sufficient to protect sage-grouse populations. One such plan is the 2008, Wyoming Sage Grouse Executive Order (SGEO, enacted by Governor Freudenthal. The SGEO identifies "Core Areas" that are to be protected by keeping them relatively free from further energy development and limiting other forms of anthropogenic disturbances near active sage-grouse leks. Using the Wyoming Game and Fish Department's sage-grouse lek count database and the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission database of oil and gas well locations, we investigated the effectiveness of Wyoming's Core Areas, specifically: 1 how well Core Areas encompass the distribution of sage-grouse in Wyoming, 2 whether Core Area leks have a reduced probability of lek collapse, and 3 what, if any, edge effects intensification of oil and gas development adjacent to Core Areas may be having on Core Area populations. Core Areas contained 77% of male sage-grouse attending leks and 64% of active leks. Using Bayesian binomial probability analysis, we found an average 10.9% probability of lek collapse in Core Areas and an average 20.4% probability of lek collapse outside Core Areas. Using linear regression, we found development density outside Core Areas was related to the probability of lek collapse inside Core Areas. Specifically, probability of collapse among leks >4.83 km from inside Core Area boundaries was significantly related to well density within 1.61 km (1-mi and 4.83 km (3-mi outside of Core Area boundaries. Collectively, these data suggest that the Wyoming Core Area Strategy has benefited

  19. Probability of lek collapse is lower inside sage-grouse Core Areas: Effectiveness of conservation policy for a landscape species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Emma Suzuki; Beck, Jeffrey L; Gregory, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) occupy sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitats in 11 western states and 2 Canadian provinces. In September 2015, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service announced the listing status for sage-grouse had changed from warranted but precluded to not warranted. The primary reason cited for this change of status was that the enactment of new regulatory mechanisms was sufficient to protect sage-grouse populations. One such plan is the 2008, Wyoming Sage Grouse Executive Order (SGEO), enacted by Governor Freudenthal. The SGEO identifies "Core Areas" that are to be protected by keeping them relatively free from further energy development and limiting other forms of anthropogenic disturbances near active sage-grouse leks. Using the Wyoming Game and Fish Department's sage-grouse lek count database and the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission database of oil and gas well locations, we investigated the effectiveness of Wyoming's Core Areas, specifically: 1) how well Core Areas encompass the distribution of sage-grouse in Wyoming, 2) whether Core Area leks have a reduced probability of lek collapse, and 3) what, if any, edge effects intensification of oil and gas development adjacent to Core Areas may be having on Core Area populations. Core Areas contained 77% of male sage-grouse attending leks and 64% of active leks. Using Bayesian binomial probability analysis, we found an average 10.9% probability of lek collapse in Core Areas and an average 20.4% probability of lek collapse outside Core Areas. Using linear regression, we found development density outside Core Areas was related to the probability of lek collapse inside Core Areas. Specifically, probability of collapse among leks >4.83 km from inside Core Area boundaries was significantly related to well density within 1.61 km (1-mi) and 4.83 km (3-mi) outside of Core Area boundaries. Collectively, these data suggest that the Wyoming Core Area Strategy has benefited sage

  20. Effect of zinc gluconate, sage oil on inflammatory patterns and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elseweidy, Mohamed M; Ali, Abdel-Moniem A; Elabidine, Nabila Zein; Mursey, Nada M

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between zinc homeostasis and pancreatic function had been established. In this study we aimed firstly to configure the inflammatory pattern and hyperglycemia in zinc deficient diabetic rats. Secondly to illustrate the effect of two selected agents namely Zinc gluconate and sage oil (Salvia Officinalis, family Lamiaceae). Rats were fed on Zinc deficient diet, deionized water for 28days along with Zinc level check up at intervals to achieve zinc deficient state then rats were rendered diabetic through receiving one dose of alloxan monohydrate (120mg/kg) body weight, classified later into 5 subgroups. Treatment with sage oil (0.042mg/kg IP) and Zinc gluconate orally (150mg/kg) body weight daily for 8 weeks significantly reduced serum glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α), interleukins-6 1 β, inflammatory8 (IFN ȣ), pancreatic 1L1-β along with an increase in serum Zinc and pancreatic Zinc transporter 8 (ZNT8). Histopathological results of pancreatic tissues showed a good correlation with the biochemical findings. Both sage oil and zinc gluconate induced an improvement in the glycemic and inflammatory states. This may be of value like the therapeutic agent for diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterisation of a SAGe well detector using GEANT4 and LabSOCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, R., E-mail: rich.britton@awe.co.uk [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Davies, A.V. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-21

    This paper reports on the performance of a recently developed Small Anode Germanium (SAGe) well detector from Canberra Industries. This has been specifically designed to improve the energy resolution of the detector, such that it is comparable to the performance of broad-energy designs while achieving far higher efficiencies. Accurate efficiency characterisations and cascade summing correction factors are crucial for quantifying the radionuclides present in environmental samples, and these were calculated for the complex geometry posed by the well detector using two different methodologies. The first relied on Monte-Carlo simulations based upon the GEANT4 toolkit, and the second utilised Canberra Industries GENIE™ 2000 Gamma Analysis software in conjunction with a LabSOCS™ characterisation. Both were found to be in excellent agreement for all nuclides except for {sup 152}Eu, which presents a known issue in the Canberra software (all nuclides affected by this issue were well documented, and fixes are being developed). The correction factors were used to analyse two fully characterised reference samples, yielding results in good agreement with the accepted activity concentrations. Given the sensitivity of well type geometries to cascade summing, this represents a considerable achievement, and paves the way for the use of the SAGe well detector in analysis of ‘real-world’ environmental samples. With the efficiency increase when using the SAGe well in place of a BEGe, substantial reductions in the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) should be achievable for a range of nuclides.

  2. Reevaluation of Stratospheric Ozone Trends From SAGE II Data Using a Simultaneous Temporal and Spatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damadeo, R. P.; Zawodny, J. M.; Thomason, L. W.

    2014-01-01

    This paper details a new method of regression for sparsely sampled data sets for use with time-series analysis, in particular the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II ozone data set. Non-uniform spatial, temporal, and diurnal sampling present in the data set result in biased values for the long-term trend if not accounted for. This new method is performed close to the native resolution of measurements and is a simultaneous temporal and spatial analysis that accounts for potential diurnal ozone variation. Results show biases, introduced by the way data is prepared for use with traditional methods, can be as high as 10%. Derived long-term changes show declines in ozone similar to other studies but very different trends in the presumed recovery period, with differences up to 2% per decade. The regression model allows for a variable turnaround time and reveals a hemispheric asymmetry in derived trends in the middle to upper stratosphere. Similar methodology is also applied to SAGE II aerosol optical depth data to create a new volcanic proxy that covers the SAGE II mission period. Ultimately this technique may be extensible towards the inclusion of multiple data sets without the need for homogenization.

  3. SEMI-ANALYTIC GALAXY EVOLUTION (SAGE): MODEL CALIBRATION AND BASIC RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croton, Darren J.; Stevens, Adam R. H.; Tonini, Chiara; Garel, Thibault; Bernyk, Maksym; Bibiano, Antonio; Hodkinson, Luke; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Shattow, Genevieve M. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2016-02-15

    This paper describes a new publicly available codebase for modeling galaxy formation in a cosmological context, the “Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution” model, or sage for short.{sup 5} sage is a significant update to the 2006 model of Croton et al. and has been rebuilt to be modular and customizable. The model will run on any N-body simulation whose trees are organized in a supported format and contain a minimum set of basic halo properties. In this work, we present the baryonic prescriptions implemented in sage to describe the formation and evolution of galaxies, and their calibration for three N-body simulations: Millennium, Bolshoi, and GiggleZ. Updated physics include the following: gas accretion, ejection due to feedback, and reincorporation via the galactic fountain; a new gas cooling–radio mode active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating cycle; AGN feedback in the quasar mode; a new treatment of gas in satellite galaxies; and galaxy mergers, disruption, and the build-up of intra-cluster stars. Throughout, we show the results of a common default parameterization on each simulation, with a focus on the local galaxy population.

  4. Relationship between collapse history and ore distribution in Sage Breccia pipe, northwestern Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, N.A.; Mead, R.H.; McMurray, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Sage pipe is similar to other collapse breccia pipes in northern Arizona which have their beginnings in cave systems in the Redwall Limestone. Stoping of successively younger units caused the upward propagation of the pipe and provided the pipe-filling breccia. The Sage pipe extends at least 2,500 ft (762 m) vertically; the horizontal dimensions range from 100 to 300 ft (30.5-91 m), depending on variations in the adjoining host stratigraphy. The composition and distribution of breccia facies suggest a complex collapse history and variability in the mechanics of collapse. Rock failure took place both by block stoping and by decementation of sandstone and siltstone followed by flow of unconsolidated grains. The resulting breccias range from matrix to fragment-dominated, to sand flow breccia resulting from flow of individual grains. Episodic secondary collapse or readjustment within the breccia pile complicated facies distribution. Paragenetic studies indicate multiple periods of mineralization at Sage resulting in enrichment in an extensive suite of elements. Ore-grade uranium mineralization extends vertically for nearly 700 ft (213 m). Lateral distribution of the ore is variable and is directly related to breccia facies distribution. In generally, the more permeable breccias tend to be the most highly mineralized. Fracture, intergranular, and interfragment permeability were important to mineral distribution. Breccia continuity or plumbing was also important to lateral and vertical mineral distribution

  5. Evaluating lek occupancy of greater sage-grouse in relation to landscape cultivation in the Dakotas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joe T.; Flake, Lester D.; Higgins, Kenneth F.; Kobriger, Gerald D.; Homer, Collin G.

    2005-01-01

    Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) have been declining in many states and provinces of North America, and North and South Dakota hold no exception to these declines. We studied effects of cultivated land on Greater Sage-Grouse lek abandonment in North and South Dakota. Landscape-level data were assessed using satellite imagery within a geographic information system. Comparisons were made of 1972-1976 and 1999-2000 percent cultivated and noncultivated land. These comparisons were made between land uses surrounding active leks versus inactive leks, active leks versus random locations, and abandoned regions versus active regions. The 1999-2000 imagery illustrated that percent cultivated land was greater near abandoned leks (4-km buffers) than near active leks in North Dakota or random sites, but this did not hold true in South Dakota. Comparison of an extensive region of abandoned leks with a region of active leks in North Dakota illustrated a similar increase as well as dispersion of cultivation within the abandoned region. However, 1972-1976 imagery revealed that this relationship between percentage of cultivated land and lek activity in North Dakota has been static over the last 30 years. Thus, if the decline of Greater Sage-Grouse is the result of cultivated land infringements, it occurred prior to 1972 in North Dakota.

