WorldWideScience

Sample records for mature planetary systems

  1. Planetary Data System (PDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Planetary Data System (PDS) is an archive of data products from NASA planetary missions, which is sponsored by NASA's Science Mission Directorate. We actively...

  2. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions:An Overview of the Technology Maturation Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Robin A S.; Arnold, James O.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Szalai, Christine E.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2013-01-01

    The Office of Chief Technologist, NASA identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASAs Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASAs exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program is a primary avenue to achieve the Agencys 2011 strategic goal to Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. The National Research Council (NRC) Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities report highlights six challenges and they are: Mass to Surface, Surface Access, Precision Landing, Surface Hazard Detection and Avoidance, Safety and Mission Assurance, and Affordability. In order for NASA to meet these challenges, the report recommends immediate focus on Rigid and Flexible Thermal Protection Systems. Rigid TPS systems such as Avcoat or SLA are honeycomb based and PICA is in the form of tiles. The honeycomb systems are manufactured using techniques that require filling of each (38 cell) by hand, and in a limited amount of time all of the cells must be filled and the heatshield must be cured. The tile systems such as PICA pose a different challenge as the low strain-to-failure and manufacturing size limitations require large number of small tiles with gap-fillers between the tiles. Recent investments in flexible ablative systems have given rise to the potential for conformal ablative TPS. A conformal TPS over a rigid aeroshell has the potential to solve a number of challenges faced by traditional rigid TPS materials. The high strain-to-failure nature of the conformal ablative materials will allow integration of the TPS with the underlying aeroshell structure much easier and enable monolithic-like configuration and larger segments (or parts) to be used. By reducing the overall part count, the cost of installation (based on cost comparisons between blanket

  3. Formation of planetary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brahic, A.

    1982-01-01

    It seemed appropriate to devote the 1980 School to the origin of the solar system and more particularly to the formation of planetary systems (dynamic accretion processes, small bodies, planetary rings, etc...) and to the physics and chemistry of planetary interiors, surface and atmospheres (physical and chemical constraints associated with their formation). This Summer School enabled both young researchers and hard-nosed scientists, gathered together in idyllic surroundings, to hold numerous discussions, to lay the foundations for future cooperation, to acquire an excellent basic understanding, and to make many useful contacts. This volume reflects the lectures and presentations that were delivered in this Summer School setting. It is aimed at both advanced students and research workers wishing to specialize in planetology. Every effort has been made to give an overview of the basic knowledge required in order to gain a better understanding of the origin of the solar system. Each article has been revised by one or two referees whom I would like to thank for their assistance. Between the end of the School in August 1980 and the publication of this volume in 1982, the Voyager probes have returned a wealth of useful information. Some preliminary results have been included for completeness

  4. Planetary mass function and planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominik, M.

    2011-02-01

    With planets orbiting stars, a planetary mass function should not be seen as a low-mass extension of the stellar mass function, but a proper formalism needs to take care of the fact that the statistical properties of planet populations are linked to the properties of their respective host stars. This can be accounted for by describing planet populations by means of a differential planetary mass-radius-orbit function, which together with the fraction of stars with given properties that are orbited by planets and the stellar mass function allows the derivation of all statistics for any considered sample. These fundamental functions provide a framework for comparing statistics that result from different observing techniques and campaigns which all have their very specific selection procedures and detection efficiencies. Moreover, recent results both from gravitational microlensing campaigns and radial-velocity surveys of stars indicate that planets tend to cluster in systems rather than being the lonely child of their respective parent star. While planetary multiplicity in an observed system becomes obvious with the detection of several planets, its quantitative assessment however comes with the challenge to exclude the presence of further planets. Current exoplanet samples begin to give us first hints at the population statistics, whereas pictures of planet parameter space in its full complexity call for samples that are 2-4 orders of magnitude larger. In order to derive meaningful statistics, however, planet detection campaigns need to be designed in such a way that well-defined fully deterministic target selection, monitoring and detection criteria are applied. The probabilistic nature of gravitational microlensing makes this technique an illustrative example of all the encountered challenges and uncertainties.

  5. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions: Overview of the Technology Maturation Efforts Funded by NASA's Game Changing Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Robin A.; Arnold, James O.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Fan, Wendy; Szalai, Christine E.; Wercinski, Paul F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2012-01-01

    The Office of Chief Technologist (OCT), NASA has identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASA's Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASA's exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) is a primary avenue to achieve the Agency's 2011 strategic goal to "Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future." In addition, recently released "NASA space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities," by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences stresses the need for NASA to invest in the very near term in specific EDL technologies. The report points out the following challenges (Page 2-38 of the pre-publication copy released on February 1, 2012): Mass to Surface: Develop the ability to deliver more payload to the destination. NASA's future missions will require ever-greater mass delivery capability in order to place scientifically significant instrument packages on distant bodies of interest, to facilitate sample returns from bodies of interest, and to enable human exploration of planets such as Mars. As the maximum mass that can be delivered to an entry interface is fixed for a given launch system and trajectory design, the mass delivered to the surface will require reduction in spacecraft structural mass; more efficient, lighter thermal protection systems; more efficient lighter propulsion systems; and lighter, more efficient deceleration systems. Surface Access: Increase the ability to land at a variety of planetary locales and at a variety of times. Access to specific sites can be achieved via landing at a specific location (s) or transit from a single designated landing location, but it is currently infeasible to transit long distances and through extremely rugged terrain, requiring landing close to the

  6. Solar planetary systems stardust to terrestrial and extraterrestrial planetary sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Asit B

    2017-01-01

    The authors have put forth great efforts in gathering present day knowledge about different objects within our solar system and universe. This book features the most current information on the subject with information acquired from noted scientists in this area. The main objective is to convey the importance of the subject and provide detailed information on the physical makeup of our planetary system and technologies used for research. Information on educational projects has also been included in the Radio Astronomy chapters.This information is a real plus for students and educators considering a career in Planetary Science or for increasing their knowledge about our planetary system

  7. Maturing interorganisational information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313946809

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of nine chapters, divided over five parts. PART I is an introduction and the last part contains the conclusions. The remaining, intermediate parts are: PART II: Developing a maturity model for chain digitisation. This part contains two related studies concerning the development

  8. SOUL System Maturation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest...

  9. SOUL System Maturation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest...

  10. Dynamical habitability of planetary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Rudolf; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Bois, Eric; Schwarz, Richard; Funk, Barbara; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Lammer, Helmut; Léger, Alain; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Selsis, Frank; Schneider, Jean; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The problem of the stability of planetary systems, a question that concerns only multiplanetary systems that host at least two planets, is discussed. The problem of mean motion resonances is addressed prior to discussion of the dynamical structure of the more than 350 known planets. The difference with regard to our own Solar System with eight planets on low eccentricity is evident in that 60% of the known extrasolar planets have orbits with eccentricity e > 0.2. We theoretically highlight the studies concerning possible terrestrial planets in systems with a Jupiter-like planet. We emphasize that an orbit of a particular nature only will keep a planet within the habitable zone around a host star with respect to the semimajor axis and its eccentricity. In addition, some results are given for individual systems (e.g., Gl777A) with regard to the stability of orbits within habitable zones. We also review what is known about the orbits of planets in double-star systems around only one component (e.g., gamma Cephei) and around both stars (e.g., eclipsing binaries).

  11. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Origin of Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session titled Origin of Planetary Systems" included the following reports:Convective Cooling of Protoplanetary Disks and Rapid Giant Planet Formation; When Push Comes to Shove: Gap-opening, Disk Clearing and the In Situ Formation of Giant Planets; Late Injection of Radionuclides into Solar Nebula Analogs in Orion; Growth of Dust Particles and Accumulation of Centimeter-sized Objects in the Vicinity of a Pressure enhanced Region of a Solar Nebula; Fast, Repeatable Clumping of Solid Particles in Microgravity ; Chondrule Formation by Current Sheets in Protoplanetary Disks; Radial Migration of Phyllosilicates in the Solar Nebula; Accretion of the Outer Planets: Oligarchy or Monarchy?; Resonant Capture of Irregular Satellites by a Protoplanet ; On the Final Mass of Giant Planets ; Predicting the Atmospheric Composition of Extrasolar Giant Planets; Overturn of Unstably Stratified Fluids: Implications for the Early Evolution of Planetary Mantles; and The Evolution of an Impact-generated Partially-vaporized Circumplanetary Disk.

  12. Post-main-sequence planetary system evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    The fates of planetary systems provide unassailable insights into their formation and represent rich cross-disciplinary dynamical laboratories. Mounting observations of post-main-sequence planetary systems necessitate a complementary level of theoretical scrutiny. Here, I review the diverse dynamical processes which affect planets, asteroids, comets and pebbles as their parent stars evolve into giant branch, white dwarf and neutron stars. This reference provides a foundation for the interpretation and modelling of currently known systems and upcoming discoveries. PMID:26998326

  13. Migration-induced architectures of planetary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuszkiewicz, Ewa; Podlewska-Gaca, Edyta

    2012-06-01

    The recent increase in number of known multi-planet systems gives a unique opportunity to study the processes responsible for planetary formation and evolution. Special attention is given to the occurrence of mean-motion resonances, because they carry important information about the history of the planetary systems. At the early stages of the evolution, when planets are still embedded in a gaseous disc, the tidal interactions between the disc and planets cause the planetary orbital migration. The convergent differential migration of two planets embedded in a gaseous disc may result in the capture into a mean-motion resonance. The orbital migration taking place during the early phases of the planetary system formation may play an important role in shaping stable planetary configurations. An understanding of this stage of the evolution will provide insight on the most frequently formed architectures, which in turn are relevant for determining the planet habitability. The aim of this paper is to present the observational properties of these planetary systems which contain confirmed or suspected resonant configurations. A complete list of known systems with such configurations is given. This list will be kept by us updated from now on and it will be a valuable reference for studying the dynamics of extrasolar systems and testing theoretical predictions concerned with the origin and the evolution of planets, which are the most plausible places for existence and development of life.

  14. Planetary ring systems properties, structures, and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Murray, Carl D

    2018-01-01

    Planetary rings are among the most intriguing structures of our solar system and have fascinated generations of astronomers. Collating emerging knowledge in the field, this volume reviews our current understanding of ring systems with reference to the rings of Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and more. Written by leading experts, the history of ring research and the basics of ring–particle orbits is followed by a review of the known planetary ring systems. All aspects of ring system science are described in detail, including specific dynamical processes, types of structures, thermal properties and their origins, and investigations using computer simulations and laboratory experiments. The concluding chapters discuss the prospects of future missions to planetary rings, the ways in which ring science informs and is informed by the study of other astrophysical disks, and a perspective on the field's future. Researchers of all levels will benefit from this thorough and engaging presentation.

  15. Allowed planetary orbits in the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintr, P.; Perinova, V.; Luks, A.

    2008-01-01

    A new law of the Titius-Bode type for planetary distances from the Sun is proposed. These distances for each planet are determined using appropriate nodal circle of a vibrating membrane. Regularities in the distribution of bodies in the solar system and in the systems of giant planets and some exoplanets are pointed out

  16. Transiting planetary system WASP-17 (Southworth+, 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.

    2013-01-01

    A light curve of four transits of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-17 is presented. The data were obtained using the Danish 1.5m telescope and DFOSC camera at ESO La Silla in 2012, with substantial telescope defocussing in order to improve the photometric precision of the observations...

  17. Communication System Architecture for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Stephen P.; Alena, Richard; Gilbaugh, Bruce; Glass, Brian; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Future human missions to Mars will require effective communications supporting exploration activities and scientific field data collection. Constraints on cost, size, weight and power consumption for all communications equipment make optimization of these systems very important. These information and communication systems connect people and systems together into coherent teams performing the difficult and hazardous tasks inherent in planetary exploration. The communication network supporting vehicle telemetry data, mission operations, and scientific collaboration must have excellent reliability, and flexibility.

  18. The final fate of planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensicke, Boris

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of the first extra-solar planet around a main-sequence star in 1995 has changed the way we think about the Universe: our solar system is not unique. Twenty years later, we know that planetary systems are ubiquitous, orbit stars spanning a wide range in mass, and form in an astonishing variety of architectures. Yet, one fascinating aspect of planetary systems has received relatively little attention so far: their ultimate fate.Most planet hosts will eventually evolve into white dwarfs, Earth-sized stellar embers, and the outer parts of their planetary systems (in the solar system, Mars and beyond) can survive largely intact for billions of years. While scattered and tidally disrupted planetesimals are directly detected at a small number of white dwarfs in the form infrared excess, the most powerful probe for detecting evolved planetary systems is metal pollution of the otherwise pristine H/He atmospheres.I will present the results of a multi-cycle HST survey that has obtained COS observations of 136 white dwarfs. These ultraviolet spectra are exquisitely sensitive to the presence of metals contaminating the white atmosphere. Our sophisticated model atmosphere analysis demonstrates that at least 27% of all targets are currently accreting planetary debris, and an additional 29% have very likely done so in the past. These numbers suggest that planet formation around A-stars (the dominant progenitors of today's white dwarf population) is similarly efficient as around FGK stars.In addition to post-main sequence planetary system demographics, spectroscopy of the debris-polluted white dwarf atmospheres provides a direct window into the bulk composition of exo-planetesimals, analogous to the way we use of meteorites to determine solar-system abundances. Our ultraviolet spectroscopy is particularly sensitive to the detection of Si, a dominant rock-forming species, and we identify up to ten additional volatile and refractory elements in the most strongly

  19. Electrohydraulic drive system with planetary superposed gears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graetz, A.; Klimek, K.H.; Welz, H.

    1989-01-01

    To prevent drive problems in ploughs the drives must be designed in such a way as to compensate for asymmetries. If electromechanical drives are replaced by an electrohydraulic drive system with superposed planetary gears and hydrostatic torque reaction supports the following advantages occur: load-free acceleration, load equalisation between main and auxiliary drive, overload protection, and reduction of systems vibrations. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Characterization of the Wolf 1061 Planetary System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kane, Stephen R.; Waters, Miranda A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Von Braun, Kaspar [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Henry, Gregory W. [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, 3500 John A. Merritt Blvd., Box 9501, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States); Boyajian, Tabetha S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Mann, Andrew W., E-mail: skane@sfsu.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    A critical component of exoplanetary studies is an exhaustive characterization of the host star, from which the planetary properties are frequently derived. Of particular value are the radius, temperature, and luminosity, which are key stellar parameters for studies of transit and habitability science. Here we present the results of new observations of Wolf 1061, known to host three super-Earths. Our observations from the Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy interferometric array provide a direct stellar radius measurement of 0.3207±0.0088 R{sub ⊙}, from which we calculate the effective temperature and luminosity using spectral energy distribution models. We obtained 7 yr of precise, automated photometry that reveals the correct stellar rotation period of 89.3±1.8 days, finds no evidence of photometric transits, and confirms that the radial velocity signals are not due to stellar activity. Finally, our stellar properties are used to calculate the extent of the Habitable Zone (HZ) for the Wolf 1061 system, for which the optimistic boundaries are 0.09–0.23 au. Our simulations of the planetary orbital dynamics show that the eccentricity of the HZ planet oscillates to values as high as ∼0.15 as it exchanges angular momentum with the other planets in the system.

  1. Gravitational waves emitted by extrasolar planetary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berti, E.; Ferrari, V.

    2001-01-01

    The recently discovered Extrasolar Planetary Systems (EPS's) are potentially interesting sources of gravitational waves, since they are very close to Earth (at distances ∼ 10 pc), and their orbital features and positions in the sky are quite well known. As a first estimate, we compute the orbital emission of these systems using the quadrupole formula. Then we show that, in principle, the orbiting planet could resonantly excite the quasi-normal modes of the central star. We use the general-relativistic theory of stellar pulsations to estimate the effects of such a resonance on the gravitational-wave emission of the system. We also consider radiation-reaction effects on the orbital evolution, and give upper limits on the timescales required for a planet to get off-resonance. (author)

  2. The Role of NASA's Planetary Data System in the Planetary Spatial Data Infrastructure Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Gaddis, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    An effort underway in NASA's planetary science community is the Mapping and Planetary Spatial Infrastructure Team (MAPSIT, http://www.lpi.usra.edu/mapsit/). MAPSIT is a community assessment group organized to address a lack of strategic spatial data planning for space science and exploration. Working with MAPSIT, a new initiative of NASA and USGS is the development of a Planetary Spatial Data Infrastructure (PSDI) that builds on extensive knowledge on storing, accessing, and working with terrestrial spatial data. PSDI is a knowledge and technology framework that enables the efficient discovery, access, and exploitation of planetary spatial data to facilitate data analysis, knowledge synthesis, and decision-making. NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) archives >1.2 petabytes of digital data resulting from decades of planetary exploration and research. The PDS charter focuses on the efficient collection, archiving, and accessibility of these data. The PDS emphasis on data preservation and archiving is complementary to that of the PSDI initiative because the latter utilizes and extends available data to address user needs in the areas of emerging technologies, rapid development of tailored delivery systems, and development of online collaborative research environments. The PDS plays an essential PSDI role because it provides expertise to help NASA missions and other data providers to organize and document their planetary data, to collect and maintain the archives with complete, well-documented and peer-reviewed planetary data, to make planetary data accessible by providing online data delivery tools and search services, and ultimately to ensure the long-term preservation and usability of planetary data. The current PDS4 information model extends and expands PDS metadata and relationships between and among elements of the collections. The PDS supports data delivery through several node services, including the Planetary Image Atlas (https

  3. In-situ Planetary Subsurface Imaging System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Weber, R. C.; Dimech, J. L.; Kedar, S.; Neal, C. R.; Siegler, M.

    2017-12-01

    Geophysical and seismic instruments are considered the most effective tools for studying the detailed global structures of planetary interiors. A planet's interior bears the geochemical markers of its evolutionary history, as well as its present state of activity, which has direct implications to habitability. On Earth, subsurface imaging often involves massive data collection from hundreds to thousands of geophysical sensors (seismic, acoustic, etc) followed by transfer by hard links or wirelessly to a central location for post processing and computing, which will not be possible in planetary environments due to imposed mission constraints on mass, power, and bandwidth. Emerging opportunities for geophysical exploration of the solar system from Venus to the icy Ocean Worlds of Jupiter and Saturn dictate that subsurface imaging of the deep interior will require substantial data reduction and processing in-situ. The Real-time In-situ Subsurface Imaging (RISI) technology is a mesh network that senses and processes geophysical signals. Instead of data collection then post processing, the mesh network performs the distributed data processing and computing in-situ, and generates an evolving 3D subsurface image in real-time that can be transmitted under bandwidth and resource constraints. Seismic imaging algorithms (including traveltime tomography, ambient noise imaging, and microseismic imaging) have been successfully developed and validated using both synthetic and real-world terrestrial seismic data sets. The prototype hardware system has been implemented and can be extended as a general field instrumentation platform tailored specifically for a wide variety of planetary uses, including crustal mapping, ice and ocean structure, and geothermal systems. The team is applying the RISI technology to real off-world seismic datasets. For example, the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (LSPE) deployed during the Apollo 17 Moon mission consisted of four geophone instruments

  4. Polarimetry of stars and planetary systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kolokolova, Ludmilla; Hough, James; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal

    2015-01-01

    ... fields of polarimetric exploration, including proto-planetary and debris discs, icy satellites, transneptunian objects, exoplanets and the search for extraterrestrial life -- unique results produced...

  5. Sustainable food systems for optimal planetary health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canavan, Chelsey R; Noor, Ramadhani A; Golden, Christopher D; Juma, Calestous; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2017-06-01

    Sustainable food systems are an important component of a planetary health strategy to reduce the threat of infectious disease, minimize environmental footprint and promote nutrition. Human population trends and dietary transition have led to growing demand for food and increasing production and consumption of meat, amid declining availability of arable land and water. The intensification of livestock production has serious environmental and infectious disease impacts. Land clearing for agriculture alters ecosystems, increases human-wildlife interactions and leads to disease proliferation. Context-specific interventions should be evaluated towards optimizing nutrition resilience, minimizing environmental footprint and reducing animal and human disease risk. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Solar system astrophysics planetary atmospheres and the outer solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Eugene F

    2014-01-01

    The second edition of Solar System Astrophysics: Planetary Atmospheres and the Outer Solar System provides a timely update of our knowledge of planetary atmospheres and the bodies of the outer solar system and their analogs in other planetary systems. This volume begins with an expanded treatment of the physics, chemistry, and meteorology of the atmospheres of the Earth, Venus, and Mars, moving on to their magnetospheres and then to a full discussion of the gas and ice giants and their properties. From here, attention switches to the small bodies of the solar system, beginning with the natural satellites. Then comets, meteors, meteorites, and asteroids are discussed in order, and the volume concludes with the origin and evolution of our solar system. Finally, a fully revised section on extrasolar planetary systems puts the development of our system in a wider and increasingly well understood galactic context. All of the material is presented within a framework of historical importance. This book and its sist...

  7. Planetary rovers robotic exploration of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Ellery, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The increasing adoption of terrain mobility – planetary rovers – for the investigation of planetary surfaces emphasises their central importance in space exploration. This imposes a completely new set of technologies and methodologies to the design of such spacecraft – and planetary rovers are indeed, first and foremost, spacecraft. This introduces vehicle engineering, mechatronics, robotics, artificial intelligence and associated technologies to the spacecraft engineer’s repertoire of skills. Planetary Rovers is the only book that comprehensively covers these aspects of planetary rover engineering and more. The book: • discusses relevant planetary environments to rover missions, stressing the Moon and Mars; • includes a brief survey of previous rover missions; • covers rover mobility, traction and control systems; • stresses the importance of robotic vision in rovers for both navigation and science; • comprehensively covers autonomous navigation, path planning and multi-rover formations on ...

  8. The diversity of planetary system architectures: contrasting theory with observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Y.; Guilera, O. M.; Brunini, A.

    2011-10-01

    In order to explain the observed diversity of planetary system architectures and relate this primordial diversity to the initial properties of the discs where they were born, we develop a semi-analytical model for computing planetary system formation. The model is based on the core instability model for the gas accretion of the embryos and the oligarchic growth regime for the accretion of the solid cores. Two regimes of planetary migration are also included. With this model, we consider different initial conditions based on recent results of protoplanetary disc observations to generate a variety of planetary systems. These systems are analysed statistically, exploring the importance of several factors that define the planetary system birth environment. We explore the relevance of the mass and size of the disc, metallicity, mass of the central star and time-scale of gaseous disc dissipation in defining the architecture of the planetary system. We also test different values of some key parameters of our model to find out which factors best reproduce the diverse sample of observed planetary systems. We assume different migration rates and initial disc profiles, in the context of a surface density profile motivated by similarity solutions. According to this, and based on recent protoplanetary disc observational data, we predict which systems are the most common in the solar neighbourhood. We intend to unveil whether our Solar system is a rarity or whether more planetary systems like our own are expected to be found in the near future. We also analyse which is the more favourable environment for the formation of habitable planets. Our results show that planetary systems with only terrestrial planets are the most common, being the only planetary systems formed when considering low-metallicity discs, which also represent the best environment for the development of rocky, potentially habitable planets. We also found that planetary systems like our own are not rare in the

  9. The signatures of the parental cluster on field planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Maxwell Xu; Portegies Zwart, Simon; van Elteren, Arjen

    2018-03-01

    Due to the high stellar densities in young clusters, planetary systems formed in these environments are likely to have experienced perturbations from encounters with other stars. We carry out direct N-body simulations of multiplanet systems in star clusters to study the combined effects of stellar encounters and internal planetary dynamics. These planetary systems eventually become part of the Galactic field population as the parental cluster dissolves, which is where most presently known exoplanets are observed. We show that perturbations induced by stellar encounters lead to distinct signatures in the field planetary systems, most prominently, the excited orbital inclinations and eccentricities. Planetary systems that form within the cluster's half-mass radius are more prone to such perturbations. The orbital elements are most strongly excited in the outermost orbit, but the effect propagates to the entire planetary system through secular evolution. Planet ejections may occur long after a stellar encounter. The surviving planets in these reduced systems tend to have, on average, higher inclinations and larger eccentricities compared to systems that were perturbed less strongly. As soon as the parental star cluster dissolves, external perturbations stop affecting the escaped planetary systems, and further evolution proceeds on a relaxation time-scale. The outer regions of these ejected planetary systems tend to relax so slowly that their state carries the memory of their last strong encounter in the star cluster. Regardless of the stellar density, we observe a robust anticorrelation between multiplicity and mean inclination/eccentricity. We speculate that the `Kepler dichotomy' observed in field planetary systems is a natural consequence of their early evolution in the parental cluster.

  10. The Planetary Data System Web Catalog Interface--Another Use of the Planetary Data System Data Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, S.; Bernath, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Planetary Data System Data Model consists of a set of standardized descriptions of entities within the Planetary Science Community. These can be real entities in the space exploration domain such as spacecraft, instruments, and targets; conceptual entities such as data sets, archive volumes, and data dictionaries; or the archive data products such as individual images, spectrum, series, and qubes.

  11. The Planetary Data System Distributed Inventory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. Steven; McMahon, Susan K.

    1996-01-01

    The advent of the World Wide Web (Web) and the ability to easily put data repositories on-line has resulted in a proliferation of digital libraries. The heterogeneity of the underlying systems, the autonomy of the individual sites, and distributed nature of the technology has made both interoperability across the sites and the search for resources within a site major research topics. This article will describe a system that addresses both issues using standard Web protocols and meta-data labels to implement an inventory of on-line resources across a group of sites. The success of this system is strongly dependent on the existence of and adherence to a standards architecture that guides the management of meta-data within participating sites.

  12. Connecting the Astrophysics Data System and Planetary Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, G.; Kurtz, M. J.; Accomazzi, A.; Grant, C. S.; Murray, S. S.; Hughes, J. S.; Mortellaro, J.; McMahon, S. K.

    1997-07-01

    The Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides access to astronomical literature through a sophisticated search engine. Over 10,000 users retrieve almost 5 million references and read more than 25,000 full text articles per month. ADS cooperates closely with all the main astronomical journals and data centers to create and maintain a state-of-the-art digital library. The Planetary Data System (PDS) publishes high quality peer reviewed planetary science data products, defines planetary archiving standards to make products usable, and provides science expertise to users in data product preparation and use. Data products are available to users on CD media, with more than 600 CD-ROM titles in the inventory from past missions as well as the recent releases from active planetary missions and observations. The ADS and PDS serve overlapping communities and offer complementary functions. The ADS and PDS are both part of the NASA Space Science Data System, sponsored by the Office of Space Science, which curates science data products for researchers and the general public. We are in the process of connecting these two data systems. As a first step we have included entries for PDS data sets in the ADS abstract service. This allows ADS users to find PDS data sets by searching for their descriptions through the ADS search system. The information returned from the ADS links directly to the data set's entry in the PDS data set catalog. After linking to this catalog, the user will have access to more comprehensive data set information, related ancillary information, and on-line data products. The PDS on the other hand will use the ADS to provide access to bibliographic information. This includes links from PDS data set catalog bibliographic citations to ADS abstracts and on-line articles. The cross-linking between these data systems allows each system to concentrate on its main objectives and utilize the other system to provide more and improved services to the users of both systems.

  13. Nonlinear time heteronymous damping in nonlinear parametric planetary systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hortel, Milan; Škuderová, Alena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 225, č. 7 (2014), s. 2059-2073 ISSN 0001-5970 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : nonlinear dynamics * planetary systems * heteronymous damping Subject RIV: JT - Propulsion, Motors ; Fuels Impact factor: 1.465, year: 2014

  14. Planetary Protection Considerations in EVA System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Kosmo, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    very little expression of these anomalies. hardware from the human-occupied area may limit (although not likely eliminate) external materials in the human habitat. Definition of design-to requirements is critical to understanding technical feasibility and costs. The definition of Planetary Protection needs in relation to EVA mission and system element development cost impacts should be considered and interpreted in terms of Plausible Protection criteria. Since EVA operations will have the most direct physical interaction with the Martian surface, PP needs should be considered in the terms of mitigating hardware and operations impacts and costs.

  15. Planetary Formation and Dynamics in Binary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    As of today, over 500 exoplanets have been detected since the first exoplanet was discovered around a solar-like star in 1995. The planets in binaries could be common as stars are usually born in binary or multiple star systems. Although current observations show that the planet host rate in multiple star systems is around 17%, this fraction should be considered as a lower limit because of noticeable selection effects against binaries in planet searches. Most of the current known planet-bearing binary systems are S-types, meaning the companion star acts as a distant satellite, typically orbiting the inner star-planet system over 100 AU away. Nevertheless, there are four systems with a smaller separation of 20 AU, including the Gamma Cephei, GJ 86, HD 41004, and HD 196885. In addition to the planets in circumprimary (S-type) orbits discussed above, planets in circumbinary (P-type) orbits have been found in only two systems. In this thesis, we mainly study the planet formation in the S-type binary systems. In chapter 1, we first summarize current observational facts of exoplanets both in single-star and binary systems, then review the theoretical models of planet formation, with special attention to the application in binary systems. Perturbative effects from stellar companions render the planet formation process in binary systems even more complex than that in single-star systems. The perturbations from a binary companion can excite planetesimal orbits, and increase their mutual impact velocities to the values that might exceed their escape velocity or even the critical velocity for the onset of eroding collisions. The intermediate stage of the formation process---from planetesimals to planetary embryos---is thus the most problematic. In the following chapters, we investigate whether and how the planet formation goes through such a problematic stage. In chapter 2, we study the effects of gas dissipation on the planetesimals' mutual accretion. We find that in a

  16. LBT observations of the HR8799 planetary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, D.; Arcidiacono, C.; Claudi, R. U.; Desidera, S.; Esposito, S.; Gratton, R.; Masciadri, E.

    2013-09-01

    We present here observations of the HR8799 planetary system performed in H and Ks band exploiting the AO system at the Large Binocular Telescope and the PISCES camera. Thanks to the excellent performence of the instrument we were able to detect for the first time the inner known planet of the system (HR8799) in the H band. Precise photometric and astrometric measures have been taken for all the four planets. Further, exploiting ours and previous astrometric results, we were able to put some limits on the planetary orbits of the four planets. The analysis of the dinamical stability of the system seems to show lower planetary masses than the ones adopted until now.

  17. Planetary Data Systems (PDS) Imaging Node Atlas II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanboli, Alice; McAuley, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The Planetary Image Atlas (PIA) is a Rich Internet Application (RIA) that serves planetary imaging data to the science community and the general public. PIA also utilizes the USGS Unified Planetary Coordinate system (UPC) and the on-Mars map server. The Atlas was designed to provide the ability to search and filter through greater than 8 million planetary image files. This software is a three-tier Web application that contains a search engine backend (MySQL, JAVA), Web service interface (SOAP) between server and client, and a GWT Google Maps API client front end. This application allows for the search, retrieval, and download of planetary images and associated meta-data from the following missions: 2001 Mars Odyssey, Cassini, Galileo, LCROSS, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, Magellan, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, MESSENGER, Phoe nix, Viking Lander, Viking Orbiter, and Voyager. The Atlas utilizes the UPC to translate mission-specific coordinate systems into a unified coordinate system, allowing the end user to query across missions of similar targets. If desired, the end user can also use a mission-specific view of the Atlas. The mission-specific views rely on the same code base. This application is a major improvement over the initial version of the Planetary Image Atlas. It is a multi-mission search engine. This tool includes both basic and advanced search capabilities, providing a product search tool to interrogate the collection of planetary images. This tool lets the end user query information about each image, and ignores the data that the user has no interest in. Users can reduce the number of images to look at by defining an area of interest with latitude and longitude ranges.

  18. UNSTABLE PLANETARY SYSTEMS EMERGING OUT OF GAS DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Soko; Thommes, Edward W.; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of over 400 extrasolar planets allows us to statistically test our understanding of the formation and dynamics of planetary systems via numerical simulations. Traditional N-body simulations of multiple-planet systems without gas disks have successfully reproduced the eccentricity (e) distribution of the observed systems by assuming that the planetary systems are relatively closely packed when the gas disk dissipates, so that they become dynamically unstable within the stellar lifetime. However, such studies cannot explain the small semimajor axes a of extrasolar planetary systems, if planets are formed, as the standard planet formation theory suggests, beyond the ice line. In this paper, we numerically study the evolution of three-planet systems in dissipating gas disks, and constrain the initial conditions that reproduce the observed a and e distributions simultaneously. We adopt initial conditions that are motivated by the standard planet formation theory, and self-consistently simulate the disk evolution and planet migration, by using a hybrid N-body and one-dimensional gas disk code. We also take into account eccentricity damping, and investigate the effect of saturation of corotation resonances on the evolution of planetary systems. We find that the a distribution is largely determined in a gas disk, while the e distribution is determined after the disk dissipation. We also find that there may be an optimum disk mass which leads to the observed a-e distribution. Our simulations generate a larger fraction of planetary systems trapped in mean-motion resonances (MMRs) than the observations, indicating that the disk's perturbation to the planetary orbits may be important to explain the observed rate of MMRs. We also find a much lower occurrence of planets on retrograde orbits than the current observations of close-in planets suggest.

  19. The complex planetary synchronization structure of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scafetta, N.

    2014-01-01

    The complex planetary synchronization structure of the solar system, which since Pythagoras of Samos (ca. 570-495 BC) is known as the music of the spheres, is briefly reviewed from the Renaissance up to contemporary research. Copernicus' heliocentric model from 1543 suggested that the planets of our solar system form a kind of mutually ordered and quasi-synchronized system. From 1596 to 1619 Kepler formulated preliminary mathematical relations of approximate commensurabilities among the planets, which were later reformulated in the Titius-Bode rule (1766-1772), which successfully predicted the orbital position of Ceres and Uranus. Following the discovery of the ~ 11 yr sunspot cycle, in 1859 Wolf suggested that the observed solar variability could be approximately synchronized with the orbital movements of Venus, Earth, Jupiter and Saturn. Modern research has further confirmed that (1) the planetary orbital periods can be approximately deduced from a simple system of resonant frequencies; (2) the solar system oscillates with a specific set of gravitational frequencies, and many of them (e.g., within the range between 3 yr and 100 yr) can be approximately constructed as harmonics of a base period of ~ 178.38 yr; and (3) solar and climate records are also characterized by planetary harmonics from the monthly to the millennial timescales. This short review concludes with an emphasis on the contribution of the author's research on the empirical evidences and physical modeling of both solar and climate variability based on astronomical harmonics. The general conclusion is that the solar system works as a resonator characterized by a specific harmonic planetary structure that also synchronizes the Sun's activity and the Earth's climate. The special issue Pattern in solar variability, their planetary origin and terrestrial impacts (Mörner et al., 2013) further develops the ideas about the planetary-solar-terrestrial interaction with the personal contribution of 10

  20. Solar system astrophysics planetary atmospheres and the outer solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Milone, Eugene F

    2008-01-01

    Solar System Astrophysics opens with coverage of the atmospheres, ionospheres and magnetospheres of the Earth, Venus and Mars and the magnetosphere of Mercury. The book then provides an introduction to meteorology and treating the physics and chemistry of these areas in considerable detail. What follows are the structure, composition, particle environments, satellites, and rings of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, making abundant use of results from space probes. Solar System Astrophysics follows the history, orbits, structure, origin and demise of comets and the physics of meteors and provides a thorough treatment of meteorites, the asteroids and, in the outer solar system, the Kuiper Belt objects. The methods and results of extrasolar planet searches, the distinctions between stars, brown dwarfs, and planets, and the origins of planetary systems are examined. Historical introductions precede the development and discussion in most chapters. A series of challenges, useful as homework assignments or as foc...

  1. Small reactor power systems for manned planetary surface bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the potential application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to manned planetary surface base missions was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology, performance, and safety issues associated with integration of reactor power systems with an evolutionary manned planetary surface exploration scenario. The requirements and characteristics of a variety of human-rated modular reactor power system configurations selected for a range of power levels from 25 kWe to hundreds of kilowatts is described. Trade-off analyses for reactor power systems utilizing both man-made and indigenous shielding materials are provided to examine performance, installation and operational safety feasibility issues. The results of this study have confirmed the preliminary feasibility of a wide variety of small reactor power plant configurations for growth oriented manned planetary surface exploration missions. The capability for power level growth with increasing manned presence, while maintaining safe radiation levels, was favorably assessed for nominal 25 to 100 kWe modular configurations. No feasibility limitations or technical barriers were identified and the use of both distance and indigenous planetary soil material for human rated radiation shielding were shown to be viable and attractive options.

  2. Small reactor power systems for manned planetary surface bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the potential application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to manned planetary surface base missions was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology, performance, and safety issues associated with integration of reactor power systems with an evolutionary manned planetary surface exploration scenario. The requirements and characteristics of a variety of human-rated modular reactor power system configurations selected for a range of power levels from 25 kWe to hundreds of kilowatts is described. Trade-off analyses for reactor power systems utilizing both man-made and indigenous shielding materials are provided to examine performance, installation and operational safety feasibility issues. The results of this study have confirmed the preliminary feasibility of a wide variety of small reactor power plant configurations for growth oriented manned planetary surface exploration missions. The capability for power level growth with increasing manned presence, while maintaining safe radiation levels, was favorably assessed for nominal 25 to 100 kWe modular configurations. No feasibility limitations or technical barriers were identified and the use of both distance and indigenous planetary soil material for human rated radiation shielding were shown to be viable and attractive options

  3. Planetary Systems Detection, Formation and Habitability of Extrasolar Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Ollivier, Marc; Casoli, Fabienne; Encrenaz, Thérèse; Selsis, Franck

    2009-01-01

    Over the past ten years, the discovery of extrasolar planets has opened a new field of astronomy, and this area of research is rapidly growing, from both the observational and theoretical point of view. The presence of many giant exoplanets in the close vicinity of their star shows that these newly discovered planetary systems are very different from the solar system. New theoretical models are being developed in order to understand their formation scenarios, and new observational methods are being implemented to increase the sensitivity of exoplanet detections. In the present book, the authors address the question of planetary systems from all aspects. Starting from the facts (the detection of more than 300 extraterrestrial planets), they first describe the various methods used for these discoveries and propose a synthetic analysis of their global properties. They then consider the observations of young stars and circumstellar disks and address the case of the solar system as a specific example, different fr...

  4. Evidence for Quantisation in Planetary Ring Systems

    OpenAIRE

    WAYTE, RICHARD

    2017-01-01

    Absolute radial positions of the main features in Saturn's ring system have been calculated by adapting the quantum theory of atomic spectra. Fine rings superimposed upon broad rings are found to be covered by a harmonic series of the form N α A(r)1/2, where N and A are integers. Fourier analysis of the ring system shows that the spectral amplitude fits a response profile which is characteristic of a resonant system. Rings of Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune also obey the same rules. Involvement o...

  5. The NASA Planetary Data System Roadmap Study for 2017 - 2026

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNutt, R. L., Jr.; Gaddis, L. R.; Law, E.; Beyer, R. A.; Crombie, M. K.; Ebel, D. S. S.; Ghosh, A.; Grayzeck, E.; Morgan, T. H.; Paganelli, F.; Raugh, A.; Stein, T.; Tiscareno, M. S.; Weber, R. C.; Banks, M.; Powell, K.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Planetary Data System (PDS) is the formal archive of >1.2 petabytes of data from planetary exploration, science, and research. Initiated in 1989 to address an overall lack of attention to mission data documentation, access, and archiving, the PDS has evolved into an online collection of digital data managed and served by a federation of six science discipline nodes and two technical support nodes. Several ad hoc mission-oriented data nodes also provide complex data interfaces and access for the duration of their missions. The recent Planetary Data System Roadmap Study for 2017 to 2026 involved 15 planetary science community members who collectively prepared a report summarizing the results of an intensive examination of the current state of the PDS and its organization, management, practices, and data holdings (https://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/roadmap/PlanetaryDataSystemRMS17-26_20jun17.pdf). The report summarizes the history of the PDS, its functions and characteristics, and how it has evolved to its present form; also included are extensive references and documentary appendices. The report recognizes that as a complex, evolving, archive system, the PDS must constantly respond to new pressures and opportunities. The report provides details on the challenges now facing the PDS, 19 detailed findings, suggested remediations, and a summary of what the future may hold for planetary data archiving. The findings cover topics such as user needs and expectations, data usability and discoverability (i.e., metadata, data access, documentation, and training), tools and file formats, use of current information technologies, and responses to increases in data volume, variety, complexity, and number of data providers. In addition, the study addresses the possibility of archiving software, laboratory data, and measurements of physical samples. Finally, the report discusses the current structure and governance of the PDS and its impact on how archive growth, technology, and new

  6. A Sample Delivery System for Planetary Missions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project will develop, test and characterize the performance of a prototype /sample delivery system (SDS) implemented as an end effector on a robotic arm capable...

  7. The architecture and formation of the Kepler-30 planetary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichi, F.; Goździewski, K.; Migaszewski, C.; Szuszkiewicz, E.

    2018-04-01

    We study the orbital architecture, physical characteristics of planets, formation and long-term evolution of the Kepler-30 planetary system, detected and announced in 2012 by the KEPLER team. We show that the Kepler-30 system belongs to a particular class of very compact and quasi-resonant, yet long-term stable planetary systems. We re-analyse the light curves of the host star spanning Q1-Q17 quarters of the KEPLER mission. A huge variability of the Transit Timing Variations (TTV) exceeding 2 days is induced by a massive Jovian planet located between two Neptune-like companions. The innermost pair is near to the 2:1 mean motion resonance (MMR), and the outermost pair is close to higher order MMRs, such as 17:7 and 7:3. Our re-analysis of photometric data allows us to constrain, better than before, the orbital elements, planets' radii and masses, which are 9.2 ± 0.1, 536 ± 5, and 23.7 ± 1.3 Earth masses for Kepler-30b, Kepler-30c and Kepler-30d, respectively. The masses of the inner planets are determined within ˜1% uncertainty. We infer the internal structures of the Kepler-30 planets and their bulk densities in a wide range from (0.19 ± 0.01) g.cm-3 for Kepler-30d, (0.96 ± 0.15) g.cm-3 for Kepler-30b, to (1.71 ± 0.13) g.cm-3 for the Jovian planet Kepler-30c. We attempt to explain the origin of this unique planetary system and a deviation of the orbits from exact MMRs through the planetary migration scenario. We anticipate that the Jupiter-like planet plays an important role in determining the present dynamical state of this system.

  8. Geospatial Information System Capability Maturity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    To explore how State departments of transportation (DOTs) evaluate geospatial tool applications and services within their own agencies, particularly their experiences using capability maturity models (CMMs) such as the Urban and Regional Information ...

  9. Maturity of hospital information systems: Most important influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal Carvalho, João; Rocha, Álvaro; Abreu, António

    2017-07-01

    Maturity models facilitate organizational management, including information systems management, with hospital organizations no exception. This article puts forth a study carried out with a group of experts in the field of hospital information systems management with a view to identifying the main influencing factors to be included in an encompassing maturity model for hospital information systems management. This study is based on the results of a literature review, which identified maturity models in the health field and relevant influencing factors. The development of this model is justified to the extent that the available maturity models for the hospital information systems management field reveal multiple limitations, including lack of detail, absence of tools to determine their maturity and lack of characterization for stages of maturity structured by different influencing factors.

  10. A Planetary Park system for the Moon and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles; Horneck, Gerda

    Deutschland International space exploration programs foresee the establishment of human settlements on the Moon and on Mars within the next decades, following a series of robotic precursor missions. These increasing robotic visits and eventual human exploration and settlements may have an environmental impact on scientifically important sites and sites of natural beauty in the form of contamination with microorganisms and spacecraft parts, or even pollution as a consequence of in situ resource use. This concern has already been reflected in the Moon Treaty, "The Agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies" of the United Nations, which follows the Outer Space Treaty of the UN. However, so far, the Moon Treaty has not been ratified by any nation which engages in human space programs or has plans to do so. Planetary protection guidelines as formulated by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) are based on the Outer Space Treaty and follow the objectives: (i) to prevent contamination by terrestrial microorganisms if this might jeopardize scientific investi-gations of possible extraterrestrial life forms, and (ii) to protect the Earth from the potential hazard posed by extraterrestrial material brought back to the Earth. As a consequence, they group exploratory missions according to the type of mission and target body in five different categories, requesting specific means of cleaning and sterilization. However, the protection of extraterrestrial environments might also encompass ethical and other non-instrumental reasons. In order to allow intense scientific research and exploitation, and on the other hand to preserve regions of the Moon for research and use by future generations, we proposed the introduction of a planetary (or lunar) park system, which would protect areas of scientific, historic and intrinsic value under a common scheme. A similar placePlaceNamePlanetary PlaceTypePark system could be established on Mars well

  11. Planetary Sample Caching System Design Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Curtis; Younse, Paulo; Backes, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Potential Mars Sample Return missions would aspire to collect small core and regolith samples using a rover with a sample acquisition tool and sample caching system. Samples would need to be stored in individual sealed tubes in a canister that could be transfered to a Mars ascent vehicle and returned to Earth. A sample handling, encapsulation and containerization system (SHEC) has been developed as part of an integrated system for acquiring and storing core samples for application to future potential MSR and other potential sample return missions. Requirements and design options for the SHEC system were studied and a recommended design concept developed. Two families of solutions were explored: 1)transfer of a raw sample from the tool to the SHEC subsystem and 2)transfer of a tube containing the sample to the SHEC subsystem. The recommended design utilizes sample tool bit change out as the mechanism for transferring tubes to and samples in tubes from the tool. The SHEC subsystem design, called the Bit Changeout Caching(BiCC) design, is intended for operations on a MER class rover.

  12. Searching for stable orbits in the HD 10180 planetary system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laskar J.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A planetary system with at least seven planets has been found around the star HD 10180. However, the traditional Keplerian and n-body fits to the data provide an orbital solution that becomes unstable very quickly, which may quest the reliability of the observations. Here we show that stable orbital configurations can be obtained if general relativity and long-term dissipation raised by tides on the innermost planet are taken into account.

  13. Orbital decay and accretion for planetary or binary systems within a planetary nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K.H.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of the survival of a planet and low mass secondary orbiting a primary star that becomes a planetary nebula is studied. The values of the mass of primary used are 1.0, and 1.5, and 2.0 M/sub sun/ and the values for the planet's mass are 0.001 M/sub sun/ and 0.01 M/sub sun/. The mass of the secondary is 0.1 M/sub sun/. The evolution of the orbital elements and mass of the secondary due to accretion and drag forces in the common envelope are presented. The possible application of the results to V471 Tau, UU Sge, WZ Sge, and the sun-jupiter system are discussed

  14. On Some General Regularities of Formation of the Planetary Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyakov A. V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available J.Wheeler’s geometrodynamic concept has been used, in which space continuum is considered as a topologically non-unitary coherent surface admitting the existence of transitions of the input-output kind between distant regions of the space in an additional dimension. This model assumes the existence of closed structures (micro- and macro- contours formed due to the balance between main interactions: gravitational, electric, magnetic, and inertial forces. It is such macrocontours that have been demonstrated to form — independently of their material basis — the essential structure of objects at various levels of organization of matter. On the basis of this concept in this paper basic regularities acting during formation planetary systems have been obtained. The existence of two sharply different types of planetary systems has been determined. The dependencies linking the masses of the planets, the diameters of the planets, the orbital radii of the planet, and the mass of the central body have been deduced. The possibility of formation of Earth-like planets near brown dwarfs has been grounded. The minimum mass of the planet, which may arise in the planetary system, has been defined.

  15. Radial Velocity Detection of Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, William D.

    2004-01-01

    This NASA Origins Program grant supported four closely related research programs at The University of Texas at Austin: 1) The McDonald Observatory Planetary Search (MOPS) Program, using the McDonald Observatory 2.7m Harlan Smith telescope and its 2dcoude spectrometer, 2) A high-precision radial-velocity survey of Hyades dwarfs, using the Keck telescope and its HIRES spectrograph, 3) A program at McDonald Observatory to obtain spectra of the parent stars of planetary systems at R = 210,000, and 4) the start of high precision radial velocity surveys using the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. The most important results from NASA support of these research programs are described. A list of all papers published under support of this grant is included at the end.

  16. Tandem planet formation for solar system-like planetary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Imaeda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new united theory of planet formation, which includes magneto-rotational instability (MRI and porous aggregation of solid particles in a consistent way. We show that the “tandem planet formation” regime is likely to result in solar system-like planetary systems. In the tandem planet formation regime, planetesimals form at two distinct sites: the outer and inner edges of the MRI suppressed region. The former is likely to be the source of the outer gas giants, and the latter is the source for the inner volatile-free rocky planets. Our study spans disks with a various range of accretion rates, and we find that tandem planet formation can occur for M˙=10−7.3-10−6.9M⊙yr−1. The rocky planets form between 0.4–2 AU, while the icy planets form between 6–30 AU; no planets form in 2–6 AU region for any accretion rate. This is consistent with the gap in the solid component distribution in the solar system, which has only a relatively small Mars and a very small amount of material in the main asteroid belt from 2–6 AU. The tandem regime is consistent with the idea that the Earth was initially formed as a completely volatile-free planet. Water and other volatile elements came later through the accretion of icy material by occasional inward scattering from the outer regions. Reactions between reductive minerals, such as schreibersite (Fe3P, and water are essential to supply energy and nutrients for primitive life on Earth.

  17. STABILITY OF SATELLITES IN CLOSELY PACKED PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, Matthew J.; Holman, Matthew J.; Deck, Katherine M.; Perets, Hagai B.

    2013-01-01

    We perform numerical integrations of four-body (star, planet, planet, satellite) systems to investigate the stability of satellites in planetary systems with tightly packed inner planets (STIPs). We find that the majority of closely spaced stable two-planet systems can stably support satellites across a range of parameter-space which is only slightly decreased compared to that seen for the single-planet case. In particular, circular prograde satellites remain stable out to ∼0.4 R H (where R H is the Hill radius) as opposed to 0.5 R H in the single-planet case. A similarly small restriction in the stable parameter-space for retrograde satellites is observed, where planetary close approaches in the range 2.5-4.5 mutual Hill radii destabilize most satellites orbits only if a ∼ 0.65 R H . In very close planetary pairs (e.g., the 12:11 resonance) the addition of a satellite frequently destabilizes the entire system, causing extreme close approaches and the loss of satellites over a range of circumplanetary semi-major axes. The majority of systems investigated stably harbored satellites over a wide parameter-space, suggesting that STIPs can generally offer a dynamically stable home for satellites, albeit with a slightly smaller stable parameter-space than the single-planet case. As we demonstrate that multi-planet systems are not a priori poor candidates for hosting satellites, future measurements of satellite occurrence rates in multi-planet systems versus single-planet systems could be used to constrain either satellite formation or past periods of strong dynamical interaction between planets

  18. Conceptual definition of Automated Power Systems Management. [for planetary spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, M. S.; Skelly, L.; Weiner, H.

    1977-01-01

    Automated Power Systems Management (APSM) is defined as the capability of a spacecraft power system to automatically perform monitoring, computational, command, and control functions without ground intervention. Power systems for future planetary spacecraft must have this capability because they must perform up to 10 years, and accommodate real-time changes in mission execution autonomously. Specific APSM functions include fault detection, isolation, and correction; system performance and load profile prediction; power system optimization; system checkout; and data storage and transmission control. This paper describes the basic method of implementing these specific functions. The APSM hardware includes a central power system computer and a processor dedicated to each major power system subassembly along with digital interface circuitry. The major payoffs anticipated are in enhancement of spacecraft reliability and life and reduction of overall spacecraft program cost.

  19. PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING LEADS TO TIGHTLY PACKED PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Sean N.; Barnes, Rory; Veras, Dimitri; Armitage, Philip J.; Gorelick, Noel; Greenberg, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The known extrasolar multiple-planet systems share a surprising dynamical attribute: they cluster just beyond the Hill stability boundary. Here we show that the planet-planet scattering model, which naturally explains the observed exoplanet eccentricity distribution, can reproduce the observed distribution of dynamical configurations. We calculated how each of our scattered systems would appear over an appropriate range of viewing geometries; as Hill stability is weakly dependent on the masses, the mass-inclination degeneracy does not significantly affect our results. We consider a wide range of initial planetary mass distributions and find that some are poor fits to the observed systems. In fact, many of our scattering experiments overproduce systems very close to the stability boundary. The distribution of dynamical configurations of two-planet systems may provide better discrimination between scattering models than the distribution of eccentricity. Our results imply that, at least in their inner regions which are weakly affected by gas or planetesimal disks, planetary systems should be 'packed', with no large gaps between planets.

  20. A review of the scientific rationale and methods used in the search for other planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Planetary systems appear to be one of the crucial links in the chain leading from simple molecules to living systems, particularly complex (intelligent?) living systems. Although there is currently no observational proof of the existence of any planetary system other than our own, techniques are now being developed which will permit a comprehensive search for other planetary systems. The scientific rationale for and methods used in such a search effort are reviewed here.

  1. Tomato seeds maturity detection system based on chlorophyll fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Meng, Zhijun

    2016-10-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity can be used as seed maturity and quality evaluation indicator. Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity of seed coats is tested to judge the level of chlorophyll content in seeds, and further to judge the maturity and quality of seeds. This research developed a detection system of tomato seeds maturity based on chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology, the system included an excitation light source unit, a fluorescent signal acquisition unit and a data processing unit. The excitation light source unit consisted of two high power LEDs, two radiators and two constant current power supplies, and it was designed to excite chlorophyll fluorescence of tomato seeds. The fluorescent signal acquisition unit was made up of a fluorescence spectrometer, an optical fiber, an optical fiber scaffolds and a narrowband filter. The data processing unit mainly included a computer. Tomato fruits of green ripe stage, discoloration stage, firm ripe stage and full ripe stage were harvested, and their seeds were collected directly. In this research, the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system was used to collect fluorescence spectrums of tomato seeds of different maturities. Principal component analysis (PCA) method was utilized to reduce the dimension of spectral data and extract principal components, and PCA was combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to establish discriminant model of tomato seeds maturity, the discriminant accuracy was greater than 90%. Research results show that using chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology is feasible for seeds maturity detection, and the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system has high detection accuracy.

  2. An autopsy of dead planetary systems with COS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debes, John

    2014-10-01

    We propose to use HST/COS to conduct autopsies of dead planetary systems around UV bright hydrogen-white dwarfs (WDs), which have dust disks found via their mid-IR emission in excess of that expected from the photosphere. As part of a WISE survey, and followed up with a combination of NASA Keck HIRES/Magellan MIKE optical spectroscopy, we have identified three new systems that are accreting dust. These WDs are bright in the mid-IR and UV, gold-standard targets for studies with HST/COS and later with JWST. The dusty material is debris resulting from the tidal disruption of exo-asteroids that accrete onto the WD surface. Many atomic elements from the accreted and dissociated dust particles are detectable with COS, enabling abundance determinations of exo-asteroidal material. Moreover, the photospheric abundances of this material can be directly compared with a determination of the dust mineralogy obtained with future JWST mid-IR spectroscopy-our proposed UV observations provide complementary constraints on mineralogical compositions of the accreting dust particles. UV spectroscopy is crucial for cataloging elemental abundances for these exo-asteroids. For the majority of WDs, optical spectroscopy reveals only a couple of lines of Ca or Mg, while UV spectroscopy captures lines from Al, Fe, Si, C, Ni, O, S, Cr, P, and Ti. Obtaining the elemental abundances of exo-asteroids is comparable to the spectroscopic characterization of transiting exoplanets or protoplanetary disks-all of these techniques determine how the chemical diversity of planetary systems translate into planetary architectures and the probability of habitable planets around solar-type stars.

  3. Quality Management Systems Implementation Compared With Organizational Maturity in Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Tayebeh; Jafari, Mehdi; Maleki, Mohammad Reza; Naghdi, Seyran; Ghiasvand, Hesam

    2015-07-27

    A quality management system can provide a framework for continuous improvement in order to increase the probability of customers and other stakeholders' satisfaction. The test maturity model helps organizations to assess the degree of maturity in implementing effective and sustained quality management systems; plan based on the current realities of the organization and prioritize their improvement programs. We aim to investigate and compare the level of organizational maturity in hospitals with the status of quality management systems implementation. This analytical cross sectional study was conducted among hospital administrators and quality experts working in hospitals with over 200 beds located in Tehran. In the first step, 32 hospitals were selected and then 96 employees working in the selected hospitals were studied. The data were gathered using the implementation checklist of quality management systems and the organization maturity questionnaire derived from ISO 10014. The content validity was calculated using Lawshe method and the reliability was estimated using test - retest method and calculation of Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data using SPSS 18 software. According to the table, the mean score of organizational maturity among hospitals in the first stage of quality management systems implementation was equal to those in the third stage and hypothesis was rejected (p-value = 0.093). In general, there is no significant difference in the organizational maturity between the first and third level hospitals (in terms of implementation of quality management systems). Overall, the findings of the study show that there is no significant difference in the organizational maturity between the hospitals in different levels of the quality management systems implementation and in fact, the maturity of the organizations cannot be attributed to the implementation of such systems. As a result, hospitals

  4. Electrohydraulic drive system with planetary superposed PS 16 gears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graetz, A.; Klimek, K.H.; Welz, H.

    1988-10-20

    During the nine-month period of use of the electrohydraulic drive system with PS 16 superposed planetary gear and hydrostatic support advance of 800 m was achieved on the 250 m long face in the Geitling 2 seam at the Niederberg colliery. No appreciable difficulties occurred in the hydraulic system and with the PS 16 superposed planetary gear in the entire period. Uniform load distribution between the two drives was proved until the end of the working even with a chain elongation difference up to 3% observed during the final phase of operation. In contrast to normal operation thermal disconnections and motor failures no longer occurred. After accurate adjustment of the pressures the system operated successfully. The time utilisation of the equipment was improved by 15% to 65.7%. The quick and reliable response of the hydraulics in the event of overloading ensured that no chain cracks occurred. The four connector fractures were attributable to fatigue failures. The material-protecting method of operation was proved by the quiet running of the chain and substantially longer operating time, e.g. of the chain and sprocket. To prove the efficiency of the new drive system, comprehensive measurements were undertaken. It emerged during these measurements that in contrast to the conventional drives the load equalisation ensures that the total installed power is available if required. However, the freeing capacity of the plough could not be fully utilised because of the missing conveyor cross-section.

  5. Journal Bearing Analysis Suite Released for Planetary Gear System Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewe, David E.; Clark, David A.

    2005-01-01

    Planetary gear systems are an efficient means of achieving high reduction ratios with minimum space and weight. They are used in helicopter, aerospace, automobile, and many industrial applications. High-speed planetary gear systems will have significant dynamic loading and high heat generation. Hence, they need jet lubrication and associated cooling systems. For units operating in critical applications that necessitate high reliability and long life, that have very large torque loading, and that have downtime costs that are significantly greater than the initial cost, hydrodynamic journal bearings are a must. Computational and analytical tools are needed for sufficiently accurate modeling to facilitate optimal design of these systems. Sufficient physics is needed in the model to facilitate parametric studies of design conditions that enable optimal designs. The first transient journal bearing code to implement the Jacobsson-Floberg-Olsson boundary conditions, using a mass-conserving algorithm devised by Professor Emeritus Harold Elrod of Columbia University, was written by David E. Brewe of the U.S. Army at the NASA Lewis Research Center1 in 1983. Since then, new features and improved modifications have been built into the code by several contributors supported through Army and NASA funding via cooperative agreements with the University of Toledo (Professor Ted Keith, Jr., and Dr. Desikakary Vijayaraghavan) and National Research Council Programs (Dr. Vijayaraghavan). All this was conducted with the close consultation of Professor Elrod and the project management of David Brewe.

  6. Planets and planetarians. A history of theories of the origin of planetary systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaki, S L

    1978-01-01

    A critical review is presented of theories of the origin of planetary systems. The book deals chronologically with the subject from Greek times to the present. The last of the eight chapters covers the post-war period. Particular attention is paid to theories of the origin of our own planetary system and to the degree of frequency of planetary systems (in particular, the frequency of planets carrying life in some form) in the universe.

  7. Planets and planetarians. A history of theories of the origin of planetary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaki, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    A critical review is presented of theories of the origin of planetary systems. The book deals chronologically with the subject from Greek times to the present. The last of the eight chapters covers the post-war period. Particular attention is paid to theories of the origin of our own planetary system and to the degree of frequency of planetary systems (in particular, the frequency of planets carrying life in some form) in the universe. (U.K.)

  8. IMMUNE SYSTEM MATURITY AND SENSITIVITY TO CHEMICAL EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is well established that human diseases associated with abnormal immune function, including some common infectious diseases and asthma, are considerably more prevalent at younger ages. The immune system continues to mature after birth, and functional immaturity accounts for m...

  9. Nonlinear Vibroimpact Characteristics of a Planetary Gear Transmission System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxing Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to research the vibroimpact characteristics of a planetary gear transmission system under high speed and lightly loaded conditions, a new modeling method is proposed. In the modeling process, linear spring was used to simulate gear mesh elasticity under heavy load cases, and Hertz contact theory was used to calculate the contact force of gear pair under light load cases. Then, effects of the working conditions on the system vibroimpact characteristics are analyzed. The results show that, with input speed growing, the mesh force produced obvious fluctuations on the resonance frequencies of the sun gear and carrier torsion vibration, ring gear’s transverse vibration under the heavy load. Under light load condition, the collision vibration occurs in the gear pair; the changing trend of the contact force shows strongly nonlinear characteristics. The time of mesh-apart in gears pair decreases gradually as the load is increased; until it reaches collision vibration threshold value, the gear pair is no longer mesh-apart. With increasing of the input speed, the time of mesh-apart is decreased gradually; the fluctuation amplitude of contact force shows a linearly increasing trend. The study provides useful theoretical guideline for planetary gear transmission low-noise design.

  10. Polarimetry Microlensing of Close-in Planetary Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajadian, Sedighe [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hundertmark, Markus, E-mail: s.sajadian@cc.iut.ac.ir [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    A close-in giant planetary (CGP) system has a net polarization signal whose value varies depending on the orbital phase of the planet. This polarization signal is either caused by the stellar occultation or by reflected starlight from the surface of the orbiting planet. When the CGP system is located in the Galactic bulge, its polarization signal becomes too weak to be measured directly. One method for detecting and characterizing these weak polarization signatures due to distant CGP systems is gravitational microlensing. In this work, we focus on potential polarimetric observations of highly magnified microlensing events of CGP systems. When the lens is passing directly in front of the source star with its planetary companion, the polarimetric signature caused by the transiting planet is magnified. As a result, some distinct features in the polarimetry and light curves are produced. In the same way, microlensing amplifies the reflection-induced polarization signal. While the planet-induced perturbations are magnified whenever these polarimetric or photometric deviations vanish for a moment, the corresponding magnification factor of the polarization component(s) is related to the planet itself. Finding these exact times in the planet-induced perturbations helps us to characterize the planet. In order to evaluate the observability of such systems through polarimetric or photometric observations of high-magnification microlensing events, we simulate these events by considering confirmed CGP systems as their source stars and conclude that the efficiency for detecting the planet-induced signal with the state-of-the-art polarimetric instrument (FORS2/VLT) is less than 0.1%. Consequently, these planet-induced polarimetry perturbations can likely be detected under favorable conditions by the high-resolution and short-cadence polarimeters of the next generation.

  11. Polarimetry Microlensing of Close-in Planetary Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajadian, Sedighe; Hundertmark, Markus

    2017-01-01

    A close-in giant planetary (CGP) system has a net polarization signal whose value varies depending on the orbital phase of the planet. This polarization signal is either caused by the stellar occultation or by reflected starlight from the surface of the orbiting planet. When the CGP system is located in the Galactic bulge, its polarization signal becomes too weak to be measured directly. One method for detecting and characterizing these weak polarization signatures due to distant CGP systems is gravitational microlensing. In this work, we focus on potential polarimetric observations of highly magnified microlensing events of CGP systems. When the lens is passing directly in front of the source star with its planetary companion, the polarimetric signature caused by the transiting planet is magnified. As a result, some distinct features in the polarimetry and light curves are produced. In the same way, microlensing amplifies the reflection-induced polarization signal. While the planet-induced perturbations are magnified whenever these polarimetric or photometric deviations vanish for a moment, the corresponding magnification factor of the polarization component(s) is related to the planet itself. Finding these exact times in the planet-induced perturbations helps us to characterize the planet. In order to evaluate the observability of such systems through polarimetric or photometric observations of high-magnification microlensing events, we simulate these events by considering confirmed CGP systems as their source stars and conclude that the efficiency for detecting the planet-induced signal with the state-of-the-art polarimetric instrument (FORS2/VLT) is less than 0.1%. Consequently, these planet-induced polarimetry perturbations can likely be detected under favorable conditions by the high-resolution and short-cadence polarimeters of the next generation.

