WorldWideScience

Sample records for mature milk samples

  1. Prolonged transition time between colostrum and mature milk in a bear, the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Katharine; Rong, Hou; Wang, Hairui; Zhang, Zhihe; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G.; Burchmore, Richard; Loeffler, I.Kati; Kennedy, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Bears produce the most altricial neonates of any placental mammal. We hypothesized that the transition from colostrum to mature milk in bears reflects a temporal and biochemical adaptation for altricial development and immune protection. Comparison of bear milks with milks of other eutherians yielded distinctive protein profiles. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of serial milk samples collected from six giant pandas showed a prolonged transition from colostrum to main-phase lactation over a...

  2. Multielemental analysis of milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar Al-Dayel; Jameel Al-Hefne; Didarul A Chowdhury; Turki Al-Ajyan

    2002-01-01

    Milk is a basic food since it provides essential nutrients (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates) and micronutrients (minerals, Vitamins, enzymes). In fact, in formula milk essential elements have been usually added in order to satisfy nutritional requirements. However, too high additions of these elements can produce detrimental effects on human health. More important, milk can also constitute a source of exposure to toxic elements, especially dangerous for infants. Method is presented for the multielemental analysis of a wide range of elements in milk samples. The aim of this work is the development of a multielemental method for the analysis of major, minor and trace essential and toxic elements in milk. Several milk samples with different origins were collected from the Saudi Arabia markets and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). For preparation of the samples for analysis, they were digested by closed vessel microwave digestion system with H 2 O 2 /HNO 3 . About 40 elements were determined. A reference material was analysed for the validation of the proposed method. (Author)

  3. Analysis of natural milk and milk powder samples by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jobori, S. M.; Itawi, R. K.; Saad, A; Shihab, K. M.; Jalil, M.; Farhan, S. S.

    1993-01-01

    As a part of the Iraqi food analysis program (IFAP) the concentration of Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, and I in natural milk collected from different regions of Iraq, and in milk powder samples have been determined by using the NAA techniques. It was found that except for the elements I, Rb, and Br the concentrations of the elements was approximately identical in both the natural milk and milk powder. (author)

  4. Analysis of natural milk and milk powder samples by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jobori, S.M.; Itawi, R.K.; Saad, A.; Shihab, K.M.; Jalil, M.; Farhan, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    As a part of the Iraqi Food Analysis Programme the concentration of Na, Mg, P, Cl, K, Ca, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and I in natural milk collected from different regions of Iraq, and in milk powder samples was determined by NAA technique. It was found that except for the elements I, Rb and Br the concentration of the elements was approximately identical in both natural milk and milk powders. (author) 4 refs.; 3 figs.; 5 tabs

  5. Chemical and amino acid composition of colostrum and mature milk differ only slightly in mink (Mustela vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Rikke; Rasmussen, Alice Neess; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2007-01-01

    To determine differences in chemical composition between colostrum and mature milk in mink, milk samples were collected from 12 dams as close to the end of parturition as possible (n = 12), and at 24 h (n = 3), 48 h (n = 3) and 1 week (n = 12) postpartum. The milk samples were analysed for dry......, the differences between colostrum and mature milk were less pronounced in the mink than in many other species. Thus, colostrum seems to be of little importance in the mink in conferring passive immunity and hence for kit survival....

  6. Quantitative proteomic analysis of whey proteins in the colostrum and mature milk of yak (Bos grunniens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Zhao, Xiaowei; Yu, Shumin; Cao, Suizhong

    2015-02-01

    Yak (Bos grunniens) is an important natural resource in mountainous regions. To date, few studies have addressed the differences in the protein profiles of yak colostrum and milk. We used quantitative proteomics to compare the protein profiles of whey from yak colostrum and milk. Milk samples were collected from 21 yaks after calving (1 and 28 d). Whey protein profiles were generated through isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-labelled proteomics. We identified 183 proteins in milk whey; of these, the expression levels of 86 proteins differed significantly between the whey from colostrum and milk. Haemoglobin expression showed the greatest change; its levels were significantly higher in the whey from colostrum than in mature milk whey. Functional analysis revealed that many of the differentially expressed proteins were associated with biological regulation and response to stimuli. Further, eight differentially expressed proteins involved in the complement and coagulation cascade pathway were enriched in milk whey. These findings add to the general understanding of the protein composition of yak milk, suggest potential functions of the differentially expressed proteins, and provide novel information on the role of colostral components in calf survival. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Radiochemical analysis of phosphorus in milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.M. de; Cunha, I.I.L.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of phosphorus in milk samples by thermal neutron activation analysis employing radiochemical separation is described. The radiochemical separation consists of the simultaneous irradiation of samples and standards, dissolution of the milk samples in a perchloric acid and nitric acid mixture, addition of zinc hold-back carrier, precipitation of phosphorus as ammonium phospho molybdate (A.M.P.) and sample counting in a Geiger-Mueller detector. The analysis sources of error were studied and the established method was applied to phosphorus analyses in commercial milk samples. (author)

  8. Bovine Milk Proteome in the First 9 Days: Protein Interactions in Maturation of the Immune and Digestive System of the Newborn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Boeren, J.A.; Hageman, J.A.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Hettinga, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand the milk proteome and its changes from colostrum to mature milk, samples taken at seven time points in the first 9 days from 4 individual cows were analyzed using proteomic techniques. Both the similarity in changes from day 0 to day 9 in the quantitative milk proteome,

  9. Prolonged transition time between colostrum and mature milk in a bear, the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kate; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Zhang, Zhihe; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G.; Burchmore, Richard J. S.; Loeffler, I. Kati; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2015-01-01

    Bears produce the most altricial neonates of any placental mammal. We hypothesized that the transition from colostrum to mature milk in bears reflects a temporal and biochemical adaptation for altricial development and immune protection. Comparison of bear milks with milks of other eutherians yielded distinctive protein profiles. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of serial milk samples collected from six giant pandas showed a prolonged transition from colostrum to main-phase lactation over approximately 30 days. Particularly striking are the persistence or sequential appearance of adaptive and innate immune factors. The endurance of immunoglobulin G suggests an unusual duration of trans-intestinal absorption of maternal antibodies, and is potentially relevant to the underdeveloped lymphoid system of giant panda neonates. Levels of certain milk oligosaccharides known to exert anti-microbial activities and/or that are conducive to the development of neonatal gut microbiomes underwent an almost complete changeover around days 20–30 postpartum, coincident with the maturation of the protein profile. A potential metabolic marker of starvation was detected, the prominence of which may reflect the natural postpartum period of anorexia in giant panda mothers. Early lactation in giant pandas, and possibly in other ursids, appears to be adapted for the unique requirements of unusually altricial eutherian neonates. PMID:26587250

  10. Prolonged transition time between colostrum and mature milk in a bear, the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Kate; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Zhang, Zhihe; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G; Burchmore, Richard J S; Loeffler, I Kati; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2015-10-01

    Bears produce the most altricial neonates of any placental mammal. We hypothesized that the transition from colostrum to mature milk in bears reflects a temporal and biochemical adaptation for altricial development and immune protection. Comparison of bear milks with milks of other eutherians yielded distinctive protein profiles. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis of serial milk samples collected from six giant pandas showed a prolonged transition from colostrum to main-phase lactation over approximately 30 days. Particularly striking are the persistence or sequential appearance of adaptive and innate immune factors. The endurance of immunoglobulin G suggests an unusual duration of trans-intestinal absorption of maternal antibodies, and is potentially relevant to the underdeveloped lymphoid system of giant panda neonates. Levels of certain milk oligosaccharides known to exert anti-microbial activities and/or that are conducive to the development of neonatal gut microbiomes underwent an almost complete changeover around days 20-30 postpartum, coincident with the maturation of the protein profile. A potential metabolic marker of starvation was detected, the prominence of which may reflect the natural postpartum period of anorexia in giant panda mothers. Early lactation in giant pandas, and possibly in other ursids, appears to be adapted for the unique requirements of unusually altricial eutherian neonates.

  11. Selenium content in milk and diary samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kira, Carmen S.; Maihara, Vera A.

    2005-01-01

    Food is the primary source of Se for human beings. As such determining Se levels in foodstuffs become very important. However, information concerning Se levels in different sources of nutrition in different country, particularly in Brazil, is limited. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been used to effectively determine micronutrient levels in foodstuffs, such as milk and dairy samples. The advantage of using the INAA technique is that the samples do not require previous dissolution before analysis. In this study, INAA was applied to determine Se concentration in milk and dairy products. The samples were acquired in the markets of Sao Paulo city. After a 8-hour irradiation in the research reactor IEA-R1, selenium was analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry. Methodology validation was done analyzing NIST reference materials (Whole Milk Powder and Non Fat Milk Powder). Se concentrations in the sample analyzed were below 0.300 μg g -1 . (author)

  12. Genomic regions associated with bovine milk fatty acids in both summer and winter milk samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A.C.; Visker, M.H.P.W.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background - In this study we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for bovine milk fatty acids from summer milk samples. This study replicates a previous study where we performed a GWAS for bovine milk fatty acids based on winter milk samples from the same population. Fatty acids from

  13. Comparative Analysis of Whey N-Glycoproteins in Human Colostrum and Mature Milk Using Quantitative Glycoproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xueyan; Song, Dahe; Yang, Mei; Yang, Ning; Ye, Qing; Tao, Dongbing; Liu, Biao; Wu, Rina; Yue, Xiqing

    2017-11-29

    Glycosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational protein modification that plays a substantial role in various processes. However, whey glycoproteins in human milk have not been completely profiled. Herein, we used quantitative glycoproteomics to quantify whey N-glycosylation sites and their alteration in human milk during lactation; 110 N-glycosylation sites on 63 proteins and 91 N-glycosylation sites on 53 proteins were quantified in colostrum and mature milk whey, respectively. Among these, 68 glycosylation sites on 38 proteins were differentially expressed in human colostrum and mature milk whey. These differentially expressed N-glycoproteins were highly enriched in "localization", "extracellular region part", and "modified amino acid binding" according to gene ontology annotation and mainly involved in complement and coagulation cascades pathway. These results shed light on the glycosylation sites, composition and biological functions of whey N-glycoproteins in human colostrum and mature milk, and provide substantial insight into the role of protein glycosylation during infant development.

  14. Inhibition of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte function by components of human colostrum and mature milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, L K; Cleary, T G; Caprioli, R M

    1983-04-01

    To compare the effect of human colostrum (days 1 to 3 postpartum) and mature milk (days 170 +/- 24 postpartum) on the function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL), Ficoll-Hypaque-separated PMNL from the blood of 60 healthy volunteers were incubated with whole colostrum, colostral lipid, and colostral aqueous phase from 30 mothers, or with mature whole milk and its separated components from 30 mothers, and tested for resting and zymosan-stimulated oxidative metabolism, functional activity, and the presence of Fc receptors. Stimulated oxygen consumption, quantitative nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction, [1-(14)C]glucose utilization, and Fc receptors were significantly (P cells or cells exposed to the aqueous phase of colostrum. In contrast, PMNL exposed to whole mature milk or to its lipid or aqueous phase caused no significant decrease in any of these parameters when compared to nonexposed cells. In assays of phagocytosis, colostral PMNL or blood PMNL exposed to colostral lipid had a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in their ability to ingest [methyl-(3)H]thymidine-labeled Staphylococcus aureus when compared to non-lipid-exposed PMNL. Blood PMNL exposed to lipid from mature milk had no decrease in ability to ingest S. aureus. Analysis of total lipid and total and individual fatty acid content revealed a uniform increase in all components in mature milk when compared to colostrum. Lipid or lipid-soluble material present in human colostrum but not mature milk causes inhibition of phagocytosis and respiratory burst-related activities of PMNL.

  15. VITAMIN-E, LIPID FRACTIONS, AND FATTY-ACID COMPOSITION OF COLOSTRUM, TRANSITIONAL MILK, AND MATURE MILK - AN INTERNATIONAL COMPARATIVE-STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOERSMA, ER; OFFRINGA, PJ; MUSKIET, FAJ; CHASE, WM; SIMMONS, IJ

    Triglycerides, cholesterol, fatty acid composition, and tocopherols were determined in colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk in St Lucia. With progress of lactation, triglycerides and percentage medium-chain fatty acids increased whereas tocopherols, cholesterol, and percentage longchain

  16. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina; de Waard, Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; van Goudoever, Johannes B; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-09-16

    To objective of this study was to better understand the biological functions of breast milk proteins in relation to the growth and development of infants over the first six months of life. Breast milk samples from four individual women collected at seven time points in the first six months after delivery were analyzed by filter aided sample preparation and dimethyl labeling combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 247 and 200 milk serum proteins were identified and quantified, respectively. The milk serum proteome showed a high similarity (80% overlap) on the qualitative level between women and over lactation. The quantitative changes in milk serum proteins were mainly caused by three groups of proteins, enzymes, and transport and immunity proteins. Of these 21 significantly changed proteins, 30% were transport proteins, such as serum albumin and fatty acid binding protein, which are both involved in transporting nutrients to the infant. The decrease of the enzyme bile salt-activated lipase as well as the immunity proteins immunoglobulins and lactoferrin coincide with the gradual maturation of the digestive and immune system of infants. The human milk serum proteome didn't differ qualitatively but it did quantitatively, both between mothers and as lactation advanced. The changes of the breast milk serum proteome over lactation corresponded with the development of the digestive and immune system of infants. Breast milk proteins provide nutrition, but also contribute to healthy development of infants. Despite the previously reported large number of identified breast milk proteins and their changes over lactation, less is known on the changes of these proteins in individual mothers. This study is the first to determine the qualitative and quantitative changes of milk proteome over lactation between individual mothers. The results indicate that the differences in the milk proteome between individual mothers are more related to the

  17. [Fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels of Venezuelan women: influence of temperature and time of storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Virgilio; Golfetto, Iván; Alonso, Hilda; Laurentin, Zuly; Materan, Mercedes; García, Ninoska

    2009-03-01

    Fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels of Venezuelan women: influence of temperature and time of storage. Breast milk is the main food in infants from birth until six months old. It is important to know if precarious life conditions could limit some nutrients in mother's milk. The objective of this study is to evaluate the total fat and essential long chain fatty acids in mature breast milk from low socioeconomic levels in Venezuelan women. The values of total fat (3.56 +/- 1.18 g/%) are similar that reported in the literature, however the sume of LC-PUFA n-3 was 0.3 +/- 0.04% which is related whith low n-3 fatty acid maternal diet.The sume LC-PUFA n-3 contained in this study is below most of the reviewed publications. The average amount of 22:6 n-3 in breast milk offered to newborn one month old (750 ml/day) is below estimated requirements (70 mg/day). The majority of these samples provide to the infants, the amount of DHA estimated as convenient to sustain normal growth. Also it was explored how the time (8h to 24 h) and temperatura (+4 degrees C, +15 degrees C, and +25 degrees C) can affect its composition. This data will permit to select the best condiitions of sampling and storage of mother's milk in future investigations in different regions of Venezuela. Most of the breast milk fatty acids tolerate some hours at room temperature (25 degrees C) but essential long chain fatty acids are very vulnerable. We propose that, in consequence, that samples should be transported in sterile conditions in dry ice to the laboratory in a few hours and should be kept at -70 degrees C until their analysis.

  18. Determination of I-131 in milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez G, I.; Rodriguez C, G.; Quevedo A, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    In our country, in the near future, an isotope center will be in operation, and due to its characteristics, it is possible the discharge of radionuclides to the atmosphere during its normal exploitation, as well as in case of accident. Considering the kind and the concentration of the radioactive material released to the atmosphere, the possible ways of contamination were determined, playing the milk the most significant role, because the Iodine-131 is in the radionuclide inventory of this center, being possible to pass to the food-chain soil-grass-milk, due to the fact that the center is located in a cattle zone. Owing to these facts, it is necessary to rely on a method for determining Iodine-131 that allows to control its presence in milk samples, when the isotope center start to operate. The direct absorption of Iodine-131 in an anionic exchange resin and the subsequent analysis of this resin for gamma spectrometry with a Nal (Tl) detector is a cheap, simple and fast method with a recovery average greater than the 95%. (authors). 5 refs., 3 tabs

  19. Policosanol composition, antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of milk thistle (Silybium marianum L.) oil at different seed maturity stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrabi, Saoussem; Ferchichi, Azza; Bacheli, Asma; Fellah, Hayet

    2018-04-16

    Several anti-arthritic drugs and synthetic antioxidants have wide pharmaceutical uses and are often associated with various side effects on the human health. Dietary seed oils and their minor components like policosanol may offer an effective alternative treatment for arthritic and oxidative-stress related diseases. The biological effects of seed oils were affected by different parameters such as the stage of seed maturity. Hence, this study seeks to determine the policosanol content, antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of milk thistle (Silybium marianum L.) oil extracted at various stages of seed maturation. Milk thistle oil samples were extracted from seeds collected at three maturation stages (immature, intermediate, and mature). The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethyl-benzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assays were used to determine the antioxidant activity of the extracted oils. The anti-arthritic activity of oil samples was evaluated with bovine serum protein denaturation and egg albumin denaturation methods. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to determine the policosanol profile. Policosanol profile, antioxidant and anti-arthritic activities of milk thistle oil were influenced by the seed maturity stages. The oil extracted from the immature seeds had the highest total policosanol content (987.68 mg/kg of oil) and displayed the maximum antiradical activity (96.42% and 90.35% for DPPH test and ABTS assay, respectively). Nine aliphatic alcohols were identified in the milk thistle oil. The dominant poliosanol in the mature seed oil was octacosanol (75.44%), while triacontanol was the major compound (40.25%) in the immature seed oil. Additionally, the maximum inhibition of bovine serum protein denaturation (92.53%) and egg albumin denaturation (86.36%) were observed in immature seed oil as compared to mature seed oil. A high correlation was found between the total

  20. Physico-chemical characterisation of some samples of fresh milk and milk powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soceanu Alina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk consumption is important in the diet of all age groups because it provides important nutrients that are essential for humans. Children are the largest consumers of milk, thus, it’s very important that milk is free of toxic compounds that can be harmful for humans. Aim of the study was to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of some samples of milk powder for different stage of baby growing and for some samples of fresh milk: raw cow’s milk, milk trade and UHT type. The following physico-chemical properties: density, pH, acidity, the presence of acetone, enzymes, antiseptics, dry substance, the ash, total fat, saponification and peroxide index, total nitrogen and protein content were determined. Comparing the values of acidity for analyzed samples it can be concluded that the powder milk acidity value is much lower than the fresh milk. The presence of antiseptics and acetone was not identified, and amylase and peroxidase were found only in raw cow's milk. The highest protein content was found for milk powder (27.22%.

  1. Opportunities and challenges when pooling milk samples using ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Andresen, Lars Ole; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    -positive samples by pooling. To illustrate this, the sensitivity of antibody ELISA on pooled samples of bovine milk for Salmonella Dublin, Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, and bovine virus diarrhea was tested. For these milk assays, the analytical sensitivity decreased rapidly with increasing pool sizes...