  6. SAGES TAVAC safety and effectiveness analysis: da Vinci ® Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Shawn; Oleynikov, Dmitry; Gould, Jon; Azagury, Dan; Sandler, Bryan; Hutter, Matthew; Ross, Sharona; Haas, Eric; Brody, Fred; Satava, Richard

    2015-10-01

    The da Vinci(®) Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) is a computer-assisted (robotic) surgical system designed to enable and enhance minimally invasive surgery. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has cleared computer-assisted surgical systems for use by trained physicians in an operating room environment for laparoscopic surgical procedures in general, cardiac, colorectal, gynecologic, head and neck, thoracic and urologic surgical procedures. There are substantial numbers of peer-reviewed papers regarding the da Vinci(®) Surgical System, and a thoughtful assessment of evidence framed by clinical opinion is warranted. The SAGES da Vinci(®) TAVAC sub-committee performed a literature review of the da Vinci(®) Surgical System regarding gastrointestinal surgery. Conclusions by the sub-committee were vetted by the SAGES TAVAC Committee and SAGES Executive Board. Following revisions, the document was evaluated by the TAVAC Committee and Executive Board again for final approval. Several conclusions were drawn based on expert opinion organized by safety, efficacy, and cost for robotic foregut, bariatric, hepatobiliary/pancreatic, colorectal surgery, and single-incision cholecystectomy. Gastrointestinal surgery with the da Vinci(®) Surgical System is safe and comparable, but not superior to standard laparoscopic approaches. Although clinically acceptable, its use may be costly for select gastrointestinal procedures. Current data are limited to the da Vinci(®) Surgical System; further analyses are needed.

  7. SEMI-ANALYTIC GALAXY EVOLUTION (SAGE): MODEL CALIBRATION AND BASIC RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croton, Darren J.; Stevens, Adam R. H.; Tonini, Chiara; Garel, Thibault; Bernyk, Maksym; Bibiano, Antonio; Hodkinson, Luke; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Shattow, Genevieve M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new publicly available codebase for modeling galaxy formation in a cosmological context, the “Semi-Analytic Galaxy Evolution” model, or sage for short. 5 sage is a significant update to the 2006 model of Croton et al. and has been rebuilt to be modular and customizable. The model will run on any N-body simulation whose trees are organized in a supported format and contain a minimum set of basic halo properties. In this work, we present the baryonic prescriptions implemented in sage to describe the formation and evolution of galaxies, and their calibration for three N-body simulations: Millennium, Bolshoi, and GiggleZ. Updated physics include the following: gas accretion, ejection due to feedback, and reincorporation via the galactic fountain; a new gas cooling–radio mode active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating cycle; AGN feedback in the quasar mode; a new treatment of gas in satellite galaxies; and galaxy mergers, disruption, and the build-up of intra-cluster stars. Throughout, we show the results of a common default parameterization on each simulation, with a focus on the local galaxy population

  8. Characterisation of a SAGe well detector using GEANT4 and LabSOCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, R.; Davies, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the performance of a recently developed Small Anode Germanium (SAGe) well detector from Canberra Industries. This has been specifically designed to improve the energy resolution of the detector, such that it is comparable to the performance of broad-energy designs while achieving far higher efficiencies. Accurate efficiency characterisations and cascade summing correction factors are crucial for quantifying the radionuclides present in environmental samples, and these were calculated for the complex geometry posed by the well detector using two different methodologies. The first relied on Monte-Carlo simulations based upon the GEANT4 toolkit, and the second utilised Canberra Industries GENIE™ 2000 Gamma Analysis software in conjunction with a LabSOCS™ characterisation. Both were found to be in excellent agreement for all nuclides except for 152 Eu, which presents a known issue in the Canberra software (all nuclides affected by this issue were well documented, and fixes are being developed). The correction factors were used to analyse two fully characterised reference samples, yielding results in good agreement with the accepted activity concentrations. Given the sensitivity of well type geometries to cascade summing, this represents a considerable achievement, and paves the way for the use of the SAGe well detector in analysis of ‘real-world’ environmental samples. With the efficiency increase when using the SAGe well in place of a BEGe, substantial reductions in the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) should be achievable for a range of nuclides

  9. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of antioxidants from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and sage (Salvia officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JASNA IVANOVIĆ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to isolate and characterize antioxidant extracts obtained from dried leaves of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and sage (Salvia officinalis L., originating from the southern Balkan Region. The antioxidant fraction was isolated from the plant material by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 fractional extraction under a pressure of 30 MPa and at temperatures of 40 and 100 °C. In the present study, kinetic data and yields of antioxidant extracts obtained from dried leaves of rosemary and sage under different conditions were determined. Electron spin resonance (ESR spectroscopy assay on the ability of the extracts to scavenge stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radicals and reactive hydroxyl radicals during the Fenton reaction trapped by 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO showed that the investigated extracts had antioxidant activity comparable to that of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA and commercial rosemary extract. The antioxidant fractions isolated at the higher temperature had higher antioxidant activities. A tentative analysis of the chemical composition of the antioxidant fractions obtained at the higher temperature was accomplished by LC-DAD and LC-MS analytical methods. Abietane-type diterpenoids, flavonoids and fatty acids were identified in the SC-CO2 extract of rosemary and sage.

  10. Data Resource Profile: Cross-national and cross-study sociodemographic and health-related harmonized domains from SAGE plus ELSA, HRS and SHARE (SAGE+, Wave 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicuci, Nadia; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Four longitudinal studies were included in this rigorous harmonization process: the Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE); English Longitudinal Study on Ageing (ELSA); US Health and Retirement Study (HRS); and Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). An ex-post harmonized process was applied to nine health-related thematic domains (socio-demographic and economic, health states, overall self-report of health and mental state, health examinations, physical and mental performance tests, risk factors, chronic conditions, social network and subjective well-being) for data from the 2004 wave of each study. Large samples of adults aged 50 years and older were available from each study: SAGE, n = 18 886; ELSA, n = 9181; HRS, n = 19 303; and SHARE, n = 29 917. The microdata, along with further details about the harmonization process and all metadata, are available through the World Health Organization (WHO) data archive at [http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata/index.php/catalog]. Further information and enquiries can be made to [sagesurvey@who.int] or the corresponding author. The data resource will continue to be updated with data across additional waves of these surveys and new waves. © The Author 2016; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  11. Aerosol extinction profiles at 525 nm and 1020 nm derived from ACE imager data: comparisons with GOMOS, SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, and OSIRIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Vanhellemont

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment mission is dedicated to the retrieval of a large number of atmospheric trace gas species using the solar occultation technique in the infrared and UV/visible spectral domain. However, two additional solar disk imagers (at 525 nm and 1020 nm were added for a number of reasons, including the retrieval of aerosol and cloud products. In this paper, we present first comparison results for these imager aerosol/cloud optical extinction coefficient profiles, with the ones derived from measurements performed by 3 solar occultation instruments (SAGE II, SAGE III, POAM III, one stellar occultation instrument (GOMOS and one limb sounder (OSIRIS. The results indicate that the ACE imager profiles are of good quality in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere, although the aerosol extinction for the visible channel at 525 nm contains a significant negative bias at higher altitudes, while the relative differences indicate that ACE profiles are almost always too high at 1020 nm. Both problems are probably related to ACE imager instrumental issues.

  12. The brush model - a new approach to numerical modeling of matrix diffusion in fractured clay stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lege, T.; Shao, H.

    1998-01-01

    A special approach for numerical modeling of contaminant transport in fractured clay stone is presented. The rock matrix and the fractures are simulated with individual formulations for FE grids and transport, coupled into a single model. The capacity of the rock matrix to take up contaminants is taken into consideration with a discrete simulation of matrix diffusion. Thus, the natural process of retardation due to matrix diffusion can be better simulated than by a standard introduction of an empirical parameter into the transport equation. Transport in groundwater in fractured clay stone can be simulated using a model called a 'brush model'. The 'brush handle' is discretized by 2-D finite elements. Advective-dispersive transport in groundwater in the fractures is assumed. The contaminant diffuses into 1D finite elements perpendicular to the fractures, i.e., the 'bristles of the brush'. The conclusion is drawn that matrix diffusion is an important property of fractured clay stone for contaminant retardation. (author)

  13. Self-Assembly of Narrowly Dispersed Brush Diblock Copolymers with Domain Spacing more than 100 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Weiyin; Sveinbjornsson, Benjamin; Hong, Sung Woo; Grubbs, Robert; Russell, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    Self-assembled structures of high molecular weight (MW), narrow molecular weight distribution brush block copolymers containing polylactic acid (PLA) and polystyrene (PS) side chains with similar MWs were studied in both the melt and thin films. The polynorbornene-backbone-based brush diblock copolymers containing approximately equal volume fractions of each block self-assembled into highly ordered lamellae with domain spacing over 100 nm, as revealed by SAXS, GISAXS and AFM. The domain size increased approximately linearly with backbone length, which indicated an extended conformation of the backbone in the ordered state. The length of side chains also played a significant role in terms of controlling the domain size. As the degree of polymerization (DP) increased, the symmetric brush diblock copolymers with longer side chains tended to form larger lamellar microdomains in comparison to those that have the same DP but shorter side chains.

  14. "Long life" DC brush motor for use on the Mars surveyor program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, David; Noon, Don

    1998-01-01

    DC brush motors have several qualities which make them very attractive for space flight applications. Their mechanical commutation is simple and lightweight, requiring no external sensing and control in order to function properly. They are extremely efficient in converting electrical energy into mechanical energy. Efficiencies over 80% are not uncommon, resulting in high power throughput to weight ratios. However, the inherent unreliability and short life of sliding electrical contacts, especially in vacuum, have driven previous programs to utilize complex brushless DC or the less efficient stepper motors. The Mars Surveyor Program (MSP'98) and the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) have developed a reliable "long life" brush type DC motor for operation in low temperature, low pressure CO2 and N2, utilizing silver-graphite brushes. The original intent was to utilize this same motor for SRTM's space operation, but the results thus far have been unsatisfactory in vacuum. This paper describes the design, test, and results of this development.

  15. A theoretical study of colloidal forces near an amphiphilic polymer brush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianzhong

    2011-03-01

    Polymer-based ``non-stick'' coatings are promising as the next generation of effective, environmentally-friendly marine antifouling systems that minimize nonspecific adsorption of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). However, design and development of such systems are impeded by the poor knowledge of polymer-mediated interactions of biomacromolecules with the protected substrate. In this work, a polymer density functional theory (DFT) is used to predict the potential of mean force between spherical biomacromolecules and amphiphilic copolymer brushes within a coarse-grained model that captures essential nonspecific interactions such as the molecular excluded volume effects and the hydrophobic energies. The relevance of theoretical results for practical control of the EPS adsorption is discussed in terms of the efficiency of different brush configurations to prevent biofouling. It is shown that the most effective antifouling surface may be accomplished by using amphiphilic brushes with a long hydrophilic backbone and a hydrophobic end at moderate grafting density.

  16. Nanostructure of Cationic Polymer Brush at the Air/Water Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuoka Hideki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cationic amphiphilic diblock copolymers were synthesized by RAFT polymerization and the nanostructure of their monolayers was investigated by π-A isotherm and X-ray reflectivity. Carpet layer (dense hydrophilic block layer formation under the hydrophobic layer was confirmed and a “brush” layer was found beneath the carpet layer. However, the thickness of brush layer was much thinner than that of the fully-stretched chain length. The critical salt concentration was found to be 0.01 M NaCl, which is much lower than that of the previous strongly anionic brush. These differences were probably caused by the low effective charge on the brush chains due to the hydrophobic nature of the quarternized ammonium cation.