  12. The planetary data system educational CD-ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinness, E. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Martin, M.; Dueck, S.

    1993-01-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) is producing a special educational CD-ROM that contains samples of PDS datasets and is expected to be released in 1993. The CD-ROM will provide university-level instructors with PDS-compatible materials and information that can be used to construct student problem sets using real datasets. The main purposes of the CD-ROM are to facilitate wide use of planetary data and to introduce a large community to the PDS. To meet these objectives the Educational CD-ROM will also contain software to manipulate the data, background discussions about scientific questions that can be addressed with the data, and a suite of exercises that illustrate analysis techniques. Students will also be introduced to the SPICE concept, which is a new way of maintaining geometry and instrument information. The exercises will be presented at the freshman through graduate student levels. With simplification, some of the material should also be of use at the high school level.

  13. An archiving system for Planetary Mapping Data - Availability of derived information and knowledge in Planetary Science!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, A.

    2017-12-01

    Since the late 1950s a huge number of planetary missions started to explore our solar system. The data resulting from this robotic exploration and remote sensing varies in data type, resolution and target. After data preprocessing, and referencing, the released data are available for the community on different portals and archiving systems, e.g. PDS or PSA. One major usage for these data is mapping, i.e. the extraction and filtering of information by combining and visualizing different kind of base data. Mapping itself is conducted either for mission planning (e.g. identification of landing site) or fundamental research (e.g. reconstruction of surface). The mapping results for mission planning are directly managed within the mission teams. The derived data for fundamental research - also describable as maps, diagrams, or analysis results - are mainly project-based and exclusively available in scientific papers. Within the last year, first steps have been taken to ensure a sustainable use of these derived data by finding an archiving system comparable to the data portals, i.e. reusable, well-documented, and sustainable. For the implementation three tasks are essential. Two tasks have been treated in the past 1. Comparability and interoperability has been made possible by standardized recommendations for visual, textual, and structural description of mapping data. 2. Interoperability between users, information- and graphic systems is possible by templates and guidelines for digital GIS-based mapping. These two steps are adapted e.g. within recent mapping projects for the Dawn mission. The third task hasn`t been implemented thus far: Establishing an easily detectable and accessible platform that holds already acquired information and published mapping results for future investigations or mapping projects. An archive like this would support the scientific community significantly by a constant rise of knowledge and understanding based on recent discussions within

  14. Multi-Planetary Systems: Observations and Models of Dynamical Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2018-01-01

    More than 600 multi-planet systems are known. The vast majority of these systems have been discovered by NASA's Kepler spacecraft, but dozens were found using the Doppler technique, the first multi-exoplanet system was identified through pulsar timing, and the most massive system has been found using imaging. More than one-third of the 4000+ planet candidates found by NASA's Kepler spacecraft are associated with target stars that have more than one planet candidate, and the large number of such Kepler "multis" tells us that flat multiplanet systems like our Solar System are common. Virtually all of Kepler candidate multis are stable, as tested by numerical integrations that assume a physically motivated mass-radius relationship. Statistical studies performed on these candidate systems reveal a great deal about the architecture of planetary systems, including the typical spacing of orbits and flatness. The characteristics of several of the most interesting confirmed multi-exoplanet systems will also be discussed.HR 8799's four massive planets orbit tens of AU from their host star and travel on nearly circular orbits. PSR B1257+12 has three much smaller planets orbiting close to a neutron star. Both represent extremes and show that planet formation is a robust process that produces a diversity of outcomes. Although both exomoons and Trojan (triangle Lagrange point) planets have been searched for, neither has yet been found.

  15. Enviromnental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Missions - Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Anderson, Molly S.; Lange, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Planetary protection guidelines will affect the kind of operations, processes, and functions that can take place during future human planetary exploration missions. Ultimately, there will be an effect on mission costs, including the mission trade space when planetary protection requirements begin to drive vehicle deisgn in a concrete way. Planetary protection requirements need to be considered early in technology development and mission programs in order to estimate these impacts and push back on requirements or find efficient ways to perform necessary functions. It is expected that planetary protection will be a significant factor during technology selection and system architecture design for future missions.

  16. Evolution of Planetary Ice-Ocean Systems: Effects of Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allu Peddinti, D.; McNamara, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary oceanography is enjoying renewed attention thanks to not only the detection of several exoplanetary ocean worlds but also due to the expanding family of ocean worlds within our own star system. Our solar system is now believed to host about nine ocean worlds including Earth, some dwarf planets and few moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Amongst them, Europa, like Earth is thought to have an ice Ih-liquid water system. However, the thickness of the Europan ice-ocean system is much larger than that of the Earth. The evolution of this system would determine the individual thicknesses of the ice shell and the ocean. In turn, these thicknesses can alter the course of evolution of the system. In a pure H2O system, the thickness of the ice shell would govern if heat loss occurs entirely by conduction or if the shell begins to convect as it attains a threshold thickness. This switch between conduction-convection regimes could determine the longevity of the subsurface ocean and hence define the astrobiological potential of the planetary body at any given time. In reality, however, the system is not pure water ice. The detected induced magnetic field infers a saline ocean layer. Salts are expected to act as an anti-freeze allowing a subsurface ocean to persist over long periods but the amount of salts would determine the extent of that effect. In our current study, we use geodynamic models to examine the effect of salinity on the evolution of ice-ocean system. An initial ocean with different salinities is allowed to evolve. The effect of salinity on thickness of the two layers at any time is examined. We also track how salinity controls the switch between conductive-convective modes. The study shows that for a given time period, larger salinities can maintain a thick vigorously convecting ocean while the smaller salinities behave similar to a pure H2O system leading to a thick convecting ice-shell. A range of salinities identified can potentially predict the current state

  17. Information system maturity and the hospitality enterprise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Garbin Pranicevic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to empirically evaluate the relationship between the maturity of hotels’ information systems and their performance. This study uses customized models of information system (IS maturity and hotel performance measurement. Since we wanted to include the intangible aspects of performance, we opted for an adapted application of the Balanced Scorecard model. In the empirical part of the paper, fundamental constructs of the model are verified, while the individual items are further evaluated by employing discriminant analysis to distinguish hotels with relatively low and high performance levels. The findings demonstrate the existence of a significant and positive relationship between IS maturity and two dimensions of performance in the hospitality industry – process quality and guest relationships. The level of employee development and financial performance do not seem to be related to IS maturity. Although representative, the sample is relatively small, and the primary data were collected in a single country. The paper provides a framework of IS maturity items in the hospitality industry which seem to contribute to hotels’ business performances. As such, it can serve as a practical framework relevant for IT management in tourism and hospitality. The paper addresses a topic already discussed in a range of industries, although it does not seem to have been empirically evaluated by many studies of the tourism and hospitality industry. In addition, a new theoretical model of IT maturity in tourism and hospitality is proposed.

  18. Agriculture production as a major driver of the earth system exceeding planetary boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Beare, Douglas J.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2017-01-01

    We explore the role of agriculture in destabilizing the Earth system at the planetary scale, through examining nine planetary boundaries, or “safe limits”: land-system change, freshwater use, biogeochemical flows, biosphere integrity, climate change, ocean acidification, stratospheric ozone...

  19. Planetary Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neish, Catherine D.; Carter, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the principles of planetary radar, and the primary scientific discoveries that have been made using this technique. The chapter starts by describing the different types of radar systems and how they are used to acquire images and accurate topography of planetary surfaces and probe their subsurface structure. It then explains how these products can be used to understand the properties of the target being investigated. Several examples of discoveries made with planetary radar are then summarized, covering solar system objects from Mercury to Saturn. Finally, opportunities for future discoveries in planetary radar are outlined and discussed.

  20. Agriculture production as a major driver of the Earth system exceeding planetary boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce M. Campbell

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore the role of agriculture in destabilizing the Earth system at the planetary scale, through examining nine planetary boundaries, or "safe limits": land-system change, freshwater use, biogeochemical flows, biosphere integrity, climate change, ocean acidification, stratospheric ozone depletion, atmospheric aerosol loading, and introduction of novel entities. Two planetary boundaries have been fully transgressed, i.e., are at high risk, biosphere integrity and biogeochemical flows, and agriculture has been the major driver of the transgression. Three are in a zone of uncertainty i.e., at increasing risk, with agriculture the major driver of two of those, land-system change and freshwater use, and a significant contributor to the third, climate change. Agriculture is also a significant or major contributor to change for many of those planetary boundaries still in the safe zone. To reduce the role of agriculture in transgressing planetary boundaries, many interventions will be needed, including those in broader food systems.

  1. Robo-AO Kepler Survey. IV. The Effect of Nearby Stars on 3857 Planetary Candidate Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Carl; Law, Nicholas M.; Baranec, Christoph; Riddle, Reed; Duev, Dmitry A.; Howard, Ward; Jensen-Clem, Rebecca; Kulkarni, S. R.; Morton, Tim; Salama, Maïssa

    2018-04-01

    We present the overall statistical results from the Robo-AO Kepler planetary candidate survey, comprising of 3857 high-angular resolution observations of planetary candidate systems with Robo-AO, an automated laser adaptive optics system. These observations reveal previously unknown nearby stars blended with the planetary candidate host stars that alter the derived planetary radii or may be the source of an astrophysical false positive transit signal. In the first three papers in the survey, we detected 440 nearby stars around 3313 planetary candidate host stars. In this paper, we present observations of 532 planetary candidate host stars, detecting 94 companions around 88 stars; 84 of these companions have not previously been observed in high resolution. We also report 50 more-widely separated companions near 715 targets previously observed by Robo-AO. We derive corrected planetary radius estimates for the 814 planetary candidates in systems with a detected nearby star. If planetary candidates are equally likely to orbit the primary or secondary star, the radius estimates for planetary candidates in systems with likely bound nearby stars increase by a factor of 1.54, on average. We find that 35 previously believed rocky planet candidates are likely not rocky due to the presence of nearby stars. From the combined data sets from the complete Robo-AO KOI survey, we find that 14.5 ± 0.5% of planetary candidate hosts have a nearby star with 4″, while 1.2% have two nearby stars, and 0.08% have three. We find that 16% of Earth-sized, 13% of Neptune-sized, 14% of Saturn-sized, and 19% of Jupiter-sized planet candidates have detected nearby stars.

  2. Cryogenic and LOX Based Propulsion Systems for Robotic Planetary Missions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valentian, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Robotic planetary missions use almost exclusively storable propellants. However, it is clear that the use LOX/LH2 and LOX/HC combinations will offer a tremendous payload gain for most robotic missions...

  3. A new dataset validation system for the Planetary Science Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaud, N.; Zender, J.; Heather, D.; Martinez, S.

    2007-08-01

    The Planetary Science Archive is the official archive for the Mars Express mission. It has received its first data by the end of 2004. These data are delivered by the PI teams to the PSA team as datasets, which are formatted conform to the Planetary Data System (PDS). The PI teams are responsible for analyzing and calibrating the instrument data as well as the production of reduced and calibrated data. They are also responsible of the scientific validation of these data. ESA is responsible of the long-term data archiving and distribution to the scientific community and must ensure, in this regard, that all archived products meet quality. To do so, an archive peer-review is used to control the quality of the Mars Express science data archiving process. However a full validation of its content is missing. An independent review board recently recommended that the completeness of the archive as well as the consistency of the delivered data should be validated following well-defined procedures. A new validation software tool is being developed to complete the overall data quality control system functionality. This new tool aims to improve the quality of data and services provided to the scientific community through the PSA, and shall allow to track anomalies in and to control the completeness of datasets. It shall ensure that the PSA end-users: (1) can rely on the result of their queries, (2) will get data products that are suitable for scientific analysis, (3) can find all science data acquired during a mission. We defined dataset validation as the verification and assessment process to check the dataset content against pre-defined top-level criteria, which represent the general characteristics of good quality datasets. The dataset content that is checked includes the data and all types of information that are essential in the process of deriving scientific results and those interfacing with the PSA database. The validation software tool is a multi-mission tool that

  4. Distribution of mass in the planetary system and solar nebulae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenschilling, S J [Carnegie Institution of Washington, D.C. (USA). Dept. of Terrestrial Magnetism

    1977-09-01

    A model 'solar nebula' is constructed by adding the solar complement of light elements to each planet, using recent models of planetary compositions. Uncertainties in this approach are estimated. The computed surface density varies approximately as rsup(-3/2). Mercury, Mars and the asteroid belt are anomalously low in mass, but processes exist which would preferentially remove matter from these regions. Planetary masses and compositions are generally consistent with a monotonic density distribution in the primordial solar nebula.

  5. NIRCam Coronagraphic Observations of Disks and Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichman, Charles A.; Ygouf, Marie; Gaspar, Andras; NIRCam Science Team

    2017-06-01

    The NIRCam coronagraph offers a dramatic increase in sensitivity at wavelengths of 3-5 um where young planets are brightest. While large ground-based telescopes with Extreme Adaptive Optics have an advantage in inner working angle, NIRCam's sensitivity will allow high precision photometry for known planets and searches for planets with masses below that of Saturn. For debris disk science NIRCam observations will address the scattering properties of dust, look for evidence of ices and tholins, and search for planets which affect the structure of the disk itself.The NIRCam team's GTO program includes medium-band filter observations of known young planets having 1-5 Jupiter masses. A collaborative program with the MIRI team will provide coronagraphic observations at longer wavelengths. The combined dataset will yield the exoplanet’s total luminosity and effective temperature, an estimate of the initial entropy of the newly-formed planet, and the retrieval of atmospheric properties.The program will also make deep searches for lower mass planets toward known planetary systems, nearby young M stars and debris disk systems. Achievable mass limits range from ~1 Jupiter mass beyond 20 AU for the brightest A stars to perhaps a Uranus mass within 10 AU for the closest M stars.We will discuss details of the coronagraphic program for both the exoplanet and debris disk cases with an emphasis on using APT to optimize the observations of target and reference stars.

  6. Where can a Trappist-1 planetary system be produced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Thomas J.; Facchini, Stefano; Clarke, Cathie J.; Mohanty, Subhanjoy

    2018-04-01

    We study the evolution of protoplanetary discs that would have been precursors of a Trappist-1-like system under the action of accretion and external photoevaporation in different radiation environments. Dust grains swiftly grow above the critical size below which they are entrained in the photoevaporative wind, so although gas is continually depleted, dust is resilient to photoevaporation after only a short time. This means that the ratio of the mass in solids (dust plus planetary) to the mass in gas rises steadily over time. Dust is still stripped early on, and the initial disc mass required to produce the observed 4 M⊕ of Trappist-1 planets is high. For example, assuming a Fatuzzo & Adams distribution of UV fields, typical initial disc masses have to be >30 per cent the stellar (which are still Toomre Q stable) for the majority of similar mass M dwarfs to be viable hosts of the Trappist-1 planets. Even in the case of the lowest UV environments observed, there is a strong loss of dust due to photoevaporation at early times from the weakly bound outer regions of the disc. This minimum level of dust loss is a factor of 2 higher than that which would be lost by accretion on to the star during 10 Myr of evolution. Consequently, even in these least irradiated environments, discs that are viable Trappist-1 precursors need to be initially massive (>10 per cent of the stellar mass).

  7. Magnetism, planetary rotation and convection in the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    1985-01-01

    On the 6th, 7th' and 8th April 1983, a conference entitled "Magnetism, planetary rotation and convection in the Solar System" was held in the School of Physics at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne. The purpose of the meeting was to celebrate the 60th birthday of Prof. Stanley Keith Runcorn and his, and his students' and associates', several decades of scientific achievement. The social programme, which consisted of excursions in Northumberland and Durham with visits to ancient castles and churches, to Hexham Abbey and Durham Cathedral, and dinners in Newcastle and Durham, was greatly enjoyed by those attending the meeting and by their guests. The success ofthe scientific programme can be judged by this special edition of Geophysical Surveys which is derived mainly from the papers given at the meeting. The story starts in the late 1940s when the question of the origin of the magnetic field of the Earth and such other heavenly bodies as had at that time been discovered as having a magnetic field, was exerci...

  8. Planetary Airplane Extraction System Development and Subscale Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teter, John E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    The Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) project will employ an airplane as the science platform from which to collect science data in the previously inaccessible, thin atmosphere of Mars. In order for the airplane to arrive safely in the Martian atmosphere, a number of sequences must occur. A critical element in the entry sequence at Mars is an extraction maneuver to separate the airplane quickly (in less than a second) from its protective backshell to reduce the possibility of re-contact, potentially leading to mission failure. This paper describes the development, testing, and lessons learned from building a 1/3 scale model of this airplane extraction system. This design, based on the successful Mars Exploration Rover (MER) extraction mechanism, employs a series of trucks rolling along tracks located on the surface of the central parachute can. Numerous tests using high speed video were conducted at the Langley Research Center to validate this concept. One area of concern was that that although the airplane released cleanly, a pitching moment could be introduced. While targeted for a Mars mission, this concept will enable environmental surveys by aircraft in other planetary bodies with a sensible atmosphere such as Venus or Saturn's moon, Titan.

  9. VLA Reveals a Close Pair of Potential Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    in Cambridge, MA. "However, we don't think these solar systems would be able to form outer, icy planets like Uranus and Neptune, because of the small size of the dust disks." The new observations "imply that young protoplanetary disks can contain considerably more mass within (a distance equal to Saturn's orbital radius) than astronomers have been willing to contemplate," wrote Alan P. Boss of the Carnegie Institution of Washington in an accompanying Nature article analyzing the results. If the stars were a few times closer together, the researchers point out, the gravitational effects of both would disrupt the disks and prevent any planets from forming. "If these disks form planetary systems, they would be among the closest possible adjacent sets of planets in the universe," said Rodriguez. Boss suggested that a giant planet formed near the edge of one of the disks might be ejected from the system by the gravitational effect of the companion star. This, he says, might explain the possible "runaway planet" shown in a Hubble Space Telescope image released in May. In that result, a planet appears to have been ejected by a binary-star system similar in size to that seen by the VLA. Further observations are required to confirm that result. In addition to Rodriguez and Wilner, the researchers are Paola D'Alessio, Salvador Curiel, Yolanda Gomez, Susana Lizano, Jorge Canto, and Alejandro C. Raga of the National Autonomous University in Mexico City; Paul Ho of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics; Jose M. Torrelles of the Astrophysical Institute of Andalucia in Spain; and Alan Pedlar of the Jodrell Bank observatory in Britain. The observations of the double-star system were made at a radio wavelength of 7 millimeters, a wavelength at which emission from cosmic dust is readily detected. Astronomers long realized that the VLA had sufficient resolving power - the ability to see fine detail - to make images of the dust disks around young stars that form the building

  10. Organic materials in planetary and protoplanetary systems: nature or nurture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Ore, C. M.; Fulchignoni, M.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Barucci, M. A.; Brunetto, R.; Campins, H.; de Bergh, C.; Debes, J. H.; Dotto, E.; Emery, J. P.; Grundy, W. M.; Jones, A. P.; Mennella, V.; Orthous-Daunay, F. R.; Owen, T.; Pascucci, I.; Pendleton, Y. J.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Quirico, E.; Strazzulla, G.

    2011-09-01

    Aims: The objective of this work is to summarize the discussion of a workshop aimed at investigating the properties, origins, and evolution of the materials that are responsible for the red coloration of the small objects in the outer parts of the solar system. Because of limitations or inconsistencies in the observations and, until recently, the limited availability of laboratory data, there are still many questions on the subject. Our goal is to approach two of the main questions in a systematic way: - Is coloring an original signature of materials that are presolar in origin ("nature") or stems from post-formational chemical alteration, or weathering ("nurture")? - What is the chemical signature of the material that causes spectra to be sloped towards the red in the visible? We examine evidence available both from the laboratory and from observations sampling different parts of the solar system and circumstellar regions (disks). Methods: We present a compilation of brief summaries gathered during the workshop and describe the evidence towards a primordial vs. evolutionary origin for the material that reddens the small objects in the outer parts of our, as well as in other, planetary systems. We proceed by first summarizing laboratory results followed by observational data collected at various distances from the Sun. Results: While laboratory experiments show clear evidence of irradiation effects, particularly from ion bombardment, the first obstacle often resides in the ability to unequivocally identify the organic material in the observations. The lack of extended spectral data of good quality and resolution is at the base of this problem. Furthermore, that both mechanisms, weathering and presolar, act on the icy materials in a spectroscopically indistinguishable way makes our goal of defining the impact of each mechanism challenging. Conclusions: Through a review of some of the workshop presentations and discussions, encompassing laboratory experiments as well

  11. THE INNER DEBRIS STRUCTURE IN THE FOMALHAUT PLANETARY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Kate Y. L.; Rieke, George H.; Defrére, Denis [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Wang, Kuo-Song; Lee, Chin-Fei [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lai, Shih-Ping [Institute of Astronomy, National Tsing Hua University (NTHU), Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Wilner, David J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Lieshout, Rik van, E-mail: ksu@as.arizona.edu [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-02-10

    Fomalhaut plays an important role in the study of debris disks and small bodies in other planetary systems. The proximity and luminosity of the star make key features of its debris, like the water ice line, accessible. Here we present ALMA cycle 1, 870 μm (345 GHz) observations targeted at the inner part of the Fomalhaut system with a synthesized beam of 0.″45 × 0.″37 (∼3 AU linear resolution at the distance of Fomalhaut) and an rms of 26 μJy beam{sup −1}. The high angular resolution and sensitivity of the ALMA data enable us to place strong constraints on the nature of the warm excess revealed by Spitzer and Herschel observations. We detect a point source at the star position with a total flux consistent with thermal emission from the stellar photosphere. No structures that are brighter than 3σ are detected in the central 15 AU × 15 AU region. Modeling the spectral energy distribution using parameters expected for a dust-producing planetesimal belt indicates a radial location in the range of ∼8–15 AU. This is consistent with the location where ice sublimates in Fomalhaut, i.e., an asteroid-belt analog. The 3σ upper limit for such a belt is <1.3 mJy at 870 μm. We also interpret the 2 and 8–13 μm interferometric measurements to reveal the structure in the inner 10 AU region as dust naturally connected to this proposed asteroid belt by Poynting–Robertson drag, dust sublimation, and magnetically trapped nanograins.

  12. XML-based information system for planetary sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carraro, F.; Fonte, S.; Turrini, D.

    2009-04-01

    EuroPlaNet (EPN in the following) has been developed by the planetological community under the "Sixth Framework Programme" (FP6 in the following), the European programme devoted to the improvement of the European research efforts through the creation of an internal market for science and technology. The goal of the EPN programme is the creation of a European network aimed to the diffusion of data produced by space missions dedicated to the study of the Solar System. A special place within the EPN programme is that of I.D.I.S. (Integrated and Distributed Information Service). The main goal of IDIS is to offer to the planetary science community a user-friendly access to the data and information produced by the various types of research activities, i.e. Earth-based observations, space observations, modeling, theory and laboratory experiments. During the FP6 programme IDIS development consisted in the creation of a series of thematic nodes, each of them specialized in a specific scientific domain, and a technical coordination node. The four thematic nodes are the Atmosphere node, the Plasma node, the Interiors & Surfaces node and the Small Bodies & Dust node. The main task of the nodes have been the building up of selected scientific cases related with the scientific domain of each node. The second work done by EPN nodes have been the creation of a catalogue of resources related to their main scientific theme. Both these efforts have been used as the basis for the development of the main IDIS goal, i.e. the integrated distributed service. An XML-based data model have been developed to describe resources using meta-data and to store the meta-data within an XML-based database called eXist. A search engine has been then developed in order to allow users to search resources within the database. Users can select the resource type and can insert one or more values or can choose a value among those present in a list, depending on selected resource. The system searches for all

  13. The Planetary Data System (PDS) Data Dictionary Tool (LDDTool)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raugh, Anne C.; Hughes, John S.

    2017-10-01

    One of the major design goals of the PDS4 development effort was to provide an avenue for discipline specialists and large data preparers such as mission archivists to extend the core PDS4 Information Model (IM) to include metadata definitions specific to their own contexts. This capability is critical for the Planetary Data System - an archive that deals with a data collection that is diverse along virtually every conceivable axis. Amid such diversity, it is in the best interests of the PDS archive and its users that all extensions to the core IM follow the same design techniques, conventions, and restrictions as the core implementation itself. Notwithstanding, expecting all mission and discipline archivist seeking to define metadata for a new context to acquire expertise in information modeling, model-driven design, ontology, schema formulation, and PDS4 design conventions and philosophy is unrealistic, to say the least.To bridge that expertise gap, the PDS Engineering Node has developed the data dictionary creation tool known as “LDDTool”. This tool incorporates the same software used to maintain and extend the core IM, packaged with an interface that enables a developer to create his contextual information model using the same, open standards-based metadata framework PDS itself uses. Through this interface, the novice dictionary developer has immediate access to the common set of data types and unit classes for defining attributes, and a straight-forward method for constructing classes. The more experienced developer, using the same tool, has access to more sophisticated modeling methods like abstraction and extension, and can define very sophisticated validation rules.We present the key features of the PDS Local Data Dictionary Tool, which both supports the development of extensions to the PDS4 IM, and ensures their compatibility with the IM.

  14. Capture of free-floating planets by planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulinski, Nadav; Ribak, Erez N.

    2018-01-01

    Evidence of exoplanets with orbits that are misaligned with the spin of the host star may suggest that not all bound planets were born in the protoplanetary disc of their current planetary system. Observations have shown that free-floating Jupiter-mass objects can exceed the number of stars in our Galaxy, implying that capture scenarios may not be so rare. To address this issue, we construct a three-dimensional simulation of a three-body scattering between a free-floating planet and a star accompanied by a Jupiter-mass bound planet. We distinguish between three different possible scattering outcomes, where the free-floating planet may get weakly captured after the brief interaction with the binary, remain unbound or 'kick out' the bound planet and replace it. The simulation was performed for different masses of the free-floating planets and stars, as well as different impact parameters, inclination angles and approach velocities. The outcome statistics are used to construct an analytical approximation of the cross-section for capturing a free-floating planet by fitting their dependence on the tested variables. The analytically approximated cross-section is used to predict the capture rate for these kinds of objects, and to estimate that about 1 per cent of all stars are expected to experience a temporary capture of a free-floating planet during their lifetime. Finally, we propose additional physical processes that may increase the capture statistics and whose contribution should be considered in future simulations in order to determine the fate of the temporarily captured planets.

  15. Spent fuel reprocessing system security engineering capability maturity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yachun; Zou Shuliang; Yang Xiaohua; Ouyang Zigen; Dai Jianyong

    2011-01-01

    In the field of nuclear safety, traditional work places extra emphasis on risk assessment related to technical skills, production operations, accident consequences through deterministic or probabilistic analysis, and on the basis of which risk management and control are implemented. However, high quality of product does not necessarily mean good safety quality, which implies a predictable degree of uniformity and dependability suited to the specific security needs. In this paper, we make use of the system security engineering - capability maturity model (SSE-CMM) in the field of spent fuel reprocessing, establish a spent fuel reprocessing systems security engineering capability maturity model (SFR-SSE-CMM). The base practices in the model are collected from the materials of the practice of the nuclear safety engineering, which represent the best security implementation activities, reflect the regular and basic work of the implementation of the security engineering in the spent fuel reprocessing plant, the general practices reveal the management, measurement and institutional characteristics of all process activities. The basic principles that should be followed in the course of implementation of safety engineering activities are indicated from 'what' and 'how' aspects. The model provides a standardized framework and evaluation system for the safety engineering of the spent fuel reprocessing system. As a supplement to traditional methods, this new assessment technique with property of repeatability and predictability with respect to cost, procedure and quality control, can make or improve the activities of security engineering to become a serial of mature, measurable and standard activities. (author)

  16. A planetary nervous system for social mining and collective awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, F.; Pedreschi, D.; Pentland, A.; Lukowicz, P.; Kossmann, D.; Crowley, J.; Helbing, D.

    2012-11-01

    We present a research roadmap of a Planetary Nervous System (PNS), capable of sensing and mining the digital breadcrumbs of human activities and unveiling the knowledge hidden in the big data for addressing the big questions about social complexity. We envision the PNS as a globally distributed, self-organizing, techno-social system for answering analytical questions about the status of world-wide society, based on three pillars: social sensing, social mining and the idea of trust networks and privacy-aware social mining. We discuss the ingredients of a science and a technology necessary to build the PNS upon the three mentioned pillars, beyond the limitations of their respective state-of-art. Social sensing is aimed at developing better methods for harvesting the big data from the techno-social ecosystem and make them available for mining, learning and analysis at a properly high abstraction level. Social mining is the problem of discovering patterns and models of human behaviour from the sensed data across the various social dimensions by data mining, machine learning and social network analysis. Trusted networks and privacy-aware social mining is aimed at creating a new deal around the questions of privacy and data ownership empowering individual persons with full awareness and control on own personal data, so that users may allow access and use of their data for their own good and the common good. The PNS will provide a goal-oriented knowledge discovery framework, made of technology and people, able to configure itself to the aim of answering questions about the pulse of global society. Given an analytical request, the PNS activates a process composed by a variety of interconnected tasks exploiting the social sensing and mining methods within the transparent ecosystem provided by the trusted network. The PNS we foresee is the key tool for individual and collective awareness for the knowledge society. We need such a tool for everyone to become fully aware of how

  17. A Path to Planetary Protection Requirements for Human Exploration: A Literature Review and Systems Engineering Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, James E.; Conley, Cassie; Siegel, Bette

    2015-01-01

    As systems, technologies, and plans for the human exploration of Mars and other destinations beyond low Earth orbit begin to coalesce, it is imperative that frequent and early consideration is given to how planetary protection practices and policy will be upheld. While the development of formal planetary protection requirements for future human space systems and operations may still be a few years from fruition, guidance to appropriately influence mission and system design will be needed soon to avoid costly design and operational changes. The path to constructing such requirements is a journey that espouses key systems engineering practices of understanding shared goals, objectives and concerns, identifying key stakeholders, and iterating a draft requirement set to gain community consensus. This paper traces through each of these practices, beginning with a literature review of nearly three decades of publications addressing planetary protection concerns with respect to human exploration. Key goals, objectives and concerns, particularly with respect to notional requirements, required studies and research, and technology development needs have been compiled and categorized to provide a current 'state of knowledge'. This information, combined with the identification of key stakeholders in upholding planetary protection concerns for human missions, has yielded a draft requirement set that might feed future iteration among space system designers, exploration scientists, and the mission operations community. Combining the information collected with a proposed forward path will hopefully yield a mutually agreeable set of timely, verifiable, and practical requirements for human space exploration that will uphold international commitment to planetary protection.

  18. Simulation of polarimetric effects in planetary system HD 189733

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantseva, K.; Kostogryz, N. M.; Yakobchuk, T. M.

    2012-11-01

    In this paper we present results of linear polarization modelling for HD 189733 in the U filter using the Monte Carlo method. Our simulations are based on the well known effect that linear polarization of a centrosymmetric unresolved star becomes non-zero during the planet transit or in the presence of spots on its surface. HD 189733 is currently the brightest (m_{V}=7.67^{m}) known star to harbour a transiting exoplanet. This fact, along with the short orbital period (2.2 d), makes it very suitable for different types of observations including polarimetry. Since we are interested in occultation effects, a very important parameter is the ratio of the planet to star radii, which is also very large (0.15). As the host star is active and spots may cover up to 1% of the planetary surface, we perform our simulations for different spot parameters such as sizes, locations on the stellar disk, and temperatures.

  19. Design of Mobility System for Ground Model of Planetary Exploration Rover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younkyu Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of missions have been planned and conducted worldwide on the planets such as Mars, which involves the unmanned robotic exploration with the use of rover. The rover is an important system for unmanned planetary exploration, performing the locomotion and sample collection and analysis at the exploration target of the planetary surface designated by the operator. This study investigates the development of mobility system for the rover ground model necessary to the planetary surface exploration for the benefit of future planetary exploration mission in Korea. First, the requirements for the rover mobility system are summarized and a new mechanism is proposed for a stable performance on rough terrain which consists of the passive suspension system with 8 wheeled double 4-bar linkage (DFBL, followed by the performance evaluation for the mechanism of the mobility system based on the shape design and simulation. The proposed mobility system DFBL was compared with the Rocker-Bogie suspension system of US space agency National Aeronautics and Space Administration and 8 wheeled mobility system CRAB8 developed in Switzerland, using the simulation to demonstrate the superiority with respect to the stability of locomotion. On the basis of the simulation results, a general system configuration was proposed and designed for the rover manufacture.

  20. How do giant planetary cores shape the dust disk? HL Tau system

    OpenAIRE

    Picogna, Giovanni; Kley, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    We are observing, thanks to ALMA, the dust distribution in the region of active planet formation around young stars. This is a powerful tool to connect observations with theoretical models and improve our understandings of the processes at play. We want to test how a multi-planetary system shapes its birth disk and study the influence of the planetary masses and particle sizes on the final dust distribution. Moreover, we apply our model to the HL Tau system in order to obtain some insights on...

  1. Conceptual design of planetary gearbox system for constant generator speed in hydro power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro Hydro Power Plant (MHPP is emerging as one of the most clean, renewable and reliable energy technology for harnessing power. In MHPP hydro governors are avoided, that results in turbine speed fluctuation. MHPP requires either speed or torque amplification of generator for constant power generation. To achieve this, planetary gear transmission system is explored for MHPP due to its higher efficiency and compact size. A conceptual planetary gearbox system is developed for MHPP to maintain constant generator speed. The conceptual gearbox is designed, modelled and analysed using ADAMS software. Simulation results are found to be in close agreement with analytical results. Hence, conceptual design of planetary gearbox can be used to govern constant generator speed. In this paper, a MHPP which generate constant power of 5 kW at constant generator speed of 1490 rpm is analysed and validated

  2. Comparative Climates of the Trappist-1 Planetary System: Results from a Simple Climate-vegetation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberti, Tommaso; Carbone, Vincenzo; Lepreti, Fabio; Vecchio, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The recent discovery of the planetary system hosted by the ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 could open new paths for investigations of the planetary climates of Earth-sized exoplanets, their atmospheres, and their possible habitability. In this paper, we use a simple climate-vegetation energy-balance model to study the climate of the seven TRAPPIST-1 planets and the climate dependence on various factors: the global albedo, the fraction of vegetation that could cover their surfaces, and the different greenhouse conditions. The model allows us to investigate whether liquid water could be maintained on the planetary surfaces (i.e., by defining a “surface water zone (SWZ)”) in different planetary conditions, with or without the presence of a greenhouse effect. It is shown that planet TRAPPIST-1d seems to be the most stable from an Earth-like perspective, since it resides in the SWZ for a wide range of reasonable values of the model parameters. Moreover, according to the model, outer planets (f, g, and h) cannot host liquid water on their surfaces, even with Earth-like conditions, entering a snowball state. Although very simple, the model allows us to extract the main features of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary climates.

  3. Comparative Climates of the Trappist-1 Planetary System: Results from a Simple Climate-vegetation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, Tommaso; Carbone, Vincenzo; Lepreti, Fabio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 31C, I-87036, Rende (CS) (Italy); Vecchio, Antonio, E-mail: tommaso.alberti@unical.it, E-mail: tommasoalberti89@gmail.com [LESIA—Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92190, Meudon (France)

    2017-07-20

    The recent discovery of the planetary system hosted by the ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 could open new paths for investigations of the planetary climates of Earth-sized exoplanets, their atmospheres, and their possible habitability. In this paper, we use a simple climate-vegetation energy-balance model to study the climate of the seven TRAPPIST-1 planets and the climate dependence on various factors: the global albedo, the fraction of vegetation that could cover their surfaces, and the different greenhouse conditions. The model allows us to investigate whether liquid water could be maintained on the planetary surfaces (i.e., by defining a “surface water zone (SWZ)”) in different planetary conditions, with or without the presence of a greenhouse effect. It is shown that planet TRAPPIST-1d seems to be the most stable from an Earth-like perspective, since it resides in the SWZ for a wide range of reasonable values of the model parameters. Moreover, according to the model, outer planets (f, g, and h) cannot host liquid water on their surfaces, even with Earth-like conditions, entering a snowball state. Although very simple, the model allows us to extract the main features of the TRAPPIST-1 planetary climates.

  4. The planetary system to KIC 11442793: A compact analogue to the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, J.; Csizmadia, Sz.; Rauer, H.; Erikson, A.; Dreyer, C.; Eigmüller, Ph.; Lehmann, H.; Hatzes, A.; Dvorak, R.; Gandolfi, D.

    2014-01-01

    We announce the discovery of a planetary system with seven transiting planets around a Kepler target, a current record for transiting systems. Planets b, c, e, and f are reported for the first time in this work. Planets d, g, and h were previously reported in the literature, although here we revise their orbital parameters and validate their planetary nature. Planets h and g are gas giants and show strong dynamical interactions. The orbit of planet g is perturbed in such a way that its orbital period changes by 25.7 hr between two consecutive transits during the length of the observations, which is the largest such perturbation found so far. The rest of the planets also show mutual interactions: planets d, e, and f are super-Earths close to a mean motion resonance chain (2:3:4), and planets b and c, with sizes below 2 Earth radii, are within 0.5% of the 4:5 mean motion resonance. This complex system presents some similarities to our solar system, with small planets in inner orbits and gas giants in outer orbits. It is, however, more compact. The outer planet has an orbital distance around 1 AU, and the relative position of the gas giants is opposite to that of Jupiter and Saturn, which is closer to the expected result of planet formation theories. The dynamical interactions between planets are also much richer.

  5. SSV Launch Monitoring Strategies: HGDS Design Implementation Through System Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Marc D.; Crimi, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    With over 500,000 gallons of liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, it is of vital importance to monitor the space shuttle vehicle (SSV) from external tank (ET) load through launch. The Hazardous Gas Detection System (HGDS) was installed as the primary system responsible for monitoring fuel leaks within the orbiter and ET. The HGDS was designed to obtain the lowest possible detection limits with the best resolution while monitoring the SSV for any hydrogen, helium, oxygen, or argon as the main requirement. The HGDS is a redundant mass spectrometer used for real-time monitoring during Power Reactant Storage and Distribution (PRSD) load and ET load through launch or scrub. This system also performs SSV processing leak checks of the Tail Service Mast (TSM) umbilical quick disconnects (QD's), Ground Umbilical Carrier Plate (GUCP) QD's and supports auxiliary power unit (APU) system tests. From design to initial implementation and operations, the HGDS has evolved into a mature and reliable launch support system. This paper will discuss the operational challenges and lessons learned from facing design deficiencies, validation and maintenance efforts, life cycle issues, and evolving requirements

  6. Using the Hobby-Eberly telescope to place constraints on planetary system formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, William D; Endl, Michael

    2008-01-01

    We are conducting several radial velocity surveys with the 9.2 m Hobby-Eberly telescope (HET). These surveys are designed to improve our understanding of the physics of planetary system formation and evolution. We present recent results from two of these HET surveys. The first is from our survey of metal-poor stars. This survey is designed to probe the physics of planet formation at low metallicities. We present the detection of two planetary companions to HD 155358, a star with [Fe/H] of -0.68. This is the lowest metallicity of any planet host star

  7. Physical properties of the planetary systems WASP-45 and WASP-46 from simultaneous multiband photometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciceri, S.; Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate measurements of the physical characteristics of a large number of exoplanets are useful to strongly constrain theoretical models of planet formation and evolution, which lead to the large variety of exoplanets and planetary-system configurations that have been observed. We present a stud...

  8. Characterization of the planetary system Kepler-101 with HARPS-N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonomo, A. S.; Sozzetti, A.; Lovis, C.

    2014-01-01

    faintness of the parent star for highly precise radial-velocity measurements (Kp = 13.8) and the limited number of radial velocities. The 1σ upper limit, Mp3.8 M⊕, excludes a pure iron composition with a probability of 68.3%. The architecture of the planetary system Kepler-101 − containing a close...

  9. High-precision photometry by telescope defocusing - I. The transiting planetary system WASP-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Jørgensen, U. G.

    2009-01-01

    We present high-precision photometry of two transit events of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-5, obtained with the Danish 1.54-m telescope at European Southern Obseratory La Silla. In order to minimize both random and flat-fielding errors, we defocused the telescope so its point spread...

  10. A Population of planetary systems characterized by short-period, Earth-sized planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze data from the Quarter 1–17 Data Release 24 (Q1–Q17 DR24) planet candidate catalog from NASA’s Kepler mission, specifically comparing systems with single transiting planets to systems with multiple transiting planets, and identify a population of exoplanets with a necessarily distinct system architecture. Such an architecture likely indicates a different branch in their evolutionary past relative to the typical Kepler system. The key feature of these planetary systems is an isolated, Earth-sized planet with a roughly 1-d orbital period. We estimate that at least 24 of the 144 systems we examined (≳17%) are members of this population. Accounting for detection efficiency, such planetary systems occur with a frequency similar to the hot Jupiters. PMID:27790984

  11. A Population of planetary systems characterized by short-period, Earth-sized planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Jason H; Coughlin, Jeffrey L

    2016-10-25

    We analyze data from the Quarter 1-17 Data Release 24 (Q1-Q17 DR24) planet candidate catalog from NASA's Kepler mission, specifically comparing systems with single transiting planets to systems with multiple transiting planets, and identify a population of exoplanets with a necessarily distinct system architecture. Such an architecture likely indicates a different branch in their evolutionary past relative to the typical Kepler system. The key feature of these planetary systems is an isolated, Earth-sized planet with a roughly 1-d orbital period. We estimate that at least 24 of the 144 systems we examined ([Formula: see text]17%) are members of this population. Accounting for detection efficiency, such planetary systems occur with a frequency similar to the hot Jupiters.

  12. PLANETARY SYSTEM FORMATION IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK AROUND HL TAURI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Eiji; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Masahiko; Iguchi, Satoru, E-mail: eiji.akiyama@nao.ac.jp, E-mail: yasuhiro.hasegawa@nao.ac.jp [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2016-02-20

    We reprocess the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) long-baseline science verification data taken toward HL Tauri. Assuming the observed gaps are opened up by currently forming, unseen bodies, we estimate the mass of such hypothetical bodies based on the following two approaches: the Hill radius analysis and a more elaborate approach developed from the angular momentum transfer analysis in gas disks. For the former, the measured gap widths are used for estimating the mass of the bodies, while for the latter, the measured gap depths are utilized. We show that their masses are comparable to or less than the mass of Jovian planets. By evaluating Toomre’s gravitational instability (GI) condition and cooling effect, we find that the GI might be a mechanism to form the bodies in the outer region of the disk. As the disk might be gravitationally unstable only in the outer region of the disk, inward planetary migration would be needed to construct the current architecture of the observed disk. We estimate the gap-opening mass and show that type II migration might be able to play such a role. Combining GIs with inward migration, we conjecture that all of the observed gaps may be a consequence of bodies that might have originally formed at the outer part of the disk, and have subsequently migrated to the current locations. While ALMA’s unprecedented high spatial resolution observations can revolutionize our picture of planet formation, more dedicated observational and theoretical studies are needed to fully understand the HL Tauri images.

  13. PLANETARY SYSTEM FORMATION IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK AROUND HL TAURI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Eiji; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Hayashi, Masahiko; Iguchi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    We reprocess the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) long-baseline science verification data taken toward HL Tauri. Assuming the observed gaps are opened up by currently forming, unseen bodies, we estimate the mass of such hypothetical bodies based on the following two approaches: the Hill radius analysis and a more elaborate approach developed from the angular momentum transfer analysis in gas disks. For the former, the measured gap widths are used for estimating the mass of the bodies, while for the latter, the measured gap depths are utilized. We show that their masses are comparable to or less than the mass of Jovian planets. By evaluating Toomre’s gravitational instability (GI) condition and cooling effect, we find that the GI might be a mechanism to form the bodies in the outer region of the disk. As the disk might be gravitationally unstable only in the outer region of the disk, inward planetary migration would be needed to construct the current architecture of the observed disk. We estimate the gap-opening mass and show that type II migration might be able to play such a role. Combining GIs with inward migration, we conjecture that all of the observed gaps may be a consequence of bodies that might have originally formed at the outer part of the disk, and have subsequently migrated to the current locations. While ALMA’s unprecedented high spatial resolution observations can revolutionize our picture of planet formation, more dedicated observational and theoretical studies are needed to fully understand the HL Tauri images

  14. Implementation of cartographic symbols for planetary mapping in geographic information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, A.; van Gasselt, S.; Jaumann, R.; Asche, H.

    2011-09-01

    The steadily growing international interest in the exploration of planets in our Solar System and many advances in the development of space-sensor technology have led to the launch of a multitude of planetary missions to Mercury, Venus, the Earth's moon, Mars and various Outer-Solar System objects, such as the Jovian and Saturnian satellites. Camera instruments carried along on these missions image surfaces in different wavelength ranges and under different viewing angles, permitting additional data to be derived, such as spectral data or digital terrain models. Such data enable researchers to explore and investigate the development of planetary surfaces by analyzing and interpreting the inventory of surface units and structures. Results of such work are commonly abstracted and represented in thematic, mostly geological and geomorphological, maps. In order to facilitate efficient collaboration among different planetary research disciplines, mapping results need to be prepared, described, managed, archived, and visualized in a uniform way. These tasks have been increasingly carried out by means of computer-based geographic information systems (GIS or GI systems) which have come to be widely employed in the field of planetary research since the last two decades. In this paper we focus on the simplification of mapping processes, putting specific emphasis on a cartographically correct visualization of planetary mapping data using GIS-based environments. We present and discuss the implementation of a set of standardized cartographic symbols for planetary mapping based on the Digital Cartographic Standard for Geologic Map Symbolization as prepared by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) for the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC). Furthermore, we discuss various options to integrate this symbol catalog into generic GI systems, and more specifically into the Environmental Systems Research Institute's (ESRI) ArcGIS environment, and focus on requirements for

  15. Planetary Magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, C.T.

    1980-01-01

    Planetary spacecraft have now probed the magnetic fields of all the terrestrial planets, the moon, Jupiter, and Saturn. These measurements reveal that dynamos are active in at least four of the planets, Mercury, the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn but that Venus and Mars appear to have at most only very weak planetary magnetic fields. The moon may have once possessed an internal dynamo, for the surface rocks are magnetized. The large satellites of the outer solar system are candidates for dynamo action in addition to the large planets themselves. Of these satellites the one most likely to generate its own internal magnetic field is Io

  16. From circumstellar disks to planetary systems: observation and modeling of protoplanetary disks

    OpenAIRE

    Macías Quevedo, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    The existence of exoplanetary systems was first predicted after the discovery of accretion disks around young stars. Nowadays, with nearly 3500 exoplanets discovered, and almost 5000 more candidates identified by the Kepler space mission, planetary systems are now known to be ubiquitous around low-mass stars. The formation of these systems takes place during the stellar formation itself, from the dust and gas orbiting around the star in the protoplanetary disks. However, the process that lead...

  17. Maturation of the limbic system revealed by MR FLAIR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Jacques F.; Vergesslich, Klara [University Children' s Hospital UKBB, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2007-04-15

    Cortical signal intensity (SI) of the limbic system in adults is known to be higher than in neocortical structures, but time-related changes in SI during childhood have not been described. To detect maturation-related SI changes within the limbic system using a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR sequence. Twenty children (10 boys, 10 girls; age 3.5-18 years, mean 11.2 years) with no neurological abnormality and normal MR imaging examination were retrospectively selected. On two coronal FLAIR slices, ten regions of interest (ROI) with a constant area of 10 mm{sup 2} were manually placed in the archeocortex (hippocampus), periarcheocortex (parahippocampal gyrus, subcallosal area, cingulate gyrus) and in the neocortex at the level of the superior frontal gyrus on both sides. Significant SI gradients were observed with a higher intensity in the archeocortex, intermediate intensity in the periarcheocortex and low intensity in the neocortex. Significant higher SI values in hippocampal and parahippocampal structures were detected in children up to 10 years of age. These differences mainly reflected differences in cortical structure and myelination state. Archeocortical structures especially showed significant age-related intensity progression suggesting ongoing organization and/or myelination until early adolescence. (orig.)

  18. Maturation of the limbic system revealed by MR FLAIR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Jacques F.; Vergesslich, Klara

    2007-01-01

    Cortical signal intensity (SI) of the limbic system in adults is known to be higher than in neocortical structures, but time-related changes in SI during childhood have not been described. To detect maturation-related SI changes within the limbic system using a fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MR sequence. Twenty children (10 boys, 10 girls; age 3.5-18 years, mean 11.2 years) with no neurological abnormality and normal MR imaging examination were retrospectively selected. On two coronal FLAIR slices, ten regions of interest (ROI) with a constant area of 10 mm 2 were manually placed in the archeocortex (hippocampus), periarcheocortex (parahippocampal gyrus, subcallosal area, cingulate gyrus) and in the neocortex at the level of the superior frontal gyrus on both sides. Significant SI gradients were observed with a higher intensity in the archeocortex, intermediate intensity in the periarcheocortex and low intensity in the neocortex. Significant higher SI values in hippocampal and parahippocampal structures were detected in children up to 10 years of age. These differences mainly reflected differences in cortical structure and myelination state. Archeocortical structures especially showed significant age-related intensity progression suggesting ongoing organization and/or myelination until early adolescence. (orig.)

  19. Secular chaos and its application to Mercury, hot Jupiters, and the organization of planetary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithwick, Yoram; Wu, Yanqin

    2014-09-02

    In the inner solar system, the planets' orbits evolve chaotically, driven primarily by secular chaos. Mercury has a particularly chaotic orbit and is in danger of being lost within a few billion years. Just as secular chaos is reorganizing the solar system today, so it has likely helped organize it in the past. We suggest that extrasolar planetary systems are also organized to a large extent by secular chaos. A hot Jupiter could be the end state of a secularly chaotic planetary system reminiscent of the solar system. However, in the case of the hot Jupiter, the innermost planet was Jupiter (rather than Mercury) sized, and its chaotic evolution was terminated when it was tidally captured by its star. In this contribution, we review our recent work elucidating the physics of secular chaos and applying it to Mercury and to hot Jupiters. We also present results comparing the inclinations of hot Jupiters thus produced with observations.

  20. Secular chaos and its application to Mercury, hot Jupiters, and the organization of planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lithwick, Yoram; Wu, Yanqin

    2014-01-01

    In the inner solar system, the planets’ orbits evolve chaotically, driven primarily by secular chaos. Mercury has a particularly chaotic orbit and is in danger of being lost within a few billion years. Just as secular chaos is reorganizing the solar system today, so it has likely helped organize it in the past. We suggest that extrasolar planetary systems are also organized to a large extent by secular chaos. A hot Jupiter could be the end state of a secularly chaotic planetary system reminiscent of the solar system. However, in the case of the hot Jupiter, the innermost planet was Jupiter (rather than Mercury) sized, and its chaotic evolution was terminated when it was tidally captured by its star. In this contribution, we review our recent work elucidating the physics of secular chaos and applying it to Mercury and to hot Jupiters. We also present results comparing the inclinations of hot Jupiters thus produced with observations. PMID:24367108

  1. Systems Security Engineering Capability Maturity Model SSE-CMM Model Description Document

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    The Systems Security Engineering Capability Maturity Model (SSE-CMM) describes the essential characteristics of an organization's security engineering process that must exist to ensure good security engineering...

  2. New Discoveries in Planetary Systems and Star Formation through Advances in Laboratory Astrophysics

    OpenAIRE

    WGLA, AAS; Brickhouse, Nancy; Cowan, John; Drake, Paul; Federman, Steven; Ferland, Gary; Frank, Adam; Herbst, Eric; Olive, Keith; Salama, Farid; Savin, Daniel Wolf; Ziurys, Lucy

    2009-01-01

    As the panel on Planetary Systems and Star Formation (PSF) is fully aware, the next decade will see major advances in our understanding of these areas of research. To quote from their charge, these advances will occur in studies of solar system bodies (other than the Sun) and extrasolar planets, debris disks, exobiology, the formation of individual stars, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, molecular clouds and the cold ISM, dust, and astrochemistry. Central to the progress in these areas ...

  3. Channel coding and data compression system considerations for efficient communication of planetary imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    End-to-end system considerations involving channel coding and data compression are reported which could drastically improve the efficiency in communicating pictorial information from future planetary spacecraft. In addition to presenting new and potentially significant system considerations, this report attempts to fill a need for a comprehensive tutorial which makes much of this very subject accessible to readers whose disciplines lie outside of communication theory.

  4. SPICE: A Geometry Information System Supporting Planetary Mapping, Remote Sensing and Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, C.; Bachman, N.; Semenov, B.; Wright, E.

    2013-01-01

    SPICE is an information system providing space scientists ready access to a wide assortment of space geometry useful in planning science observations and analyzing the instrument data returned therefrom. The system includes software used to compute many derived parameters such as altitude, LAT/LON and lighting angles, and software able to find when user-specified geometric conditions are obtained. While not a formal standard, it has achieved widespread use in the worldwide planetary science community

  5. The development of the human exploration demonstration project (HEDP), a planetary systems testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevers, Edward S.; Korsmeyer, David J.

    1993-01-01

    The Human Exploration Demonstration Project (HEDP) is an ongoing task at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Ames Research Center to address the advanced technology requirements necessary to implement an integrated working and living environment for a planetary surface habitat. The integrated environment will consist of life support systems, physiological monitoring of project crew, a virtual environment workstation, and centralized data acquisition and habitat systems health monitoring. There will be several robotic systems on a simulated planetary landscape external to the habitat environment to provide representative work loads for the crew. This paper describes the status of the HEDP after one year, the major facilities composing the HEDP, the project's role as an Ames Research Center testbed, and the types of demonstration scenarios that will be run to showcase the technologies.

  6. An Automated Sample Processing System for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Juancarlos; Lasnik, James; Roark, Shane; Beegle, Luther

    2012-01-01

    An Automated Sample Processing System (ASPS) for wet chemistry processing of organic materials on the surface of Mars has been jointly developed by Ball Aerospace and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The mechanism has been built and tested to demonstrate TRL level 4. This paper describes the function of the system, mechanism design, lessons learned, and several challenges that were overcome.

  7. McDonald Observatory Planetary Search - A high precision stellar radial velocity survey for other planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, William D.; Hatzes, Artie P.

    1993-01-01

    The McDonald Observatory Planetary Search program surveyed a sample of 33 nearby F, G, and K stars since September 1987 to search for substellar companion objects. Measurements of stellar radial velocity variations to a precision of better than 10 m/s were performed as routine observations to detect Jovian planets in orbit around solar type stars. Results confirm the detection of a companion object to HD114762.

  8. Surface Systems R&D in NASA's Planetary Exploration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbin, C.; Rodriguez, G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports on activities being supported by the Surface Systems Thrust of the NASA Cross Enterprise Technology Development Program, a research program whithin the NASA office of Space Science.

  9. Planet-planet scattering leads to tightly packed planetary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond, Sean N.; Barnes, Rory; Veras, Dimitri; Armitage, Philip J.; Gorelick, Noel; Greenberg, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The known extrasolar multiple-planet systems share a surprising dynamical attribute: they cluster just beyond the Hill stability boundary. Here we show that the planet-planet scattering model, which naturally explains the observed exoplanet eccentricity distribution, can reproduce the observed distribution of dynamical configurations. We calculated how each of our scattered systems would appear over an appropriate range of viewing geometries; as Hill stability is weakly dependent on the masse...

  10. The SOAPS project – Spin-orbit alignment of planetary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebb L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The wealth of information rendered by Kepler planets and planet candidates is indispensable for statistically significant studies of distinct planet populations, in both single and multiple systems. Empirical evidences suggest that Kepler's planet population shows different physical properties as compared to the bulk of known exoplanets. The SOAPS project, aims to shed light on Kepler's planets formation, their migration and architecture. By measuring v sini accurately for Kepler hosts with rotation periods measured from their high-precision light curves, we will assess the alignment of the planetary orbit with respect to the stellar spin axis. This degree of alignment traces the formation history and evolution of the planetary systems, and thus, allows to distinguish between different proposed migration theories. SOAPS will increase by a factor of 2 the number of spin-orbit alignment measurements pushing the parameters space down to the SuperEarth domain. Here we present our preliminary results.

  11. Concept of planetary gear system to control fluid mixture ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgroarty, J. D.

    1966-01-01

    Mechanical device senses and corrects for fluid flow departures from the selected flow ratio of two fluids. This system has been considered for control of rocket engine propellant mixture control but could find use wherever control of the flow ratio of any two fluids is desired.

  12. Dynamical Stability of Imaged Planetary Systems in Formation: Application to HL Tau

    OpenAIRE

    Tamayo, Daniel; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Menou, Kristen; Rein, Hanno

    2015-01-01

    A recent ALMA image revealed several concentric gaps in the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star HL Tau. We consider the hypothesis that these gaps are carved by planets, and present a general framework for understanding the dynamical stability of such systems over typical disk lifetimes, providing estimates for the maximum planetary masses. We collect these easily evaluated constraints into a workflow that can help guide the design and interpretation of new observational campaigns ...

  13. The occurrence of Jovian planets and the habitability of planetary systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lunine, Jonathan I.

    2001-01-01

    Planets of mass comparable to or larger than Jupiter's have been detected around over 50 stars, and for one such object a definitive test of its nature as a gas giant has been accomplished with data from an observed planetary transit. By virtue of their strong gravitational pull, giant planets define the dynamical and collisional environment within which terrestrial planets form. In our solar system, the position and timing of the formation of Jupiter determined the am...

  14. Habitability in the Solar System and New Planetary Missions

    OpenAIRE

    Laine, Pauli Erik

    2013-01-01

    Definition of habitability depends on the organisms under consideration. One way to determine habitability of some environment is to compare its certain parameters to environments where extremophilic micro-organisms thrive on Earth. We can also define more common habitability criteria from the life as we know it. These criteria include basic elements, liquid water and an energy source. We know that some locations in our Solar System provide at least some of these limits and criteria. This art...

  15. The critical binary star separation for a planetary system origin of white dwarf pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veras, Dimitri; Xu, Siyi; Rebassa-Mansergas, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    The atmospheres of between one quarter and one half of observed single white dwarfs in the Milky Way contain heavy element pollution from planetary debris. The pollution observed in white dwarfs in binary star systems is, however, less clear, because companion star winds can generate a stream of matter which is accreted by the white dwarf. Here, we (i) discuss the necessity or lack thereof of a major planet in order to pollute a white dwarf with orbiting minor planets in both single and binary systems, and (ii) determine the critical binary separation beyond which the accretion source is from a planetary system. We hence obtain user-friendly functions relating this distance to the masses and radii of both stars, the companion wind, and the accretion rate on to the white dwarf, for a wide variety of published accretion prescriptions. We find that for the majority of white dwarfs in known binaries, if pollution is detected, then that pollution should originate from planetary material.

  16. 55 CANCRI: A COPLANAR PLANETARY SYSTEM THAT IS LIKELY MISALIGNED WITH ITS STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaib, Nathan A.; Duncan, Martin J.; Raymond, Sean N.

    2011-01-01

    Although the 55 Cnc system contains multiple, closely packed planets that are presumably in a coplanar configuration, we use numerical simulations to demonstrate that they are likely to be highly inclined to their parent star's spin axis. Due to perturbations from its distant binary companion, this planetary system precesses like a rigid body about its parent star. Consequently, the parent star's spin axis and the planetary orbit normal likely diverged long ago. Because only the projected separation of the binary is known, we study this effect statistically, assuming an isotropic distribution for wide binary orbits. We find that the most likely projected spin-orbit angle is ∼50°, with a ∼30% chance of a retrograde configuration. Transit observations of the innermost planet—55 Cnc e—may be used to verify these findings via the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. 55 Cancri may thus represent a new class of planetary systems with well-ordered, coplanar orbits that are inclined with respect to the stellar equator.

  17. System for Packaging Planetary Samples for Return to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Backes, paul G.; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James S.

    2010-01-01

    A system is proposed for packaging material samples on a remote planet (especially Mars) in sealed sample tubes in preparation for later return to Earth. The sample tubes (Figure 1) would comprise (1) tubes initially having open tops and closed bottoms; (2) small, bellows-like collapsible bodies inside the tubes at their bottoms; and (3) plugs to be eventually used to close the tops of the tubes. The top inner surface of each tube would be coated with solder. The side of each plug, which would fit snugly into a tube, would feature a solder-filled ring groove. The system would include equipment for storing, manipulating, filling, and sealing the tubes. The containerization system (see Figure 2) will be organized in stations and will include: the storage station, the loading station, and the heating station. These stations can be structured in circular or linear pattern to minimize the manipulator complexity, allowing for compact design and mass efficiency. The manipulation of the sample tube between stations is done by a simple manipulator arm. The storage station contains the unloaded sample tubes and the plugs before sealing as well as the sealed sample tubes with samples after loading and sealing. The chambers at the storage station also allow for plug insertion into the sample tube. At the loading station the sample is poured or inserted into the sample tube and then the tube is topped off. At the heating station the plug is heated so the solder ring melts and seals the plug to the sample tube. The process is performed as follows: Each tube is filled or slightly overfilled with sample material and the excess sample material is wiped off the top. Then, the plug is inserted into the top section of the tube packing the sample material against the collapsible bellowslike body allowing the accommodation of the sample volume. The plug and the top of the tube are heated momentarily to melt the solder in order to seal the tube.

  18. An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Pepe, Francesco; Alibert, Yann; Benz, Willy; Bouchy, François; Correia, Alexandre C M; Laskar, Jacques; Mordasini, Christoph; Queloz, Didier; Santos, Nuno C; Udry, Stéphane; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Sivan, Jean-Pierre

    2006-05-18

    Over the past two years, the search for low-mass extrasolar planets has led to the detection of seven so-called 'hot Neptunes' or 'super-Earths' around Sun-like stars. These planets have masses 5-20 times larger than the Earth and are mainly found on close-in orbits with periods of 2-15 days. Here we report a system of three Neptune-mass planets with periods of 8.67, 31.6 and 197 days, orbiting the nearby star HD 69830. This star was already known to show an infrared excess possibly caused by an asteroid belt within 1 au (the Sun-Earth distance). Simulations show that the system is in a dynamically stable configuration. Theoretical calculations favour a mainly rocky composition for both inner planets, while the outer planet probably has a significant gaseous envelope surrounding its rocky/icy core; the outer planet orbits within the habitable zone of this star.

  19. MarsVac: Pneumatic Sampling System for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, K.; Mungas, G.; Chu, P.; Craft, J.; Davis, K.

    2008-12-01

    We are proposing a Mars Sample Return scheme whereby a sample of regolith is acquired directly into a Mars Ascent Vehicle using a pneumatic system. Unlike prior developments that used suction to collect fines, the proposed system uses positive pressure to move the regolith. We envisage 3 pneumatic tubes to be embedded inside the 3 legs of the lander. Upon landing, the legs will burry themselves into the regolith and the tubes will fill up with regolith. With one puff of gas, the regolith can be lifted into a sampling chamber onboard of the Mars Ascent Vehicle. An additional chamber can be opened to acquire atmospheric gas and dust. The entire MSR will require 1) an actuator to open/close sampling chamber and 2) a valve to open gas cylinder. In the most recent study related to lunar excavation and funded under the NASA SBIR program we have shown that it is possible lift over 3000 grams of soil with only 1 gram of gas at 1atm. Tests conducted under Mars atmospheric pressure conditions (5 torr). In September of 2008, we will be performing tests at 1/6thg (Moon) and 1/3g (Mars) to determine mass lifting efficiencies in reduced gravities.