  2. Sampling study in milk storage tanks by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.G.C.; Nadai Fernandes de, E.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the representativeness of samples for assessing chemical elements in milk bulk tanks. Milk samples were collected from a closed tank in a dairy plant and from an open top tank in a dairy farm. Samples were analyzed for chemical elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). For both experiments, Br, Ca, Cs, K, Na, Rb and Zn did not present significant differences between samples thereby indicating the appropriateness of the sampling procedure adopted to evaluate the analytes of interest. (author)

  3. Changes in the sterol compositions of milk thistle oil (Silybium marianum L.) during seed maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrabi, S.; Curtis, S.; Hayet, F.; Mayer, P.M.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the total lipid content and sterol compositions were determined during the development of milk thistle seeds. The oil content increased to a maximum value of 36±1.7% and then declined to reach a value of 30.5±0.9% at full maturity. The sterol content of milk thistle seeds was affected by the ripening degree of the seeds. At the early stages of seed maturation, Δ7 -stigmastenol was the most abundant sterol followed by β-sitosterol. However, at full maturity, β-sitosterol was the most predominant sterol (46.50±0.8%). As the seed developed, campesterol and stigmasterol amounts increased, while Δ7 -avenasterol content decreased. It can be concluded that milk thistle seed oil has a characteristic sterol pattern comparable to the ones elucidated for olive oil and corn oil. The extracted oil from milk thistle seeds is rich in phytosterols and could be used in foodpreparation and human nutrition. (Author)

  4. Sample processing method for the determination of perchlorate in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyke, Jason V.; Kirk, Andrea B.; Kalyani Martinelango, P.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, many different water sources and foods have been reported to contain perchlorate. Studies indicate that significant levels of perchlorate are present in both human and dairy milk. The determination of perchlorate in milk is particularly important due to its potential health impact on infants and children. As for many other biological samples, sample preparation is more time consuming than the analysis itself. The concurrent presence of large amounts of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, etc., demands some initial cleanup; otherwise the separation column lifetime and the limit of detection are both greatly compromised. Reported milk processing methods require the addition of chemicals such as ethanol, acetic acid or acetonitrile. Reagent addition is undesirable in trace analysis. We report here an essentially reagent-free sample preparation method for the determination of perchlorate in milk. Milk samples are spiked with isotopically labeled perchlorate and centrifuged to remove lipids. The resulting liquid is placed in a disposable centrifugal ultrafilter device with a molecular weight cutoff of 10 kDa, and centrifuged. Approximately 5-10 ml of clear liquid, ready for analysis, is obtained from a 20 ml milk sample. Both bovine and human milk samples have been successfully processed and analyzed by ion chromatography-mass spectrometry (IC-MS). Standard addition experiments show good recoveries. The repeatability of the analytical result for the same sample in multiple sample cleanup runs ranged from 3 to 6% R.S.D. This processing technique has also been successfully applied for the determination of iodide and thiocyanate in milk

  5. SYSTEMATIC SAMPLING FOR NON - LINEAR TREND IN MILK YIELD DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Tanuj Kumar Pandey; Vinod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The present paper utilizes systematic sampling procedures for milk yield data exhibiting some non-linear trends. The best fitted mathematical forms of non-linear trend present in the milk yield data are obtained and the expressions of average variances of the estimators of population mean under simple random, usual systematic and modified systematic sampling procedures have been derived for populations showing non-linear trend. A comparative study is made among the three sampli...

  6. A nine-country study of the protein content and amino acid composition of mature human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous studies have evaluated protein and amino acid levels in human milk. However, research in this area has been limited by small sample sizes and study populations with little ethnic or racial diversity. Objective: Evaluate the protein and amino acid composition of mature (≥30 days human milk samples collected from a large, multinational study using highly standardized methods for sample collection, storage, and analysis. Design: Using a single, centralized laboratory, human milk samples from 220 women (30–188 days postpartum from nine countries were analyzed for amino acid composition using Waters AccQ-Tag high-performance liquid chromatography and total nitrogen content using the LECO FP-528 nitrogen analyzer. Total protein was calculated as total nitrogen×6.25. True protein, which includes protein, free amino acids, and peptides, was calculated from the total amino acids. Results: Mean total protein from individual countries (standard deviation [SD] ranged from 1,133 (125.5 to 1,366 (341.4 mg/dL; the mean across all countries (SD was 1,192 (200.9 mg/dL. Total protein, true protein, and amino acid composition were not significantly different across countries except Chile, which had higher total and true protein. Amino acid profiles (percent of total amino acids did not differ across countries. Total and true protein concentrations and 16 of 18 amino acid concentrations declined with the stage of lactation. Conclusions: Total protein, true protein, and individual amino acid concentrations in human milk steadily decline from 30 to 151 days of lactation, and are significantly higher in the second month of lactation compared with the following 4 months. There is a high level of consistency in the protein content and amino acid composition of human milk across geographic locations. The size and diversity of the study population and highly standardized procedures for the collection, storage, and analysis of human milk support

  7. Correlation between Cervical Vertebral Maturation Stages and Dental Maturation in a Saudi Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayef H Felemban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to compare the cervical vertebra maturation stages method and dental maturity using tooth calcification stages. Methods: The current study comprised of 405 subjects selected from orthodontic patients of Saudi origin coming to clinics of the specialized dental centers in western region of Saudi Arabia. Dental age was assessed according to the developmental stages of upper and lower third molars and skeletal maturation according to the cervical vertebrae maturation stage method. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal-Wallis H, Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-Square test; t-test and Spearman correlation coefficient for inter group comparison. Results: The females were younger than males in all cervical stages. The CS1-CS2 show the period before the peak of growth, during CS3-CS5 it’s the pubertal growth spurt and CS6 is the period after the peak of the growth. The mean age and standard deviation for cervical stages of CS2, CS3 and CS4 were 12.09 ±1.72 years, 13.19 ±1.62 and 14.88 ±1.52 respectively. The Spearman correlation coefficients between cervical vertebrae and dental maturation were between 0.166 and 0.612, 0.243 and 0.832 for both sexes for upper and lower third molars. The significance levels for all coefficients were equal at 0.01 and 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the skeletal maturity increased with the increase in dental ages for both genders. An early rate of skeletal maturation stage was observed in females. This study needs further analysis using a larger sample covering the entire dentition.

  8. Mycobacterium bovis in milk samples: a preliminary investigation using PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achel, D.G.; Gyamfi, O.K.; Broni, F.; Gomda, Y.; Brown, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    PCR was used to screen milk samples (n=41) for Mycobacterium bovis. DNA samples were obtained through concentration by 50% sucrose addition and centrifugation. Sixteen (16) samples (or 39%) were positive for M. Bovis DNA and the rest 25 (or 61%) were negative. All four kraals had some samples testing positive for M. bovis; the highest being 50% (5/10) and the lowest being 13% (2/15). (au)

  9. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lina; de Waard, Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A.; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    Here we provide data from shot-gun proteomics, using filtered-aided sample preparation (FASP), dimethyl labeling and LC-MS/MS, to quantify the changes in the repertoire of human milk proteins over lactation. Milk serum proteins were analyzed at week 1, 2, 3 4, 8, 16, and 24 in milk from four

  10. Bovine milk sampling efficiency for pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) detection test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, H. K. da; Cassoli, L.D.; Pantoja, J.F.C.; Cerqueira, P.H.R.; Coitinho, T.B.; Machado, P.F.

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to verify whether the time of day at which a milk sample is collected and the possible carryover in the milking system may affect pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results in dairy cows. In experiment one, we evaluated the effect of time of day at which the milk sample is collected from 51 cows. In experiment two, which evaluated the possible occurrence of carryover in the milk meter milking system, milk samples from 94 cows belonging to two different farms were used. The samples were subjected to pregnancy test using ELISA methodology to measure PAG concentrations and to classify the samples as positive (pregnant), negative (nonpregnant), or suspicious (recheck). We found that the time of milking did not affect the PAG levels. As to the occurrence of carryover in the milk meter, the PAG levels of the samples collected from Farm-2 were heavily influenced by a carryover effect compared with the samples from Farm-1. Thus, milk samples submitted to a pregnancy test can be collected during the morning or the evening milking. When the sample is collected from the milk meters, periodic equipment maintenance should be noted, including whether the milk meter is totally drained between different animals’ milking and equipment cleaning between milking is performed correctly to minimize the occurrence of carryover, thereby avoiding the effect on PAG levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results. Therefore, a single milk sample can be used for both milk quality tests and pregnancy test.

  11. Bovine milk sampling efficiency for pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) detection test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, H. K. da; Cassoli, L.D.; Pantoja, J.F.C.; Cerqueira, P.H.R.; Coitinho, T.B.; Machado, P.F.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to verify whether the time of day at which a milk sample is collected and the possible carryover in the milking system may affect pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results in dairy cows. In experiment one, we evaluated the effect of time of day at which the milk sample is collected from 51 cows. In experiment two, which evaluated the possible occurrence of carryover in the milk meter milking system, milk samples from 94 cows belonging to two different farms were used. The samples were subjected to pregnancy test using ELISA methodology to measure PAG concentrations and to classify the samples as positive (pregnant), negative (nonpregnant), or suspicious (recheck). We found that the time of milking did not affect the PAG levels. As to the occurrence of carryover in the milk meter, the PAG levels of the samples collected from Farm-2 were heavily influenced by a carryover effect compared with the samples from Farm-1. Thus, milk samples submitted to a pregnancy test can be collected during the morning or the evening milking. When the sample is collected from the milk meters, periodic equipment maintenance should be noted, including whether the milk meter is totally drained between different animals’ milking and equipment cleaning between milking is performed correctly to minimize the occurrence of carryover, thereby avoiding the effect on PAG levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results. Therefore, a single milk sample can be used for both milk quality tests and pregnancy test.

  12. Effect of microbiological testing on subsequent mid-infrared milk component analysis of the same milk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Melilli, Caterina; Barbano, David M

    2014-09-01

    Our objectives were to determine if mixing and sampling of a raw milk sample at 4°C for determination of total bacteria count (TBC) and if incubation at 14°C for 18h and sampling for a preliminary incubation (PI) count influenced the accuracy of subsequent fat, protein, or lactose measurement by mid-infrared (IR) analysis of milk from the same sample container due to either nonrepresentative sampling or the presence of microbial metabolites produced by microbial growth in the milk from the incubation. Milks of 4 fat levels (2.2, 3, 4, and 5%) reflected the range of fat levels encountered in producer milks. If the portion of milk removed from a cold sample was not representative, then the effect on a milk component test would likely be larger as fat content increases. Within the milks at each fat level, 3 treatments were used: (1) 20 vials of the same milk sampled for testing TBC using a BactoScan FC and then used for a milk component test; (2) 20 vials for testing TBC plus PI count followed by component test; and (3) 20 vials to run for IR component test without a prior micro sampling and testing. This was repeated in 3 different weeks using a different batch of milk each week. No large effect on the accuracy of component milk testing [IR fat B (carbon hydrogen stretch) and fat A (carbonyl stretch)] due to the cold milk sample handling and mixing procedures used for TBC was detected, confirming the fact that the physical removal of milk from the vial by the BactoScan FC (Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark) was a representative portion of the milk. However, the representativeness of any other sampling procedure (manual or automated) of a cold milk sample before running milk component testing on the same container of milk should be demonstrated and verified periodically as a matter of routine laboratory quality assurance. Running TBC with a BactoScan FC first and then IR milk analysis after had a minimal effect on milk component tests by IR when milk bacteria counts

  13. Phosphorus analysis in milk samples by neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, R.M. de; Cunha, I.I.L.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of phosphorus in milk samples by instrumental thermal neutron activation analysis is described. The procedure involves a short irradiation in a nuclear reactor and measurement of the beta radiation emitted by phosphorus - 32 after a suitable decay period. The sources of error were studied and the established method was applied to standard reference materials of known phosphorus content. (author)

  14. Traceability of Plant Diet Contents in Raw Cow Milk Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, Elena; Mastromauro, Francesco; Gianì, Silvia; Breviario, Diego

    2009-01-01

    The use of molecular marker in the dairy sector is gaining large acceptance as a reliable diagnostic approach for food authenticity and traceability. Using a PCR approach, the rbcL marker, a chloroplast-based gene, was selected to amplify plant DNA fragments in raw cow milk samples collected from stock farms or bought on the Italian market. rbcL-specific DNA fragments could be found in total milk, as well as in the skimmed and the cream fractions. When the PCR amplified fragments were sent to sequence, the nucleotide composition of the chromatogram reflected the multiple contents of the polyphytic diet. PMID:22253982

  15. Devices used by automated milking systems are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting a representative milk sample compared with devices used by farms with conventional milk recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphuis, Claudia; Dela Rue, B.; Turner, S.A.; Petch, S.

    2015-01-01

    Information on accuracy of milk-sampling devices used on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) is essential for development of milk recording protocols. The hypotheses of this study were (1) devices used by AMS units are similarly accurate in estimating milk yield and in collecting

  16. Distribution of CNS Species on Teat Skin and in Milk Samples from Dairy Cows in Automatic Milking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser; Svennesen, Line; Pedersen, Karl

    identified in milk samples. Staphylococcus chromogenes was detected in both milk (n= 2) and teat skin (n= 1) samples. Data collection will be finished in April 2017. The final results will give new insights into herd specific CNS species patterns and the microbial ecology and epidemiology of common CNS...

  17. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lina; de Waard, Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A.; van Hooijdonk, Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    To objective of this study was to better understand the biological functions of breast milk proteins in relation to the growth and development of infants over the first six months of life. Breast milk samples from four individual women collected at seven time points in the first six months after

  18. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lina; Waard, de Marita; Verheijen, Hester; Boeren, Sjef; Hageman, Jos A.; Hooijdonk, van Toon; Vervoort, Jacques; Goudoever, van Johannes B.; Hettinga, Kasper

    2016-01-01

    To objective of this study was to better understand the biological functions of breast milk proteins in relation to the growth and development of infants over the first six months of life. Breast milk samples from four individual women collected at seven time points in the first six months after

  19. Determination of Na, Cl, Ca, Mg, Mn and K in milk samples by activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kira, Carmen S.; Maihara, Vera A.

    2000-01-01

    In the present work cow milk samples distributed for Sao Paulo government institutions, by means of the 'Viva leite' programme, have been monitored. The concentrations of Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn and Na were determined in five milk samples and in three different kinds of commercial powder milk, by instrumental neutron activation. For quality control, the reference materials NIST whole milk powder and non fat milk powder were analysed. The results obtained are in the range of the concentrations mentioned in the literature for these elements. (author)

  20. Phosphatase Activity of Microbial Populations in Different Milk Samples in Relation to Protein and Carbohydrate Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosanka Protim SANDILYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cattle milk is a rich source of protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, minerals and all other major and micro nutrients. At a moderate pH, milk is an excellent media for the growth of microbes and thus, intake of raw milk is precarious. In this study, attempt was made for a qualitative study of eight raw milk samples of different varieties of cow and goat milk, collected from Jorhat district of Assam, India, on the basis of nutritional value and microbial population. The highest microbial population was found in the milk collected from cross hybrid variety of cow, whereas microbial contamination was the least in Jersey cow milk. Samples of C1 (Jersey cow variety showed presence of the highest amount of protein and carbohydrate content as compared to the others. Almost all the milk samples showed positive acid and alkaline phosphatase activity. Maximum acid phosphatase activity was observed in cross hybrid cow milk, whereas local cow milk exhibited the highest alkaline phosphatase activity. Phosphatase activity did not show any co-relationship with microbial population of the milk samples. Similarly, the protein and carbohydrate content of the samples did not have any significant impact on both acid and alkaline phosphatase activity.

  1. Measurement of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw and Pasteurized Cow Milk Samples by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    afshin Nazari

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Nazari A1, Noroozi H2, Movahedi M3, Khaksarian M1 1. Instructor, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Mycology, Faculty of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Genetic Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Abstract Background: Aflatoxin M1 is a hydroxylated form of aflatoxin B1 which is produced by Aspergillus flavus. This toxin is produced when cows or other ruminants eat foods contaminated with these mycotoxins and then excrete them in the milk. The toxin is a potent liver and kidney carcinogenetic agent. Materials and methods: Forty two raw cows milk samples from local sources of milk collection and forty samples of commercial pasteurized market milk from Khorramabad, Lorestan, Iran were collected in summer and winter season of 2005. Twenty-one cow milk samples and 20 pasteurized milk samples in each season were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 by HPLC immunoaffinity columns. Results: Four of 21 raw milk samples in summer showed AFM1 levels between 0.017-0.046 ng/ml and all samples (100% in winter showed the presence of AFM1 levels between 0.003-0.041ng/ ml. AFM1 was detected in 55% of market pasteurized cow milk samples ranging from 0.017 to 0.533 ng/ml in summer and 100% ranging from 0.005-0.0054 ng/ml in winter.,Only one of all milk samples of pasteurized milk in summer had toxin level (0.533 ng/ml more than the maximum permissive limit (0.5 ng/ml. No significant difference was observed among mean contamination level of raw and pasteurized cow milk in two seasons. Key words: Aflatoxin M1, raw milk, pasteurized milk, Khoramabad, HPLC

  2. Short communication: Influence of the sampling device on somatic cell count variation in cow milk samples (by official recording)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouz, R.; Vilar, M.J.; Yus, E.; Sanjuán, M.L.; Diéguez, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the variability in cow´s milk somatic cell counts (SCC) depending on the type of milk meter used by dairy farms for official milk recording. The study was performed in 2011 and 2012 in the major cattle area of Spain. In total, 137,846 lactations of Holstein-Friesian cows were analysed at 1,912 farms. A generalised least squares regression model was used for data analysis. The model showed that the milk meter had a substantial effect on the SCC for individual milk samples obtained for official milk recording. The results suggested an overestimation of the SCC in milk samples from farms that had electronic devices in comparison with farms that used portable devices and underestimation when volumetric meters are used. A weak positive correlation was observed between the SCC and the percentage of fat in individual milk samples. The results underline the importance of considering this variable when using SCC data from milk recording in the dairy herd improvement program or in quality milk programs. (Author)

  3. Short communication: Influence of the sampling device on somatic cell count variation in cow milk samples (by official recording)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouz, R.; Vilar, M.J.; Yus, E.; Sanjuán, M.L.; Diéguez, F.J.