  17. Dual brush process for selective surface modification in graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doise, Jan; Chan, Boon Teik; Hori, Masafumi; Gronheid, Roel

    2017-07-01

    Graphoepitaxy directed self-assembly is a potential low-cost solution for patterning via layers with pitches beyond the reach of a single optical lithographic exposure. In this process, selective control of the interfacial energy at the bottom and sidewall of the template is an important but challenging exercise. A dual brush process is implemented, in which two brushes with distinct end-groups are consecutively grafted to the prepattern to achieve fully independent modification of the bottom and sidewall surface of the template. A comprehensive study of hole pattern quality shows that using a dual brush process leads to a substantial improvement in terms of positional and dimensional variability across the process window. These findings will be useful to others who wish to manipulate polymer-surface interactions in directed self-assembly flows.

  18. Growing Embossed Nanostructures of Polymer Brushes on Wet-Etched Silicon Templated via Block Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaobin; Yan, Qin; Ma, Yinzhou; Guo, Xin; Xiao, Shou-Jun

    2016-02-01

    Block copolymer nanolithography has attracted enormous interest in chip technologies, such as integrated silicon chips and biochips, due to its large-scale and mass production of uniform patterns. We further modified this technology to grow embossed nanodots, nanorods, and nanofingerprints of polymer brushes on silicon from their corresponding wet-etched nanostructures covered with pendent SiHx (X = 1-3) species. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to image the topomorphologies, and multiple transmission-reflection infrared spectroscopy (MTR-IR) was used to monitor the surface molecular films in each step for the sequential stepwise reactions. In addition, two layers of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) brush nanodots were observed, which were attributed to the circumferential convergence growth and the diffusion-limited growth of the polymer brushes. The pH response of PMAA nanodots in the same region was investigated by AFM from pH 3.0 to 9.0.

  19. Determination of the biologically active flavour substances thujone and camphor in foods and medicines containing sage (Salvia officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephan G; Kuballa, Thomas; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-07-21

    The sage plant Salvia officinalis L. is used as ingredient in foods and beverages as well as in herbal medicinal products. A major use is in the form of aqueous infusions as sage tea, which is legal to be sold as either food or medicine. Sage may contain two health relevant substances, thujone and camphor. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology to determine these active principles of sage and give a first overview of their concentrations in a wide variety of sage foods and medicines. A GC/MS procedure was applied for the analysis of α- and β-thujone and camphor with cyclodecanone as internal standard. The precision was between 0.8 and 12.6%, linearity was obtained from 0.1 - 80 mg/L. The recoveries of spiked samples were between 93.7 and 104.0% (average 99.1%). The time of infusion had a considerable influence on the content of analytes found in the teas. During the brewing time, thujone and camphor show an increase up to about 5 min, after which saturation is reached. No effect was found for preparation with or without a lid on the pot used for brewing the infusion. Compared to extracts with ethanol (60% vol), which provide a maximum yield, an average of 30% thujone are recovered in the aqueous tea preparations. The average thujone and camphor contents were 4.4 mg/L and 16.7 mg/L in food tea infusions and 11.3 mg/L and 25.4 mg/L in medicinal tea infusions. The developed methodology allows the efficient determination of thujone and camphor in a wide variety of sage food and medicine matrices and can be applied to conduct surveys for exposure assessment. The current results suggest that on average between 3 and 6 cups of sage tea could be daily consumed without reaching toxicological thresholds.

  20. Improving communication with palliative care cancer patients at home - A pilot study of SAGE & THYME communication skills model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jane; Wilson, Charlotte; Ewing, Gail; Connolly, Michael; Grande, Gunn

    2015-10-01

    To pilot an evidence-based communication skills model (SAGE & THYME) with UK District Nurses (DNs) who visit patients with advanced cancer early in the dying trajectory. Evidence suggests that DNs lack confidence in communication skills and in assessing cancer patients' psycho-social needs; also that they lack time. SAGE & THYME is a highly structured model for teaching patient centred interactions. It addresses concerns about confidence and time. Mixed methods. 33 DNs were trained in SAGE & THYME in a three hour workshop and interviewed in focus groups on three occasions: pre-training, immediately post-training and two months post-training. Questionnaires measuring perceived outcomes of communication, confidence in communication and motivation to use SAGE & THYME were administered at the focus groups. SAGE & THYME provided a structure for conversations and facilitated opening and closing of interactions. The main principle of patient centeredness was reportedly used by all. Knowledge about communication behaviours helpful to patients improved and was sustained two months after training. Increased confidence in communication skills was also sustained. Motivation to use SAGE & THYME was high and remained so at two months, and some said the model saved them time. Challenges with using the model included controlling the home environment and a change in style of communication which was so marked some DNs preferred to use it with new patients. Training DNs in SAGE & THYME in a three hour workshop appears to be a promising model for improving communication skills when working with cancer patients. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Daily nest survival rates of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus): assessing local- and landscape-scale drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Thomas R.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Joanne Saher,; Theresa Childers,

    2015-01-01

    The Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of conservation concern and is a candidate for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act because of substantial declines in populations from historic levels. It is thought that loss, fragmentation, and deterioration of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) habitat have contributed to the decline and isolation of this species into seven geographically distinct subpopulations. Nest survival is known to be a primary driver of demography of Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus), but no unbiased estimates of daily nest survival rates (hereafter nest survival) exist for Gunnison Sage-Grouse or published studies identifying factors that influence nest survival. We estimated nest survival of Gunnison Sage-Grouse for the western portion of Colorado's Gunnison Basin subpopulation, and assessed the effects and relative importance of local- and landscape-scale habitat characteristics on nest survival. Our top performing model was one that allowed variation in nest survival among areas, suggesting a larger landscape-area effect. Overall nest success during a 38-day nesting period (egg-laying plus incubation) was 50% (daily survival rate; SE  =  0.982 [0.003]), which is higher than previous estimates for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and generally higher than published for the closely related Greater Sage-Grouse. We did not find strong evidence that local-scale habitat variables were better predictors of nest survival than landscape-scale predictors, nor did we find strong evidence that any of the habitat variables we measured were good predictors of nest survival. Nest success of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in the western portion of the Gunnison Basin was higher than previously believed.

  2. Decadal-Scale Responses in Middle and Upper Stratospheric Ozone From SAGE II Version 7 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remsberg, E. E.

    2014-01-01

    Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) version 7 (v7) ozone profiles are analyzed for their decadal-scale responses in the middle and upper stratosphere for 1991 and 1992-2005 and compared with those from its previous version 6.2 (v6.2). Multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis is applied to time series of its ozone number density vs. altitude data for a range of latitudes and altitudes. The MLR models that are fit to the time series data include a periodic 11 yr term, and it is in-phase with that of the 11 yr, solar UV (Ultraviolet)-flux throughout most of the latitude/ altitude domain of the middle and upper stratosphere. Several regions that have a response that is not quite in-phase are interpreted as being affected by decadal-scale, dynamical forcings. The maximum minus minimum, solar cycle (SClike) responses for the ozone at the low latitudes are similar from the two SAGE II data versions and vary from about 5 to 2.5% from 35 to 50 km, although they are resolved better with v7. SAGE II v7 ozone is also analyzed for 1984-1998, in order to mitigate effects of end-point anomalies that bias its ozone in 1991 and the analyzed results for 1991-2005 or following the Pinatubo eruption. Its SC-like ozone response in the upper stratosphere is of the order of 4%for 1984-1998 vs. 2.5 to 3%for 1991-2005. The SAGE II v7 results are also recompared with the responses in ozone from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) that are in terms of mixing ratio vs. pressure for 1991-2005 and then for late 1992- 2005 to avoid any effects following Pinatubo. Shapes of their respective response profiles agree very well for 1992-2005. The associated linear trends of the ozone are not as negative in 1992-2005 as in 1984-1998, in accord with a leveling off of the effects of reactive chlorine on ozone. It is concluded that the SAGE II v7 ozone yields SC-like ozone responses and trends that are of better quality than those from v6.2.

  3. Characteristic Performance Evaluation of a new SAGe Well Detector for Small and Large Sample Geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adekola, A.S.; Colaresi, J.; Douwen, J.; Jaederstroem, H.; Mueller, W.F.; Yocum, K.M.; Carmichael, K.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental scientific research requires a detector that has sensitivity low enough to reveal the presence of any contaminant in the sample at a reasonable counting time. Canberra developed the germanium detector geometry called Small Anode Germanium (SAGe) Well detector, which is now available commercially. The SAGe Well detector is a new type of low capacitance germanium well detector manufactured using small anode technology capable of advancing many environmental scientific research applications. The performance of this detector has been evaluated for a range of sample sizes and geometries counted inside the well, and on the end cap of the detector. The detector has energy resolution performance similar to semi-planar detectors, and offers significant improvement over the existing coaxial and Well detectors. Energy resolution performance of 750 eV Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) at 122 keV γ-ray energy and resolution of 2.0 - 2.3 keV FWHM at 1332 keV γ-ray energy are guaranteed for detector volumes up to 425 cm 3 . The SAGe Well detector offers an optional 28 mm well diameter with the same energy resolution as the standard 16 mm well. Such outstanding resolution performance will benefit environmental applications in revealing the detailed radionuclide content of samples, particularly at low energy, and will enhance the detection sensitivity resulting in reduced counting time. The detector is compatible with electric coolers without any sacrifice in performance and supports the Canberra Mathematical efficiency calibration method (In situ Object Calibration Software or ISOCS, and Laboratory Source-less Calibration Software or LABSOCS). In addition, the SAGe Well detector supports true coincidence summing available in the ISOCS/LABSOCS framework. The improved resolution performance greatly enhances detection sensitivity of this new detector for a range of sample sizes and geometries counted inside the well. This results in lower minimum detectable

  4. Characteristic Performance Evaluation of a new SAGe Well Detector for Small and Large Sample Geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adekola, A.S.; Colaresi, J.; Douwen, J.; Jaederstroem, H.; Mueller, W.F.; Yocum, K.M.; Carmichael, K. [Canberra Industries Inc., 800 Research Parkway, Meriden, CT 06450 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Environmental scientific research requires a detector that has sensitivity low enough to reveal the presence of any contaminant in the sample at a reasonable counting time. Canberra developed the germanium detector geometry called Small Anode Germanium (SAGe) Well detector, which is now available commercially. The SAGe Well detector is a new type of low capacitance germanium well detector manufactured using small anode technology capable of advancing many environmental scientific research applications. The performance of this detector has been evaluated for a range of sample sizes and geometries counted inside the well, and on the end cap of the detector. The detector has energy resolution performance similar to semi-planar detectors, and offers significant improvement over the existing coaxial and Well detectors. Energy resolution performance of 750 eV Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) at 122 keV γ-ray energy and resolution of 2.0 - 2.3 keV FWHM at 1332 keV γ-ray energy are guaranteed for detector volumes up to 425 cm{sup 3}. The SAGe Well detector offers an optional 28 mm well diameter with the same energy resolution as the standard 16 mm well. Such outstanding resolution performance will benefit environmental applications in revealing the detailed radionuclide content of samples, particularly at low energy, and will enhance the detection sensitivity resulting in reduced counting time. The detector is compatible with electric coolers without any sacrifice in performance and supports the Canberra Mathematical efficiency calibration method (In situ Object Calibration Software or ISOCS, and Laboratory Source-less Calibration Software or LABSOCS). In addition, the SAGe Well detector supports true coincidence summing available in the ISOCS/LABSOCS framework. The improved resolution performance greatly enhances detection sensitivity of this new detector for a range of sample sizes and geometries counted inside the well. This results in lower minimum detectable