  20. Predicting Instability Timescales in Closely-Packed Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Daniel; Hadden, Samuel; Hussain, Naireen; Silburt, Ari; Gilbertson, Christian; Rein, Hanno; Menou, Kristen

    2018-04-01

    Many of the multi-planet systems discovered around other stars are maximally packed. This implies that simulations with masses or orbital parameters too far from the actual values will destabilize on short timescales; thus, long-term dynamics allows one to constrain the orbital architectures of many closely packed multi-planet systems. A central challenge in such efforts is the large computational cost of N-body simulations, which preclude a full survey of the high-dimensional parameter space of orbital architectures allowed by observations. I will present our recent successes in training machine learning models capable of reliably predicting orbital stability a million times faster than N-body simulations. By engineering dynamically relevant features that we feed to a gradient-boosted decision tree algorithm (XGBoost), we are able to achieve a precision and recall of 90% on a holdout test set of N-body simulations. This opens a wide discovery space for characterizing new exoplanet discoveries and for elucidating how orbital architectures evolve through time as the next generation of spaceborne exoplanet surveys prepare for launch this year.

  1. Dynamic Response of a Planetary Gear System Using a Finite Element/Contact Mechanics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert G.; Agashe, Vinayak; Vijayakar, Sandeep M.

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic response of a helicopter planetary gear system is examined over a wide range of operating speeds and torques. The analysis tool is a unique, semianalytical finite element formulation that admits precise representation of the tooth geometry and contact forces that are crucial in gear dynamics. Importantly, no a priori specification of static transmission error excitation or mesh frequency variation is required; the dynamic contact forces are evaluated internally at each time step. The calculated response shows classical resonances when a harmonic of mesh frequency coincides with a natural frequency. However, peculiar behavior occurs where resonances expected to be excited at a given speed are absent. This absence of particular modes is explained by analytical relationships that depend on the planetary configuration and mesh frequency harmonic. The torque sensitivity of the dynamic response is examined and compared to static analyses. Rotation mode response is shown to be more sensitive to input torque than translational mode response.

  2. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis and Optimization of Closed-Form Planetary Gear System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilin Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear purely rotational dynamic model of a multistage closed-form planetary gear set formed by two simple planetary stages is proposed in this study. The model includes time-varying mesh stiffness, excitation fluctuation and gear backlash nonlinearities. The nonlinear differential equations of motion are solved numerically using variable step-size Runge-Kutta. In order to obtain function expression of optimization objective, the nonlinear differential equations of motion are solved analytically using harmonic balance method (HBM. Based on the analytical solution of dynamic equations, the optimization mathematical model which aims at minimizing the vibration displacement of the low-speed carrier and the total mass of the gear transmission system is established. The optimization toolbox in MATLAB program is adopted to obtain the optimal solution. A case is studied to demonstrate the effectiveness of the dynamic model and the optimization method. The results show that the dynamic properties of the closed-form planetary gear transmission system have been improved and the total mass of the gear set has been decreased significantly.

  3. Absorbing Gas around the WASP-12 Planetary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, L.; Ayres, T. R.; Haswell, C. A.; Bohlender, D.; Kochukhov, O.; Flöer, L.

    2013-04-01

    Near-UV observations of the planet host star WASP-12 uncovered the apparent absence of the normally conspicuous core emission of the Mg II h and k resonance lines. This anomaly could be due either to (1) a lack of stellar activity, which would be unprecedented for a solar-like star of the imputed age of WASP-12 or (2) extrinsic absorption, from the intervening interstellar medium (ISM) or from material within the WASP-12 system itself, presumably ablated from the extreme hot Jupiter WASP-12 b. HIRES archival spectra of the Ca II H and K lines of WASP-12 show broad depressions in the line cores, deeper than those of other inactive and similarly distant stars and similar to WASP-12's Mg II h and k line profiles. We took high-resolution ESPaDOnS and FIES spectra of three early-type stars within 20' of WASP-12 and at similar distances, which show the ISM column is insufficient to produce the broad Ca II depression observed in WASP-12. The EBHIS H I column density map supports and strengthens this conclusion. Extrinsic absorption by material local to the WASP-12 system is therefore the most likely cause of the line core anomalies. Gas escaping from the heavily irradiated planet could form a stable and thick circumstellar disk/cloud. The anomalously low stellar activity index (log R^{{\\prime }}_{HK}) of WASP-12 is evidently a direct consequence of the extra core absorption, so similar HK index deficiencies might signal the presence of translucent circumstellar gas around other stars hosting evaporating planets. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Rechereche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del

  4. NASA's Solar System Treks: Online Portals for Planetary Mapping and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, B. H.; Law, E.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Solar System Treks are a suite of web-based of lunar and planetary mapping and modeling portals providing interactive visualization and analysis tools enabling mission planners, planetary scientists, students, and the general public to access mapped lunar data products from past and current missions for the Moon, Mars, Vesta, and more. New portals for additional planetary bodies are being planned. This presentation will recap significant enhancements to these toolsets during the past year and look ahead to future features and releases. Moon Trek is a new portal replacing its predecessor, the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP), that significantly upgrades and builds upon the capabilities of LMMP. It features greatly improved navigation, 3D visualization, fly-overs, performance, and reliability. Additional data products and tools continue to be added. These include both generalized products as well as polar data products specifically targeting potential sites for NASA's Resource Prospector mission as well as for missions being planned by NASA's international partners. The latest release of Mars Trek includes new tools and data products requested by NASA's Planetary Science Division to support site selection and analysis for Mars Human Landing Exploration Zone Sites. Also being given very high priority by NASA Headquarters is Mars Trek's use as a means to directly involve the public in upcoming missions, letting them explore the areas the agency is focusing upon, understand what makes these sites so fascinating, follow the selection process, and get caught up in the excitement of exploring Mars. Phobos Trek, the latest effort in the Solar System Treks suite, is being developed in coordination with the International Phobos/Deimos Landing Site Working Group, with landing site selection and analysis for JAXA's MMX mission as a primary driver.

  5. NASA's Solar System Treks: Online Portals for Planetary Mapping and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Brian

    2017-01-01

    NASA's Solar System Treks are a suite of web-based of lunar and planetary mapping and modeling portals providing interactive visualization and analysis tools enabling mission planners, planetary scientists, students, and the general public to access mapped lunar data products from past and current missions for the Moon, Mars, Vesta, and more. New portals for additional planetary bodies are being planned. This presentation will recap significant enhancements to these toolsets during the past year and look ahead to future features and releases. Moon Trek is a new portal replacing its predecessor, the Lunar Mapping and Modeling Portal (LMMP), that significantly upgrades and builds upon the capabilities of LMMP. It features greatly improved navigation, 3D visualization, fly-overs, performance, and reliability. Additional data products and tools continue to be added. These include both generalized products as well as polar data products specifically targeting potential sites for NASA's Resource Prospector mission as well as for missions being planned by NASA's international partners. The latest release of Mars Trek includes new tools and data products requested by NASA's Planetary Science Division to support site selection and analysis for Mars Human Landing Exploration Zone Sites. Also being given very high priority by NASA Headquarters is Mars Trek's use as a means to directly involve the public in upcoming missions, letting them explore the areas the agency is focusing upon, understand what makes these sites so fascinating, follow the selection process, and get caught up in the excitement of exploring Mars. Phobos Trek, the latest effort in the Solar System Treks suite, is being developed in coordination with the International Phobos/Deimos Landing Site Working Group, with landing site selection and analysis for JAXA's MMX (Martian Moons eXploration) mission as a primary driver.

  6. Planetary Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  7. NASA's Planetary Data System: Support for the Delivery of Derived Data Sets at the Atmospheres Node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanover, Nancy J.; Beebe, Reta; Neakrase, Lynn; Huber, Lyle; Rees, Shannon; Hornung, Danae

    2015-11-01

    NASA’s Planetary Data System is charged with archiving electronic data products from NASA planetary missions that are sponsored by NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. This archive, currently organized by science disciplines, uses standards for describing and storing data that are designed to enable future scientists who are unfamiliar with the original experiments to analyze the data, and to do this using a variety of computer platforms, with no additional support. These standards address the data structure, description contents, and media design. The new requirement in the NASA ROSES-2015 Research Announcement to include a Data Management Plan will result in an increase in the number of derived data sets that are being delivered to the PDS. These data sets may come from the Planetary Data Archiving, Restoration and Tools (PDART) program, other Data Analysis Programs (DAPs) or be volunteered by individuals who are publishing the results of their analysis. In response to this increase, the PDS Atmospheres Node is developing a set of guidelines and user tools to make the process of archiving these derived data products more efficient. Here we provide a description of Atmospheres Node resources, including a letter of support for the proposal stage, a communication schedule for the planned archive effort, product label samples and templates in extensible markup language (XML), documentation templates, and validation tools necessary for producing a PDS4-compliant derived data bundle(s) efficiently and accurately.

  8. Earth analog image digitization of field, aerial, and lab experiment studies for Planetary Data System archiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. A.; Nelson, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    A portion of the earth analog image archive at the Ronald Greeley Center for Planetary Studies (RGCPS)-the NASA Regional Planetary Information Facility at Arizona State University-is being digitized and will be added to the Planetary Data System (PDS) for public use. This will be a first addition of terrestrial data to the PDS specifically for comparative planetology studies. Digitization is separated into four tasks. First is the scanning of aerial photographs of volcanic and aeolian structures and flows. The second task is to scan field site images taken from ground and low-altitude aircraft of volcanic structures, lava flows, lava tubes, dunes, and wind streaks. The third image set to be scanned includes photographs of lab experiments from the NASA Planetary Aeolian Laboratory wind tunnels, vortex generator, and of wax models. Finally, rare NASA documents are being scanned and formatted as PDF files. Thousands of images are to be scanned for this project. Archiving of the data will follow the PDS4 standard, where the entire project is classified as a single bundle, with individual subjects (i.e., the Amboy Crater volcanic structure in the Mojave Desert of California) as collections. Within the collections, each image is considered a product, with a unique ID and associated XML document. Documents describing the image data, including the subject and context, will be included with each collection. Once complete, the data will be hosted by a PDS data node and available for public search and download. As one of the first earth analog datasets to be archived by the PDS, this project could prompt the digitizing and making available of historic datasets from other facilities for the scientific community.

  9. An Overview of the Planetary Data System Roadmap Study for 2017 - 2026

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Thomas H.; McNutt, Ralph L.; Gaddis, Lisa; Law, Emily; Beyer, Ross A.; Crombie, Kate; Ebel, Denton; Ghosh, Amitahba; Grayzeck, Edwin J.; Paganelli, Flora; Raugh, Anne C.; Stein, Thomas; Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Weber, Renee; E Banks, Maria; Powell, Kathryn

    2017-10-01

    NASA’s Planetary Data System (PDS) is the formal archive of >1.2 petabytes of data from planetary exploration, science, and research. Initiated in 1989 to address an overall lack of attention to mission data documentation, access, and archiving, the PDS has since evolved into an online collection of digital data managed and served by a federation of 6 science discipline nodes and 2 technical support nodes. Several ad-hoc mission-oriented data nodes also provide complex data interfaces and access for the duration of their missions.The new PDS Roadmap Study for 2017-2026 involved 15 planetary science community members who collectively prepared a report summarizing the results of an intensive examination of the current state of the PDS and its organization, management, practices, and data holdings (https://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/roadmap/PlanetaryDataSystemRMS17-26_20jun17.pdf). The report summarizes PDS history, its functions and characteristics, and its present form; also included are extensive references and documentary appendices. The report recognizes that as a complex evolving system, the PDS must respond to new pressures and opportunities. The report provides details on challenges now facing the PDS, 19 detailed findings and suggested remediations that could be used to respond to these findings, and a summary of the potential future of planetary data archiving. These findings cover topics such as user needs and expectations, data usability and discoverability (i.e., metadata, data access, documentation, and training), tools and file formats, use of current information technologies, and responses to increases in data volume, variety, complexity, and number of data providers. In addition, the study addresses the possibility of archiving software, laboratory data, and physical samples. Finally, the report discusses the current structure and governance of PDS and the impact of this on how archive growth, technology, and new developments are enabled and managed within

  10. Multidisciplinary Tool for Systems Analysis of Planetary Entry, Descent, and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2011-01-01

    Systems analysis of a planetary entry (SAPE), descent, and landing (EDL) is a multidisciplinary activity in nature. SAPE improves the performance of the systems analysis team by automating and streamlining the process, and this improvement can reduce the errors that stem from manual data transfer among discipline experts. SAPE is a multidisciplinary tool for systems analysis of planetary EDL for Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan. It performs EDL systems analysis for any planet, operates cross-platform (i.e., Windows, Mac, and Linux operating systems), uses existing software components and open-source software to avoid software licensing issues, performs low-fidelity systems analysis in one hour on a computer that is comparable to an average laptop, and keeps discipline experts in the analysis loop. SAPE uses Python, a platform-independent, open-source language, for integration and for the user interface. Development has relied heavily on the object-oriented programming capabilities that are available in Python. Modules are provided to interface with commercial and government off-the-shelf software components (e.g., thermal protection systems and finite-element analysis). SAPE currently includes the following analysis modules: geometry, trajectory, aerodynamics, aerothermal, thermal protection system, and interface for structural sizing.

  11. Trilogy, a planetary geodesy mission concept for measuring the expansion of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Mazarico, Erwan; Genova, Antonio; Neumann, Gregory A.; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H.; Mao, Dan-dan

    2018-04-01

    The scale of the solar system is slowly changing, likely increasing as a result of solar mass loss, with additional change possible if there is a secular variation of the gravitational constant, G. The measurement of the change of scale could provide insight into the past and the future of the solar system, and in addition a better understanding of planetary motion and fundamental physics. Estimates for the expansion of the scale of the solar system are of order 1.5 cm year-1 AU-1, which over several years is an observable quantity with present-day laser ranging systems. This estimate suggests that laser measurements between planets could provide an accurate estimate of the solar system expansion rate. We examine distance measurements between three bodies in the inner solar system - Earth's Moon, Mars and Venus - and outline a mission concept for making the measurements. The concept involves placing spacecraft that carry laser ranging transponders in orbit around each body and measuring the distances between the three spacecraft over a period of several years. The analysis of these range measurements would allow the co-estimation of the spacecraft orbit, planetary ephemerides, other geophysical parameters related to the constitution and dynamics of the central bodies, and key geodetic parameters related to the solar system expansion, the Sun, and theoretical physics.

  12. Trilogy, a Planetary Geodesy Mission Concept for Measuring the Expansion of the Solar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T; Mazarico, Erwan; Genova, Antonio; Neumann, Gregory A; Sun, Xiaoli; Torrence, Mark H; Mao, Dan-Dan

    2018-04-01

    The scale of the solar system is slowly changing, likely increasing as a result of solar mass loss, with additional change possible if there is a secular variation of the gravitational constant, G . The measurement of the change of scale could provide insight into the past and the future of the solar system, and in addition a better understanding of planetary motion and fundamental physics. Estimates for the expansion of the scale of the solar system are of order 1.5 cm year -1 AU -1 , which over several years is an observable quantity with present-day laser ranging systems. This estimate suggests that laser measurements between planets could provide an accurate estimate of the solar system expansion rate. We examine distance measurements between three bodies in the inner solar system -- Earth's Moon, Mars and Venus -- and outline a mission concept for making the measurements. The concept involves placing spacecraft that carry laser ranging transponders in orbit around each body and measuring the distances between the three spacecraft over a period of several years. The analysis of these range measurements would allow the co-estimation of the spacecraft orbit, planetary ephemerides, other geophysical parameters related to the constitution and dynamics of the central bodies, and key geodetic parameters related to the solar system expansion, the Sun, and theoretical physics.

  13. PC Software graphics tool for conceptual design of space/planetary electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long V.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the Decision Support System (DSS), a personal computer software graphics tool for designing conceptual space and/or planetary electrical power systems. By using the DSS, users can obtain desirable system design and operating parameters, such as system weight, electrical distribution efficiency, and bus power. With this tool, a large-scale specific power system was designed in a matter of days. It is an excellent tool to help designers make tradeoffs between system components, hardware architectures, and operation parameters in the early stages of the design cycle. The DSS is a user-friendly, menu-driven tool with online help and a custom graphical user interface. An example design and results are illustrated for a typical space power system with multiple types of power sources, frequencies, energy storage systems, and loads.

  14. PLANET-PLANET SCATTERING IN PLANETESIMAL DISKS. II. PREDICTIONS FOR OUTER EXTRASOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Sean N.; Armitage, Philip J.; Gorelick, Noel

    2010-01-01

    We develop an idealized dynamical model to predict the typical properties of outer extrasolar planetary systems, at radii comparable to the Jupiter-to-Neptune region of the solar system. The model is based upon the hypothesis that dynamical evolution in outer planetary systems is controlled by a combination of planet-planet scattering and planetary interactions with an exterior disk of small bodies ('planetesimals'). Our results are based on 5000 long duration N-body simulations that follow the evolution of three planets from a few to 10 AU, together with a planetesimal disk containing 50 M + from 10 to 20 AU. For large planet masses (M ∼> M Sat ), the model recovers the observed eccentricity distribution of extrasolar planets. For lower-mass planets, the range of outcomes in models with disks is far greater than that which is seen in isolated planet-planet scattering. Common outcomes include strong scattering among massive planets, sudden jumps in eccentricity due to resonance crossings driven by divergent migration, and re-circularization of scattered low-mass planets in the outer disk. We present the distributions of the eccentricity and inclination that result, and discuss how they vary with planet mass and initial system architecture. In agreement with other studies, we find that the currently observed eccentricity distribution (derived primarily from planets at a ∼ -1 and periods in excess of 10 years will provide constraints on this regime. Finally, we present an analysis of the predicted separation of planets in two-planet systems, and of the population of planets in mean-motion resonances (MMRs). We show that, if there are systems with ∼ Jupiter-mass planets that avoid close encounters, the planetesimal disk acts as a damping mechanism and populates MMRs at a very high rate (50%-80%). In many cases, resonant chains (in particular the 4:2:1 Laplace resonance) are set up among all three planets. We expect such resonant chains to be common among massive

  15. YOUNG PLANETARY NEBULAE: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING AND A NEW MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Villar, Gregory G.; Morris, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Using Hubble Space Telescope images of 119 young planetary nebulae (PNs), most of which have not previously been published, we have devised a comprehensive morphological classification system for these objects. This system generalizes a recently devised system for pre-planetary nebulae, which are the immediate progenitors of PNs. Unlike previous classification studies, we have focused primarily on young PNs rather than all PNs, because the former best show the influences or symmetries imposed on them by the dominant physical processes operating at the first and primary stage of the shaping process. Older PNs develop instabilities, interact with the ambient interstellar medium, and are subject to the passage of photoionization fronts, all of which obscure the underlying symmetries and geometries imposed early on. Our classification system is designed to suffer minimal prejudice regarding the underlying physical causes of the different shapes and structures seen in our PN sample, however, in many cases, physical causes are readily suggested by the geometry, along with the kinematics that have been measured in some systems. Secondary characteristics in our system, such as ansae, indicate the impact of a jet upon a slower-moving, prior wind; a waist is the signature of a strong equatorial concentration of matter, whether it be outflowing or in a bound Keplerian disk, and point symmetry indicates a secular trend, presumably precession, in the orientation of the central driver of a rapid, collimated outflow.

  16. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  17. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  18. DISK-PLANETS INTERACTIONS AND THE DIVERSITY OF PERIOD RATIOS IN KEPLER'S MULTI-PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baruteau, Clement; Papaloizou, John C. B.

    2013-01-01

    The Kepler mission is dramatically increasing the number of planets known in multi-planetary systems. Many adjacent planets have orbital period ratios near resonant values, with a tendency to be larger than required for exact first-order mean-motion resonances. This feature has been shown to be a natural outcome of orbital circularization of resonant planetary pairs due to star-planet tidal interactions. However, this feature holds in multi-planetary systems with periods longer than 10 days, in which tidal circularization is unlikely to provide efficient divergent evolution of the planets' orbits to explain these orbital period ratios. Gravitational interactions between planets and their parent protoplanetary disk may instead provide efficient divergent evolution. For a planet pair embedded in a disk, we show that interactions between a planet and the wake of its companion can reverse convergent migration and significantly increase the period ratio from a near-resonant value. Divergent evolution due to wake-planet interactions is particularly efficient when at least one of the planets opens a partial gap around its orbit. This mechanism could help account for the diversity of period ratios in Kepler's multiple systems from super-Earth to sub-Jovian planets with periods greater than about 10 days. Diversity is also expected for pairs of planets massive enough to merge their gap. The efficiency of wake-planet interactions is then much reduced, but convergent migration may stall with a variety of period ratios depending on the density structure in the common gap. This is illustrated for the Kepler-46 system, for which we reproduce the period ratio of Kepler-46b and c

  19. RESONANCES REQUIRED: DYNAMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE 24 Sex AND HD 200964 PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C. G., E-mail: rob@phys.unsw.edu.au [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2012-12-20

    We perform several suites of highly detailed dynamical simulations to investigate the architectures of the 24 Sextantis and HD 200964 planetary systems. The best-fit orbital solution for the two planets in the 24 Sex system places them on orbits with periods that lie very close to 2:1 commensurability, while that for the HD 200964 system places the two planets therein in orbits whose periods lie close to a 4:3 commensurability. In both cases, the proposed best-fit orbits are mutually crossing-a scenario that is only dynamically feasible if the planets are protected from close encounters by the effects of mutual mean-motion resonance (MMR). Our simulations reveal that the best-fit orbits for both systems lie within narrow islands of dynamical stability, and are surrounded by much larger regions of extreme instability. As such, we show that the planets are only feasible if they are currently trapped in mutual MMR-the 2:1 resonance in the case of 24 Sex b and c, and the 4:3 resonance in the case of HD 200964 b and c. In both cases, the region of stability is strongest and most pronounced when the planetary orbits are mutually coplanar. As the inclination of planet c with respect to planet b is increased, the stability of both systems rapidly collapses.

  20. Systems Security Engineering Capability Maturity Model (SSECMM), Model Description, Version 1.1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    This document is designed to acquaint the reader with the SSE-CMM Project as a whole and present the project's major work product - the Systems Security Engineering Capability Maturity Model (SSE- CMM...

  1. System concepts and design examples for optical communication with planetary spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesh, James R.

    Systems concepts for optical communication with future deep-space (planetary) spacecraft are described. These include not only the optical transceiver package aboard the distant spacecraft, but the earth-vicinity optical-communications receiving station as well. Both ground-based, and earth-orbiting receivers are considered. Design examples for a number of proposed or potential deep-space missions are then presented. These include an orbital mission to Saturn, a Lander and Rover mission to Mars, and an astronomical mission to a distance of 1000 astronomical units.

  2. TRAPPIST: a robotic telescope dedicated to the study of planetary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfroid J.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present here a new robotic telescope called TRAPPIST1 (TRAnsiting Planets and PlanetesImals Small Telescope. Equipped with a high-quality CCD camera mounted on a 0.6 meter light weight optical tube, TRAPPIST has been installed in April 2010 at the ESO La Silla Observatory (Chile, and is now beginning its scientific program. The science goal of TRAPPIST is the study of planetary systems through two approaches: the detection and study of exoplanets, and the study of comets. We describe here the objectives of the project, the hardware, and we present some of the first results obtained during the commissioning phase.

  3. Conceptual definition of a 50-100 kWe NEP system for planetary science missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan

    1993-01-01

    The Phase 1 objective of this project is to assess the applicability of a common Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) flight system of the 50-100 kWe power class to meet the advanced transportation requirements of a suite of planetary science (robotic) missions, accounting for differences in mission-specific payloads and delivery requirements. The candidate missions are as follows: (1) Comet Nucleus Sample Return; (2) Multiple Mainbelt Asteroid Rendezvous; (3) Jupiter Grand Tour (Galilean satellites and magnetosphere); (4) Uranus Orbiter/Probe (atmospheric entry and landers); (5) Neptune Orbiter/Probe (atmospheric entry and landers); and (6) Pluto-Charon Orbiter/Lander. The discussion is presented in vugraph form.

  4. Microvax-based data management and reduction system for the regional planetary image facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R.; Guinness, E.; Slavney, S.; Weiss, B.

    1987-01-01

    Presented is a progress report for the Regional Planetary Image Facilities (RPIF) prototype image data management and reduction system being jointly implemented by Washington University and the USGS, Flagstaff. The system will consist of a MicroVAX with a high capacity (approx 300 megabyte) disk drive, a compact disk player, an image display buffer, a videodisk player, USGS image processing software, and SYSTEM 1032 - a commercial relational database management package. The USGS, Flagstaff, will transfer their image processing software including radiometric and geometric calibration routines, to the MicroVAX environment. Washington University will have primary responsibility for developing the database management aspects of the system and for integrating the various aspects into a working system.

  5. THE LINK BETWEEN PLANETARY SYSTEMS, DUSTY WHITE DWARFS, AND METAL-POLLUTED WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debes, John H.; Walsh, Kevin J.; Stark, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    It has long been suspected that metal-polluted white dwarfs (types DAZ, DBZ, and DZ) and white dwarfs with dusty disks possess planetary systems, but a specific physical mechanism by which planetesimals are perturbed close to a white dwarf has not yet been fully posited. In this paper, we demonstrate that mass loss from a central star during post-main-sequence evolution can sweep planetesimals into interior mean motion resonances with a single giant planet. These planetesimals are slowly removed through chaotic excursions of eccentricity that in time create radial orbits capable of tidally disrupting the planetesimal. Numerical N-body simulations of the solar system show that a sufficient number of planetesimals are perturbed to explain white dwarfs with both dust and metal pollution, provided other white dwarfs have more massive relic asteroid belts. Our scenario requires only one Jupiter-sized planet and a sufficient number of asteroids near its 2:1 interior mean motion resonance. Finally, we show that once a planetesimal is perturbed into a tidal crossing orbit, it will become disrupted after the first pass of the white dwarf, where a highly eccentric stream of debris forms the main reservoir for dust-producing collisions. These simulations, in concert with observations of white dwarfs, place interesting limits on the frequency of planetary systems around main-sequence stars, the frequency of planetesimal belts, and the probability that dust may obscure future terrestrial planet finding missions.

  6. A wideband optical monitor for a planetary-rotation coating-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanelli, M.B.; Smith, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    A substrate-specific, through-planet, wideband optical coating monitor is being developed to increase production yield and the understanding of physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings fabricated in the Optical Manufacturing Laboratory at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics. In-situ wideband optical monitoring of planetary rotation systems allows direct monitoring of large, expensive substrates with complex layering schemes. The optical monitor discussed here is under development for coating several large (e.g., 80.7 x 41.7 x 9.0 cm) polarizers for the National Ignition Facility. Wideband optical monitoring of the production substrates is used in concert with an array of crystal monitors for process control, film parameter evaluation, and error detection with associated design reoptimization. The geometry of a planetary rotation system, which produces good uniformity across large substrates, makes optical monitoring more difficult. Triggering and timing techniques for data acquisition become key to the process because the optical coating is available only intermittently for monitoring. Failure to properly consider the effects of the system dynamics during data retrieval and processing may result in significant decreases in the spectral data's reliability. Improved data accuracy allows better determination of film thicknesses, indices, and inhomogeneities and enables in-situ error detection for design reoptimization

  7. PREDICTING THE CONFIGURATION OF A PLANETARY SYSTEM: KOI-152 OBSERVED BY KEPLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Su; Ji Jianghui; Zhou Jilin

    2012-01-01

    The recent Kepler discovery of KOI-152 reveals a system of three hot super-Earth candidates that are in or near a 4:2:1 mean motion resonance. It is unlikely that they formed in situ; the planets probably underwent orbital migration during the formation and evolution process. The small semimajor axes of the three planets suggest that migration stopped at the inner edge of the primordial gas disk. In this paper, we focus on the influence of migration halting mechanisms, including migration 'dead zones', and inner truncation by the stellar magnetic field. We show that the stellar accretion rate, stellar magnetic field, and the speed of migration in the protoplanetary disk are the main factors affecting the final configuration of KOI-152. Our simulations suggest that three planets may be around a star with low star accretion rate or with high magnetic field. On the other hand, slow type I migration, which decreases to one-tenth of the linear analysis results, favors forming the configuration of KOI-152. Under such a formation scenario, the planets in the system are not massive enough to open gaps in the gas disk. The upper limits of the planetary masses are estimated to be about 15, 19, and 24 M ⊕ , respectively. Our results are also indicative of the near Laplacian configurations that are quite common in planetary systems.

  8. Biological life support systems for a Mars mission planetary base: Problems and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhomirov, A. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Kovaleva, N. P.; Lamaze, B.; Lobo, M.; Lasseur, Ch.

    The study develops approaches to designing biological life support systems for the Mars mission - for the flight conditions and for a planetary base - using experience of the Institute of Biophysics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IBP SB RAS) with the Bios-3 system and ESA's experience with the MELISSA program. Variants of a BLSS based on using Chlorella and/or Spirulina and higher plants for the flight period of the Mars mission are analyzed. It is proposed constructing a BLSS with a closed-loop material cycle for gas and water and for part of human waste. A higher-plant-based BLSS with the mass exchange loop closed to various degrees is proposed for a Mars planetary base. Various versions of BLSS configuration and degree of closure of mass exchange are considered, depending on the duration of the Mars mission, the diet of the crew, and some other conditions. Special consideration is given to problems of reliability and sustainability of material cycling in BLSS, which are related to production of additional oxygen inside the system. Technologies of constructing BLSS of various configurations are proposed and substantiated. Reasons are given for using physicochemical methods in BLSS as secondary tools both during the flight and the stay on Mars.

  9. A Modular, Reusable Latch and Decking System for Securing Payloads During Launch and Planetary Surface Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, William R.; Dorsey, John T.; Jones, Thomas C.; King, Bruce D.; Mikulas, Martin M.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient handling of payloads destined for a planetary surface, such as the moon or mars, requires robust systems to secure the payloads during transport on the ground, in space and on the planetary surface. In addition, mechanisms to release the payloads need to be reliable to ensure successful transfer from one vehicle to another. An efficient payload handling strategy must also consider the devices available to support payload handling. Cranes used for overhead lifting are common to all phases of payload handling on Earth. Similarly, both recent and past studies have demonstrated that devices with comparable functionality will be needed to support lunar outpost operations. A first generation test-bed of a new high performance device that provides the capabilities of both a crane and a robotic manipulator, the Lunar Surface Manipulation System (LSMS), has been designed, built and field tested and is available for use in evaluating a system to secure payloads to transportation vehicles. A payload handling approach must address all phases of payload management including: ground transportation, launch, planetary transfer and installation in the final system. In addition, storage may be required during any phase of operations. Each of these phases requires the payload to be lifted and secured to a vehicle, transported, released and lifted in preparation for the next transportation or storage phase. A critical component of a successful payload handling approach is a latch and associated carrier system. The latch and carrier system should minimize requirements on the: payload, carrier support structure and payload handling devices as well as be able to accommodate a wide range of payload sizes. In addition, the latch should; be small and lightweight, support a method to apply preload, be reusable, integrate into a minimal set of hard-points and have manual interfaces to actuate the latch should a problem occur. A latching system which meets these requirements has been

  10. Machine Learning Algorithms For Predicting the Instability Timescales of Compact Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Daniel; Ali-Dib, Mohamad; Cloutier, Ryan; Huang, Chelsea; Van Laerhoven, Christa L.; Leblanc, Rejean; Menou, Kristen; Murray, Norman; Obertas, Alysa; Paradise, Adiv; Petrovich, Cristobal; Rachkov, Aleksandar; Rein, Hanno; Silburt, Ari; Tacik, Nick; Valencia, Diana

    2016-10-01

    The Kepler mission has uncovered hundreds of compact multi-planet systems. The dynamical pathways to instability in these compact systems and their associated timescales are not well understood theoretically. However, long-term stability is often used as a constraint to narrow down the space of orbital solutions from the transit data. This requires a large suite of N-body integrations that can each take several weeks to complete. This computational bottleneck is therefore an important limitation in our ability to characterize compact multi-planet systems.From suites of numerical simulations, previous studies have fit simple scaling relations between the instability timescale and various system parameters. However, the numerically simulated systems can deviate strongly from these empirical fits.We present a new approach to the problem using machine learning algorithms that have enjoyed success across a broad range of high-dimensional industry applications. In particular, we have generated large training sets of direct N-body integrations of synthetic compact planetary systems to train several regression models (support vector machine, gradient boost) that predict the instability timescale. We find that ensembling these models predicts the instability timescale of planetary systems better than previous approaches using the simple scaling relations mentioned above.Finally, we will discuss how these models provide a powerful tool for not only understanding the current Kepler multi-planet sample, but also for characterizing and shaping the radial-velocity follow-up strategies of multi-planet systems from the upcoming Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) mission, given its shorter observation baselines.

  11. Water in the Solar System: The Development of Science Education Curriculum Focused on Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, L. A.; Anderson, R. B.; Gaither, T. A.; Milazzo, M. P.; Vaughan, R. G.; Rubino-Hare, L.; Clark, J.; Ryan, S.

    2017-12-01

    "Water in the Solar System" is an out-of-school time (OST) science education activity for middle school students that was developed as part of the Planetary Learning that Advances the Nexus of Engineering, Technology, and Science (PLANETS) project. The PLANETS project was selected in support of the NASA Science Mission Directorate's Science Education Cooperative Agreement Notice, with the goal of developing and disseminating OST curriculum and related professional development modules that integrate planetary science, technology, and engineering. "Water in the Solar System" is a science activity that addresses the abundance and availability of water in the solar system. The activity consists of three exercises based on the following guiding questions: 1) How much water is there on the Earth? 2) Where can you find water in the solar system? and 3) What properties affect whether or not water can be used by astronauts? The three exercises involve a scaling relationship demonstration about the abundance of useable water on Earth, a card game to explore where water is found in the solar system, and a hands-on exercise to investigate pH and salinity. Through these activities students learn that although there is a lot of water on Earth, most of it is not in a form that is accessible for humans to use. They also learn that most water in the solar system is actually farther from the sun, and that properties such as salinity and pH affect whether water can be used by humans. In addition to content for students, the activity includes background information for educators, and links to in-depth descriptions of the science content. "Water in the Solar System" was developed through collaboration between subject matter experts at the USGS Astrogeology Science Center, and curriculum and professional development experts in the Center for Science Teaching and Learning at Northern Arizona University. Here we describe our process of curriculum development, education objectives of

  12. Geophysical Investigations of Hypersaline Subglacial Water Systems in the Canadian Arctic: A Planetary Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutishauser, A.; Sharp, M. J.; Blankenship, D. D.; Skidmore, M. L.; Grima, C.; Schroeder, D. M.; Greenbaum, J. S.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Young, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Robotic exploration and remote sensing of the solar system have identified the presence of liquid water beneath ice on several planetary bodies, with evidence for elevated salinity in certain cases. Subglacial water systems beneath Earth's glaciers and ice sheets may provide terrestrial analogs for microbial habitats in such extreme environments, especially those with higher salinity. Geological data suggest that several ice caps and glaciers in the eastern Canadian High Arctic are partially underlain by evaporite-rich sedimentary rocks, and subglacial weathering of these rocks is potentially conducive to the formation of hypersaline subglacial waters. Here, we combine airborne geophysical data with geological constraints to identify and characterize hypersaline subglacial water systems beneath ice caps in Canada's Queen Elizabeth Islands. High relative bedrock reflectivity and specularity anomalies that are apparent in radio-echo sounding data indicate multiple locations where subglacial water is present in areas where modeled ice temperatures at the glacier bed are well below the pressure melting point. This suggests that these water systems are hypersaline, with solute concentrations that significantly depress the freezing point of water. From combined interpretations of geological and airborne-magnetic data, we define the geological context within which these systems have developed, and identify possible solute-sources for the inferred brine-rich water systems. We also derive subglacial hydraulic potential gradients using airborne laser altimetry and ice thickness data, and apply water routing models to derive subglacial drainage pathways. These allow us to identify marine-terminating glaciers where outflow of the brine-rich waters may be anticipated. These hypersaline subglacial water systems beneath Canadian Arctic ice caps and glaciers may represent robust microbial habitats, and potential analogs for brines that may exist beneath ice masses on planetary

  13. THE HYADES CLUSTER: IDENTIFICATION OF A PLANETARY SYSTEM AND ESCAPING WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuckerman, B.; Xu, S.; Klein, B.; Jura, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, some hot DA-type white dwarfs have been proposed to plausibly be escaping members of the Hyades. We used hydrogen Balmer lines to measure the radial velocities of seven such stars and confirm that three, and perhaps two others, are/were indeed cluster members and one is not. The other candidate Hyad is strongly magnetic and its membership status remains uncertain. The photospheres of at least one quarter of field white dwarf stars are ''polluted'' by elements heavier than helium that have been accreted. These stars are orbited by extended planetary systems that contain both debris belts and major planets. We surveyed the seven classical single Hyades white dwarfs and the newly identified (escaping) Hyades white dwarfs and found calcium in the photosphere of LP 475-242 of type DBA (now DBAZ), thus implying the presence of an orbiting planetary system. The spectrum of white dwarf GD 31, which may be, but probably is not, an escaping member of the Hyades, displays calcium absorption lines; these originate either from the interstellar medium or, less likely, from a gaseous circumstellar disk. If GD 31 was once a Hyades member, then it would be the first identified white dwarf Hyad with a cooling age >340 Myr.

  14. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE 0.94-DAY PERIOD TRANSITING PLANETARY SYSTEM WASP-18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, John; Anderson, D. R.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.; Mathiasen, M.; Browne, P.; Glitrup, M.; Joergensen, U. G.; Harpsoee, K.; Liebig, C.; Maier, G.; Bozza, V.; Calchi Novati, S.; Mancini, L.; Burgdorf, M.; Dreizler, S.; Hessman, F.; Hundertmark, M.; Finet, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present high-precision photometry of five consecutive transits of WASP-18, an extrasolar planetary system with one of the shortest orbital periods known. Through the use of telescope defocusing we achieve a photometric precision of 0.47-0.83 mmag per observation over complete transit events. The data are analyzed using the JKTEBOP code and three different sets of stellar evolutionary models. We find the mass and radius of the planet to be M b = 10.43 ± 0.30 ± 0.24 M Jup and R b = 1.165 ± 0.055 ± 0.014 R Jup (statistical and systematic errors), respectively. The systematic errors in the orbital separation and the stellar and planetary masses, arising from the use of theoretical predictions, are of a similar size to the statistical errors and set a limit on our understanding of the WASP-18 system. We point out that seven of the nine known massive transiting planets (M b > 3 M Jup ) have eccentric orbits, whereas significant orbital eccentricity has been detected for only four of the 46 less-massive planets. This may indicate that there are two different populations of transiting planets, but could also be explained by observational biases. Further radial velocity observations of low-mass planets will make it possible to choose between these two scenarios.

  15. Maturity analysis of the innovation system in the livestock industries of West Sumatra, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresti, A.; Dinata, U. G. S.; Wati, R.

    2018-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse the ANIS of Livestock industry in West Sumatera according to its main determinants. This research aims to know and understand the maturity level of the regional innovationsystem of West Sumatra livestock industries, including recommendation for improvements. The maturity level of the regional innovation system was analyzed with the ANIS method by using an opinion survey to some experts from businessmen, government and universities. This expert opinion survey was conducted to measure expert perceptions on the implementations of determinants of west Sumatera regional innovations systems on livestock industries on macro level (innovations policy), mezzo level (innovation institutions and programs) and micro level (innovation capacity). By using Likert method, the result showed maturity level for the West Sumatra livestock industries innovation system was still develop. This is caused by low maturity in the macro and meso determinants which are at the central and regional government side. This research result may be useful as recommendations for the government for improving the maturity level and may be a basic for incoming researches to identify regional innovation system determinants with low maturity to improve.

  16. MODELING PLANETARY SYSTEM FORMATION WITH N-BODY SIMULATIONS: ROLE OF GAS DISK AND STATISTICS COMPARED TO OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Huigen; Zhou Jilin; Wang Su

    2011-01-01

    During the late stage of planet formation, when Mars-sized cores appear, interactions among planetary cores can excite their orbital eccentricities, accelerate their merging, and thus sculpt their final orbital architecture. This study contributes to the final assembling of planetary systems with N-body simulations, including the type I or II migration of planets and gas accretion of massive cores in a viscous disk. Statistics on the final distributions of planetary masses, semimajor axes, and eccentricities are derived and are comparable to those of the observed systems. Our simulations predict some new orbital signatures of planetary systems around solar mass stars: 36% of the surviving planets are giant planets (>10 M + ). Most of the massive giant planets (>30 M + ) are located at 1-10 AU. Terrestrial planets are distributed more or less evenly at J in highly eccentric orbits (e > 0.3-0.4). The average eccentricity (∼0.15) of the giant planets (>10 M + ) is greater than that (∼0.05) of the terrestrial planets ( + ). A planetary system with more planets tends to have smaller planet masses and orbital eccentricities on average.

  17. Planetary geology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasselt, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an up-to-date interdisciplinary geoscience-focused overview of solid solar system bodies and their evolution, based on the comparative description of processes acting on them. Planetary research today is a strongly multidisciplinary endeavor with efforts coming from engineering and natural sciences. Key focal areas of study are the solid surfaces found in our Solar System. Some have a direct interaction with the interplanetary medium and others have dynamic atmospheres. In any of those cases, the geological records of those surfaces (and sub-surfaces) are key to understanding the Solar System as a whole: its evolution and the planetary perspective of our own planet. This book has a modular structure and is divided into 4 sections comprising 15 chapters in total. Each section builds upon the previous one but is also self-standing. The sections are:  Methods and tools Processes and Sources  Integration and Geological Syntheses Frontiers The latter covers the far-reaching broad topics of exo...

  18. A detailed analysis of the HD 73526 2:1 resonant planetary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Horner, Jonathan; Tinney, C. G.; Salter, G. S.; Bailey, J.; Wright, D. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia); Tan, Xianyu; Lee, Man Hoi [Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road (Hong Kong); Butler, R. P.; Arriagada, P. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States); Carter, B. D. [Faculty of Sciences, University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, Queensland 4350 (Australia); Jones, H. R. A. [University of Hertfordshire, Centre for Astrophysics Research, Science and Technology Research Institute, College Lane, AL10 9AB, Hatfield (United Kingdom); O' Toole, S. J. [Australian Astronomical Observatory, PO Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia); Crane, J. D.; Schectman, S. A.; Thompson, I. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Minniti, D.; Diaz, M., E-mail: rob@phys.unsw.edu.au [Institute of Astrophysics, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

    2014-01-10

    We present six years of new radial velocity data from the Anglo-Australian and Magellan Telescopes on the HD 73526 2:1 resonant planetary system. We investigate both Keplerian and dynamical (interacting) fits to these data, yielding four possible configurations for the system. The new data now show that both resonance angles are librating, with amplitudes of 40° and 60°, respectively. We then perform long-term dynamical stability tests to differentiate these solutions, which only differ significantly in the masses of the planets. We show that while there is no clearly preferred system inclination, the dynamical fit with i = 90° provides the best combination of goodness-of-fit and long-term dynamical stability.

  19. A Multidisciplinary Tool for Systems Analysis of Planetary Entry, Descent, and Landing (SAPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2009-01-01

    SAPE is a Python-based multidisciplinary analysis tool for systems analysis of planetary entry, descent, and landing (EDL) for Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Titan. The purpose of SAPE is to provide a variable-fidelity capability for conceptual and preliminary analysis within the same framework. SAPE includes the following analysis modules: geometry, trajectory, aerodynamics, aerothermal, thermal protection system, and structural sizing. SAPE uses the Python language-a platform-independent open-source software for integration and for the user interface. The development has relied heavily on the object-oriented programming capabilities that are available in Python. Modules are provided to interface with commercial and government off-the-shelf software components (e.g., thermal protection systems and finite-element analysis). SAPE runs on Microsoft Windows and Apple Mac OS X and has been partially tested on Linux.

  20. A coupled system of half-nitritation and ANAMMOX for mature landfill leachate nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Li, Jun; Zhao, Baihang; Wang, Xiujie; Zhang, Yanzhuo; Wei, Jia; Bian, Wei

    2017-09-01

    A coupled system of membrane bioreactor-nitritation (MBR-nitritation) and up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket-anaerobic ammonium oxidation (UASB-ANAMMOX) was employed to treat mature landfill leachate containing high ammonia nitrogen and low C/N. MBR-nitritation was successfully realized for undiluted mature landfill leachate with initial concentrations of 900-1500 mg/L [Formula: see text] and 2000-4000 mg/L chemical oxygen demand. The effluent [Formula: see text] concentration and the [Formula: see text] accumulation efficiency were 889 mg/L and 97% at 125 d, respectively. Half-nitritation was quickly realized by adjustment of hydraulic retention time and dissolved oxygen (DO), and a low DO control strategy could allow long-term stable operation. The UASB-ANAMMOX system showed high effective nitrogen removal at a low concentration of mature landfill leachate. The nitrogen removal efficiency was inhibited at excessive influent substrate concentration and the nitrogen removal efficiency of the system decreased as the concentration of mature landfill leachate increased. The MBR-nitritation and UASB-ANAMMOX processes were coupled for mature landfill leachate treatment and together resulted in high effective nitrogen removal. The effluent average total nitrogen concentration and removal efficiency values were 176 mg/L and 83%, respectively. However, the average nitrogen removal load decreased from 2.16 to 0.77 g/(L d) at higher concentrations of mature landfill leachate.

  1. Cholinergic systems are essential for late-stage maturation and refinement of motor cortical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Dhakshin S.; Conner, James M.; Anilkumar, Arjun A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies reported that early postnatal cholinergic lesions severely perturb early cortical development, impairing neuronal cortical migration and the formation of cortical dendrites and synapses. These severe effects of early postnatal cholinergic lesions preclude our ability to understand the contribution of cholinergic systems to the later-stage maturation of topographic cortical representations. To study cholinergic mechanisms contributing to the later maturation of motor cortical circuits, we first characterized the temporal course of cortical motor map development and maturation in rats. In this study, we focused our attention on the maturation of cortical motor representations after postnatal day 25 (PND 25), a time after neuronal migration has been accomplished and cortical volume has reached adult size. We found significant maturation of cortical motor representations after this time, including both an expansion of forelimb representations in motor cortex and a shift from proximal to distal forelimb representations to an extent unexplainable by simple volume enlargement of the neocortex. Specific cholinergic lesions placed at PND 24 impaired enlargement of distal forelimb representations in particular and markedly reduced the ability to learn skilled motor tasks as adults. These results identify a novel and essential role for cholinergic systems in the late refinement and maturation of cortical circuits. Dysfunctions in this system may constitute a mechanism of late-onset neurodevelopmental disorders such as Rett syndrome and schizophrenia. PMID:25505106

  2. Planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amnuehl', P.R.

    1985-01-01

    The history of planetary nebulae discovery and their origin and evolution studies is discussed in a popular way. The problem of planetary nebulae central star is considered. The connection between the white-draft star and the planetary nebulae formulation is shown. The experimental data available acknowledge the hypothesis of red giant - planetary nebula nucleus - white-draft star transition process. Masses of planetary nebulae white-draft stars and central stars are distributed practically similarly: the medium mass is close to 0.6Msub(Sun) (Msub(Sun) - is the mass of the Sun)

  3. Environmental Control and Life Support Systems for Mars Exploration: Issues and Concerns for Planetary Protection and the Protection of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Lange, Kevin; Anderson, Molly; Vonau, Walter

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that generally have not been considered by developers of technologies for Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS). Forward contamination concerns will affect release of gases and discharge of liquids and solids, including what may be left behind after planetary vehicles are abandoned upon return to Earth. A crew of four using a state of the art ECLSS could generate as much as 4.3 metric tons of gaseous, liquid and solid wastes and trash during a 500-day surface stay. These may present issues and concerns for both planetary protection and planetary science. Certainly, further closure of ECLSS systems will be of benefit by greater reuse of consumable products and reduced generation of waste products. It can be presumed that planetary protection will affect technology development by constraining how technologies can operate: limiting or prohibiting certain kinds of operations or processes (e.g. venting); necessitating that other kinds of operations be performed (e.g. sterilization; filtration of vent lines); prohibiting what can be brought on a mission (e.g. extremophiles); creating needs for new capabilities/ technologies (e.g. containment). Although any planned venting could include filtration to eliminate micro-organisms from inadvertently exiting the spacecraft, it may be impossible to eliminate or filter habitat structural leakage. Filtration will add pressure drops impacting size of lines and ducts, affect fan size and energy requirements, and add consumable mass. Technologies that may be employed to remove biomarkers and microbial contamination from liquid and solid wastes prior to storage or release may include mineralization technologies such as incineration, super critical wet oxidation and pyrolysis. These technologies, however, come with significant penalties for mass, power and consumables. This paper will estimate the nature and amounts of materials generated during Mars

  4. Systems engineering management process maturity of South African manufacturing organisations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lemberger, ID

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available to integrate people, processes and technologies to deliver innovative complex systems. The investigation set out to improve the understanding of systems engineering (SE) with focus on organisations in manufacturing of coke, petroleum, chemical products, rubber...

  5. Studying Tidal Effects In Planetary Systems With Posidonius. A N-Body Simulator Written In Rust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Cuaresma, Sergi; Bolmont, Emeline

    2017-10-01

    Planetary systems with several planets in compact orbital configurations such as TRAPPIST-1 are surely affected by tidal effects. Its study provides us with important insight about its evolution. We developed a second generation of a N-body code based on the tidal model used in Mercury-T, re-implementing and improving its functionalities using Rust as programming language (including a Python interface for easy use) and the WHFAST integrator. The new open source code ensures memory safety, reproducibility of numerical N-body experiments, it improves the spin integration compared to Mercury-T and allows to take into account a new prescription for the dissipation of tidal inertial waves in the convective envelope of stars. Posidonius is also suitable for binary system simulations with evolving stars.

  6. Spitzer MIPS Limits on Asteroidal Dust in the Pulsar Planetary System PSR B1257+12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryden, G.; Beichman, C. A.; Rieke, G. H.; Stansberry, J. A.; Stapelfeldt, K. R.; Trilling, D. E.; Turner, N. J.; Wolszczan, A.

    2006-01-01

    With the MIPS camera on Spitzer, we have searched for far-infrared emission from dust in the planetary system orbiting pulsar PSR B1257+12. With accuracies of 0.05 mJy at 24 microns and 1.5 mJy at 70 microns, photometric measurements find no evidence for emission at these wavelengths. These observations place new upper limits on the luminosity of dust with temperatures between 20 and 1000 K. They are particularly sensitive to dust temperatures of 100-200 K, for which they limit the dust luminosity to below 3 x 10(exp -5) of the pulsar's spin-down luminosity, 3 orders of magnitude better than previous limits. Despite these improved constraints on dust emission, an asteroid belt similar to the solar system's cannot be ruled out.

  7. Heme Oxygenase-1/Carbon Monoxide System and Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation and Maturation into Cardiomyocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Hagir B.; Zobi, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into energetically efficient cardiomyocytes contributes to functional cardiac repair and is envisioned to ameliorate progressive degenerative cardiac diseases. Advanced cell maturation strategies are therefore needed to create abundant mature cardiomyocytes. In this study, we tested whether the redox-sensitive heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide (HO-1/CO) system, operating through mitochondrial biogenesis, acts as a mechanism for ES cell differentiation and cardiomyocyte maturation. Results: Manipulation of HO-1/CO to enhance mitochondrial biogenesis demonstrates a direct pathway to ES cell differentiation and maturation into beating cardiomyocytes that express adult structural markers. Targeted HO-1/CO interventions up- and downregulate specific cardiogenic transcription factors, transcription factor Gata4, homeobox protein Nkx-2.5, heart- and neural crest derivatives-expressed protein 1, and MEF2C. HO-1/CO overexpression increases cardiac gene expression for myosin regulatory light chain 2, atrial isoform, MLC2v, ANP, MHC-β, and sarcomere α-actinin and the major mitochondrial fusion regulators, mitofusin 2 and MICOS complex subunit Mic60. This promotes structural mitochondrial network expansion and maturation, thereby supporting energy provision for beating embryoid bodies. These effects are prevented by silencing HO-1 and by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species scavenging, while disruption of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial DNA depletion by loss of mitochondrial transcription factor A compromise infrastructure. This leads to failure of cardiomyocyte differentiation and maturation and contractile dysfunction. Innovation: The capacity to augment cardiomyogenesis via a defined mitochondrial pathway has unique therapeutic potential for targeting ES cell maturation in cardiac disease. Conclusion: Our findings establish the HO-1/CO system and redox regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis as

  8. Evaluating the biological potential in samples returned from planetary satellites and small solar system bodies: framework for decision making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Space Studies Board; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    ... from Planetary Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies Framework for Decision Making Task Group on Sample Return from Small Solar System Bodies Space Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1998 i Copyrightthe true use are Please breaks...

  9. Dynamical Stability of Imaged Planetary Systems in Formation: Application to HL Tau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, D.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Menou, K.; Rein, H.

    2015-06-01

    A recent Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array image revealed several concentric gaps in the protoplanetary disk surrounding the young star HL Tau. We consider the hypothesis that these gaps are carved by planets, and present a general framework for understanding the dynamical stability of such systems over typical disk lifetimes, providing estimates for the maximum planetary masses. We collect these easily evaluated constraints into a workflow that can help guide the design and interpretation of new observational campaigns and numerical simulations of gap opening in such systems. We argue that the locations of resonances should be significantly shifted in massive disks like HL Tau, and that theoretical uncertainties in the exact offset, together with observational errors, imply a large uncertainty in the dynamical state and stability in such disks. This presents an important barrier to using systems like HL Tau as a proxy for the initial conditions following planet formation. An important observational avenue to breaking this degeneracy is to search for eccentric gaps, which could implicate resonantly interacting planets. Unfortunately, massive disks like HL Tau should induce swift pericenter precession that would smear out any such eccentric features of planetary origin. This motivates pushing toward more typical, less massive disks. For a nominal non-resonant model of the HL Tau system with five planets, we find a maximum mass for the outer three bodies of approximately 2 Neptune masses. In a resonant configuration, these planets can reach at least the mass of Saturn. The inner two planets’ masses are unconstrained by dynamical stability arguments.

  10. Maturation of Structural Health Management Systems for Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quing, Xinlin; Beard, Shawn; Zhang, Chang

    2011-01-01

    Concepts of an autonomous and automated space-compliant diagnostic system were developed for conditioned-based maintenance (CBM) of rocket motors for space exploration vehicles. The diagnostic system will provide real-time information on the integrity of critical structures on launch vehicles, improve their performance, and greatly increase crew safety while decreasing inspection costs. Using the SMART Layer technology as a basis, detailed procedures and calibration techniques for implementation of the diagnostic system were developed. The diagnostic system is a distributed system, which consists of a sensor network, local data loggers, and a host central processor. The system detects external impact to the structure. The major functions of the system include an estimate of impact location, estimate of impact force at impacted location, and estimate of the structure damage at impacted location. This system consists of a large-area sensor network, dedicated multiple local data loggers with signal processing and data analysis software to allow for real-time, in situ monitoring, and longterm tracking of structural integrity of solid rocket motors. Specifically, the system could provide easy installation of large sensor networks, onboard operation under harsh environments and loading, inspection of inaccessible areas without disassembly, detection of impact events and impact damage in real-time, and monitoring of a large area with local data processing to reduce wiring.

  11. On the maturity of open source BPM systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wohed, P.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.; Russell, N.C.; Andersson, B.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Two major trends in the area of information systems development are (1) the growing interest in Workflow and Business Process Management (BPM) systems and (2) the increasing acceptance and use of open source software. This development raises the following questions: 1. What are the

  12. Exploring the Largest Mass Fraction of the Solar System: the Case for Planetary Interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, L. R.; Draper, D.; Righter, K.; McCubbin, F.; Boyce, J.

    2017-01-01

    Why explore planetary interiors: The typical image that comes to mind for planetary science is that of a planet surface. And while surface data drive our exploration of evolved geologic processes, it is the interiors of planets that hold the key to planetary origins via accretionary and early differentiation processes. It is that initial setting of the bulk planet composition that sets the stage for all geologic processes that follow. But nearly all of the mass of planets is inaccessible to direct examination, making experimentation an absolute necessity for full planetary exploration.

  13. Information systems in Chernobyl accident after-effect elimination: On the way from youth to maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabanyuk, V.S.; Proskura, N.I.; Tabachny, L.Ya.

    1997-01-01

    10-years period of Information Systems in the Chernobyl Accident after-effects elimination (these systems we name Chernobyl Information Systems (ChIS) for simplicity of reference) creation is analyzed. It is claimed that ChIS are introducing into the maturity phase now. The paper consists of Introduction, four paragraphs and Conclusion. Short history of ChIS creation on the example of radioecological component is described in Introduction. Two phases: youth and maturity, are identified. The youth phase is divided on three periods: 1986-1988, 1988-1992, 1993-1995. The maturity phase has started in 1994 with accepting of new Conception of ChIS implementation. Main characteristics of each phase and period are described

  14. Reviews in Modern Astronomy: Vol. 17: The Sun and Planetary Systems - Paradigms for the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schielicke, Reinhard E.

    2004-09-01

    Volume 17 continues the Reviews of Modern Astronomy with fourteen invited reviews and Highlight Contributions which were presented during the International Scientific Conference of the Society on "The Sun and Planetary Systems", held at Freiburg, Germany, September 15 to 20, 2003. The Karl Schwarzschild medal 2003 was awarded to Professor Erika Boehm-Vitense, Seattle, USA. Her lecture with the title "What Hyades F Stars tell us about Heating Mechanisms in Stellar Transition Layers and Coronae" opened the meeting. The talk presented by the Ludwig Biermann-Prize winner 2003, Dr Luis R. Bellot Rubio, Freiburg i. Br., Germany, dealt with the topic "The Structure of Sunspots as Inferred from Spectropolarimetric Measurements". Other contributions to the meeting published in this volume discuss, among other subjects, solar physics, formation of planets and interferometric imaging in astronomy.

  15. Utilizing a scale model solar system project to visualize important planetary science concepts and develop technology and spatial reasoning skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortenkamp, Stephen J.; Brock, Laci

    2016-10-01

    Scale model solar systems have been used for centuries to help educate young students and the public about the vastness of space and the relative sizes of objects. We have adapted the classic scale model solar system activity into a student-driven project for an undergraduate general education astronomy course at the University of Arizona. Students are challenged to construct and use their three dimensional models to demonstrate an understanding of numerous concepts in planetary science, including: 1) planetary obliquities, eccentricities, inclinations; 2) phases and eclipses; 3) planetary transits; 4) asteroid sizes, numbers, and distributions; 5) giant planet satellite and ring systems; 6) the Pluto system and Kuiper belt; 7) the extent of space travel by humans and robotic spacecraft; 8) the diversity of extrasolar planetary systems. Secondary objectives of the project allow students to develop better spatial reasoning skills and gain familiarity with technology such as Excel formulas, smart-phone photography, and audio/video editing.During our presentation we will distribute a formal description of the project and discuss our expectations of the students as well as present selected highlights from preliminary submissions.

  16. Life Support and Environmental Monitoring International System Maturation Team Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Molly; Gatens, Robyn; Ikeda, Toshitami; Ito, Tsuyoshi; Hovland, Scott; Witt, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of the solar system is an ambitious goal. Future human missions to Mars or other planets will require the cooperation of many nations to be feasible. Exploration goals and concepts have been gathered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG) at a very high level, representing the overall goals and strategies of each participating space agency. The Global Exploration Roadmap published by ISECG states that international partnerships are part of what drives the mission scenarios. It states "Collaborations will be established at all levels (missions, capabilities, technologies), with various levels of interdependency among the partners." To make missions with interdependency successful, technologists and system experts need to share information early, before agencies have made concrete plans and binding agreements. This paper provides an overview of possible ways of integrating NASA, ESA, and JAXA work into a conceptual roadmap of life support and environmental monitoring capabilities for future exploration missions. Agencies may have immediate plans as well as long term goals or new ideas that are not part of official policy. But relationships between plans and capabilities may influence the strategies for the best ways to achieve partner goals. Without commitments and an organized program like the International Space Station, requirements for future missions are unclear. Experience from ISS has shown that standards and an early understanding of requirements are an important part of international partnerships. Attempting to integrate systems that were not designed together can create many problems. Several areas have been identified that could be important to discuss and understand early: units of measure, cabin CO2 levels, and the definition and description of fluids like high purity oxygen, potable water and residual biocide, and crew urine and urine pretreat. Each of the partners is exploring different kinds of technologies

  17. Imaging spectroscopy: Earth and planetary remote sensing with the USGS Tetracorder and expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Livo, K. Eric; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Sutley, Steve J.; Dalton, J. Brad; McDougal, Robert R.; Gent, Carol A.

    2003-01-01

    millions of dollars and years in cleanup time. Imaging spectroscopy data and Tetracorder analysis can be used to study both terrestrial and planetary science problems. Imaging spectroscopy can be used to probe planetary systems, including their atmospheres, oceans, and land surfaces.

  18. Observations on algal populations in an experimental maturation pond system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shillinglaw, SN

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available ?) of influent (HTE) and secondary pond. The arrows indicate the beginning of the noled algal concentration declines. 190 Water SA Vol. 3 No. 4 October 1977 intermittent presence of some factor which suppresses algal growth and/or removes algal cells from... the system at a very rapid rate. Another possibility is that an algal growth suppres sor is almost continuously present and only when the suppres sing factor is intermittently ahsent, do the algal concentrations exhihit a peak. Based on the results...