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the variability in cow´s milk somatic cell counts (SCC) depending on the type of milk meter used by dairy farms for official milk recording. The study was performed in 2011 and 2012 in the major cattle area of Spain. In total, 137,846 lactations of Holstein-Friesian cows were analysed at 1,912 farms. A generalised least squares regression model was used for data analysis. The model showed that the milk meter had a substantial effect on the SCC for individual milk samples obtained for official milk recording. The results suggested an overestimation of the SCC in milk samples from farms that had electronic devices in comparison with farms that used portable devices and underestimation when volumetric meters are used. A weak positive correlation was observed between the SCC and the percentage of fat in individual milk samples. The results underline the importance of considering this variable when using SCC data from milk recording in the dairy herd improvement program or in quality milk programs. (Author)

  4. Variability and reliability of POP concentrations in multiple breast milk samples collected from the same mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Risa; Ichiba, Masayoshi; Matsumoto, Akiko; Nakai, Kunihiko; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Iwai-Shimada, Miyuki; Ishiyama, Momoko; Ryuda, Noriko; Someya, Takashi; Tokumoto, Ieyasu; Ueno, Daisuke

    2018-01-13

    Risk assessment of infant using a realistic persistent organic pollutant (POP) exposure through breast milk is essential to devise future regulation of POPs. However, recent investigations have demonstrated that POP levels in breast milk collected from the same mother showed a wide range of variation daily and monthly. To estimate the appropriate sample size of breast milk from the same mother to obtain reliable POP concentrations, breast milk samples were collected from five mothers living in Japan from 2006 to 2012. Milk samples from each mother were collected 3 to 6 times a day through 3 to 7 days consecutively. Food samples as the duplicated method were collected from two mothers during the period of breast milk sample collection. Those were employed for POP (PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, and HCB) analysis. PCB concentrations detected in breast milk samples showed a wide range of variation which was maximum 63 and 60% of relative standard deviation (RSD) in lipid and wet weight basis, respectively. The time course trend of those variations among the mothers did not show any typical pattern. A larger amount of PCB intake through food seemed to affect 10 h after those concentrations in breast milk in lipid weight basis. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analyses indicated that the appropriate sample size for good reproducibility of POP concentrations in breast milk required at least two samples for lipid and wet weight basis.

  5. LAMP assay for rapid diagnosis of cow DNA in goat milk and meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, R; Sengar, G S; Singh, U; Kumar, S; Raja, T V; Alex, R; Alyethodi, R R; Prakash, B

    2017-01-01

    Animal species detection is one of the crucial steps for consumer's food analysis. In the present study we developed an in-house built loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of adulterated cow DNA in goat milk/meat samples. The cow milk/tissue DNA in goat milk/meat samples were identified in the developed LAMP assay by either naked eye visualizing with SYBR Green I dyes or by detecting the typical ladder pattern on gel electrophoresis. This test can detect up to minimum 5% level of cow components admixed in goat milk/meat samples and can be completed within 1 h 40 min starting from DNA extraction from milk/meat samples and can be performed in a water bath. Developed LAMP methodology is simple; rapid and sensitive techniques that can detect adulterant like cow components in goat milk/meat are more accurate than other existing DNA based technologies.

  6. Non-digestible carbohydrates in infant formula as substitution for human milk oligosaccharide functions: Effects on microbiota and gut maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Renate; Faas, Marijke M; de Vos, Paul

    2018-01-15

    Human milk (HM) is the golden standard for nutrition of newborn infants. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are abundantly present in HM and exert multiple beneficial functions, such as support of colonization of the gut microbiota, reduction of pathogenic infections and support of immune development. HMO-composition is during lactation continuously adapted by the mother to accommodate the needs of the neonate. Unfortunately, for many valid reasons not all neonates can be fed with HM and are either totally or partly fed with cow-milk derived infant formulas, which do not contain HMOs. These cow-milk formulas are supplemented with non-digestible carbohydrates (NDCs) that have functional effects similar to that of some HMOs, since production of synthetic HMOs is challenging and still very expensive. However, NDCs cannot substitute all HMO functions. More efficacious NDCs may be developed and customized for specific groups of neonates such as pre-matures and allergy prone infants. Here current knowledge of HMO functions in the neonate in view of possible replacement of HMOs by NDCs in infant formulas is reviewed. Furthermore, methods to expedite identification of suitable NDCs and structure/function relationships are reviewed as in vivo studies in babies are impossible.

  7. Molecular detection of Coxiella burnetii in goat bulk milk samples in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of C. burnetii in bulk milk samples from dairy goat herds in Fars, Ghom, Kerman, Khuzestan and Yazd provinces, Iran. In this study, 296 bulk milk samples from 89 dairy goat ...

  8. Effects of maturity and harvest season of grass-clover silage and of forage-to-concentrate ratio on milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstrup, L; Søegaard, K; Weisbjerg, M R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maturity and season of harvest of grass-clover silages and forage:concentrate ratio (FCR) on feed intake, milk production, chewing activity, digestibility, and fecal consistency of Holstein dairy cows. Comparison included 2 cuts in spring season (early and late) and 2 cuts in summer season (early and late) combined with high FCR (80:20; HFCR) and low FCR (50:50; LFCR). The experiment included 24 lactating Holstein cows arranged as 2 repeated 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 21-d periods and included measurements of feed composition, feed intake, milk production and composition, chewing activities, digestibilities, and fecal dry matter (DM) concentration and scoring. Forages were fed as two-thirds grass-clover and one-third corn silage supplemented with either 20 or 50% concentrate. Rations were fed ad libitum as total mixed rations. Early maturity cuts were more digestible than late maturity cuts, which was also reflected in a lower concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in early maturity cuts, whereas summer cuts had a higher crude protein concentration than spring cuts. Increased maturity decreased the intake of DM and energy, increased NDF intake, and decreased the yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM). Summer cuts increased the ECM yield compared with spring cuts. Milk yield (kg and kilogram of ECM) was numerically higher for cows fed early summer cut, independent of FCR in the ration. Milk protein concentration decreased, or tended to decrease, with maturity. For LFCR, the milk fat concentration increased with maturity resulting in a decreased protein:fat ratio. At HFCR, increased maturity increased the time spent chewing per kilogram of DM. Digestibility of silages was positively correlated with the fecal DM concentration. The DM intake and ECM yield showed no significant response to FCR in the ration, but the milk composition was affected. The LFCR decreased the milk fat percentage and increased the milk protein

  9. Effect of human milk and colostrum on Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akisu, Ciler; Aksoy, Umit; Cetin, Hasan; Ustun, Sebnem; Akisu, Mete

    2004-03-01

    Many defense factors of the mother's colostrum or milk protect infants from intestinal, respiratory and systemic infections. In the present study, we investigated the effect of colostrum and mature human milk on E. histolytica parasites in vitro. Samples of human milk were collected from 5 healthy lactating mothers. The medium with human milk at concentrations of 2%, 5% and 10% was obtained. The lethal effect of E. histolytica on the medium supplemented with different concentrations of both colostrum and mature human milk was significant during the first 30 min. We also detected that the results of colostrum and mature human milk were similar. No statistically significant differences were found between same concentrations of colostrum and mature human milk at the same times. Colostrum and mature human milk have significant lethal effect on E. histolytica and protect against its infection in breast fed children.

  10. Mothers' views of milk banking: sample of İzmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekşioğlu, Aysun; Yeşil, Yeşim; Turfan, Esin Çeber

    2015-06-01

    The studies on human milk banking in Turkey, has being carried out at a hospital in Izmir province. There are different point of views about milk banking. The aim of the study is to determine the knowledge and the views of the mothers towards milk banking. This study is a cross-sectional survey. The study was carried out with 404 mothers who gave birth in a two maternity hospitals and one university hospital in İzmir using the face-to-face interview technique between March 2014 and June 2014. The study data were collected using a 30-item socio-demographic questionnaire. The mothers' mean age was 28.4 years (16-46 years). Of the mothers, 45.5% were primary school graduates, 80.2% were members of a nuclear family, 75.7% had less than three children, 63.4% gave birth by caesarean section and only 79.5 percent were able to breastfeed before being discharged. Of the mothers, 41.6% were aware of milk banking, 71.3% were willing to receive milk bank services and 68.8% were willing to donate breastmilk. 62.2% of those who did not want to make donation stated risk of contagion as a reason, 8.2% of the participants had worked as wet-nurse before. Most mothers revealed positive approaches and opinions about establishment of milk banking and milk donation. However, there were some concerns due to the risk of infectious diseases and religious beliefs. Efforts should be made to raise awareness and mothers should be informed about the importance of breast milk and breastfeeding so that milk banks can be regarded as an additional choice.

  11. Diagnostic importance of the concentration of milk amyloid A in quarter milk samples from dairy cows with mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Vasiľ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute phase proteins have been used as biomarkers of inflammation. Their concentrations increase in milk from cows with latent and subclinical mastitis. The aim of our study was to evaluate milk amyloid A (MAA as indicator of udder inflammation. We used 24 dairy cows from a herd with 120 Slovak Pied cattle. In addition to bacteriological examination, the following indicators were determined in all quarter milk samples. On the basis of results of clinical examination, Californian mastitis test (CMT, and number of Somatic cell count (SCC, four groups of quarter milk samples were formed. The levels of MAA in both subgroups of Group 1 (healthy cows, divided by the number of SCC - IA (n = 10, IB (n = 15, determined at repeated samplings, differed significantly from the initial levels (P 2 = 0.272, was detected between SCC, and MAA in Group 2 (n = 27 at individual collections (P P 2 = 0.525 was detected between SCC and MAA in this group. The obtained results allowed us to conclude that MAA in milk can act as a marker of inflammation of the udder only in the initial, asymptomatic stages of dairy cow mastitis. The experiment was one of first studies with MAA in Slovak Pied cattle.

  12. Isolation and molecular identification of Mycobacterium from commercially available pasteurized milk and raw milk samples collected from two infected cattle farms in Alborz Province, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Mohsen; Mosavari, Nader

    2016-12-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is an etiological agent of Johne's disease in ruminant including cattle, sheep and goats. This disease is considered an economically important disease in cattle. Animals with paratuberculosis shed viable MAP, particularly in their milk and feces. MAP may be involved in the development of Crohn's disease in humans through the consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Common methods of pasteurization are not enough to kill all MAP present in the milk and the bacterium has been isolated from raw milk, pasteurized milk and cheese samples. The purpose of this study was to evaluate two different methods for detecting MAP in milk and milk products. We analyzed the commonly used methods such as culture and molecular biology for identification of MAP. For this study, 50 milk samples from cows with suspected Johne's disease located in two dairy farms and 10 commercially available pasteurized milk and cheese samples from the market in Karaj city, Iran were selected. Following Ziehl-Neelsen staining of milk samples, direct microscopic detection of MAP was performed. All milk samples were centrifuged, and the concentrated samples were decontaminated using hexadecyl pyridinium chloride. The decontaminated milk suspensions were washed three times by centrifuging, and the collected filtrates were cultivated on Herrold's egg yolk medium enriched by Mycobactin J. Finally, identification and confirmation of isolates to MAP was performed using IS900-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). According to the obtained results by culture and PCR methods, none of the pasteurized milk and cheese samples showed the presence of MAP. However, 10% of the tested raw milk samples collected from suspected cattle showed the presence of MAP by both culture and PCR methods. Culture and PCR methods are reliable for identification of MAP from milk samples. Copyright © 2016.

  13. Changes over lactation in breast milk serum proteins involved in the maturation of immune and digestive system of the infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we provide data from shot-gun proteomics, using filtered-aided sample preparation (FASP, dimethyl labeling and LC–MS/MS, to quantify the changes in the repertoire of human milk proteins over lactation. Milk serum proteins were analyzed at week 1, 2, 3 4, 8, 16, and 24 in milk from four individual mothers. A total of 247 proteins were identified, of which 200 proteins were quantified. The data supplied in this article supports the accompanying publication (Zhang et al., 2006 [1]. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium (Vizcaíno et al., 2016 [2] via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/projects/PXD003465.

  14. Milk-derived GM3 and GD3 differentially inhibit dendritic cell maturation and effector functionalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum, H.; Seested, T.; Hellgren, Lars

    2005-01-01

    value of gangliosides in breast milk has yet to be elucidated but when milk is ingested, dietary gangliosides might conceptually affect immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we address the in vitro effect of GD(3) and GM(3) on DC effector functionalities. Treatment of bone marrow......Gangliosides are complex glycosphingolipids, which exert immune-modulating effects on various cell types. Ganglioside GD(3) and GM(3) are the predominant gangliosides of human breast milk but during the early phase of lactation, the content of GD(3) decreases while GM(3) increases. The biological...... by GM(3,) and the potency of DCs to activate CD4(+) cells in MLR was unaffected by GM(3). However, both gangliosides suppressed expression of CD40, CD80, CD86 and major histocompatibility complex class II on DCs. Because GD(3) overall inhibits DC functionalities more than GM(3), the immune modulating...

  15. Milk-derived GM(3) and GD(3) differentially inhibit dendritic cell maturation and effector functionalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bronnum, H.; Seested, T.; Hellgren, Lars

    2005-01-01

    value of gangliosides in breast milk has yet to be elucidated but when milk is ingested, dietary gangliosides might conceptually affect immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we address the in vitro effect of GD(3) and GM(3) on DC effector functionalities. Treatment of bone marrow......Gangliosides are complex glycosphingolipids, which exert immune-modulating effects on various cell types. Ganglioside GD(3) and GM(3) are the predominant gangliosides of human breast milk but during the early phase of lactation, the content of GD(3) decreases while GM(3) increases. The biological...... by GM(3,) and the potency of DCs to activate CD4(+) cells in MLR was unaffected by GM(3). However, both gangliosides suppressed expression of CD40, CD80, CD86 and major histocompatibility complex class II on DCs. Because GD(3) overall inhibits DC functionalities more than GM(3), the immune modulating...

  16. Cellular Components, Including Stem-Like Cells, of Preterm Mother's Mature Milk as Compared with Those in Her Colostrum: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaingade, Pankaj; Somasundaram, Indumathi; Sharma, Akshita; Patel, Darshan; Marappagounder, Dhanasekaran

    2017-09-01

    Whether the preterm mothers' mature milk retains the same cellular components as those in colostrum including stem-like cell, cell adhesion molecules, and immune cells. A total of five preterm mothers were recruited for the study having an average age of 30.2 years and gestational age of 29.8 weeks from the Pristine Women's Hospital, Kolhapur. Colostrum milk was collected within 2-5 days and matured milk was collected 20-30 days after delivery from the same mothers. Integral cellular components of 22 markers including stem cells, immune cells, and cell adhesion molecules were measured using flowcytometry. Preterm mature milk was found to possess higher expressions of hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem-like cells, immune cells, few cell adhesion molecules, and side population cells than colostrum. The increased level of these different cell components in mature milk may be important in the long-term preterm baby's health growth. Further similar research in a larger population of various gestational ages and lactation stages of preterm mothers is warranted to support these pilot findings.

  17. Small-vessel Survey and Auction Sampling to Estimate Growth and Maturity of Eteline Snappers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Small-vessel Survey and Auction Sampling to Estimate Growth and Maturity of Eteline Snappers and Improve Data-Limited Stock Assessments. This biosampling project...

  18. Effects of maturity and harvest season of grass-clover silage and of forage-to-concentrate ratio on milk production of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, L; Søegaard, K; Weisbjerg, M R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maturity and season of harvest of grass-clover silages and forage:concentrate ratio (FCR) on feed intake, milk production, chewing activity, digestibility, and fecal consistency of Holstein dairy cows. Comparison included 2 cuts in spring season (early and late......) and 2 cuts in summer season (early and late) combined with high FCR (80:20; HFCR) and low FCR (50:50; LFCR). The experiment included 24 lactating Holstein cows arranged as 2 repeated 4 × 4 Latin squares with four 21-d periods and included measurements of feed composition, feed intake, milk production...... digestible than late maturity cuts, which was also reflected in a lower concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in early maturity cuts, whereas summer cuts had a higher crude protein concentration than spring cuts. Increased maturity decreased the intake of DM and energy, increased NDF intake...

  19. Physico-chemical and organoleptic comparison of buffalo, cow and goat milk and their yogurt samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, N.; Elahi, S. [Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Biotechnology

    2014-09-15

    The physico-chemical and organoleptic properties of buffalo, cow and goat milk and their respective yogurt samples were analyzed. Milk samples, 200ml each, were inoculated with sucrose, skimmed milk powder, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) along with varying concentrations of starter culture and incubated at 45 degree C for 5 hours for yogurt preparation. The physico-chemical parameters studied were pH, tritable acidity, ash, moisture, fat, solid-non fat, total solids, crude protein, specific gravity and total energy, whereas the organoleptic analysis included texture, taste, colour and odor. Results revealed that commercial starter culture, sucrose, CMC and skimmed milk powder, in the concentrations of 0.05%, 0.5%, 0.075% and 0.5% respectively, was the best composition for fermentation. The milk and yogurt of buffalo was found to be physico-chemically and organoleptically superior. However, results showed that goat milk and yogurt could be a valuable substitute, especially in comparison to cow milk and yogurt. goat, milk, yogurt, physico-chemical analysis, organoleptic analysis, carboxymethyl cellulose. (author)

  20. Physico-chemical and organoleptic comparison of buffalo, cow and goat milk and their yogurt samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.; Elahi, S.

    2014-01-01

    The physico-chemical and organoleptic properties of buffalo, cow and goat milk and their respective yogurt samples were analyzed. Milk samples, 200ml each, were inoculated with sucrose, skimmed milk powder, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) along with varying concentrations of starter culture and incubated at 45 degree C for 5 hours for yogurt preparation. The physico-chemical parameters studied were pH, tritable acidity, ash, moisture, fat, solid-non fat, total solids, crude protein, specific gravity and total energy, whereas the organoleptic analysis included texture, taste, colour and odor. Results revealed that commercial starter culture, sucrose, CMC and skimmed milk powder, in the concentrations of 0.05%, 0.5%, 0.075% and 0.5% respectively, was the best composition for fermentation. The milk and yogurt of buffalo was found to be physico-chemically and organoleptically superior. However, results showed that goat milk and yogurt could be a valuable substitute, especially in comparison to cow milk and yogurt. goat, milk, yogurt, physico-chemical analysis, organoleptic analysis, carboxymethyl cellulose. (author)

  1. Presence of Fusarium mycotoxins in feedstuffs and cow milk sampled from Croatian farms during 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelka Pleadin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins may contaminate food of animal origin due to the carry-over effect and represent a potential risk to human health. The problem of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination becomes an issue especially during rainy years characterised by substantial temperature changes. The aim of this study was to investigate into the level of Fusarium mycotoxins zearalenone (ZEN, deoxynivalenol (DON and fumonisins (FUM in maize silage (n=21, concentrated dairy cattle feeds (n=56 and cow milk samples (n=105, taken during 2015 from households located in four Croatian regions. The presence of mycotoxins was determined using validated ELISA methods. A high level of feedstuffs’ contamination was evidenced, especially with ZEN, with values higher than recommended observed in 9.5 % of maize silage samples. Fourteen point three percent (14.3 % of milk samples were DON positive, with the toxin concentrations ranging from 5.4 to 67.3 μg/L. ZEN was determined in 94.3 % of milk samples, ranging from 0.3 to 88.6 μg/L. FUM were not detected in any of the analysed milk samples. Given the tolerable daily intakes (TDIs defined for these mycotoxins, human health risks arising from the consumption of cow milk can generally be considered low, even in times characterised by weather conditions that facilitate the production of Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals subsequently used as dairy cattle feed. The exception represents particular milk samples in which high ZEN concentrations were found.

  2. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korrapati Kotinagu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to find the organochlorine pesticide (OCP and organophosphorus pesticide (OPP residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India. Materials and Methods: Fodder and milk samples collected from the six zones of Musi river belt, Hyderabad India were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector for OCP residues and pulsated flame photometric detector for the presence of OPP residues. Results: The gas chromatographic analysis of fodder samples of Zone 5 of Musi river showed the residues of dicofol at concentration of 0.07±0.0007 (0.071-0.077. Among organophosphorus compounds, dimetheoate was present in milk samples collected from Zone 6 at a level of 0.13±0.006 (0.111-0.167. The residues of OCPs, OPPs and cyclodies were below the detection limit in the remaining fodder and milk samples collected from Musi river belt in the present study. Conclusion: The results indicate that the pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples were well below the maximum residue level (MRL values, whereas dicofol in fodder and dimethoate in milk were slightly above the MRL values specified by EU and CODEX.