  5. Improved curvature-based inpainting applied to fine art: recovering van Gogh's partially hidden brush strokes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yubin; Stork, David G.; Kahl, Fredrik

    2011-03-01

    Underdrawings and pentimenti-typically revealed through x-ray imaging and infrared reflectography-comprise important evidence about the intermediate states of an artwork and thus the working methods of its creator.1 To this end, Shahram, Stork and Donoho introduced the De-pict algorithm, which recovers layers of brush strokes in paintings with open brush work where several layers are partially visible, such as in van Gogh's Self portrait with a grey felt hat.2 While that preliminary work served as a proof of concept that computer image analytic methods could recover some occluded brush strokes, the work needed further refinement before it could be a tool for art scholars. Our current work makes several steps to improve that algorithm. Specifically, we refine the inpainting step through the inclusion of curvature-based constraints, in which a mathematical curvature penalty biases the reconstruction toward matching the artist's smooth hand motion. We refine and test our methods using "ground truth" image data: passages of four layers of brush strokes in which the intermediate layers were recorded photographically. At each successive top layer (currently identified by the user), we used k-means clustering combined with graph cuts to obtain chromatically and spatially coherent segmentation of brush strokes. We then reconstructed strokes at the deeper layer with our new curvature-based inpainting algorithm based on chromatic level lines. Our methods are clearly superior to previous versions of the De-pict algorithm on van Gogh's works giving smoother, natural strokes that more closely match the shapes of unoccluded strokes. Our improved method might be applied to the classic drip paintings of Jackson Pollock, where the drip work is more open and the physics of splashing paint ensures that the curvature more uniform than in the brush strokes of van Gogh.

  6. Making strong polyelectrolyte brushes pH-sensitive by incorporation of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyaciyan, D; Krause, P; von Klitzing, R

    2018-04-19

    Doping polymer brushes with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) results in composite materials with colorimetric sensor properties. The present paper addresses the effect of electrostatic particle-particle interaction and the effect of the polymer brush type on particle assembly formation within the polymer matrix. The prospect for long-term use as colorimetric sensors is tested. Therefore, two different types of brushes of pH-insensitive polymers, non-ionic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) and cationic poly-[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl] trimethylammonium chloride (PMETAC), are studied. After incubation of the non-ionic PNIPAM brush in an aqueous suspension of AuNPs with a pH-sensitive carboxylic acid capping, hydrogen binding led to attachment of the AuNPs, but they were easily detached at high pH due to loss of the hydrogen binding. In contrast, the anionic AuNPs adhere well to cationic PMETAC brushes even after post-treatment at low pH where the charge density of the AuNPs is strongly reduced. Therefore, the PMETAC/AuNP composites were further tested with respect to their stability against pH variations and their impact for colorimetric sensors. Although the neat PMETAC brush is not pH-sensitive, after embedding pH-sensitive AuNPs, the PMETAC/AuNP composite becomes pH-sensitive in a reversible manner. This is detectable by the reversible shift of the plasmon band and the reversible thickness change of the composites by exposing them to different pH.

  7. Insight into the electrical properties and chain conformation of spherical polyelectrolyte brushes by dielectric spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Kongshuang

    2017-02-01

    We report here a dielectric study on three kinds of anionic spherical polyelectrolyte brush (SPBs, consisting of a polystyrene (PS) core and three different poly (acrylic acid) chains grafted onto the core) suspensions over a frequency ranging from 40 Hz to 110 MHz. The relaxation behavior of the SPB suspensions shows significant changes in the brush-layer properties when the mass fraction of SPBs and the pH of the suspensions change. Two definite relaxations related to the interfacial polarization are observed around 100 kHz and 10 MHz. A single-layer spherical-shell model is applied to describe the SPB suspensions wherein the suspended SPB is modeled as a spherical-shell composite particle in which an insulated PS sphere is surrounded by a conducting ion-permeable shell (the polyelectrolyte chain layer). We developed the curve-fitting procedure to analyze the dielectric spectrum in order to obtain the dielectric properties of the components of the SPBs, especially the properties of the polyelectrolyte brush. Based on this method and model, the permittivity and conductivity of the brush layer, ζ potential, etc are calculated. The ordered orientation of the water molecules in the layer leads to an additional electrical dipole moment; increasing pH causes the brush layer to swell. In addition, the repulsive force between the SPB particles are evaluated using the brush-layer thickness, which is obtained by fitting dielectric spectra, combined with relative theoretical formulas. Increasing PH values or SPB concentration would improve the stability of the SPBs dispersion.

  8. The salt-responsive transcriptome of chickpea roots and nodules via deepSuperSAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhauer Diana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The combination of high-throughput transcript profiling and next-generation sequencing technologies is a prerequisite for genome-wide comprehensive transcriptome analysis. Our recent innovation of deepSuperSAGE is based on an advanced SuperSAGE protocol and its combination with massively parallel pyrosequencing on Roche's 454 sequencing platform. As a demonstration of the power of this combination, we have chosen the salt stress transcriptomes of roots and nodules of the third most important legume crop chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.. While our report is more technology-oriented, it nevertheless addresses a major world-wide problem for crops generally: high salinity. Together with low temperatures and water stress, high salinity is responsible for crop losses of millions of tons of various legume (and other crops. Continuously deteriorating environmental conditions will combine with salinity stress to further compromise crop yields. As a good example for such stress-exposed crop plants, we started to characterize salt stress responses of chickpeas on the transcriptome level. Results We used deepSuperSAGE to detect early global transcriptome changes in salt-stressed chickpea. The salt stress responses of 86,919 transcripts representing 17,918 unique 26 bp deepSuperSAGE tags (UniTags from roots of the salt-tolerant variety INRAT-93 two hours after treatment with 25 mM NaCl were characterized. Additionally, the expression of 57,281 transcripts representing 13,115 UniTags was monitored in nodules of the same plants. From a total of 144,200 analyzed 26 bp tags in roots and nodules together, 21,401 unique transcripts were identified. Of these, only 363 and 106 specific transcripts, respectively, were commonly up- or down-regulated (>3.0-fold under salt stress in both organs, witnessing a differential organ-specific response to stress. Profiting from recent pioneer works on massive cDNA sequencing in chickpea, more than 9,400 Uni

  9. Polyelectrolyte Properties in Mono and Multi-Valent Ionic Media: Brushes and Complex Coacervates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Robert M.

    Materials composed of polyelectrolytes have unique and interesting physical properties resulting primarily from their charged monomer segments. Polyelectrolytes, which exist in many different biological and industrial forms, have also been shown to be highly responsive to external environmental changes. Here, two specific polyelectrolyte systems, brushes and complex coacervates, are discussed in regards to how their properties can be tailored by adjusting the surrounding ionic environment with mono and multi-valent ions. End-tethered polyelectrolyte brushes, which constitute an interesting and substantial portion of polyelectrolyte applications, are well known for their ability to provide excellent lubrication and low friction when coated onto surfaces (e.g. articular cartilage and medical devices), as well as for their ability to stabilize colloidal particles in solution (e.g. paint and cosmetic materials). These properties have been extensively studied with brushes in pure mono-valent ionic media. However, polyelectrolyte brush interactions with multi-valent ions in solution are much less understood, although highly relevant considering mono and multi-valent counterions are present in most applications. Even at very low concentrations of multi-valent ions in solution, dramatic polyelectrolyte brush physical property changes can occur, resulting in collapsed chains which also adhere to one another via multi-valent bridging. Here, the strong polyelectrolyte poly(sodium styrene sulfonate) was studied using the Surface Forces Apparatus (SFA) and electrochemistry in order to investigate brush height and intermolecular interactions between two brushes as a function of multi-valent counterion population inside a brush. Complex coacervates are formed when polyanions and polycations are mixed together in proper conditions of an aqueous solution. This mixing results in a phase separation of a polymer-rich, coacervate phase composed of a chain network held together via

  10. Extreme delta brush evolving into status epilepticus in a patient with anti-NMDA encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Herlopian, MD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Extreme delta brush (EDB is an EEG pattern unique to anti-NMDA encephalitis. It is correlated with seizures and status epilepticus in patients who have a prolonged course of illness. The etiology of the underlying association between EDB and seizures is not understood. We present a patient with anti-NMDA encephalitis who developed status epilepticus evolving from the high frequency activity of the extreme delta brush. This case demonstrates that EDB is not only a marker for a greater propensity for seizures but also directly implicated in seizure generation.

  11. Anti-glycosyl antibodies in lipid rafts of the enterocyte brush border: a possible host defense against pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert Helge; Pedersen, Esben D K; Immerdal, Lissi

    2005-01-01

    a major part of the immunoglobulins at the lumenal surface of the gut. The antibodies were associated with lipid rafts at the brush border, and they frequently (52%) coclustered with the raft marker galectin 4. A lactose wash increased the susceptibility of the brush border toward lectin peanut agglutin...

  12. Time and temperature dependent analytical stability of dry-collected Evalyn HPV self-sampling brush for cervical cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejegod, Ditte Møller; Pedersen, Helle; Alzua, Garazi Peña

    2018-01-01

    As a new initiative, HPV self-sampling to non-attenders using the dry Evalyn self-sampling brush is offered in the Capital Region of Denmark. The use of a dry brush is largely uncharted territory in terms of analytical stability. In this study we aim to provide evidence on the analytical quality...

  13. Co-adhesion and removal of adhering bacteria from salivary pellicles by three different modes of brushing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, J; Belder, GF; Busscher, HJ; Bos, R.R.M.