  19. Co-composting of livestock manure with rice straw: characterization and establishment of maturity evaluation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiaoyong; Shen, Genxiang; Wang, Zhenqi; Guo, Chunxia; Liu, Yangqing; Lei, Zhongfang; Zhang, Zhenya

    2014-02-01

    Composting is considered to be a primary treatment method for livestock manure and rice straw, and high degree of maturity is a prerequisite for safe land application of the composting products. In this study pilot-scale experiments were carried out to characterize the co-composting process of livestock manure with rice straw, as well as to establish a maturity evaluation index system for the composts obtained. Two pilot composting piles with different feedstocks were conducted for 3 months: (1) swine manure and rice straw (SM-RS); and (2) dairy manure and rice straw (DM-RS). During the composting process, parameters including temperature, moisture, pH, total organic carbon (TOC), organic matter (OM), different forms of nitrogen (total, ammonia and nitrate), and humification index (humic acid and fulvic acid) were monitored in addition to germination index (GI), plant growth index (PGI) and Solvita maturity index. OM loss followed the first-order kinetic model in both piles, and a slightly faster OM mineralization was achieved in the SM-RS pile. Also, the SM-RS pile exhibited slightly better performance than the DM-RS according to the evolutions of temperature, OM degradation, GI and PGI. The C/N ratio, GI and PGI could be included in the maturity evaluation index system in which GI>120% and PGI>1.00 signal mature co-composts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Richest Planetary System Discovered - Up to seven planets orbiting a Sun-like star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Astronomers using ESO's world-leading HARPS instrument have discovered a planetary system containing at least five planets, orbiting the Sun-like star HD 10180. The researchers also have tantalising evidence that two other planets may be present, one of which would have the lowest mass ever found. This would make the system similar to our Solar System in terms of the number of planets (seven as compared to the Solar System's eight planets). Furthermore, the team also found evidence that the distances of the planets from their star follow a regular pattern, as also seen in our Solar System. "We have found what is most likely the system with the most planets yet discovered," says Christophe Lovis, lead author of the paper reporting the result. "This remarkable discovery also highlights the fact that we are now entering a new era in exoplanet research: the study of complex planetary systems and not just of individual planets. Studies of planetary motions in the new system reveal complex gravitational interactions between the planets and give us insights into the long-term evolution of the system." The team of astronomers used the HARPS spectrograph, attached to ESO's 3.6-metre telescope at La Silla, Chile, for a six-year-long study of the Sun-like star HD 10180, located 127 light-years away in the southern constellation of Hydrus (the Male Water Snake). HARPS is an instrument with unrivalled measurement stability and great precision and is the world's most successful exoplanet hunter. Thanks to the 190 individual HARPS measurements, the astronomers detected the tiny back and forth motions of the star caused by the complex gravitational attractions from five or more planets. The five strongest signals correspond to planets with Neptune-like masses - between 13 and 25 Earth masses [1] - which orbit the star with periods ranging from about 6 to 600 days. These planets are located between 0.06 and 1.4 times the Earth-Sun distance from their central star. "We also have

  1. Planetary Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, P. D.

    2001-11-01

    A revolution in the studies in planetary rings studies occurred in the period 1977--1981, with the serendipitous discovery of the narrow, dark rings of Uranus, the first Voyager images of the tenuous jovian ring system, and the many spectacular images returned during the twin Voyager flybys of Saturn. In subsequent years, ground-based stellar occultations, HST observations, and the Voyager flybys of Uranus (1986) and Neptune (1989), as well as a handful of Galileo images, provided much additional information. Along with the completely unsuspected wealth of detail these observations revealed came an unwelcome problem: are the rings ancient or are we privileged to live at a special time in history? The answer to this still-vexing question may lie in the complex gravitational interactions recent studies have revealed between the rings and their retinues of attendant satellites. Among the four known ring systems, we see elegant examples of Lindblad and corotation resonances (first invoked in the context of galactic disks), electromagnetic resonances, spiral density waves and bending waves, narrow ringlets which exhibit internal modes due to collective instabilities, sharp-edged gaps maintained via tidal torques from embedded moonlets, and tenuous dust belts created by meteoroid impact onto parent bodies. Perhaps most puzzling is Saturn's multi-stranded, clumpy F ring, which continues to defy a simple explanation 20 years after it was first glimpsed in grainy images taken by Pioneer 11. Voyager and HST images reveal a complex, probably chaotic, dynamical interaction between unseen parent bodies within this ring and its two shepherd satellites, Pandora and Prometheus. The work described here reflects contributions by Joe Burns, Jeff Cuzzi, Luke Dones, Dick French, Peter Goldreich, Colleen McGhee, Carolyn Porco, Mark Showalter, and Bruno Sicardy, as well as those of the author. This research has been supported by NASA's Planetary Geology and Geophysics program and the

  2. Planetary magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, T.W.; Michel, F.C.

    1975-01-01

    Recent planetary probes have resulted in the realization of the generality of magnetospheric interactions between the solar wind and the planets. The three categories of planetary magnetospheres are discussed: intrinsic slowly rotating magnetospheres, intrinsic rapidly rotating magnetospheres, and induced magnetospheres. (BJG)

  3. [Neurophysiology of the development and maturation of the peripheral nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, A; Calleja-Fernández, J

    Peripheral nerve maturation accounts during fetal life and infancy and varies with age. Nerve conduction studies are an objective procedure to investigate the development of the motor and sensory nerves. We present a review of peripheral nervous system maturation studies in infancy, including our normal control group of infants from 1 week to 6 years of age. Motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity at birth is about one-half that of the normal adults, increases very quickly during the first year of life and reaches adult values between 3 and 5 years of age. All these electrophysiologic changes parallel the increase in numbers of large myelinated fibres throughout infancy. Nerve conduction studies are an accurate and non-invasive method of evaluating the peripheral nerve maturation in paediatric population when motor and sensory functions are particularly difficult to assess clinically.

  4. Dynamical models to explain observations with SPHERE in planetary systems with double debris belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzoni, C.; Desidera, S.; Marzari, F.; Boccaletti, A.; Langlois, M.; Mesa, D.; Gratton, R.; Kral, Q.; Pawellek, N.; Olofsson, J.; Bonnefoy, M.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A. M.; Vigan, A.; Sissa, E.; Antichi, J.; Avenhaus, H.; Baruffolo, A.; Baudino, J. L.; Bazzon, A.; Beuzit, J. L.; Biller, B.; Bonavita, M.; Brandner, W.; Bruno, P.; Buenzli, E.; Cantalloube, F.; Cascone, E.; Cheetham, A.; Claudi, R. U.; Cudel, M.; Daemgen, S.; De Caprio, V.; Delorme, P.; Fantinel, D.; Farisato, G.; Feldt, M.; Galicher, R.; Ginski, C.; Girard, J.; Giro, E.; Janson, M.; Hagelberg, J.; Henning, T.; Incorvaia, S.; Kasper, M.; Kopytova, T.; LeCoroller, H.; Lessio, L.; Ligi, R.; Maire, A. L.; Ménard, F.; Meyer, M.; Milli, J.; Mouillet, D.; Peretti, S.; Perrot, C.; Rouan, D.; Samland, M.; Salasnich, B.; Salter, G.; Schmidt, T.; Scuderi, S.; Sezestre, E.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Wildi, F.; Zurlo, A.

    2018-03-01

    circular or eccentric orbit. We then consider multi-planetary systems: two and three equal-mass planets on circular orbits and two equal-mass planets on eccentric orbits in a packed configuration. As a final step, we compare each couple of values (Mp, ap), derived from the dynamical analysis of single and multiple planetary models, with the detection limits obtained with SPHERE. Results: For one single planet on a circular orbit we obtain conclusive results that allow us to exclude such a hypothesis since in most cases this configuration requires massive planets which should have been detected by our observations. Unsatisfactory is also the case of one single planet on an eccentric orbit for which we obtained high masses and/or eccentricities which are still at odds with observations. Introducing multi planetary architectures is encouraging because for the case of three packed equal-mass planets on circular orbits we obtain quite low masses for the perturbing planets which would remain undetected by our SPHERE observations. The case of two equal-mass planets on eccentric orbits is also of interest since it suggests the possible presence of planets with masses lower than the detection limits and with moderate eccentricity. Our results show that the apparent lack of planets in gaps between double belts could be explained by the presence of a system of two or more planets possibly of low mass and on eccentric orbits whose sizes are below the present detection limits. Based on observations collected at Paranal Observatory, ESO (Chile) Program ID: 095.C-0298, 096.C-0241, 097.C-0865, and 198.C-0209.

  5. An assessment system for the system safety engineering capability maturity model in the case of spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaohua; Liu Zhenghai; Liu Zhiming; Wan Yaping; Bai Xiaofeng

    2012-01-01

    We can improve the processing, the evaluation of capability and promote the user's trust by using system security engineering capability maturity model (SSE-CMM). SSE-CMM is the common method for organizing and implementing safety engineering, and it is a mature method for system safety engineering. Combining capability maturity model (CMM) with total quality management and statistic theory, SSE-CMM turns systems security engineering into a well-defined, mature, measurable, advanced engineering discipline. Lack of domain knowledge, the size of data, the diversity of evidences, the cumbersomeness of processes, and the complexity of matching evidences with problems are the main issues that SSE-CMM assessment has to face. To improve effectively the efficiency of assessment of spent fuel reprocessing system security engineering capability maturity model (SFR-SSE-CMM), in this paper we de- signed an intelligent assessment software based on domain ontology and that uses methods such as ontology, evidence theory, semantic web, intelligent information retrieval and intelligent auto-matching techniques. This software includes four subsystems, which are domain ontology creation and management system, evidence auto collection system, and a problem and evidence matching system. The architecture of the software is divided into five layers: a data layer, an oncology layer, a knowledge layer, a service layer arid a presentation layer. (authors)

  6. Regolith Derived Heat Shield for Planetary Body Entry and Descent System with In Situ Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Michael D.; Meuller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    This NIAC project investigated an innovative approach to provide heat shield protection to spacecraft after launch and prior to each EDL thus potentially realizing significant launch mass savings. Heat shields fabricated in situ can provide a thermal-protection system for spacecraft that routinely enter a planetary atmosphere. By fabricating the heat shield with space resources from materials available on moons and asteroids, it is possible to avoid launching the heat-shield mass from Earth. Regolith has extremely good insulating properties and the silicates it contains can be used in the fabrication and molding of thermal-protection materials. Such in situ developed heat shields have been suggested before by Lewis. Prior research efforts have shown that regolith properties can be compatible with very-high temperature resistance. Our project team is highly experienced in regolith processing and thermal protection systems (TPS). Routine access to space and return from any planetary surface requires dealing with heat loads experienced by the spacecraft during reentry. Our team addresses some of the key issues with the EDL of human-scale missions through a highly innovative investigation of heat shields that can be fabricated in space by using local resources on asteroids and moons. Most space missions are one-way trips, dedicated to placing an asset in space for economical or scientific gain. However, for human missions, a very-reliable heat-shield system is necessary to protect the crew from the intense heat experienced at very high entry velocities of approximately 11 km/s at approximately Mach 33 (Apollo). For a human mission to Mars, the return problem is even more difficult, with predicted velocities of up to 14 km/s, at approximately Mach 42 at the Earth-atmosphere entry. In addition to human return, it is very likely that future space-travel architecture will include returning cargo to the Earth, either for scientific purposes or for commercial reasons

  7. An obstacle detection system using binocular stereo fisheye lenses for planetary rover navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Jia, J.; Li, L.

    In this paper we present an implementation of an obstacle detection system using binocular stereo fisheye lenses for planetary rover navigation The fisheye lenses can improve image acquisition efficiency and handle minimal clearance recovery problem because they provide a large field of view However the fisheye lens introduces significant distortion in the image and this will make it much more difficult to find a one-to-one correspondence In addition we have to improve the system accuracy and efficiency for robot navigation To compute dense depth maps accurately in real time the following five key issues are considered 1 using lookup tables for a tradeoff between time and space in fisheye distortion correction and correspondence matching 2 using an improved incremental calculation scheme for algorithmic optimization 3 multimedia instruction set MMX implementation 4 consistency check to remove wrong stereo matching problems suffering from occlusions or mismatches 5 constraints of the recovery space To realize obstacle detection robustly we use the following three steps 1 extracting the ground plane parameters using Randomized Hough Transform 2 filtering the ground and background 3 locating the obstacles by using connected region detection Experimental results show the system can run at 3 2fps in 2 0GHz PC with 640X480 pixels

  8. STABILITY OF ADDITIONAL PLANETS IN AND AROUND THE HABITABLE ZONE OF THE HD 47186 PLANETARY SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar; Raymond, Sean N.; Barnes, Rory

    2009-01-01

    We study the dynamical stability of an additional, potentially habitable planet in the HD 47186 planetary system. Two planets are currently known in this system: a 'hot Neptune' with a period of 4.08 days and a Saturn-mass planet with a period of 3.7 years. Here we consider the possibility that one or more undetected planets exist between the two known planets and possibly within the habitable zone (HZ) in this system. Given the relatively low masses of the known planets, additional planets could have masses ∼ + , and hence be terrestrial-like and further improving potential habitability. We perform N-body simulations to identify the stable zone between planets b and c and find that much of the inner HZ can harbor a 10 M + planet. With the current radial velocity threshold of ∼1 m s -1 , an additional planet should be detectable if it lies at the inner edge of the habitable zone at 0.8 AU. We also show that the stable zone could contain two additional planets of 10 M + each if their eccentricities are lower than ∼0.3.

  9. Mass outflow in the nearby proto-planetary system, Beta Pictoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhweiler, F.C.; Grady, C.A.; Kondo, Yoji

    1991-01-01

    Previous spectral studies of circumstallar dust around the nearby, candidate proto-planetary system, Beta Pictoris, has detected only infalling gas. The lack of detectable mass outflow has been critical in the interpretation of the origin of the circumstellar gas and in our understanding of the evolutionary status of the Beta Pictoris system. IUE high-dispersion spectra are presented which show, in addition to infall, the presence of mass outflow, with a maximum observed outflow velocity of -60 km/s, and a corresponding instantaneous outflow rate of 1.1 x 10 to the -14th solar mass/yr, or 1.1 x 10 to the -11th Jupiter mass/yr. This mass outflow rate and terminal velocity are comparable to the magnitudes of mass infall rates and terminal velocities observed from late 1986 through early 1988. The implications of these observations on our understanding of the mechanisms producing infall from the surrounding circumstellar disk are discussed, as are the implications for our understanding of the evolutionary status of the Beta Pic system. 23 refs

  10. The Planetary Data System - A Case Study in the Development and Management of Meta-Data for a Scientific Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Planetary Data System (PDS) is an active science data archive managed by scientists for NASA's planetary science community. With the advent of the World Wide Web the majority of the archive has been placed on-line as a science digital libraty for access by scientists, the educational community, and the general public.

  11. The distribution of mass in the planetary system and solar nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenschilling, S.J.

    1977-01-01

    A model 'solar nebula' is constructed by adding the solar complement of light elements to each planet, using recent models of planetary compositions. Uncertainties in this approach are estimated. The computed surface density varies approximately as rsup(-3/2). Mercury, Mars and the asteroid belt are anomalously low in mass, but processes exist which would preferentially remove matter from these regions. Planetary masses and compositions are generally consistent with a monotonic density distribution in the primordial solar nebula. (Auth.)

  12. Unstable low-mass planetary systems as drivers of white dwarf pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustill, Alexander J.; Villaver, Eva; Veras, Dimitri; Gänsicke, Boris T.; Bonsor, Amy

    2018-05-01

    At least 25 {per cent} of white dwarfs show atmospheric pollution by metals, sometimes accompanied by detectable circumstellar dust/gas discs or (in the case of WD 1145+017) transiting disintegrating asteroids. Delivery of planetesimals to the white dwarf by orbiting planets is a leading candidate to explain these phenomena. Here, we study systems of planets and planetesimals undergoing planet-planet scattering triggered by the star's post-main-sequence mass loss, and test whether this can maintain high rates of delivery over the several Gyr that they are observed. We find that low-mass planets (Earth to Neptune mass) are efficient deliverers of material and can maintain the delivery for Gyr. Unstable low-mass planetary systems reproduce the observed delayed onset of significant accretion, as well as the slow decay in accretion rates at late times. Higher-mass planets are less efficient, and the delivery only lasts a relatively brief time before the planetesimal populations are cleared. The orbital inclinations of bodies as they cross the white dwarf's Roche limit are roughly isotropic, implying that significant collisional interactions of asteroids, debris streams and discs can be expected. If planet-planet scattering is indeed responsible for the pollution of white dwarfs, many such objects, and their main-sequence progenitors, can be expected to host (currently undetectable) super-Earth planets on orbits of several au and beyond.

  13. CLOSE STELLAR ENCOUNTERS IN YOUNG, SUBSTRUCTURED, DISSOLVING STAR CLUSTERS: STATISTICS AND EFFECTS ON PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.

  14. CLOSE STELLAR ENCOUNTERS IN YOUNG, SUBSTRUCTURED, DISSOLVING STAR CLUSTERS: STATISTICS AND EFFECTS ON PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R., E-mail: krumholz@ucolick.org [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.

  15. Close Stellar Encounters in Young, Substructured, Dissolving Star Clusters: Statistics and Effects on Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Jonathan; Krumholz, Mark R.

    2013-06-01

    Both simulations and observations indicate that stars form in filamentary, hierarchically clustered associations, most of which disperse into their galactic field once feedback destroys their parent clouds. However, during their early evolution in these substructured environments, stars can undergo close encounters with one another that might have significant impacts on their protoplanetary disks or young planetary systems. We perform N-body simulations of the early evolution of dissolving, substructured clusters with a wide range of properties, with the aim of quantifying the expected number and orbital element distributions of encounters as a function of cluster properties. We show that the presence of substructure both boosts the encounter rate and modifies the distribution of encounter velocities compared to what would be expected for a dynamically relaxed cluster. However, the boost only lasts for a dynamical time, and as a result the overall number of encounters expected remains low enough that gravitational stripping is unlikely to be a significant effect for the vast majority of star-forming environments in the Galaxy. We briefly discuss the implications of this result for models of the origin of the solar system, and of free-floating planets. We also provide tabulated encounter rates and orbital element distributions suitable for inclusion in population synthesis models of planet formation in a clustered environment.

  16. Planetary Protection: X-ray Super-Flares Aid Formation of "Solar Systems"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory imply that X-ray super-flares torched the young Solar System. Such flares likely affected the planet-forming disk around the early Sun, and may have enhanced the survival chances of Earth. By focusing on the Orion Nebula almost continuously for 13 days, a team of scientists used Chandra to obtain the deepest X-ray observation ever taken of this or any star cluster. The Orion Nebula is the nearest rich stellar nursery, located just 1,500 light years away. These data provide an unparalleled view of 1400 young stars, 30 of which are prototypes of the early Sun. The scientists discovered that these young suns erupt in enormous flares that dwarf - in energy, size, and frequency -- anything seen from the Sun today. Illustration of Large Flares Illustration of Large Flares "We don't have a time machine to see how the young Sun behaved, but the next best thing is to observe Sun-like stars in Orion," said Scott Wolk of Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. "We are getting a unique look at stars between one and 10 million years old - a time when planets form." A key result is that the more violent stars produce flares that are a hundred times as energetic as the more docile ones. This difference may specifically affect the fate of planets that are relatively small and rocky, like the Earth. "Big X-ray flares could lead to planetary systems like ours where Earth is a safe distance from the Sun," said Eric Feigelson of Penn State University in University Park, and principal investigator for the international Chandra Orion Ultradeep Project. "Stars with smaller flares, on the other hand, might end up with Earth-like planets plummeting into the star." Animation of X-ray Flares from a Young Sun Animation of X-ray Flares from a "Young Sun" According to recent theoretical work, X-ray flares can create turbulence when they strike planet-forming disks, and this affects the position of rocky planets as they

  17. The statistical model of origin and evolution planets of Solar system and planetary satellities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krot, A.

    There are the theories for exploring Solar system formation in accord Titius-Bode's low: electromagnetic theories (Birkeland (1912), Alfven (1942)), gravitational theories (Schmidt (1944), Woolfson (1964), Safronov (1969), Dole (1970)), nebular theories (Weizsaecker (1943), Kuiper (1949), Nakano (1970)) [1]-[3]. In spite of great number of work aimed to exploring formation of the Solar system, however, the mentioned theories were not able to explain all phenomena. In this connection the statistical theory for a cosmological body forming (so-called the spheroidal body model) has been proposed in [4]-[11]. Within the framework of this theory, bodies have fuzzy outlines and are represented by means of spheroidal forms. In the work [6], which is a continuation of the papers [4], [5], it has been investigated a slowly evolving in time process of a gravitational compression of a spheroidal body close to an unstable equilibrium state. In the papers [7],[8]the equation of motion of particles inside the weakly gravitating spheroidal body modeled by means of an ideal liquid has been obtained. Using Schwarzschild's and Kerr's metrics a consistency of the proposed statistical model with the general relativity has been shown in [12]. The proposed theory proceeds from the conception for forming a spheroidal body as a protoplanet from planetary nebula; it permits to derive the form of distribution functions for an immovable and rotating spheroidal body [4]-[6],[10]-[13] as well as their density masses (gravitational potentials and strengths) and also to find the distribution function of specific angular momentum of the rotating uniformly spheroidal body [13],[14]. Using the specific angular momentum distribution function this work considers a gas- dust protoplanetary cloud as a rotating and gravitating spheroidal body. Because the specific angular momenta are averaged during conglomeration process the specific angular momenta for a planets of Solar system is found. As a result a

  18. Analysis of appraisal tool of system security engineering capability maturity based on component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhenghai; Yang Xiaohua; Zou Shuliang; Liu Yachun; Xiao Jiantian; Liu Zhiming

    2012-01-01

    Spent Fuel Reprocessing is a part of nuclear fuel cycle and is the inevitably choice of nuclear power sustainable development. Reprocessing needs to face with radiological, criticality, chemical hazards. Besides using the tradition appraisal methods based on the security goals, it is a beneficial supplement that using the appraisal method of system security engineering capability maturity model based on the process. Experts should check and approve large numbers of documents during the appraisal based on system security engineering capability maturity model, so it is necessary that developing a tool to assist the expert to complete the appraisal. The method of developing software based on component is highly effective, nimble and reliable. Component technology is analyzed, the methods of extraction model domain components and general components is introduced, and the appraisal system is developed based on component technology. (authors)

  19. Detection and Localization of Tooth Breakage Fault on Wind Turbine Planetary Gear System considering Gear Manufacturing Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Gui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sidebands of vibration spectrum are sensitive to the fault degree and have been proved to be useful for tooth fault detection and localization. However, the amplitude and frequency modulation due to manufacturing errors (which are inevitable in actual planetary gear system lead to much more complex sidebands. Thus, in the paper, a lumped parameter model for a typical planetary gear system with various types of errors is established. In the model, the influences of tooth faults on time-varying mesh stiffness and tooth impact force are derived analytically. Numerical methods are then utilized to obtain the response spectra of the system with tooth faults with and without errors. Three system components (including sun, planet, and ring gears with tooth faults are considered in the discussion, respectively. Through detailed comparisons of spectral sidebands, fault characteristic frequencies of the system are acquired. Dynamic experiments on a planetary gear-box test rig are carried out to verify the simulation results and these results are of great significances for the detection and localization of tooth faults in wind turbines.

  20. THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL ARCHITECTURE OF THE υ ANDROMEDAE PLANETARY SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deitrick, Russell; Barnes, Rory; Quinn, Thomas R.; Luger, Rodrigo; Antonsen, Adrienne; McArthur, Barbara; Fritz Benedict, G.

    2015-01-01

    The υ Andromedae system is the first exoplanetary system to have the relative inclination of two planets' orbital planes directly measured, and therefore offers our first window into the three-dimensional configurations of planetary systems. We present, for the first time, full three-dimensional, dynamically stable configurations for the three planets of the system consistent with all observational constraints. While the outer two planets, c and d, are inclined by ∼30°, the inner planet's orbital plane has not been detected. We use N-body simulations to search for stable three-planet configurations that are consistent with the combined radial velocity and astrometric solution. We find that only 10 trials out of 1000 are robustly stable on 100 Myr timescales, or ∼8 billion orbits of planet b. Planet b's orbit must lie near the invariable plane of planets c and d, but can be either prograde or retrograde. These solutions predict that b's mass is in the range of 2-9 M Jup and has an inclination angle from the sky plane of less than 25°. Combined with brightness variations in the combined star/planet light curve ( p hase curve ) , our results imply that planet b's radius is ∼1.8 R Jup , relatively large for a planet of its age. However, the eccentricity of b in several of our stable solutions reaches >0.1, generating upward of 10 19 W in the interior of the planet via tidal dissipation, possibly inflating the radius to an amount consistent with phase curve observations

  1. The Concept of the Relationship between Information System Maturity and Industry Performance in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palilingan, V. R.; Mario, T. P.

    2018-01-01

    Industry in Indonesia continues to grow from year to year. Along with these developments, the use of information technology, which is the basis of information systems, should be considered as a handy tool to survive in the competition in the industry. Various previous studies have discussed much the use of information systems and their role at the strategic level. But more in-depth research is still needed to find out the extent to which the maturity of the use of information systems through its elements can affect the performance of companies in various sectors industries in Indonesia. It is hoped that this concept can be used as a subsequent research by distributing questionnaires based on the method of statements that have been defined by researchers. With this concepts, the next development will continue to measure the relationship information systems maturity in general with the organizations performance. The result of the concept proposed by the researcher is expected to be able to measure the maturity relationship of an information system with the connection with the consumer, demand/supply planning element, innovation, performance measurement, IT impact management and also internal process.

  2. Planetary Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, J. E. P.

    2007-01-01

    The chapter on Planetary Magnetism by Connerney describes the magnetic fields of the planets, from Mercury to Neptune, including the large satellites (Moon, Ganymede) that have or once had active dynamos. The chapter describes the spacecraft missions and observations that, along with select remote observations, form the basis of our knowledge of planetary magnetic fields. Connerney describes the methods of analysis used to characterize planetary magnetic fields, and the models used to represent the main field (due to dynamo action in the planet's interior) and/or remnant magnetic fields locked in the planet's crust, where appropriate. These observations provide valuable insights into dynamo generation of magnetic fields, the structure and composition of planetary interiors, and the evolution of planets.

  3. A Thermal Maturity Analysis of the Effective Cretaceous Petroleum System in the Southern Persian Gulf Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Alipour

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Commercial hydrocarbon discoveries in the Cretaceous of the southern Persian Gulf basin provide direct evidence that there is an effective petroleum system associated with the Cretaceous series. The revised models of thermal maturity in this region are needed to investigate lateral and stratigraphic variations of thermal maturity, which have not so far been addressed in detail for this part of the Persian Gulf. Such thermal maturity models are required to delineate the existing play assessment risks and to predict properties in more deeply buried undrilled sections. This study uses two dimensional basin modeling techniques to reconstruct maturity evolution of the Cenomanian Middle Sarvak source rock, presumably the most likely source for these hydrocarbons. The results indicate that an estimated 900 meter difference in the depth of burial between the southeastern high and the adjacent trough tends to be translated into noticeable variations at both temperature (135 °C versus 162 °C and vitrinite reflectance (0.91% versus 1.35%. Since the organic matter in the mentioned source rock is of reactive type II, these could cause a shift of about 18 million years in the onset of hydrocarbon generation over respective areas.

  4. Planetary Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    4 Abstract Planetary defense against asteroids should be a major concern for every government in the world . Millions of asteroids and...helps make Planetary Defense viable because defending the Earth against asteroids benefits from all the above technologies. So if our planet security...information about their physical characteristics so we can employ the right strategies. It is a crucial difference if asteroids are made up of metal

  5. A Comparison of the Dynamical Evolution of Planetary Systems Proceedings of the Sixth Alexander von Humboldt Colloquium on Celestial Mechanics Bad Hofgastein (Austria), 21–27 March 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Dvorak, Rudolf

    2005-01-01

    The papers in this volume cover a wide range of subjects covering the most recent developments in Celestial Mechanics from the theoretical point of nonlinear dynamical systems to the application to real problems. We emphasize the papers on the formation of planetary systems, their stability and also the problem of habitable zones in extrasolar planetary systems. A special topic is the stability of Trojans in our planetary system, where more and more realistic dynamical models are used to explain their complex motions: besides the important contribution from the theoretical point of view, the results of several numerical experiments unraveled the structure of the stable zone around the librations points. This volume will be of interest to astronomers and mathematicians interested in Hamiltonian mechanics and in the dynamics of planetary systems.

  6. Equilibrium positions on stationary orbits and planetary principal inertia axis orientations for the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Pilar; Barderas, Gonzalo; Mejuto, Javier

    2018-05-01

    We present a qualitative analysis in a phase space to determine the longitudinal equilibrium positions on the planetary stationary orbits by applying an analytical model that considers linear gravitational perturbations. We discuss how these longitudes are related with the orientation of the planetary principal inertia axes with respect to their Prime Meridians, and then we use this determination to derive their positions with respect to the International Celestial Reference Frame. Finally, a numerical analysis of the non-linear effects of the gravitational fields on the equilibrium point locations is developed and their correlation with gravity field anomalies shown.

  7. Vibration characteristics of two-stage planetary transmission system with thin-walled ring gear on elastic supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, JianYing; Hu, QingChun; Zong, ChangFu; Zhu, TianJun; Zhang, ZeXing

    2018-03-01

    A dual-clutch and dual-speed planetary gears mechanism of a hybrid car coupled-system is taken as research subject, in which the ring gear of planet set II is a thin-walled structure and the clutch friction plates of planet set II are used as its elastic supports. Based on the lumped parameter-rigid elastic coupled dynamic model of two-stage planetary transmission system with thin-walled ring gear on elastic supports, the motion differential equations are established and the dynamic responses are solved by the Runge-Kutta method considering each stage internal and external time-varying mesh stiffness. The vibration displacements of each stage ring gear have been affected differently in time-domain, the translational vibration displacement of the ring gear of planet set I are obviously more than the torsional vibration displacement, but it is opposite for the ring gear of planet set II; The translational and torsional vibration responses of each stage ring gear arrive the peak in low-frequency. The analysis results of this paper can enrich the theoretical research of multistage planetary transmission and provide guidance for dynamic design.

  8. Integrated Navigation System Design for Micro Planetary Rovers: Comparison of Absolute Heading Estimation Algorithms and Nonlinear Filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Muhammad; Hong, Beomjin; Cho, Kuk; Baeg, Seung-Ho; Park, Sangdeok

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides algorithms to fuse relative and absolute microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) navigation sensors, suitable for micro planetary rovers, to provide a more accurate estimation of navigation information, specifically, attitude and position. Planetary rovers have extremely slow speed (~1 cm/s) and lack conventional navigation sensors/systems, hence the general methods of terrestrial navigation may not be applicable to these applications. While relative attitude and position can be tracked in a way similar to those for ground robots, absolute navigation information is hard to achieve on a remote celestial body, like Moon or Mars, in contrast to terrestrial applications. In this study, two absolute attitude estimation algorithms were developed and compared for accuracy and robustness. The estimated absolute attitude was fused with the relative attitude sensors in a framework of nonlinear filters. The nonlinear Extended Kalman filter (EKF) and Unscented Kalman filter (UKF) were compared in pursuit of better accuracy and reliability in this nonlinear estimation problem, using only on-board low cost MEMS sensors. Experimental results confirmed the viability of the proposed algorithms and the sensor suite, for low cost and low weight micro planetary rovers. It is demonstrated that integrating the relative and absolute navigation MEMS sensors reduces the navigation errors to the desired level. PMID:27223293

  9. Model of estimation of innovation maturity of organization in the system of entrepreneur motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Yur'evich Isaev

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews basic principles which are used in developing a system of entrepreneurial motivation for top echelon managers. Innovational maturity of the enterprises is used in this system as a constituent component of the evaluation model. The authors give practical advice on the application of this model. Basing on an analytical review of the scientific researches performed by domestic and foreign research scientists, a comparative analysis of structural methodologies for assessing innovational maturity of the enterprises is made. For the purpose of testing the research results, specific examples of indicators that meet the requirements of entrepreneurial motivation were developed. Indicators of innovational maturity model provide those diagnostic tools needed to measure the total of productivity of manufacturing factors and their management. The usage of those diagnostic tools in assessing performance of top echelon managers will really bring together and unite interests of top echelon management and owners, activate the inner entrepreneur in a hired manager as well as harmonize the work of top echelon managers to achieve the current goals and achieve strategic objectives of the company.

  10. Development of Microbiota in Infants and its Role in Maturation of Gut Mucosa and Immune System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenez, Cecilia; Torres, Javier

    2017-11-01

    Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been associated with increasing numbers of diseases, including obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, allergy, cancer and even neurologic or behavioral disorders. The other side of the coin is that a healthy microbiota leads to a healthy human development, to a mature and well trained immune system and to an efficient metabolic machinery. What we have learned in adults is in the end the result of a good start, a programmed, healthy development of the microbiota that must occur in the early years of life, probably even starting during the fetal stage. This review aims to present and discuss reports that helps us understand what we have learned of the development of microbiota during the early times of life, from pregnancy to delivery to the early years after birth. The impact of the establishment of "healthy" bacterial communities on human surfaces in the maturation of epithelia, immune system and metabolism will also be discussed. The right process of maturation of the bacterial communities that establish a symbiosis with human surfaces depends on a number of environmental, genetic and temporal factors that need to be understand in order to have tools to monitor a healthy development and eventually intervene to correct undesired courses. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Unique organizational and functional features of the cytochrome c maturation system in Shewanella oneidensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Jin

    Full Text Available Shewanella are renowned for their ability to respire on a wide range of electron acceptors, which has been partially accredited to the presence of a large number of the c-type cytochromes. In the model species S. oneidensis MR-1, at least 41 genes encode c-type cytochromes that are predicted to be intact, thereby likely functional. Previously, in-frame deletion mutants for 36 of these genes were obtained and characterized. In this study, first we completed the construction of an entire set of c-type cytochrome mutants utilizing a newly developed att-based mutagenesis approach, which is more effective and efficient than the approach used previously by circumventing the conventional cloning. Second, we investigated the cytochrome c maturation (Ccm system in S. oneidensis. There are two loci predicted to encode components of the Ccm system, SO0259-SO0269 and SO0476-SO0478. The former is proven essential for cytochrome c maturation whereas the latter is dispensable. Unlike the single operon organization observed in other γ-proteobacteria, genes at the SO0259-SO0269 locus are uniquely organized into four operons, ccmABCDE, scyA, SO0265, and ccmFGH-SO0269. Functional analysis revealed that the SO0265 gene rather than the scyA and SO0269 genes are relevant to cytochrome c maturation.

  12. Estimating thermal maturity in the Eagle Ford Shale petroleum system using gas gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Basin-wide datasets that provide information on the geochemical properties of petroleum systems, such as source rock quality, product composition, and thermal maturity, are often difficult to come by or assemble from publically available data. When published studies are available and include these kinds of properties, they generally have few sampling locations and limited numbers and types of analyses. Therefore, production-related data and engineering parameters can provide useful proxies for geochemical properties that are often widely available across a play and in some states are reported in publically available or commercial databases. Gas-oil ratios (GOR) can be calculated from instantaneous or cumulative production data and can be related to the source rock geochemical properties like kerogen type (Lewan and Henry, 1999) and thermal maturity (Tian et al., 2013; U.S. Energy Information Administration [EIA], 2014). Oil density or specific gravity (SG), often reported in American Petroleum Institute units (°API = 141.5 /SG – 131.5), can also provide information on source rock thermal maturity, particularly when combined with GOR values in unconventional petroleum systems (Nesheim, 2017).

  13. System of physical training of persons of age mature and old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iermakov Sergii Sidorovich

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is shown the results of the development of exercise for people of mature-aged and elderly, which contains three lines. The first trend is associated with the use of aerobic exercise of moderate intensity. The second direction is connected with employment in some kind of sport, including - in the veteran sports. The third area involves the use of special exercises. There are some exercises improving the system owned by the school Huashanskoy dao. A variant of autogenic training, which is to render natural images that promote relaxation and recovery is introduced in the article. Theoretically justified, that the use of exercise activates the sense of youth, is of great importance for increasing vitality, health and working capacity of older and mature.

  14. Comets as a possible source of nanodust in the Solar System cloud and in planetary debris discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Ingrid

    2017-07-13

    Comets, comet-like objects and their fragments are the most plausible source for the dust in both the inner heliosphere and planetary debris discs around other stars. The smallest size of dust particles in debris discs is not known and recent observational results suggest that the size distribution of the dust extends down to sizes of a few nanometres or a few tens of nanometres. In the Solar System, electric field measurements from spacecraft observe events that are explained with high-velocity impacts of nanometre-sized dust. In some planetary debris discs an observed mid- to near-infrared emission supposedly results from hot dust located in the vicinity of the star. And the observed emission is characteristic of dust of sizes a few tens of nanometres. Rosetta observations, on the other hand, provide little information on the presence of nanodust near comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. This article describes why this is not in contradiction to the observations of nanodust in the heliosphere and in planetary debris discs. The direct ejection of nanodust from the nucleus of the comet would not contribute significantly to the observed nanodust fluxes. We discuss a scenario that nanodust forms in the interplanetary dust cloud through the high-velocity collision process in the interplanetary medium for which the production rates are highest near the Sun. Likewise, fragmentation by collisions occurs near the star in planetary debris discs. The collisional fragmentation process in the inner Solar System occurs at similar velocities to those of the collisional evolution in the interstellar medium. A question for future studies is whether there is a common magic size of the smallest collision fragments and what determines this size.This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. HPS: A space fission power system suitable for near-term, low-cost lunar and planetary bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, M.G.; Poston, D.I.; Ranken, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    Near-term, low-cost space fission power systems can enhance the feasibility and utility of lunar and planetary bases. One such system, the Heatpipe Power System (HPS), is described in this paper. The HPS draws on 40 yr of United States and international experience to enable a system that can be developed in <5 yr at a cost of <$100M. Total HPS mass is <600 kg at 5 kWe and <2000 kg at 50 kWe, assuming that thermoelectric power conversion is used. More advanced power conversion systems could reduce system mass significantly. System mass for planetary surface systems also may be reduced (1) if indigenous material is used for radiation shielding and (2) because of the positive effect of the gravitational field on heatpipe operation. The HPS is virtually non-radioactive at launch and is passively subcritical during all credible launch accidents. Full-system electrically heated testing is possible, and a ground nuclear power test is not needed for flight qualification. Fuel burnup limits are not reached for several decades, thus giving the system long-life potential

  16. Revolution evolution: tracing angular momentum during star and planetary system formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Claire Louise

    2015-04-01

    disc to expand. I used spatially resolved submillimetre detections of the dust and gas components of protoplanetary discs, gathered from the literature, to measure the radial extent of discs around low-mass pre-main sequence stars of ∼ 1-10 Myr and probe their viscous evolution. I find no clear observational evidence for the radial expansion of the dust component. However, I find tentative evidence for the expansion ofthe gas component. This suggests that the evolution of the gas and dust components of protoplanetary discs are likely governed by different astrophysical processes. Observations of jets and outflows emanating from protostars and pre-main sequence stars highlight that it may also be possible to remove angular momentum from the circumstellar material. Using the sample of spatially resolved protoplanetary discs, I find no evidence for angular momentum removal during disc evolution. I also use the spatially resolved debris discs from the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array-2 Observations of Nearby Stars survey to constrain the amount of angular momentum retained within planetary systems. This sample is compared to the protoplanetary disc angular momenta and to the angular momentum contained within pre-stellar cores. I find that significant quantities of angular momentum must be removed during disc formation and disc dispersal. This likely occurs via magnetic braking during the formation of the disc, via the launching of a disc or photo-evaporative wind, and/or via ejection of planetary material following dynamical interactions.

  17. Physical properties of the WASP-67 planetary system from multi-colour photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, L.; Southworth, J.; Ciceri, S.; Calchi Novati, S.; Dominik, M.; Henning, Th.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Korhonen, H.; Nikolov, N.; Alsubai, K. A.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; D'Ago, G.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Galianni, P.; Gu, S.-H.; Harpsøe, K.; Hinse, T. C.; Hundertmark, M.; Juncher, D.; Kains, N.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Skottfelt, J.; Snodgrass, C.; Street, R.; Surdej, J.; Tsapras, Y.; Vilela, C.; Wang, X.-B.; Wertz, O.

    2014-08-01

    Context. The extrasolar planet WASP-67 b is the first hot Jupiter definitively known to undergo only partial eclipses. The lack of the second and third contact points in this planetary system makes it difficult to obtain accurate measurements of its physical parameters. Aims: By using new high-precision photometric data, we confirm that WASP-67 b shows grazing eclipses and compute accurate estimates of the physical properties of the planet and its parent star. Methods: We present high-quality, multi-colour, broad-band photometric observations comprising five light curves covering two transit events, obtained using two medium-class telescopes and the telescope-defocusing technique. One transit was observed through a Bessel-R filter and the other simultaneously through filters similar to Sloan g'r'i'z'. We modelled these data using jktebop. The physical parameters of the system were obtained from the analysis of these light curves and from published spectroscopic measurements. Results: All five of our light curves satisfy the criterion for being grazing eclipses. We revise the physical parameters of the whole WASP-67 system and, in particular, significantly improve the measurements of the planet's radius (Rb = 1.091 ± 0.046 RJup) and density (ρb = 0.292 ± 0.036 ρJup), as compared to the values in the discovery paper (Rb = 1.4 -0.2+0.3 RJup and ρb = 0.16 ± 0.08 ρJup). The transit ephemeris was also substantially refined. We investigated the variation of the planet's radius as a function of the wavelength, using the simultaneous multi-band data, finding that our measurements are consistent with a flat spectrum to within the experimental uncertainties. Based on data collected with GROND at the MPG 2.2 m telescope and DFOSC at the Danish 1.54 m telescope.Full Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/568/A127

  18. BIRDY - Interplanetary CubeSat for planetary geodesy of Small Solar System Bodies (SSSB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestroffer, D.; Agnan, M.; Segret, B.; Quinsac, G.; Vannitsen, J.; Rosenblatt, P.; Miau, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    We are developing the Birdy concept of a scientific interplanetary CubeSat, for cruise, or proximity operations around a Small body of the Solar System (asteroid, comet, irregular satellite). The scientific aim is to characterise the body's shape, gravity field, and internal structure through imaging and radio-science techniques. Radio-science is now of common use in planetary science (flybys or orbiters) to derive the mass of the scientific target and possibly higher order terms of its gravity field. Its application to a nano-satellite brings the advantage of enabling low orbits that can get closer to the body's surface, hence increasing the SNR for precise orbit determination (POD), with a fully dedicated instrument. Additionally, it can be applied to two or more satellites, on a leading-trailing trajectory, to improve the gravity field determination. However, the application of this technique to CubeSats in deep space, and inter-satellite link has to be proven. Interplanetary CubeSats need to overcome a few challenges before reaching successfully their deep-space objectives: link to ground-segment, energy supply, protection against radiation, etc. Besides, the Birdy CubeSat — as our basis concept — is designed to be accompanying a mothercraft, and relies partly on the main mission for reaching the target, as well as on data-link with the Earth. However, constraints to the mothercraft needs to be reduced, by having the CubeSat as autonomous as possible. In this respect, propulsion and auto-navigation are key aspects, that we are studying in a Birdy-T engineering model. We envisage a 3U size CubeSat with radio link, object-tracker and imaging function, and autonomous ionic propulsion system. We are considering two case studies for autonomous guidance, navigation and control, with autonomous propulsion: in cruise and in proximity, necessitating ΔV up to 2m/s for a total budget of about 50m/s. In addition to the propulsion, in-flight orbit determination (IFOD

  19. Exploration of Icy Moons in the Outer Solar System: Updated Planetary Protection Requirements for Missions to Enceladus and Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummel, J. D.; Race, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    Enceladus and Europa are bodies with icy/watery environments and potential habitable conditions for life, making both of great interest in astrobiological studies of chemical evolution and /or origin of life. They are also of significant planetary protection concern for spacecraft missions because of the potential for harmful contamination during exploration. At a 2015 COSPAR colloquium in Bern Switzerland, international scientists identified an urgent need to establish planetary protection requirements for missions proposing to return samples to Earth from Saturn's moon Enceladus. Deliberations at the meeting resulted in recommended policy updates for both forward and back contamination requirements for missions to Europa and Enceladus, including missions sampling plumes originating from those bodies. These recently recommended COSPAR policy revisions and biological contamination requirements will be applied to future missions to Europa and Encealadus, particularly noticeable in those with plans for in situ life detection and sample return capabilities. Included in the COSPAR policy are requirementsto `break the chain of contact' with Europa or Enceladus, to keep pristine returned materials contained, and to complete required biohazard analyses, testing and/or sterilization upon return to Earth. Subsequent to the Bern meeting, additional discussions of Planetary Protection of Outer Solar System bodies (PPOSS) are underway in a 3-year study coordinated by the European Science Foundation and involving multiple international partners, including Japan, China and Russia, along with a US observer. This presentation will provide science and policy updates for those whose research or activities will involve icy moon missions and exploration.

  20. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, R.; Arnold, J.; Gasch, M.; Stackpole, M.; Wercinski, R.; Venkatapathy, E.; Fan, W.; Thornton, J; Szalai, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Office of Chief Technologist (OCT), NASA has identified the need for research and technology development in part from NASAs Strategic Goal 3.3 of the NASA Strategic Plan to develop and demonstrate the critical technologies that will make NASAs exploration, science, and discovery missions more affordable and more capable. Furthermore, the Game Changing Development Program (GCDP) is a primary avenue to achieve the Agencys 2011 strategic goal to Create the innovative new space technologies for our exploration, science, and economic future. In addition, recently released NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities, by the National Research Council (NRC) of the National Academy of Sciences stresses the need for NASA to invest in the very near term in specific EDL technologies. The report points out the following challenges (Page 2-38 of the pre-publication copy released on February 1, 2012): Mass to Surface: Develop the ability to deliver more payload to the destination. NASA's future missions will require ever-greater mass delivery capability in order to place scientifically significant instrument packages on distant bodies of interest, to facilitate sample returns from bodies of interest, and to enable human exploration of planets such as Mars. As the maximum mass that can be delivered to an entry interface is fixed for a given launch system and trajectory design, the mass delivered to the surface will require reductions in spacecraft structural mass more efficient, lighter thermal protection systems more efficient lighter propulsion systems and lighter, more efficient deceleration systems. Surface Access: Increase the ability to land at a variety of planetary locales and at a variety of times. Access to specific sites can be achieved via landing at a specific location(s) or transit from a single designated landing location, but it is currently infeasible to transit long distances and through extremely rugged terrain, requiring landing close to the site of

  1. Optimization of System Maturity and Equivalent System Mass for Exploration Systems Development Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnaye, Romulo; Tan, Weiping; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose; Sauser, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The Exploration Systems Mission Directorate of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently pursuing the development of the next generation of human spacecraft and exploration systems throughout the Constellation Program. This includes, among others, habitation technologies for supporting lunar and Mars exploration. The key to these systems is the Exploration Life Support (ELS) system that composes several technology development projects related to atmosphere revitalization, water recovery, waste management and habitation. The proper functioning of these technologies is meant to produce sufficient and balanced resources of water, air, and food to maintain a safe and comfortable environment for long-term human habitation and exploration of space.

  2. Planetary Geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Victor R.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various topics related to planetary geomorphology, including: research techniques; such geomorphic processes as impact, volcanic, degradational, eolian, and hillslope/mass movement processes; and channels and valleys. Indicates that the subject should be taught as a series of scientific questions rather than scientific results of…

  3. The planetary scientist's companion

    CERN Document Server

    Lodders, Katharina

    1998-01-01

    A comprehensive and practical book of facts and data about the Sun, planets, asteroids, comets, meteorites, the Kuiper belt and Centaur objects in our solar system. Also covered are properties of nearby stars, the interstellar medium, and extra-solar planetary systems.

  4. CO-DIGESTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE AND MATURE LANDFILL LEACHATE IN PRE-BIOAUGMENTED SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Montusiewicz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effects of co-digestion of sewage sludge and mature landfill leachate at the volumetric ratio of 95:5% in primarily bioaugmented system. Bioaugmentation was carried out with the use of commercial product Arkea® in the volumetric dose of 5% and lasted three months prior to the co-digestion start-up. Co-digestion was undergone without bioaugmentation. The results indicated that in the first period (of three months following bioaugmentation, co-digestion led to biogas/methane yields only 5-8% lower as compared to anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge, and the differences were not statistically significant. Moreover, a comparable value of volatile solids removal was obtained. However, the effects became worse over time, i.e. a lower organics removal efficiency of 16% as well as 9.5–13% decreases of biogas/methane yields were achieved by applying co-digestion for a further period (of the same duration. Co-digestion of sewage sludge and mature landfill leachate could be recognized as quite efficient in the system that was primarily bioaugmented with the use of Arkea®. However, the beneficial impact of bioaugmentation remained for the limited period of three months after its completion. To sustain the favourable effects a periodical, repeatable bioaugmentation of the co-digestion system is required.

  5. Prediction of Curve Progression in Idiopathic Scoliosis: Validation of the Sanders Skeletal Maturity Staging System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitoula, Prakash; Verma, Kushagra; Holmes, Laurens; Gabos, Peter G; Sanders, James O; Yorgova, Petya; Neiss, Geraldine; Rogers, Kenneth; Shah, Suken A

    2015-07-01

    Retrospective case series. This study aimed to validate the Sanders Skeletal Maturity Staging System and to assess its correlation to curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis. The Sanders Skeletal Maturity Staging System has been used to predict curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis. This study intended to validate that initial study with a larger sample size. We retrospectively reviewed 1100 consecutive patients with idiopathic scoliosis between 2005 and 2011. Girls aged 8 to 14 years (skeletal age and scoliosis curve magnitude were followed to skeletal maturity (Risser stage 5 or fully capped Risser stage 4), curve progression to 50° or greater, or spinal fusion. Patients with nonidiopathic curves were excluded. There were 161 patients: 131 girls (12.3 ± 1.2 yr) and 30 boys (13.9 ± 1.1 yr). The distribution of patients within Sanders stage (SS) 1 through 7 was 7, 28, 41, 45, 7, 31, and 2 patients, respectively; modified Lenke curve types 1 to 6 were 26, 12, 63, 5, 38, and 17 patients, respectively. All patients in SS2 with initial Cobb angles of 25° or greater progressed, and patients in SS1 and SS3 with initial Cobb angles of 35° or greater progressed. Similarly, all patients with initial Cobb angles of 40° or greater progressed except those in SS7. Conversely, none of the patients with initial Cobb angles of 15° or less or those in SS5, SS6, and SS7 with initial Cobb angles of 30° or less progressed. Predictive progression of 67%, 50%, 43%, 27%, and 60% was observed for subgroups SS1/30°, SS2/20°, SS3/30°, SS4/30°, and SS6/35° respectively. This larger cohort shows a strong predictive correlation between SS and initial Cobb angle for probability of curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis. 3.

  6. Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in set theory and readily available software have enabled social science researchers to bridge the variable-centered quantitative and case-based qualitative methodological paradigms in order to analyze multi-dimensional associations beyond the linearity assumptions, aggregate...... effects, unicausal reduction, and case specificity. Based on the developments in set theoretical thinking in social sciences and employing methods like Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA), and set visualization techniques, in this position paper, we propose...... and demonstrate a new approach to maturity models in the domain of Information Systems. This position paper describes the set-theoretical approach to maturity models, presents current results and outlines future research work....

  7. Role of the magnetospheric convection and inertial forces informing the planetary structure of the ionosphere-protonosphere system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenko, Yu.S.; Natsvalyan, N.S.; Tepenitsyna, N.Yu.; Shagimuratov, I.I.

    1991-01-01

    Mechanisms of forming the planetary distribution of concentrations and fluxes of basic O + and H + ions are investigated on the base of a three-dimensional nonstationary model of ionosphere-protonosphere system. The leading role of diffusion, drifts and inertia in the formation of such structural features as equatorial anomaly, mid-latitudinal gap, polar tail in F2-layer and plasmosphere, plasmosphere, plasma gap and polar wind in protonosphere, as well as regions with increased concentrations of heavy O + ions in the polar wind and plasmosphere, is demonstrated

  8. The (Un)Lonely Planet Guide: Formation and Evolution of Planetary Systems from a ``Blue Dots'' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M. R.

    2010-10-01

    In this contribution I summarize some recent successes, and focus on remaining challenges, in understanding the formation and evolution of planetary systems in the context of the Blue Dots initiative. Because our understanding is incomplete, we cannot yet articulate a design reference mission engineering matrix suitable for an exploration mission where success is defined as obtaining a spectrum of a potentially habitable world around a nearby star. However, as progress accelerates, we can identify observational programs that would address fundamental scientific questions through hypothesis testing such that the null result is interesting.

  9. Implementing planetary protection on the Atlas V fairing and ground systems used to launch the Mars Science Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benardini, James N; La Duc, Myron T; Ballou, David; Koukol, Robert

    2014-01-01

    On November 26, 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) launched from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard an Atlas V 541 rocket, taking its first step toward exploring the past habitability of Mars' Gale Crater. Because microbial contamination could profoundly impact the integrity of the mission, and compliance with international treaty was a necessity, planetary protection measures were implemented on all MSL hardware to verify that bioburden levels complied with NASA regulations. The cleanliness of the Atlas V payload fairing (PLF) and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL were also evaluated. By applying proper recontamination countermeasures early and often in the encapsulation process, the PLF was kept extremely clean and was shown to pose little threat of recontaminating the enclosed MSL flight system upon launch. Contrary to prelaunch estimates that assumed that the interior PLF spore burden ranged from 500 to 1000 spores/m², the interior surfaces of the Atlas V PLF were extremely clean, housing a mere 4.65 spores/m². Reported here are the practices and results of the campaign to implement and verify planetary protection measures on the Atlas V launch vehicle and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL. All these facilities and systems were very well kept and exceeded the levels of cleanliness and rigor required in launching the MSL payload.

  10. Implementing NASA's Capability-Driven Approach: Insight into NASA's Processes for Maturing Exploration Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Byrd, Julie; Arney, Dale; Rodgers, Erica; Antol, Jeff; Simon, Matthew; Hay, Jason; Larman, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    NASA is engaged in transforming human spaceflight. The Agency is shifting from an exploration-based program with human activities focused on low Earth orbit (LEO) and targeted robotic missions in deep space to a more sustainable and integrated pioneering approach. Through pioneering, NASA seeks to address national goals to develop the capacity for people to work, learn, operate, live, and thrive safely beyond the Earth for extended periods of time. However, pioneering space involves more than the daunting technical challenges of transportation, maintaining health, and enabling crew productivity for long durations in remote, hostile, and alien environments. This shift also requires a change in operating processes for NASA. The Agency can no longer afford to engineer systems for specific missions and destinations and instead must focus on common capabilities that enable a range of destinations and missions. NASA has codified a capability driven approach, which provides flexible guidance for the development and maturation of common capabilities necessary for human pioneers beyond LEO. This approach has been included in NASA policy and is captured in the Agency's strategic goals. It is currently being implemented across NASA's centers and programs. Throughout 2014, NASA engaged in an Agency-wide process to define and refine exploration-related capabilities and associated gaps, focusing only on those that are critical for human exploration beyond LEO. NASA identified 12 common capabilities ranging from Environmental Control and Life Support Systems to Robotics, and established Agency-wide teams or working groups comprised of subject matter experts that are responsible for the maturation of these exploration capabilities. These teams, called the System Maturation Teams (SMTs) help formulate, guide and resolve performance gaps associated with the identified exploration capabilities. The SMTs are defining performance parameters and goals for each of the 12 capabilities

  11. Calcium signals in planetary embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2018-03-01

    The calcium-isotope composition of planetary bodies in the inner Solar System correlates with the masses of such objects. This finding could have implications for our understanding of how the Solar System formed.

  12. Geodesy and cartography methods of exploration of the outer planetary systems: Galilean satellites and Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubarev, Anatoliy; Kozlova, Natalia; Kokhanov, Alexander; Oberst, Jürgen; Nadezhdina, Irina; Patraty, Vyacheslav; Karachevtseva, Irina

    elements of external orientation, provides new image processing of previous missions to outer planetary system. Using Photomod software (http://www.racurs.ru/) we have generated a new control point network in 3-D and orthomosaics for Io, Ganymede and Enceladus. Based on improved orbit data for Galileo we have used larger numbers of images than were available before, resulting in a more rigid network for Ganymede. The obtained results will be used for further processing and improvement of the various parameters: body shape parameters and shape modeling, libration, as well as for studying of the surface interesting geomorphological phenomena, for example, distribution of bright and dark surface materials on Ganymede and their correlations with topography and slopes [6]. Acknowledgments: The Ganymede study was partly supported by ROSKOSMOS and Space Research Institute under agreement No. 36/13 “Preliminary assessment of the required coordinate and navigation support for selection of landing sites for lander mission “Laplace” and partly funding by agreement No. 11-05-91323 for “Geodesy, cartography and research satellites Phobos and Deimos” References: [1] Nadezhdina et al. Vol. 14, EGU2012-11210, 2012. [2] Zhukov et al. International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments", Space Research Institute, Moscow, Russia, 4-8 March, 2013. [3] Zubarev et al. International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments", Space Research Institute, Moscow, Russia, 4-8 March, 2013. [4] Lazarev et al. Izvestia VUZov. 2012, No 6, pp. 9-11 http://miigaik.ru/journal.miigaik.ru/2012/20130129120215-2593.pdf (in Russian). [5] Kokhanov et al. Current problems in remote sensing of the Earth from space. 2013. Vol. 10. No 4. pp. 136-153. http://d33.infospace.ru/d33_conf/sb2013t4/136-153.pdf (in Russian). [6] Oberst et al., 2013 International Colloquium and Workshop "Ganymede Lander: scientific goals and experiments", Space

  13. PLANETS AROUND LOW-MASS STARS (PALMS). IV. THE OUTER ARCHITECTURE OF M DWARF PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowler, Brendan P. [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Liu, Michael C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai' i, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Shkolnik, Evgenya L. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Tamura, Motohide, E-mail: bpbowler@caltech.edu [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    to single M dwarfs between 10-100 AU is 2.8{sub −1.5}{sup +2.4}%. Altogether we find that giant planets, especially massive ones, are rare in the outskirts of M dwarf planetary systems. Although the first directly imaged planets were found around massive stars, there is currently no statistical evidence for a trend of giant planet frequency with stellar host mass at large separations as predicted by the disk instability model of giant planet formation.

  14. A series on optimizing satellite systems. I - Restoring interruptions of communications sattelite service: Logistical and cost comparisons of mature and newly operational systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Marcellus S.

    1989-09-01

    A mathematical model is presented of costs and operational factors involved in provision for service interruptions of both a mature and typically large incumbent satellite system and of a smaller, more recently operational system. The equation expresses the required launch frequency for the new system as a function of the launch spacing of the mature system; the time disparity between the inauguration of the two systems; and the rate of capacity depreciation. In addition, a technique is presented to compare the relative extent to which the discounted costs of the new system exceed those of the mature system in furnishing the same effective capacity in orbit, and thus the same service liability, at a given point in time. It is determined that a mature incumbent communications satellite system, having more capacity in orbit, will on balance have a lower probability of service interruption than a newer, smaller system.

  15. Computer studies of the evolution of planetary and satellite systems. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barricelli, N.A.; Aashamar, K.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes two computer experiments carried out with a CDC-Cyber 74 program for computer simulation of a large number of objects in orbit about a central body or primary. The first experiment was started with 125 planets of which the two largest ones had coplanar orbits and masses comparable to those of Jupiter and Saturn, respectively. Their semi-major axes and eccentricities were, however, much larger. The smaller planets had a distribution promoting the formation of an axial meeting area. The experiment gives information relevant to the question of focusing of planetary orbits into a common plane and to the question of the formation and stability of an axial meeting area. Together with the next experiment, it also gives information about the development of commensurabilities (or resonances) with the largest planets. The second experiment started with 55 planets none of them with a mass greater than about 20% of Jupiter's but several of them with orbits close to a common plane. The aim of the experiment was to investigate whether successive captures followed by planetary fusion could lead to the formation of major planets comparable to Jupiter and Saturn, and in similar orbits. Also this experiment gives information relevant to the commensurability problem. (Auth.)

  16. COMPARISON OF COMPOST MATURITY, MICROBIAL SURVIVAL AND HEALTH HAZARDS IN TWO COMPOSTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N.K. Rockson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Data collected on germination index, temperature, moisture content, pH, total viable count, total coliform count and total fungi count were determined during composting in HV and FA systems at VREL Farms for a period of thirteen weeks and analysed to ascertain the effects of temperature, moisture and pH on compost maturity and microbial survival. There were no significant differences in germination index, pH and moisture content values for both systems as ANOVA results at α = 5% yielded p-values of 0.17, 0.98 and 0.13 respectively. Moisture content and pH values ranged between 40%-70% and 7.20 - 8.30 respectively. Temperature values recorded however were significantly different (p-value = 1.2 x 10-5, α = 5% in both systems and affected the microbial distribution during the process. The temperature recorded in HV and FA systems ranged between 45.19 ºC – 65.44 ºC and 29.00 ºC – 50.83ºC respectively. Germination Index values were >150% in different systems at the end of week 12. Listeria spp., known to be zoonotic, and Staphylococcus spp. survived in compost processed in FA system; and Penicillium spp. in both systems.

  17. PLANETARY-SCALE STRONTIUM ISOTOPIC HETEROGENEITY AND THE AGE OF VOLATILE DEPLETION OF EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moynier, Frederic; Podosek, Frank A. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science and McDonnell Center for Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Day, James M. D. [Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA 92093-0244 (United States); Okui, Wataru; Yokoyama, Tetsuya [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Bouvier, Audrey [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455-0231 (United States); Walker, Richard J., E-mail: moynier@levee.wustl.edu, E-mail: fap@levee.wustl.edu, E-mail: jmdday@ucsd.edu, E-mail: rjwalker@umd.edu, E-mail: okui.w.aa@m.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: tetsuya.yoko@geo.titech.ac.jp, E-mail: abouvier@umn.edu [Department of Geology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2012-10-10

    Isotopic anomalies in planetary materials reflect both early solar nebular heterogeneity inherited from presolar stellar sources and processes that generated non-mass-dependent isotopic fractionations. The characterization of isotopic variations in heavy elements among early solar system materials yields important insight into the stellar environment and formation of the solar system, and about initial isotopic ratios relevant to long-term chronological applications. One such heavy element, strontium, is a central element in the geosciences due to wide application of the long-lived {sup 87}Rb-{sup 87}Sr radioactive as a chronometer. We show that the stable isotopes of Sr were heterogeneously distributed at both the mineral scale and the planetary scale in the early solar system, and also that the Sr isotopic heterogeneities correlate with mass-independent oxygen isotope variations, with only CI chondrites plotting outside of this correlation. The correlation implies that most solar system material formed by mixing of at least two isotopically distinct components: a CV-chondrite-like component and an O-chondrite-like component, and possibly a distinct CI-chondrite-like component. The heterogeneous distribution of Sr isotopes may indicate that variations in initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr of early solar system materials reflect isotopic heterogeneity instead of having chronological significance, as interpreted previously. For example, given the differences in {sup 84}Sr/{sup 86}Sr between calcium aluminum inclusions and eucrites ({epsilon}{sup 84}Sr > 2), the difference in age between these materials would be {approx}6 Ma shorter than previously interpreted, placing the Sr chronology in agreement with other long- and short-lived isotope systems, such as U-Pb and Mn-Cr.

  18. Future planetary X-ray and gamma-ray remote sensing system and in situ requirements for room temperature solid state detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Trombka, J I; Starr, R; Clark, P E; Floyd, S R

    1999-01-01

    X-Ray and gamma-ray remote sensing observations find important applications in the study of the development of the planets. Orbital measurements can be carried out on solar-system bodies whose atmospheres and trapped radiation environments do not interfere significantly with the emissions. Elemental compositions can be inferred from observations of these line emissions. Future planetary missions also will involve landing both stationery and roving probes on planetary surfaces. Both X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers will be used for performing elemental analysis of surface samples. These future planetary missions will impose a number of constraints: the flight instruments must be significantly reduced in weight from those previously flown; for many missions, gravity assist will be required, greatly increasing mission duration, resulting in the passage of several years before the first scientific measurement of a solar system body. The detector systems must operate reliably after years of cosmic-ray irradiation...

  19. An extension of the technology acceptance model for business intelligence systems: project management maturity perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Pejić Bach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Business intelligence systems (BISs refer to wide range of technologies and applications useful for retrieving and analyzing the large amount of information with the goal to generate knowledge useful for making effective business decision. In order to investigate adoption of BISs in companies, we propose a model based on the technology acceptance model (TAM that is expanded by variables representing the concept of a project management maturity (PMM. The survey on the sample of USA companies has been conducted with the chief information officer (CIO as the main informant. Structural equations model has been developed in order to test the research model. Results indicate that TAM expanded with the notion of PMM is useful in increasing understanding of BISs adoption in companies.

  20. Systems Maturity Assessment of the Lithium Ion Battery for Extravehicular Mobility Unit Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Samuel P.

    2011-01-01

    The Long Life (Lithium Ion) Battery (LLB/LIB) is designed to replace the current Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Silver/Zinc (Ag/Zn) Increased Capacity Battery (ICB), which is used to provide power to the Primary Life Support Subsystem (PLSS) during Extravehicular Activities (EVAs). The LLB (a battery based on commercial lithium ion cell technology) is designed to have the same electrical and mechanical interfaces as the current ICB. The EMU LIB Charger is designed to charge, discharge, and condition the LLB either in a charger-strapped configuration or in an EMU-mounted configuration. This paper will retroactively apply the principles of Systems Maturity Assessment to the LLB project through use of the Integration Readiness Level and Earned Readiness Management. The viability of this methodology will be considered for application to new and existing technology development projects.

  1. Planetary Science Training for NASA's Astronauts: Preparing for Future Human Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, J. E.; Evans, C. A.; Graff, T. G.; Young, K. E.; Zeigler, R.

    2017-02-01

    Astronauts selected in 2017 and in future years will carry out in situ planetary science research during exploration of the solar system. Training to enable this goal is underway and is flexible to accommodate an evolving planetary science vision.

  2. Sciences for Exoplanets and Planetary Systems : web sites and E-learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, F.; Balança, C.; Bénilan, Y.; Griessmeier, J. M.; Marcq, E.; Navarro, T.; Renner, S.; Schneider, J.; Schott, C.

    2015-10-01

    The websites « Sciences pour les Exoplanètes et les Systèmes Planétaires » (SESP) and « Exoplanètes » have been created in the context of the LabEx ESEP (Laboratoire d'excellence Exploration Spatiale des Environnements Planétaires) [1]. They present planetary and exoplanetary sciences with courses, interactive tools, and a didactic catalogue connected to the Encyclopedia http://exoplanet.eu [2]. These resources are directed towards undergraduate level. They will be used as support for face-to-face courses and self-training. In the future, we will translate some contents into English and create e-learning degree courses.