  3. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotinagu, Korrapati; Krishnaiah, Nelapati

    2015-04-01

    The present study was conducted to find the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India. Fodder and milk samples collected from the six zones of Musi river belt, Hyderabad India were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector for OCP residues and pulsated flame photometric detector for the presence of OPP residues. The gas chromatographic analysis of fodder samples of Zone 5 of Musi river showed the residues of dicofol at concentration of 0.07±0.0007 (0.071-0.077). Among organophosphorus compounds, dimetheoate was present in milk samples collected from Zone 6 at a level of 0.13±0.006 (0.111-0.167). The residues of OCPs, OPPs and cyclodies were below the detection limit in the remaining fodder and milk samples collected from Musi river belt in the present study. The results indicate that the pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples were well below the maximum residue level (MRL) values, whereas dicofol in fodder and dimethoate in milk were slightly above the MRL values specified by EU and CODEX.

  4. Comparative study for essential elements determination in milk products samples by INAA and ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kira, Carmen S.; Maihara, Vera A.

    2002-01-01

    The mineral elements Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Zn were analyzed in milk products by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The study included four types of cheese (mozzarella, minas, prato, parmesan), chocolate milk and yogurt. The samples were purchased from the local markets. Average concentrations ranged from 3668 (chocolate milk) to 16558 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Ca; from 2.61 (parmesan cheese) to 28.9 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for Fe; from 673 (mozzarella cheese) to 10492 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for K; from 398 (yogurt) to 2280 (minas cheese) mg/kg for Mg; from 1681 (yogurt) to 15248 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Na; from 12.1 (chocolate milk) to 71.8 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Zn. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference materials (SRM 8435 Whole Milk Powder and SRM 1549 Non Fat Milk Powder) were analyzed to verify method accuracy. The statistic test used to determine the significance of the difference between the techniques was based on Unpaired t-Student test. Statistical test revealed no significance differences (P< 0,05) between the average values provided by the two methods for the most of determined elements. (author)

  5. Studies on radioimmunoassay diagnosis of cow pregnancy at an early period by milk sample communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Meiwen

    1986-01-01

    Cow pregancy was diagnosed at an early period by milk sample communication and radioimmunoassay (RIA). Liquid milk samples were converted into solid forms on filter paper and mailed to the laboratory from appointed locations, and concentrations of progesterone in milk samples were then determined by RIA method. Milks were sampled 19 and 23 days after mating. Criterion used for the judgement of cow pregnancy was as follows: When the progesterone content in milk was 5 ng/ml or less, the cow was not pregnant; when progesterone content was between 5-11 ng/ml, it was doubtful; when progesterone content was 11 ng/ml or more, it was pregnant. According to this criterion, among 215 cows, 131 were pregnant, 73 were not pregnant, and 11 were doubtful. The results were further checked by palpation 3 months after inseminations. The unpregnancy and pregnancy accuracies were 97.6% and 89.2%, respectively. Forther milk samples were collected on 44 days for above cows that had been diagnosed on 19 and 23 days showing pregnancy to diagnose embryo forming. Among 91 cows, 74 had embryo. 7 had none, and the other 10 were doubtful. The embryo and unembryo accuracies were 94.6% and 100% respectively checking by palpation 3 months after inseminations

  6. Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples at Varanasi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Dharmendra K; Singh, Rakesh K; Singh, Durg V; Dubey, Suresh K

    2013-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Ganges water, human clinical and milk samples were characterized by antibiotic susceptibility, serotype identification, detection of virulence genes and ERIC- and REP-PCR fingerprint analyses. All isolates were uniformly resistant to ampicillin, except two isolates, and showed variable resistance to gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, ofloxacin, rifampicin and tetracycline. Of the 20 isolates found positive for pathogens, seven (four human and three water isolates) belong to serogroups 4b, 4d and 4e; six (one human and five water isolates) belong to serogroups 1/2c and 3c; four milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2b and 3b; and three milk isolates belong to serogroups 1/2a and 3a. Two water isolates, all human isolates, except one (Pb1) lacking inlJ gene, and three milk isolates possess inlA, inlC, plcA, prfA, actA, hlyA and iap genes. The remaining water and milk isolates showed variable presence of inlJ, plcA, prfA, and iap genes. ERIC- and REP-PCR based analyses collectively indicated that isolates of human clinical samples belong to identical or similar clone and isolates of water and milk samples belong to different clones. Overall study demonstrates the prevalence of pathogenic L. monocytogenes species in the environmental and clinical samples. Most of the isolates were resistant to commonly used antibiotics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of sampling frequency on the accuracy of estimates of milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this study support the five-weekly sampling procedure currently used by the South African National Dairy Cattle Performance Testing Scheme. However, replacement of proportional bulking of individual morning and evening samples with a single evening milk sample would not compromise accuracy provided ...

  8. Experiences with an identification and quantification program for inhibitor-positive milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Claudia; Seidler, Caroline; Kerp, Bianca; Schneider, Elisabeth; Usleber, Ewald

    2007-03-14

    Beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillins, cephalosporins) are still the most commonly used antibiotics for dairy cows in Germany. In routine milk testing, according to the German milk quality regulation, a positive result obtained for bulk tank milk by microbiological inhibitor tests needs no further confirmation, but results in reduced milk payment of 0.05 euros kg(-1) for one month. In some cases, however, further identification of the causative agent can be of interest, either if antimicrobial drugs have not knowingly been used recently, or if improper use of such drugs is denied. As a service for milk producers, our laboratory offers further analyses of violative milk samples, aiming at the identification and quantification of the inhibitor(s). In this program, a panel of microbiological inhibitor tests, receptor tests, and enzyme immunoassays (EIA) is used in a step-by-step analysis, which primarily focusses on beta-lactams, but also includes other compounds such as sulfonamides or tetracyclines, respectively. Here we report results for violative milk samples (n=63) analysed between 2003 and 2005. In most cases (95%), beta-lactam antibiotics could be identified, although not always at levels exceeding the respective MRL values. Penicillin G (mostly together with benzylpenicilloyl metabolites) could be identified in 74.6% of all samples. Other compounds identified were, in decreasing order, ceftiofur (11%), ampicillin/amoxicillin (6.3%), isoxazolyl penicillins (3.2%), and sulfonamides (1.6%). The results indicate that penicillin G is still the predominant antibiotic responsible for violative bulk tank milk samples as detected during regulatory control.

  9. β-Galactosidase activity of commercial lactase samples in raw and pasteurized milk at refrigerated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, T W; Dunn, M L; Eggett, D L; Ogden, L V

    2011-07-01

    Many consumers are unable to enjoy the benefits of milk due to lactose intolerance. Lactose-free milk is available but at about 2 times the cost of regular milk or greater, it may be difficult for consumers to afford. The high cost of lactose-free milk is due in part to the added cost of the lactose hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis at refrigerated temperatures, possibly in the bulk tank or package, could increase the flexibility of the process and potentially reduce the cost. A rapid β-galactosidase assay was used to determine the relative activity of commercially available lactase samples at different temperatures. Four enzymes exhibited low-temperature activity and were added to refrigerated raw and pasteurized milk at various concentrations and allowed to react for various lengths of time. The degree of lactose hydrolysis by each of the enzymes as a function of time and enzyme concentration was determined by HPLC. The 2 most active enzymes, as determined by the β-galactosidase assay, hydrolyzed over 98% of the lactose in 24h at 2°C using the supplier's recommended dosage. The other 2 enzymes hydrolyzed over 95% of the lactose in 24h at twice the supplier's recommended dosage at 2°C. Results were consistent in all milk types tested. The results show that it is feasible to hydrolyze lactose during refrigerated storage of milk using currently available enzymes. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative proteomic exploration of whey proteins in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk using iTRAQ-coupled LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mei; Cao, Xueyan; Wu, Rina; Liu, Biao; Ye, Wenhui; Yue, Xiqing; Wu, Junrui

    2017-09-01

    Whey, an essential source of dietary nutrients, is widely used in dairy foods for infants. A total of 584 whey proteins in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk were identified and quantified by the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) proteomic method. The 424 differentially expressed whey proteins were identified and analyzed according to gene ontology (GO) annotation, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway, and multivariate statistical analysis. Biological processes principally involved biological regulation and response to stimulus. Major cellular components were extracellular region part and extracellular space. The most prevalent molecular function was protein binding. Twenty immune-related proteins and 13 proteins related to enzyme regulatory activity were differentially expressed in human and bovine milk. Differentially expressed whey proteins participated in many KEGG pathways, including major complement and coagulation cascades and in phagosomes. Whey proteins show obvious differences in expression in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk, with consequences for biological function. The results here increase our understanding of different whey proteomes, which could provide useful information for the development and manufacture of dairy products and nutrient food for infants. The advanced iTRAQ proteomic approach was used to analyze differentially expressed whey proteins in human and bovine colostrum and mature milk.

  11. Filter-aided sample preparation with dimethyl labeling to identify and quantify milk fat globule membrane proteins.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Boeren, J.A.; Vries, de S.C.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Hettinga, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Bovine milk is a major nutrient source in many countries and it is produced at an industrial scale. Milk is a complex mixture of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. The composition of the bovine milk samples can vary depending on the genetic makeup of the bovine species as well as

  12. The inhibitory effect of sodium thiocyanate and sodium percarbonate ratios on microorganism growth in raw milk samples as an effective treatment to extend milk quality during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreena Srisaikham

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of raw milk quality by activation of lactoperoxidase system (LPs was studied for the inhibition of microorganism growth. The antimicrobial effects of LPs were examined by measuring thiocyanate (SCN- concentration, lactoperoxidase (LP activity, milk composition, total bacterial count (TBC and coliform count (CC. All parameters were analyzed at 0 h and at 25°C and 30°C as a control. Thus, the experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of 2 different temperatures (25°C vs 30°C and 4 ratios of NaSCN:2Na2CO3 3H2O2 (0:0, 7:15, 14:30 and 21:45 mg/L on milk samples (both uninoculated raw milk samples and Escherichia coli (E. coli inoculated milk samples with 8 replicates per run using 0-12 h incubation time in vitro assay. The runs were conducted on the same 4 NaSCN:2Na2CO3 3H2O2 ratios and different temperature and time of incubation were used. The results showed that the milk SCN- concentration and LP activity increased with increasing NaSCN:2Na2CO3 3H2O2 ratios. Milk compositions retained the quality of normal milk fat, protein, lactose, solid-not-fat (SNF and total solid (TS contents, and they were not significantly affected by the LPs activation. An obvious effect of the LP activated milk was the inhibition of TBC in uninoculated raw milk samples for 6 to 12 h both at 25°C and 30°C, and for 6 to 9 h in E. coil inoculated milk samples, whereas CC (6 h at 25°C and at least 3 h at 30°C for both uninoculated and E. coil inoculated milk samples. It is concluded that improved preservation of milk can be achieved through the addition of 14:30 and 21:45 mg/L of NaSCN:2Na2CO3 3H2O2 in uninoculated and E. coil inoculated milk samples respectively, to extend milk quality during storage.

  13. Milk samples collected with filter paper for progesterone radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiahua, Zhang; Guoxia, Geng; Huaiyu, Zhang

    1985-09-01

    The cow milk was collected with filter paper treated with ethanol during eastrus-day (0 day) and 22th and 24th day after mating. Then it was dried and stored in room temprature until analysis for progesterone by means of radioimmunoassay. The sensitivity is 13.62 pg/bule (n = 4), the coefficients of variation within a group and between groups are 8.8% (n = 10) and 16.65% (n = 8) respectively, and the recovery is 91.23% (n = 4). The average progesterone level for 22th and 24th day in the pregnant cows (6.28 +- 1.28 ng/ml) was much higher than that in the non-pregnant cow (2.00 +- 1.18 ng/ml), the difference being significant (P < 0.001). The judgement based on progesterone level (5 pregnant and 5 non-pregnant cows) faily agreed with the clinical diagnosis.

  14. "Omics" in Human Colostrum and Mature Milk: Looking to Old Data with New Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardanzellu, Flaminia; Fanos, Vassilios; Reali, Alessandra

    2017-08-07

    Human Milk (HM) is the best source for newborn nutrition until at least six months; it exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-infective functions, promotes immune system formation and supports organ development. Breastfeeding could also protect from obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, human colostrum (HC) presents a peculiar role in newborn support as a protective effect against allergic and chronic diseases, in addition to long-term metabolic benefits. In this review, we discuss the recent literature regarding "omics" technologies and growth factors (GF) in HC and the effects of pasteurization on its composition. Our aim was to provide new evidence in terms of transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and microbiomics, also in relation to maternal metabolic diseases and/or fetal anomalies and to underline the functions of GF. Since HC results are so precious, particularly for the vulnerable pre-terms category, we also discuss the importance of HM pasteurization to ensure donated HC even to neonates whose mothers are unable to provide. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review analyzing in detail the molecular pattern, microbiota, bioactive factors, and dynamic profile of HC, finding clinical correlations of such mediators with their possible in vivo effects and with the consequent impact on neonatal outcomes.

  15. Gram-typing of mastitis bacteria in milk samples using flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langerhuus, Sine Nygaard; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Bennedsgaard, Torben Werner

    2013-01-01

    Fast identification of pathogenic bacteria in milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis is central to proper treatment. In Denmark, time to bacterial diagnosis is typically 24 to 48 h when using traditional culturing methods. The PCR technique provides a faster and highly sensitive identifica......Fast identification of pathogenic bacteria in milk samples from cows with clinical mastitis is central to proper treatment. In Denmark, time to bacterial diagnosis is typically 24 to 48 h when using traditional culturing methods. The PCR technique provides a faster and highly sensitive...... cytometry-based method, which can detect and distinguish gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria in mastitis milk samples. The differentiation was based on bacterial fluorescence intensities upon labeling with biotin-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin and acridine orange. Initially 19 in-house bacterial...... characteristic curves for the 19 bacterial cultures. The method was then tested on 53 selected mastitis cases obtained from the department biobank (milk samples from 6 gram-negative and 47 gram-positive mastitis cases). Gram-negative bacteria in milk samples were detected with a sensitivity of 1...

  16. PCR assay with host specific internal control forStaphylococcus aureus from bovine milk samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Cantekin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is considered as one of the most important and common pathogens of bovine mastitis. Polymerase Chain Reaction is frequently proposed in the diagnosis of S. aureus directly from milk samples instead of classical culture. However, false-negative results may occur in the polymerase chain reaction analysis performed directly from clinical material. For the purpose of disclosing the false negative results, the use of internal amplification controls can be beneficial. Therefore, in this study a new polymerase chain reaction technique with host specific internal amplification control was developed by optimizing S. aureus-specific primers in combination with bovine specific primers. The effectiveness of the developed technique in this study was attempted in milk samples from bovine subclinical mastitis. This technique has the potential to detect S. aureus from bovine milk samples or dairy products.

  17. Evaluation of biofilm formation by bacterial strains isolated from milking equipment and milk samples from cows with mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gonçalves da Silva Chagas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of biofilm-forming bacteria from the mammary gland of dairy cows adhered to equipment in the milking environment represents one of the major causes of bacterial resistance during mastitis treatment. The aim of this study was to identify strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Escherichia coli in milk samples from cows with mastitis, as well as in the expansion tank and milking set liners. We aimed to quantify the extracellular proteins and polysaccharides in the biofilm produced by each strain. A total of 294 samples were collected from a dairy farm in the municipality of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais. To identify the S. aureus, S. epidermidis and E. coli isolates responsible for biofilm production, we tested the phenotype using the Congo red agar (CRA and microplate adhesion tests. Protein quantification was performed with a Bicinchoninic Acid Protein Assay Kit (BCA kit, and polysaccharides were quantified by the phenol sulfuric acid method. We identified eight strains of S. aureus, one strain of S. epidermidis and 11 strains of E. coli responsible for biofilm production, all of which showed a higher concentration of polysaccharides than proteins in the matrix. Escherichia coli was considered the most prevalent bacterium among the samples, and S. aureus was determined to be the largest biofilm producer. The results of the CRA and microplate adhesion tests were similar in regard to identification of the biofilm-producing strains according to their phenotype and matrix composition. The classification of S. aureus strains as major biofilm producers is of great concern for producers, as such bacteria are considered one of the predominant contagious etiological agents that cause bovine mastitis. In addition, our observation that E. coli and S. epidermidis can produce biofilms highlights the need to reassess prophylactic measures to avoid the adhesion of biofilm-producing bacteria.

  18. Concentração de vitamina A no leite humano maduro Vitamin A concentration in mature human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Souza

    2012-12-01

    ência devem ser estendidas a todas as gestantes e puérperas, independentemente das condições sociodemográficas e do grau de conhecimento de nutrição, visando melhorar a saúde do binômio mãe/filho.OBJECTIVE: To quantify vitamin A levels in mature milk of 196 nursing women who were treated at the Maternity School of Rio de Janeiro and to evaluate its correlation with sociodemographic variables and degree of nutrition knowledge. METHODS: To quantify retinol concentrations, 10 mL of mature milk were collected by manual expression of one breast, 2 hours after the last feed, in the morning period. Values below 1.05 µmol/L and 2.3 µmol/L were considered inadequate to meet satisfactory intake and to constitute vitamin A liver reserve, respectively. The following variables were also assessed: sex, age, familiar income, maternal education, basic sanitation conditions, number of people in the household, maternal age, prenatal care, and degree of nutrition knowledge. RESULTS: Among the 196 lactating mothers analyzed, the average vitamin A concentration observed in mature milk was 1.76±0.85 µmol/L and prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was observed in 20.5% mothers. There was no significant difference between vitamin A levels in maternal milk and the variables socioeconomic status and nutrition knowledge. Only 38.9% of lactating women presented enough vitamin A concentrations in milk for the infants' liver reserves (2.3 µmol/L. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal high prevalence of inadequate vitamin A nutritional status of mothers and infants, consistent with the national prevalence reported in women of childbearing age and Brazilian children, and that the intervention measures to fight this shortage should be extended to all pregnant and postpartum women, regardless of sociodemographic conditions and degree of nutrition knowledge, in order to improve the health of mother and child.

  19. Early lactation feed intake and milk yield responses of dairy cows offered grass silages harvested at early maturity stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randby, A T; Weisbjerg, M R; Nørgaard, P

    2012-01-01

    was available in automatic feed stations. Intake of grass silage when fed as the sole feed was 16.9 kg of DM on average for lactation wk 1 to 16. When H1 was supplemented with 4 or 8 kg of concentrates, silage DM intake did not change, but total DM intake increased to 20.6 and 23.7 kg/d, respectively. Energy......The main objective was to evaluate the potential of grass silages of very high quality to support a high milk yield with a low or moderate, or even without concentrate supplementation. Production responses to increased levels of concentrate supplementation with 3 primary growth grass silages...... differing in digestibility were studied using 66 Norwegian Red dairy cows. Roundbale silage was produced from a timothy-dominated sward at very early (H1), early (H2), and normal (H3) stages of crop maturity. Crops were rapidly wilted (h) and a formic acid-based additive was applied. All silages were...