    2001-01-01

    This study compares removal of pairs of co-adhering and non-co-adhering oral actinomyces and streptococci by hand, electric and sonic brushing from salivary pellicles. In addition, re-deposition of a co-adhering and non-co-adhering streptococcal strain to brushed pellicles was studied. First,

  14. Normally Oriented Adhesion versus Friction Forces in Bacterial Adhesion to Polymer-Brush Functionalized Surfaces Under Fluid Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swartjes, Jan J. T. M.; Veeregowda, Deepak H.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion is problematic in many diverse applications. Coatings of hydrophilic polymer chains in a brush configuration reduce bacterial adhesion by orders of magnitude, but not to zero. Here, the mechanism by which polymer-brush functionalized surfaces reduce bacterial adhesion from a

  15. Earth Science With the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawodny, Joe; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Thomason, Larry; Roell, Marilee; Pitts, Mike; Moore, Randy; Hill, Charles; Flittner, David; Damadeo, Rob; Cisewski, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III is the fourth generation of solar occultation instruments operated by NASA, the first coming under a different acronym, to investigate the Earth's upper atmosphere. Three flight-ready SAGE III instruments were built by Ball Aerospace in the late 1990s, with one launched aboard the former Russian Aviation and Space Agency (now known as Roskosmos) Meteor-3M platform on 10 December 2001 (continuing until the platform lost power in 2006). Another of the original instruments was manifested for the ISS in the 2004 time frame, but was delayed because of budgetary considerations. Fortunately, that SAGE III/ISS mission was restarted in 2009 with a major focus upon filling an anticipated gap in ozone and aerosol observation in the second half of this decade. Here we discuss the mission architecture, its implementation, and data that will be produced by SAGE III/ISS, including their expected accuracy and coverage. The 52-degree inclined orbit of the ISS is well-suited for solar occultation and provides near-global observations on a monthly basis with excellent coverage of low and mid-latitudes. This is similar to that of the SAGE II mission (1985-2005), whose data set has served the international atmospheric science community as a standard for stratospheric ozone and aerosol measurements. The nominal science products include vertical profiles of trace gases, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide and water vapor, along with multi-wavelength aerosol extinction. Though in the visible portion of the spectrum the brightness of the Sun is one million times that of the full Moon, the SAGE III instrument is designed to cover this large dynamic range and also perform lunar occultations on a routine basis to augment the solar products. The standard lunar products were demonstrated during the SAGE III/M3M mission and include ozone, nitrogen dioxide & nitrogen trioxide. The operational flexibility of the SAGE III spectrometer accomplishes

  16. Integrating spatially explicit indices of abundance and habitat quality: an applied example for greater sage-grouse management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S; Casazza, Michael L; Ricca, Mark A; Brussee, Brianne E; Blomberg, Erik J; Gustafson, K Benjamin; Overton, Cory T; Davis, Dawn M; Niell, Lara E; Espinosa, Shawn P; Gardner, Scott C; Delehanty, David J

    2016-02-01

    Predictive species distributional models are a cornerstone of wildlife conservation planning. Constructing such models requires robust underpinning science that integrates formerly disparate data types to achieve effective species management.Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus , hereafter 'sage-grouse' populations are declining throughout sagebrush-steppe ecosystems in North America, particularly within the Great Basin, which heightens the need for novel management tools that maximize the use of available information.Herein, we improve upon existing species distribution models by combining information about sage-grouse habitat quality, distribution and abundance from multiple data sources. To measure habitat, we created spatially explicit maps depicting habitat selection indices (HSI) informed by >35 500 independent telemetry locations from >1600 sage-grouse collected over 15 years across much of the Great Basin. These indices were derived from models that accounted for selection at different spatial scales and seasons. A region-wide HSI was calculated using the HSI surfaces modelled for 12 independent subregions and then demarcated into distinct habitat quality classes.We also employed a novel index to describe landscape patterns of sage-grouse abundance and space use (AUI). The AUI is a probabilistic composite of the following: (i) breeding density patterns based on the spatial configuration of breeding leks and associated trends in male attendance; and (ii) year-round patterns of space use indexed by the decreasing probability of use with increasing distance to leks. The continuous AUI surface was then reclassified into two classes representing high and low/no use and abundance. Synthesis and application s. Using the example of sage-grouse, we demonstrate how the joint application of indices of habitat selection, abundance and space use derived from multiple data sources yields a composite map that can guide effective allocation of management

  17. Integrating spatially explicit indices of abundance and habitat quality: an applied example for greater sage-grouse management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Ricca, Mark A.; Brussee, Brianne E.; Blomberg, Erik J.; Gustafson, K. Benjamin; Overton, Cory T.; Davis, Dawn M.; Niell, Lara E.; Espinosa, Shawn P.; Gardner, Scott C.; Delehanty, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Predictive species distributional models are a cornerstone of wildlife conservation planning. Constructing such models requires robust underpinning science that integrates formerly disparate data types to achieve effective species management. Greater sage-grouse Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter “sage-grouse” populations are declining throughout sagebrush-steppe ecosystems in North America, particularly within the Great Basin, which heightens the need for novel management tools that maximize use of available information. Herein, we improve upon existing species distribution models by combining information about sage-grouse habitat quality, distribution, and abundance from multiple data sources. To measure habitat, we created spatially explicit maps depicting habitat selection indices (HSI) informed by > 35 500 independent telemetry locations from > 1600 sage-grouse collected over 15 years across much of the Great Basin. These indices were derived from models that accounted for selection at different spatial scales and seasons. A region-wide HSI was calculated using the HSI surfaces modelled for 12 independent subregions and then demarcated into distinct habitat quality classes. We also employed a novel index to describe landscape patterns of sage-grouse abundance and space use (AUI). The AUI is a probabilistic composite of: (i) breeding density patterns based on the spatial configuration of breeding leks and associated trends in male attendance; and (ii) year-round patterns of space use indexed by the decreasing probability of use with increasing distance to leks. The continuous AUI surface was then reclassified into two classes representing high and low/no use and abundance. Synthesis and applications. Using the example of sage-grouse, we demonstrate how the joint application of indices of habitat selection, abundance, and space use derived from multiple data sources yields a composite map that can guide effective allocation of management intensity across

  18. Slab replacement maturity guidelines : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Concrete sets in hours at moderate temperatures, : but the bonds that make concrete strong continue : to mature over days to years. However, for : replacement concrete slabs on highways, it is : crucial that concrete develop enough strength : within ...

  19. SOUL System Maturation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest...

  20. SOUL System Maturation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest...

  1. Naturally Engineered Maturation of Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano J. Scuderi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease remains one of the most prominent causes of mortalities worldwide with heart transplantation being the gold-standard treatment option. However, due to the major limitations associated with heart transplants, such as an inadequate supply and heart rejection, there remains a significant clinical need for a viable cardiac regenerative therapy to restore native myocardial function. Over the course of the previous several decades, researchers have made prominent advances in the field of cardiac regeneration with the creation of in vitro human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte tissue engineered constructs. However, these engineered constructs exhibit a functionally immature, disorganized, fetal-like phenotype that is not equivalent physiologically to native adult cardiac tissue. Due to this major limitation, many recent studies have investigated approaches to improve pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte maturation to close this large functionality gap between engineered and native cardiac tissue. This review integrates the natural developmental mechanisms of cardiomyocyte structural and functional maturation. The variety of ways researchers have attempted to improve cardiomyocyte maturation in vitro by mimicking natural development, known as natural engineering, is readily discussed. The main focus of this review involves the synergistic role of electrical and mechanical stimulation, extracellular matrix interactions, and non-cardiomyocyte interactions in facilitating cardiomyocyte maturation. Overall, even with these current natural engineering approaches, pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes within three-dimensional engineered heart tissue still remain mostly within the early to late fetal stages of cardiomyocyte maturity. Therefore, although the end goal is to achieve adult phenotypic maturity, more emphasis must be placed on elucidating how the in vivo fetal microenvironment drives cardiomyocyte

  2. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  3. Development and Implementation of Efficiency-Improving Analysis Methods for the SAGE III on ISS Thermal Model Originating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Kaitlin; Amundsen, Ruth; Davis, Warren; Scola, Salvatore; Tobin, Steven; McLeod, Shawn; Mannu, Sergio; Guglielmo, Corrado; Moeller, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring aerosols and gaseous constituents in the stratosphere and troposphere. SAGE III will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) via the SpaceX Dragon vehicle in 2015. A detailed thermal model of the SAGE III payload has been developed in Thermal Desktop (TD). Several novel methods have been implemented to facilitate efficient payload-level thermal analysis, including the use of a design of experiments (DOE) methodology to determine the worst-case orbits for SAGE III while on ISS, use of TD assemblies to move payloads from the Dragon trunk to the Enhanced Operational Transfer Platform (EOTP) to its final home on the Expedite the Processing of Experiments to Space Station (ExPRESS) Logistics Carrier (ELC)-4, incorporation of older models in varying unit sets, ability to change units easily (including hardcoded logic blocks), case-based logic to facilitate activating heaters and active elements for varying scenarios within a single model, incorporation of several coordinate frames to easily map to structural models with differing geometries and locations, and streamlined results processing using an Excel-based text file plotter developed in-house at LaRC. This document presents an overview of the SAGE III thermal model and describes the development and implementation of these efficiency-improving analysis methods.

  4. Volatile Profile of Croatian Lime Tree (Tilia sp., Fir Honeydew (Abies alba and Sage (Salvia officinalis Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Koprivnjak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile profiles of lime tree (Tilia sp., fir honeydew (Abies alba and sage (Salvia officinalis honey produced in Croatia have been studied by using headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis. Melissopalynological and sensory characterization have been performed in order to check the reliability of botanical origin of the samples. In case of sage honey, sensory characteristics are reported for the first time and are rather uniform including: colour characterized as beige to jade, depending on the consistency; odour characterized as between light and medium intensity, slightly pungent and wooden; taste characterized as low sweetness, expressive acidity and apple caramel, with persistent fruity aftertaste. Characteristic volatile profiles of the analyzed honeys are described. Taking into consideration similarities with lime and fir honey volatile profiles reported in literature, characteristic volatile compounds resulting from qualitative data evaluation are proposed. Sage honey volatile profile has been reported for the first time and it was found quite different compared to the other studied honeys showing the lowest number of peaks among the studied honeys, 34. Several compounds belonging to the sage honey volatile profile have been identified for the first time in honeys. They include tetrahydro-2,2,5,5-tetramethylfuran, 3-hexenyl ester of butanoic acid, 2-methylbenzene, maltol, methyl ester of 3-furanocarboxylic acid and benzeneacetic acid. Based on the obtained results and with the lack of comparative literature data, they are proposed as characteristic volatiles for the volatile pattern of sage honey.

  5. Self-administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE): a brief cognitive assessment Instrument for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharre, Douglas W; Chang, Shu-Ing; Murden, Robert A; Lamb, James; Beversdorf, David Q; Kataki, Maria; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Bornstein, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    To develop a self-administered cognitive assessment instrument to facilitate the screening of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia and determine its association with gold standard clinical assessments including neuropsychologic evaluation. Adults aged above 59 years with sufficient vision and English literacy were recruited from geriatric and memory disorder clinics, educational talks, independent living facilities, senior centers, and memory screens. After Self-administered Gerocognitive Examination (SAGE) screening, subjects were randomly selected to complete a clinical evaluation, neurologic examination, neuropsychologic battery, functional assessment, and mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Subjects were identified as dementia, MCI, or normal based on standard clinical criteria and neuropsychologic testing. Two hundred fifty-four participants took the SAGE screen and 63 subjects completed the extensive evaluation (21 normal, 21 MCI, and 21 dementia subjects). Spearman rank correlation between SAGE and neuropsychologic battery was 0.84 (0.76 for MMSE). SAGE receiver operating characteristics on the basis of clinical diagnosis showed 95% specificity (90% for MMSE) and 79% sensitivity (71% for MMSE) in detecting those with cognitive impairment from normal subjects. This study suggests that SAGE is a reliable instrument for detecting cognitive impairment and compares favorably with the MMSE. The self-administered feature may promote cognitive testing by busy clinicians prompting earlier diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Real-time x-ray scattering study of the initial growth of organic crystals on polymer brushes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Sung Yup; Ahn, Kwangseok; Kim, Doris Yangsoo; Lee, Dong Ryeol, E-mail: drlee@ssu.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun-Hwi [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jeong Ho, E-mail: jhcho94@skku.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, SKKU Advanced Institute of Nanotechnology (SAINT) and Center for Human Interface Nano Technology (HINT), Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-476 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-21

    We studied the early-stage growth structures of pentacene organic crystals grown on polymer brushes using real-time x-ray scattering techniques. In situ x-ray reflectivity and atomic force microscopy analyses revealed that at temperatures close to the glass transition temperature of polymer brush, the pentacene overlayer on a polymer brush film showed incomplete condensation and 3D island structures from the first monolayer. A growth model based on these observations was used to quantitatively analyze the real-time anti-Bragg x-ray scattering intensities measured during pentacene growth to obtain the time-dependent layer coverage of the individual pentacene monolayers. The extracted total coverage confirmed significant desorption and incomplete condensation in the pentacene films deposited on the polymer brushes. These effects are ascribed to the change in the surface viscoelasticity of the polymer brushes around the glass transition temperature.