  3. Long Term Evolution of Planetary Systems with a Terrestrial Planet and a Giant Planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakarakos, Nikolaos; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian; Way, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    We study the long term orbital evolution of a terrestrial planet under the gravitational perturbations of a giant planet. In particular, we are interested in situations where the two planets are in the same plane and are relatively close. We examine both possible configurations: the giant planet orbit being either outside or inside the orbit of the smaller planet. The perturbing potential is expanded to high orders and an analytical solution of the terrestrial planetary orbit is derived. The analytical estimates are then compared against results from the numerical integration of the full equations of motion and we find that the analytical solution works reasonably well. An interesting finding is that the new analytical estimates improve greatly the predictions for the timescales of the orbital evolution of the terrestrial planet compared to an octupole order expansion. Finally, we briefly discuss possible applications of the analytical estimates in astrophysical problems.

  4. Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, James F.

    1997-01-01

    This grant was entitled 'Planetary Habitability' and the work performed under it related to elucidating the conditions that lead to habitable, i.e. Earth-like, planets. Below are listed publications for the past two and a half years that came out of this work. The main thrusts of the research involved: (1) showing under what conditions atmospheric O2 and O3 can be considered as evidence for life on a planet's surface; (2) determining whether CH4 may have played a role in warming early Mars; (3) studying the effect of varying UV levels on Earth-like planets around different types of stars to see whether this would pose a threat to habitability; and (4) studying the effect of chaotic obliquity variations on planetary climates and determining whether planets that experienced such variations might still be habitable. Several of these topics involve ongoing research that has been carried out under a new grant number, but which continues to be funded by NASA's Exobiology program.

  5. Applying a Data Stewardship Maturity Matrix to the NOAA Observing System Portfolio Integrated Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, G.; Austin, M.

    2017-12-01

    Identification and prioritization of targeted user community needs are not always considered until after data has been created and archived. Gaps in data curation and documentation in the data production and delivery phases limit data's broad utility specifically for decision makers. Expert understanding and knowledge of a particular dataset is often required as a part of the data and metadata curation process to establish the credibility of the data and support informed decision-making. To enhance curation practices, content from NOAA's Observing System Integrated Assessment (NOSIA) Value Tree, NOAA's Data Catalog/Digital Object Identifier (DOI) projects (collection-level metadata) have been integrated with Data/Stewardship Maturity Matrices (data and stewardship quality information) focused on assessment of user community needs. This results in user focused evidence based decision making tools created by NOAA's National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) through identification and assessment of data content gaps related to scientific knowledge and application to key areas of societal benefit. Through enabling user need feedback from the beginning of data creation through archive allows users to determine the quality and value of data that is fit for purpose. Data gap assessment and prioritization are presented in a user-friendly way using the data stewardship maturity matrices as measurement of data management quality. These decision maker tools encourages data producers and data providers/stewards to consider users' needs prior to data creation and dissemination resulting in user driven data requirements increasing return on investment. A use case focused on need for NOAA observations linked societal benefit will be used to demonstrate the value of these tools.

  6. Peripheral nervous system maturation in preterm infants: longitudinal motor and sensory nerve conduction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori, S; Bertini, Giovanna; Bastianelli, M; Gabbanini, S; Gualandi, D; Molesti, E; Dani, C

    2018-04-10

    To study the evolution of sensory-motor nerves in the upper and lower limbs in neurologically healthy preterm infants and to use sensory-motor studies to compare the rate of maturation in preterm infants at term age and full-term healthy neonates. The study comprised 26 neurologically normal preterm infants born at 23-33 weeks of gestational age, who underwent sensory nerve conduction and motor nerve conduction studies from plantar medial and median nerves and from tibial and ulnar nerves, respectively. We repeated the same neurophysiological studies in 19 of the preterm infants every 2 weeks until postnatal term age. The data from the preterm infants at term was matched with a group of ten full-term babies a few days after birth. The motor nerve conduction velocity of the tibial and ulnar nerves showed progressive increases in values in relation to gestational age, but there was a decrease of values in distal latencies and F wave latencies. Similarly, there was a gradual increase of sensory nerve conduction velocity values of the medial plantar and median nerves and decreases in latencies in relation to gestational age. At term age, the preterm infants showed significantly lower values of conduction velocities and distal latencies than the full-term neonates. These results were probably because the preterm infants had significantly lower weights, total length and, in particular, distal segments of the limbs at term age. The sensory-motor conduction parameters were clearly related to gestational age, but extrauterine life did not affect the maturation of the peripheral nervous system in the very preterm babies who were neurologically healthy.

  7. Shaping of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balick, B.

    1987-01-01

    The phases of stellar evolution and the development of planetary nebulae are examined. The relation between planetary nebulae and red giants is studied. Spherical and nonspherical cases of shaping planetaries with stellar winds are described. CCD images of nebulae are analyzed, and it is determined that the shape of planetary nebulae depends on ionization levels. Consideration is given to calculating the distances of planetaries using radio images, and molecular hydrogen envelopes which support the wind-shaping model of planetary nebulae

  8. Non-planetary Science from Planetary Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvis, M.; Rabe, K.; Daniels, K.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary science is naturally focussed on the issues of the origin and history of solar systems, especially our own. The implications of an early turbulent history of our solar system reach into many areas including the origin of Earth's oceans, of ores in the Earth's crust and possibly the seeding of life. There are however other areas of science that stand to be developed greatly by planetary missions, primarily to small solar system bodies. The physics of granular materials has been well-studied in Earth's gravity, but lacks a general theory. Because of the compacting effects of gravity, some experiments desired for testing these theories remain impossible on Earth. Studying the behavior of a micro-gravity rubble pile -- such as many asteroids are believed to be -- could provide a new route towards exploring general principles of granular physics. These same studies would also prove valuable for planning missions to sample these same bodies, as techniques for anchoring and deep sampling are difficult to plan in the absence of such knowledge. In materials physics, first-principles total-energy calculations for compounds of a given stoichiometry have identified metastable, or even stable, structures distinct from known structures obtained by synthesis under laboratory conditions. The conditions in the proto-planetary nebula, in the slowly cooling cores of planetesimals, and in the high speed collisions of planetesimals and their derivatives, are all conditions that cannot be achieved in the laboratory. Large samples from comets and asteroids offer the chance to find crystals with these as-yet unobserved structures as well as more exotic materials. Some of these could have unusual properties important for materials science. Meteorites give us a glimpse of these exotic materials, several dozen of which are known that are unique to meteorites. But samples retrieved directly from small bodies in space will not have been affected by atmospheric entry, warmth or

  9. From red giants to planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.

    1982-01-01

    The transition from red giants to planetary nebulae is studied by comparing the spectral characteristics of red giant envelopes and planetary nebulae. Observational and theoretical evidence both suggest that remnants of red giant envelopes may still be present in planetary nebula systems and should have significant effects on their formation. The dynamical effects of the interaction of stellar winds from central stars of planetary nebulae with the remnant red giant envelopes are evaluated and the mechanism found to be capable of producing the observed masses and momenta of planetary nebulae. The observed mass-radii relation of planetary nebulae may also be best explained by the interacting winds model. The possibility that red giant mass loss, and therefore the production of planetary nebulae, is different between Population I and II systems is also discussed

  10. Challenging the planetary boundaries II: Assessing the sustainable global population and phosphate supply, using a systems dynamics assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sverdrup, Harald U.; Ragnarsdottir, Kristin Vala

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Peak phosphorus supply behaviour. → Recycling essential for phosphorus supply. → Phosphorus supply is connected to food security. - Abstract: A systems dynamics model was developed to assess the planetary boundary for P supply in relation to use by human society. It is concluded that present day use rates and poor recycling rates of P are unsustainable at timescales beyond 100+ a. The predictions made suggest that P will become a scarce and expensive material in the future. The study shows clearly that market mechanisms alone will not be able to secure an efficient use before a large part of the resource will have been allowed to dissipate into the natural environment. It is suggested that population size management and effective recycling measures must be planned long term to avoid unpleasant consequences of hunger and necessary corrections imposed on society by mass balance and thermodynamics.

  11. A New Paradigm for Habitability in Planetary Systems: the Extremophilic Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janot-Pacheco, E., Bernardes, L., Lage, C. A. S.

    2014-03-01

    More than a thousand exoplanets have been discovered so far. Planetary surface temperature may strongly depends on its albedo and geodynamic conditions. We have fed exoplanets from the Encyclopedia database with a comprehensive model of Earth's atmosphere and plate tectonics. As CO2 is the main agent responsible for the greenhouse effect, its partial pressure has been taken as a free parameter to estimate the surface temperature of some known planets. We also investigated the possible presence of "exomoons" belonging to giant planets in the Habitable Zone capable of harbour dynamic stability, to retain an atmosphere and to keep geodynamic activity for long time spans. Biological data on earthly micro-organisms classified as "extremophiles" indicate that such kind of microbial species could dwell on the surface of many exoplanets and exomoons. We thus propose an extension of the mainly astronomically defined "Habitable Zone" concept into the more astrobiologically one, the "Extremophililic Zone", that takes into account other parameters allowing survival of more robust life forms. This contribution comes from an ongoing project developed by a French-Brazilian colaboration in Astrophysics and Biophysics to search for living fingerprints in astrobiologically promising exoplanets.

  12. Construction of the Hunveyor-Husar space probe model system for planetary science education and analog studies and simulations in universities and colleges of Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérczi, Sz.; Hegyi, S.; Hudoba, Gy.; Hargitai, H.; Kokiny, A.; Drommer, B.; Gucsik, A.; Pintér, A.; Kovács, Zs.

    Several teachers and students had the possibility to visit International Space Camp in the vicinity of the MSFC NASA in Huntsville Alabama USA where they learned the success of simulators in space science education To apply these results in universities and colleges in Hungary we began a unified complex modelling in planetary geology robotics electronics and complex environmental analysis by constructing an experimental space probe model system First a university experimental lander HUNVEYOR Hungarian UNiversity surVEYOR then a rover named HUSAR Hungarian University Surface Analyser Rover has been built For Hunveyor the idea and example was the historical Surveyor program of NASA in the 1960-ies for the Husar the idea and example was the Pathfinder s rover Sojouner rover The first step was the construction of the lander a year later the rover followed The main goals are 1 to build the lander structure and basic electronics from cheap everyday PC compatible elements 2 to construct basic experiments and their instruments 3 to use the system as a space activity simulator 4 this simulator contains lander with on board computer for works on a test planetary surface and a terrestrial control computer 5 to harmonize the assemblage of the electronic system and instruments in various levels of autonomy from the power and communication circuits 6 to use the complex system in education for in situ understanding complex planetary environmental problems 7 to build various planetary environments for application of the

  13. The effects of ozonation on select waterborne steroid hormones in recirculation aquaculture systems containing sexually mature Atlantic salmon Salmo salar

    Science.gov (United States)

    A controlled 3-month study was conducted in 6 replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (RAS) containing a mixture of sexually mature and immature Atlantic salmon Salmo salar to determine whether water ozonation is associated with a reduction in waterborne hormones. Post-smolt Atlantic salm...

  14. AN INCREASE IN THE MASS OF PLANETARY SYSTEMS AROUND LOWER-MASS STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Dániel, E-mail: mulders@lpl.arizona.edu [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Trends in the planet population with host star mass provide an avenue to constrain planet formation theories. We derive the planet radius distribution function for Kepler stars of different spectral types, sampling a range in host star masses. We find that M dwarf stars have 3.5 times more small planets (1.0–2.8 R{sub ⨁}) than main-sequence FGK stars, but two times fewer Neptune-sized and larger (>2.8 R{sub ⨁}) planets. We find no systematic trend in the planet size distribution between spectral types F, G, and K to explain the increasing occurrence rates. Taking into account the mass–radius relationship and heavy-element mass of observed exoplanets, and assuming those are independent of spectral type, we derive the inventory of the heavy-element mass locked up in exoplanets at short orbits. The overall higher planet occurrence rates around M stars are not consistent with the redistribution of the same mass into more, smaller planets. At the orbital periods and planet radii where Kepler observations are complete for all spectral types, the average heavy-element mass locked up in exoplanets increases roughly inversely with stellar mass from 4 M{sub ⨁} in F stars to 5 M{sub ⨁} in G and K stars to 7 M{sub ⨁} in M stars. This trend stands in stark contrast with observed protoplanetary disk masses that decrease toward lower mass stars, and provides a challenge for current planet formation models. Neither models of in situ formation nor migration of fully formed planets are consistent with these results. Instead, these results are indicative of large-scale inward migration of planetary building blocks—either through type-I migration or radial drift of dust grains—that is more efficient for lower mass stars, but does not result in significantly larger or smaller planets.

  15. AN INCREASE IN THE MASS OF PLANETARY SYSTEMS AROUND LOWER-MASS STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Dániel

    2015-01-01

    Trends in the planet population with host star mass provide an avenue to constrain planet formation theories. We derive the planet radius distribution function for Kepler stars of different spectral types, sampling a range in host star masses. We find that M dwarf stars have 3.5 times more small planets (1.0–2.8 R ⨁ ) than main-sequence FGK stars, but two times fewer Neptune-sized and larger (>2.8 R ⨁ ) planets. We find no systematic trend in the planet size distribution between spectral types F, G, and K to explain the increasing occurrence rates. Taking into account the mass–radius relationship and heavy-element mass of observed exoplanets, and assuming those are independent of spectral type, we derive the inventory of the heavy-element mass locked up in exoplanets at short orbits. The overall higher planet occurrence rates around M stars are not consistent with the redistribution of the same mass into more, smaller planets. At the orbital periods and planet radii where Kepler observations are complete for all spectral types, the average heavy-element mass locked up in exoplanets increases roughly inversely with stellar mass from 4 M ⨁ in F stars to 5 M ⨁ in G and K stars to 7 M ⨁ in M stars. This trend stands in stark contrast with observed protoplanetary disk masses that decrease toward lower mass stars, and provides a challenge for current planet formation models. Neither models of in situ formation nor migration of fully formed planets are consistent with these results. Instead, these results are indicative of large-scale inward migration of planetary building blocks—either through type-I migration or radial drift of dust grains—that is more efficient for lower mass stars, but does not result in significantly larger or smaller planets

  16. Suppressed Far-UV Stellar Activity and Low Planetary Mass Loss in the WASP-18 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, L.; Koskinen, T.; France, K.; Cubillos, P. E.; Haswell, C. A.; Lanza, A. F.; Pillitteri, I.

    2018-03-01

    WASP-18 hosts a massive, very close-in Jupiter-like planet. Despite its young age (extinction (E(B-V) ≈ 0.01 mag) and then the interstellar medium (ISM) column density for a number of ions, concluding that ISM absorption is not the origin of the anomaly. We measure the flux of the four stellar emission features detected in the COS spectrum (C II, C III, C IV, Si IV). Comparing the C II/C IV flux ratio measured for WASP-18 with that derived from spectra of nearby stars with known age, we see that the far-UV spectrum of WASP-18 resembles that of old (>5 Gyr), inactive stars, in stark contrast with its young age. We conclude that WASP-18 has an intrinsically low activity level, possibly caused by star–planet tidal interaction, as suggested by previous studies. Re-scaling the solar irradiance reference spectrum to match the flux of the Si IV line, yields an XUV integrated flux at the planet orbit of 10.2 erg s‑1 cm‑2. We employ the rescaled XUV solar fluxes to models of the planetary upper atmosphere, deriving an extremely low thermal mass-loss rate of 10‑20 M J Gyr‑1. For such high-mass planets, thermal escape is not energy limited, but driven by Jeans escape. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from MAST at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #13859. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 092.D-0587.

  17. STUDY OF EMOTIONAL MATURITY OF UNIVERSITY TEACHERS FROM THE POINT SYSTEMS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Tarabakina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the phenomenon of emotional maturity from the perspective of various philosophical and psychological approaches (psychoanalytic, existential, humanistic, cognitive, emotional, cultural and historical. We present the author's definition and criteria for the systematic study of emotional maturity. The results of the research in the period 2009-2015. on a sample of teachers from various universities (volume 477 of some indicators of emotional maturity: situational and personal anxiety, profiles of differential emotions in stressful situations, emotional relationships in the professional activities of basic emotions motivations: interest, joy, anger, shame. The results indicate the difficulties of emotional development of teachers, hindering the achievement of maturity: the dynamics of growth in recent years closed unconscious forms of anxiety, deficiency of positive emotions and excessive intensity of negative and anxious and depressive emotions in stressful situations, teachers with low and high levels of anxiety, deficiency of motivation, which manifests itself in a variety of emotional experiences.

  18. ANALYSIS OF THE POSSIBILITY OF INTEGRATING A MINING RIGHT-ANGLE PLANETARY GEARBOX WITH TECHNICAL DIAGNOSTICS SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej WIECZOREK

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A key factor enabling the achievement of the required capacity by longwall mining systems is to obtain a satisfactory service life for individual components of such systems. Such components include right-angle planetary gearboxes for armoured face conveyors. An increase in the service life of such equipment can be achieved by ensuring adequacy in terms of design, materials and organization. As a part of organizational changes, the use of individual diagnostics systems may have the greatest impact on the service life of mining gearboxes; however, their widespread implementation is limited by economic and operational barriers. This paper presents an analysis of the possibility of integrating mining gearboxes with electronic systems of technical diagnostics, as well as expanding the scope of the technical condition monitoring by the machines operating together with these gearboxes. As a result of the calculation and design work performed, it has been demonstrated that it is possible to integrate technical diagnostics systems with advanced data transmission capabilities inside gearboxes.

  19. Respiratory behavior of turning stage mature tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. under closed system at different temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The respiration rate and respiratory quotient of mature tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. ‘Himsona’ fruits harvested at the turning stage were determined under closed system at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 35 °C (ambient temperatures. The rate of respiration was higher at the start of the experiment and gradually declined as the storage period prolonged, before becoming almost constant. The steady-state respiration rate for CO2 evolution were observed to be 14.35, 15.04,19.95, 21.7 and 20.3 ml/kg-h at 10 °C, 15 °C, 20 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C, respectively. The RQ values for tomato varied from 0.55 to 1.10 with time under the experimental conditions. The respiration rate at steady state based on carbon dioxide evolution and oxygen consumption in closed condition decreased by about 46 % and 73 %, respectively relative to initial respiration rate values at normal air atmosphere. The results suggest that the respiration rate of tomato increased with temperature and decrease with storage time.

  20. An Automated System for Skeletal Maturity Assessment by Extreme Learning Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourvar, Marjan; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Raj, Ram Gopal; Gunalan, Roshan; Mazinani, Iman

    2015-01-01

    Assessing skeletal age is a subjective and tedious examination process. Hence, automated assessment methods have been developed to replace manual evaluation in medical applications. In this study, a new fully automated method based on content-based image retrieval and using extreme learning machines (ELM) is designed and adapted to assess skeletal maturity. The main novelty of this approach is it overcomes the segmentation problem as suffered by existing systems. The estimation results of ELM models are compared with those of genetic programming (GP) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) models. The experimental results signify improvement in assessment accuracy over GP and ANN, while generalization capability is possible with the ELM approach. Moreover, the results are indicated that the ELM model developed can be used confidently in further work on formulating novel models of skeletal age assessment strategies. According to the experimental results, the new presented method has the capacity to learn many hundreds of times faster than traditional learning methods and it has sufficient overall performance in many aspects. It has conclusively been found that applying ELM is particularly promising as an alternative method for evaluating skeletal age. PMID:26402795

  1. An Automated System for Skeletal Maturity Assessment by Extreme Learning Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourvar, Marjan; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Raj, Ram Gopal; Gunalan, Roshan; Mazinani, Iman

    2015-01-01

    Assessing skeletal age is a subjective and tedious examination process. Hence, automated assessment methods have been developed to replace manual evaluation in medical applications. In this study, a new fully automated method based on content-based image retrieval and using extreme learning machines (ELM) is designed and adapted to assess skeletal maturity. The main novelty of this approach is it overcomes the segmentation problem as suffered by existing systems. The estimation results of ELM models are compared with those of genetic programming (GP) and artificial neural networks (ANNs) models. The experimental results signify improvement in assessment accuracy over GP and ANN, while generalization capability is possible with the ELM approach. Moreover, the results are indicated that the ELM model developed can be used confidently in further work on formulating novel models of skeletal age assessment strategies. According to the experimental results, the new presented method has the capacity to learn many hundreds of times faster than traditional learning methods and it has sufficient overall performance in many aspects. It has conclusively been found that applying ELM is particularly promising as an alternative method for evaluating skeletal age.

  2. ngVLA Key Science Goal 2: Probing the Initial Conditions for Planetary Systems and Life with Astrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Brett; ngVLA Science Working Group 1

    2018-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects in understanding the origin and evolution of planets and planetary systems is tracing the influence of chemistry on the physical evolution of a system from a molecular cloud to a solar system. Existing facilities have already shown the stunning degree of molecular complexity present in these systems. The unique combination of sensitivity and spatial resolution offered by the ngVLA will permit the observation of both highly complex and very low-abundance chemical species that are exquisitely sensitive to the physical conditions and evolutionary history of their sources, which are out of reach of current observatories. In turn, by understanding the chemical evolution of these complex molecules, unprecedentedly detailed astrophysical insight can be gleaned from these astrochemical observations.This poster will overview a number of key science goals in astrochemistry which will be enabled by the ngVLA, including:1) imaging of the deepest, densest regions in protoplanetary disks and unveiling the physical history through isotopic ratios2) probing the ammonia snow line in these disks, thought to be the only viable tracer of the water snowline3) observations of the molecular content of giant planet atmospheres4) detections of new, complex molecules, potentially including the simplest amino acids and sugars5) tracing the origin of chiral excess in star-forming regions

  3. Kinematics of galactic planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiosa, M.I.; Khromov, G.S.

    1979-01-01

    The classical method of determining the components of the solar motion relative to the centroid of the system of planetary nebulae with known radial velocities is investigated. It is shown that this method is insensitive to random errors in the radial velocities and that low accuracy in determining the coordinates of the solar apex and motion results from the insufficient number of planetaries with measured radial velocities. The planetary nebulae are found not to satisfy well the law of differential galactic rotation with circular orbits. This is attributed to the elongation of their galactic orbits. A method for obtaining the statistical parallax of planetary nebulae is considered, and the parallax calculated from the tau components of their proper motion is shown to be the most reliable

  4. Mars Technology Program Planetary Protection Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the NASA Planetary Protection program are to preserve biological and organic conditions of solar-system bodies for future scientific exploration and to protect the Earth from potential hazardous extraterrestrial contamination. As the exploration of solar system continues, NASA remains committed to the implementation of planetary protection policy and regulations. To fulfill this commitment, the Mars Technology Program (MTP) has invested in a portfolio of tasks for developing necessary technologies to meet planetary protection requirements for the next decade missions.

  5. ORGANIZATIONAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Derenskaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article is aimed at developing a set of recommendations for achieving a higher level of organizational project maturity at a given enterprise. Methodology. For the purposes of the current research, the available information sources on the components of project management system are analysed; the essence of “organizational maturity” and the existing models of organizational maturity are studied. The method of systemic and structural analysis, as well as the method of logical generalization, are employed in order to study the existing models of organizational maturity, to describe levels of organizational maturity, and finally to develop a set of methodological recommendations for achieving a higher level of organizational project maturity at a given enterprise. The results of the research showed that the core elements of project management system are methodological, organizational, programtechnical, and motivational components. Project management encompasses a wide range of issues connected with organizational structure, project team, communication management, project participants, etc. However, the fundamental basis for developing project management concept within a given enterprise starts with defining its level of organizational maturity. The present paper describes various models of organizational maturity (staged, continuous, petal-shaped and their common types (H. Кеrzner Organizational Maturity Model, Berkeley PM Maturity Model, Organizational Project Management Maturity Model, Portfolio, Program & Project Management Maturity Model. The analysis of available theoretic works showed that the notion “organizational project maturity” refers to the capability of an enterprise to select projects and manage them with the intention of achieving its strategic goals in the most effective way. Importantly, the level of maturity can be improved by means of formalizing the acquired knowledge, regulating project-related activities

  6. Solar System Exploration Augmented by In-Situ Resource Utilization: Human Planetary Base Issues for Mercury and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2017-01-01

    Human and robotic missions to Mercury and Saturn are presented and analyzed with a range of propulsion options. Historical studies of space exploration, planetary spacecraft, and astronomy, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and industrialization all point to the vastness of natural resources in the solar system. Advanced propulsion benefitted from these resources in many ways. While advanced propulsion systems were proposed in these historical studies, further investigation of nuclear options using high power nuclear thermal and nuclear pulse propulsion as well as advanced chemical propulsion can significantly enhance these scenarios. Updated analyses based on these historical visions are presented. Nuclear thermal propulsion and ISRU enhanced chemical propulsion landers are assessed for Mercury missions. At Saturn, nuclear pulse propulsion with alternate propellant feed systems and Saturn moon exploration with chemical propulsion and nuclear electric propulsion options are discussed. Issues with using in-situ resource utilization on Mercury missions are discussed. At Saturn, the best locations for exploration and the use of the moons Titan and Enceladus as central locations for Saturn moon exploration is assessed.

  7. The Role of System-Specific Molecular Chaperones in the Maturation of Molybdoenzymes in Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meina Neumann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenesis of prokaryotic molybdoenzymes is a complex process with the final step representing the insertion of a matured molybdenum cofactor (Moco into a folded apoenzyme. Usually, specific chaperones of the XdhC family are required for the maturation of molybdoenzymes of the xanthine oxidase family in bacteria. Enzymes of the xanthine oxidase family are characterized to contain an equatorial sulfur ligand at the molybdenum center of Moco. This sulfur ligand is inserted into Moco while bound to the XdhC-like protein and before its insertion into the target enzyme. In addition, enzymes of the xanthine oxidase family bind either the molybdopterin (Mo-MPT form of Moco or the modified molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide cofactor (MCD. In both cases, only the matured cofactor is inserted by a proofreading process of XdhC. The roles of these specific XdhC-like chaperones during the biogenesis of enzymes of the xanthine oxidase family in bacteria are described.

  8. Autonomous Trans-Antartic expeditions: an initiative for advancing planetary mobility system technology while addressing Earth science objectives in Antartica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.; Schenker, P.; Blamont, J.

    2001-01-01

    A workshop on Antartic Autonomous Scientific Vehicles and Traverses met at the National Geographic Society in February to discuss scientific objectives and benefits of the use of rovers such as are being developed for use in planetary exploration.

  9. Topology of sustainable management of dynamical systems with desirable states: from defining planetary boundaries to safe operating spaces in the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzig, Jobst; Kittel, Tim; Donges, Jonathan; Molkenthin, Nora

    2016-04-01

    To keep the Earth System in a desirable region of its state space, such as defined by the recently suggested "tolerable environment and development window", "guardrails", "planetary boundaries", or "safe (and just) operating space for humanity", one not only needs to understand the quantitative internal dynamics of the system and the available options for influencing it (management), but also the structure of the system's state space with regard to certain qualitative differences. Important questions are: Which state space regions can be reached from which others with or without leaving the desirable region? Which regions are in a variety of senses "safe" to stay in when management options might break away, and which qualitative decision problems may occur as a consequence of this topological structure? In this work, we develop a mathematical theory of the qualitative topology of the state space of a dynamical system with management options and desirable states, as a complement to the existing literature on optimal control which is more focussed on quantitative optimization and is much applied in both the engineering and the integrated assessment literature. We suggest a certain terminology for the various resulting regions of the state space and perform a detailed formal classification of the possible states with respect to the possibility of avoiding or leaving the undesired region. Our results indicate that before performing some form of quantitative optimization such as of indicators of human well-being for achieving certain sustainable development goals, a sustainable and resilient management of the Earth System may require decisions of a more discrete type that come in the form of several dilemmas, e.g., choosing between eventual safety and uninterrupted desirability, or between uninterrupted safety and larger flexibility. We illustrate the concepts and dilemmas drawing on conceptual models from climate science, ecology, coevolutionary Earth System modeling

  10. Early-maturing soybean cropping system. III. Protein and oil contents and oil composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, M.V.; Steele, C.C.; Grabau, L.J.; MacKown, C.T.; Hildebrand, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    Expanding production of early-maturing soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] cultivars in the southeastern USA has exposed such cultivars to a wide range of environmental conditions during seed-fill. Temperatures during this growth stage influence levels of specific fatty acids, particularly of the unsaturated fatty acids. Our objective was to evaluate the grain quality responses of early-maturing cultivars to the wide range of planting dates in the southeastern USA. Protein and oil contents along with fatty acid profiles were assessed for cultivars from Maturity Group (MG) 00 through IV using late April mid-May early June, and late June planting dates on a well-drained Maury silt loam (fine, mixed, mesic Typic Paleudalf) in 1990 through 1993. Across years and cultivars. delayed planting increased protein content and linolenic acid levels and reduced oil content and oleic acid levels but had little or no influence on palmitic stearic or linoleic acid levels. The higher seed-fill temperatures associated with early planting were strongly correlated with increased oil content and oleic acid levels and reduced linolenic acid levels. Increasing seed-fill temperatures were closely associated with reduced linolenic acid levels for all six cultivars. However, the oleic acid response to seed-temperatures strongly depended on cultivar maturity. Oleic acid levels of early-maturing cultivars were much more sensitive to seed-fill temperatures than were those of later maturing cultivars. While other effects of environment on grain quality characteristics may be relatively small perhaps the quality of new low linolenic acid cultivars could be amplified through culture under the warmer conditions the southeastern USA

  11. Nervous System Injury in Response to Contact With Environmental, Engineered and Planetary Micro- and Nano-Sized Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Borisova

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Nerve cells take a special place among other cells in organisms because of their unique function mechanism. The plasma membrane of nerve cells from the one hand performs a classical barrier function, thereby being foremost targeted during contact with micro- and nano-sized particles, and from the other hand it is very intensively involved in nerve signal transmission, i.e., depolarization-induced calcium-dependent compound exocytosis realized via vesicle fusion following by their retrieval and calcium-independent permanent neurotransmitter turnover via plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporters that utilize Na+/K+ electrochemical gradient as a driving force. Worldwide traveling air pollution particulate matter is now considered as a possible trigger factor for the development of a variety of neuropathologies. Micro- and nano-sized particles can reach the central nervous system during inhalation avoiding the blood–brain barrier, thereby making synaptic neurotransmission extremely sensitive to their influence. Neurosafety of environmental, engineered and planetary particles is difficult to predict because they possess other features as compared to bulk materials from which the particles are composed of. The capability of the particles to absorb heavy metals and organic neurotoxic molecules from the environment, and moreover, spontaneously interact with proteins and lipids in organisms and form biomolecular corona can considerably change the particles‘ features. The absorption capability occasionally makes them worldwide traveling particulate carriers for delivery of environmental neurotoxic compounds to the brain. Discrepancy of the experimental data on neurotoxicity assessment of micro- and nano-sized particles can be associated with a variability of systems, in which neurotoxicity was analyzed and where protein components of the incubation media forming particle biocorona can significantly distort and even eliminate factual particle

  12. Two planetary systems with transiting Earth-size and super-Earth planets orbiting late-type dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, E. Díez; Hernández, J. I. González; Suárez Gómez, S. L.; Aguado, D. S.; González Gutiérrez, C.; Suárez Mascareño, A.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; González-Nuevo, J.; Toledo-Padrón, B.; Gracia, J.; de Cos Juez, F. J.; Rebolo, R.

    2018-06-01

    We present two new planetary systems found around cool dwarf stars with data from the K2 mission. The first system was found in K2-XX1 (EPIC 248545986), characterized in this work as M3.0V and observed in the 14th campaign of K2. It consists of three Earth-size transiting planets with radii of 1.1, 1.0 and 1.1 R⊕, showing a compact configuration with orbital periods of 5.24, 7.78 and 10.1 days, close to 2:3:4 resonance. The second was found in K2-XX2 (EPIC 249801827), characterized in this work as M0.5V and observed in the 15th campaign. It consists of two transiting super-Earths with radii 2.0 and 1.8 R⊕ and orbital periods of 6.03 and 20.5 days. The equilibrium temperatures of the atmospheres of these planets are estimated to be in the range of 380-600 K and the amplitudes of signals in transmission spectroscopy are estimated at ˜ 10 ppm.

  13. M-BAND IMAGING OF THE HR 8799 PLANETARY SYSTEM USING AN INNOVATIVE LOCI-BASED BACKGROUND SUBTRACTION TECHNIQUE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galicher, Raphael; Marois, Christian; Macintosh, Bruce; Konopacky, Quinn; Barman, Travis

    2011-01-01

    Multi-wavelength observations/spectroscopy of exoplanetary atmospheres are the basis of the emerging exciting field of comparative exoplanetology. The HR 8799 planetary system is an ideal laboratory to study our current knowledge gap between massive field brown dwarfs and the cold 5 Gyr old solar system planets. The HR 8799 planets have so far been imaged at J- to L-band, with only upper limits available at M-band. We present here deep high-contrast Keck II adaptive optics M-band observations that show the imaging detection of three of the four currently known HR 8799 planets. Such detections were made possible due to the development of an innovative LOCI-based background subtraction scheme that is three times more efficient than a classical median background subtraction for Keck II AO data, representing a gain in telescope time of up to a factor of nine. These M-band detections extend the broadband photometric coverage out to ∼5 μm and provide access to the strong CO fundamental absorption band at 4.5 μm. The new M-band photometry shows that the HR 8799 planets are located near the L/T-type dwarf transition, similar to what was found by other studies. We also confirm that the best atmospheric fits are consistent with low surface gravity, dusty, and non-equilibrium CO/CH 4 chemistry models.

  14. Constraining the Movement of the Spiral Features and the Locations of Planetary Bodies Within the AB Aur System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Jamie R.; Wisniewski, John P.; Grady, Carol A.; McElwain, Michael W.; Hashimoto, Jun; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Okamoto, Yoshiko K.; Fukagawa, Misato; Abe, Lyu

    2016-01-01

    We present a new analysis of multi-epoch, H-band, scattered light images of the AB Aur system. We use a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to simultaneously model the systems spectral energy distribution (SED) and H-band polarized intensity (PI) imagery. We find that a disk-dominated model, as opposed to one that is envelope dominated, can plausibly reproduce AB Aurs SED and near-IR imagery. This is consistent with previous modeling attempts presented in the literature and supports the idea that at least a subset of AB Aurs spirals originate within the disk. In light of this, we also analyzed the movement of spiral structures in multi-epoch H-band total light and PI imagery of the disk. We detect no significant rotation or change in spatial location of the spiral structures in these data, which span a 5.8-year baseline. If such structures are caused by disk planet interactions, the lack of observed rotation constrains the location of the orbit of planetary perturbers to be 47 au.

  15. Exponential law as a more compatible model to describe orbits of planetary systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saeedi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available   According to the Titus-Bode law, orbits of planets in the solar system obey a geometric progression. Many investigations have been launched to improve this law. In this paper, we apply square and exponential models to planets of solar system, moons of planets, and some extra solar systems, and compare them with each other.

  16. Opiate Drugs with Abuse Liability Hijack the Endogenous Opioid System to Disrupt Neuronal and Glial Maturation in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Kurt F; Knapp, Pamela E

    2017-01-01

    The endogenous opioid system, comprised of multiple opioid neuropeptide and receptor gene families, is highly expressed by developing neural cells and can significantly influence neuronal and glial maturation. In many central nervous system (CNS) regions, the expression of opioid peptides and receptors occurs only transiently during development, effectively disappearing with subsequent maturation only to reemerge under pathologic conditions, such as with inflammation or injury. Opiate drugs with abuse liability act to modify growth and development by mimicking the actions of endogenous opioids. Although typically mediated by μ-opioid receptors, opiate drugs can also act through δ- and κ-opioid receptors to modulate growth in a cell-type, region-specific, and developmentally regulated manner. Opioids act as biological response modifiers and their actions are highly contextual, plastic, modifiable, and influenced by other physiological processes or pathophysiological conditions, such as neuro-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. To date, most studies have considered the acute effects of opiates on cellular maturation. For example, activating opioid receptors typically results in acute growth inhibition in both neurons and glia. However, with sustained opioid exposure, compensatory factors become operative, a concept that has been largely overlooked during CNS maturation. Accordingly, this article surveys prior studies on the effects of opiates on CNS maturation, and also suggests new directions for future research in this area. Identifying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptive responses to chronic opiate exposure (e.g., tolerance) during maturation is crucial toward understanding the consequences of perinatal opiate exposure on the CNS.

  17. Government Internal Control System Maturity: The Role of Internal Guidance and External Control of Local Government in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutaryo Sutaryo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the Government Internal Control System (SPIP. The purpose of this study is to obtain empirical evidence of influence of guidance, external control, and the characteristics of Local Governments on Internal Control (SPIP maturity of local governments in Indonesia. The samples used in this study are 188 local governments in 2014. The variables used include the dependent variable, i.e. the SPIP maturity of local government; Independent variables, i.e. guidance frequency, the number of internal control findings, total assets, total expenditure and the number of local government units. This study uses secondary data obtained from the Financial and Development Supervisory Agency (BPKP and the Supreme Audit Agency (BPK. This study uses multiple regression analysis and the results show that the guidace frequency and total expenditure have a positive influence on maturity of SPIP, SPI finding has a negative influence, and the total assets and the number of units do not have significant influence on the maturity of SPIP.

  18. Robotic vehicles for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brian; Matthies, Larry; Gennery, Donald; Cooper, Brian; Nguyen, Tam; Litwin, Todd; Mishkin, Andrew; Stone, Henry

    1992-01-01

    A program to develop planetary rover technology is underway at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) under sponsorship of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Developmental systems with the necessary sensing, computing, power, and mobility resources to demonstrate realistic forms of control for various missions have been developed, and initial testing has been completed. These testbed systems and the associated navigation techniques used are described. Particular emphasis is placed on three technologies: Computer-Aided Remote Driving (CARD), Semiautonomous Navigation (SAN), and behavior control. It is concluded that, through the development and evaluation of such technologies, research at JPL has expanded the set of viable planetary rover mission possibilities beyond the limits of remotely teleoperated systems such as Lunakhod. These are potentially applicable to exploration of all the solid planetary surfaces in the solar system, including Mars, Venus, and the moons of the gas giant planets.

  19. Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System for Small and Large Scale Missions: Approaching TRL 6 for Planetary and Human Exploration Missions and TRL 9 for Small Probe Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, R. A. S.; Gasch, M. J.; Milos, F. S.; Stackpoole, M. M.; Smith, B. P.; Switzer, M. R.; Venkatapathy, E.; Wilder, M. C.; Boghhozian, T.; Chavez-Garcia, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, NASAs Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) funded an effort to develop an ablative thermal protection system (TPS) material that would have improved properties when compared to Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) and AVCOAT. Their goal was a conformal material, processed with a flexible reinforcement that would result in similar or better thermal characteristics and higher strain-to-failure characteristics that would allow for easier integration on flight aeroshells than then-current rigid ablative TPS materials. In 2012, NASAs Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) began funding the maturation of the best formulation of the game changing conformal ablator, C-PICA. Progress has been reported at IPPW over the past three years, describing C-PICA with a density and recession rates similar to PICA, but with a higher strain-to-failure which allows for direct bonding and no gap fillers, and even more important, with thermal characteristics resulting in half the temperature rise of PICA. Overall, C-PICA should be able to replace PICA with a thinner, lighter weight, less complicated design. These characteristics should be particularly attractive for use as backshell TPS on high energy planetary entry vehicles. At the end of this year, the material should be ready for missions to consider including in their design, in fact, NASAs Science Mission Directorate (SMD) is considering incentivizing the use of C-PICA in the next Discovery Proposal call. This year both scale up of the material to large (1-m) sized pieces and the design and build of small probe heatshields for flight tests will be completed. NASA, with an industry partner, will build a 1-m long manufacturing demonstration unit (MDU) with a shape based on a mid LD lifting body. In addition, in an effort to fly as you test and test as you fly, NASA, with a second industry partner, will build a small probe to test in the Interactive Heating Facility (IHF) arc jet and, using nearly the

  20. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Special Session: Oxygen in the Solar System, I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The Special Session: Oxygen in the Solar System, I, included the following reports:Oxygen in the Solar System: Origins of Isotopic and Redox Complexity; The Origin of Oxygen Isotope Variations in the Early Solar System; Solar and Solar-Wind Oxygen Isotopes and the Genesis Mission; Solar 18O/17O and the Setting for Solar Birth; Oxygen Isotopes in Early Solar System Materials: A Perspective Based on Microbeam Analyses of Chondrules from CV Carbonaceous Chondrites; Insight into Primordial Solar System Oxygen Reservoirs from Returned Cometary Samples; Tracing Meteorites to Their Sources Through Asteroid Spectroscopy; Redox Conditions Among the Terrestrial Planets; Redox Complexity in Martian Meteorites: Implications for Oxygen in the Terrestrial Planets; Implications of Sulfur Isotopes for the Evolution of Atmospheric Oxygen; Oxygen in the Outer Solar System; and On the Oxidation States of the Galilean Satellites: Implications for Internal Structures.

  1. Maturity-based approach for the development of environmentally sustainable product/service-systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.

    2016-01-01

    the early stages of the development process. This paper aims to identify the best practices for PSS development, based on a systematic literature review, and to propose their integration into an existing maturity model for ecodesign, the EcoM2, into which 30 best practices for PSS development are identified...

  2. High-resolution Imaging of Transiting Extrasolar Planetary systems (HITEP). II. Lucky Imaging results from 2015 and 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, D. F.; Southworth, J.; Smalley, B.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Dominik, M.; Andersen, M. I.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Ciceri, S.; D'Ago, G.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Gu, S.-H.; Hinse, T. C.; Henning, Th.; Hundertmark, M.; Kains, N.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Kokotanekova, R.; Kuffmeier, M.; Longa-Peña, P.; Mancini, L.; MacKenzie, J.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Rahvar, S.; Sajadian, S.; Snodgrass, C.; Skottfelt, J.; Surdej, J.; Tronsgaard, R.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; von Essen, C.; Wang, Yi-Bo; Wertz, O.

    2018-02-01

    Context. The formation and dynamical history of hot Jupiters is currently debated, with wide stellar binaries having been suggested as a potential formation pathway. Additionally, contaminating light from both binary companions and unassociated stars can significantly bias the results of planet characterisation studies, but can be corrected for if the properties of the contaminating star are known. Aim. We search for binary companions to known transiting exoplanet host stars, in order to determine the multiplicity properties of hot Jupiter host stars. We also search for and characterise unassociated stars along the line of sight, allowing photometric and spectroscopic observations of the planetary system to be corrected for contaminating light. Methods: We analyse lucky imaging observations of 97 Southern hemisphere exoplanet host stars, using the Two Colour Instrument on the Danish 1.54 m telescope. For each detected companion star, we determine flux ratios relative to the planet host star in two passbands, and measure the relative position of the companion. The probability of each companion being physically associated was determined using our two-colour photometry. Results: A catalogue of close companion stars is presented, including flux ratios, position measurements, and estimated companion star temperature. For companions that are potential binary companions, we review archival and catalogue data for further evidence. For WASP-77AB and WASP-85AB, we combine our data with historical measurements to determine the binary orbits, showing them to be moderately eccentric and inclined to the line of sight (and hence planetary orbital axis). Combining our survey with the similar Friends of Hot Jupiters survey, we conclude that known hot Jupiter host stars show a deficit of high mass stellar companions compared to the field star population; however, this may be a result of the biases in detection and target selection by ground-based surveys. Based on data collected by

  3. Puberty and sexual maturity in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Eduardo Barreto de Souza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the sexual development in Anglo-Nubian male goats raised in semi-intensive system. Eight animals were monitored every fifteen days, from the 12th to the 44th week for age at penis detachment, live weight, scrotal circumference, seminal parameters (volume, aspect, concentration, wave motion, progressive individual motility, vigor and spermatic abnormalities and serum testosterone levels. Serum testosterone levels were determined in blood samples collected at the 20th, 28th and 38th weeks of age. Penis detachment occurred at 102.9 ± 15.4 days of age. Live weight and scrotal circumference at 20th and 44th weeks of age ranged from 25.9 ± 3.5 to 44.7 ± 4.7 kg and from 21.2 ± 1.6 cm to 26.0 ± 1.5 cm, respectively. The ejaculate volume ranged from 0.38 ± 0.05 to 0.96 ± 0.04 mL, concentration ranged from 1.33 ± 0.64 to 3.54 ± 0.14.10(9 mL-1 and the progressive individual motility varied from 48.0 ± 10.52% to 82.0 ± 3.74%, at the same age. The number of defective spermatozoa (major and minor was 32.2 ± 5.8% vs. 8.80 ± 2.9% at the 20th and the 44th week of age, respectively. Serum testosterone level was 2.70 ± 1.40 ng.mL-1 at the 20th week, 8.50 ± 4.66 ng.mL-1 at the 28th week and 2.21 ± 2.28 ng.mL-1 at the 38th week of age. Age showed a correlation with live weight, scrotal circumference, and all the qualitative parameters of semen except for volume, with all other qualitative parameters of semen, and the correlation among sperm abnormalities and the other traits was negative. Serum testosterone levels and andrological parameters of Anglo-Nubian goats raised in semi-intensive system are closely related to age. In those animals, puberty is reached at the 20th week and sexual maturity is reached at the 38th week of age.

  4. Dimensionality and integrals of motion of the Trappist-1 planetary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floß, Johannes; Rein, Hanno; Brumer, Paul

    2018-04-01

    The number of isolating integrals of motion of the Trappist-1 system - a late M-dwarf orbited by seven Earth-sized planets - was determined numerically, using an adapted version of the correlation dimension method. It was found that over the investigated time-scales of up to 20 000 years the number of isolating integrals of motion is the same as one would find for a system of seven non-interacting planets - despite the fact that the planets in the Trappist-1 system are strongly interacting. Considering perturbed versions of the Trappist-1 system shows that the system may occupy an atypical part of phase-space with high stability. These findings are consistent with earlier studies.

  5. Exploring the Solar System Activities Outline: Hands-On Planetary Science for Formal Education K-14 and Informal Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K. W.; Lindstrom, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    Activities by NASA scientists and teachers focus on integrating Planetary Science activities with existing Earth science, math, and language arts curriculum. The wealth of activities that highlight missions and research pertaining to the exploring the solar system allows educators to choose activities that fit a particular concept or theme within their curriculum. Most of the activities use simple, inexpensive techniques that help students understand the how and why of what scientists are learning about comets, asteroids, meteorites, moons and planets. With these NASA developed activities students experience recent mission information about our solar system such as Mars geology and the search for life using Mars meteorites and robotic data. The Johnson Space Center ARES Education team has compiled a variety of NASA solar system activities to produce an annotated thematic outline useful to classroom educators and informal educators as they teach space science. An important aspect of the outline annotation is that it highlights appropriate science content information and key science and math concepts so educators can easily identify activities that will enhance curriculum development. The outline contains URLs for the activities and NASA educator guides as well as links to NASA mission science and technology. In the informal setting educators can use solar system exploration activities to reinforce learning in association with thematic displays, planetarium programs, youth group gatherings, or community events. Within formal education at the primary level some of the activities are appropriately designed to excite interest and arouse curiosity. Middle school educators will find activities that enhance thematic science and encourage students to think about the scientific process of investigation. Some of the activities offered are appropriate for the upper levels of high school and early college in that they require students to use and analyze data.

  6. CONSTRAINING THE MOVEMENT OF THE SPIRAL FEATURES AND THE LOCATIONS OF PLANETARY BODIES WITHIN THE AB AUR SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomax, Jamie R.; Wisniewski, John P.; Hashimoto, Jun [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73071 (United States); Grady, Carol A. [Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McElwain, Michael W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 6681, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kudo, Tomoyuki; Currie, Thayne M; Egner, Sebastian; Guyon, Olivier; Hayano, Yutaka [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Hayashi, Masahiko [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Okamoto, Yoshiko K. [Institute of Astrophysics and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Science, Ibaraki University, 2-1-1 Bunkyo, Mito, Ibaraki 310-8512 (Japan); Fukagawa, Misato [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Abe, Lyu [Laboratoire Lagrange (UMR 7293), Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, 28 avenue Valrose, F-06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Brandner, Wolfgang; Feldt, Markus [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Brandt, Timothy D. [Astrophysics Department, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Carson, Joseph C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Charleston, 58 Coming Street, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Goto, Miwa, E-mail: Jamie.R.Lomax@ou.edu, E-mail: wisniewski@ou.edu, E-mail: carol.a.grady@nasa.gov [Universitäts-Sternwarte München, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); and others

    2016-09-01

    We present a new analysis of multi-epoch, H -band, scattered light images of the AB Aur system. We use a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to simultaneously model the system’s spectral energy distribution (SED) and H -band polarized intensity (PI) imagery. We find that a disk-dominated model, as opposed to one that is envelope-dominated, can plausibly reproduce AB Aur’s SED and near-IR imagery. This is consistent with previous modeling attempts presented in the literature and supports the idea that at least a subset of AB Aur’s spirals originate within the disk. In light of this, we also analyzed the movement of spiral structures in multi-epoch H -band total light and PI imagery of the disk. We detect no significant rotation or change in spatial location of the spiral structures in these data, which span a 5.8-year baseline. If such structures are caused by disk–planet interactions, the lack of observed rotation constrains the location of the orbit of planetary perturbers to be >47 au.

  7. Constraint on Additional Planets in Planetary Systems Discovered Through the Channel of High-magnification Gravitational Microlensing Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, I.-G.; Han, C.; Choi, J.-Y.; Hwang, K.-H.; Jung, Y.-K.; Park, H.

    2015-04-01

    High-magnification gravitational microlensing events provide an important channel of detecting planetary systems with multiple giants located at their birth places. In order to investigate the potential existence of additional planets, we reanalyze the light curves of the eight high-magnification microlensing events, for each of which a single planet was previously detected. The analyzed events include OGLE-2005-BLG-071, OGLE-2005-BLG-169, MOA-2007-BLG-400, MOA-2008-BLG-310, MOA-2009-BLG-319, MOA-2009-BLG-387, MOA-2010-BLG-477, and MOA-2011-BLG-293. We find that including an additional planet improves fits with {Δ }{{χ }2}\\lt 80 for seven out of eight analyzed events. For MOA-2009-BLG-319, the improvement is relatively big with {Δ }{{χ }2}∼ 143. From inspection of the fits, we find that the improvement of the fits is attributed to systematics in data. Although no clear evidence of additional planets is found, it is still possible to constrain the existence of additional planets in the parameter space. For this purpose, we construct exclusion diagrams showing the confidence levels excluding the existence of an additional planet as a function of its separation and mass ratio. We also present the exclusion ranges of additional planets with 90% confidence level for Jupiter-, Saturn-, and Uranus-mass planets.

  8. VARIATIONAL PRINCIPLE FOR PLANETARY INTERIORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Li; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, the number of confirmed planets has grown above 2000. It is clear that they represent a diversity of structures not seen in our own solar system. In addition to very detailed interior modeling, it is valuable to have a simple analytical framework for describing planetary structures. The variational principle is a fundamental principle in physics, entailing that a physical system follows the trajectory, which minimizes its action. It is alternative to the differential equation formulation of a physical system. Applying the variational principle to the planetary interior can beautifully summarize the set of differential equations into one, which provides us some insight into the problem. From this principle, a universal mass–radius relation, an estimate of the error propagation from the equation of state to the mass–radius relation, and a form of the virial theorem applicable to planetary interiors are derived.

  9. Electrostatic Phenomena on Planetary Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2017-02-01

    The diverse planetary environments in the solar system react in somewhat different ways to the encompassing influence of the Sun. These different interactions define the electrostatic phenomena that take place on and near planetary surfaces. The desire to understand the electrostatic environments of planetary surfaces goes beyond scientific inquiry. These environments have enormous implications for both human and robotic exploration of the solar system. This book describes in some detail what is known about the electrostatic environment of the solar system from early and current experiments on Earth as well as what is being learned from the instrumentation on the space exploration missions (NASA, European Space Agency, and the Japanese Space Agency) of the last few decades. It begins with a brief review of the basic principles of electrostatics.

  10. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A.; Hare, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    . Terrestrial geologic maps published by the USGS now are primarily digital products using geographic information system (GIS) software and file formats. GIS mapping tools permit easy spatial comparison, generation, importation, manipulation, and analysis of multiple raster image, gridded, and vector data sets. GIS software has also permitted the development of project-specific tools and the sharing of geospatial products among researchers. GIS approaches are now being used in planetary geologic mapping as well (e.g., Hare and others, 2009). Guidelines or handbooks on techniques in planetary geologic mapping have been developed periodically (e.g., Wilhelms, 1972, 1990; Tanaka and others, 1994). As records of the heritage of mapping methods and data, these remain extremely useful guides. However, many of the fundamental aspects of earlier mapping handbooks have evolved significantly, and a comprehensive review of currently accepted mapping methodologies is now warranted. As documented in this handbook, such a review incorporates additional guidelines developed in recent years for planetary geologic mapping by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) Program s Planetary Cartography and Geologic Mapping Working Group s (PCGMWG) Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS) on the selection and use of map bases as well as map preparation, review, publication, and distribution. In light of the current boom in planetary exploration and the ongoing rapid evolution of available data for planetary mapping, this handbook is especially timely.

  11. Autonomous Soil Assessment System: A Data-Driven Approach to Planetary Mobility Hazard Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimalwala, K.; Faragalli, M.; Reid, E.

    2018-04-01

    The Autonomous Soil Assessment System predicts mobility hazards for rovers. Its development and performance are presented, with focus on its data-driven models, machine learning algorithms, and real-time sensor data fusion for predictive analytics.

  12. Three Transits for the Price of One: Super-Earth Transits of the Nearest Planetary System Discovered By Kepler/K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, Seth; Niraula, Prajwal; Hedges, Christina; Crossfield, Ian; Kreidberg, Laura; Greene, Tom; Rodriguez, Joey; Vanderburg, Andrew; Laughlin, Gregory; Millholland, Sarah; Wang, Songhu; Cochran, William; Livingston, John; Gandolfi, Davide; Guenther, Eike; Fridlund, Malcolm; Korth, Judith

    2018-05-01

    We propose primary transit observations of three Super-Earth planets in the newly discovered planetary system around a bright, nearby star, GJ 9827. We recently announced the detection of three super-Earth planets in 1:3:5 commensurability, the inner planet, GJ 9827 b having a period of 1.2 days. This is the nearest planetary system that Kepler or K2 has found, at 30 pc, and given its brightness is one of the top systems for follow-up characterization. This system presents a unique opportunity to acquire three planetary transits for the price of one. There are several opportunities in the Spitzer visibility windows to obtain all three transits in a short period of time. We propose 3.6 micron observations of all three Super-Earth transits in a single 18-hour observation window. The proximity to a 1:3:5 resonance is intriguing from a dynamical standpoint as well. Indeed, anomalous transit timing offsets have been measured for planet d in Hubble observations that suffer from partial phase coverage. The short cadence and extended coverage of Spitzer is essential to provide a firm determination of the ephemerides and characterize any transit timing variations. Constraining these orbital parameters is critical for follow-up observations from space and ground-based telescopes. Due to the brightness of the host star, this planetary system is likely to be extensively observed in the years to come. Indeed, our team has acquired observations of the planets orbiting GJ9827 with Hubble in the ultraviolet and infrared. The proposed observations will provide infrared atmospheric measurements and firm orbital characterization which is critical for planning and designing future observations, in particular atmospheric characterization with JWST.

  13. The Goldstone solar system radar: A science instrument for planetary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorsky, J. D.; Renzetti, N. A.; Fulton, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) station at NASA's Deep Space Communications Complex in California's Mojave Desert is described. A short chronological account of the GSSR's technical development and scientific discoveries is given. This is followed by a basic discussion of how information is derived from the radar echo and how the raw information can be used to increase understanding of the solar system. A moderately detailed description of the radar system is given, and the engineering performance of the radar is discussed. The operating characteristics of the Arcibo Observatory in Puerto Rico are briefly described and compared with those of the GSSR. Planned and in-process improvements to the existing radar, as well as the performance of a hypothetical 128-m diameter antenna radar station, are described. A comprehensive bibliography of referred scientific and engineering articles presenting results that depended on data gathered by the instrument is provided.

  14. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  15. Planetary submillimeter spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M. J.

    1988-01-01

    The aim is to develop a comprehensive observational and analytical program to study solar system physics and meterology by measuring molecular lines in the millimeter and submillimeter spectra of planets and comets. A primary objective is to conduct observations with new JPL and Caltech submillimeter receivers at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. A secondary objective is to continue to monitor the time variable planetary phenomena (e.g., Jupiter and Uranus) at centimeter wavelength using the NASA antennas of the Deep Space Network (DSN).

  16. Mathematical models of non-linear phenomena, processes and systems: from molecular scale to planetary atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book consists of twenty seven chapters, which can be divided into three large categories: articles with the focus on the mathematical treatment of non-linear problems, including the methodologies, algorithms and properties of analytical and numerical solutions to particular non-linear problems; theoretical and computational studies dedicated to the physics and chemistry of non-linear micro-and nano-scale systems, including molecular clusters, nano-particles and nano-composites; and, papers focused on non-linear processes in medico-biological systems, including mathematical models of ferments, amino acids, blood fluids and polynucleic chains.

  17. Asteroseismic inference on rotation, gyrochronology and planetary system dynamics of 16 Cygni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, G. R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Farr, W. M.

    2014-01-01

    The solar analogs 16 Cyg A and 16 Cyg B are excellent asteroseismic targets in the \\Kepler field of view and together with a red dwarf and a Jovian planet form an interesting system. For these more evolved Sun-like stars we cannot detect surface rotation with the current \\Kepler data but instead...

  18. STEM Engagement with NASA's Solar System Treks Portals for Lunar and Planetary Mapping and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, E. S.; Day, B. H.

    2018-01-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of the uses and capabilities of NASA's Solar System Treks family of online mapping and modeling portals. While also designed to support mission planning and scientific research, this presentation will focus on the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) engagement and public outreach capabilities of these web based suites of data visualization and analysis tools.

  19. MODEL-INDEPENDENT STELLAR AND PLANETARY MASSES FROM MULTI-TRANSITING EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montet, Benjamin T.; Johnson, John Asher

    2013-01-01

    Precise exoplanet characterization requires precise classification of exoplanet host stars. The masses of host stars are commonly estimated by comparing their spectra to those predicted by stellar evolution models. However, spectroscopically determined properties are difficult to measure accurately for stars that are substantially different from the Sun, such as M-dwarfs and evolved stars. Here, we propose a new method to dynamically measure the masses of transiting planets near mean-motion resonances and their host stars by combining observations of transit timing variations with radial velocity (RV) measurements. We derive expressions to analytically determine the mass of each member of the system and demonstrate the technique on the Kepler-18 system. We compare these analytic results to numerical simulations and find that the two are consistent. We identify eight systems for which our technique could be applied if follow-up RV measurements are collected. We conclude that this analysis would be optimal for systems discovered by next-generation missions similar to TESS or PLATO, which will target bright stars that are amenable to efficient RV follow-up.

  20. Methods of Celestial Mechanics Volume II: Application to Planetary System, Geodynamics and Satellite Geodesy

    CERN Document Server

    Beutler, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    G. Beutler's Methods of Celestial Mechanics is a coherent textbook for students as well as an excellent reference for practitioners. Volume II is devoted to the applications and to the presentation of the program system CelestialMechanics. Three major areas of applications are covered: (1) Orbital and rotational motion of extended celestial bodies. The properties of the Earth-Moon system are developed from the simplest case (rigid bodies) to more general cases, including the rotation of an elastic Earth, the rotation of an Earth partly covered by oceans and surrounded by an atmosphere, and the rotation of an Earth composed of a liquid core and a rigid shell (Poincaré model). (2) Artificial Earth Satellites. The oblateness perturbation acting on a satellite and the exploitation of its properties in practice is discussed using simulation methods (CelestialMechanics) and (simplified) first order perturbation methods. The perturbations due to the higher-order terms of the Earth's gravitational potential and reso...

  1. Climate, ecosystems, and planetary futures: The challenge to predict life in Earth system models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonan, Gordon B; Doney, Scott C

    2018-02-02

    Many global change stresses on terrestrial and marine ecosystems affect not only ecosystem services that are essential to humankind, but also the trajectory of future climate by altering energy and mass exchanges with the atmosphere. Earth system models, which simulate terrestrial and marine ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles, offer a common framework for ecological research related to climate processes; analyses of vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation; and climate change mitigation. They provide an opportunity to move beyond physical descriptors of atmospheric and oceanic states to societally relevant quantities such as wildfire risk, habitat loss, water availability, and crop, fishery, and timber yields. To achieve this, the science of climate prediction must be extended to a more multifaceted Earth system prediction that includes the biosphere and its resources. Copyright © 2018, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. Pulsed neutron generator system for astrobiological and geochemical exploration of planetary bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkurt, Hatice; Groves, Joel L.; Trombka, Jacob; Starr, Richard; Evans, Larry; Floyd, Samuel; Hoover, Richard; Lim, Lucy; McClanahan, Timothy; James, Ralph; McCoy, Timothy; Schweitzer, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    A pulsed neutron/gamma-ray detection system for use on rovers to survey the elemental concentrations of Martian and Lunar surface and subsurface materials is evaluated. A robotic survey system combining a pulsed neutron generator (PNG) and detectors (gamma ray and neutron) can measure the major constituents to a depth of about 30 cm. Scanning mode measurements can give the major elemental concentrations while the rover is moving; analyzing mode measurements can give a detailed elemental analysis of the adjacent material when the rover is stationary. A detailed map of the subsurface elemental concentrations will provide invaluable information relevant to some of the most fundamental astrobiological questions including the presence of water, biogenic activity, life habitability and deposition processes

  3. Investigating Extra-solar Planetary System Qatar-1 through Transit Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Parijat; Mannaday, Vineet Kumar; Jiang, Ing-Guey; Sahu, Devendra Kumar; Chand, Swadesh

    2018-04-01

    We report the results of the transit timing variation (TTV) analysis of the extra-solar planet Qatar-1b using thirty eight light curves. Our analysis combines thirty five previously available transit light curves with three new transits observed by us between June 2016 and September 2016 using the 2-m Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT) at the Indian Astronomical Observatory (Hanle, India). From these transit data, the physical and orbital parameters of the Qatar-1 system are determined. In addition to this, the ephemeris for the orbital period and mid-transit time are refined to investigate the possible TTV. We find that the null-TTV model provides the better fit to the (O-C) data. This indicates that there is no evidence for TTVs to confirm the presence of additional planets in the Qatar-1 system. The use of the 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT) operated by the Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES, Nainital, India) could improve the photometric precision to examine the signature of TTVs in this system with a greater accuracy than in the present work.

  4. Evaluating Potential Production of Mid-Late Maturing Minituber of Potato Cultivars and Promising Clones under Aeroponic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. HassanPanah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate potential production of mid-late maturing promising mini-tuber clones and cultivars under aeroponic system during 2011-2013 in both laboratory and greenhouse of Ardabil Sabalan Behparvar Company. Five clones and cultivars (three promising clones 397009-3, 397082-10 and 397081-1, and two cultivars, Khavaran and Agria were evaluated in completely randomized designs with three replications. During growing period and after harvesting the crop some important traits like plant height, main stem number per plant, mini-tuber number and weight per square meter, mean mini-tuber weight per square meter and storability of mini-tubers were measured. Analysis of variance showed that mini-tuber number and weight per square meter, mean mini-tuber weight per square meter, plant height and main stem number per plant among clones and cultivars were significantly different. The mid-late maturity promising clones of 397081-1 and 397009-3 produced higher mini-tuber number per square meter (2766 and 2141 mini-tubers, respectively, mini-tuber weight per square meter (11400 and 16500 g, respectively than the remaining types. Mid-late maturity promising clone of 397081-1 also produced higher mean mini-tuber weight per square meter (5.59 g and plant height (174 cm as compared with the others. The differences per square meter in the number of mini-tuber of mid-late maturing promising clones of 397081-1 and 397009-3 with Agria cultivar were about 1166 and 541, respectively. Mean mini-tuber weight per square meter in aeroponic system was 6.16 grams.