  20. Preliminary observations on the metal content in some milk samples from an acid geoenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhonen, P.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The metal content of some milk samples was analyzed from areas of acid sulphate soils along the course of the river Kyrönjoki in western Finland. Comparative analyses were made with samples from the Artjärvi-Porlammi area. The variations of analyzed metals AI, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Na, Sr and Zn are not great in both areas except that of Al, which is clearly associated with the acid environment in the Kyrönjoki valley. The portions of these elements in milk are relatively high as compared with data from literature. It is obvious that they show environmental contamination. Under acid circumstances the metals in milk may create serious geomedical problems.

  1. A Proteomics Sample Preparation Method for Mature, Recalcitrant Leaves of Perennial Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Zhang; Chengying, Lao; Bo, Wang; Dingxiang, Peng; Lijun, Liu

    2014-01-01

    Sample preparation is key to the success of proteomics studies. In the present study, two sample preparation methods were tested for their suitability on the mature, recalcitrant leaves of six representative perennial plants (grape, plum, pear, peach, orange, and ramie). An improved sample preparation method was obtained: Tris and Triton X-100 were added together instead of CHAPS to the lysis buffer, and a 20% TCA-water solution and 100% precooled acetone were added after the protein extraction for the further purification of protein. This method effectively eliminates nonprotein impurities and obtains a clear two-dimensional gel electrophoresis array. The method facilitates the separation of high-molecular-weight proteins and increases the resolution of low-abundance proteins. This method provides a widely applicable and economically feasible technology for the proteomic study of the mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants. PMID:25028960

  2. A proteomics sample preparation method for mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Gang

    Full Text Available Sample preparation is key to the success of proteomics studies. In the present study, two sample preparation methods were tested for their suitability on the mature, recalcitrant leaves of six representative perennial plants (grape, plum, pear, peach, orange, and ramie. An improved sample preparation method was obtained: Tris and Triton X-100 were added together instead of CHAPS to the lysis buffer, and a 20% TCA-water solution and 100% precooled acetone were added after the protein extraction for the further purification of protein. This method effectively eliminates nonprotein impurities and obtains a clear two-dimensional gel electrophoresis array. The method facilitates the separation of high-molecular-weight proteins and increases the resolution of low-abundance proteins. This method provides a widely applicable and economically feasible technology for the proteomic study of the mature, recalcitrant leaves of perennial plants.

  3. Somatic Cells in Bulk Samples and Purchase Prices of Cow Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jindřich Kvapilík

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There were calculated the somatic cell count (SCC 209 (36 – 468 103ml–1, the total count of microorganisms (TCM 25 103ml–1 (from 5 to 377, fat 3.84 % (from 3.23 to 4.46 and protein content 3.39 % (from 3.04 to 3.75 and milk freezing point (MFP –0.525 °C (from –0.534 to –0.395 of the 522 monthly bulk milk samples from 11 experimental stables during the period from 2012 to 2015. Residues of inhibitory substances were not detected in any sample. Milk sale reached 7,999 liters (l with fluctuating between 6,150 and 10,532 l per cow. This can be deduced from the regression coefficients that due to increase in the SCC by 100 103ml–1 the TCM increased by 2.9 to 4.2 103ml–1, the fat content decreased by 0.09 to 0.13 % and protein about 0.01 to 0.05 %. Influence of SCC, TCM and the fat and protein content calculated from monthly samples for individual stables can be estimated at –0.12 CZC, fluctuations between the stables at +0.46 to –0.84 CZC per l of milk. The increase in milk price by 0.17 CZC in the range of –0.92 to +0.92 CZC per l of milk corresponds to averages of indicators calculated from 522 samples.

  4. Detection of Coxiella burnetii by PCR in bulk tank milk samples from dairy caprine herds in southeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalili

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To use PCR for the detection of Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii in bulk tank milk samples collected from dairy caprine herds in southeast Iran. Methods: In the present study, 31 goat bulk milk from 31 dairy goat herds were tested for C. burnetii using trans-PCR assay. The animals which their milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. Results: In total, 5 of 31 (16.12% goat milk samples were positive. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate clinically healthy dairy goats are important sources of C. burnetii infection in this area.

  5. Macro- and micro-element analysis in milk samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Sanja M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the determination of Ag, Al, B, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, Tl and Zn, as well as total fat content of milk samples, originated from different sources. The analyzed milk samples were: human milk, fresh cow milk, pasteurized cow milk from a local market, and reconstituted powder milk. The milk samples were obtained from Jablanica District (Serbia territory. Preparation of samples for macro- and micro-analyses was done by wet digestion. Concentrations of the elements after digestion were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. Total fat content of milk samples was determinate by the Weibull and Stoldt method. The results showed that potassium and calcium concentrations were the highest in all samples: 1840.64 - 2993.26 mg/L and 456.05 - 1318.08 mg/L, respectively. Of all heavy metals from the examined milk samples (copper, zinc, manganese, nickel, cadmium, and lead, the most common were zinc and copper, with approximately similar content in the range of 5 - 12 mg/l, while cadmium nickel and manganese were not detected at all. Samples of fresh cow milk and human milk showed the highest fat content of 3.6 and 4.2 %, respectively. Results for total fat and macro- and micro-analyses showed that fresh cow milk has the highest contents of fat and calcium, making it the most nutritious. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34012

  6. Nutritional values in aspects of essential and non essential elements in variety of milk samples by AAS and FES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perween, R.; Haque, Q.

    2011-01-01

    Milk makes a significant contribution to the human diet through provision of macro nutrient, vitamins and minerals. The exact composition of milk varies by species to naturally or contamination. It is recognized that imbalance quantity of minerals and trace element being a serious health hazards especially for infants. Therefore, some essentials elements like K, Fe, Co and Pb (as a non essential element) have been determined in locally available milk powder of infant formulas, milk powder of growing children , processed milk or tetra pack milk of different brands and fresh milk samples (cow and buffalo) by sophisticated analytical techniques flame emissions spectroscopy (FES) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The range of mean concentration of elements (K, Fe and Co) in milk samples was found to be 650.00-1500.00 mg/l, 2.76-8.93 mg/l and 0.05 mg/l respectively. The levels of these elements in milk powder of infant formulas (1 and 2) were compared with the standards of FAO/WHO, recommended values of the Committee on Nutrition of the American Academy of Pediatrics, human milk and cow's milk. (author)

  7. 90Sr and 137Cs determination in milk and foodstuff samples in North and Middle Moravia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartuskova, M.; Lusnak, J.; Rada, J.; Beckova, V.

    2008-01-01

    Activities of radionuclides Sr-90 and Cs-137 in milk and parts of foodstuff have been determined in National Radiation Protection Institute for many years. Sr-90 activity in those samples determinate branch Ostrava by radiochemical procedure - precipitation with oxalic acid and measuring with using gas-flow proportional detector. Gamma spectrometry with HPGe detector is using for 137 Cs determination. (authors)

  8. Antibiotic resistance profile of bacteria isolated from raw milk samples of cattle and buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahlina Tanzin

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Two different species of bacteria i.e., S. aureus and E. coli are contaminating with milk samples. The pathogenic bacteria can be controlled effectively by using Ciprofloxacin and Levofloxacin in the case of mastitis in cattle and buffaloes in Bangladesh. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 62-67

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Different Anions in Milk Samples Using Ion Chromatography with Conductivity Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülçin Gümüş Yılmaz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The description of a simple method for simultaneous determination of chloride, nitrate, sulfate, iodide, phosphate, thiocyanate, perchlorate, and orotic acid in milk samples was outlined. The method involves the use of dialysis cassettes for matrix elimination, followed by ion chromatography on a high capacity anion exchange column with suppressed conductivity detection. The novelty of dialysis process was that it did not need any chemical and organic solvent for elimination of macromolecules such as fat, carbohydrates and proteins from milk samples. External standard calibration curves for these analytes were linear with great correlation coefficients. The relative standard deviations of analyte concentrations were acceptable both inter-day and intra-day evaluations. Under optimized conditions, the limit of detection (Signal-to-Noise ratio = 3 for chloride, phosphate, thiocyanate, perchlorate, iodide, nitrate, sulfate, and orotate was found to be 0.012, 0.112, 0.140, 0.280, 0.312, 0.516, 0.520, and 0.840 mg L−1, respectively. Significant results were obtained for various spiked milk samples with % recovery in the range of 93.88 - 109.75 %. The proposed method was successfully applied to milk samples collected from Istanbul markets. The advantages of the method described herein are reagent-free, simple, and reliable.

  10. Determination of Sr-90 in milk samples from the study of statistical results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otero-Pazos Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of 90Sr in milk samples is the main objective of radiation monitoring laboratories because of its environmental importance. In this paper the concentration of activity of 39 milk samples was obtained through radiochemical separation based on selective retention of Sr in a cationic resin (Dowex 50WX8, 50-100 mesh and subsequent determination by a low-level proportional gas counter. The results were checked by performing the measurement of the Sr concentration by using the flame atomic absorption spectroscopy technique, to finally obtain the mass of 90Sr. From the data obtained a statistical treatment was performed using linear regressions. A reliable estimate of the mass of 90Sr was obtained based on the gravimetric technique, and secondly, the counts per minute of the third measurement in the 90Sr and 90Y equilibrium, without having to perform the analysis. These estimates have been verified with 19 milk samples, obtaining overlapping results. The novelty of the manuscript is the possibility of determining the concentration of 90Sr in milk samples, without the need to perform the third measurement in the equilibrium.

  11. Double use of focused microwave irradiation for accelerated matrix hydrolysis and lipid extraction in milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Ayuso, L.E.; Luque de Castro, M.D.; Velasco, J.; Dobarganes, M.C.

    1999-01-01

    Irradiation with microwave energy has allowed to carry out the extraction of lipids from milk samples (namely, cow, goat and sheep) with quantitative results similar to the Weibull–Berntrop extraction procedure but milk fat obtained by microwave assisted extraction undergoes lesser chemical transformation of triglycerides during the whole process. A considerable reduction of the procedure time (50 min versus 10 h) is achieved with similar reproducibility to that provided by the conventional method. An in situ’ solvent recycling step makes the method environmentally clean

  12. Residues of PCDDs and PCDFs in human milk samples in Ahmedabad, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashyap, R.; Bhatnagar, V.; Sadhu, H.; Jhamb, N.; Karanjkar, R.; Saiyed, H. [National Inst. of Occupational Health, Ahmedabad (India)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and Polychlorinated dibenzo furans (PCDFs) represent a class of organic environmental pollutants. They are unwanted byproduct of incineration, uncontrolled burning and certain industrial processes. They are persistent in nature and bioaccumulates through food chain. These are hazardous to human health and environment. The residues of these toxicants have been detected in human adipose tissue, blood and milk. WHO has coordinated two rounds of follow up studies on levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in human milk and the data shows a decreasing trend during the last 30 years. However, in India there is no data available on the exposure and residues of these contaminants. This study presents first time the levels of dioxin and furans in human milk samples collected from the Ahmedabad city in India.

  13. Recovery of extracellular vesicles from human breast milk is influenced by sample collection and vesicle isolation procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke I. Zonneveld

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EV in breast milk carry immune relevant proteins and could play an important role in the instruction of the neonatal immune system. To further analyze these EV and to elucidate their function it is important that native populations of EV can be recovered from (stored breast milk samples in a reproducible fashion. However, the impact of isolation and storage procedures on recovery of breast milk EV has remained underexposed. Here, we aimed to define parameters important for EV recovery from fresh and stored breast milk. To compare various protocols across different donors, breast milk was spiked with a well-defined murine EV population. We found that centrifugation of EV down into density gradients largely improved density-based separation and isolation of EV, compared to floatation up into gradients after high-force pelleting of EV. Using cryo-electron microscopy, we identified different subpopulations of human breast milk EV and a not previously described population of lipid tubules. Additionally, the impact of cold storage on breast milk EV was investigated. We determined that storing unprocessed breast milk at −80°C or 4°C caused death of cells present in breast milk, leading to contamination of the breast milk EV population with storage-induced EV. Here, an alternative method is proposed to store breast milk samples for EV analysis at later time points. The proposed adaptations to the breast milk storage and EV isolation procedures can be applied for EV-based biomarker profiling of breast milk and functional analysis of the role of breast milk EV in the development of the neonatal immune system.

  14. Effect of milk sample delivery methods and arrival conditions on bacterial contamination rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsmore, R P; English, P B; Matthews, J C; Sears, P M

    1990-07-01

    A cross sectional study was performed of factors believed to contribute to the contamination of bovine milk sample cultures submitted to the Ithaca Regional Laboratory of the Quality Milk Promotion Services/New York State Mastitis Control. Of 871 samples entered in the study, 137 (15.7%) were contaminated. There were interactions between the sample source (veterinarian vs dairyman), delivery method, and time between sample collection and arrival at the laboratory. If only those samples collected and hand delivered by the dairyman within 1 day of collection were compared to a like subset of samples collected and hand delivered by veterinarians, no statistically significant differences in milk sample contamination rate (MSCR) were found. Samples were delivered to the laboratory by hand, US Postal Service, United Parcel Service, via the New York State College of Veterinary Medicine Diagnostic Laboratory, or Northeast Dairy Herd Improvement Association Courier. The MSCR was only 7.6% for hand delivered samples, while 26% of Postal Service samples were contaminated. These rates differed significantly from other delivery methods (P less than 0.0001). The USPS samples arrived a longer time after sampling than did samples sent by other routes, and time had a significant effect on MSCR (0 to 1 day, 8.9%; greater than 1 day, 25.9%; P less than 0.01). Samples packaged with ice packs sent by routes other than the Postal Service had a lower MSCR than those not packaged with ice packs, but ice packs did not reduce the MSCR for samples sent by the Postal Service.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Research And Establishment Of The Analytical Procedure For/Of Sr-90 In Milk Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Thi Tuyet Mai; Duong Duc Thang; Nguyen Thi Linh; Bui Thi Anh Duong

    2014-01-01

    Sr-90 is an indicator for the transfer radionuclides from environment to human. This work was setup to build a procedure for Sr-90 determination in main popular foodstuff and focus to fresh milk. The deal of this work was establish procedure for Sr-90 , assessment for chemical yield and test sample of Vietnam fresh milk, also in this work, the QA, QC for the procedure was carried out using standard sample of IAEA. The work has been completed for the procedure of determination Sr-90 in milk. The chemical yield of recovery for Y-90 and Sr-90 were at 46.76 % ±1.25% and 0.78 ± 0.086, respectively. The QA & QC program was carried out using reference material IAEA-373. The result parse is appropriate equally and well agreement with the certificate value. Three reference samples were analyses with 15 measurements. The results of Sr-90 concentration after processing statistics given a value at 3.69 Bq/kg with uncertainty of 0.23 Bq/kg. The certificate of IAEA-154 for Sr-90 (half live 28.8 year) is the 6.9 Bq/kg, with the range 95% Confidence Interval as (6.0 -8.0 ) Bq/kg at 31st August 1987. After adjusting decay, the radioactivity at this time is 3.67 Bq/kg. It means that such the result of this work was perfect matching the value of stock index IAEA. Five Vietnam fresh milk samples were analyzed for Sr-90, the specific radioactivity of Sr-90 in milk were in a range from 0.032 to 0.041 Bq/l. (author)

  16. Cadmium and lead determination by ICPMS: Method optimization and application in carabao milk samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza A. Magbitang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A method utilizing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS as the element-selective detector with microwave-assisted nitric acid digestion as the sample pre-treatment technique was developed for the simultaneous determination of cadmium (Cd and lead (Pb in milk samples. The estimated detection limits were 0.09ìg kg-1 and 0.33ìg kg-1 for Cd and Pb, respectively. The method was linear in the concentration range 0.01 to 500ìg kg-1with correlation coefficients of 0.999 for both analytes.The method was validated using certified reference material BCR 150 and the determined values for Cd and Pb were 18.24 ± 0.18 ìg kg-1 and 807.57 ± 7.07ìg kg-1, respectively. Further validation using another certified reference material, NIST 1643e, resulted in determined concentrations of 6.48 ± 0.10 ìg L-1 for Cd and 21.96 ± 0.87 ìg L-1 for Pb. These determined values agree well with the certified values in the reference materials.The method was applied to processed and raw carabao milk samples collected in Nueva Ecija, Philippines.The Cd levels determined in the samples were in the range 0.11 ± 0.07 to 5.17 ± 0.13 ìg kg-1 for the processed milk samples, and 0.11 ± 0.07 to 0.45 ± 0.09 ìg kg-1 for the raw milk samples. The concentrations of Pb were in the range 0.49 ± 0.21 to 5.82 ± 0.17 ìg kg-1 for the processed milk samples, and 0.72 ± 0.18 to 6.79 ± 0.20 ìg kg-1 for the raw milk samples.

  17. Bacterial microbiota compositions of naturally fermented milk are shaped by both geographic origin and sample type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Z; Hou, Q; Kwok, L; Yu, Z; Zheng, Y; Sun, Z; Menghe, B; Zhang, H

    2016-10-01

    Naturally fermented dairy products contain a rich microbial biodiversity. This study aimed to provide an overview on the bacterial microbiota biodiversity of 85 samples, previously collected across a wide region of China, Mongolia, and Russia. Data from these 85 samples, including 55 yogurts, 18 naturally fermented yak milks, 6 koumisses, and 6 cheeses, were retrieved and collectively analyzed. The most prevalent phyla shared across samples were Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, which together accounted for 99% of bacterial sequences. The predominant genera were Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Streptococcus, Acetobacter, Acinetobacter, Leuconostoc, and Macrococcus, which together corresponded to 96.63% of bacterial sequences. Further multivariate statistical analyses revealed significant differences in the microbiota structure across sample geographic origin and type. First, on the principal coordinate score plot, samples representing the 3 main sample collection regions (Russia, Xinjiang, and Tibet) were mostly located respectively in the upper left, lower right, and lower left quadrants, although slight overlapping occurred. In contrast, samples from the minor sampling areas (Inner Mongolia, Mongolia, Gansu, and Sichuan) were predominantly distributed in the lower left quadrant. These results suggest a possible association between sample geographical origin and microbiota composition. Second, bacterial microbiota structure was stratified by sample type. In particular, the microbiota of cheese was largely distinct from the other sample types due to its high abundances of Lactococcus and Streptococcus. The fermented yak milk microbiota was most like that of the yogurts. Koumiss samples had the lowest microbial diversity and richness. In conclusion, both geographic origin and sample type shape the microbial diversity of naturally fermented milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  18. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in milk samples by saponification-solid-phase microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llompart, M; Pazos, M; Landin, P; Cela, R

    2001-12-15

    A saponification-HSSPME procedure has been developed for the extraction of PCBs from milk samples. Saponification of the samples improves the PCB extraction efficiency and allows attaining lower background. A mixed-level fractional design has been used to optimize the sample preparation process. Five variables have been considered: extraction time, agitation, kind of microextraction fiber, concentration, and volume of NaOH aqueous solution. Also the kinetic of the process has been studied with the two fibers (100-microm PDMS and 65-microm PDMS-DVB) included in this study. Analyses were performed on a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector and a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass selective detector working in MS-MS mode. The proposed method is simple and rapid, and yields high sensitivity, with detection limits below 1 ng/mL, good linearity, and reproducibility. The method has been applied to liquid milk samples with different fat content covering the whole commercial range, and it has been validated with powdered milk certified reference material.