  7. Tooth brushing among 11- to 15-year-olds in Denmark: combined effect of social class and migration status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bast, L S; Nordahl, H; Christensen, L B; Holstein, B E

    2015-03-01

    Regular tooth brushing in adolescence predicts stable tooth brushing habits later in life. Differences in tooth brushing habits by ethnic background and socioeconomic position have been suggested. We investigated migration status and social class in relation to infrequent tooth brushing both separately and combined. The study population was 11-15 year-olds chosen from a clustered random sample of schools. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses estimated the separate and combined effects of migration status and social class on less than twice daily tooth brushing. 10,607 respondents: a response rate of 88.3%. Boys of lower social class had higher odds ratio (OR) of infrequent tooth brushing than girls: 1.98 (95% confidence interval 1.62-2.41) vs 1.80 (1.53-2.24). Immigrants and descendants had higher odds compared to adolescents of Danish origin: immigrant boys OR 1.39 (1.05-1.89), girls OR 1.92 (1.47-2.50); descendant boys OR 2.53 (1.97-3.27), girls OR 2.56 (2.02-3.35). Analyses of the combined effect of social class and migration status showed that the social gradient in tooth brushing habits observed among ethnic Danes cannot be found among groups of immigrants and descendants. The study shows that both non-Danish origin and low social class increases the risk of infrequent tooth brushing among school-aged children. The study calls for in depth analyses of the processes which influence young people's tooth brushing habits. Further, there is a need to strengthen the promotion of appropriate tooth brushing habits of minority and low social class youths.

  8. A combination of LongSAGE with Solexa sequencing is well suited to explore the depth and the complexity of transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scoté-Blachon Céline

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Open" transcriptome analysis methods allow to study gene expression without a priori knowledge of the transcript sequences. As of now, SAGE (Serial Analysis of Gene Expression, LongSAGE and MPSS (Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing are the mostly used methods for "open" transcriptome analysis. Both LongSAGE and MPSS rely on the isolation of 21 pb tag sequences from each transcript. In contrast to LongSAGE, the high throughput sequencing method used in MPSS enables the rapid sequencing of very large libraries containing several millions of tags, allowing deep transcriptome analysis. However, a bias in the complexity of the transcriptome representation obtained by MPSS was recently uncovered. Results In order to make a deep analysis of mouse hypothalamus transcriptome avoiding the limitation introduced by MPSS, we combined LongSAGE with the Solexa sequencing technology and obtained a library of more than 11 millions of tags. We then compared it to a LongSAGE library of mouse hypothalamus sequenced with the Sanger method. Conclusion We found that Solexa sequencing technology combined with LongSAGE is perfectly suited for deep transcriptome analysis. In contrast to MPSS, it gives a complex representation of transcriptome as reliable as a LongSAGE library sequenced by the Sanger method.

  9. Utilizing hunter harvest effort to survey for wildlife disease: a case study of West Nile virus in greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; Hagen, Christian A.; Franson, J. Christian; Budeau, David A.; Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; sage-grouse) are highly susceptible to infection with West Nile virus (WNV), with substantial mortality reported in wild populations and in experimentally infected birds. Although sage-grouse are hunted throughout much of their range, they have also recently been considered for protection under the Endangered Species Act. We used blood samples collected on filter-paper strips during the 2006–2010 Oregon, USA, annual sage-grouse hunt to survey for specific WNV-neutralizing antibodies that indicate a previous infection with WNV. During this period, hunters submitted 1,880 blood samples from sage-grouse they harvested. Samples obtained were proportional for all 12 Oregon sage-grouse hunting units. Laboratory testing of 1,839 samples by the WNV epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA) followed by plaque reduction neutralization test on bELISA-positive samples yielded 19 (1%) and 1 (0.05%) positive samples, respectively. These data provided early baseline information for future comparisons regarding the prevalence of WNV-specific neutralizing antibodies in sage-grouse in Oregon. This methodology may provide other states where sage-grouse (or other species) populations are hunted and where WNV constitutes a species conservation concern with a viable option to track the relative prevalence of the virus in populations.

  10. Monitoring the Switching of Single BSA-ATTO 488 Molecules Covalently End-Attached to a pH-Responsive PAA Brush

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkilic, Namik; Molenaar, Robert; Claessens, Mireille Maria Anna Elisabeth; Blum, Christian; de Vos, Wiebe Matthijs

    2016-01-01

    We describe a novel combination of a responsive polymer brush and a fluorescently labeled biomolecule, where the position of the biomolecule can be switched from inside to outside the brush and vice versa by a change in pH. For this, we grafted ultrathin, amino-terminated poly(acrylic acid) brushes

  11. Cross Sectional: bilateral parent-child interactions in school-age children's tooth-brushing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Esther C L; Hsu, Stephen Chin-Ying

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine bilateral dynamics between parents and children in influencing children's tooth-brushing behaviors. In-depth conversational interviews-a specific qualitative method-were conducted with 38 parents in urban Xiamen, China and Singapore to learn insights into parental strategies for encouraging tooth-brushing habits in 6- to 9-year-old children. The interviews also examined the range of responses from children toward these parental strategies. Children usually do not comply with these tooth-brushing instructions from parents without a process of negotiation. Children's responses ranged from active resistant to compliant. Parents in Xiamen tended to use softer strategies and were more prone to be emotionally and behaviorally influenced by children's effort to thwart these strategies. Conversely, Singapore parents tended to demonstrate greater tenacity in negotiating with children. The process of developing children's tooth-brushing habits is not a unilateral from-parent-to-children process. Instead, it should be conceptualized as an ongoing interaction with bilateral power of influence from both parties.

  12. Synergy of brushing mode and antibacterial use on in vivo biofilm formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, Marije A.; de Lagemaat, Marieke van; Busscher, Henk J.; Geertsema-Doornbusch, Gesinda I.; Atema-Smit, Jelly; , van der Mei, Henny C.; Ren, Yijin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Orthodontic, multi-strand retention-wires are used as a generalized model for oral retention sites to investigate whether biofilm left-behind after powered toothbrushing in-vivo enabled better penetration of antibacterials as compared with manual brushing. Methods: 2-cm multi-strand,

  13. Polymer brushes: a controllable system with adjustable glass transition temperature of fragile glass formers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shi-Jie; Qian, Hu-Jun; Lu, Zhong-Yuan

    2014-01-28

    We present results of molecular dynamics simulations for coarse-grained polymer brushes in a wide temperature range to investigate the factors that affect the glass transition in these systems. We focus on the influences of free surface, polymer-substrate interaction strength, grafting density, and chain length not only on the change of glass transition temperature Tg, but also the fragility D of the glass former. It is found that the confinement can enhance the dependence of the Tg on the cooling rate as compared to the bulk melt. Our layer-resolved analysis demonstrates that it is possible to control the glass transition temperature Tg of polymer brushes by tuning the polymer-substrate interaction strength, the grafting density, and the chain length. Moreover, we find quantitative differences in the influence range of the substrate and the free surface on the density and dynamics. This stresses the importance of long range cooperative motion in glass formers near the glass transition temperature. Furthermore, the string-like cooperative motion analysis demonstrates that there exists a close relation among glass transition temperature Tg, fragility D, and string length ⟨S⟩. The polymer brushes that possess larger string length ⟨S⟩ tend to have relatively higher Tg and smaller D. Our results suggest that confining a fragile glass former through forming polymer brushes changes not only the glass transition temperature Tg, but also the very nature of relaxation process.

  14. Brush Day & Night Phase III to Phase IV: ensuring that good oral health habits are sustainable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Paulo; Fine, Charlotte; Malone, Sinead; Horn, Virginie

    2018-05-01

    Over the past 10 years, the FDI-Unilever Brush Day & Night partnership has significantly influenced the life of children worldwide through the implementation of school programmes for oral health education and prevention. This article reports the key facts and outcomes of Phase III of the partnership, and announces the launch of Phase IV. During Phase III, the expert advisors of the Brush Day & Night partnership conducted a longitudinal study to evaluate the impact of the '21 Day' programme in almost 8,000 children in 10 countries. Analysis revealed the effectiveness of the 21 Day programme in sustainably educating children to brush their teeth twice a day, with the greatest impact observed in children aged 7-9 years. With the launch of Phase IV, the Brush Day & Night partnership will continue to deliver its oral health school programme for 7-9 year-old children with a strengthened methodology, including randomized sampling and control groups. The scope of the evaluation will be broadened to include oral health-related quality of life indicators, and monitoring of the oral health knowledge of children's parents/carers. © 2018 FDI World Dental Federation.

  15. Effects of divalent cations on vitamin B12 adsorption to brush borders of rat intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Satoru; Inada, Masami

    1976-01-01

    A brush border preparation from rat intestine was incubated with rat intrinsic factor-vitamin B 12 complex in 0.01M Tris-HCl buffer, pH 7.4. The 57 Co-B 12 uptake to brush borders was proportional to the amount of protein or to alkaline phosphatase activity in the preparations. The uptake increased with time of incubation. At 37 0 C, the uptake after incubation for 15 min. was 80-85% of that for one hr. The uptake at 4 0 C was approximately 70% of that at 37 0 C. There was no difference as a result of adding glucose to the incubation medium. The uptake was observed in the alkaline environment above pH 6.3. Maximum uptake occurred at pH 8.0. Brush borders washed with Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer (pH 7.4) exhibited no difference in B 12 uptake, whether in the presence of absence of calcium ion. But brush borders washed with ethylenediaminetetraacetate exhibited no uptake when incubated in calcium-free medium. The uptake reached a maximum by addition of calcium ion at a concentration of 0.3 mM, and was not alter up to 10 mM. Addition of magnesium ion exhibited no uptake. Calcium-dependent B 12 uptake was markedly inhibited by manganese ion. Magnesium ion seemed to slightly inhibit the calcium-dependent uptake. (auth.)