  5. Lunar and Planetary Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basilevsky, Alexander T.

    2018-05-01

    Lunar and planetary geology can be described using examples such as the geology of Earth (as the reference case) and geologies of the Earth's satellite the Moon; the planets Mercury, Mars and Venus; the satellite of Saturn Enceladus; the small stony asteroid Eros; and the nucleus of the comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Each body considered is illustrated by its global view, with information given as to its position in the solar system, size, surface, environment including gravity acceleration and properties of its atmosphere if it is present, typical landforms and processes forming them, materials composing these landforms, information on internal structure of the body, stages of its geologic evolution in the form of stratigraphic scale, and estimates of the absolute ages of the stratigraphic units. Information about one body may be applied to another body and this, in particular, has led to the discovery of the existence of heavy "meteoritic" bombardment in the early history of the solar system, which should also significantly affect Earth. It has been shown that volcanism and large-scale tectonics may have not only been an internal source of energy in the form of radiogenic decay of potassium, uranium and thorium, but also an external source in the form of gravity tugging caused by attractions of the neighboring bodies. The knowledge gained by lunar and planetary geology is important for planning and managing space missions and for the practical exploration of other bodies of the solar system and establishing manned outposts on them.

  6. From Planetary Mapping to Map Production: Planetary Cartography as integral discipline in Planetary Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Andrea; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hargitai, Hendrik; Hare, Trent; Manaud, Nicolas; Karachevtseva, Irina; Kersten, Elke; Roatsch, Thomas; Wählisch, Marita; Kereszturi, Akos

    2016-04-01

    Cartography is one of the most important communication channels between users of spatial information and laymen as well as the open public alike. This applies to all known real-world objects located either here on Earth or on any other object in our Solar System. In planetary sciences, however, the main use of cartography resides in a concept called planetary mapping with all its various attached meanings: it can be (1) systematic spacecraft observation from orbit, i.e. the retrieval of physical information, (2) the interpretation of discrete planetary surface units and their abstraction, or it can be (3) planetary cartography sensu strictu, i.e., the technical and artistic creation of map products. As the concept of planetary mapping covers a wide range of different information and knowledge levels, aims associated with the concept of mapping consequently range from a technical and engineering focus to a scientific distillation process. Among others, scientific centers focusing on planetary cartography are the United State Geological Survey (USGS, Flagstaff), the Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIIGAiK, Moscow), Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE, Hungary), and the German Aerospace Center (DLR, Berlin). The International Astronomical Union (IAU), the Commission Planetary Cartography within International Cartographic Association (ICA), the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC), the WG IV/8 Planetary Mapping and Spatial Databases within International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) and a range of other institutions contribute on definition frameworks in planetary cartography. Classical cartography is nowadays often (mis-)understood as a tool mainly rather than a scientific discipline and an art of communication. Consequently, concepts of information systems, mapping tools and cartographic frameworks are used interchangeably, and cartographic workflows and visualization of spatial information in thematic maps have often been

  7. Planetary optical and infrared imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrile, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to obtain and analyze high spatial resolution charge coupled device (CCD) coronagraphic images of extra-solar planetary material and solar system objects. These data will provide information on the distribution of planetary and proto-planetary material around nearby stars leading to a better understanding of the origin and evolution of the solar system. Imaging within our solar system will provide information on the current cloud configurations on the outer planets, search for new objects around the outer planets, and provide direct support for Voyager, Galileo, and CRAF by imaging material around asteroids and clouds on Neptune. Over the last year this program acquired multispectral and polarization images of the disk of material around the nearby star Beta Pictoris. This material is believed to be associated with the formation of planets and provides a first look at a planetary system much younger than our own. Preliminary color and polarization data suggest that the material is very low albedo and similar to dark outer solar system carbon rich material. A coronagraphic search for other systems is underway and has already examined over 100 nearby stars. Coronagraphic imaging provided the first clear look at the rings of Uranus and albedo limits for the ring arcs around Neptune

  8. Resonant structure, formation and stability of the planetary system HD155358

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silburt, Ari; Rein, Hanno

    2017-08-01

    Two Jovian-sized planets are orbiting the star HD155358 near exact mean motion resonance (MMR) commensurability. In this work, we re-analyse the radial velocity (RV) data previously collected by Robertson et al. Using a Bayesian framework, we construct two models - one that includes and the other that excludes gravitational planet-planet interactions (PPIs). We find that the orbital parameters from our PPI and no planet-planet interaction (noPPI) models differ by up to 2σ, with our noPPI model being statistically consistent with previous results. In addition, our new PPI model strongly favours the planets being in MMR, while our noPPI model strongly disfavours MMR. We conduct a stability analysis by drawing samples from our PPI model's posterior distribution and simulating them for 109 yr, finding that our best-fitting values land firmly in a stable region of parameter space. We explore a series of formation models that migrate the planets into their observed MMR. We then use these models to directly fit to the observed RV data, where each model is uniquely parametrized by only three constants describing its migration history. Using a Bayesian framework, we find that a number of migration models fit the RV data surprisingly well, with some migration parameters being ruled out. Our analysis shows that PPIs are important to take into account when modelling observations of multiplanetary systems. The additional information that one can gain from interacting models can help constrain planet migration parameters.

  9. Planetcam: A Visible And Near Infrared Lucky-imaging Camera To Study Planetary Atmospheres And Solar System Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lavega, Agustin; Rojas, J.; Hueso, R.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; de Bilbao, L.; Murga, G.; Ariño, J.; Mendikoa, I.

    2012-10-01

    PlanetCam is a two-channel fast-acquisition and low-noise camera designed for a multispectral study of the atmospheres of the planets (Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune) and the satellite Titan at high temporal and spatial resolutions simultaneously invisible (0.4-1 μm) and NIR (1-2.5 μm) channels. This is accomplished by means of a dichroic beam splitter that separates both beams directing them into two different detectors. Each detector has filter wheels corresponding to the characteristic absorption bands of each planetary atmosphere. Images are acquired and processed using the “lucky imaging” technique in which several thousand images of the same object are obtained in a short time interval, coregistered and ordered in terms of image quality to reconstruct a high-resolution ideally diffraction limited image of the object. Those images will be also calibrated in terms of intensity and absolute reflectivity. The camera will be tested at the 50.2 cm telescope of the Aula EspaZio Gela (Bilbao) and then commissioned at the 1.05 m at Pic-duMidi Observatory (Franca) and at the 1.23 m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory in Spain. Among the initially planned research targets are: (1) The vertical structure of the clouds and hazes in the planets and their scales of variability; (2) The meteorology, dynamics and global winds and their scales of variability in the planets. PlanetCam is also expected to perform studies of other Solar System and astrophysical objects. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN project AYA2009-10701 with FEDER funds, by Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07 and by Universidad País Vasco UPV/EHU through program UFI11/55.

  10. Masses of the Planetary Nebula Central Stars in the Galactic Globular Cluster System from HST Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacoby, George H. [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Marco, Orsola De [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Davies, James [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore MD 21218 (United States); Lotarevich, I. [American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Harrington, J. Patrick [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Lanz, Thierry, E-mail: gjacoby@lowell.edu, E-mail: orsola.demarco@mq.edu.au, E-mail: jdavies@stsci.edu, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: jph@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: thierry.lanz@oca.eu [Laboratoire Lagrange, Université Côte d’Azur, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, CNRS, F-06304 Nice (France)

    2017-02-10

    The globular cluster (GC) system of our Galaxy contains four planetary nebulae (PNe): K 648 (or Ps 1) in M15, IRAS 18333-2357 in M22, JaFu 1 in Pal 6, and JaFu 2 in NGC 6441. Because single-star evolution at the low stellar mass of present-epoch GCs was considered incapable of producing visible PNe, their origin presented a puzzle. We imaged the PN JaFu 1 with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to obtain photometry of its central star (CS) and high-resolution morphological information. We imaged IRAS 18333-2357 with better depth and resolution, and we analyzed its archival HST spectra to constrain its CS temperature and luminosity. All PNe in Galactic GCs now have quality HST data, allowing us to improve CS mass estimates. We find reasonably consistent masses between 0.53 and 0.58 M {sub ⊙} for all four objects, though estimates vary when adopting different stellar evolutionary calculations. The CS mass of IRAS 18333-2357, though, depends strongly on its temperature, which remains elusive due to reddening uncertainties. For all four objects, we consider their CS and nebula masses, their morphologies, and other incongruities to assess the likelihood that these objects formed from binary stars. Although generally limited by uncertainties (∼0.02 M {sub ⊙}) in post-AGB tracks and core mass versus luminosity relations, the high-mass CS in K 648 indicates a binary origin. The CS of JaFu 1 exhibits compact, bright [O iii] and H α emission, like EGB 6, suggesting a binary companion or disk. Evidence is weaker for a binary origin of JaFu 2.

  11. Shewanella oneidensis: a new and efficient System for Expression and Maturation of heterologous [Fe-Fe] Hydrogenase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybirna Kateryna

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The eukaryotic green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, produces H2 under anaerobic conditions, in a reaction catalysed by a [Fe-Fe] hydrogenase HydA1. For further biochemical and biophysical studies a suitable expression system of this enzyme should be found to overcome its weak expression in the host organism. Two heterologous expression systems used up to now have several advantages. However they are not free from some drawbacks. In this work we use bacterium Shewanella oneidensis as a new and efficient system for expression and maturation of HydA1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Results Based on codon usage bias and hydrogenase maturation ability, the bacterium S. oneidensis, which possesses putative [Fe-Fe] and [Ni-Fe] hydrogenase operons, was selected as the best potential host for C. reinhardtii [Fe-Fe] hydrogenase expression. Hydrogen formation by S. oneidensis strain AS52 (ΔhydAΔhyaB transformed with a plasmid bearing CrHydA1 and grown in the presence of six different substrates for anaerobic respiration was determined. A significant increase in hydrogen evolution was observed for cells grown in the presence of trimethylamine oxide, dimethylsulfoxide and disodium thiosulfate, showing that the system of S. oneidensis is efficient for heterologous expression of algal [Fe-Fe] hydrogenase. Conclusion In the present work a new efficient system for heterologous expression and maturation of C. reinhardtii hydrogenase has been developed. HydA1 of C. reinhardtii was purified and shown to contain 6 Fe atoms/molecule of protein, as expected. Using DMSO, TMAO or thiosulfate as substrates for anaerobic respiration during the cell growth, 0.4 – 0.5 mg l-1(OD600 = 1 of catalytically active HydA1 was obtained with hydrogen evolution rate of ~700 μmol H2 mg-1 min-1.

  12. Risk Management Capability Maturity and Performance of Complex Product and System (CoPS Projects with an Asian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren, Y.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Complex Products and Systems (CoPS are high value, technology and engineering-intensive capital goods. The motivation of this study is the persistent high failure rate of CoPS projects, Asian CoPS provider’s weak capability and lack of specific research on CoPS risk management. This paper evaluates risk management maturity level of CoPS projects against a general CoPS risk management capability maturity model (RM-CMM developed by the authors. An Asian based survey was conducted to investigate the value of RM to project performance, and Asian (non-Japanese CoPS implementers’ perceived application of RM practices, their strengths and weaknesses. The survey result shows that higher RM maturity level leads to higher CoPS project performance. It also shows project complexity and uncertainty moderates the relationship between some RM practices and project performance, which implies that a contingency approach should be adopted to manage CoPS risks effectively. In addition, it shows that Asian CoPS implementers are weak in RM process and there are also rooms for improvement in the softer aspects of organizational capabilities and robustness.

  13. Validation of a Rapid Bacteria Endospore Enumeration System for Planetary Protection Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Kern, Roger; Kazarians, Gayane; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    NASA monitors spacecraft surfaces to assure that the presence of bacterial endospores meets strict criteria at launch, to minimize the risk of inadvertent contamination of the surface of Mars. Currently, the only approved method for enumerating the spores is a culture based assay that requires three days to produce results. In order to meet the demanding schedules of spacecraft assembly, a more rapid spore detection assay is being considered as an alternate method to the NASA standard culture-based assay. The Millipore Rapid Microbiology Detection System (RMDS) has been used successfully for rapid bioburden enumeration in the pharmaceutical and food industries. The RMDS is rapid and simple, shows high sensitivity (to 1 colony forming unit [CFU]/sample), and correlates well with traditional culture-based methods. It combines membrane filtration, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence chemistry, and image analysis based on photon detection with a Charge Coupled Device (CCD) camera. In this study, we have optimized the assay conditions and evaluated the use of the RMDS as a rapid spore detection tool for NASA applications. In order to select for spores, the samples were subjected to a heat shock step before proceeding with the RMDS incubation protocol. Seven species of Bacillus (nine strains) that have been repeatedly isolated from clean room environments were assayed. All strains were detected by the RMDS in 5 hours and these assay times were repeatedly demonstrated along with low image background noise. Validation experiments to compare the Rapid Sore Assay (RSA) and NASA standard assay (NSA) were also performed. The evaluation criteria were modeled after the FDA Guideline of Process Validation, and Analytical Test Methods. This body of research demonstrates that the Rapid Spore Assay (RSA) is quick, and of equivalent sensitivity to the NASA standard assay, potentially reducing the assay time for bacterial endospores from over 72 hours to less than 8 hours

  14. Maturity of the PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.; Rapin, M.; Aboudarham, L.; Bitsch, D.

    1983-03-01

    Figures illustrating the predominant position of the PWR system are presented. The question is whether on the basis of these figures the PWR can be considered to have reached maturity. The following analysis, based on the French program experience, is an attempt to pinpoint those areas in which industrial maturity of the PWR has been attained, and in which areas a certain evolution can still be expected to take place

  15. Rheology of planetary ices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, W.B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1996-04-24

    The brittle and ductile rheology of ices of water, ammonia, methane, and other volatiles, in combination with rock particles and each other, have a primary influence of the evolution and ongoing tectonics of icy moons of the outer solar system. Laboratory experiments help constrain the rheology of solar system ices. Standard experimental techniques can be used because the physical conditions under which most solar system ices exist are within reach of conventional rock mechanics testing machines, adapted to the low subsolidus temperatures of the materials in question. The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of a decade-long experimental deformation program and to provide some background in deformation physics in order to lend some appreciation to the application of these measurements to the planetary setting.

  16. Opiate Drugs with Abuse Liability Hijack the Endogenous Opioid System to Disrupt Neuronal and Glial Maturation in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt F. Hauser

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The endogenous opioid system, comprised of multiple opioid neuropeptide and receptor gene families, is highly expressed by developing neural cells and can significantly influence neuronal and glial maturation. In many central nervous system (CNS regions, the expression of opioid peptides and receptors occurs only transiently during development, effectively disappearing with subsequent maturation only to reemerge under pathologic conditions, such as with inflammation or injury. Opiate drugs with abuse liability act to modify growth and development by mimicking the actions of endogenous opioids. Although typically mediated by μ-opioid receptors, opiate drugs can also act through δ- and κ-opioid receptors to modulate growth in a cell-type, region-specific, and developmentally regulated manner. Opioids act as biological response modifiers and their actions are highly contextual, plastic, modifiable, and influenced by other physiological processes or pathophysiological conditions, such as neuro-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. To date, most studies have considered the acute effects of opiates on cellular maturation. For example, activating opioid receptors typically results in acute growth inhibition in both neurons and glia. However, with sustained opioid exposure, compensatory factors become operative, a concept that has been largely overlooked during CNS maturation. Accordingly, this article surveys prior studies on the effects of opiates on CNS maturation, and also suggests new directions for future research in this area. Identifying the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the adaptive responses to chronic opiate exposure (e.g., tolerance during maturation is crucial toward understanding the consequences of perinatal opiate exposure on the CNS.

  17. Using Best Practices to Extract, Organize, and Reuse Embedded Decision Support Content Knowledge Rules from Mature Clinical Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesAutels, Spencer J; Fox, Zachary E; Giuse, Dario A; Williams, Annette M; Kou, Qing-Hua; Weitkamp, Asli; Neal R, Patel; Bettinsoli Giuse, Nunzia

    2016-01-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS) knowledge, embedded over time in mature medical systems, presents an interesting and complex opportunity for information organization, maintenance, and reuse. To have a holistic view of all decision support requires an in-depth understanding of each clinical system as well as expert knowledge of the latest evidence. This approach to clinical decision support presents an opportunity to unify and externalize the knowledge within rules-based decision support. Driven by an institutional need to prioritize decision support content for migration to new clinical systems, the Center for Knowledge Management and Health Information Technology teams applied their unique expertise to extract content from individual systems, organize it through a single extensible schema, and present it for discovery and reuse through a newly created Clinical Support Knowledge Acquisition and Archival Tool (CS-KAAT). CS-KAAT can build and maintain the underlying knowledge infrastructure needed by clinical systems.

  18. Using Best Practices to Extract, Organize, and Reuse Embedded Decision Support Content Knowledge Rules from Mature Clinical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    DesAutels, Spencer J.; Fox, Zachary E.; Giuse, Dario A.; Williams, Annette M.; Kou, Qing-hua; Weitkamp, Asli; Neal R, Patel; Bettinsoli Giuse, Nunzia

    2016-01-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS) knowledge, embedded over time in mature medical systems, presents an interesting and complex opportunity for information organization, maintenance, and reuse. To have a holistic view of all decision support requires an in-depth understanding of each clinical system as well as expert knowledge of the latest evidence. This approach to clinical decision support presents an opportunity to unify and externalize the knowledge within rules-based decision support. Driven by an institutional need to prioritize decision support content for migration to new clinical systems, the Center for Knowledge Management and Health Information Technology teams applied their unique expertise to extract content from individual systems, organize it through a single extensible schema, and present it for discovery and reuse through a newly created Clinical Support Knowledge Acquisition and Archival Tool (CS-KAAT). CS-KAAT can build and maintain the underlying knowledge infrastructure needed by clinical systems. PMID:28269846

  19. Planetary spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, U.

    1988-01-01

    The main goal of the research is charge coupled device (CCD) spectroscopic and imaging studies of the solar system in support of spacecraft investigations. Studies include the physical behavior of comets, the atmosphere of the gaseous planets, and the solid surfaces of satellites and asteroids. The major observing program consisted of approximately 50 nights of photometry of Comet Halley in order to resolve the controversy over this comet's rotation period. This data is presently being analyzed. Additional observing projects included the spectroscopic occultation of Charon by Pluto, reflection spectroscopy of Mercury, and a spectrum of the satellite Oberon. Mercury data does not corroborate the Fe(++) absorption feature reported by McCord and Clark at 8800 A but instead potentially shows a weaker feature at longer wavelengths. This position is in much closer accord with expectations for Mercury since a band center near 8800 A implies too little Fe(++) on Mercury, especially if band shifts with temperature are considered. The Pluto project proved that the deep methane absorptions visible in their combined specta are due soley to Pluto with Charon showing a flat and featureless spectrum. It appears that if Charon ever contained a substantial methane component, the satellite's low surface gravity could not hold it and the methane evaporated and escaped

  20. Assessing the maturity and re-usability of NASA's Advanced Information System Technology (AIST) Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M. M.; Hines, K.

    2016-12-01

    Considerable funding has been invested in Earth science information technology (IT) projects by NASA over the past 15 years. While many of these projects succeeded at completing their objectives, rapid improvements in technology and growth in available data could further enhance the capabilities available to the Earth science community. Independent evaluation of these projects has become more and more important. Not only do they qualify the maturity of the work, but they give potential adopters the chance to kick the tires. One approach that has been used is to task Federally Funded Research and Development Corporations (FFRDC) with reviews and paper studies. Another approach involves field testing by third parties. Over the past three years, the AIST Program has tried both. This paper will describe both approaches and lessons learned from the experiences. The audience will be asked for their suggestions as to how to qualify and value these results.

  1. Interleukin-1 (IL-1 system gene expression in granulosa cells: kinetics during terminal preovulatory follicle maturation in the mare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Nadine

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of evidences suggests that the ovary is a site of inflammatory reactions, and thus, ovarian cells could represent sources and targets of the interleukin-1 (IL-1 system. The purpose of this study was to examine the IL-1 system gene expressions in equine granulosa cells, and to study the IL-1β content in follicular fluid during the follicle maturation. For this purpose, granulosa cells and follicular fluids were collected from the largest follicle at the early dominance stage (diameter 24 ± 3 mm or during the preovulatory maturation phase, at T0 h, T6 h, T12 h, T24 h and T34 h after induction of ovulation. Cells were analysed by RT-PCR and follicular fluids were studied by gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Results We demonstrated that interleukin-1β (IL-1β, interleukin-1 receptor 2 (IL-1R2 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA genes are expressed in equine granulosa cells. We observed that the IL-1β and IL-1RA mRNA content changed in granulosa cells during the terminal follicular maturation whereas IL-1R2 mRNA did not vary. In follicular fluid, IL-1β content fluctuated few hours after induction of ovulation. Conclusions The expression of IL-1β gene in granulosa cells and the follicular fluid IL-1β content seem to be regulated by gonadotropins suggesting that IL-1β could be an intermediate paracrine factor involved in ovulation.

  2. Protein Export by the Mycobacterial SecA2 System Is Determined by the Preprotein Mature Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltcher, Meghan E.; Gibbons, Henry S.; Ligon, Lauren S.

    2013-01-01

    At the core of the bacterial general secretion (Sec) pathway is the SecA ATPase, which powers translocation of unfolded preproteins containing Sec signal sequences through the SecYEG membrane channel. Mycobacteria have two nonredundant SecA homologs: SecA1 and SecA2. While the essential SecA1 handles “housekeeping” export, the nonessential SecA2 exports a subset of proteins and is required for Mycobacterium tuberculosis virulence. Currently, it is not understood how SecA2 contributes to Sec export in mycobacteria. In this study, we focused on identifying the features of two SecA2 substrates that target them to SecA2 for export, the Ms1704 and Ms1712 lipoproteins of the model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis. We found that the mature domains of Ms1704 and Ms1712, not the N-terminal signal sequences, confer SecA2-dependent export. We also demonstrated that the lipid modification and the extreme N terminus of the mature protein do not impart the requirement for SecA2 in export. We further showed that the Ms1704 mature domain can be efficiently exported by the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway. Because the Tat system exports only folded proteins, this result implies that SecA2 substrates can fold in the cytoplasm and suggests a putative role of SecA2 in enabling export of such proteins. Thus, the mycobacterial SecA2 system may represent another way that bacteria solve the problem of exporting proteins that can fold in the cytoplasm. PMID:23204463

  3. Proto-planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuckerman, B.

    1978-01-01

    A 'proto-planetary nebula' or a 'planetary nebula progenitor' is the term used to describe those objects that are losing mass at a rate >approximately 10 -5 Msolar masses/year (i.e. comparable to mass loss rates in planetary nebulae with ionized masses >approximately 0.2 Msolar masses) and which, it is believed, will become planetary nebulae themselves within 5 years. It is shown that most proto-planetary nebulae appear as very red objects although a few have been 'caught' near the middle of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. The precursors of these proto-planetaries are the general red giant population, more specifically probably Mira and semi-regular variables. (Auth.)end

  4. Planetary Balloon-Based Science Platform Evaluation and Program Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Kremic, Tibor; Hibbitts, Karl; Young, Eliot F.; Landis, Rob

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a study evaluating the potential for a balloon-based optical telescope as a planetary science asset to achieve decadal class science. The study considered potential science achievable and science traceability relative to the most recent planetary science decadal survey, potential platform features, and demonstration flights in the evaluation process. Science Potential and Benefits: This study confirms the cost the-benefit value for planetary science purposes. Forty-four (44) important questions of the decadal survey are at least partially addressable through balloon based capabilities. Planetary science through balloon observations can provide significant science through observations in the 300 nm to 5 m range and at longer wavelengths as well. Additionally, balloon missions have demonstrated the ability to progress from concept to observation to publication much faster than a space mission increasing the speed of science return. Planetary science from a balloon-borne platform is a relatively low-cost approach to new science measurements. This is particularly relevant within a cost-constrained planetary science budget. Repeated flights further reduce the cost of the per unit science data. Such flights offer observing time at a very competitive cost. Another advantage for planetary scientists is that a dedicated asset could provide significant new viewing opportunities not possible from the ground and allow unprecedented access to observations that cannot be realized with the time allocation pressures faced by current observing assets. In addition, flight systems that have a relatively short life cycle and where hardware is generally recovered, are excellent opportunities to train early career scientists, engineers, and project managers. The fact that balloon-borne payloads, unlike space missions, are generally recovered offers an excellent tool to test and mature instruments and other space craft systems. Desired Gondola Features: Potential

  5. Photochemistry of Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Y. L.

    2005-12-01

    The Space Age started half a century ago. Today, with the completion of a fairly detailed study of the planets of the Solar System, we have begun studying exoplanets (or extrasolar planets). The overriding question in is to ask whether an exoplanet is habitable and harbors life, and if so, what the biosignatures ought to be. This forces us to confront the fundamental question of what controls the composition of an atmosphere. The composition of a planetary atmosphere reflects a balance between thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry (as in the interior of giant planets) and photochemistry (as in the atmosphere of Mars). The terrestrial atmosphere has additional influence from life (biochemistry). The bulk of photochemistry in planetary atmospheres is driven by UV radiation. Photosynthesis may be considered an extension of photochemistry by inventing a molecule (chlorophyll) that can harvest visible light. Perhaps the most remarkable feature of photochemistry is catalytic chemistry, the ability of trace amounts of gases to profoundly affect the composition of the atmosphere. Notable examples include HOx (H, OH and HO2) chemistry on Mars and chlorine chemistry on Earth and Venus. Another remarkable feature of photochemistry is organic synthesis in the outer solar system. The best example is the atmosphere of Titan. Photolysis of methane results in the synthesis of more complex hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon chemistry inevitably leads to the formation of high molecular weight products, giving rise to aerosols when the ambient atmosphere is cool enough for them to condense. These results are supported by the findings of the recent Cassini mission. Lastly, photochemistry leaves a distinctive isotopic signature that can be used to trace back the evolutionary history of the atmosphere. Examples include nitrogen isotopes on Mars and sulfur isotopes on Earth. Returning to the question of biosignatures on an exoplanet, our Solar System experience tells us to look for speciation

  6. Space and Planetary Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel

    2018-02-01

    The space and multitude of celestial bodies surrounding Earth hold a vast wealth of resources for a variety of space and terrestrial applications. The unlimited solar energy, vacuum, and low gravity in space, as well as the minerals, metals, water, atmospheric gases, and volatile elements on the Moon, asteroids, comets, and the inner and outer planets of the Solar System and their moons, constitute potential valuable resources for robotic and human space missions and for future use in our own planet. In the short term, these resources could be transformed into useful materials at the site where they are found to extend mission duration and to reduce the costly dependence from materials sent from Earth. Making propellants and human consumables from local resources can significantly reduce mission mass and cost, enabling longer stays and fueling transportation systems for use within and beyond the planetary surface. Use of finely grained soils and rocks can serve for habitat construction, radiation protection, solar cell fabrication, and food growth. The same material could also be used to develop repair and replacement capabilities using advanced manufacturing technologies. Following similar mining practices utilized for centuries on Earth, identifying, extracting, and utilizing extraterrestrial resources will enable further space exploration, while increasing commercial activities beyond our planet. In the long term, planetary resources and solar energy could also be brought to Earth if obtaining these resources locally prove to be no longer economically or environmentally acceptable. Throughout human history, resources have been the driving force for the exploration and settling of our planet. Similarly, extraterrestrial resources will make space the next destination in the quest for further exploration and expansion of our species. However, just like on Earth, not all challenges are scientific and technological. As private companies start working toward

  7. Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clampin, M.

    2007-06-01

    The Extrasolar Planetary Imaging Coronagraph (EPIC) is a proposed NASA Discovery mission to image and characterize extrasolar giant planets in orbits with semi-major axes between 2 and 10 AU. EPIC will provide insights into the physical nature of a variety of planets in other solar systems complimenting radial velocity (RV) and astrometric planet searches. It will detect and characterize the atmospheres of planets identified by radial velocity surveys, determine orbital inclinations and masses, characterize the atmospheres around A and F type stars which cannot be found with RV techniques, and observe the inner spatial structure and colors of debris disks. The robust mission design is simple and flexible ensuring mission success while minimizing cost and risk. The science payload consists of a heritage optical telescope assembly (OTA), and visible nulling coronagraph (VNC) instrument.

  8. NASA's "Eyes On The Solar System:" A Real-time, 3D-Interactive Tool to Teach the Wonder of Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, K.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory is using video game technology to immerse students, the general public and mission personnel in our solar system and beyond. "Eyes on the Solar System," a cross-platform, real-time, 3D-interactive application that can run on-line or as a stand-alone "video game," is of particular interest to educators looking for inviting tools to capture students interest in a format they like and understand. (eyes.nasa.gov). It gives users an extraordinary view of our solar system by virtually transporting them across space and time to make first-person observations of spacecraft, planetary bodies and NASA/ESA missions in action. Key scientific results illustrated with video presentations, supporting imagery and web links are imbedded contextually into the solar system. Educators who want an interactive, game-based approach to engage students in learning Planetary Science will see how "Eyes" can be effectively used to teach its principles to grades 3 through 14.The presentation will include a detailed demonstration of the software along with a description/demonstration of how this technology is being adapted for education. There will also be a preview of coming attractions. This work is being conducted by the Visualization Technology Applications and Development Group at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the same team responsible for "Eyes on the Earth 3D," and "Eyes on Exoplanets," which can be viewed at eyes.nasa.gov/earth and eyes.nasa.gov/exoplanets.

  9. Acquisition of an Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) system for the Zeiss Sigma SEM at Portland State University -- Planetary Major Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Alex

    To build on our parent Origins program award, entitled "Shock histories of chondrites as revealed by combined microstructural (TEM), petrographic, and X-ray microtomographic (micro-CT) analysis", we are requesting as Planetary Major Equipment the acquisition of an Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) system, which will integrate with a Zeiss Sigma SEM that was installed at Portland State University last year (2010). This EBSD system will greatly augment the science return of the parent grant by allowing quantitative measurements of strain and textural fabrics in grains of all sizes and types across an entire thin section. Such measurements will help link data that are already being obtained with optical light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and micro- tomography methods. More generally, the EBSD system will augment the PI's research on the petrology of extraterrestrial materials by providing an additional tool for petrographic analyses, with data that can be used to evaluate strain, grain orientations, grain size distributions, phase proportions, and mineralogy. The equipment will enable quantitative characterization of the crystallography of primitive extraterrestrial materials, which will contribute to a better understanding of the formation and evolution of planetary systems, a major goal of NASA.

  10. Acquisition of an Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) system for the Zeiss Sigma SEM at Portland State University Planetary Major Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Alex

    To build on our parent Origins program award, entitled "Shock histories of chondrites as revealed by combined microstructural (TEM), petrographic, and X-ray microtomographic (micro-CT) analysis", we are requesting as Planetary Major Equipment the acquisition of an Electron Back Scatter Diffraction (EBSD) system, which will integrate with a Zeiss Sigma SEM that was installed at Portland State University last year (2010). This EBSD system will greatly augment the science return of the parent grant by allowing quantitative measurements of strain and textural fabrics in grains of all sizes and types across an entire thin section. Such measurements will help link data that are already being obtained with optical light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and micro- tomography methods. More generally, the EBSD system will augment the PI's research on the petrology of extraterrestrial materials by providing an additional tool for petrographic analyses, with data that can be used to evaluate strain, grain orientations, grain size distributions, phase proportions, and mineralogy. The equipment will enable quantitative characterization of the crystallography of primitive extraterrestrial materials, which will contribute to a better understanding of the formation and evolution of planetary systems, a major goal of NASA.

  11. Planning for planetary protection : challenges beyond Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Andrea P.; Cutts, James A.

    2006-01-01

    This document summarizes the technical challenges to planetary protection for these targets of interest and outlines some of the considerations, particularly at the system level, in designing an appropriate technology investment strategy for targets beyond Mars.

  12. Soft x-ray Planetary Imager

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project is to prototype a soft X-ray Imager for planetary applications that has the sensitivity to observe solar system sources of soft  X-ray emission. A strong...

  13. The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library (PTAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, S. C.; Dypvik, H.; Poulet, F.; Rull Perez, F.; Bibring, J.-P.; Bultel, B.; Casanova Roque, C.; Carter, J.; Cousin, A.; Guzman, A.; Hamm, V.; Hellevang, H.; Lantz, C.; Lopez-Reyes, G.; Manrique, J. A.; Maurice, S.; Medina Garcia, J.; Navarro, R.; Negro, J. I.; Neumann, E. R.; Pilorget, C.; Riu, L.; Sætre, C.; Sansano Caramazana, A.; Sanz Arranz, A.; Sobron Grañón, F.; Veneranda, M.; Viennet, J.-C.; PTAL Team

    2018-04-01

    The Planetary Terrestrial Analogues Library project aims to build and exploit a spectral data base for the characterisation of the mineralogical and geological evolution of terrestrial planets and small solar system bodies.

  14. Understanding Global Change: A New Conceptual Framework To Guide Teaching About Planetary Systems And Both The Causes And Effects Of Changes In Those Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J.; Bean, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Goals of the Next Generation Science Standards include understanding climate change and learning about ways to moderate the causes and mitigate the consequences of planetary-scale anthropogenic activities that interact synergistically to affect ecosystems and societies. The sheer number and scale of both causes and effects of global change can be daunting for teachers, and the lack of a clear conceptual framework for presenting this material usually leads educators (and textbooks) to present these phenomenon as a disjointed "laundry list." But an alternative approach is in the works. The Understanding Global Change web resource, currently under development at the UC Berkeley Museum of Paleontology, will provide educators with a conceptual framework, graphic models, lessons, and assessment templates for teaching NGSS-aligned, interdisciplinary, global change curricula. The core of this resource is an original informational graphic that presents and relates Earth's global systems, human and non-human factors that produce changes in those systems, and the effects of those changes that scientists can measure.

  15. Dust in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, S.

    1980-01-01

    A two-component dust model is suggested to explain the infrared emission from planetary nebulae. A cold dust component located in the extensive remnant of the red-giant envelope exterior to the visible nebula is responsible for the far-infrared emission. A ward dust component, which is condensed after the formation of the planetary nebula and confined within the ionized gas shell, emits most of the near- and mid-infrared radiation. The observations of NGC 7027 are shown to be consisten with such a model. The correlation of silicate emission in several planetary nebulae with an approximately +1 spectral index at low radio frequencies suggests that both the silicate and radio emissions originate from the remnant of the circumstellar envelope of th precursor star and are observable only while the planetary nebula is young. It is argued that oxygen-rich stars as well as carbon-rich stars can be progenitors of planetary nebulae

  16. Sedimentary organic matter sources, benthic consumption and burial in west Spitsbergen fjords - Signs of maturing of Arctic fjordic systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaborska, Agata; Włodarska-Kowalczuk, Maria; Legeżyńska, Joanna; Jankowska, Emilia; Winogradow, Aleksandra; Deja, Kajetan

    2018-04-01

    Mature ecosystems sequester little organic carbon (Corg) in sediments, as the complex and effective food webs consume most available organic matter within the water column and sediment, in contrast to young systems, where a large proportion of Corg is buried in deeper sediment layers. In this paper we hypothesize that "warmer" Atlantic water influenced fjord exhibits the 'mature' system features as compared to "cooler" Arctic water influenced fjord. Corg concentrations, sources and burial rates, as well as macrobenthic community standing stocks, taxonomic and functional composition and carbon demand, were compared in two west Spitsbergen fjords that are to different extents influenced by Atlantic water and can be treated as representing a cold one (Hornsund) and a warm one (Kongsfjorden). Water, sediments and macrofauna were collected at three stations in the central basin of each fjord. Corg, Ntot, δ13Corg and δ15N were measured in suspended matter, sediment cores and possible organic matter sources. The composition of sources of sedimentary organic matter was modeled by Mix-SIAR Bayesian stable isotope mixing models. The 210Pb method was used to calculate sediment accumulation rates, Corg accumulation and burial rates. The sedimentary Corg concentration and accumulation rate were larger in Hornsund than in Kongsfjorden. The contributions of pelagic sources to the Corg in sediments were similar in both fjords, macroalgal detritus had a higher importance in Kongsfjorden, while terrestrial sources were more important in Hornsund. Similar density and species richness were noted in both fjords, but higher biomass, individual biomass, production and carbon demand of benthic communities were noted in Kongsfjorden despite the lower amounts of Corg in sediments, indicating that macrobenthos responds to quality rather than quantity of available food. Subsurface tube-building conveyer belt detritus feeders (maldanids and oweniids) were responsible for higher standing

  17. Significant achievements in the planetary geology program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head, J.W.

    1978-12-01

    Developments reported at a meeting of principal investigators for NASA's planetology geology program are summarized. Topics covered include the following: constraints on solar system formation; asteriods, comets, and satellites; constraints on planetary interiors; volatiles and regoliths; instrument development techniques; planetary cartography; geological and geochemical constraints on planetary evolution; fluvial processes and channel formation; volcanic processes; Eolian processes; radar studies of planetary surfaces; cratering as a process, landform, and dating method; and the Tharsis region of Mars. Activities at a planetary geology field conference on Eolian processes are reported and techniques recommended for the presentation and analysis of crater size-frequency data are included

  18. Development of postural control and maturation of sensory systems in children of different ages a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Cristina Dos Santos Cardoso de; Boffino, Catarina Costa; Ramos, Renato Teodoro; Tanaka, Clarice

    To evaluate the stability, postural adjustments and contributions of sensory information for postural control in children. 40 boys and 40 girls were equally divided into groups of 5, 7, 9 and 12 years (G5, G7, G9 and G12). All children were submitted to dynamic posturography using a modified sensory organization test, using four sensory conditions: combining stable or sway referencing platform with eyes opened, or closed. The area and displacements of the center of pressure were used to determine stability, while the adjustments were used to measure the speed of the center of pressure displacements. These measurements were compared between groups and test conditions. Stability tends to increase with age and to decrease with sensory manipulation with significant differences between G5 and G7 in different measures. G7 differed from G12 under the conditions of stable and sway platform with eyes open. G9 did not differ from G12. Similar behavior was observed for adjustments, especially in anterior-posterior directions. Postural stability and adjustments were associated with age and were influenced by sensory manipulation. The ability to perform anterior-posterior adjustments was more evident and sensory maturation occurred firstly on the visual system, then proprioceptive system, and finally, the vestibular system, reaching functional maturity at nine years of age. Seven-year-olds seem to go through a period of differentiated singularity in postural control. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparing Graduate Students for Solar System Science and Exploration Careers: Internships and Field Training Courses led by the Lunar and Planetary Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, A. J.; Kring, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    To be competitive in 21st century science and exploration careers, graduate students in planetary science and related disciplines need mentorship and need to develop skills not always available at their home university, including fieldwork, mission planning, and communicating with others in the scientific and engineering communities in the U.S. and internationally. Programs offered by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) address these needs through summer internships and field training programs. From 2008-2012, LPI hosted the Lunar Exploration Summer Intern Program. This special summer intern program evaluated possible landing sites for robotic and human exploration missions to the lunar surface. By the end of the 2012 program, a series of scientifically-rich landing sites emerged, some of which had never been considered before. Beginning in 2015 and building on the success of the lunar exploration program, a new Exploration Science Summer Intern Program is being implemented with a broader scope that includes both the Moon and near-Earth asteroids. Like its predecessor, the Exploration Science Summer Intern Program offers graduate students a unique opportunity to integrate scientific input with exploration activities in a way that mission architects and spacecraft engineers can use. The program's activities may involve assessments and traverse plans for a particular destination or a more general assessment of a class of possible exploration targets. Details of the results of these programs will be discussed. Since 2010 graduate students have participated in field training and research programs at Barringer (Meteor) Crater and the Sudbury Impact Structure. Skills developed during these programs prepare students for their own thesis studies in impact-cratered terrains, whether they are on the Earth, the Moon, Mars, or other solar system planetary surface. Future field excursions will take place at these sites as well as the Zuni-Bandera Volcanic Field. Skills

  20. Planetary Landscape Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    INTRODUCTION Landscape is one of the most often used category in physical ge- ography. The term "landshap" was introduced by Dutch painters in the 15-16th cen- tury. [1] The elements that build up a landscape (or environment) on Earth consists of natural (biogenic and abiogenic - lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic) and artificial (antropogenic) factors. Landscape is a complex system of these different elements. The same lithology makes different landscapes under different climatic conditions. If the same conditions are present, the same landscape type will appear. Landscapes build up a hierarchic system and cover the whole surface. On Earth, landscapes can be classified and qualified according to their characteristics: relief forms (morphology), and its potential economic value. Aesthetic and subjective parameters can also be considered. Using the data from landers and data from orbiters we can now classify planetary landscapes (these can be used as geologic mapping units as well). By looking at a unknown landscape, we can determine the processes that created it and its development history. This was the case in the Pathfinder/Sojourner panoramas. [2]. DISCUSSION Planetary landscape evolution. We can draw a raw landscape develop- ment history by adding the different landscape building elements to each other. This has a strong connection with the planet's thermal evolution (age of the planet or the present surface materials) and with orbital parameters (distance from the central star, orbit excentricity etc). This way we can build a complex system in which we use differ- ent evolutional stages of lithologic, atmospheric, hydrologic and biogenic conditions which determine the given - Solar System or exoplanetary - landscape. Landscape elements. "Simple" landscapes can be found on asteroids: no linear horizon is present (not differentiated body, only impact structures), no atmosphere (therefore no atmospheric scattering - black sky as part of the landscape) and no

  1. Beyond maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessmer, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Industry has undergone to decades of evolution in experience, technology and business practices. Link-Miles Simulation Corporation (LMSC) has been contracted to build 68 Full Scope Nuclear Simulators during the 1970's and 1980's. Traditional approaches to design, development and testing have been used to satisfy specifications for initial customer requirements. However, the Industry has matured. All U.S. Nuclear Utilities own, or have under contract, at least one simulator. Other industrial nations have centralized training facilities to satisfy the simulator training needs. The customer of the future is knowledgeable and experienced in the development and service of nuclear simulators. The role of the simulator vendor is changing in order to alter the traditional approach for development. Covenants between the vendors and their customers solidify new complementary roles. This paper presents examples of current simulator project development with recommendations for future endeavors

  2. Cervical vertebral maturation: An objective and transparent code staging system applied to a 6-year longitudinal investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinetti, Giuseppe; Bianchet, Alberto; Franchi, Lorenzo; Contardo, Luca

    2017-05-01

    To date, little information is available regarding individual cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) morphologic changes. Moreover, contrasting results regarding the repeatability of the CVM method call for the use of objective and transparent reporting procedures. In this study, we used a rigorous morphometric objective CVM code staging system, called the "CVM code" that was applied to a 6-year longitudinal circumpubertal analysis of individual CVM morphologic changes to find cases outside the reported norms and analyze individual maturation processes. From the files of the Oregon Growth Study, 32 subjects (17 boys, 15 girls) with 6 annual lateral cephalograms taken from 10 to 16 years of age were included, for a total of 221 recordings. A customized cephalometric analysis was used, and each recording was converted into a CVM code according to the concavities of cervical vertebrae (C) C2 through C4 and the shapes of C3 and C4. The retrieved CVM codes, either falling within the reported norms (regular cases) or not (exception cases), were also converted into the CVM stages. Overall, 31 exception cases (14%) were seen. with most of them accounting for pubertal CVM stage 4. The overall durations of the CVM stages 2 to 4 were about 1 year, even though only 4 subjects had regular annual durations of CVM stages 2 to 5. Whereas the overall CVM changes are consistent with previous reports, intersubject variability must be considered when dealing with individual treatment timing. Future research on CVM may take advantage of the CVM code system. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Trends in Planetary Data Analysis. Executive summary of the Planetary Data Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, N.

    1984-09-01

    Planetary data include non-imaging remote sensing data, which includes spectrometric, radiometric, and polarimetric remote sensing observations. Also included are in-situ, radio/radar data, and Earth based observation. Also discussed is development of a planetary data system. A catalog to identify observations will be the initial entry point for all levels of users into the data system. There are seven distinct data support services: encyclopedia, data index, data inventory, browse, search, sample, and acquire. Data systems for planetary science users must provide access to data, process, store, and display data. Two standards will be incorporated into the planetary data system: Standard communications protocol and Standard format data unit. The data system configuration must combine a distributed system with those of a centralized system. Fiscal constraints have made prioritization important. Activities include saving previous mission data, planning/cost analysis, and publishing of proceedings.

  4. An ecological compass for planetary engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2012-10-01

    Proposals to address present-day global warming through the large-scale application of technology to the climate system, known as geoengineering, raise questions of environmental ethics relevant to the broader issue of planetary engineering. These questions have also arisen in the scientific literature as discussions of how to terraform a planet such as Mars or Venus in order to make it more Earth-like and habitable. Here we draw on insights from terraforming and environmental ethics to develop a two-axis comparative tool for ethical frameworks that considers the intrinsic or instrumental value placed upon organisms, environments, planetary systems, or space. We apply this analysis to the realm of planetary engineering, such as terraforming on Mars or geoengineering on present-day Earth, as well as to questions of planetary protection and space exploration.

  5. Nuclear electric propulsion for planetary science missions: NASA technology program planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the status of technology program planning to achieve readiness of Nuclear Electric Propulsion technologies needed to meet the advanced propulsion system requirements for planetary science missions in the next century. The technology program planning is based upon technologies of significant maturity: ion electric propulsion and the SP-100 space nulcear power technologies. Detailed plans are presented herein for the required ion electric propulsion technology development and demonstration. Closer coordination between space nuclear power and space electric propulsion technology programs is a necessity as technology plans are being further refined in light of NEP concept definition and possible early NEP flight activities

  6. Improving transportation systems management and operations (TSM&O), capability maturity model workshop white paper : culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Research done through the Second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) determined : that agencies with the most effective transportation systems management and operations : (TSM&O) activities were differentiated not by budgets or technical skil...

  7. Improving transportation systems management and operations (TSM&O), capability maturity model workshop white paper : collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Research done through the Second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) determined : that agencies with the most effective transportation systems management and operations : (TSM&O) activities were differentiated not by budgets or technical skil...

  8. Establishment of a Novel Lingual Organoid Culture System: Generation of Organoids Having Mature Keratinized Epithelium from Adult Epithelial Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisha, Hiroko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kanno, Shohei; Tokuyama, Yoko; Komai, Yoshihiro; Ohe, Shuichi; Yanai, Hirotsugu; Omachi, Taichi; Ueno, Hiroo

    2013-11-01

    Despite the strong need for the establishment of a lingual epithelial cell culture system, a simple and convenient culture method has not yet been established. Here, we report the establishment of a novel lingual epithelium organoid culture system using a three-dimensional matrix and growth factors. Histological analyses showed that the generated organoids had both a stratified squamous epithelial cell layer and a stratum corneum. Very recently, we showed via a multicolor lineage tracing method that Bmi1-positive stem cells exist at the base of the epithelial basal layer in the interpapillary pit. Using our new culture system, we found that organoids could be generated by single Bmi1-positive stem cells and that in the established organoids, multiple Bmi1-positive stem cells were generated at the outermost layer. Moreover, we observed that organoids harvested at an early point in culture could be engrafted and maturate in the tongue of recipient mice and that the organoids generated from carcinogen-treated mice had an abnormal morphology. Thus, this culture system presents valuable settings for studying not only the regulatory mechanisms of lingual epithelium but also lingual regeneration and carcinogenesis.

  9. The role of impact cratering in planetary environmental change and implications for the search for life in the solar system (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    Beginning in the late 18th century with the work of James Hutton, uniformitarianism emerged as a central tenet of the natural sciences and remained so well into the 20th century. Central to the idea of uniformitarianism is the concept of gradualism whereby processes throughout time occur at the same, or similar rates. In the 20th century, the idea that asteroids and comets have struck, and continue to strike, planetary bodies throughout geological time, has revolutionized our understanding of Solar System history and evolution. Indeed, it is now widely recognized that impact cratering is one of the most important and fundamental geological process in the Solar System. It is also now apparent that impact events have profoundly affected the origin and evolution of Earth, its environment, and the habitability of our planet. The extreme physical conditions (e.g., 10's of thousands of K and 100's of GPa), the concentrated nature of the energy release at a single point on a planetary surface, and the virtually instantaneous nature of the impact process sets apart impact events from all other geological processes. It should not be surprising then that such a rapid geological process can cause rapid environmental change. The destructive geological, environmental, and biological effects of meteorite impact events are well studied and well known. This is largely due to the discovery of the ~180 km diameter Chicxulub impact structure, Mexico, and its link to the mass extinction event that marks the end of the Cretaceous Period 65 Myr. ago. While the main driver for this mass extinction event remains debated, a long list of possible causes of environmental change have been proposed, including: heat from the impact explosion, tsunamis, earthquakes, global forest fires, dust injection in the upper atmosphere, production of vast quantities of N2O, and release of CO2 and sulfur species from the target rocks. Any one of these effects could potentially cause the annihilation of a

  10. Catalytic oxidation efficiencies for tritium and tritiated methane in a mature, industrial-scale decontamination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, J.M.; Gildea, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    Almost all tritium decontamination systems proposed for fusion facilities employ catalytic oxidation to water, followed by drying, to remove tritium and tritiated hydrocarbons from gas streams. One such large-scale system, the gas purification system (GPS), has been operating in the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, since October 1977. A series of experiments have recently been conducted there to assesss the current operating characteristics of the GPS catalyst. The experiments used tritium and tritiated methane and covered a range of temperatures, flow rates, and concentration levels. When contrasted with 1977 data, the results indicate that no measurable degradation of catalyst function had occurred. However, some reduction in active metal surface area, as indicated by B.E.T. surface area measurements (approx. 100 → 90m 2 /g) and AES scans (approx. 1.4 → 0.9 at. % Pt), had occurred. Kinetic rate coefficients were also derived and a rough temperature dependence obtained

  11. Catalytic oxidation efficiencies for tritium and tritiated methane in a mature, industrial-scale decontamination system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mintz, J.M.; Gildea, P.D.

    1980-10-01

    Almost all tritium decontamination systems proposed for fusion facilities employ catalytic oxidation to water, followed by drying, to remove tritium and tritiated hydrocarbons from gas streams. One such large-scale system, the gas purification system (GPS), has been operating in the Tritium Research Laboratory (TRL) at Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA, since October 1977. A series of experiments have recently been conducted there to assess the current operating characteristics of the GPS catalyst. The experiments used tritium and tritiated methane and covered a range of temperatures, flow rates, and concentration levels. When contrasted with 1977 data, the results indicate that no measurable degradation of catalyst function had occurred. However, some reduction in active metal surface area, as indicated by B.E.T. surface area measurements (approx. 100 → 90 m 2 /g) and AES scans (approx. 1.4 → 0.9 at% Pt), had occurred. Kinetic rate coefficients were also derived and a rough temperature dependence obtained

  12. Constraining the Thermal History of the Midcontinent Rift System with Clumped Isotopes and Organic Thermal Maturity Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, T. M.; Sheldon, N. D.; Mauk, J. L.; Gueneli, N.; Brocks, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Mesoproterozoic (~1.1 Ga) North American Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) has been of widespread interest to researchers studying its economic mineral deposits, continental rifting processes, and the evolution of early terrestrial life and environments. For their age, the MRS rocks are well preserved and have not been deeply buried, yet a thorough understanding of the regional thermal history is necessary to constrain the processes that emplaced the mineral deposits and how post-burial alteration may have affected various paleo-records. To understand the thermal history of the MRS better, this study presents carbonate clumped isotope (Δ47) temperatures from deposits on the north and south sides of the rift. Due to the age of these deposits and known post-depositional processes, uncertainties exist about whether the clumped isotope signature has been reset. To test this, three generations of calcite were analyzed from the Nonesuch Fm. from the White Pine mine in Michigan including: sedimentary limestone beds, early diagenetic carbonate nodules, and hydrothermal calcite veins associated with the emplacement of copper mineralization. Clumped isotope temperatures from the White Pine mine range from 84 to 131°C, with a hydrothermal vein producing the hottest temperature. The clumped isotope temperature range for samples throughout the rift expands to 41-134°C. The hottest temperatures are associated with areas of known copper mineralization, whereas the coolest temperatures are found on the northern arm of the rift in Minnesota, far from known basin-bounding faults. Our hottest temperatures are broadly consistent with preexisting maximum thermal temperature estimates based on clay mineralogy, fluid inclusions, and organic geochemistry data. Clumped isotope results will also be compared to new hydrocarbon maturity data from the Nonesuch Fm., which suggest that bitumen maturities consistently fall within the early oil window across Michigan and Wisconsin.

  13. Constraining the thermal history of the North American Midcontinent Rift System using carbonate clumped isotopes and organic thermal maturity indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Timothy M.; Sheldon, Nathan D.; Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Petersen, Sierra V.; Gueneli, Nur; Brocks, Jochen J.

    2017-01-01

    The Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) is a Late Mesoproterozoic (∼1.1 Ga) sequence of volcanic and sedimentary rocks exposed in the Lake Superior Region of North America. The MRS continues to be the focus of much research due to its economic mineral deposits as well as its archive of Precambrian life and tectonic processes. In order to constrain the post-depositional thermal history of the MRS, samples were analyzed for carbonate clumped isotope composition and organic thermal maturity. Clumped isotope values from sedimentary/early-diagenetic samples were partially reset during burial to temperatures between 68 and 75 °C. Solid-state reordering models indicate that maximum burial temperatures of 125–155 °C would reset the clumped isotope values to the observed temperature range prior to the onset of regional cooling and uplift. Clumped isotope results from late-stage veins in the White Pine Mine encompass a greater temperature range (49–116 °C), indicative of spatially variable hydrothermal activity and vein emplacement after burial temperatures fell below 100 °C during regional cooling and uplift. Clumped isotope and organic thermal maturity data do not indicate significant spatial differences in thermal history along the MRS. Observed variability in bulk organic matter composition and biomarker indices are therefore more likely a result of shifts in primary productivity or early-degradation processes. These results demonstrate that the MRS experienced a spatially consistent, relatively mild thermal history (125–155 °C) and is therefore a valuable archive for understanding the Late Mesoproterozoic environment.

  14. Interorganisational information systems maturity: do supply chain integration and business/IT-alignment coincide?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.; Batenburg, R.S.

    2014-01-01

    Although interorganisational information systems (IOIS) have existed as study object for a long time, much research into IOIS remains sector-specific. By employing a multi-sector dataset, this paper aims to contribute to the cross-sectoral analysis of IOIS. We formulate four hypotheses on IOIS

  15. System Maturity Indices for Decision Support in the Defense Acquisition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-23

    technologies, but was to be used as ontology for contracting support (Sadin, Povinelli , & Rosen, 1989), thus TRL does not address: A complete...via probabilistic solution discovery. Reliability Engineering & System Safety. In press. Sadin, S.R., Povinelli , F.P., & Rosen, R. (1989). The NASA

  16. An empirical analysis of a maturity model to assess information system success : a firm-level perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suh, Hanjun; Chung, Sunghun; Choi, Jinho

    This research investigates the relationship between IS investment and IS success and the moderating effects of IS maturity. We find the moderating role of IS maturity between IS investment and IS success with a contingency perspective. As administering a group survey of about 300 business executives

  17. Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Planetary nomenclature, like terrestrial nomenclature, is used to uniquely identify a feature on the surface of a planet or satellite so that the feature can be...

  18. Cloned foal derived from in vivo matured horse oocytes aspirated by the short disposable needle system

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Wonyou; Song, Kilyoung; Lee, Inhyung; Shin, Hyungdo; Lee, Byeong Chun; Yeon, Seongchan; Jang, Goo

    2015-01-01

    Transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration is one method of obtaining recipient oocytes for equine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). This study was conducted: (1) to evaluate the possibility of oocyte aspiration from pre-ovulatory follicles using a short disposable needle system (14-G) by comparing the oocyte recovery rate with that of a long double lumen needle (12-G); (2) to investigate the developmental competence of recovered oocytes after SCNT and embryo transfer. The recover...

  19. Effect of organic matter properties, clay mineral type and thermal maturity on gas adsorption in organic-rich shale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Ruppel, Stephen C.; Milliken, Kitty; Lewan, Mike; Sun, Xun; Baez, Luis; Beeney, Ken; Sonnenberg, Steve

    2013-01-01

    A series of CH4 adsorption experiments on natural organic-rich shales, isolated kerogen, clay-rich rocks, and artificially matured Woodford Shale samples were conducted under dry conditions. Our results indicate that physisorption is a dominant process for CH4 sorption, both on organic-rich shales and clay minerals. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area of the investigated samples is linearly correlated with the CH4 sorption capacity in both organic-rich shales and clay-rich rocks. The presence of organic matter is a primary control on gas adsorption in shale-gas systems, and the gas-sorption capacity is determined by total organic carbon (TOC) content, organic-matter type, and thermal maturity. A large number of nanopores, in the 2–50 nm size range, were created during organic-matter thermal decomposition, and they significantly contributed to the surface area. Consequently, methane-sorption capacity increases with increasing thermal maturity due to the presence of nanopores produced during organic-matter decomposition. Furthermore, CH4 sorption on clay minerals is mainly controlled by the type of clay mineral present. In terms of relative CH4 sorption capacity: montmorillonite ≫ illite – smectite mixed layer > kaolinite > chlorite > illite. The effect of rock properties (organic matter content, type, maturity, and clay minerals) on CH4 adsorption can be quantified with the heat of adsorption and the standard entropy, which are determined from adsorption isotherms at different temperatures. For clay-mineral rich rocks, the heat of adsorption (q) ranges from 9.4 to 16.6 kJ/mol. These values are considerably smaller than those for CH4 adsorption on kerogen (21.9–28 kJ/mol) and organic-rich shales (15.1–18.4 kJ/mol). The standard entropy (Δs°) ranges from -64.8 to -79.5 J/mol/K for clay minerals, -68.1 to -111.3 J/mol/K for kerogen, and -76.0 to -84.6 J/mol/K for organic-rich shales. The affinity of CH4 molecules for sorption on organic matter

  20. Cloned foal derived from in vivo matured horse oocytes aspirated by the short disposable needle system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonyou; Song, Kilyoung; Lee, Inhyung; Shin, Hyungdo; Lee, Byeong Chun; Yeon, Seongchan; Jang, Goo

    2015-01-01

    Transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicle aspiration is one method of obtaining recipient oocytes for equine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). This study was conducted: (1) to evaluate the possibility of oocyte aspiration from pre-ovulatory follicles using a short disposable needle system (14-G) by comparing the oocyte recovery rate with that of a long double lumen needle (12-G); (2) to investigate the developmental competence of recovered oocytes after SCNT and embryo transfer. The recovery rates with the short disposable needle vs. the long needle were not significantly different (47.5% and 35.0%, respectively). Twenty-six SCNT embryos were transferred to 13 mares, and one mare delivered a live offspring at Day 342. There was a perfect identity match between the cloned foal and the cell donor after analysis of microsatellite DNA, and the mitochondrial DNA of the cloned foal was identical with that of the oocyte donor. These results demonstrated that the short disposable needle system can be used to recover oocytes to use as cytoplasts for SCNT, in the production of cloned foals and for other applications in equine embryology.

  1. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina; de Waard, Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-09-16

    To objective of this study was to better understand the biological functions of breast milk proteins in relation to the growth and development of infants over the first six months of life. Breast milk samples from four individual women collected at seven time points in the first six months after delivery were analyzed by filter aided sample preparation and dimethyl labeling combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 247 and 200 milk serum proteins were identified and quantified, respectively. The milk serum proteome showed a high similarity (80% overlap) on the qualitative level between women and over lactation. The quantitative changes in milk serum proteins were mainly caused by three groups of proteins, enzymes, and transport and immunity proteins. Of these 21 significantly changed proteins, 30% were transport proteins, such as serum albumin and fatty acid binding protein, which are both involved in transporting nutrients to the infant. The decrease of the enzyme bile salt-activated lipase as well as the immunity proteins immunoglobulins and lactoferrin coincide with the gradual maturation of the digestive and immune system of infants. The human milk serum proteome didn't differ qualitatively but it did quantitatively, both between mothers and as lactation advanced. The changes of the breast milk serum proteome over lactation corresponded with the development of the digestive and immune system of infants. Breast milk proteins provide nutrition, but also contribute to healthy development of infants. Despite the previously reported large number of identified breast milk proteins and their changes over lactation, less is known on the changes of these proteins in individual mothers. This study is the first to determine the qualitative and quantitative changes of milk proteome over lactation between individual mothers. The results indicate that the differences in the milk proteome between individual mothers are more related to the

  2. Lessons learned from planetary science archiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zender, J.; Grayzeck, E.

    2006-01-01

    The need for scientific archiving of past, current, and future planetary scientific missions, laboratory data, and modeling efforts is indisputable. To quote from a message by G. Santayama carved over the entrance of the US Archive in Washington DC “Those who can not remember the past are doomed to repeat it.” The design, implementation, maintenance, and validation of planetary science archives are however disputed by the involved parties. The inclusion of the archives into the scientific heritage is problematic. For example, there is the imbalance between space agency requirements and institutional and national interests. The disparity of long-term archive requirements and immediate data analysis requests are significant. The discrepancy between the space missions archive budget and the effort required to design and build the data archive is large. An imbalance exists between new instrument development and existing, well-proven archive standards. The authors present their view on the problems and risk areas in the archiving concepts based on their experience acquired within NASA’s Planetary Data System (PDS) and ESA’s Planetary Science Archive (PSA). Individual risks and potential problem areas are discussed based on a model derived from a system analysis done upfront. The major risk for a planetary mission science archive is seen in the combination of minimal involvement by Mission Scientists and inadequate funding. The authors outline how the risks can be reduced. The paper ends with the authors view on future planetary archive implementations including the archive interoperability aspect.