  19. Production of enterotoxins of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from samples of sheep milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Zigo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In our study was followed occurrence of mastitis in herd of 430 sheep of breed zoslachtena valaska with hand milking technology examined two times during one lactation season. Individual examination consisted from clinical examination of udder and microbiological examination of milk samples. By PCR was determined presence of genes coding production of enterotoxins, and by ELISA methods production individual types of enterotoxins. From individual forms of mastitis were frequently detected subacute (6.7%, subclinical (5.7% and acute (2.9%. The coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS were identified in 102 (65.4% from all 156 positive isolates. The CNS and S. aureus caused subacute (5.1%, subclinical (3.9% and acute (2.4% forms of mastitis. The most frequently isolated were S. epidermidis, followed by S. chromogenes and S. xylosus from ewes with subacute and subclinical mastitis. From acute and chronical forms of mastitis were  predominantly isolated S. aureus, S. uberis and S. epidermidis. The production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SE - SEA, SEB, SEC, SED and the presence of genes sec (3, sea (2, seb (2 and sed (2 were determined in S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. schleiferi and S. chromogenes, respectively. The results suggested on the high occurrence (12.4% of subacute and subclinical forms. Confirmed production of enterotoxins and presence of genes coding their production present a risk for human health and decreased a quality of milk and products from sheep´s milk.

  20. Comparison of dioxin and PCB concentrations in human breast milk samples from Hong Kong and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soechitram, S.D.; Chan, S.M.; Nelson, E.A.; Brouwer, A.; Sauer, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    The adverse effects of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on human health are of increasing concern. These lipophilic compounds are concentrated through the food chain and are present in human milk. This study compares PCB levels in human milk samples from Hong Kong and Dutch mothers. Ten

  1. Isolation and identification of yeasts in milk samples from cows' mammary glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Jaki

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to isolate fungi from the milk of cow udder quarters with clinical mastitis. The samples were delivered in Veterinary laboratory in Križevci during a routine mastitis diagnostics. Milk samples were cultured on Columbia agar (Merck, KgaA, Darmstadt, Germany with 5 % ovine blood, Sabouraud 4 % maltose agar (Merck, KgaA, Darmstadt, Germany and Rice extract agar (Merck, KgaA, Darmstadt, Germany. The final diagnosis was established regarding to the results of the API 20 C AUX systems (bioMerieux, Lyon, France. All of the fungal isolates were yeasts, genera Candida spp. (76.2 % and Trichosporon spp. (23.8 %. The most prevalent species were: C. quilliermondi (21.4 %, C. krusei/inconspicua (11.9 % and Trichosporon mucoides (14.3 %.

  2. Rapid milk group classification by 1H NMR analysis of Le and H epitopes in human milk oligosaccharide donor samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Sander S; Schoemaker, Ruud J W; Gerwig, Gerrit J; van Leusen-van Kan, Ellen J M; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Kamerling, Johannis P

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are a major constituent of human breast milk and play an important role in reducing the risk of infections in infants. The structures of these HMOs show similarities with blood group antigens in protein glycosylation, in particular in relation to fucosylation in

  3. Diagnosing intramammary infections: evaluation of definitions based on a single milk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohoo, I R; Smith, J; Andersen, S; Kelton, D F; Godden, S

    2011-01-01

    Criteria for diagnosing intramammary infections (IMI) have been debated for many years. Factors that may be considered in making a diagnosis include the organism of interest being found on culture, the number of colonies isolated, whether or not the organism was recovered in pure or mixed culture, and whether or not concurrent evidence of inflammation existed (often measured by somatic cell count). However, research using these criteria has been hampered by the lack of a "gold standard" test (i.e., a perfect test against which the criteria can be evaluated) and the need for very large data sets of culture results to have sufficient numbers of quarters with infections with a variety of organisms. This manuscript used 2 large data sets of culture results to evaluate several definitions (sets of criteria) for classifying a quarter as having, or not having an IMI by comparing the results from a single culture to a gold standard diagnosis based on a set of 3 milk samples. The first consisted of 38,376 milk samples from which 25,886 triplicate sets of milk samples taken 1 wk apart were extracted. The second consisted of 784 quarters that were classified as infected or not based on a set of 3 milk samples collected at 2-d intervals. From these quarters, a total of 3,136 additional samples were evaluated. A total of 12 definitions (named A to L) based on combinations of the number of colonies isolated, whether or not the organism was recovered in pure or mixed culture, and the somatic cell count were evaluated for each organism (or group of organisms) with sufficient data. The sensitivity (ability of a definition to detect IMI) and the specificity (Sp; ability of a definition to correctly classify noninfected quarters) were both computed. For all species, except Staphylococcus aureus, the sensitivity of all definitions was definition A). With the exception of "any organism" and coagulase-negative staphylococci, all Sp estimates were over 94% in the daily data and over 97

  4. Proteomic characterization of intermediate and advanced glycation end-products in commercial milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzone, Giovanni; Arena, Simona; Scaloni, Andrea

    2015-03-18

    The Maillard reaction consists of a number of chemical processes affecting the structure of the proteins present in foods. We previously accomplished the proteomic characterization of the lactosylation targets in commercial milk samples. Although characterizing the early modification derivatives, this analysis did not describe the corresponding advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), which may be formed from the further oxidation of former ones or by reaction of oxidized sugars with proteins, when high temperatures are exploited. To fill this gap, we have used combined proteomic procedures for the systematic characterization of the lactosylated and AGE-containing proteins from the soluble and milk fat globule membrane fraction of various milk products. Besides to confirm all lactulosyl-lysines described previously, 40 novel lactosylation sites were identified. More importantly, 308 additional intermediate and advanced glyco-oxidation derivatives (including cross-linking adducts) were characterized in 31 proteins, providing the widest qualitative inventory of modified species ascertained in commercial milk samples so far. Amadori adducts with glucose/galactose, their dehydration products, carboxymethyllysine and glyoxal-, 3-deoxyglucosone/3-deoxygalactosone- and 3-deoxylactosone-derived dihydroxyimidazolines and/or hemiaminals were the most frequent derivatives observed. Depending on thermal treatment, a variable number of modification sites was identified within each protein; their number increased with harder food processing conditions. Among the modified proteins, species involved in assisting the delivery of nutrients, defense response against pathogens and cellular proliferation/differentiation were highly affected by AGE formation. This may lead to a progressive decrease of the milk nutritional value, as it reduces the protein functional properties, abates the bioavailability of the essential amino acids and eventually affects food digestibility. These aspects

  5. Measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk samples in Londrina (Parana State, Brazil) region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melquiades, Fabio Luiz

    2000-01-01

    This work deals with the measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk, with high resolution gamma spectrometry, using a HPGe detector with relative efficiency of 10%, coupled to the electronic nuclear chain and a multichannel card of 8192 channels. Some tests were realized before beginning the measurements. The first of them was to define the shield to be used, making several measured with different shields according to the available materials, opting finally for a shield composed of bricks of lead (10 cm thickness), plates of iron (4nm thickness) and of aluminum (2 mm thickness). Four different geometries for the samples recipients were tested, and the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 liters totally filled was the one which supplied the best peak/background ratio. A statistical inference was also realized to determine the sampling that represents each one of the lots of milk to be measured, resulting in a number of 6 samples, for a confidence level of 95%. Two different kinds of powdered milk produced at Londrina were analyzed, Integral Powdered Milk Cativa and Integral Powdered Milk Polly. The samples were properly put in the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 L, sealed and kept for 40 days to reach the secular equilibrium. The counting time for each measurement was two days. It was possible to identify the radionuclides 40 K, 137 Cs and 232 Th (from 208 Tl), whose activities were calculated according to the International Atomic Energy Agency norms (IAEA, 1989). The detector efficiency was measured using calibrated samples, prepared with the certified reference materials IAEA-326 and IAEA-375. Corrections for self-absorption were accomplished, based on measures of samples with different densities. The results obtained for the powdered milk Cativa were: 464± 12 Bq/kg for 40 K, 3,46 ± 1,05 and 0,46 ± 1,05 and 0,46 ± 0,16 Bq/kg for the minimum detectable activities of 137 Cs and 232 Th, respectively. For the milk Polly, the results were: 452±10 Bq/kg for 40 K, 3,19 ± 0

  6. Evaluation the virulence of Mycobacterium bovis isolated from milk samples through histopathological study in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saqur, I M; Al-Thwani, A N; Al-Attar, I M; Al-Mashhadani, M S

    2016-12-01

    Mycobacterium bovis has a broad host range, and it is the principal agent responsible for tuberculosis (TB) in bovine, domestic and wild mammals. M. bovis also infects human, causing zoonotic TB through ingestion, inhalation and, less frequently by contact with mucous membranes and broken skin. Zoonotic TB was formerly an endemic disease, usually transmitted to man by consumption of raw cow's milk. It is indistinguishable clinically or pathologically from TB caused by M. tuberculosis. The aims of this study were, to isolate and identified M. bovis from raw milk samples by different methods, and evaluate the virulence of M. bovis in laboratory animals (Rabbit). To conduct the study, ninety three cow's milk samples were collected from farms around Baghdad governorate. The decontamination of milk samples was firstly carried out, then samples were subjected to routine tests which include, direct smear for Ziehl Neelsen acid fast stain, culture, each sample was cultured on Lowenstein Jensen media with Sodium pyruvite (All cultures incubated on 37°C for 4-10weeks with continuous observation), and biochemical testes as Nitrate reduction test, Niacin paper strip test and pyrazinamidase test, were employed to diagnose and identified the bacteria. Beside molecular assay was used to confirm the identification of the isolates by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using specific primers for M. bovis. The virulence of these isolates were investigated through inoculate it in group of laboratory animals consist of 8 rabbit in addition to other group of 4 animals as control (inoculate with Phosphate Buffer Saline). The animals were scarified after 6weeks of inoculation, post- mortem examination was carried out, smears were taken from lesions, and tissue samples were collected from lymph nodes and different organs. The results revealed five isolates of M. bovis in direct smear by acid fast Ziehl-Neelsen stain, while eight isolates observed by culture, the colonies appeared with

  7. [Macronutrients and energy in milk from mothers of premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bi-Zi; Sun, Xiu-Jing; Quan, Mei-Ying; Wang, Dan-Hua

    2014-07-01

    To study the dynamic changes in macronutrients and energy in human milk from mothers of premature infants. A total of 339 human milk samples were collected from 170 women who delivered preterm or full-term infants in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital between November 2012 and January 2014. Macronutrients (proteins, fats and carbohydrates and energy were measured using a MIRIS human milk analyzer and compared between groups. In milk samples from premature infants' mothers, the protein levels were the highest in colostrum (2.22±0.49 g/dL), less in transitional milk (1.83±0.39 g/dL), and the least in mature milk (1.40±0.28 g/dL) (Pmacronutrients and energy in milk from mothers of premature infants vary significantly between colostrum, transitional milk, and mature milk. Protein levels are significantly higher in colostrum from premature infants' mothers than in colostrum from term infants' mothers, but the significant difference is not seen for mature milk. Macronutrient and energy levels show significant differences between milk samples from mothers of premature infants with different gestational ages, so as to meet different needs of premature infants.

  8. Applicability of the CALUX bioassay for screening of dioxin levels in human milk samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laier, P.; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Larsen, John Christian

    2003-01-01

    The CALUX (chemically activated luciferase expression) bioassay based on rat hepatoma (H4IIE) cells is a sensitive assay for the detection of Ah receptor agonists like 2,3,7,8-substituted chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and related PCBs. In this paper, the assay was optimized...... and applied for monitoring levels of dioxins in human milk samples. Combination effects of dioxin-like compounds were evaluated by testing potential mechanisms of interaction between seven of the major dioxin-like compounds in human milk using the isobole method. Results showed that the compounds acted...... lower REP in CALUX. The total dioxin-like activity was determined in 16 Danish human milk samples and was in the range 20.5-55.8 pg TEQ g(-1) fat. These values were compared with TEQs obtained from GC/MS analysis (range 14.8-43.6 pg TEQ-g(-1) fat) that overall were a little lower than CALUX TEQs...

  9. Examination of Aerobic Bacteria from Milk Samples of Bitches with Clinical Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Seval Fatma TOYDEMIR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Canine mastitis occurs primarily during the postpartum period and may also occur during pseudopregnancy, as well as after early weaning of puppies. Clinical and bacteriological examinations of mammary secretion were performed in 17 bitches and results of the bacteriological examination of milk samples were evaluated. Staphylococcus intermedius (n=11 was the predominant isolate from the canine milk while the other microorganisms were Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. aureus, Citrobacter freundii, S. epidermidis and S. hyicus. According to the antimicrobial susceptibility test results, isolates were found mostly to be sensitive to gentamycin, while cefixime was detected as the least effective antimicrobial agent. As we had limited number of dogs in our study, further studies on this subject will be helpful for the veterinarians working with pet animals. Because dogs and humans live very closely in urban life style zoonotic transmissibility of S. intermedius shall be of interest to examine further in the future.

  10. Multielemental analysis of Brazilian milk powder and bread samples by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, V.A.; Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of Na, Cl, Mn, Br, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sb, Sc, Cr, Al and Mg were determined in some types of bread and in some brands of milk powder consumed in the city of Sao Paulo (SP - Brasil), by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Radiochemical separations were carried out by means of retention of 24 Na on hydrated antimony pentoxide (HAP) from a 8N HCl solution, after digestion of the organic matter. Thus the radioisotopes 64 Cu, 69m Zn and 140 La could be determined in the effluent solution. The detection limits of the trace elements analyzed in bread and milk powder samples were determined using the Currie and Girardi criterions. (author) 22 refs.; 2 figs.; 7 tabs

  11. Contamination Levels and Identification of Bacteria in Milk Sampled from Three Regions of Tanzania: Evidence from Literature and Laboratory Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Msalya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk in Tanzania has been reported to be contaminated with large number of bacteria. This is because (1 milk is obtained from animals with unknown health status, (2 good milking and handling practices are to a large extent not observed, and (3 marketing and distribution are done in informal channels. These factors are potential causes of milk-borne diseases and milk quality loss. The aim of this study was to assess nutritional risks in milk as reported in literature over a period of 20 years and through analyses of samples collected during the present study. The issues highlighted in literature were high bacteria and coliform counts exceeding standard levels in East Africa, prevalence of bacteria and drug residues in milk, and adulteration. Based on performed analyses, total bacterial count 1.0×107 colony forming units per millilitre (cfu/ml and total coliform count 1.1×107 cfu/ml, also greater than recommended levels, were found. Ten bacteria types were isolated from milk samples (five, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, and Klebsiella spp. are reported in Tanzanian for the first time. Two drugs tetracycline and sulphur were detected. Therefore, it is worth noting that integrated research is needed to evaluate the situation and address these challenges.

  12. Use of radioimmunoassay for quantitative determination of progesterone in milk samples from dairy cows in Zimbabwe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freymark, P.J.; McCabe, C.T.

    1986-01-01

    A maximum 90-day service interval is an important economic factor in dairying. The determination of pregnancy at 21 to 26 days post-insemination can ensure that particular attention is paid to non-pregnant cows at subsequent heats, and thus help reduce this interval. In Zimbabwe a radioimmunoassay for milk progesterone using an iodinated tracer was developed in 1982 from a previously established assay for plasma progesterone. Progesterone antiserum is produced locally and the assay is used as an early pregnancy diagnosis test in dairy cattle. During 1983 two pilot schemes were instituted to investigate breed differences, logistics, and feasibility under the local conditions, and to identify constraints. Milk samples taken 24 days post-insemination were found to differentiate best between pregnant and non-pregnant cows for both major breeds in the country (Friesian/Holstein and Jersey). Pregnant cows had an average of 13.76 ng/mL (+-1.06) progesterone on day 24 while non-pregnant cows averaged 0.34 ng/mL (+-0.13) of progesterone. Apparently 12.2% of cows subsequently lost their embryos after day 24, and these cows averaged 9.98 ng/mL (+-1.52). Milk samples were also taken on the day of insemination; the results showed that 11% of cows were incorrectly inseminated when progesterone concentrations were high (2.59 ng/mL+-0.80). A National Early Pregnancy Diagnosis Scheme using milk progesterone was implemented in December 1984 and results to date are discussed in the paper. (author)

  13. Selenium content in milk and diary samples; Conteudo de selenio em amostras de leite, queijos e achocolatados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Carmen S. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Equipamentos Especializados. Div. de BQ]. E-mail: carmkira@ial.sp.gov.br; Maihara, Vera A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica]. E-mail: vmaihara@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    Food is the primary source of Se for human beings. As such determining Se levels in foodstuffs become very important. However, information concerning Se levels in different sources of nutrition in different country, particularly in Brazil, is limited. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been used to effectively determine micronutrient levels in foodstuffs, such as milk and dairy samples. The advantage of using the INAA technique is that the samples do not require previous dissolution before analysis. In this study, INAA was applied to determine Se concentration in milk and dairy products. The samples were acquired in the markets of Sao Paulo city. After a 8-hour irradiation in the research reactor IEA-R1, selenium was analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry. Methodology validation was done analyzing NIST reference materials (Whole Milk Powder and Non Fat Milk Powder). Se concentrations in the sample analyzed were below 0.300 {mu}g g{sup -1}. (author)

  14. DNA carryover in milk samples from routine milk recording used for PCR-based diagnosis of bovine Staphylococcus aureus mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser Saadeldien Ibrahim; Klaas, Ilka Christine; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    milking order must be considered in mastitis control efforts. We suggest a practical interpretation of PCR results: cows with a Ct-value 37 and 32-37 can be labeled "very likely to be negative for Staph. aureus...

  15. Simultaneous Determination of TetracyclinesResidues in Bovine Milk Samples by Solid Phase Extraction and HPLC-FL Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehra Mesgari Abbasi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Tetracyclines (TCs are widely used in animal husbandry and their residues in milk may resultinharmful effects on human. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of TCs residues in various bovine milk samples from local markets of Ardabil, Iran. Methods:One hundred and fourteen pasteurized, sterilized and raw milk samples were collected from markets of Ardabil. Tetracycline, Oxytetracycline and Chlortetracycline (TCs residues extraction carried out by Solid Phase Extraction method. Determination of TCs residues were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method using Fluorescence detector.Results: The mean of total TCs residues in all samples (114 samples was 97.6 ±16.9ng/g and that of pasteurized, sterilized and raw milk samples were 87.1 ± 17.7, 112.0 ± 57.3 and 154.0 ± 66.3ng/g respectively. Twenty five point four percent of the all samples, and24.4%, 30% and 28.6% of the pasteurized, sterilized and raw milk samples, respectively had higher TCs residues than the recommended maximum levels (100ng/g. Conclusion:This study indicates the presence of tetracycline residues more than allowed amount. Regulatory authorities should ensure proper withdrawal period before milking the animals and definite supervisions are necessary on application of these drugs.