  16. Diagnostic p53 immunostaining of endobiliary brush cytology: preoperative cytology compared with the surgical specimen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tascilar, M.; Sturm, P. D.; Caspers, E.; Smit, M.; Polak, M. M.; Huibregtse, K.; Noorduyn, L. A.; Offerhaus, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    Endobiliary brush cytology is important in the distinction of malignant and benign causes of extrahepatic bile duct obstruction. The additional diagnostic value of p53 immunostaining on these cytology specimens was assessed. All patients with extrahepatic bile duct obstruction who underwent

  17. A study of tooth brushing pattern and its effects on dental tissues in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of non carious cervical lesion was 3% and these lesions were found in males only. Conclusion: The pattern of tooth brushing was correct in 51.7% of the respondents as reported. However the effect on dental tissues though present is not exaggerated when compared to other studies done in other parts of ...

  18. Value of brush cytology for dominant strictures in primary sclerosing cholangitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsioen, C. Y.; Vrouenraets, S. M.; van Milligen de Wit, A. W.; Sturm, P.; Tascilar, M.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Prins, M.; Huibregtse, K.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1999-01-01

    Around 10% of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) develop cholangiocarcinoma, which is cholangiographically often indistinguishable from a benign dominant stricture. The aim of the present study was to assess the value of brush cytology in discriminating between benign and malignant

  19. Numerical investigation of the contraction of neutral-charged diblock copolymer brushes in electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuwei; Li, Haiming; Zhu, Yuejin; Tong, Chaohui

    2016-01-01

    Using self-consistent field theory (SCFT), the contraction of neutral-charged A-B diblock copolymer brushes in electric fields generated by opposite surface charges on two parallel electrodes has been numerically investigated. The diblock copolymer chains were grafted with the free end of the neutral block to one electrode and immersed in a salt-free solution sandwiched between the two electrodes. The numerical results reveal that the charged monomers, A-B joint segment and the tail exhibit bimodal distributions under external electric fields, which are absent for homopolymer polyelectrolyte brushes. The dependences of the relative populations and peak positions of the two modes on various parameters such as block ratio, grafting density, chain length and strength of the applied electric field were systematically examined and the underlining mechanisms were elucidated. It was found in this study that, if the total amount of surface charges on the grafting electrode is no more than that of the counter-ions in the system, overall charge neutrality is generally maintained inside the brushes when including the contribution of surface charges on the grafting electrode. In such a case, the counter-ions expelled from the brushes are highly enriched in the immediate vicinity of the second electrode and an approximate charge balance between these expelled counter-ions and the opposite surface charges on the second electrode is achieved. (paper)

  20. Lipid raft organization and function in the small intestinal brush border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Hansen, Gert Helge

    2008-01-01

    proteinases, are protected from untimely release into the gut lumen. Finally, anti-glycosyl antibodies, synthesized by plasma cells locally in the gut, are deposited on the brush border glycolipid rafts, protecting the epithelium from lumenal pathogens that exploit lipid rafts as portals for entry...... to the organism....

  1. Grafted polymers with annealed excluded volume : a model for surfactant association in brushes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Currie, E.P.K.; Fleer, G.J.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Borisov, O.V.

    2000-01-01

    We present an analytical self-consistent-field (SCF) theory for a neutral polymer brush (a layer of long polymer chains end-grafted to a surface) with annealed excluded volume interactions between the monomer units. This model mimics the reversible adsorption of solute molecules or aggregates, such

  2. [An historical, sociocultural view and in the fiction literature of Bacillus anthracis cases by shaving brushes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Espinosa, E; Laganà, C; Vazquez, F

    2018-06-01

    In the period from 1915 to 1924 anthrax outbreaks were described by Bacillus anthracis due to the contamination of razor brushes that reached Europe and the United States from areas such as Japan, China or Russia. The brushes were made with badger hair, and then, to reduce the cost with horse hair and other animals. World War I supoosed that the traffics of these brushes, that passed through Europe, changed and the processes of sterilization of the same were deficient giving rise to these outbreaks, that in a percentage of 20% produced the death of the users. The impact of the fashion of wearing a beard, the presence of these cases in the press, in the society of that period, and literature are studied through the work of Agatha Christie who wrote, in 1936, the Hercules Poirot´s novel Cards on the table, and where she describes the murder of one of the characters with the shaving brush contaminated with Bacillus anthracis spores. ©The Author 2018. Published by Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0)(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).

  3. Is Osmotic Pressure Relevant in the Mechanical Confinement of a Polymer Brush?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, Stephen B.; de Vos, Wiebe Matthijs; Mears, Laura L.E.; Cattoz, Beatrice; Skoda, Maximilian W.A.; Barker, Robert; Richardson, Robert M.; Prescott, Stuart W.

    2015-01-01

    The structures of polymer brushes under confinement were measured using a combination of neutron reflectivity and a surface force type apparatus. The samples were either poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, used to investigate the effect of the grafting density or poly(acrylic acid), PAA, used to determine

  4. Control of biofouling on reverse osmosis polyamide membranes modified with biocidal nanoparticles and antifouling polymer brushes

    KAUST Repository

    Rahaman, Md. Saifur

    2014-01-01

    Thin-film composite (TFC) polyamide reverse osmosis (RO) membranes are prone to biofouling due to their inherent physicochemical surface properties. In order to address the biofouling problem, we have developed novel surface coatings functionalized with biocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and antifouling polymer brushes via polyelectrolyte layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly. The novel surface coating was prepared with polyelectrolyte LBL films containing poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly(ethylene imine) (PEI), with the latter being either pure PEI or silver nanoparticles coated with PEI (Ag-PEI). The coatings were further functionalized by grafting of polymer brushes, using either hydrophilic poly(sulfobetaine) or low surface energy poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). The presence of both LBL films and sulfobetaine polymer brushes at the interface significantly increased the hydrophilicity of the membrane surface, while PDMS brushes lowered the membrane surface energy. Overall, all surface modifications resulted in significant reduction of irreversible bacterial cell adhesion. In microbial adhesion tests with E. coli bacteria, a normalized cell adhesion in the range of only 4 to 16% on the modified membrane surfaces was observed. Modified surfaces containing silver nanoparticles also exhibited strong antimicrobial activity. Membranes coated with LBL films of PAA/Ag-PEI achieved over 95% inactivation of bacteria attached to the surface within 1 hour of contact time. Both the antifouling and antimicrobial results suggest the potential of using these novel surface coatings in controlling the fouling of RO membranes. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  5. Mate choice in Australian brush-turkeys Alectura lathami : a preliminary report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birks, S.

    1992-01-01

    Female brush-turkeys respond to several factors when choosing with whom they will mate and where they will lay their eggs. The most important factors seem to be mound condition (especially incubation stage and digging effort required), male presence at mounds (though not necessarily male quality),

  6. Controlled growth of protein resistant PHEMA brushes via S-RAFT polymerization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zamfir, M.; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Bauer, S.; Barner, L.; Rosenhahn, A.; Barner-Kowollik, C.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 44 (2013), s. 6027-6034 ISSN 2050-750X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/1702; GA ČR GAP106/12/1451 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : surface RAFT * polymer brushes * antifouling Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  7. Clinical evaluation of an ionic tooth brush on oral hygiene status, gingival status, and microbial parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshmukh J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It has long been recognised that the presence of dental plaque leads to gingivitis and periodontal disease, as well as dental caries. Today tooth brushing is the most widely accepted method of removing plaque. Hence this present clinical study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of an ionic toothbrush on oral hygiene status. For this study, 20 dental students in the age group of 18-20 years were included. All the subjects after undergoing dental prophylaxis were then provided with ionic toothbrushes, either active (equipped with lithium battery or inactive (without lithium battery. Plaque index and gingival bleeding index were examined at 7th, 14th, and 21st day. Microbial assessment was done for detection of colony forming units (CFU from the plaque samples which were collected on 0 day and 21st day, both before brushing and after brushing. Results shown a significant reduction in all the parameters and the reduction was more significant in active and inactive ionic toothbrush users. It was concluded that both active and inactive ionic toothbrushes reduced the plaque index and gingival bleeding index scores significantly and active ionic tooth brushes were more effective as compared to inactive ionic toothbrushes. There was no soft tissue trauma following the use of both type of toothbrushes, which showed that ionic toothbrushes were equally safe for regular long-term use.

  8. Segment density profiles of polyelectrolyte brushes determined by Fourier transform ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesalski, Markus; Rühe, Jürgen; Johannsmann, Diethelm

    1999-10-01

    We describe a method for the explicit determination of the segment density profile φ(z) of surface-attached polymer brushes with multiple angle of incidence null-ellipsometry. Because the refractive index contrast between the brush layer and the solvent is weak, multiple reflections are of minor influence and the ellipsometric spectrum is closely related to the Fourier transform of the refractive index profile, thereby allowing for explicit inversion of the ellipsometric data. We chose surface-attached monolayers of polymethacrylic acid (PMAA), a weak polyelectrolyte, as a model system and determined the segment density profile of this system as a function of the pH value of the surrounding medium by the Fourier method. Complementary to the Fourier analysis, fits with error functions are given as well. The brushes were prepared on the bases of high refractive index prisms with the "grafting-from" technique. In water, the brushes swell by more than a factor of 30. The swelling increases with increasing pH because of a growing fraction of dissociated acidic groups leading to a larger electrostatic repulsion.

  9. Plaque-left-behind after brushing : intra-oral reservoir for antibacterial toothpaste ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, Marieke P. T.; Busscher, Henk J.; Abbas, Frank; van der Mei, Henny C.; van Hoogmoed, Chris G.

    2012-01-01

    Plaque is never fully removed by brushing and may act as a reservoir for antibacterial ingredients, contributing to their substantive action. This study investigates the contribution of plaque-left-behind and saliva towards substantivity of three antibacterial toothpastes versus a control paste

  10. Aluminum hydroxide coating thickness measurements and brushing tests on K West Basin fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    Aluminum hydroxide coating thicknesses were measured on fuel elements stored in aluminum canisters in K West Basin using specially developed eddy current probes . The results were used to estimate coating inventories for MCO fuel,loading. Brushing tests successfully demonstrated the ability to remove the coating if deemed necessary prior to MCO loading

  11. Induction of a gradual, reversible morphogenesis of its host's epithelial brush border by Vibrio fischeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarcq, L H; McFall-Ngai, M J

    1998-02-01

    Bacteria exert a variety of influences on the morphology and physiology of animal cells whether they are pathogens or cooperative partners. The association between the luminous bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the sepiolid squid Euprymna scolopes provides an experimental model for the study of the influence of extracellular bacteria on the development of host epithelia. In this study, we analyzed bacterium-induced changes in the brush borders of the light organ crypt epithelia during the initial hours following colonization of this tissue. Transmission electron microscopy of the brush border morphology in colonized and uncolonized hosts revealed that the bacteria effect a fourfold increase in microvillar density over the first 4 days of the association. Estimates of the proportions of bacterial cells in contact with host microvilli showed that the intimacy of the bacterial cells with animal cell surfaces increases significantly during this time. Antibiotic curing of the organ following colonization showed that sustained interaction with bacteria is essential for the retention of the induced morphological changes. Bacteria that are defective in either light production or colonization efficiency produced changes similar to those by the parent strain. Conventional fluorescence and confocal scanning laser microscopy revealed that the brush border is supported by abundant filamentous actin. However, in situ hybridization with beta-actin probes did not show marked bacterium-induced increases in beta-actin gene expression. These experiments demonstrate that the E. scolopes-V. fischeri system is a viable model for the experimental study of bacterium-induced changes in host brush border morphology.