  3. Tsetse immune system maturation requires the presence of obligate symbionts in larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L Weiss

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Beneficial microbial symbionts serve important functions within their hosts, including dietary supplementation and maintenance of immune system homeostasis. Little is known about the mechanisms that enable these bacteria to induce specific host phenotypes during development and into adulthood. Here we used the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans, and its obligate mutualist, Wigglesworthia glossinidia, to investigate the co-evolutionary adaptations that influence the development of host physiological processes. Wigglesworthia is maternally transmitted to tsetse's intrauterine larvae through milk gland secretions. We can produce flies that lack Wigglesworthia (Gmm(Wgm- yet retain their other symbiotic microbes. Such offspring give rise to adults that exhibit a largely normal phenotype, with the exception being that they are reproductively sterile. Our results indicate that when reared under normal environmental conditions Gmm(Wgm- adults are also immuno-compromised and highly susceptible to hemocoelic E. coli infections while age-matched wild-type individuals are refractory. Adults that lack Wigglesworthia during larval development exhibit exceptionally compromised cellular and humoral immune responses following microbial challenge, including reduced expression of genes that encode antimicrobial peptides (cecropin and attacin, hemocyte-mediated processes (thioester-containing proteins 2 and 4 and prophenoloxidase, and signal-mediating molecules (inducible nitric oxide synthase. Furthermore, Gmm(Wgm- adults harbor a reduced population of sessile and circulating hemocytes, a phenomenon that likely results from a significant decrease in larval expression of serpent and lozenge, both of which are associated with the process of early hemocyte differentiation. Our results demonstrate that Wigglesworthia must be present during the development of immature progeny in order for the immune system to function properly in adult tsetse. This phenomenon provides

  4. The Use of Silk as a Scaffold for Mature, Sustainable Unilocular Adipose 3D Tissue Engineered Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Rosalyn D; Wang, Rebecca Y; Reagan, Michaela R; Chen, Ying; Borowsky, Francis E; Zieba, Adam; Marra, Kacey G; Rubin, J Peter; Ghobrial, Irene M; Kaplan, David L

    2016-07-01

    There is a critical need for monitoring physiologically relevant, sustainable, human adipose tissues in vitro to gain new insights into metabolic diseases. To support long-term culture, a 3D silk scaffold assisted culture system is developed that maintains mature unilocular adipocytes ex vivo in coculture with preadipocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells obtained from small volumes of liquefied adipose samples. Without the silk scaffold, adipose tissue explants cannot be sustained in long-term culture (3 months) due to their fragility. Adjustments to media components are used to tune lipid metabolism and proliferation, in addition to responsiveness to an inflammatory stimulus. Interestingly, patient specific responses to TNFα stimulation are observed, providing a proof-of-concept translational technique for patient specific disease modeling in the future. In summary, this novel 3D scaffold assisted approach is required for establishing physiologically relevant, sustainable, human adipose tissue systems from small volumes of lipoaspirate, making this methodology of great value to studies of metabolism, adipokine-driven diseases, and other diseases where the roles of adipocytes are only now becoming uncovered. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Simultaneous sand control and liner cement system: keeping well productivity by optimizing drilling and completion operations in mature fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Andrea Nicolino de; Silva, Dayana Nunes e; Calderon, Agostinho [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The need to reduce oil extraction costs by increasing the recovery factor in mature fields unconsolidated sandstone reservoirs motivated the development of drilling and completion techniques that integrate the various interfaces of engineering the well, resulting in a final well configuration that provides maximum oil production at a lower cost. Due to the continued growth of drilling and completion of new wells or deviation of old wells in the design of mesh density field with an advanced degree of exploitation, PETROBRAS took the challenge to seek options for projects well, in order to maintain productivity and reduce their construction time, with the optimization of drilling and sand control systems. To achieve these goals, PETROBRAS developed the SCARS - Simultaneous Sand Control and Liner Cementing System, a pioneer technique in the global oil industry, which consists of a one trip sequence of operations in which sand control screens and liner are installed followed by the open hole gravel pack operation performed with the alpha and beta waves deposition technique, using a non aqueous system as a carrier fluid. The sequence is completed by liner cementing in the same trip. The great success of this project was based on the definition of a specific application scenario and demands allowing optimization of the system. This project started with the development of a non aqueous system as a gravel pack carrier fluid in order to perform an open hole gravel pack with the alpha/beta wave deposition technique along with the development and optimization of SCARS procedures. This article details the planning and execution phases of this project and also presents a broad description of the technical aspects. (author)

  6. Can planetary nebulae rotate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinin, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the inclination of spectral lines observed in a number of planetary nebulae when the spectrograph slit is placed along the major axis, which is presently ascribed to nonuniform expansion of the shells, actually may be due to rotation of the nebulae about their minor axes, as Campbell and Moore have suggested in their reports. It is assumed that the rotation of the central star (or, if the core is a binary system, circular motions of gas along quasi-Keplerian orbits) serves as the source of the original rotation of a protoplanetary nebula. The mechanism providing for strengthening of the original rotation in the process of expansion of the shell is the tangential pressure of L/sub α/ radiation due to the anisotropic properties of the medium and radiation field. The dynamic effect produced by them is evidently greatest in the epoch when the optical depth of the nebula in the L/sub c/ continuum becomes on the order of unity in the course of its expansion

  7. Redox Variations in Early Solar System Materials and Implications for Late Stage Planetary Accretion and Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen fugacity plays an important role in determining the detailed physical and chemical aspects of planets and their building blocks. Basic chemical properties such as the amount of oxidized Fe in a mantle (as FeO), the nature of alloying elements in the core (S, C, H, O, Si), and the solubility of various volatile elements in the silicate and metallic portions of embryos and planets can influence physical properties such as the size of the core, the liquidus and solidus of the mantle and core, and the speciation of volatile compounds contributing to atmospheres. This paper will provide an overview of the range of fO2 variation observed in primitive and differentiated materials that may have participated in accretion (cosmic dust, Star-dust and meteorites), a comparison to observations of planetary fO2 (Mercury, Mars and Earth), and a discus-sion of timing of variation of fO2 within both early and later accreted materials. This overview is meant to promote discussion and interaction between students of these two stages of planet formation to identify areas where more work is needed.

  8. The Planetary Data System— Archiving Planetary Data for the use of the Planetary Science Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Thomas H.; McLaughlin, Stephanie A.; Grayzeck, Edwin J.; Vilas, Faith; Knopf, William P.; Crichton, Daniel J.

    2014-11-01

    NASA’s Planetary Data System (PDS) archives, curates, and distributes digital data from NASA’s planetary missions. PDS provides the planetary science community convenient online access to data from NASA’s missions so that they can continue to mine these rich data sets for new discoveries. The PDS is a federated system consisting of nodes for specific discipline areas ranging from planetary geology to space physics. Our federation includes an engineering node that provides systems engineering support to the entire PDS.In order to adequately capture complete mission data sets containing not only raw and reduced instrument data, but also calibration and documentation and geometry data required to interpret and use these data sets both singly and together (data from multiple instruments, or from multiple missions), PDS personnel work with NASA missions from the initial AO through the end of mission to define, organize, and document the data. This process includes peer-review of data sets by members of the science community to ensure that the data sets are scientifically useful, effectively organized, and well documented. PDS makes the data in PDS easily searchable so that members of the planetary community can both query the archive to find data relevant to specific scientific investigations and easily retrieve the data for analysis. To ensure long-term preservation of data and to make data sets more easily searchable with the new capabilities in Information Technology now available (and as existing technologies become obsolete), the PDS (together with the COSPAR sponsored IPDA) developed and deployed a new data archiving system known as PDS4, released in 2013. The LADEE, MAVEN, OSIRIS REx, InSight, and Mars2020 missions are using PDS4. ESA has adopted PDS4 for the upcoming BepiColumbo mission. The PDS is actively migrating existing data records into PDS4 and developing tools to aid data providers and users. The PDS is also incorporating challenge

  9. Influence of stellar duplicity on the form of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesnik, I.G.; Pilyugin, L.S.

    1986-01-01

    Formation of planetary nebulae's spatial structures is considered. Simple expression for angular distribution of density in planetary nebulae is obtained. Bipolar structures are formed effectively in binary systems in which the velocity of the expanding shell around the main star is smaller than the orbital velocity of the satellite. Masses of satellites lie in the range 0.1-0.4Msub(sun). Theoretical isophotal contour map for the model of the planetary nebula NGC 3587 is consistent with observational data. It is shown that central stars of planetary nebulae are usually binary systems

  10. Controlled expression of nif and isc iron-sulfur protein maturation components reveals target specificity and limited functional replacement between the two systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Patricia C; Johnson, Deborah C; Ragle, Brook E; Unciuleac, Mihaela-Carmen; Dean, Dennis R

    2007-04-01

    The nitrogen-fixing organism Azotobacter vinelandii contains at least two systems that catalyze formation of [Fe-S] clusters. One of these systems is encoded by nif genes, whose products supply [Fe-S] clusters required for maturation of nitrogenase. The other system is encoded by isc genes, whose products are required for maturation of [Fe-S] proteins that participate in general metabolic processes. The two systems are similar in that they include an enzyme for the mobilization of sulfur (NifS or IscS) and an assembly scaffold (NifU or IscU) upon which [Fe-S] clusters are formed. Normal cellular levels of the Nif system, which supplies [Fe-S] clusters for the maturation of nitrogenase, cannot also supply [Fe-S] clusters for the maturation of other cellular [Fe-S] proteins. Conversely, when produced at the normal physiological levels, the Isc system cannot supply [Fe-S] clusters for the maturation of nitrogenase. In the present work we found that such target specificity for IscU can be overcome by elevated production of NifU. We also found that NifU, when expressed at normal levels, is able to partially replace the function of IscU if cells are cultured under low-oxygen-availability conditions. In contrast to the situation with IscU, we could not establish conditions in which the function of IscS could be replaced by NifS. We also found that elevated expression of the Isc components, as a result of deletion of the regulatory iscR gene, improved the capacity for nitrogen-fixing growth of strains deficient in either NifU or NifS.

  11. Tracking Advanced Planetary Systems (TAPAS) with HARPS-N. VI. HD 238914 and TYC 3318-01333-1: two more Li-rich giants with planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamów, M.; Niedzielski, A.; Kowalik, K.; Villaver, E.; Wolszczan, A.; Maciejewski, G.; Gromadzki, M.

    2018-05-01

    Context. We present the latest results of our search for planets with HARPS-N at the 3.6 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo under the Tracking Advanced Planetary Systems project: an in-depth study of the 15 most Li abundant giants from the PennState - Toruń Planet Search sample. Aims: Our goals are first, to obtain radial velocities of the most Li-rich giants we identified in our sample to search for possible low-mass substellar companions, and second, to perform an extended spectral analysis to define the evolutionary status of these stars. Methods: This work is based on high-resolution spectra obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and its High Resolution Spectrograph, and with the HARPS-N spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Two stars, HD 181368 and HD 188214, were also observed with UVES at the VLT to determine beryllium abundances. Results: We report i) the discovery of two new planetary systems around the Li-rich giant stars: HD 238914 and TYC 3318-01333-1 (a binary system); ii) reveal a binary Li-rich giant, HD 181368; iii) although our current phase coverage is not complete, we suggest the presence of planetary mass companions around TYC 3663-01966-1 and TYC 3105-00152-1; iv) we confirm the previous result for BD+48 740 and present updated orbital parameters, and v) we find a lack of a relation between the Li enhancement and the Be abundance for the stars HD 181368 and HD 188214, for which we acquired blue spectra. Conclusions: We found seven stars with stellar or potential planetary companions among the 15 Li-rich giant stars. The binary star frequency of the Li-rich giants in our sample appears to be normal, but the planet frequency is twice that of the general sample, which suggests a possible connection between hosting a companion and enhanced Li abundance in giant stars. We also found most of the companions orbits to be highly eccentric. Based on observations obtained with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, which is a joint project of the

  12. Betalactam antibiotics affect human dendritic cells maturation through MAPK/NF-kB systems. Role in allergic reactions to drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Soledad; Gomez, Enrique; Torres, Maria J.; Pozo, David; Fernandez, Tahia D.; Ariza, Adriana; Sanz, Maria L.; Blanca, Miguel; Mayorga, Cristobalina

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms leading to drug allergy in predisposed patients, especially those related to T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity, are not well understood. A key event in allergic reactions to drugs is the maturation process undergone by dendritic cells (DCs). Although amoxicillin (AX) has been reported to interact and maturate DCs from patients with AX-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity, the cell signaling pathways related to AX-mediated DC maturation have not been elucidated. We sought to determine the role of the MAPK and NF-κΒ pathways on AX-induced DC maturation and functional status. For that purpose, in monocyte-derived-DCs from AX-delayed allergic patients and tolerant subjects, we analyzed the activation pattern of p38MAPK, JNK, and ERK signaling and the NF-κB, maturation markers as well as endocytosis and allostimulatory capacities driven by AX-stimulated-DCs. Our data reveal that AX induces an increase in the phosphorylation levels of the three MAPKsand activated NF-κB in DCs from allergic patients. Moreover, the inhibition of these pathways prevents the up-regulation of surface molecules induced by AX. Additionally, we observed that the allostimulatory capacity and the endocytosis down-regulation in AX-stimulated-DCs from allergic patients depend on JNK and NF-κB activities. Taken together, our data shed light for the first time on the main signaling pathways involved in DC maturation from AX-delayed allergic patient. - Highlights: • The cell signaling pathways related to drug-mediated DC maturation were tested. • Amoxicillin induces activation of MAPK and NF-κB in DCs from allergic patients. • The inhibition of these pathways prevents the up-regulation of DC surface molecules. • Their allostimulatory and endocytosis capacities depend on JNK and NF-κB activities. • The low involvement of p38-MAPK could be the cause of an incomplete DC maturation.

  13. Betalactam antibiotics affect human dendritic cells maturation through MAPK/NF-kB systems. Role in allergic reactions to drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Soledad [CABIMER-Andalusian Center for Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Seville (Spain); Department of Medical Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Immunology, The University of Seville Medical School, Seville (Spain); Gomez, Enrique [Research Laboratory, IBIMA-Regional University Hospital of Malaga, UMA, Málaga (Spain); Torres, Maria J. [Allergy Service, IBIMA-Regional University Hospital of Malaga, UMA, Málaga (Spain); Pozo, David [CABIMER-Andalusian Center for Molecular Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Seville (Spain); Department of Medical Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Immunology, The University of Seville Medical School, Seville (Spain); Fernandez, Tahia D.; Ariza, Adriana [Research Laboratory, IBIMA-Regional University Hospital of Malaga, UMA, Málaga (Spain); Sanz, Maria L. [Department of Allergology and Clinical Immunology, University Clinic of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Blanca, Miguel [Allergy Service, IBIMA-Regional University Hospital of Malaga, UMA, Málaga (Spain); Mayorga, Cristobalina, E-mail: lina.mayorga@ibima.eu [Research Laboratory, IBIMA-Regional University Hospital of Malaga, UMA, Málaga (Spain); Allergy Service, IBIMA-Regional University Hospital of Malaga, UMA, Málaga (Spain)

    2015-11-01

    The mechanisms leading to drug allergy in predisposed patients, especially those related to T-cell-mediated drug hypersensitivity, are not well understood. A key event in allergic reactions to drugs is the maturation process undergone by dendritic cells (DCs). Although amoxicillin (AX) has been reported to interact and maturate DCs from patients with AX-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity, the cell signaling pathways related to AX-mediated DC maturation have not been elucidated. We sought to determine the role of the MAPK and NF-κΒ pathways on AX-induced DC maturation and functional status. For that purpose, in monocyte-derived-DCs from AX-delayed allergic patients and tolerant subjects, we analyzed the activation pattern of p38MAPK, JNK, and ERK signaling and the NF-κB, maturation markers as well as endocytosis and allostimulatory capacities driven by AX-stimulated-DCs. Our data reveal that AX induces an increase in the phosphorylation levels of the three MAPKsand activated NF-κB in DCs from allergic patients. Moreover, the inhibition of these pathways prevents the up-regulation of surface molecules induced by AX. Additionally, we observed that the allostimulatory capacity and the endocytosis down-regulation in AX-stimulated-DCs from allergic patients depend on JNK and NF-κB activities. Taken together, our data shed light for the first time on the main signaling pathways involved in DC maturation from AX-delayed allergic patient. - Highlights: • The cell signaling pathways related to drug-mediated DC maturation were tested. • Amoxicillin induces activation of MAPK and NF-κB in DCs from allergic patients. • The inhibition of these pathways prevents the up-regulation of DC surface molecules. • Their allostimulatory and endocytosis capacities depend on JNK and NF-κB activities. • The low involvement of p38-MAPK could be the cause of an incomplete DC maturation.

  14. The trauma ecosystem: The impact and economics of new trauma centers on a mature statewide trauma system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, David J; Pracht, Etienne E; Leitz, Pablo T; Spain, David A; Staudenmayer, Kristan L; Tepas, Joseph J

    2017-06-01

    Florida serves as a model for the study of trauma system performance. Between 2010 and 2104, 5 new trauma centers were opened alongside 20 existing centers. The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of trauma system expansion on system triage performance and trauma center patients' profiles. A statewide data set was queried for all injury-related discharges from adult acute care hospitals using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes for 2010 and 2014. The data set, inclusion criteria, and definitions of high-risk injury were chosen to match those used by the Florida Department of Health in its trauma registry. Hospitals were classified as existing Level I (E1) or Level II (E2) trauma centers and new E2 (N2) centers. Five N2 centers were established 11.6 to 85.3 miles from existing centers. Field and overall trauma system triage of high-risk patients was less accurate with increased overtriage and no change in undertriage. Annual volume at N2 centers increased but did not change at E1 and E2 centers. In 2014, Patients at E1 and E2 centers were slightly older and less severely injured, while those at N2 centers were substantially younger and more severely injured than in 2010. The injured patient-payer mix changed with a decrease in self-pay and commercial patients and an increase in government-sponsored patients at E1 and E2 centers and an increase in self-pay and commercial patients with a decrease in government-sponsored patients at N2 centers. Designation of new trauma centers in a mature system was associated with a change in established trauma center demographics and economics without an improvement in trauma system triage performance. These findings suggest that the health of an entire trauma system network must be considered in the design and implementation of a regional trauma system. Therapeutic/care management study, level IV; epidemiological, level IV.

  15. Deceleration in maturation of bone during adolescent age in achondroplasia - a retrospective study using RUS scoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Suk-Ha [Konkuk University Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Seoul (Korea); Modi, Hitesh N.; Suh, Seung Woo [Korea University Guro Hospital, Scoliosis Research Institute, Department of Orthopedics, Seoul (Korea); Song, Hae-Ryong; Hazra, Sunit; Modi, Chetna [Korea University Guro Hospital, Rare Disease Institute, Department of Orthopedics, Seoul (Korea)

    2009-02-15

    Knowledge of bone age in achondroplasia is required for the prediction of adult height, timings of limb lengthening, and epiphysiodesis procedures. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the differences in skeletal age in achondroplasia and a control population with the Tanner-Whitehouse 3 method using the RUS score and to determine the right age for the interventional procedure for limb lengthening procedure or deformity correction in these patients. Left hand radiographs of 34 patients (age range, 5-18 years) with achondroplasia were evaluated for skeletal age using the RUS scoring system, which were compared with the left hand radiographs of 41 patients (age range, 5-18 years) without achondroplasia measuring skeletal age. The difference in chronological age and RUS bone age were evaluated statistically according to gender and age group. In the achondroplasia group, chronological age were 10.5{+-}4.3 years for males and 10.1{+-}3.6 years for females and RUS bone age were 9.2{+-}4.0 years for males and 8.9{+-}3.4 years for females, which showed statistically significantly difference (males p=0.0003 and females p < 0.0001), while in the control group, chronological age were 11.1{+-}2.9 years for males and 10.7{+-}3.4 years for females and RUS bone age were 11.2{+-}3.4 years for males and 10.7{+-}3.3 years for females, which did not show statistically significantly difference (males p=0.54 and females p=0.76). Our finding suggested a delay of 1.4 years for males and 1.2 years for females in the maturation of bone in achondroplasia patients. Difference between chronological age and RUS bone age was 0.9{+-}1.1 for <10 years and 1.6{+-}0.9 for >10 years in the study group, while 0.1{+-}1.1 for <10 years and -0.2 {+-} 0.6 for >10 years in the control group, which also showed >statistically significant difference (<10 years p=0.04 and >10 years p<0.0001). These differences indicate that there was a delay in the maturation of bones by 1 year in the group <10

  16. The Planetary Science Archive (PSA): Exploration and discovery of scientific datasets from ESA's planetary missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallat, C.; Besse, S.; Barbarisi, I.; Arviset, C.; De Marchi, G.; Barthelemy, M.; Coia, D.; Costa, M.; Docasal, R.; Fraga, D.; Heather, D. J.; Lim, T.; Macfarlane, A.; Martinez, S.; Rios, C.; Vallejo, F.; Said, J.

    2017-09-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific datasets through various interfaces at http://psa.esa.int. All datasets are scientifically peer-reviewed by independent scientists, and are compliant with the Planetary Data System (PDS) standards. The PSA has started to implement a number of significant improvements, mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standards, and the growing need for better interfaces and advanced applications to support science exploitation.

  17. Investigations on physics of planetary atmospheres and small bodies of the Solar system, extrasolar planets and disk structures around the stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Delets, O. S.; Dlugach, J. M.; Zakhozhay, O. V.; Kostogryz, N. M.; Krushevska, V. M.; Kuznyetsova, Y. G.; Morozhenko, O. V.; Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Ovsak, O. S.; Rozenbush, O. E.; Romanyuk, Ya. O.; Shavlovskiy, V. I.; Yanovitskij, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    The history and main becoming stages of Planetary system physics Department of the Main astronomical observatory of National academy of Sciences of Ukraine are considered. Fundamental subjects of department researches and science achievements of employees are presented. Fields of theoretical and experimental researches are Solar system planets and their satellites; vertical structures of planet atmospheres; radiative transfer in planet atmospheres; exoplanet systems of Milky Way; stars having disc structures; astronomical engineering. Employees of the department carry out spectral, photometrical and polarimetrical observations of Solar system planets, exoplanet systems and stars with disc structures. 1. From the history of department 2. The main directions of department research 3. Scientific instrumentation 4. Telescopes and observation stations 5. Theoretical studies 6. The results of observations of planets and small Solar system bodies and their interpretation 7. The study of exoplanets around the stars of our galaxy 8. Spectral energy distribution of fragmenting protostellar disks 9. Cooperation with the National Technical University of Ukraine (KPI) and National University of Ukraine "Lviv Polytechnic" to study the impact of stratospheric aerosol changes on weather and climate of the Earth 10. International relations. Scientific and organizational work. Scientific conferences, congresses, symposia 11. The main achievements of the department 12. Current researches 13. Anniversaries and awards

  18. Collisional stripping of planetary crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Philip J.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Elliott, Tim; Stewart, Sarah T.; Walter, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Geochemical studies of planetary accretion and evolution have invoked various degrees of collisional erosion to explain differences in bulk composition between planets and chondrites. Here we undertake a full, dynamical evaluation of 'crustal stripping' during accretion and its key geochemical consequences. Crusts are expected to contain a significant fraction of planetary budgets of incompatible elements, which include the major heat producing nuclides. We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of collisions between differentiated rocky planetesimals and planetary embryos. We find that the crust is preferentially lost relative to the mantle during impacts, and we have developed a scaling law based on these simulations that approximates the mass of crust that remains in the largest remnant. Using this scaling law and a recent set of N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation, we have estimated the maximum effect of crustal stripping on incompatible element abundances during the accretion of planetary embryos. We find that on average approximately one third of the initial crust is stripped from embryos as they accrete, which leads to a reduction of ∼20% in the budgets of the heat producing elements if the stripped crust does not reaccrete. Erosion of crusts can lead to non-chondritic ratios of incompatible elements, but the magnitude of this effect depends sensitively on the details of the crust-forming melting process on the planetesimals. The Lu/Hf system is fractionated for a wide range of crustal formation scenarios. Using eucrites (the products of planetesimal silicate melting, thought to represent the crust of Vesta) as a guide to the Lu/Hf of planetesimal crust partially lost during accretion, we predict the Earth could evolve to a superchondritic 176Hf/177Hf (3-5 parts per ten thousand) at present day. Such values are in keeping with compositional estimates of the bulk Earth. Stripping of planetary crusts during accretion can lead to

  19. The Analysis of Distribution of Thickness of ThinFilm Coating During the Magnetron Sputtering on Systems with Planetary Movement of Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Sagatelyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article subject is a thin-film coating process using ion-plasma sputter deposition systems with magnetron sputtering targets. To improve coating thickness evenness of parts various manufacturers equip their systems with mechanisms for moving the coating parts, and sometimes the magnetrons. More specifically, the article concerns the ion-plasma sputtering process using a system equipped with a mechanism for providing a planetary movement of the coating parts in the plane perpendicular to the planes of two sputtering targets.The purpose of this work was to improve a distribution of the coating thickness evenness on the sputtering surface of the part. It is achieved through selection of the best combinations of kinematic and geometric factors that characterize a particular sputtering operation, depending on the size and position of the surface to be coated. These factors include a ratio between directions and frequencies of the self-rotation of satellite planetary gear, which holds a work piecesubstrate, and the translational motion i.e. planetary carrier rotation to carry the satellite; the angles of planes of the right and left magnetrons with respect to the system frontal plane. Since there is, essentially, a lack of mathematical models to perform the appropriate calculations for the considered type of system designs, a more specific aim of the article is to develop a technique to evaluate the uneven thickness of coatings provided by the systems of this type.To achieve this more specific purpose the analytical technique had been used, applying the postulates of analytical geometry and theoretical mechanics. The main results of the research described in the article are as follows:- mathematical models of dependencies of geometric and kinematic parameters, changing during the sputtering process and characterizing each considered point on the surface of the work piece, on the current position of the work piece in the structure of the planetary

  20. Planetary Geologic Mapping Handbook - 2010. Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K. L.; Skinner, J. A., Jr.; Hare, T. M.

    2010-01-01

    the USGS now are primarily digital products using geographic information system (GIS) software and file formats. GIS mapping tools permit easy spatial comparison, generation, importation, manipulation, and analysis of multiple raster image, gridded, and vector data sets. GIS software has also permitted the development of projectspecific tools and the sharing of geospatial products among researchers. GIS approaches are now being used in planetary geologic mapping as well. Guidelines or handbooks on techniques in planetary geologic mapping have been developed periodically. As records of the heritage of mapping methods and data, these remain extremely useful guides. However, many of the fundamental aspects of earlier mapping handbooks have evolved significantly, and a comprehensive review of currently accepted mapping methodologies is now warranted. As documented in this handbook, such a review incorporates additional guidelines developed in recent years for planetary geologic mapping by the NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics (PGG) Program's Planetary Cartography and Geologic Mapping Working Group's (PCGMWG) Geologic Mapping Subcommittee (GEMS) on the selection and use of map bases as well as map preparation, review, publication, and distribution. In light of the current boom in planetary exploration and the ongoing rapid evolution of available data for planetary mapping, this handbook is especially timely.

  1. Blue Marble Matches: Using Earth for Planetary Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Paige Valderrama

    2009-01-01

    Goal: This activity is designed to introduce students to geologic processes on Earth and model how scientists use Earth to gain a better understanding of other planetary bodies in the solar system. Objectives: Students will: 1. Identify common descriptor characteristics used by scientists to describe geologic features in images. 2. Identify geologic features and how they form on Earth. 3. Create a list of defining/distinguishing characteristics of geologic features 4. Identify geologic features in images of other planetary bodies. 5. List observations and interpretations about planetary body comparisons. 6. Create summary statements about planetary body comparisons.

  2. Visualizing NASA's Planetary Data with Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, R. A.; Hancher, M. D.; Broxton, M.; Weiss-Malik, M.; Gorelick, N.; Kolb, E.

    2008-12-01

    . Our presentation will demonstrate how to leverage the latest Google Earth and KML features to visualize planetary data. In the future we hope to make additional planetary KML data available for Mars, the Moon, and other planets in the solar system. This will vastly increase the public's ability to easily access NASA's store of planetary geospatial information.

  3. New and misclassified planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohoutek, L.

    1978-01-01

    Since the 'Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae' 226 new objects have been classified as planetary nebulae. They are summarized in the form of designations, names, coordinates and the references to the discovery. Further 9 new objects have been added and called 'proto-planetary nebulae', but their status is still uncertain. Only 34 objects have been included in the present list of misclassified planetary nebulae although the number of doubtful cases is much larger. (Auth.)

  4. The CARMENES search for exoplanets around M dwarfs . First visual-channel radial-velocity measurements and orbital parameter updates of seven M-dwarf planetary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, T.; Kürster, M.; Zechmeister, M.; Tal-Or, L.; Caballero, J. A.; Quirrenbach, A.; Amado, P. J.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Reffert, S.; Dreizler, S.; Hatzes, A. P.; Kaminski, A.; Launhardt, R.; Henning, Th.; Montes, D.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Mundt, R.; Pavlov, A.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Seifert, W.; Morales, J. C.; Nowak, G.; Jeffers, S. V.; Rodríguez-López, C.; del Burgo, C.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; López-Santiago, J.; Mathar, R. J.; Ammler-von Eiff, M.; Guenther, E. W.; Barrado, D.; González Hernández, J. I.; Mancini, L.; Stürmer, J.; Abril, M.; Aceituno, J.; Alonso-Floriano, F. J.; Antona, R.; Anwand-Heerwart, H.; Arroyo-Torres, B.; Azzaro, M.; Baroch, D.; Bauer, F. F.; Becerril, S.; Benítez, D.; Berdiñas, Z. M.; Bergond, G.; Blümcke, M.; Brinkmöller, M.; Cano, J.; Cárdenas Vázquez, M. C.; Casal, E.; Cifuentes, C.; Claret, A.; Colomé, J.; Cortés-Contreras, M.; Czesla, S.; Díez-Alonso, E.; Feiz, C.; Fernández, M.; Ferro, I. M.; Fuhrmeister, B.; Galadí-Enríquez, D.; Garcia-Piquer, A.; García Vargas, M. L.; Gesa, L.; Gómez Galera, V.; González-Peinado, R.; Grözinger, U.; Grohnert, S.; Guàrdia, J.; Guijarro, A.; de Guindos, E.; Gutiérrez-Soto, J.; Hagen, H.-J.; Hauschildt, P. H.; Hedrosa, R. P.; Helmling, J.; Hermelo, I.; Hernández Arabí, R.; Hernández Castaño, L.; Hernández Hernando, F.; Herrero, E.; Huber, A.; Huke, P.; Johnson, E.; de Juan, E.; Kim, M.; Klein, R.; Klüter, J.; Klutsch, A.; Lafarga, M.; Lampón, M.; Lara, L. M.; Laun, W.; Lemke, U.; Lenzen, R.; López del Fresno, M.; López-González, M. J.; López-Puertas, M.; López Salas, J. F.; Luque, R.; Magán Madinabeitia, H.; Mall, U.; Mandel, H.; Marfil, E.; Marín Molina, J. A.; Maroto Fernández, D.; Martín, E. L.; Martín-Ruiz, S.; Marvin, C. J.; Mirabet, E.; Moya, A.; Moreno-Raya, M. E.; Nagel, E.; Naranjo, V.; Nortmann, L.; Ofir, A.; Oreiro, R.; Pallé, E.; Panduro, J.; Pascual, J.; Passegger, V. M.; Pedraz, S.; Pérez-Calpena, A.; Pérez Medialdea, D.; Perger, M.; Perryman, M. A. C.; Pluto, M.; Rabaza, O.; Ramón, A.; Rebolo, R.; Redondo, P.; Reinhardt, S.; Rhode, P.; Rix, H.-W.; Rodler, F.; Rodríguez, E.; Rodríguez Trinidad, A.; Rohloff, R.-R.; Rosich, A.; Sadegi, S.; Sánchez-Blanco, E.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Sánchez-López, A.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sarkis, P.; Sarmiento, L. F.; Schäfer, S.; Schiller, J.; Schöfer, P.; Schweitzer, A.; Solano, E.; Stahl, O.; Strachan, J. B. P.; Suárez, J. C.; Tabernero, H. M.; Tala, M.; Tulloch, S. M.; Veredas, G.; Vico Linares, J. I.; Vilardell, F.; Wagner, K.; Winkler, J.; Wolthoff, V.; Xu, W.; Yan, F.; Zapatero Osorio, M. R.

    2018-02-01

    Context. The main goal of the CARMENES survey is to find Earth-mass planets around nearby M-dwarf stars. Seven M dwarfs included in the CARMENES sample had been observed before with HIRES and HARPS and either were reported to have one short period planetary companion (GJ 15 A, GJ 176, GJ 436, GJ 536 and GJ 1148) or are multiple planetary systems (GJ 581 and GJ 876). Aims: We aim to report new precise optical radial velocity measurements for these planet hosts and test the overall capabilities of CARMENES. Methods: We combined our CARMENES precise Doppler measurements with those available from HIRES and HARPS and derived new orbital parameters for the systems. Bona-fide single planet systems were fitted with a Keplerian model. The multiple planet systems were analyzed using a self-consistent dynamical model and their best fit orbits were tested for long-term stability. Results: We confirm or provide supportive arguments for planets around all the investigated stars except for GJ 15 A, for which we find that the post-discovery HIRES data and our CARMENES data do not show a signal at 11.4 days. Although we cannot confirm the super-Earth planet GJ 15 Ab, we show evidence for a possible long-period (Pc = 7030-630+970 d) Saturn-mass (mcsini = 51.8M⊕) planet around GJ 15 A. In addition, based on our CARMENES and HIRES data we discover a second planet around GJ 1148, for which we estimate a period Pc = 532.6 days, eccentricity ec = 0.342 and minimum mass mcsini = 68.1M⊕. Conclusions: The CARMENES optical radial velocities have similar precision and overall scatter when compared to the Doppler measurements conducted with HARPS and HIRES. We conclude that CARMENES is an instrument that is up to the challenge of discovering rocky planets around low-mass stars. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO programmes 072.C-0488, 072.C-0513, 074.C-0012, 074.C-0364, 075.D-0614, 076.C-0878, 077.C

  5. Population dynamics of the murine lymphokine activated killer system: precursor frequency and kinetics of maturation and renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Schaub, L B; Hemstreet, G P; Hemingway, L L; Abraham, S R; DeBault, L E

    1987-11-01

    The proliferation kinetics and population renewal of recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2)-induced murine lymphokine activated killers (LAK) arising from splenic precursors was studied. Extensive proliferation has been shown to accompany the de novo generation of LAK cytotoxicity. In this report, a thymidine 'hot pulse' suicide technique was employed to examine the sensitivity of LAK progenitors during various time periods following culture initiation. Hot pulse during the first 24 hr of culture resulted in a 30-35% reduction in lytic activity when assayed on day 5. Pulse periods between days 1 and 4 resulted in almost complete inhibition (90-95%) of lytic function when assayed on day 5. Proliferation of LAK progenitors was documented by limiting dilution analysis comparison of splenic precursors and functionally mature LAK cultures. These studies showed a 75- to 80-fold enrichment of LAK progenitors after 3 days culture in rIL-2. By flow cytometric cell cycle analysis, we demonstrated that the number of cells in the S/G2/M phase increased with the length of rIL-2 culture and represented approximately 40% of the cells by day 4. Finally, we used the rate of decay of lytic activity following irradiation as a factor to define the mean life span of a cytotoxic effector in the absence of cellular input. An exponential decrease to approximately 50% of controls was observed within 8-9 hr after irradiation. Taken together, these results suggest that the LAK system is highly dynamic and requires continuous cellular proliferation for its maintenance.

  6. Dust in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    The author's review concentrates on theoretical aspects of dust in planetary nebulae (PN). He considers the questions: how much dust is there is PN; what is its composition; what effects does it have on the ionization structure, on the dynamics of the nebula. (Auth.)

  7. Improving transportation systems management and operations (TSM&O), capability maturity model workshop white paper : systems and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Research done through the Second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) determined : that agencies with the most effective transportation systems management and operations : (TSM&O) activities were differentiated not by budgets or technical skil...

  8. Reconfigurable Autonomy for Future Planetary Rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughes, Guy

    Extra-terrestrial Planetary rover systems are uniquely remote, placing constraints in regard to communication, environmental uncertainty, and limited physical resources, and requiring a high level of fault tolerance and resistance to hardware degradation. This thesis presents a novel self-reconfiguring autonomous software architecture designed to meet the needs of extraterrestrial planetary environments. At runtime it can safely reconfigure low-level control systems, high-level decisional autonomy systems, and managed software architecture. The architecture can perform automatic Verification and Validation of self-reconfiguration at run-time, and enables a system to be self-optimising, self-protecting, and self-healing. A novel self-monitoring system, which is non-invasive, efficient, tunable, and autonomously deploying, is also presented. The architecture was validated through the use-case of a highly autonomous extra-terrestrial planetary exploration rover. Three major forms of reconfiguration were demonstrated and tested: first, high level adjustment of system internal architecture and goal; second, software module modification; and third, low level alteration of hardware control in response to degradation of hardware and environmental change. The architecture was demonstrated to be robust and effective in a Mars sample return mission use-case testing the operational aspects of a novel, reconfigurable guidance, navigation, and control system for a planetary rover, all operating in concert through a scenario that required reconfiguration of all elements of the system.

  9. PSUP: A Planetary SUrface Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulet, F.; Quantin-Nataf, C.; Ballans, H.; Dassas, K.; Audouard, J.; Carter, J.; Gondet, B.; Lozac'h, L.; Malapert, J.-C.; Marmo, C.; Riu, L.; Séjourné, A.

    2018-01-01

    The large size and complexity of planetary data acquired by spacecraft during the last two decades create a demand within the planetary community for access to the archives of raw and high level data and for the tools necessary to analyze these data. Among the different targets of the Solar System, Mars is unique as the combined datasets from the Viking, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter missions provide a tremendous wealth of information that can be used to study the surface of Mars. The number and the size of the datasets require an information system to process, manage and distribute data. The Observatories of Paris Sud (OSUPS) and Lyon (OSUL) have developed a portal, called PSUP (Planetary SUrface Portal), for providing users with efficient and easy access to data products dedicated to the Martian surface. The objectives of the portal are: 1) to allow processing and downloading of data via a specific application called MarsSI (Martian surface data processing Information System); 2) to provide the visualization and merging of high level (image, spectral, and topographic) products and catalogs via a web-based user interface (MarsVisu), and 3) to distribute some of these specific high level data with an emphasis on products issued by the science teams of OSUPS and OSUL. As the MarsSI service is extensively described in a companion paper (Quantin-Nataf et al., companion paper, submitted to this special issue), the present paper focus on the general architecture and the functionalities of the web-based user interface MarsVisu. This service provides access to many data products for Mars: albedo, mineral and thermal inertia global maps from spectrometers; mosaics from imagers; image footprints and rasters from the MarsSI tool; high level specific products (defined as catalogs or vectors). MarsVisu can be used to quickly assess the visualized processed data and maps as well as identify areas that have not been mapped yet

  10. Planetary Image Geometry Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Robert C.; Pariser, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    The Planetary Image Geometry (PIG) library is a multi-mission library used for projecting images (EDRs, or Experiment Data Records) and managing their geometry for in-situ missions. A collection of models describes cameras and their articulation, allowing application programs such as mosaickers, terrain generators, and pointing correction tools to be written in a multi-mission manner, without any knowledge of parameters specific to the supported missions. Camera model objects allow transformation of image coordinates to and from view vectors in XYZ space. Pointing models, specific to each mission, describe how to orient the camera models based on telemetry or other information. Surface models describe the surface in general terms. Coordinate system objects manage the various coordinate systems involved in most missions. File objects manage access to metadata (labels, including telemetry information) in the input EDRs and RDRs (Reduced Data Records). Label models manage metadata information in output files. Site objects keep track of different locations where the spacecraft might be at a given time. Radiometry models allow correction of radiometry for an image. Mission objects contain basic mission parameters. Pointing adjustment ("nav") files allow pointing to be corrected. The object-oriented structure (C++) makes it easy to subclass just the pieces of the library that are truly mission-specific. Typically, this involves just the pointing model and coordinate systems, and parts of the file model. Once the library was developed (initially for Mars Polar Lander, MPL), adding new missions ranged from two days to a few months, resulting in significant cost savings as compared to rewriting all the application programs for each mission. Currently supported missions include Mars Pathfinder (MPF), MPL, Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix, and Mars Science Lab (MSL). Applications based on this library create the majority of operational image RDRs for those missions. A

  11. Planetary Simulation Chambers bring Mars to laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateo-Marti, E.

    2016-07-01

    Although space missions provide fundamental and unique knowledge for planetary exploration, they are always costly and extremely time-consuming. Due to the obvious technical and economical limitations of in-situ planetary exploration, laboratory simulations are among the most feasible research options for making advances in planetary exploration. Therefore, laboratory simulations of planetary environments are a necessary and complementary option to expensive space missions. Simulation chambers are economical, more versatile, and allow for a higher number of experiments than space missions. Laboratory-based facilities are able to mimic the conditions found in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of a majority of planetary objects. Number of relevant applications in Mars planetary exploration will be described in order to provide an understanding about the potential and flexibility of planetary simulation chambers systems: mainly, stability and presence of certain minerals on Mars surface; and microorganisms potential habitability under planetary environmental conditions would be studied. Therefore, simulation chambers will be a promising tools and necessary platform to design future planetary space mission and to validate in-situ measurements from orbital or rover observations. (Author)

  12. Planetary boundaries: exploring the safe operating space for humanity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johan Rockström; Will Steffen; Kevin Noone; Asa Persson; F. Stuart Chapin; Eric Lambin; Timothy M. Lenton; Marten Scheffer; Carl Folke; Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Björn Nykvist; Cynthia A. de Wit; Terry Hughes; Sander van der Leeuw; Henning Rodhe; Sverker Sörlin; Peter K. Snyder; Robert Costanza; Uno Svedin; Malin Falkenmark; Louise Karlberg; Robert W. Corell; Victoria J. Fabry; James Hansen; Brian Walker; Diana Liverman; Katherine Richardson; Paul Crutzen; Jonathan Foley

    2009-01-01

    Anthropogenic pressures on the Earth System have reached a scale where abrupt global environmental change can no longer be excluded. We propose a new approach to global sustainability in which we define planetary boundaries within which we expect that humanity can operate safely. Transgressing one or more planetary boundaries may be deleterious or even catastrophic due...

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE K2-19 MULTIPLE-TRANSITING PLANETARY SYSTEM VIA HIGH-DISPERSION SPECTROSCOPY, AO IMAGING, AND TRANSIT TIMING VARIATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narita, Norio; Hori, Yasunori; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Takeda, Yoichi; Tamura, Motohide [Astrobiology Center, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Hirano, Teruyuki [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Fukui, Akihiko; Yanagisawa, Kenshi [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Winn, Joshua N. [Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Ryu, Tsuguru; Onitsuka, Masahiro [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Kudo, Tomoyuki [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Delrez, Laetitia; Gillon, Michael; Jehin, Emmanuel [Institut d’Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Université de Liège, Allée du 6 Août 17, Bat. B5C, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); McCormac, James [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Holman, Matthew [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Izumiura, Hideyuki, E-mail: norio.narita@nao.ac.jp [SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan)

    2015-12-10

    K2-19 (EPIC201505350) is an interesting planetary system in which two transiting planets with radii ∼7 R{sub ⊕} (inner planet b) and ∼4 R{sub ⊕} (outer planet c) have orbits that are nearly in a 3:2 mean-motion resonance. Here, we present results of ground-based follow-up observations for the K2-19 planetary system. We have performed high-dispersion spectroscopy and high-contrast adaptive-optics imaging of the host star with the HDS and HiCIAO on the Subaru 8.2 m telescope. We find that the host star is a relatively old (≥8 Gyr) late G-type star (T{sub eff} ∼ 5350 K, M{sub s} ∼ 0.9 M{sub ⊙}, and R{sub s} ∼ 0.9 R{sub ⊙}). We do not find any contaminating faint objects near the host star that could be responsible for (or dilute) the transit signals. We have also conducted transit follow-up photometry for the inner planet with KeplerCam on the FLWO 1.2 m telescope, TRAPPISTCAM on the TRAPPIST 0.6 m telescope, and MuSCAT on the OAO 1.88 m telescope. We confirm the presence of transit timing variations (TTVs), as previously reported by Armstrong and coworkers. We model the observed TTVs of the inner planet using the synodic chopping formulae given by Deck and Agol. We find two statistically indistinguishable solutions for which the period ratios (P{sub c}/P{sub b}) are located slightly above and below the exact 3:2 commensurability. Despite the degeneracy, we derive the orbital period of the inner planet P{sub b} ∼ 7.921 days and the mass of the outer planet M{sub c} ∼ 20 M{sub ⊕}. Additional transit photometry (especially for the outer planet) as well as precise radial-velocity measurements would be helpful to break the degeneracy and to determine the mass of the inner planet.

  14. A Search for Technosignatures from 14 Planetary Systems in the Kepler Field with the Green Bank Telescope at 1.15–1.73 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, Jean-Luc; Greenberg, Adam H.; Pinchuk, Pavlo; Shinde, Akshay; Alladi, Yashaswi; Prasad MN, Srinivas; Bowman, M. Oliver; Fisher, Callum; Gyalay, Szilard; McKibbin, Willow; Miles, Brittany; Nguyen, Donald; Power, Conor; Ramani, Namrata; Raviprasad, Rashmi; Santana, Jesse; Lynch, Ryan S.

    2018-05-01

    Analysis of Kepler mission data suggests that the Milky Way includes billions of Earth-sized planets in the habitable zone of their host stars. Current technology enables the detection of technosignatures emitted from a large fraction of the Galaxy. We describe a search for technosignatures that is sensitive to Arecibo-class transmitters located within ∼420 ly of Earth and transmitters that are 1000 times more effective than Arecibo within ∼13000 ly of Earth. Our observations focused on 14 planetary systems in the Kepler field and used the L-band receiver (1.15–1.73 GHz) of the 100 m diameter Green Bank Telescope. Each source was observed for a total integration time of 5 minutes. We obtained power spectra at a frequency resolution of 3 Hz and examined narrowband signals with Doppler drift rates between ±9 Hz s‑1. We flagged any detection with a signal-to-noise ratio in excess of 10 as a candidate signal and identified approximately 850,000 candidates. Most (99%) of these candidate signals were automatically classified as human-generated radio-frequency interference (RFI). A large fraction (>99%) of the remaining candidate signals were also flagged as anthropogenic RFI because they have frequencies that overlap those used by global navigation satellite systems, satellite downlinks, or other interferers detected in heavily polluted regions of the spectrum. All 19 remaining candidate signals were scrutinized and none were attributable to an extraterrestrial source.

  15. Planetary explorer liquid propulsion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckevitt, F. X.; Eggers, R. F.; Bolz, C. W.

    1971-01-01

    An analytical evaluation of several candidate monopropellant hydrazine propulsion system approaches is conducted in order to define the most suitable configuration for the combined velocity and attitude control system for the Planetary Explorer spacecraft. Both orbiter and probe-type missions to the planet Venus are considered. The spacecraft concept is that of a Delta launched spin-stabilized vehicle. Velocity control is obtained through preprogrammed pulse-mode firing of the thrusters in synchronism with the spacecraft spin rate. Configuration selection is found to be strongly influenced by the possible error torques induced by uncertainties in thruster operation and installation. The propulsion systems defined are based on maximum use of existing, qualified components. Ground support equipment requirements are defined and system development testing outlined.

  16. Energy Balance Models and Planetary Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    We know that planetary dynamics can have a significant affect on the climate of planets. Planetary dynamics dominate the glacial-interglacial periods on Earth, leaving a significant imprint on the geological record. They have also been demonstrated to have a driving influence on the climates of other planets in our solar system. We should therefore expect th.ere to be similar relationships on extrasolar planets. Here we describe a simple energy balance model that can predict the growth and thickness of glaciers, and their feedbacks on climate. We will also describe model changes that we have made to include planetary dynamics effects. This is the model we will use at the start of our collaboration to handle the influence of dynamics on climate.

  17. Planetary Cartography - Activities and Current Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nass, Andrea; Di, Kaichang; Elgner, Stephan; van Gasselt, Stephan; Hare, Trent; Hargitai, Henrik; Karachevtseva, Irina; Kereszturi, Akos; Kersten, Elke; Kokhanov, Alexander; Manaud, Nicolas; Roatsch, Thomas; Rossi, Angelo Pio; Skinner, James, Jr.; Wählisch, Marita

    2018-05-01

    Maps are one of the most important tools for communicating geospatial information between producers and receivers. Geospatial data, tools, contributions in geospatial sciences, and the communication of information and transmission of knowledge are matter of ongoing cartographic research. This applies to all topics and objects located on Earth or on any other body in our Solar System. In planetary science, cartography and mapping have a history dating back to the roots of telescopic space exploration and are now facing new technological and organizational challenges with the rise of new missions, new global initiatives, organizations and opening research markets. The focus of this contribution is to introduce the community to the field of planetary cartography and its historic foundation, to highlight some of the organizations involved and to emphasize challenges that Planetary Cartography has to face today and in the near future.

  18. Miniaturisation of imaging spectrometer for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossart, Pierre; Sémery, Alain; Réess, Jean-Michel; Combes, Michel

    2017-11-01

    Future planetary exploration on telluric or giant planets will need a new kind of instrumentation combining imaging and spectroscopy at high spectral resolution to achieve new scientific measurements, in particular for atmospheric studies in nadir configuration. We present here a study of a Fourier Transform heterodyne spectrometer, which can achieve these objectives, in the visible or infrared. The system is composed of a Michelson interferometer, whose mirrors have been replaced by gratings, a configuration studied in the early days of Fourier Transform spectroscopy, but only recently reused for space instrumentation, with the availability of large infrared mosaics. A complete study of an instrument is underway, with optical and electronic tests, as well as data processing analysis. This instrument will be proposed for future planetary missions, including ESA/Bepi Colombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter or Earth orbiting platforms.

  19. Mission Implementation Constraints on Planetary Muon Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cathleen E.; Kedar, Sharon; Naudet, Charles; Webb, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Cost: Use heritage hardware, especially use a tested landing system to reduce cost (Phoenix or MSL EDL stage). The sky crane technology delivers higher mass to the surface and enables reaching targets at higher elevation, but at a higher mission cost. Rover vs. Stationary Lander: Rover-mounted instrument enables tomography, but the increased weight of the rover reduces the allowable payload weight. Mass is the critical design constraint for an instrument for a planetary mission. Many factors that are minor factors or do not enter into design considerations for terrestrial operation are important for a planetary application. (Landing site, diurnal temperature variation, instrument portability, shock/vibration)

  20. Improving accessibility and discovery of ESA planetary data through the new planetary science archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, A. J.; Docasal, R.; Rios, C.; Barbarisi, I.; Saiz, J.; Vallejo, F.; Besse, S.; Arviset, C.; Barthelemy, M.; De Marchi, G.; Fraga, D.; Grotheer, E.; Heather, D.; Lim, T.; Martinez, S.; Vallat, C.

    2018-01-01

    The Planetary Science Archive (PSA) is the European Space Agency's (ESA) repository of science data from all planetary science and exploration missions. The PSA provides access to scientific data sets through various interfaces at http://psa.esa.int. Mostly driven by the evolution of the PDS standards which all new ESA planetary missions shall follow and the need to update the interfaces to the archive, the PSA has undergone an important re-engineering. In order to maximise the scientific exploitation of ESA's planetary data holdings, significant improvements have been made by utilising the latest technologies and implementing widely recognised open standards. To facilitate users in handling and visualising the many products stored in the archive which have spatial data associated, the new PSA supports Geographical Information Systems (GIS) by implementing the standards approved by the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The modernised PSA also attempts to increase interoperability with the international community by implementing recognised planetary science specific protocols such as the PDAP (Planetary Data Access Protocol) and EPN-TAP (EuroPlanet-Table Access Protocol). In this paper we describe some of the methods by which the archive may be accessed and present the challenges that are being faced in consolidating data sets of the older PDS3 version of the standards with the new PDS4 deliveries into a single data model mapping to ensure transparent access to the data for users and services whilst maintaining a high performance.

  1. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    Yeast surface display is an effective tool for antibody affinity maturation because yeast can be used as an all-in-one workhorse to assemble, display and screen diversified antibody libraries. By employing the natural ability of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently recombine multiple DNA...... laboratory conditions. A particular emphasis was put on using molecular techniques in conjunction with microenvironmental measurements (O2, pH, irradiance), a combination that is rarely found but provides a much more detailed understanding of “cause and effect” in complex natural systems...

  2. Life Support and Habitation and Planetary Protection Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, John A. (Editor); Race, Margaret S. (Editor); Fisher, John W. (Editor); Joshi, Jitendra A. (Editor); Rummel, John D. (Editor)

    2006-01-01

    A workshop entitled "Life Support and Habitation and Planetary Protection Workshop" was held in Houston, Texas on April 27-29, 2005 to facilitate the development of planetary protection guidelines for future human Mars exploration missions and to identify the potential effects of these guidelines on the design and selection of related human life support, extravehicular activity and monitoring and control systems. This report provides a summary of the workshop organization, starting assumptions, working group results and recommendations. Specific result topics include the identification of research and technology development gaps, potential forward and back contaminants and pathways, mitigation alternatives, and planetary protection requirements definition needs. Participants concluded that planetary protection and science-based requirements potentially affect system design, technology trade options, development costs and mission architecture. Therefore early and regular coordination between the planetary protection, scientific, planning, engineering, operations and medical communities is needed to develop workable and effective designs for human exploration of Mars.

  3. Characterizing K2 Candidate Planetary Systems Orbiting Low-Mass Stars. I. Classifying Low-Mass Host Stars Observed During Campaigns 1-7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressing, Courtney D.; Newton, Elisabeth R.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Charbomeau, David; Krutson, Heather A.; Vanderburg, Andrew; Sinukoff, Evan

    2017-01-01

    We present near-infrared spectra for 144 candidate planetary systems identified during Campaigns 1-7 of the NASA K2 Mission. The goal of the survey was to characterize planets orbiting low-mass stars, but our Infrared Telescope Facility/SpeX and Palomar/TripleSpec spectroscopic observations revealed that 49% of our targets were actually giant stars or hotter dwarfs reddened by interstellar extinction. For the 72 stars with spectra consistent with classification as cool dwarfs (spectral types K3-M4), we refined their stellar properties by applying empirical relations based on stars with interferometric radius measurements. Although our revised temperatures are generally consistent with those reported in the Ecliptic Plane Input Catalog (EPIC), our revised stellar radii are typically 0.13 solar radius (39%) larger than the EPIC values, which were based on model isochrones that have been shown to underestimate the radii of cool dwarfs. Our improved stellar characterizations will enable more efficient prioritization of K2 targets for follow-up studies.

  4. Planetary sciences and exploration: An Indian perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Studies of impact craters records in the Indian shield have also been pursued and led to ... and emission of X-rays from planets as well as analytical modelling of martian ionosphere and ... Meteorite; moon; solar activity; solar system; martian atmosphere; planetary .... face layers of any meteorite reaching the earth, one.

  5. Advances in planetary geology, volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    This publication is a continuation of volume 1; it is a compilation of reports focusing on research into the origin and evolution of the solar system with emphasis on planetary geology. Specific reports include a multispectral and geomorphic investigation of the surface of Europa and a geologic interpretation of remote sensing data for the Martian volcano Ascreaus Mons

  6. Planetary boundaries : Governing emerging risks and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galaz, V.; de Zeeuw, Aart; Shiroyama, Hideaki; Tripley, Debbie

    The climate, ecosystems and species, ozone layer, acidity of the oceans, the flow of energy and elements through nature, landscape change, freshwater systems, aerosols, and toxins—these constitute the planetary boundaries within which humanity must find a safe way to live and prosper. These are

  7. Characterisation and changes in the antioxidant system of chloroplasts and chromoplasts isolated from green and mature pepper fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, M C; Camejo, D; Olmos, E; Sandalio, L M; Fernández-García, N; Jiménez, A; Sevilla, F

    2009-07-01

    Purification and characterisation of pepper (Capsicum annuum L) chloroplasts and chromoplasts isolated from commercial green, red and yellow mature fruits were undertaken. Induction of the synthesis of several antioxidants in organelles isolated from mature fruits was found. The ultrastructure of organelles and the presence and activity of SOD isozymes and enzymes involved in the ASC-GSH cycle, together with the non-enzymatic antioxidant content and some oxidative parameters, were analysed. It was found that lipids, rather than proteins, seem to be a target for oxidation in the chromoplasts. The ascorbate and glutathione contents were elicited during differentiation of chloroplasts into chromoplasts in both red and yellow fruits. The activity of SOD and of components of the ASC-GSH cycle was up-regulated, suggesting that these enzymes may play a role in the protection of plastids and could act as modulators of signal molecules such as O(2) ( -) and H(2)O(2) during fruit maturation. The presence of an Mn-SOD in chromoplasts isolated from yellow pepper fruits was also investigated in terms of structural and antioxidant differences between the two cultivars.

  8. Micro-Sample Extraction System for In-Situ Missions to Planets, Planetary Satellites, and Primitive Bodies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a proof-of-concept Micro-Sample Extraction System (µSES) to enable microfluidic instruments, currently under development at NASA Goddard Space...

  9. Visual lunar and planetary astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of CCDs and webcams, the focus of amateur astronomy has to some extent shifted from science to art. The object of many amateur astronomers is now to produce “stunning images” that, although beautiful, are not intended to have scientific merit. Paul Abel has been addressing this issue by promoting visual astronomy wherever possible – at talks to astronomical societies, in articles for popular science magazines, and on BBC TV’s The Sky at Night.   Visual Lunar and Planetary Astronomy is a comprehensive modern treatment of visual lunar and planetary astronomy, showing that even in the age of space telescopes and interplanetary probes it is still possible to contribute scientifically with no more than a moderately priced commercially made astronomical telescope.   It is believed that imaging and photography is somehow more objective and more accurate than the eye, and this has led to a peculiar “crisis of faith” in the human visual system and its amazing processing power. But by anal...

  10. Research of Planetary Gear Fault Diagnosis Based on Permutation Entropy of CEEMDAN and ANFIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuai, Moshen; Cheng, Gang; Pang, Y.; Li, Yong

    2018-01-01

    For planetary gear has the characteristics of small volume, light weight and large transmission ratio, it is widely used in high speed and high power mechanical system. Poor working conditions result in frequent failures of planetary gear. A method is proposed for diagnosing faults in planetary gear

  11. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Nesensohn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  12. Slab replacement maturity guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the use of maturity method to determine early age strength of concrete in slab : replacement application. Specific objectives were (1) to evaluate effects of various factors on the compressive : maturity-strength relationship ...

  13. Rocky Planetary Debris Around Young WDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaensicke, B.

    2014-04-01

    The vast majority of all known planet host stars, including the Sun, will eventually evolve into red giants and finally end their lives as white dwarfs: extremely dense Earth-sized stellar embers. Only close-in planets will be devoured during the red-giant phase. In the solar system, Mars, the asteroid belt, and all the giant planets will escape evaporation, and the same is true for many of the known exo-planets. It is hence certain that a significant fraction of the known white dwarfs were once host stars to planets, and it is very likely that many of them still have remnants of planetary systems. The detection of metals in the atmospheres of white dwarfs is the unmistakable signpost of such evolved planetary systems. The strong surface gravity of white dwarfs causes metals to sink out of the atmosphere on time-scales much shorter than their cooling ages, leading unavoidably to pristine H/He atmospheres. Therefore any metals detected in the atmosphere of a white dwarf imply recent or ongoing accretion of planetary debris. In fact, planetary debris is also detected as circumstellar dust and gas around a number of white dwarfs. These debris disks are formed from the tidal disruption of asteroids or Kuiper belt-like objects, stirred up by left-over planets, and are subsequently accreted onto the white dwarf, imprinting their abundance pattern into its atmosphere. Determining the photospheric abundances of debris-polluted white dwarfs is hence entirely analogue to the use of meteorites, "rocks that fell from the sky", for measuring the abundances of planetary material in the solar system. I will briefly review this new field of exo-planet science, and then focus on the results of a large, unbiased COS snapshot survey of relatively young ( 20-100Myr) white dwarfs that we carried out in Cycle 18/19. * At least 30% of all white dwarfs in our sample are accreting planetary debris, and that fraction may be as high as 50%. * In most cases where debris pollution is detected

  14. Effector protein translocation by the Coxiella burnetii Dot/Icm type IV secretion system requires endocytic maturation of the pathogen-occupied vacuole.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley J Newton

    Full Text Available The human pathogen Coxiella burnetii encodes a type IV secretion system called Dot/Icm that is essential for intracellular replication. The Dot/Icm system delivers bacterial effector proteins into the host cytosol during infection. The effector proteins delivered by C. burnetii are predicted to have important functions during infection, but when these proteins are needed during infection has not been clearly defined. Here, we use a reporter system consisting of fusion proteins that have a β-lactamase enzyme (BlaM fused to C. burnetii effector proteins to study protein translocation by the Dot/Icm system. Translocation of BlaM fused to the effector proteins CBU0077, CBU1823 and CBU1524 was not detected until 8-hours after infection of HeLa cells, which are permissive for C. burnetii replication. Translocation of these effector fusion proteins by the Dot/Icm system required acidification of the Coxiella-containing vacuole. Silencing of the host genes encoding the membrane transport regulators Rab5 or Rab7 interfered with effector translocation, which indicates that effectors are not translocated until bacteria traffic to a late endocytic compartment in the host cell. Similar requirements for effector translocation were discerned in bone marrow macrophages derived from C57BL/6 mice, which are primary cells that restrict the intracellular replication of C. burnetii. In addition to requiring endocytic maturation of the vacuole for Dot/Icm-mediated translocation of effectors, bacterial transcription was required for this process. Thus, translocation of effector proteins by the C. burnetii Dot/Icm system occurs after acidification of the CCV and maturation of this specialized organelle to a late endocytic compartment. This indicates that creation of the specialized vacuole in which C. burnetii replicates represents a two-stage process mediated initially by host factors that regulate endocytic maturation and then by bacterial effectors delivered into

  15. Extravehicular Activity and Planetary Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, J. A.; Mary, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The first human mission to Mars will be the farthest distance that humans have traveled from Earth and the first human boots on Martian soil in the Exploration EVA Suit. The primary functions of the Exploration EVA Suit are to provide a habitable, anthropometric, pressurized environment for up to eight hours that allows crewmembers to perform autonomous and robotically assisted extravehicular exploration, science/research, construction, servicing, and repair operations on the exterior of the vehicle, in hazardous external conditions of the Mars local environment. The Exploration EVA Suit has the capability to structurally interface with exploration vehicles via next generation ingress/egress systems. Operational concepts and requirements are dependent on the mission profile, surface assets, and the Mars environment. This paper will discuss the effects and dependencies of the EVA system design with the local Mars environment and Planetary Protection. Of the three study areas listed for the workshop, EVA identifies most strongly with technology and operations for contamination control.

  16. Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) for Planetary Atmospheric Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocanegra Bahamon, Tatiana; Cimo, Giuseppe; Duev, Dmitry; Gurvits, Leonid; Molera Calves, Guifre; Pogrebenko, Sergei

    2015-04-01

    The Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) is a technique that allows the determination of the radial velocity and lateral coordinates of planetary spacecraft with very high accuracy (Duev, 2012). The setup of the experiment consists of several ground stations from the European VLBI Network (EVN) located around the globe, which simultaneously perform Doppler tracking of a spacecraft carrier radio signal, and are subsequently processed in a VLBI-style in phase referencing mode. Because of the accurate examination of the changes in phase and amplitude of the radio signal propagating from the spacecraft to the multiple stations on Earth, the PRIDE technique can be used for several fields of planetary research, among which planetary atmospheric studies, gravimetry and ultra-precise celestial mechanics of planetary systems. In the study at hand the application of this technique for planetary atmospheric investigations is demonstrated. As a test case, radio occultation experiments were conducted with PRIDE having as target ESA's Venus Express, during different observing sessions with multiple ground stations in April 2012 and March 2014. Once each of the stations conducts the observation, the raw data is delivered to the correlation center at the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE) located in the Netherlands. The signals are processed with a high spectral resolution and phase detection software package from which Doppler observables of each station are derived. Subsequently the Doppler corrected signals are correlated to derive the VLBI observables. These two sets of observables are used for precise orbit determination. The reconstructed orbit along with the Doppler observables are used as input for the radio occultation processing software, which consists of mainly two modules, the geometrical optics module and the ray tracing inversion module, from which vertical density profiles, and subsequently, temperature and pressure profiles of Venus

  17. AN ANALYTIC METHOD TO DETERMINE HABITABLE ZONES FOR S-TYPE PLANETARY ORBITS IN BINARY STAR SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Gyergyovits, Markus; Funk, Barbara; Georgakarakos, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    With more and more extrasolar planets discovered in and around binary star systems, questions concerning the determination of the classical habitable zone have arisen. Do the radiative and gravitational perturbations of the second star influence the extent of the habitable zone significantly, or is it sufficient to consider the host star only? In this article, we investigate the implications of stellar companions with different spectral types on the insolation a terrestrial planet receives orbiting a Sun-like primary. We present time-independent analytical estimates and compare them to insolation statistics gained via high precision numerical orbit calculations. Results suggest a strong dependence of permanent habitability on the binary's eccentricity, as well as a possible extension of habitable zones toward the secondary in close binary systems.

  18. SPICES: Spectro-Polarimetric Imaging and Characterization of Exoplanetary Systems - From Planetary Disks To Nearby Super Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccaletti, Anthony; Schneider, Jean; Traub, Wes; Lagage, Pierre-Olivier; Stam, Daphne; Gratton, Raffaele; Trauger, John; Cahoy, Kerri; Snik, Frans; Baudoz, Pierre; hide

    2012-01-01

    SPICES (Spectro-Polarimetric Imaging and Characterization of Exoplanetary Systems) is a five-year M-class mission proposed to ESA Cosmic Vision. Its purpose is to image and characterize long-period extrasolar planets and circumstellar disks in the visible (450-900 nm) at a spectral resolution of about 40 using both spectroscopy and polarimetry. By 2020/2022, present and near-term instruments will have found several tens of planets that SPICES will be able to observe and study in detail. Equipped with a 1.5 m telescope, SPICES can preferentially access exoplanets located at several AUs (0.5-10 AU) from nearby stars (less than 25 pc) with masses ranging from a few Jupiter masses to Super Earths (approximately 2 Earth radii, approximately 10 mass compared to Earth) as well as circumstellar disks as faint as a few times the zodiacal light in the Solar System.