  16. Solvent extraction method for rapid separation of strontium-90 in milk and food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hingorani, S.B.; Sathe, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    A solvent extraction method, using tributyl phosphate, for rapid separation of strontium-90 in milk and other food samples has been presented in this report in view of large number of samples recieved after Chernobyl accident for checking radioactive contamination. The earlier nitration method in use for the determination of 90 Sr through its daughter 90 Y takes over two weeks for analysis of a sample. While by this extraction method it takes only 4 to 5 hours for sample analysis. Complete estimation including initial counting can be done in a single day. The chemical recovery varies between 80-90% compared to nitration method which is 65-80%. The purity of the method has been established by following the decay of yttrium-90 separated. Some of the results obtained by adopting this chemical method for food analysis are included. The method is, thus, found to be rapid and convenient for accurate estimation of strontium-90 in milk and food samples. (author). 2 tabs., 1 fig

  17. [Pubertal maturation, physical self-esteem and sexuality in a sample of French adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potard, C; Courtois, R; Clarisse, R; Le Floc'h, N; Thomine, M; Réveillère, C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the links between pubertal maturation, physical self-esteem and sexuality in adolescence, differentiating between boys and girls. The sample was comprised of 312 French secondary school children (seventh and ninth grades); 52.6 % (n=164) of whom were girls. Participants answered three self-evaluation questionnaires: the scale of sexuality (interests, emotions, relationships: IERS) in prime adolescence (12 to 15 years); (b) the self-administered rating scale for pubertal development and (c) the Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ). Pubertal maturation was associated with higher scores on "Flirting with the aim of having sexual relations" and "Going out with someone", and a drop in overall and physical self-esteem, mainly in socially valued domains, namely "Body fat" for girls, and "Strength" and "Health" for boys. Overall physical self-esteem was associated with "Going out with someone" and "Flirting with the aim of having sexual relations" in boys. Physical changes at puberty induce two distinct trends in adolescents: sexual exploration and discovery (genitalized body), and self-depreciation (social body). Copyright © 2015 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Occurrence of aflatoxin M(1) in some samples of UHT, raw & pasteurized milk from Indian states of Karnataka and Tamilnadu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddappa, Vinutha; Nanjegowda, Divyashree Kallenahalli; Viswanath, Prema

    2012-11-01

    Aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) is a toxic metabolite found in the milk of lactating animals which have consumed feedstuffs contaminated with aflatoxin B(1). Ultra high temperature treated (UHT) milk is a product which is becoming popular in developing countries like India as there is a lack of proper cold storage or refrigeration facilities. In this study, 45 samples of UHT milk of popular brands prevalent in the market were analyzed for the presence of AFM(1) by reversed phase HPLC using fluorescent detector after cleanup of sample with immunoaffinity columns. All samples of plain UHT milk were positive for AFM(1) and 38% of these contained levels more than 0.5 μg/kg, the maximum permitted limit prescribed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and by the mandatory regulations of the country, the FSSAI Regulations, 2011. In 62.5% of flavored UHT milk, AFM(1) was below detectable levels (0.02 μgL(-1)). However, 12.5% of these samples also contained levels exceeding the maximum permitted limits. AFM(1) was present in 61.6% of the 52 raw milk samples analyzed from the two states of Karnataka and Tamilnadu with a range of 0.1-3.8 μgL(-1). 17.3% of these samples also exceeded the regulatory limits of the country. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Just add water: Accuracy of analysis of diluted human milk samples using mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R W; Adamkin, D H; Farris, A; Radmacher, P G

    2017-01-01

    To determine the maximum dilution of human milk (HM) that yields reliable results for protein, fat and lactose when analyzed by mid-infrared spectroscopy. De-identified samples of frozen HM were obtained. Milk was thawed and warmed (40°C) prior to analysis. Undiluted (native) HM was analyzed by mid-infrared spectroscopy for macronutrient composition: total protein (P), fat (F), carbohydrate (C); Energy (E) was calculated from the macronutrient results. Subsequent analyses were done with 1 : 2, 1 : 3, 1 : 5 and 1 : 10 dilutions of each sample with distilled water. Additional samples were sent to a certified lab for external validation. Quantitatively, F and P showed statistically significant but clinically non-critical differences in 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 dilutions. Differences at higher dilutions were statistically significant and deviated from native values enough to render those dilutions unreliable. External validation studies also showed statistically significant but clinically unimportant differences at 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 dilutions. The Calais Human Milk Analyzer can be used with HM samples diluted 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 and return results within 5% of values from undiluted HM. At a 1 : 5 or 1 : 10 dilution, however, results vary as much as 10%, especially with P and F. At the 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 dilutions these differences appear to be insignificant in the context of nutritional management. However, the accuracy and reliability of the 1 : 5 and 1 : 10 dilutions are questionable.

  20. A comparison of lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in formula and human milk samples from Northern Ireland mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, V C; Mayes, C B D; Tubman, T R J; Northrop-Clewes, C A; Thurnham, D I

    2004-01-01

    Two carotenoids, lutein and zeaxanthin are found in the retinal pigment epithelium of the eye where they are believed to protect it against oxidative and light damage. The amounts of these carotenoids consumed by premature infants are not known. The objective of the investigation was to measure these carotenoids in human and formulae milks. In all, 28 human milk samples were obtained at various times between days 1 and 41 of lactation from 13 mothers. Six formula milks commonly used in hospitals were also analysed. Mothers who provided the milk samples had infants in the neonatal ward at the Royal Maternity Hospital, Belfast. Median lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations in human milk were 4.79 (range 0.42-9.98) nmol/g fat and 0.55 (0.00-1.70) nmol/g fat, respectively. Five of the six formula milks also contained lutein and zeaxanthin with concentrations that varied over a wide range (0.7-9.7 and 0.1-1.2 nmol/g fat, respectively). Carotenoid concentrations usually decreased with the duration of lactation. Some formula milks that were specially formulated for premature infants contained high concentrations of the lutein and zeaxanthin and the source may be egg yolk. These studies were supported by the University of Ulster and the Northern Ireland Mother and Baby Appeal.

  1. Antibiotic resistance in bacteria Staphylococcus spp. isolated from samples of raw sheep's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Vasiľ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From samples of raw sheep's milk were determined results of bacteriological examination from two herds in region of Eastern Slovakia in three years lasting study. The occurrence of Staphylococcus spp. 41.6% (124 was determined from 298 samples. The seven species of staphylococci were on a regular basis isolated: S. epidermidis (34, S. chromogenes (26, S. aureus (16. Alternately have been recorded S. warneri (16, S. schleiferi (15, S. haemolyticus (9 and S. xylosus (8. All isolated pathogens were tested by in vitro test on Mueller-Hinton agar by disc methods on resistance to 10 types of antibiotics.  Highest value of resistance was determined to Penicilin 21.0%, Neomycin 10.5% and Novobiocin 9.7%. Lower resistance was in to Oxacilin 7.2% and Amoxicilin 6.5%. Minimal resistance was founded to Cefoxitin 0.8%, Linkomycin 2.4%, Erytromycin, and Streptomycin 3.2%. Was founded total resistance (21.0% to all antibiotics in S. epidermidis (34 during the three years, S. chromogenes (26 showed resistance to 8 types of antibiotics (12.9%, S. aureus (16 to 6 antibiotics (10.5% and S. warneri (16 to 4 antibiotics (5.6%. It was confirmed that sheep's milk remains a major source of staphylococci. Bacteria in comparison with isolates from cows' raw milk, showed lower values of resistance, but were resistant to more than two antibiotics. Recorded occurrence of resistance in staphylococci may be connected with a minimum use of antibiotics in the treatment of mastitis and other diseases in sheep herds. Reported resistance to the tested antibiotics became the basis for the recommendation to use preparations to treat mastitis in sheep principally by the detection of resistance to antibiotics contained.

  2. Radiating school milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    School milk is milk delivered by a separate distribution network to schools and sold there at reduced prices. Radioactivities of these school milk have been sampled and compared to the milk sold in the usual shops. It turns out that the school milk is frequently more active than the ordinary milk: this is critisized. (qui)

  3. Mid-infrared spectrometry of milk for dairy metabolomics: a comparison of two sampling techniques and effect of homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aernouts, Ben; Polshin, Evgeny; Saeys, Wouter; Lammertyn, Jeroen

    2011-10-31

    Milk production is a dominant factor in the metabolism of dairy cows involving a very intensive interaction with the blood circulation. As a result, the extracted milk contains valuable information on the metabolic status of the cow. On-line measurement of milk components during milking two or more times a day would promote early detection of systemic and local alterations, thus providing a great input for strategic and management decisions. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopy to measure the milk composition using two different measurement modes: micro attenuated total reflection (μATR) and high throughput transmission (HTT). Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used for prediction of fat, crude protein, lactose and urea after preprocessing IR data and selecting the most informative wavenumber variables. The prediction accuracies were determined separately for raw and homogenized copies of a wide range of milk samples in order to estimate the possibility for on-line analysis of the milk. In case of fat content both measurement modes resulted in an excellent prediction for homogenized samples (R(2)>0.92) but in poor results for raw samples (R(2)protein and lactose with both μATR and HTT, and urea with μATR spectroscopy. Excellent results were obtained for prediction of crude protein, lactose and urea content (R(2)>0.99, 0.98 and 0.86 respectively) in raw and homogenized milk using μATR IR spectroscopy. These results were significantly better than those obtained by HTT IR spectroscopy. However, the prediction performance of HTT was still good for crude protein and lactose content (R(2)>0.86 and 0.78 respectively) in raw and homogenized samples. However, the detection of urea in milk with HTT spectroscopy was significantly better (R(2)=0.69 versus 0.16) after homogenization of the milk samples. Based on these observations it can be concluded that μATR approach is most suitable for rapid at line

  4. MALDI Q-TOF CID MS for Diagnostic Ion Screening of Human Milk Oligosaccharide Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Jovanović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human milk oligosaccharides (HMO represent the bioactive components of human milk, influencing the infant’s gastrointestinal microflora and immune system. Structurally, they represent a highly complex class of analyte, where the main core oligosaccharide structures are built from galactose and N-acetylglucosamine, linked by 1-3 or 1-4 glycosidic linkages and potentially modified with fucose and sialic acid residues. The core structures can be linear or branched. Additional structural complexity in samples can be induced by endogenous exoglycosidase activity or chemical procedures during the sample preparation. Here, we show that using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-TOF collision-induced dissociation (CID as a fast screening method, diagnostic structural information about single oligosaccharide components present in a complex mixture can be obtained. According to sequencing data on 14 out of 22 parent ions detected in a single high molecular weight oligosaccharide chromatographic fraction, 20 different oligosaccharide structure types, corresponding to over 30 isomeric oligosaccharide structures and over 100 possible HMO isomers when biosynthetic linkage variations were taken into account, were postulated. For MS/MS data analysis, we used the de novo sequencing approach using diagnostic ion analysis on reduced oligosaccharides by following known biosynthetic rules. Using this approach, de novo characterization has been achieved also for the structures, which could not have been predicted.

  5. Three rapid methods for determination 90Sr in milk samples using liquid scintillation spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasisiara, F.; Attarilar, N.; Afshar, N.

    2006-01-01

    Strontium radionuclide 90 Sr is one of the main long-lived components of the radioactive fallout which occurred as a result of previous atmospheric nuclear tests and also nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl accident. Due to chemical and biochemical similarities between strontium and calcium, more than 99% of strontium is efficiently incorporated into bone tissue and teeth and Characterized by along physical and biological half-life, it may cause damage to bone marrow. Since determination of this radionuclide often is a time consuming process, rapid determination methods specially in emergency situations is always desirable. In this work, three rapid methods for determination of this radionuclide in milk samples will be evaluated. All of the methods include two major steps: 1- strontium separation from fats and proteins which can be performed by drying (in case of the fresh milk samples), ashing and leaching by nitric acids or by using exchange or chelating resins which have strong affinity for alkaline earth cations such as Dowex 50W-X8. And 2- Separation of Sr-90 or its daughter product, Y-90. In two methods separation of 90 Sr is performed by extraction of the daughter nuclide, 90 Y, by aid of organic extracting agent, Tributylphosphate or T.B.P., and then Cherenkov counting of the Y-90 extracted. The third method is based on separation of this radionuclide using Crown Ether or Sr -Spec resin. The detailed radiochemical procedures and evaluation of each method advantages or disadvantages will explained in full text paper. (authors)

  6. Association between lutein intake and lutein concentrations in human milk samples from lactating mothers in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyesook; Yi, Hyunju; Jung, Ji A; Chang, Namsoo

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the lutein content of breast milk and its association with maternal lutein intake among lactating mothers in South Korea. Milk samples were obtained from 98 healthy lactating women (mean age; 32.5 ± 3.5 years). Dietary intake data were collected by a food record method for three consecutive days. Maternal lutein intake was estimated by using the lutein database. Lutein concentrations in human milk were analyzed using a high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection method. The mean values of the daily lutein intakes and breast milk lutein concentrations in lactating mothers were 4.70 ± 3.11 mg/day (median 3.87) and 3.50 ± 3.71 µg/dl (median 2.45), respectively. Breast milk lutein concentrations were positively associated with the dietary lutein intake of lactating mothers after adjustment for lactating women's age, BMI, dietary energy intake, type of breastfeeding, and infants' age (β = 0.3629, P = 0.0056). Considering that lutein in milk can be associated with dietary lutein intake, knowledge about infant requirement is needed to define the adequate lutein levels in human milk.

  7. Levels of brominated flame retardants and other pesistent organic pollutants in breast milk samples from Limpopo province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darnerud, Per Ola, E-mail: poda@slv.se [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Aune, Marie; Larsson, Lotta [Chemistry Division 2, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Lignell, Sanna [Toxicology Division, National Food Administration, P.O. Box 622, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Mutshatshi, Tshinanne; Okonkwo, Jonathan; Botha, Ben [Faculty of Science, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria (South Africa); Agyei, Nana [Department of Chemistry, Limpopo University, Medunsa (South Africa)

    2011-09-01

    The non-occupational exposure to brominated flame retardants, and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was studied by collecting human breast milk samples from mothers residing in Thohoyandou area, a rural district in the Limpopo Province, northern part of South Africa (SA). Of all collected samples to be analysed (n = 28), those with large enough milk volumes, (n = 14) were quantified for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (9 congeners: BDE-28, 47, 66, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154, and 183) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) on a GC equipped with dual capillary columns and dual electron-capture detectors (ECD). The levels of PBDE congeners (median sumBDE 1.3 ng/g of lipids) and of HBCD were not far from levels generally found in European studies, and this study may be the first report on the presence of PBDEs and HBCD in SA breast milk. On a congener basis, the finding of comparably high BDE-183 levels suggests a specific PBDE usage, or contamination situation in SA. Apart from BFRs, the high DDT levels found in the breast milk from this area (median and maximum sumDDT levels of about 4 600 and over 20 000 ng/g of lipids, respectively; n = 28) have earlier been reported. In addition, other POPs (PCBs, HCB and HCHs) were found in SA breast milk, at relatively low levels. To conclude, measurable levels of PBDEs and HBCD, and a specific BDE congener pattern, were found in breast milk from the Limpopo province, SA. A number of other POPs, including DDTs in high levels, were also present. - Highlights: {yields} Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analysed in South African breast milk. {yields} Focus of interest were brominated flame retardants (BRFs). {yields} Sampling area was the rural Limpopo Province, northern SA. {yields} Probably the first reported African data on BFRs (PBDEs, HBCD) in breast milk. {yields} Reported BFR data similar to European levels.

  8. Determination of seven trace elements in human milk, powdered cow's milk and infant foods by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimanis, A.P.; Vassilaki-Grimani, M.; Alexiou, D.; Papadatos, C.

    1979-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply neutron activation analysis to the determination of seven trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Se, Zn, Rb and As) in colostrum, transitional and mature human milk as well as in powdered cow's milk and commercial infant foods, and thus to find out whether non-breast-fed infants received the same or different amounts of these trace elements as breast-fed ones. Ranges and averages for trace elements in mature human milk, expressed as microgrammes per gramme wet weight, varied as follows: Cr 0.018-0.040 and 0.027; Co 0.0013-0.0030 and 0.0020; Cu 0.38-0.50 and 0.46; Se 0.011-0.022 and 0.015; Zn 1.4-1.7 and 1.5; Rb 0.60-0.66 and 0.63; and As 0.0016-0.0060 and 0.0032. The mean concentrations of the essential trace elements Zn, Se, Cu, Cr and Co in colostrum were, respectively, 3.7, 3.2, 2.4, 1.8 and 1.7 times higher than those in mature human milk. No significant differences in Rb and As concentrations were found between colostrum and mature milk. Average values of Zn and Cu in transitional human milk were, respectively, 3.4 and 1.5 times higher than in mature milk. No significant differences for the rest of the elements were found between these two milk samples. The two milk formulas, half-cream and humanized, contained higher mean concentrations of Zn, Rb and As and similar or lower concentrations of Cr, Co and Se than mature human milk. Half-cream is deficient in Cu; mature human milk contains about 9 times more Cu than the half-cream cow's milk. Humanized milk contains a similar mean concentration of Cu as the mature milk. All examined infant foods contained similar or higher concentrations of all elements determined than did the mature human milk

  9. Chemometric deconvolution of gas chromatographic unresolved conjugated linoleic acid isomers triplet in milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasko, Jaroslav; Kubinec, Róbert; Ostrovský, Ivan; Pavlíková, Eva; Krupcík, Ján; Soják, Ladislav

    2009-04-03

    A generally known problem of GC separation of trans-7;cis-9; cis-9,trans-11; and trans-8,cis-10 CLA (conjugated linoleic acid) isomers was studied by GC-MS on 100m capillary column coated with cyanopropyl silicone phase at isothermal column temperatures in a range of 140-170 degrees C. The resolution of these CLA isomers obtained at given conditions was not high enough for direct quantitative analysis, but it was, however, sufficient for the determination of their peak areas by commercial deconvolution software. Resolution factors of overlapped CLA isomers determined by the separation of a model CLA mixture prepared by mixing of a commercial CLA mixture and CLA isomer fraction obtained by the HPLC semi-preparative separation of milk fatty acids methyl esters were used to validate the deconvolution procedure. Developed deconvolution procedure allowed the determination of the content of studied CLA isomers in ewes' and cows' milk samples, where dominant isomer cis-9,trans-11 is eluted between two small isomers trans-7,cis-9 and trans-8,cis-10 (in the ratio up to 1:100).

  10. Milk and serum standard reference materials for monitoring organic contaminants in human samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M; Eppe, Gauthier; Focant, Jean-François; Hamilton, Coreen; Heckert, N Alan; Heltsley, Rebecca M; Hoover, Dale; Keller, Jennifer M; Leigh, Stefan D; Patterson, Donald G; Pintar, Adam L; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    Four new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of chemical contaminant measurements required for human biomonitoring studies, SRM 1953 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1954 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum. These materials were developed as part of a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with both agencies contributing data used in the certification of mass fraction values for a wide range of organic contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners. The certified mass fractions of the organic contaminants in unfortified samples, SRM 1953 and SRM 1957, ranged from 12 ng/kg to 2200 ng/kg with the exception of 4,4'-DDE in SRM 1953 at 7400 ng/kg with expanded uncertainties generally <14 %. This agreement suggests that there were no significant biases existing among the multiple methods used for analysis.