  12. Stable Protein-Repellent Zwitterionic Polymer Brushes Grafted from Silicon Nitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, A.T.; Baggerman, J.; Paulusse, J.M.J.; Rijn, van C.J.M.; Zuilhof, H.

    2011-01-01

    Zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine acrylamide) (SBMAA) brushes were grafted from silicon-rich silicon nitride (SixN4, x > 3) surfaces by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and studied in protein adsorption experiments. To this aim ATRP initiators were immobilized onto SixN4 through stable

  13. Stable Protein-Repellent Zwitterionic Polymer Brushes Grafted from Silicon Nitride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Ai T.; Baggerman, Jacob; Paulusse, Jos Marie Johannes; van Rijn, Cees J.M.; Zuilhof, Han

    2011-01-01

    Zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine acrylamide) (SBMAA) brushes were grafted from silicon-rich silicon nitride (SixN4, x > 3) surfaces by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and studied in protein adsorption experiments. To this aim ATRP initiators were immobilized onto SixN4 through stable Si−C

  14. Brush seal leakage performance with gaseous working fluids at static and low rotor speed conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlile, Julie A.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Yoder, Dennis A.

    1992-01-01

    The leakage performance of a brush seal with gaseous working fluids at static and low rotor speed conditions was studied. The leakage results included for air, helium, and carbon dioxide at several bristle/rotor interferences. Also, the effects of packing a lubricant into the bristles and also of reversing the pressure drop across the seal were studied. Results were compared to that of an annular seal at similar operating conditions. In order to generalize the results, they were correlated using corresponding state theory. The brush seal tested had a bore diameter of 3.792 cm (1.4930 in.), a fence height of 0.0635 cm (0.025 in.), and 1800 bristles/cm circumference (4500 bristles/in. circumference). Various bristle/rotor radial interferences were achieved by using a tapered rotor. The brush seal reduced the leakage in comparison to the annular seal, up to 9.5 times. Reversing the pressure drop across the brush seal produced leakage rates approximately the same as that of the annular seal. Addition of a lubricant reduced the leakage by 2.5 times. The air and carbon dioxide data were successfully correlated using corresponding state theory. However, the helium data followed a different curve than the air and carbon dioxide data.

  15. Genomic single-nucleotide polymorphisms confirm that Gunnison and Greater sage-grouse are genetically well differentiated and that the Bi-State population is distinct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Cornman, Robert S.; Jones, Kenneth L.; Fike, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Sage-grouse are iconic, declining inhabitants of sagebrush habitats in western North America, and their management depends on an understanding of genetic variation across the landscape. Two distinct species of sage-grouse have been recognized, Greater (Centrocercus urophasianus) and Gunnison sage-grouse (C. minimus), based on morphology, behavior, and variation at neutral genetic markers. A parapatric group of Greater Sage-Grouse along the border of California and Nevada ("Bi-State") is also genetically distinct at the same neutral genetic markers, yet not different in behavior or morphology. Because delineating taxonomic boundaries and defining conservation units is often difficult in recently diverged taxa and can be further complicated by highly skewed mating systems, we took advantage of new genomic methods that improve our ability to characterize genetic variation at a much finer resolution. We identified thousands of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among Gunnison, Greater, and Bi-State sage-grouse and used them to comprehensively examine levels of genetic diversity and differentiation among these groups. The pairwise multilocus fixation index (FST) was high (0.49) between Gunnison and Greater sage-grouse, and both principal coordinates analysis and model-based clustering grouped samples unequivocally by species. Standing genetic variation was lower within the Gunnison Sage-Grouse. The Bi-State population was also significantly differentiated from Greater Sage-Grouse, albeit more weakly (FST = 0.09), and genetic clustering results were consistent with reduced gene flow with Greater Sage-Grouse. No comparable genetic divisions were found within the Greater Sage-Grouse sample, which spanned the southern half of the range. Thus, we provide much stronger genetic evidence supporting the recognition of Gunnison Sage-Grouse as a distinct species with low genetic diversity. Further, our work confirms that the Bi-State population is differentiated from other

  16. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat use on the eastern edge of their range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Christopher C.; Rumble, Mark A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Kaczor, Nicholas W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Herman-Brunson, Katie M.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Jensen, Kent C.

    2013-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) at the western edge of the Dakotas occur in the transition zone between sagebrush and grassland communities. These mixed sagebrush (Artemisia sp.) and grasslands differ from those habitats that comprise the central portions of the sage-grouse range; yet, no information is available on winter habitat selection within this region of their distribution. We evaluated factors influencing greater sage-grouse winter habitat use in North Dakota during 2005–2006 and 2006–2007 and in South Dakota during 2006–2007 and 2007–2008. We captured and radio-marked 97 breeding-age females and 54 breeding-age males from 2005 to 2007 and quantified habitat selection for 98 of these birds that were alive during winter. We collected habitat measurements at 340 (177 ND, 163 SD) sage-grouse use sites and 680 random (340 each at 250 m and 500 m from locations) dependent sites. Use sites differed from random sites with greater percent sagebrush cover (14.75% use vs. 7.29% random; P 2 use vs. 0.94 plants/m2 random; P ≤ 0.001), but lesser percent grass cover (11.76% use vs. 16.01% random; P ≤ 0.001) and litter cover (4.34% use vs. 5.55% random; P = 0.001) and lower sagebrush height (20.02 cm use vs. 21.35 cm random; P = 0.13) and grass height (21.47 cm use vs. 23.21 cm random; P = 0.15). We used conditional logistic regression to estimate winter habitat selection by sage-grouse on continuous scales. The model sagebrush cover + sagebrush height + sagebrush cover × sagebrush height (wi = 0.60) was the most supported of the 13 models we considered, indicating that percent sagebrush cover strongly influenced selection. Logistic odds ratios indicated that the probability of selection by sage-grouse increased by 1.867 for every 1% increase in sagebrush cover (95% CI = 1.627–2.141) and by 1.041 for every 1 cm increase in sagebrush height (95% CI = 1.002–1.082). The

  17. Lack of ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 Cancer/Testis Antigen Expression in Lung and Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheswaran, Emeaga; Pedersen, Christina B; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-01-01

    and antigenic properties, but the expression patterns of most of the more than 200 identified cancer/testis antigens in various cancers remain largely uncharacterized. In this study, we investigated the expression of the cancer/testis antigens ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 in lung and breast cancer, the two most...... frequent human cancers, with the purpose of providing novel therapeutic targets for these diseases. We used a set of previously uncharacterized antibodies against the cancer/testis antigens ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 to investigate their expression in a large panel of normal tissues as well as breast and lung...... cancers. Staining for the well-characterized MAGE-A proteins was included for comparison. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed previous mRNA analysis demonstrating that ADAM2, CALR3 and SAGE1 proteins are confined to testis in normal individuals. Negative tissues included plancenta, which express many...

  18. SAGES: a suite of freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri L Lewis

    Full Text Available Public health surveillance is undergoing a revolution driven by advances in the field of information technology. Many countries have experienced vast improvements in the collection, ingestion, analysis, visualization, and dissemination of public health data. Resource-limited countries have lagged behind due to challenges in information technology infrastructure, public health resources, and the costs of proprietary software. The Suite for Automated Global Electronic bioSurveillance (SAGES is a collection of modular, flexible, freely-available software tools for electronic disease surveillance in resource-limited settings. One or more SAGES tools may be used in concert with existing surveillance applications or the SAGES tools may be used en masse for an end-to-end biosurveillance capability. This flexibility allows for the development of an inexpensive, customized, and sustainable disease surveillance system. The ability to rapidly assess anomalous disease activity may lead to more efficient use of limited resources and better compliance with World Health Organization International Health Regulations.

  19. Large-scale control site selection for population monitoring: an example assessing Sage-grouse trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, Bradley C.; O'Donnell, Michael; Bowen, Zachary H.

    2015-01-01

    Human impacts on wildlife populations are widespread and prolific and understanding wildlife responses to human impacts is a fundamental component of wildlife management. The first step to understanding wildlife responses is the documentation of changes in wildlife population parameters, such as population size. Meaningful assessment of population changes in potentially impacted sites requires the establishment of monitoring at similar, nonimpacted, control sites. However, it is often difficult to identify appropriate control sites in wildlife populations. We demonstrated use of Geographic Information System (GIS) data across large spatial scales to select biologically relevant control sites for population monitoring. Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hearafter, sage-grouse) are negatively affected by energy development, and monitoring of sage-grouse population within energy development areas is necessary to detect population-level responses. Weused population data (1995–2012) from an energy development area in Wyoming, USA, the Atlantic Rim Project Area (ARPA), and GIS data to identify control sites that were not impacted by energy development for population monitoring. Control sites were surrounded by similar habitat and were within similar climate areas to the ARPA. We developed nonlinear trend models for both the ARPA and control sites and compared long-term trends from the 2 areas. We found little difference between the ARPA and control sites trends over time. This research demonstrated an approach for control site selection across large landscapes and can be used as a template for similar impact-monitoring studies. It is important to note that identification of changes in population parameters between control and treatment sites is only the first step in understanding the mechanisms that underlie those changes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Crucial nesting habitat for gunnison sage-grouse: A spatially explicit hierarchical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Cameron L.; Saher, D.J.; Childers, T.M.; Stahlnecker, K.E.; Bowen, Z.H.

    2012-01-01

    Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) is a species of special concern and is currently considered a candidate species under Endangered Species Act. Careful management is therefore required to ensure that suitable habitat is maintained, particularly because much of the species' current distribution is faced with exurban development pressures. We assessed hierarchical nest site selection patterns of Gunnison sage-grouse inhabiting the western portion of the Gunnison Basin, Colorado, USA, at multiple spatial scales, using logistic regression-based resource selection functions. Models were selected using Akaike Information Criterion corrected for small sample sizes (AIC c) and predictive surfaces were generated using model averaged relative probabilities. Landscape-scale factors that had the most influence on nest site selection included the proportion of sagebrush cover >5%, mean productivity, and density of 2 wheel-drive roads. The landscape-scale predictive surface captured 97% of known Gunnison sage-grouse nests within the top 5 of 10 prediction bins, implicating 57% of the basin as crucial nesting habitat. Crucial habitat identified by the landscape model was used to define the extent for patch-scale modeling efforts. Patch-scale variables that had the greatest influence on nest site selection were the proportion of big sagebrush cover >10%, distance to residential development, distance to high volume paved roads, and mean productivity. This model accurately predicted independent nest locations. The unique hierarchical structure of our models more accurately captures the nested nature of habitat selection, and allowed for increased discrimination within larger landscapes of suitable habitat. We extrapolated the landscape-scale model to the entire Gunnison Basin because of conservation concerns for this species. We believe this predictive surface is a valuable tool which can be incorporated into land use and conservation planning as well the assessment of