  19. Overview study of the analytical analysis of the internal dynamics of nonlinear time heteronymous planetary differential systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hortel, Milan; Škuderová, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 821, č. 2016 (2016), s. 213-220 ISSN 1662-7482. [Engineering Mechanics 2015. Svratka, 11.05.2015-14.05.2015] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TA04011656 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : nonlinear dynamics * time heteronymous systems * damping in gear mesh Subject RIV: JT - Propulsion, Motors ; Fuels http://www.scientific.net/AMM.821.213

  20. Stellar and Planetary Parameters for K2 's Late-type Dwarf Systems from C1 to C5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Arturo O. [Department of Astronomy, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Peacock, Sarah [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1629 E. University Blvd, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Schlieder, Joshua E. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Dressing, Courtney D. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Obermeier, Christian [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Heidelberg (Germany); Livingston, John; Petigura, Erik A. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ciceri, Simona [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Beichman, Charles A. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lépine, Sébastien [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Pl NE #605, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Aller, Kimberly M. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawai’i at Mānoa, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Chance, Quadry A. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Howard, Andrew W. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Werner, Michael W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The NASA K2 mission uses photometry to find planets transiting stars of various types. M dwarfs are of high interest since they host more short-period planets than any other type of main-sequence star and transiting planets around M dwarfs have deeper transits compared to other main-sequence stars. In this paper, we present stellar parameters from K and M dwarfs hosting transiting planet candidates discovered by our team. Using the SOFI spectrograph on the European Southern Observatory’s New Technology Telescope, we obtained R ≈ 1000 J -, H -, and K -band (0.95–2.52 μ m) spectra of 34 late-type K2 planet and candidate planet host systems and 12 bright K4–M5 dwarfs with interferometrically measured radii and effective temperatures. Out of our 34 late-type K2 targets, we identify 27 of these stars as M dwarfs. We measure equivalent widths of spectral features, derive calibration relations using stars with interferometric measurements, and estimate stellar radii, effective temperatures, masses, and luminosities for the K2 planet hosts. Our calibrations provide radii and temperatures with median uncertainties of 0.059 R {sub ⊙} (16.09%) and 160 K (4.33%), respectively. We then reassess the radii and equilibrium temperatures of known and candidate planets based on our spectroscopically derived stellar parameters. Since a planet’s radius and equilibrium temperature depend on the parameters of its host star, our study provides more precise planetary parameters for planets and candidates orbiting late-type stars observed with K2 . We find a median planet radius and an equilibrium temperature of approximately 3 R {sub ⊕} and 500 K, respectively, with several systems (K2-18b and K2-72e) receiving near-Earth-like levels of incident irradiation.

  1. Effect of organic-matter type and thermal maturity on methane adsorption in shale-gas systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Ruppel, Stephen C.; Milliken, Kitty; Yang, Rongsheng

    2012-01-01

    A series of methane (CH4) adsorption experiments on bulk organic rich shales and their isolated kerogens were conducted at 35 °C, 50 °C and 65 °C and CH4 pressure of up to 15 MPa under dry conditions. Samples from the Eocene Green River Formation, Devonian–Mississippian Woodford Shale and Upper Cretaceous Cameo coal were studied to examine how differences in organic matter type affect natural gas adsorption. Vitrinite reflectance values of these samples ranged from 0.56–0.58 %Ro. In addition, thermal maturity effects were determined on three Mississippian Barnett Shale samples with measured vitrinite reflectance values of 0.58, 0.81 and 2.01 %Ro. For all bulk and isolated kerogen samples, the total amount of methane adsorbed was directly proportional to the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the sample and the average maximum amount of gas sorption was 1.36 mmol of methane per gram of TOC. These results indicate that sorption on organic matter plays a critical role in shale-gas storage. Under the experimental conditions, differences in thermal maturity showed no significant effect on the total amount of gas sorbed. Experimental sorption isotherms could be fitted with good accuracy by the Langmuir function by adjusting the Langmuir pressure (PL) and maximum sorption capacity (Γmax). The lowest maturity sample (%Ro = 0.56) displayed a Langmuir pressure (PL) of 5.15 MPa, significantly larger than the 2.33 MPa observed for the highest maturity (%Ro > 2.01) sample at 50 °C. The value of the Langmuir pressure (PL) changes with kerogen type in the following sequence: type I > type II > type III. The thermodynamic parameters of CH4 adsorption on organic rich shales were determined based on the experimental CH4 isotherms. For the adsorption of CH4 on organic rich shales and their isolated kerogen, the heat of adsorption (q) and the standard entropy (Δs0) range from 7.3–28.0 kJ/mol and from −36.2 to −92.2 J/mol/K, respectively.

  2. Novel Space Exploration Technique for Analysing Planetary Atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Dekoulis, George

    2010-01-01

    The chapter presents a new reconfigurable wide-beam radio interferometer system for analysing planetary atmospheres. The system operates at frequencies, where the ionisation of the planetary plasma regions induces strong attenuation. For Earth, the attenuation is undistinguishable from the CMB at frequencies over 50 MHz. The system introduces a set of advanced specifications to this field of science, previously unseen in similar suborbital experiments. The reprogrammable dynamic range of the ...

  3. Topics in planetary plasmaspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.K.

    1977-01-01

    Contributions to the understanding of two distinct kinds of planetary plasmaspheres: namely the earth-type characterized by an ionospheric source and a convection limited radial extent, and the Jupiter-type characterized by a satellite source and a radial extent determined by flux tube interchange motions. In both cases the central question is the geometry of the plasma distribution in the magnetosphere as it is determined by the appropriate production and loss mechanisms. The contributions contained herein concern the explication and clarification of these production and loss mechanisms

  4. CHARACTERIZING THE COOL KOIs. IV. KEPLER-32 AS A PROTOTYPE FOR THE FORMATION OF COMPACT PLANETARY SYSTEMS THROUGHOUT THE GALAXY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, Jonathan J.; Johnson, John Asher; Morton, Timothy D.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Crepp, Justin R.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    The Kepler space telescope has opened new vistas in exoplanet discovery space by revealing populations of Earth-sized planets that provide a new context for understanding planet formation. Approximately 70% of all stars in the Galaxy belong to the diminutive M dwarf class, several thousand of which lie within Kepler's field of view, and a large number of these targets show planet transit signals. The Kepler M dwarf sample has a characteristic mass of 0.5 M ☉ representing a stellar population twice as common as Sun-like stars. Kepler-32 is a typical star in this sample that presents us with a rare opportunity: five planets transit this star, giving us an expansive view of its architecture. All five planets of this compact system orbit their host star within a distance one-third the size of Mercury's orbit, with the innermost planet positioned a mere 4.3 stellar radii from the stellar photosphere. New observations limit possible false positive scenarios, allowing us to validate the entire Kepler-32 system making it the richest known system of transiting planets around an M dwarf. Based on considerations of the stellar dust sublimation radius, a minimum mass protoplanetary nebula, and the near period commensurability of three adjacent planets, we propose that the Kepler-32 planets formed at larger orbital radii and migrated inward to their present locations. The volatile content inferred for the Kepler-32 planets and order of magnitude estimates for the disk migration rates suggest that these planets may have formed beyond the snow line and migrated in the presence of a gaseous disk. If true, then this would place an upper limit on their formation time of ∼10 Myr. The Kepler-32 planets are representative of the full ensemble of planet candidates orbiting the Kepler M dwarfs for which we calculate an occurrence rate of 1.0 ± 0.1 planet per star. The formation of the Kepler-32 planets therefore offers a plausible blueprint for the formation of one of the largest

  5. Newly Discovered Silicate Features in the Spectra of Young Warm Debris Disks: Probing Terrestrial Regions of Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballering, N.; Rieke, G.

    2014-03-01

    Terrestrial planets form by the collisional accretion of planetesimals during the first 100 Myr of a system’s lifetime. For most systems, the terrestrial regions are too near their host star to be directly seen with high-contrast imaging (e.g. with HST, MagAO, or LBTI) and too warm to be imaged with submillimeter interferometers (e.g. ALMA). Mid-infrared excess spectra—originating from the thermal emission of the circumstellar dust leftover from these collisions—remain the best data to constrain the properties of the debris in these regions. The spectra of most debris disks are featureless, taking the shape of (modified) blackbodies. Determining the properties of debris disks with featureless spectra is complicated by a degeneracy between the grain size and location (large grains near the star and small grains farther from the star may be indistinguishable). Debris disk spectra that exhibit solid state emission features allow for a more accurate determination of the dust size and location (e.g. Chen et al. 2006; Olofsson et al. 2012). Such features probe small, warm dust grains in the inner regions of these systems where terrestrial planet formation may be proceeding (Lisse et al. 2009). We report here a successful search for such features. We identified our targets with a preliminary search for signs of emission features in the Spitzer IRS spectra of a number of young early type stars known to harbor warm debris disks. We fit to each target a physically-motivated model spectrum consisting of the sum of the stellar photosphere (modeled as a blackbody) and thermal emission from two dust belts. Each belt was defined by 6 parameters: the inner and outer orbital radii (rin and rout), the index of the radial surface density power law (rexp), the minimum and maximum grain sizes (amin and amax), and the index of the grain size distribution power law (aexp). aexp was fixed to -3.65 and amax was fixed to 1000 μm for all models; all other parameters were allowed to

  6. Line shape parameters for the H2O-H2 collision system for application to exoplanet and planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Candice L.; Cleghorn, Kara; Hartmann, Léna; Vispoel, Bastien; Gamache, Robert R.

    2018-05-01

    Water can be detected throughout the universe: in comets, asteroids, dwarf planets, the inner and outer planets in our solar system, cool stars, brown dwarfs, and on many exoplanets. Here the focus is on locations rich in hydrogen gas. To properly study these environments, there is a need for the line shape parameters for H2O transitions in collision with hydrogen. This work presents calculations of the half-width and line shift, made using the Modified Complex Robert-Bonamy (MCRB) formalism, at a number of temperatures. It is shown that this collision system is strongly off-resonance. For such conditions, the atom-atom part of the intermolecular potential dominates the interaction of the radiating and perturbing molecules. The atom-atom parameters were adjusted by fitting the H2O-H2 measurements of Brown and Plymate (1996). Several techniques were used to extract lines for which there is more confidence in the quality of the data. The final potential yields results that agree with the measurements with ∼0.3% difference and a 5.9% standard deviation. Using this potential, MCRB calculations were made for all transitions in the pure rotation, ν2, ν1, and ν3 bands. The structure of the line shape parameters and the temperature dependence of the half-width, as a function of the rotational and vibrational quantum numbers, are discussed. It is shown that the power law model of the T-dependence of the half-width is inadequate over large temperature ranges.

  7. Influencia del movimiento tridimensional sobre los engranajes planetarios tipo 2KH-A en aerogeneradores. // Influence of tridimensional movement in planetary gears type 2KH-A used in gearboxes for wind turbine generator systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wellesley-Bourke Funcasta

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se desarrolla el basamento matemático para establecer el análisis del efecto nocivo que se produce sobre losrodamientos de los mecanismos planetarios empleados en los aerogeneradores, dado esto por las condiciones variables delviento en cuanto a su velocidad y dirección.Palabras claves: Efecto giroscópico, engranajes planetarios, cargas dinámicas, energía eólica.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this paper is presented the mathematical base useful to establish the analysis that deals with the noxious effect producedon the planetary mechanisms in the gearboxes for wind turbine generator systems, given by the variable conditions of thevelocity and direction of the wind.Key words: Gyroscopic effect, planetary gears, dynamic loads, wind turbine, wind energy.

  8. Some Ecological Mechanisms to Generate Habitability in Planetary Subsurface Areas by Chemolithotrophic Communities: The Ro Tinto Subsurface Ecosystem as a Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Gómez, Felipe; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schelble, Rachel T.; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amiols, Ricardo

    2008-02-01

    Chemolithotrophic communities that colonize subsurface habitats have great relevance for the astrobiological exploration of our Solar System. We hypothesize that the chemical and thermal stabilization of an environment through microbial activity could make a given planetary region habitable. The MARTE project ground-truth drilling campaigns that sampled cryptic subsurface microbial communities in the basement of the Ro Tinto headwaters have shown that acidic surficial habitats are the result of the microbial oxidation of pyritic ores. The oxidation process is exothermic and releases heat under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These microbial communities can maintain the subsurface habitat temperature through storage heat if the subsurface temperature does not exceed their maximum growth temperature. In the acidic solutions of the Ro Tinto, ferric iron acts as an effective buffer for controlling water pH. Under anaerobic conditions, ferric iron is the oxidant used by microbes to decompose pyrite through the production of sulfate, ferrous iron, and protons. The integration between the physical and chemical processes mediated by microorganisms with those driven by the local geology and hydrology have led us to hypothesize that thermal and chemical regulation mechanisms exist in this environment and that these homeostatic mechanisms could play an essential role in creating habitable areas for other types of microorganisms. Therefore, searching for the physicochemical expression of extinct and extant homeostatic mechanisms through physical and chemical anomalies in the Mars crust (i.e., local thermal gradient or high concentration of unusual products such as ferric sulfates precipitated out from acidic solutions produced by hypothetical microbial communities) could be a first step in the search for biological traces of a putative extant or extinct Mars biosphere.

  9. Some ecological mechanisms to generate habitability in planetary subsurface areas by chemolithotrophic communities: the Río Tinto subsurface ecosystem as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Remolar, David C; Gómez, Felipe; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schelble, Rachel T; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amils, Ricardo

    2008-02-01

    Chemolithotrophic communities that colonize subsurface habitats have great relevance for the astrobiological exploration of our Solar System. We hypothesize that the chemical and thermal stabilization of an environment through microbial activity could make a given planetary region habitable. The MARTE project ground-truth drilling campaigns that sampled cryptic subsurface microbial communities in the basement of the Río Tinto headwaters have shown that acidic surficial habitats are the result of the microbial oxidation of pyritic ores. The oxidation process is exothermic and releases heat under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These microbial communities can maintain the subsurface habitat temperature through storage heat if the subsurface temperature does not exceed their maximum growth temperature. In the acidic solutions of the Río Tinto, ferric iron acts as an effective buffer for controlling water pH. Under anaerobic conditions, ferric iron is the oxidant used by microbes to decompose pyrite through the production of sulfate, ferrous iron, and protons. The integration between the physical and chemical processes mediated by microorganisms with those driven by the local geology and hydrology have led us to hypothesize that thermal and chemical regulation mechanisms exist in this environment and that these homeostatic mechanisms could play an essential role in creating habitable areas for other types of microorganisms. Therefore, searching for the physicochemical expression of extinct and extant homeostatic mechanisms through physical and chemical anomalies in the Mars crust (i.e., local thermal gradient or high concentration of unusual products such as ferric sulfates precipitated out from acidic solutions produced by hypothetical microbial communities) could be a first step in the search for biological traces of a putative extant or extinct Mars biosphere.

  10. MARVELS-1: A FACE-ON DOUBLE-LINED BINARY STAR MASQUERADING AS A RESONANT PLANETARY SYSTEM AND CONSIDERATION OF RARE FALSE POSITIVES IN RADIAL VELOCITY PLANET SEARCHES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Jason T.; Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Wang, Sharon X.; Fleming, Scott W.; Ford, Eric B.; Payne, Matt; Lee, Brian L.; Ge, Jian; Wang, Ji; Crepp, Justin R.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Eastman, Jason; Pepper, Joshua; Cargile, Phillip; Stassun, Keivan G.; Ghezzi, Luan; González-Hernández, Jonay I.; Wisniewski, John; Dutra-Ferreira, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    We have analyzed new and previously published radial velocity (RV) observations of MARVELS-1, known to have an ostensibly substellar companion in a ∼6 day orbit. We find significant (∼100 m s –1 ) residuals to the best-fit model for the companion, and these residuals are naïvely consistent with an interior giant planet with a P = 1.965 days in a nearly perfect 3:1 period commensurability (|P b /P c – 3| –4 ). We have performed several tests for the reality of such a companion, including a dynamical analysis, a search for photometric variability, and a hunt for contaminating stellar spectra. We find many reasons to be critical of a planetary interpretation, including the fact that most of the three-body dynamical solutions are unstable. We find no evidence for transits, and no evidence of stellar photometric variability. We have discovered two apparent companions to MARVELS-1 with adaptive optics imaging at Keck; both are M dwarfs, one is likely bound, and the other is likely a foreground object. We explore false-alarm scenarios inspired by various curiosities in the data. Ultimately, a line profile and bisector analysis lead us to conclude that the ∼100 m s –1 residuals are an artifact of spectral contamination from a stellar companion contributing ∼15%-30% of the optical light in the system. We conclude that origin of this contamination is the previously detected RV companion to MARVELS-1, which is not, as previously reported, a brown dwarf, but in fact a G dwarf in a face-on orbit.

  11. Observability during planetary approach navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Robert H.; Burkhart, P. Daniel; Thurman, Sam W.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the research is to develop an analytic technique to predict the relative navigation capability of different Earth-based radio navigation measurements. In particular, the problem is to determine the relative ability of geocentric range and Doppler measurements to detect the effects of the target planet gravitational attraction on the spacecraft during the planetary approach and near-encounter mission phases. A complete solution to the two-dimensional problem has been developed. Relatively simple analytic formulas are obtained for range and Doppler measurements which describe the observability content of the measurement data along the approach trajectories. An observability measure is defined which is based on the observability matrix for nonlinear systems. The results show good agreement between the analytic observability analysis and the computational batch processing method.

  12. Small Spacecraft for Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Bousquet, Pierre-W.; Vane, Gregg; Komarek, Tomas; Klesh, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    As planetary science continues to explore new and remote regions of the Solar system with comprehensive and more sophisticated payloads, small spacecraft offer the possibility for focused and more affordable science investigations. These small spacecraft or micro spacecraft (attitude control and determination, capable computer and data handling, and navigation are being met by technologies currently under development to be flown on CubeSats within the next five years. This paper will discuss how micro spacecraft offer an attractive alternative to accomplish specific science and technology goals and what relevant technologies are needed for these these types of spacecraft. Acknowledgements: Part of this work is being carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under contract to NASA. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  13. SDSS-III: Massive Spectroscopic Surveys of the Distant Universe, the Milky Way Galaxy, and Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Weinberg, David H.; Agol, Eric; Aihara, Hiroaki; Prieto, Carlos Allende; Anderson, Scott F.; Arns, James A.; Aubourg, Eric; Bailey, Stephen; Balbinot, Eduardo; Barkhouser, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Building on the legacy of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-I and II), SDSS-III is a program of four spectroscopic surveys on three scientific themes: dark energy and cosmological parameters, the history and structure of the Milky Way, and the population of giant planets around other stars. The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) will measure redshifts of 1.5 million massive galaxies and Lyα forest spectra of 150,000 quasars, using the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature of large scale structure to obtain percent-level determinations of the distance scale and Hubble expansion rate at z 5 evolved, late-type stars, measuring separate abundances for ∼ 15 elements per star and creating the first high-precision spectroscopic survey of all Galactic stellar populations (bulge, bar, disks, halo) with a uniform set of stellar tracers and spectral diagnostics. The Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Large-area Survey (MARVELS) will monitor radial velocities of more than 8000 FGK stars with the sensitivity and cadence (10-40 m s -1 , ∼ 24 visits per star) needed to detect giant planets with periods up to two years, providing an unprecedented data set for understanding the formation and dynamical evolution of giant planet systems. As of January 2011, SDSS-III has obtained spectra of more than 240,000 galaxies, 29,000 z (ge) 2.2 quasars, and 140,000 stars, including 74,000 velocity measurements of 2580 stars for MARVELS. In keeping with SDSS tradition, SDSS-III will provide regular public releases of all its data, beginning with SDSS Data Release 8 (DR8) in January 2011.

  14. SDSS-III: MASSIVE SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEYS OF THE DISTANT UNIVERSE, THE MILKY WAY, AND EXTRA-SOLAR PLANETARY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Weinberg, David H.; Agol, Eric; Anderson, Scott F.; Aihara, Hiroaki; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Arns, James A.; Aubourg, Eric; Bailey, Stephen; Balbinot, Eduardo; Barkhouser, Robert; Beers, Timothy C.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bickerton, Steven J.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanton, Michael R.; Bochanski, John J.; Bolton, Adam S.

    2011-01-01

    Building on the legacy of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-I and II), SDSS-III is a program of four spectroscopic surveys on three scientific themes: dark energy and cosmological parameters, the history and structure of the Milky Way, and the population of giant planets around other stars. In keeping with SDSS tradition, SDSS-III will provide regular public releases of all its data, beginning with SDSS Data Release 8 (DR8), which was made public in 2011 January and includes SDSS-I and SDSS-II images and spectra reprocessed with the latest pipelines and calibrations produced for the SDSS-III investigations. This paper presents an overview of the four surveys that comprise SDSS-III. The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey will measure redshifts of 1.5 million massive galaxies and Lyα forest spectra of 150,000 quasars, using the baryon acoustic oscillation feature of large-scale structure to obtain percent-level determinations of the distance scale and Hubble expansion rate at z 5 evolved, late-type stars, measuring separate abundances for ∼15 elements per star and creating the first high-precision spectroscopic survey of all Galactic stellar populations (bulge, bar, disks, halo) with a uniform set of stellar tracers and spectral diagnostics. The Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Exoplanet Large-area Survey (MARVELS) will monitor radial velocities of more than 8000 FGK stars with the sensitivity and cadence (10-40 m s -1 , ∼24 visits per star) needed to detect giant planets with periods up to two years, providing an unprecedented data set for understanding the formation and dynamical evolution of giant planet systems. As of 2011 January, SDSS-III has obtained spectra of more than 240,000 galaxies, 29,000 z ≥ 2.2 quasars, and 140,000 stars, including 74,000 velocity measurements of 2580 stars for MARVELS.

  15. SDSS-III: Massive Spectroscopic Surveys of the Distant Universe, the Milky Way, and Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Weinberg, David H.; Agol, Eric; Aihara, Hiroaki; Allende Prieto, Carlos; Anderson, Scott F.; Arns, James A.; Aubourg, Éric; Bailey, Stephen; Balbinot, Eduardo; Barkhouser, Robert; Beers, Timothy C.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Bickerton, Steven J.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Blanton, Michael R.; Bochanski, John J.; Bolton, Adam S.; Bosman, Casey T.; Bovy, Jo; Brandt, W. N.; Breslauer, Ben; Brewington, Howard J.; Brinkmann, J.; Brown, Peter J.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Burger, Dan; Busca, Nicolas G.; Campbell, Heather; Cargile, Phillip A.; Carithers, William C.; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Carr, Michael A.; Chang, Liang; Chen, Yanmei; Chiappini, Cristina; Comparat, Johan; Connolly, Natalia; Cortes, Marina; Croft, Rupert A. C.; Cunha, Katia; da Costa, Luiz N.; Davenport, James R. A.; Dawson, Kyle; De Lee, Nathan; Porto de Mello, Gustavo F.; de Simoni, Fernando; Dean, Janice; Dhital, Saurav; Ealet, Anne; Ebelke, Garrett L.; Edmondson, Edward M.; Eiting, Jacob M.; Escoffier, Stephanie; Esposito, Massimiliano; Evans, Michael L.; Fan, Xiaohui; Femenía Castellá, Bruno; Dutra Ferreira, Leticia; Fitzgerald, Greg; Fleming, Scott W.; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Ford, Eric B.; Frinchaboy, Peter M.; García Pérez, Ana Elia; Gaudi, B. Scott; Ge, Jian; Ghezzi, Luan; Gillespie, Bruce A.; Gilmore, G.; Girardi, Léo; Gott, J. Richard; Gould, Andrew; Grebel, Eva K.; Gunn, James E.; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe; Harding, Paul; Harris, David W.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; Hearty, Frederick R.; Hennawi, Joseph F.; González Hernández, Jonay I.; Ho, Shirley; Hogg, David W.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Honscheid, Klaus; Inada, Naohisa; Ivans, Inese I.; Jiang, Linhua; Jiang, Peng; Johnson, Jennifer A.; Jordan, Cathy; Jordan, Wendell P.; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Kazin, Eyal; Kirkby, David; Klaene, Mark A.; Knapp, G. R.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Kochanek, C. S.; Koesterke, Lars; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Kron, Richard G.; Lampeitl, Hubert; Lang, Dustin; Lawler, James E.; Le Goff, Jean-Marc; Lee, Brian L.; Lee, Young Sun; Leisenring, Jarron M.; Lin, Yen-Ting; Liu, Jian; Long, Daniel C.; Loomis, Craig P.; Lucatello, Sara; Lundgren, Britt; Lupton, Robert H.; Ma, Bo; Ma, Zhibo; MacDonald, Nicholas; Mack, Claude; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Majewski, Steven R.; Makler, Martin; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Maraston, Claudia; Margala, Daniel; Maseman, Paul; Masters, Karen L.; McBride, Cameron K.; McDonald, Patrick; McGreer, Ian D.; McMahon, Richard G.; Mena Requejo, Olga; Ménard, Brice; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi; Morrison, Heather L.; Mullally, Fergal; Muna, Demitri; Murayama, Hitoshi; Myers, Adam D.; Naugle, Tracy; Neto, Angelo Fausti; Nguyen, Duy Cuong; Nichol, Robert C.; Nidever, David L.; O'Connell, Robert W.; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Olmstead, Matthew D.; Oravetz, Daniel J.; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Paegert, Martin; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Pan, Kaike; Pandey, Parul; Parejko, John K.; Pâris, Isabelle; Pellegrini, Paulo; Pepper, Joshua; Percival, Will J.; Petitjean, Patrick; Pfaffenberger, Robert; Pforr, Janine; Phleps, Stefanie; Pichon, Christophe; Pieri, Matthew M.; Prada, Francisco; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Raddick, M. Jordan; Ramos, Beatriz H. F.; Reid, I. Neill; Reyle, Celine; Rich, James; Richards, Gordon T.; Rieke, George H.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Robin, Annie C.; Rocha-Pinto, Helio J.; Rockosi, Constance M.; Roe, Natalie A.; Rollinde, Emmanuel; Ross, Ashley J.; Ross, Nicholas P.; Rossetto, Bruno; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Santiago, Basilio; Sayres, Conor; Schiavon, Ricardo; Schlegel, David J.; Schlesinger, Katharine J.; Schmidt, Sarah J.; Schneider, Donald P.; Sellgren, Kris; Shelden, Alaina; Sheldon, Erin; Shetrone, Matthew; Shu, Yiping; Silverman, John D.; Simmerer, Jennifer; Simmons, Audrey E.; Sivarani, Thirupathi; Skrutskie, M. F.; Slosar, Anže; Smee, Stephen; Smith, Verne V.; Snedden, Stephanie A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Steele, Oliver; Steinmetz, Matthias; Stockett, Mark H.; Stollberg, Todd; Strauss, Michael A.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Tanaka, Masayuki; Thakar, Aniruddha R.; Thomas, Daniel; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Tojeiro, Rita; Tremonti, Christy A.; Vargas Magaña, Mariana; Verde, Licia; Vogt, Nicole P.; Wake, David A.; Wan, Xiaoke; Wang, Ji; Weaver, Benjamin A.; White, Martin; White, Simon D. M.; Wilson, John C.; Wisniewski, John P.; Wood-Vasey, W. Michael; Yanny, Brian; Yasuda, Naoki; Yèche, Christophe; York, Donald G.; Young, Erick; Zasowski, Gail; Zehavi, Idit; Zhao, Bo

    2011-09-01

    Building on the legacy of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-I and II), SDSS-III is a program of four spectroscopic surveys on three scientific themes: dark energy and cosmological parameters, the history and structure of the Milky Way, and the population of giant planets around other stars. In keeping with SDSS tradition, SDSS-III will provide regular public releases of all its data, beginning with SDSS Data Release 8 (DR8), which was made public in 2011 January and includes SDSS-I and SDSS-II images and spectra reprocessed with the latest pipelines and calibrations produced for the SDSS-III investigations. This paper presents an overview of the four surveys that comprise SDSS-III. The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey will measure redshifts of 1.5 million massive galaxies and Lyα forest spectra of 150,000 quasars, using the baryon acoustic oscillation feature of large-scale structure to obtain percent-level determinations of the distance scale and Hubble expansion rate at z R = λ/Δλ ≈ 1800) optical spectra of 118,000 stars in a variety of target categories, probing chemical evolution, stellar kinematics and substructure, and the mass profile of the dark matter halo from the solar neighborhood to distances of 100 kpc. APOGEE, the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment, will obtain high-resolution (R ≈ 30,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N >= 100 per resolution element), H-band (1.51 μm data set for understanding the formation and dynamical evolution of giant planet systems. As of 2011 January, SDSS-III has obtained spectra of more than 240,000 galaxies, 29,000 z >= 2.2 quasars, and 140,000 stars, including 74,000 velocity measurements of 2580 stars for MARVELS.

  16. Structure of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goad, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    Image-tube photographs of planetary nebulae taken through narrow-band interference filters are used to map the surface brightness of these nebulae in their most prominent emission lines. These observations are best understood in terms of a two-component model consisting of a tenuous diffuse nebular medium and a network of dense knots and filaments with neutral cores. The observations of the diffuse component indicate that the inner regions of these nebulae are hollow shells. This suggests that steady stellar winds are the dominant factor in determining the structure of the central regions of planetary nebulae. The observations of the filamentary components of NGC 40 and NGC 6720 show that the observed nebular features can result from the illumination of the inner edges of dense fragmentary neutral filaments by the central stars of these nebulae. From the analysis of the observations of the low-excitation lines in NGC 2392, it is concluded that the rate constant for the N + --H charge transfer reaction is less than 10 -12 cm 3 sec -1

  17. SDSS-III: Massive Spectroscopic Surveys of the Distant Universe, the Milky Way Galaxy, and Extra-Solar Planetary Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenstein, Daniel J.; /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Harvard U., Phys. Dept.; Weinberg, David H.; /Ohio State U.; Agol, Eric; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Aihara, Hiroaki; /Tokyo U.; Prieto, Carlos Allende; /Laguna U., Tenerife; Anderson, Scott F.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Arns, James A.; /Michigan U.; Aubourg, Eric; /APC, Paris /DAPNIA, Saclay; Bailey, Stephen; /LBL, Berkeley; Balbinot, Eduardo; /Rio Grande do Sul U. /Rio de Janeiro Observ.; Barkhouser, Robert; /Johns Hopkins U. /Michigan State U.

    2011-01-01

    Building on the legacy of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS-I and II), SDSS-III is a program of four spectroscopic surveys on three scientific themes: dark energy and cosmological parameters, the history and structure of the Milky Way, and the population of giant planets around other stars. The Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) will measure redshifts of 1.5 million massive galaxies and Ly{alpha} forest spectra of 150,000 quasars, using the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature of large scale structure to obtain percent-level determinations of the distance scale and Hubble expansion rate at z < 0.7 and at z {approx} 2.5. SEGUE-2, a now-completed continuation of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration, measured medium-resolution (R = {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} 1800) optical spectra of 118,000 stars in a variety of target categories, probing chemical evolution, stellar kinematics and substructure, and the mass profile of the dark matter halo from the solar neighborhood to distances of 100 kpc. APOGEE, the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment, will obtain high-resolution (R {approx} 30,000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N {ge} 100 per resolution element), H-band (1.51 {micro}m < {lambda} < 1.70 {micro}m) spectra of 10{sup 5} evolved, late-type stars, measuring separate abundances for {approx} 15 elements per star and creating the first high-precision spectroscopic survey of all Galactic stellar populations (bulge, bar, disks, halo) with a uniform set of stellar tracers and spectral diagnostics. The Multi-object APO Radial Velocity Large-area Survey (MARVELS) will monitor radial velocities of more than 8000 FGK stars with the sensitivity and cadence (10-40 m s{sup -1}, {approx} 24 visits per star) needed to detect giant planets with periods up to two years, providing an unprecedented data set for understanding the formation and dynamical evolution of giant planet systems. As of January 2011, SDSS-III has obtained

  18. Planetary Ions at Mercury: Unanswered Questions After MESSENGER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raines, J. M.

    2018-05-01

    We will discuss the key open questions relating to planetary ions, including the behavior of recently created photoions, the near absence of Ca+ / K+ in MESSENGER ion measurements, and the role of ion sputtering in the system.

  19. The maturational process of the auditory system in the first year of life characterized by brainstem auditory evoked potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Beltrão Amorim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP allows obtaining the electrophysiological activity generated in the cochlear nerve to the inferior colliculus. In the first months of life, a period of greater neuronal plasticity, important changes are observed in the absolute latency and inter-peak intervals of BAEP, which occur up to the completion of the maturational process, around 18 months of life in full-term newborns, when the response is similar to that of adults. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to establish normal values of absolute latencies for waves I, III and V and inter-peak intervals I-III, III-V and I-V of the BAEP performed in full-term infants attending the Infant Hearing Health Program of the Speech-Language Pathology and Audiology Course at Bauru School of Dentistry, Brazil, with no risk history for hearing impairment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The stimulation parameters were: rarefaction click stimulus presented by the 3ª insertion phone, intensity of 80 dBnHL and a rate of 21.1 c/s, band-pass filter of 30 and 3,000 Hz and average of 2,000 stimuli. A sample of 86 infants was first divided according to their gestational age in preterm (n=12 and full-term (n=74, and then according to their chronological age in three periods: P1: 0 to 29 days (n=46, P2: 30 days to 5 months 29 days (n=28 and P3: above 6 months (n= 12. RESULTS: The absolute latency of wave I was similar to that of adults, generally in the 1st month of life, demonstrating a complete process maturity of the auditory nerve. For waves III and V, there was a gradual decrease of absolute latencies with age, characterizing the maturation of axons and synaptic mechanisms in the brainstem level. CONCLUSION: Age proved to be a determining factor in the absolute latency of the BAEP components, especially those generated in the brainstem, in the first year of life.

  20. Real-Time Hazard Detection and Avoidance Demonstration for a Planetary Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epp, Chirold D.; Robertson, Edward A.; Carson, John M., III

    2014-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is chartered to develop and mature to a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six an autonomous system combining guidance, navigation and control with terrain sensing and recognition functions for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. In addition to precision landing close to a pre-mission defined landing location, the ALHAT System must be capable of autonomously identifying and avoiding surface hazards in real-time to enable a safe landing under any lighting conditions. This paper provides an overview of the recent results of the ALHAT closed loop hazard detection and avoidance flight demonstrations on the Morpheus Vertical Testbed (VTB) at the Kennedy Space Center, including results and lessons learned. This effort is also described in the context of a technology path in support of future crewed and robotic planetary exploration missions based upon the core sensing functions of the ALHAT system: Terrain Relative Navigation (TRN), Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA), and Hazard Relative Navigation (HRN).

  1. Development of space perception in relation to the maturation of the motor system in infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Valentina; Simpson, Elizabeth A; Suomi, Stephen J; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2015-04-01

    To act on the environment, organisms must perceive object locations in relation to their body. Several neuroscientific studies provide evidence of neural circuits that selectively represent space within reach (i.e., peripersonal) and space outside of reach (i.e., extrapersonal). However, the developmental emergence of these space representations remains largely unexplored. We investigated the development of space coding in infant macaques and found that they exhibit different motor strategies and hand configurations depending on the objects' size and location. Reaching-grasping improved from 2 to 4 weeks of age, suggesting a broadly defined perceptual body schema at birth, modified by the acquisition and refinement of motor skills through early sensorimotor experience, enabling the development of a mature capacity for coding space. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Summary of the Third International Planetary Dunes Workshop: remote sensing and image analysis of planetary dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Lori K.; Hayward, Rosalyn K.; Horgan, Briony H.N.; Rubin, David M.; Titus, Timothy N.; Bishop, Mark A.; Burr, Devon M.; Chojnacki, Matthew; Dinwiddie, Cynthia L.; Kerber, Laura; Gall, Alice Le; Michaels, Timothy I.; Neakrase, Lynn D.V.; Newman, Claire E.; Tirsch, Daniela; Yizhaq, Hezi; Zimbelman, James R.

    2013-01-01

    The Third International Planetary Dunes Workshop took place in Flagstaff, AZ, USA during June 12–15, 2012. This meeting brought together a diverse group of researchers to discuss recent advances in terrestrial and planetary research on aeolian bedforms. The workshop included two and a half days of oral and poster presentations, as well as one formal (and one informal) full-day field trip. Similar to its predecessors, the presented work provided new insight on the morphology, dynamics, composition, and origin of aeolian bedforms on Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan, with some intriguing speculation about potential aeolian processes on Triton (a satellite of Neptune) and Pluto. Major advancements since the previous International Planetary Dunes Workshop include the introduction of several new data analysis and numerical tools and utilization of low-cost field instruments (most notably the time-lapse camera). Most presentations represented advancement towards research priorities identified in both of the prior two workshops, although some previously recommended research approaches were not discussed. In addition, this workshop provided a forum for participants to discuss the uncertain future of the Planetary Aeolian Laboratory; subsequent actions taken as a result of the decisions made during the workshop may lead to an expansion of funding opportunities to use the facilities, as well as other improvements. The interactions during this workshop contributed to the success of the Third International Planetary Dunes Workshop, further developing our understanding of aeolian processes on the aeolian worlds of the Solar System.

  3. Exploration of the Moon to Enable Lunar and Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Moon represents an enabling Solar System exploration asset because of its proximity, resources, and size. Its location has facilitated robotic missions from 5 different space agencies this century. The proximity of the Moon has stimulated commercial space activity, which is critical for sustainable space exploration. Since 2000, a new view of the Moon is coming into focus, which is very different from that of the 20th century. The documented presence of volatiles on the lunar surface, coupled with mature ilmenite-rich regolith locations, represent known resources that could be used for life support on the lunar surface for extended human stays, as well as fuel for robotic and human exploration deeper into the Solar System. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to explore the terrestrial planets and Solar System processes. For example, it is an end-member in terrestrial planetary body differentiation. Ever since the return of the first lunar samples by Apollo 11, the magma ocean concept was developed and has been applied to both Earth and Mars. Because of the small size of the Moon, planetary differentiation was halted at an early (primary?) stage. However, we still know very little about the lunar interior, despite the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments, and to understand the structure of the Moon will require establishing a global lunar geophysical network, something Apollo did not achieve. Also, constraining the impact chronology of the Moon allows the surfaces of other terrestrial planets to be dated and the cratering history of the inner Solar System to be constrained. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to study space weathering of airless bodies. It is apparent, then, that human and robotic missions to the Moon will enable both science and exploration. For example, the next step in resource exploration is prospecting on the surface those deposits identified from orbit to understand the yield that can be expected. Such prospecting will also

  4. The International Planetary Data Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, T.; Arviset, C.; Crichton, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The International Planetary Data Alliance (IPDA) is an association of partners with the aim of improving the quality of planetary science data and services to the end users of space based instrumentation. The specific mission of the IPDA is to facilitate global access to, and exchange of, high quality scientific data products managed across international boundaries. Ensuring proper capture, accessibility and availability of the data is the task of the individual member space agencies. The IPDA was formed in 2006 with the purpose of adopting standards and developing collaborations across agencies to ensure data is captured in common formats. Member agencies include: Armenian Astronomical Society, China National Space Agency (CNSA), European Space Agency (ESA), German Aerospace Center (DLR), Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), Italian Space Agency (ASI), Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), National Air and Space Administration (NASA), National Centre for Space Studies (CNES), Space Research Institute (IKI), UAE Space Agency, and UK Space Agency. The IPDA Steering Committee oversees the execution of projects and coordinates international collaboration. The IPDA conducts a number of focused projects to enable interoperability, construction of compatible archives, and the operation of the IPDA as a whole. These projects have helped to establish the IPDA and to move the collaboration forward. A key project that is currently underway is the implementation of the PDS4 data standard. Given the international focus, it has been critical that the PDS and the IPDA collaborate on its development. Also, other projects have been conducted successfully, including developing the IPDA architecture and corresponding requirements, developing shared registries for data and tools across international boundaries, and common templates for supporting agreements for archiving and sharing data for international missions. Several projects demonstrating interoperability across

  5. Technology under Planetary Protection Research (PPR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Planetary protection involves preventing biological contamination on both outbound and sample return missions to other planetary bodies. Numerous areas of research...

  6. Maturing Pump Technology for EVA Applications in a Collaborative Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Edward; Dionne, Steven; Gervais, Edward; Anchondo, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The transition from low earth orbit Extravehicular Activity (EVA) for construction and maintenance activities to planetary surface EVA on asteroids, moons, and, ultimately, Mars demands a new spacesuit system. NASA's development of that system has resulted in dramatically different pumping requirements from those in the current spacesuit system. Hamilton Sundstrand, Cascon, and NASA are collaborating to develop and mature a pump that will reliably meet those new requirements in space environments and within the design constraints imposed by spacesuit system integration. That collaboration, which began in the NASA purchase of a pump prototype for test evaluation, is now entering a new phase of development. A second generation pump reflecting the lessons learned in NASA's testing of the original prototype will be developed under Hamilton Sundstrand internal research funding and ultimately tested in an integrated Advanced Portable Life Support System (APLSS) in NASA laboratories at the Johnson Space Center. This partnership is providing benefit to both industry and NASA by supplying a custom component for EVA integrated testing at no cost to the government while providing test data for industry that would otherwise be difficult or impossible to duplicate in industry laboratories. This paper discusses the evolving collaborative process, component requirements and design development based on early NASA test experience, component stand alone test results, and near term plans for integrated testing at JSCs.

  7. GIS Methodology for Planning Planetary-Rover Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark; Norris, Jeffrey; Fox, Jason; Rabe, Kenneth; Shu, I-Hsiang

    2007-01-01

    A document describes a methodology for utilizing image data downlinked from cameras aboard a robotic ground vehicle (rover) on a remote planet for analyzing and planning operations of the vehicle and of any associated spacecraft. Traditionally, the cataloging and presentation of large numbers of downlinked planetary-exploration images have been done by use of two organizational methods: temporal organization and correlation between activity plans and images. In contrast, the present methodology involves spatial indexing of image data by use of the computational discipline of geographic information systems (GIS), which has been maturing in terrestrial applications for decades, but, until now, has not been widely used in support of exploration of remote planets. The use of GIS to catalog data products for analysis is intended to increase efficiency and effectiveness in planning rover operations, just as GIS has proven to be a source of powerful computational tools in such terrestrial endeavors as law enforcement, military strategic planning, surveying, political science, and epidemiology. The use of GIS also satisfies the need for a map-based user interface that is intuitive to rover-activity planners, many of whom are deeply familiar with maps and know how to use them effectively in field geology.

  8. Planetary Boundaries: Exploring the Safe Operating Space for Humanity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Katherine; Rockström, Johan; Steffen, Will

    2009-01-01

    boundaries are rough, first estimates only, surrounded by large uncertainties and knowledge gaps. Filling these gaps will require major advancements in Earth System and resilience science. The proposed concept of "planetary boundaries" lays the groundwork for shifting our approach to governance...... and management, away from the essentially sectoral analyses of limits to growth aimed at minimizing negative externalities, toward the estimation of the safe space for human development. Planetary boundaries define, as it were, the boundaries of the "planetary playing field" for humanity if we want to be sure...

  9. Planetary Sciences Literature - Access and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneken, Edwin A.; ADS Team

    2017-10-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been around for over 2 decades, helping professional astronomers and planetary scientists navigate, without charge, through the increasingly complex environment of scholarly publications. As boundaries between disciplines dissolve and expand, the ADS provides powerful tools to help researchers discover useful information efficiently. In its new form, code-named ADS Bumblebee (https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu), it may very well answer questions you didn't know you had! While the classic ADS (http://ads.harvard.edu) focuses mostly on searching basic metadata (author, title and abstract), today's ADS is best described as a an "aggregator" of scholarly resources relevant to the needs of researchers in astronomy and planetary sciences, and providing a discovery environment on top of this. In addition to indexing content from a variety of publishers, data and software archives, the ADS enriches its records by text-mining and indexing the full-text articles (about 4.7 million in total, with 130,000 from planetary science journals), enriching its metadata through the extraction of citations and acknowledgments. Recent technology developments include a new Application Programming Interface (API), a new user interface featuring a variety of visualizations and bibliometric analysis, and integration with ORCID services to support paper claiming. The new ADS provides powerful tools to help you find review papers on a given subject, prolific authors working on a subject and who they are collaborating with (within and outside their group) and papers most read by by people who read recent papers on the topic of your interest. These are just a couple of examples of the capabilities of the new ADS. We currently index most journals covering the planetary sciences and we are striving to include those journals most frequently cited by planetary science publications. The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA

  10. A Cost-Effective Culture System for the In Vitro Assembly, Maturation, and Stimulation of Advanced Multilayered Multiculture Tubular Tissue Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, Caroline; Pezzoli, Daniele; Candiani, Gabriele; Mantovani, Diego

    2018-01-01

    The development of tubular engineered tissues is a challenging research area aiming to provide tissue substitutes but also in vitro models to test drugs, medical devices, and even to study physiological and pathological processes. In this work, the design, fabrication, and validation of an original cost-effective tubular multilayered-tissue culture system (TMCS) are reported. By exploiting cellularized collagen gel as scaffold, a simple moulding technique and an endothelialization step on a rotating system, TMCS allowed to easily prepare in 48 h, trilayered arterial wall models with finely organized cellular composition and to mature them for 2 weeks without any need of manipulation. Multilayered constructs incorporating different combinations of vascular cells are compared in terms of cell organization and viscoelastic mechanical properties demonstrating that cells always progressively aligned parallel to the longitudinal direction. Also, fibroblast compacted less the collagen matrix and appeared crucial in term of maturation/deposition of elastic extracellular matrix. Preliminary studies under shear stress stimulation upon connection with a flow bioreactor are successfully conducted without damaging the endothelial monolayer. Altogether, the TMCS herein developed, thanks to its versatility and multiple functionalities, holds great promise for vascular tissue engineering applications, but also for other tubular tissues such as trachea or oesophagus. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Development of an automated chip culture system with integrated on-line monitoring for maturation culture of retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee-Hae Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In cell manufacturing, the establishment of a fully automated, microfluidic, cell culture system that can be used for long-term cell cultures, as well as for process optimization is highly desirable. This study reports the development of a novel chip bioreactor system that can be used for automated long-term maturation cultures of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells. The system consists of an incubation unit, a medium supply unit, a culture observation unit, and a control unit. In the incubation unit, the chip contains a closed culture vessel (2.5 mm diameter, working volume 9.1 μL, which can be set to 37 °C and 5% CO2, and uses a gas-permeable resin (poly- dimethylsiloxane as the vessel wall. RPE cells were seeded at 5.0 × 104 cells/cm2 and the medium was changed every day by introducing fresh medium using the medium supply unit. Culture solutions were stored either in the refrigerator or the freezer, and fresh medium was prepared before any medium change by warming to 37 °C and mixing. Automated culture was allowed to continue for 30 days to allow maturation of the RPE cells. This chip culture system allows for the long-term, bubble-free, culture of RPE cells, while also being able to observe cells in order to elucidate their cell morphology or show the presence of tight junctions. This culture system, along with an integrated on-line monitoring system, can therefore be applied to long-term cultures of RPE cells, and should contribute to process control in RPE cell manufacturing.

  12. Europlanet Research Infrastructure: Planetary Simulation Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, G. R.; Mason, N. J.; Green, S.; Gómez, F.; Prieto, O.; Helbert, J.; Colangeli, L.; Srama, R.; Grande, M.; Merrison, J.

    2008-09-01

    EuroPlanet The Europlanet Research Infrastructure consortium funded under FP7 aims to provide the EU Planetary Science community greater access for to research infrastructure. A series of networking and outreach initiatives will be complimented by joint research activities and the formation of three Trans National Access distributed service laboratories (TNA's) to provide a unique and comprehensive set of analogue field sites, laboratory simulation facilities, and extraterrestrial sample analysis tools. Here we report on the infrastructure that comprises the second TNA; Planetary Simulation Facilities. 11 laboratory based facilities are able to recreate the conditions found in the atmospheres and on the surfaces of planetary systems with specific emphasis on Martian, Titan and Europa analogues. The strategy has been to offer some overlap in capabilities to ensure access to the highest number of users and to allow for progressive and efficient development strategies. For example initial testing of mobility capability prior to the step wise development within planetary atmospheres that can be made progressively more hostile through the introduction of extreme temperatures, radiation, wind and dust. Europlanet Research Infrastructure Facilties: Mars atmosphere simulation chambers at VUA and OU These relatively large chambers (up to 1 x 0.5 x 0.5 m) simulate Martian atmospheric conditions and the dual cooling options at VUA allows stabilised instrument temperatures while the remainder of the sample chamber can be varied between 220K and 350K. Researchers can therefore assess analytical protocols for instruments operating on Mars; e.g. effect of pCO2, temperature and material (e.g., ± ice) on spectroscopic and laser ablation techniques while monitoring the performance of detection technologies such as CCD at low T & variable p H2O & pCO2. Titan atmosphere and surface simulation chamber at OU The chamber simulates Titan's atmospheric composition under a range of

  13. Vibration Based Diagnosis for Planetary Gearboxes Using an Analytical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Hong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of conventional vibration based diagnostic techniques to planetary gearboxes is a challenge because of the complexity of frequency components in the measured spectrum, which is the result of relative motions between the rotary planets and the fixed accelerometer. In practice, since the fault signatures are usually contaminated by noises and vibrations from other mechanical components of gearboxes, the diagnostic efficacy may further deteriorate. Thus, it is essential to develop a novel vibration based scheme to diagnose gear failures for planetary gearboxes. Following a brief literature review, the paper begins with the introduction of an analytical model of planetary gear-sets developed by the authors in previous works, which can predict the distinct behaviors of fault introduced sidebands. This analytical model is easy to implement because the only prerequisite information is the basic geometry of the planetary gear-set. Afterwards, an automated diagnostic scheme is proposed to cope with the challenges associated with the characteristic configuration of planetary gearboxes. The proposed vibration based scheme integrates the analytical model, a denoising algorithm, and frequency domain indicators into one synergistic system for the detection and identification of damaged gear teeth in planetary gearboxes. Its performance is validated with the dynamic simulations and the experimental data from a planetary gearbox test rig.

  14. The European standard on planetary protection requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debus, André

    2006-01-01

    Since the beginning of solar system exploration, numerous spacecrafts have been sent towards others worlds, and one of the main goals of such missions is the search for extraterrestrial forms of life. It is known that, under certain conditions, some terrestrial entities are able to survive during cruises in space and that they may contaminate other planets (forward contamination). At another level, possible extraterrestrial life forms are unknown and their ability to contaminate the Earth's biosphere (back contamination) in the frame of sample return missions cannot be excluded. Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty (London/Washington, January 27, 1967) requires the preservation of planets and the Earth from contamination. All nations taking part in this Treaty must prevent forward and back contamination during missions exploring our solar system. Consequently, the United Nations (UN-COPUOS) has delegated COSPAR (Committee of Space Research) to take charge of planetary protection and, at present, all space-faring nations must comply with COSPAR policy and consequently with COSPAR planetary protection recommendations. Starting from these recommendations and the "CNES Planetary Protection Standard" document, a working group has been set up in the framework of the "European Cooperation for Space Standardization" (ECSS) to establish the main specifications for preventing cross-contamination between target bodies within the solar system and the Earth-moon system.

  15. Maturity Level at University Academic Information System Linking it Goals and Business Goal Based on Cobit 4.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukaromah Siti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Information Technology (IT has been mainly discussed nowadays, from the top to the lowest level of society. The application of IT help companies to solve problems and even more, the application of IT has been able to provide business strategic decisions support. Many enterprises decided to allocate large budget on IT implementation where this is in line with increasingly sophisticated expectations from IT. With the assumption that the larger budget on enterprises spent on IT application, the greater the benefits they will receive. Unfortunately, IT implementation does not always give an advantage to the company. There are times when the IT implementation does not give any benefit. This situation is called IT Productivity Paradox. The question is then how IT Productivity Paradox can be prevented. The analysis we will get the significance of the IT processes which is linked to its IT Goal. By knowing the significance of the IT processes, it can be seen which one is the significant process and which one is not to the IT Goal. If the IT process are not significant to the IT Goal, the process does not need to be improved because it has no effect to the IT Goal. This research was conducted to obtain the Maturity Level from each IT process and IT process’s significance to IT Goal. The result of this research is that IT Processes are significant to IT Goal. It can be concluded that IT Productivity Paradox was not occurred.

  16. 1984 Mauna Loa eruption and planetary geolgoy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    In planetary geology, lava flows on the Moon and Mars are commonly treated as relatively simple systems. Some of the complexities of actual lava flows are illustrated using the main flow system of the 1984 Mauna Loa eruption. The outline, brief narrative, and results given are based on a number of sources. The implications of the results to planetary geology are clear. Volume flow rates during an eruption depend, in part, on the volatile content of the lava. These differ from the volume flow rates calculated from post eruption flow dimensions and the duration of the eruption and from those using models that assume a constant density. Mass flow rates might be more appropriate because the masses of volatiles in lavas are usually small, but variable and sometimes unknown densities impose severe restrictions on mass estimates

  17. NASA's Planetary Science Missions and Participations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Doris; Green, James L.

    2017-04-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division (PSD) and space agencies around the world are collaborating on an extensive array of missions exploring our solar system. Planetary science missions are conducted by some of the most sophisticated robots ever built. International collaboration is an essential part of what we do. NASA has always encouraged international participation on our missions both strategic (ie: Mars 2020) and competitive (ie: Discovery and New Frontiers) and other Space Agencies have reciprocated and invited NASA investigators to participate in their missions. NASA PSD has partnerships with virtually every major space agency. For example, NASA has had a long and very fruitful collaboration with ESA. ESA has been involved in the Cassini mission and, currently, NASA funded scientists are involved in the Rosetta mission (3 full instruments, part of another), BepiColombo mission (1 instrument in the Italian Space Agency's instrument suite), and the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer mission (1 instrument and parts of two others). In concert with ESA's Mars missions NASA has an instrument on the Mars Express mission, the orbit-ground communications package on the Trace Gas Orbiter (launched in March 2016) and part of the DLR/Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer instruments going onboard the ExoMars Rover (to be launched in 2018). NASA's Planetary Science Division has continuously provided its U.S. planetary science community with opportunities to include international participation on NASA missions too. For example, NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs provide U.S. scientists the opportunity to assemble international teams and design exciting, focused planetary science investigations that would deepen the knowledge of our Solar System. The PSD put out an international call for instruments on the Mars 2020 mission. This procurement led to the selection of Spain and Norway scientist leading two instruments and French scientists providing a significant portion of another

  18. The effect of carbon monoxide on planetary haze formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hörst, S. M.; Tolbert, M. A, E-mail: sarah.horst@colorado.edu [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Organic haze plays a key role in many planetary processes ranging from influencing the radiation budget of an atmosphere to serving as a source of prebiotic molecules on the surface. Numerous experiments have investigated the aerosols produced by exposing mixtures of N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} to a variety of energy sources. However, many N{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} atmospheres in both our solar system and extrasolar planetary systems also contain carbon monoxide (CO). We have conducted a series of atmosphere simulation experiments to investigate the effect of CO on the formation and particle size of planetary haze analogues for a range of CO mixing ratios using two different energy sources, spark discharge and UV. We find that CO strongly affects both number density and particle size of the aerosols produced in our experiments and indicates that CO may play an important, previously unexplored, role in aerosol chemistry in planetary atmospheres.

  19. Robots and humans: synergy in planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    2004-01-01

    How will humans and robots cooperate in future planetary exploration? Are humans and robots fundamentally separate modes of exploration, or can humans and robots work together to synergistically explore the solar system? It is proposed that humans and robots can work together in exploring the planets by use of telerobotic operation to expand the function and usefulness of human explorers, and to extend the range of human exploration to hostile environments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Annual review of earth and planetary sciences. Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donath, F.A.; Stehli, F.G.; Wetherill, G.W.

    1980-01-01

    Papers are presented on the geochemistry of evaporitic lacustrine deposits, the deformation of mantle rocks, the dynamics of sudden stratospheric warmings, the equatorial undercurrent, geomorphological processes on planetary surfaces, and rare earth elements in petrogenetic studies of igneous systems. Consideration is also given to evolutionary patterns in early Cenozoic animals, the origin and evolution of planetary atmospheres, the moons of Mars, and refractory inclusions in the Allende meteorite

  1. Neural stem cells and neuro/gliogenesis in the central nervous system: understanding the structural and functional plasticity of the developing, mature, and diseased brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Seki, Tatsunori; Imayoshi, Itaru; Tamamaki, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Hitoshi, Seiji

    2016-05-01

    Neurons and glia in the central nervous system (CNS) originate from neural stem cells (NSCs). Knowledge of the mechanisms of neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs is fundamental to our understanding of how complex brain architecture and function develop. NSCs are present not only in the developing brain but also in the mature brain in adults. Adult neurogenesis likely provides remarkable plasticity to the mature brain. In addition, recent progress in basic research in mental disorders suggests an etiological link with impaired neuro/gliogenesis in particular brain regions. Here, we review the recent progress and discuss future directions in stem cell and neuro/gliogenesis biology by introducing several topics presented at a joint meeting of the Japanese Association of Anatomists and the Physiological Society of Japan in 2015. Collectively, these topics indicated that neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs is a common event occurring in many brain regions at various ages in animals. Given that significant structural and functional changes in cells and neural networks are accompanied by neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs and the integration of newly generated cells into the network, stem cell and neuro/gliogenesis biology provides a good platform from which to develop an integrated understanding of the structural and functional plasticity that underlies the development of the CNS, its remodeling in adulthood, and the recovery from diseases that affect it.

  2. Performance evaluation of a natural treatment system for small communities, composed of a UASB reactor, maturation ponds (baffled and unbaffled) and a granular rock filter in series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, D F C; Passos, R G; Rodrigues, V A J; de Matos, M P; Santos, C R S; von Sperling, M

    2018-02-01

    Post-treatment of anaerobic reactor effluent with maturation ponds is a good option for small to medium-sized communities in tropical climates. The treatment line investigated, operating in Brazil, with an equivalent capacity to treat domestic sewage from 250 inhabitants, comprised a upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor followed by two shallow maturation ponds (unbaffled and baffled) and a granular rock filter (decreasing grain size) in series, requiring an area of only 1.5 m 2  inhabitant -1 . With an overall hydraulic retention time of only 6.7 days, the performance was excellent for a natural treatment system. Based on over two years of continuous monitoring, median removal efficiencies were: biochemical oxygen demand = 93%, chemical oxygen demand = 79%, total suspended solids = 87%, ammonia = 43% and Escherichia coli = 6.1 log units. The final effluent complied with European discharge standards and WHO guidelines for some forms of irrigation, and appeared to be a suitable alternative for treating domestic sewage for small communities in warm areas, especially in developing countries.

  3. The Solar Connections Observatory for Planetary Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliversen, Ronald J.; Harris, Walter M.; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection theme roadmap calls for comparative study of how the planets, comets, and local interstellar medium (LISM) interact with the Sun and respond to solar variability. Through such a study we advance our understanding of basic physical plasma and gas dynamic processes, thus increasing our predictive capabilities for the terrestrial, planetary, and interplanetary environments where future remote and human exploration will occur. Because the other planets have lacked study initiatives comparable to the terrestrial ITM, LWS, and EOS programs, our understanding of the upper atmospheres and near space environments on these worlds is far less detailed than our knowledge of the Earth. To close this gap we propose a mission to study {\\it all) of the solar interacting bodies in our planetary system out to the heliopause with a single remote sensing space observatory, the Solar Connections Observatory for Planetary Environments (SCOPE). SCOPE consists of a binocular EUV/FUV telescope operating from a remote, driftaway orbit that provides sub-arcsecond imaging and broadband medium resolution spectro-imaging over the 55-290 nm bandpass, and high (R>10$^{5}$ resolution H Ly-$\\alpha$ emission line profile measurements of small scale planetary and wide field diffuse solar system structures. A key to the SCOPE approach is to include Earth as a primary science target. From its remote vantage point SCOPE will be able to observe auroral emission to and beyond the rotational pole. The other planets and comets will be monitored in long duration campaigns centered when possible on solar opposition when interleaved terrestrial-planet observations can be used to directly compare the response of both worlds to the same solar wind stream and UV radiation field. Using a combination of observations and MHD models, SCOPE will isolate the different controlling parameters in each planet system and gain insight into the underlying physical processes that define the

  4. China's roadmap for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yong; Yao, Zhonghua; Wan, Weixing

    2018-05-01

    China has approved or planned a string of several space exploration missions to be launched over the next decade. A new generation of planetary scientists in China is playing an important role in determining the scientific goals of future missions.

  5. Planetary Vital Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Charles; Briggs, Stephen; Victor, David

    2016-07-01

    The climate is beginning to behave in unusual ways. The global temperature reached unprecedented highs in 2015 and 2016, which led climatologists to predict an enormous El Nino that would cure California's record drought. It did not happen the way they expected. That tells us just how unreliable temperature has become as an indicator of important aspects of climate change. The world needs to go beyond global temperature to a set of planetary vital signs. Politicians should not over focus policy on one indicator. They need to look at the balance of evidence. A coalition of scientists and policy makers should start to develop vital signs at once, since they should be ready at the entry into force of the Paris Agreement in 2020. But vital signs are only the beginning. The world needs to learn how to use the vast knowledge we will be acquiring about climate change and its impacts. Is it not time to use all the tools at hand- observations from space and ground networks; demographic, economic and societal measures; big data statistical techniques; and numerical models-to inform politicians, managers, and the public of the evolving risks of climate change at global, regional, and local scales? Should we not think in advance of an always-on social and information network that provides decision-ready knowledge to those who hold the responsibility to act, wherever they are, at times of their choosing?

  6. Earth and planetary sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.; Drake, C.L.

    1980-01-01

    The earth is a dynamic body. The major surface manifestation of this dynamism has been fragmentation of the earth's outer shell and subsequent relative movement of the pieces on a large scale. Evidence for continental movement came from studies of geomagnetism. As the sea floor spreads and new crust is formed, it is magnetized with the polarity of the field at the time of its formation. The plate tectonics model explains the history, nature, and topography of the oceanic crust. When a lithospheric plate surmounted by continental crust collides with an oceanic lithosphere, it is the denser oceanic lithosphere that is subducted. Hence the ancient oceans have vanished and the knowledge of ancient earth will require deciphering the complex continental geological record. Geochemical investigation shows that the source region of continental rocks is not simply the depleted mantle that is characteristic of the source region of basalts produced at the oceanic ridges. The driving force of plate tectonics is convection within the earth, but much remains to be learned about the convection and interior of the earth. A brief discussion of planetary exploration is given

  7. Lay and Expert Perceptions of Planetary Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Margaret S.; MacGregor, Donald G.; Slovic, Paul

    2000-01-01

    As space scientists and engineers plan new missions to Mars and other planets in our solar system, they will face critical questions about the potential for biological contamination of planetary surfaces. In a society that places ever-increasing importance on the role of public involvement in science and technology policy, questions about risks of biological contamination will be examined and debated in the media, and will lead to the formation of public perceptions of planetary-contamination risks. These perceptions will, over time, form an important input to the development of space policy. Previous research in public and expert perceptions of technological risks and hazards has shown that many of the problems faced by risk-management organizations are the result of differing perceptions of risk (and risk management) between the general public and scientific and technical experts. These differences manifest themselves both as disagreements about the definition (and level) of risk associated with a scientific, technological or industrial enterprise, and as distrust about the ability of risk-management organizations (both public and private) to adequately protect people's health and safety. This report presents the results of a set of survey studies designed to reveal perceptions of planetary exploration and protection from a wide range of respondents, including both members of the general public and experts in the life sciences. The potential value of this research lies in what it reveals about perceptions of risk and benefit that could improve risk-management policies and practices. For example, efforts to communicate with the public about Mars sample return missions could benefit from an understanding of the specific concerns that nonscientists have about such a mission by suggesting areas of potential improvement in public education and information. Assessment of both public and expert perceptions of risk can also be used to provide an advanced signal of