  11. Comparison of the fatty acid composition of transitional and mature milk of mothers who delivered healthy full-term babies, preterm babies and full-term small for gestational age infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobiński, R; Mikulska, M; Mojska, H; Simon, M

    2013-09-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of breast milk throughout the period of lactation is fairly well understood. What is not known, however, is the FA composition of breast milk at the interface of physiology and pathology of pregnancy. We therefore decided to analyse and compare the differences in the FA composition of transitional and mature milk of mothers who delivered small for gestational age (SGA) neonates born at term; infants delivered at 35-37 weeks of gestation, that is 'late preterm'; and that of mothers who gave birth to appropriate for gestational age neonates (AGA). The FAs were analysed by HPLC equipped with MS detector. We found differences in the percentage share of the studied FA pool regarding levels of capric, lauric and gadoleic acids. Comparing transitional and mature milk, the greatest diversity was seen in the group of mothers of AGA neonates and the least was noted in the group of mothers of SGA neonates. Both 'late prematurity' and reduced neonatal weight of children born at term affect the FA composition of breast milk. Even a small degree of fetal malformation alters the composition of breast milk, which is probably related to the child's needs and condition.

  12. Microbiological evaluation of milk samples positive to California Mastitis Test in dairy buffalo cows (Buballus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Sturion

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to observe the microbiological status of CMT positive samples, 734 apparently health mammary quarters from buffalo cows were submitted to physical evaluation, strip cup test and CMT. After milk samples inoculation in 10% ovine blood agar base media and in MacConkey agar and incubation under aerobic condition for 72 hours at 37oC, identification was proceeded. According to CMT, 227 quarters (30,93% were positive, among them 73 (32,16% presented 1+ reaction, 53 (23,35% were 2+ and 101 (44,49% were 3+. Microbiological exams of such samples were positive in 147 (64,76% out of 227 CMT positive samples and among the remaining 72 (31,72% were negative and 8 (3,52 were contaminated. In the 147 microbiological positive samples 204 bacteria were found in pure or associated growth and the most frequent agents were: Corynebacterium sp (59,25%; Staphylococcus sp (17,65% among which 86,11% were coagulase negative and 13,89% were coagulase positive; and Micrococcus sp (6,37%. The results revealed that, excluding the eight contaminated samples, 147 (67,12% quarters out of 219 CMT positive could be considered as bacteria-carrier and that even in a smaller percentage false-positive results can cause problems in a sanitary program for mastitis control in dairy buffalo cows.

  13. Identification of sixteen peptides reflecting heat and/or storage induced processes by profiling of commercial milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Jennifer; Baum, Florian; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2016-09-16

    Peptide profiles of different drinking milk samples were examined to study how the peptide fingerprint of milk reflects processing conditions. The combination of a simple and fast method for peptide extraction using stage tips and MALDI-TOF-MS enabled the fast and easy generation and relative quantification of peptide fingerprints for high-temperature short-time (HTST), extended shelf life (ESL) and ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk of the same dairies. The relative quantity of 16 peptides changed as a function of increasing heat load. Additional heating experiments showed that among those, the intensity of peptide β-casein 196-209 (m/z 1460.9Da) was most heavily influenced by heat treatment indicating a putative marker peptide for milk processing conditions. Storage experiments with HTST- and UHT milk revealed that the differences between different types of milk samples were not only caused by the heating process. Relevant was also the proteolytic activity of enzymes during storage, which were differently influenced by the heat treatment. These results indicate that the peptide profile may be suitable to monitor processing as well as storage conditions of milk. In the present study, peptide profiling of different types of milk was carried out by MALDI-TOF-MS after stage-tip extraction and relative quantification using an internal reference peptide. Although MALDI-TOF-MS covers only part of the peptidome, the method is easy and quick and is, therefore, suited for routine analysis to address several aspects of food authenticity. Using this method, 16 native peptides were detected in milk that could be modulated by different industrial processes. Subsequent heating and storage experiments with pasteurized and UHT milk confirmed that these peptides are indeed related to the production or storage conditions of the respective products. Furthermore, the heating experiments revealed one peptide, namely the β-casein-derived sequence β-casein 196-209, which underwent

  14. In vitro Ca(2+)-dependent maturation of milk-clotting recombinant Epr: minor extracellular protease: from Bacillus licheniformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageitos, José Manuel; Vallejo, Juan Andrés; Serrat, Manuel; Sánchez-Pérez, Angeles; Villa, Tomás G

    2013-06-01

    The minor extracellular protease (Epr) is secreted into the culture medium during Bacillus licheniformis, strain USC13, stationary phase of growth. Whereas, B. subtilis Epr has been reported to be involved in swarming; the B. licheniformis protease is also involved in milk-clotting as shown by the curd forming ability of culture broths expressing this protein. The objectives of this study are the characterization of recombinant B. licheniformis Epr (minor extracellular protease) and the determination of its calcium-dependent activation process. In this work, we have cloned and expressed B. licheniformis Epr in Escherichia coli. We were also able to construct a tridimensional model for Epr based on its homology to Thermococcus kodakarensis pro-tk-subtilisin 2e1p, fervidolysin from Fervidobacterium pennivorans 1rv6, and B. lentus 1GCI subtilisin. Recombinant Epr was accumulated into inclusion bodies; after protein renaturation, Epr undergoes an in vitro calcium-dependent activation, similar to that described for tk protease. The recombinant Epr is capable of producing milk curds with the same clotting activity previously described for the native B. licheniformis Epr enzyme although further rheological and industrial studies should be carried out to confirm its real applicability. This work represents for the first time that Epr may be successfully expressed in a non-bacilli microorganism.

  15. Screening of bovine milk samples for sub-clinical mastitis and antibiogram of bacterial isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harini H. and Sumathi B.R.

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to find out the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM and to assess the antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the causative organisms in lactating cows in and around Kanakapura taluk, Ramanagara district of Karnataka state. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was assessed by the results of 3 different screening tests and bacteriological evaluation was done for the milk samples that were found positive. The predominant bacterial isolates recovered were Staphylococcus aureus (58% and Escherichia coli (23.5% followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (8%, Streptococcus sp. (5.5%, Klebsiella sp. (3% and Bacillus sp. (2%. The in vitro antibiogram studies of bacterial isolates revealed higher sensitivity for ciprofloxacin (89%, ofloxacin (85%, enrofloxacin (82%, gentamicin (80% and chloramphenicol (75%, resistant to colistin, neomycin, streptomycin, penicillin and tetracycline. [Vet. World 2011; 4(8.000: 358-359

  16. Three rapid methods for determination {sup 90}Sr in milk samples using liquid scintillation spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasisiara, F.; Attarilar, N. [Iranian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (INRA), Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Environmental Radiation Protection Div., National Radiation Protection Dept. (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afshar, N. [Tarbiat Modarres Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Strontium radionuclide {sup 90}Sr is one of the main long-lived components of the radioactive fallout which occurred as a result of previous atmospheric nuclear tests and also nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl accident. Due to chemical and biochemical similarities between strontium and calcium, more than 99% of strontium is efficiently incorporated into bone tissue and teeth and Characterized by along physical and biological half-life, it may cause damage to bone marrow. Since determination of this radionuclide often is a time consuming process, rapid determination methods specially in emergency situations is always desirable. In this work, three rapid methods for determination of this radionuclide in milk samples will be evaluated. All of the methods include two major steps: 1- strontium separation from fats and proteins which can be performed by drying (in case of the fresh milk samples), ashing and leaching by nitric acids or by using exchange or chelating resins which have strong affinity for alkaline earth cations such as Dowex 50W-X8. And 2- Separation of Sr-90 or its daughter product, Y-90. In two methods separation of {sup 90}Sr is performed by extraction of the daughter nuclide, {sup 90}Y, by aid of organic extracting agent, Tributylphosphate or T.B.P., and then Cherenkov counting of the Y-90 extracted. The third method is based on separation of this radionuclide using Crown Ether or Sr -Spec resin. The detailed radiochemical procedures and evaluation of each method advantages or disadvantages will explained in full text paper. (authors)

  17. Mammary candidiasis: molecular-based detection of Candida species in human milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschlechner, W; Karall, D; Hartmann, C; Streiter, B; Baumgartner-Sigl, S; Orth-Höller, D; Lass-Flörl, C

    2016-08-01

    In this prospective and monocentric study, we investigated the performance of a commercialized real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test system for the specific detection of DNA from Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. lusitaniae, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis in human milk samples of patients suspicious of mammary candidiasis. For this purpose, 43 breast-feeding women with characteristic symptoms of mammary candidiasis and 40 asymptomatic controls were enrolled. By culture, Candida spp. were detected in 8.8 % (4/46) and 9.3 % (4/43) of patient and control samples, respectively. Candida albicans (2/46), C. parapsilosis (1/46), and C. guilliermondii (1/46) were present in patient samples, and C. lusitaniae (3/43) and C. guilliermondii (1/43) were present in the controls. After RT-PCR was applied, Candida spp. were found to be present in 67.4 % (31/46) and 79.1 % (34/43) of patient and control samples investigated, respectively. PCR detection of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis revealed only a low sensitivity and specificity of 67.4 % and 41.9 %, respectively. Our data do not support the use of Candida RT-PCR for sensitive and specific diagnosis of mammary candidiasis.

  18. 90Sr- 90Y and 89Sr beta radioactivity measurement in milk samples using a proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mananes, A.; Perez Santos, C.; Martinez Churiaque, F.

    1987-01-01

    A thin window glas flow proportional counter is used to measure the 90 Sr- 90 Y and 89 Sr beta radioactivity in milk samples. A chemical procedure is used to separate strontium-yttrium from the other radionuclides present in milk. A calculation of the total efficiency of the system is performed which includes an empirical estimation of the backscattering factor. The calibration of the whole process allows the determination of the 90 Sr activity within 10% relative error in spite of uncertainties in the recovery yields of strontium and yttrium. No 89 Sr activity has been detected, and the mean value obtained for the 90 Sr activity in nine milk samples of Cantabria is 0.115 Bq/1 with a minimum detectable activity of 0.0105 Bq. (author) 18 refs

  19. Analysis of ewe’s milk by FT Near Infrared spectroscopy: measurement of samples on Petri dishes in reflectance mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Květoslava Šustová

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work deals with a possibility of determination of basic composition (dry matter, fat, protein, casein, lactose and urea nitrogen of ewe’s milk and colostrum by FT NIR spectroscopy. Samples of milk were warmed to 40 °C, agitated, cooled to 20 °C, transferred into Petri dishes and analysed by reference methods and by FT NIR in reflectance mode. The measured area was spaced by a metallic mirror. Statistically significant differences between the reference values and the calculated values of NIR were not found (p=0.05. Results of calibration for ewe’s milk determined the highest correlation coefficients: dry matter 0.983, fat 0.989, true protein 0.997, casein 0.977, lactose 0.980 and urea nitrogen 0.973. The study showed that NIRS method, when samples of milk are measured on Petri dishes, is a useful technique for the prediction of dry matter, fat, protein and casein in ewe’s milk.

  20. A Real-Time PCR Detection of Genus Salmonella in Meat and Milk Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Pochop

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was follow the contamination of ready to eat milk and meat products with Salmonella spp. by using the Step One real-time PCR. Classical microbiological methods for detection of food-borne bacteria involve the use of pre-enrichment and/or specific enrichment, followed by the isolation of the bacteria in solid media and a final confirmation by biochemical and/or serological tests. We used the PrepSEQ Rapid Spin Sample Preparation Kit for isolation of DNA and SensiFAST SYBR Hi-ROX Kit for the real-time PCR performance. In the investigated samples without incubation we could detect strain of Salmonella sp. in five out of twenty three samples (swabs. This Step One real-time PCR assay is extremely useful for any laboratory in possession of a real-time PCR. It is a fast, reproducible, simple, specific and sensitive way to detect nucleic acids, which could be used in clinical diagnostic tests in the future. Our results indicated that the Step One real-time PCR assay developed in this study could sensitively detect Salmonella spp. in ready to eat food.

  1. The impact of maternal- and neonatal-associated factors on human milk's macronutrients and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dritsakou, Kalliopi; Liosis, Georgios; Valsami, Georgia; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Skouroliakou, Maria

    2017-06-01

    To test the impact of specific maternal- and neonatal-associated factors on human milk's macronutrients and energy. This study was conducted with the use of a human milk analyzer (HMA, MIRIS, Uppsala, Sweden). Six hundred and thirty samples of raw milk and 95 samples of donor pasteurized milk were delivered from a total of 305 mothers. A significant inverse correlation of fat, protein and energy content with gestational age and birth weight was established. Fat and energy were lower in colostrum, increased in transitional milk and decreased on the 30th day's mature milk compared to transitional. The rate of protein decline from colostrum to mature milk was lower in premature deliveries compared to that of full-terms, resulting in greater contents of protein in preterm mature milk. The upmost amounts of carbohydrates were found in mature milk of preterm deliveries. A positive correlation was found between maternal age and fat contents. In women with higher post-pregnancy BMI levels greater analogies of fat and energy were presented. In women suffering diet-controlled gestational diabetes (GD), lower protein and higher fat and energy levels were found. Prematurity, maternal age, diet-controlled GD and high post-pregnancy BMI levels were found to impose statistical significant effect on milk's macronutrients and energy.

  2. Toxic metals in breast milk samples from Ankara, Turkey: assessment of lead, cadmium, nickel, and arsenic levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürbay, Aylin; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Eken, Ayşe; Sayal, Ahmet; Girgin, Gözde; Yurdakök, Murat; Yiğit, Şule; Erol, Dilek Demir; Şahin, Gönül; Aydın, Ahmet

    2012-10-01

    Toxic metals are one of the significant groups of chemical contaminants that humans are exposed to by oral, inhalation, and dermal routes. Exposure to these chemicals begins with intrauterine life and continues during lactation period at the first years of life. Breastfeeding has a much more special place than other nutrition options for infants. However, when possibility of contaminant transfer by breast milk is considered, its safety and quality is essential. Regarding infant and mother health and limited number of information on this field in Turkey, measuring contamination levels in breast milk is important. Therefore, in the present study, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), and arsenic (As) levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry in 64 breast milk samples obtained from mothers from Ankara, Turkey. Pb and Ni levels in breast milk samples were found to be 391.45±269.01 μg/l and 43.94±33.82 μg/l (mean ± SD), respectively. Cd was found only in one of 64 samples, and the level was 4.62 μg/l. As level was below the limit of quantification (LOQ, 7.6 μg/l) in all samples. These findings will accurately direct strategies and solutions of protection against contaminants in order to reduce their levels in biological fluids.

  3. LC-MS/MS analysis of permethylated free oligosaccharides and N-glycans derived from human, bovine, and goat milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xue; Zhou, Shiyue; Mechref, Yehia

    2016-06-01

    Oligosaccharides in milk not only provide nutrition to the infants but also have significant immune biofunctions such as inhibition of pathogen binding to the host cell. The main component in milk oligosaccharides is free oligosaccharides. Since the proteins in milk are highly glycosylated, N-glycans in milk also play an import role. In this study, we investigated the permethylated free oligosaccharides and N-glycans extracted from bovine, goat, and human milks using LC-MS/MS. Quantitation profiles of free oligosaccharides and N-glycans were reported. The number of free oligosaccharides observed in bovine, goat, and human milk samples (without isomeric consideration) were 11, 8, and 11, respectively. Human milk had more complex free oligosaccharides structures than the other two milk samples. Totally 58, 21, and 43 N-glycan structures (without isomeric consideration) were associated with whey proteins extracted from bovine, goat, and human milk samples, respectively. Bovine milk free oligosaccharides and N-glycans from whey proteins were highly sialylated and to a lesser extend fucosylated. Goat and human milk free oligosaccharides and N-glycans from whey proteins were both highly fucosylated. Also, the isomeric glycans in milk samples were determined by porous graphitic carbon LC at elevated temperatures. For example, separation of human milk free oligosaccharide Gal-GlcNAc-(Fuc)-Gal-Glc and Gal-GlcNAc-Gal-Glc-Fuc isomers was achieved using porous graphitic carbon column. Permethylation of the glycan structures facilitated the interpretation of MS/MS. For example, internal cleavage and glycosidic bond cleavage are readily distinguished in the tandem mass spectra of permethylated glycans. This feature resulted in the identification of several isomers. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Trace elements and protein in human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abusamra, Y.I.H.

    1995-01-01

    The trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb and some related major elements which are Ca, Cl K and total protein contents of human samples from ninety mothers were examined in this study. Samples were collected from Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman, from the second day of delivery up to the third month where the milk reaches a relatively stable levels. These samples representing different stages of lactation which are colostrum ( 1-3 days ), tranitional ( up to 14 days ) and mature milk. The principle aim of this study is to measure the trace elements and protein contents in relation to stage of lactation and to compare with the literature. Atomic absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence were used to measure trace elements in the samples. The methods were found to be quite reliable as proved by the analysis of the standard reference material HM-1. Whereas neutron activation analysis was used for measurements of total protein. Colostrum was found to have the highest amounts of trace elements and protein. Fe mean concentration was 273 g/dm 3 at colostrum stage and it decreased to 146 g/dm 3 in mature milk ( 49% ). Zn decreased from 6000 g/dm 3 in colostrum to 1300 g/dm 3 in mature stage ( 78% ). Mn was 12g/dm 3 in colostrum, and it decreased to 2.9 g/dm 3 in mature milk ( 75% ). Cu decreased from 370 g/dm 3 to 117 g/dm 3 ( 68% ). Ni decreased from 24 g/dm 3 to 8.8 g/dm 3 ( 63% ) and Pb from 12 g/dm 3 to 2.6 g/dm 3 ( 76% ). Total protein was 37.3% of the dry milk in colostrum and it was 12.2% in mature milk. (author). 75 refs., 25 tabs., 30 figs

  5. Inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus in canned food and coconut milk samples by addition of enterocin AS-48.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viedma, Pilar Martínez; Abriouel, Hikmate; Ben Omar, Nabil; López, Rosario Lucas; Valdivia, Eva; Gálvez, Antonio

    2009-05-01

    The cyclic bacteriocin enterocin AS-48 was tested on a cocktail of two Geobacillus stearothermophilus strains in canned food samples (corn and peas), and in coconut milk. AS-48 (7 microg/g) reduced viable cell counts below detection levels in samples from canned corn and peas stored at 45 degrees C for 30 days. In coconut milk, bacterial inactivation by AS-48 (1.75 microg/ml) was even faster. In all canned food and drink samples inoculated with intact G. stearothermophilus endospores, bacteriocin addition (1.75 microg per g or ml of food sample) rapidly reduced viable cell counts below detection levels and avoided regrowth during storage. After a short-time bacteriocin treatment of endospores, trypsin addition markedly increased G. stearothermophilus survival, supporting the effect of residual bacteriocin on the observed loss of viability for endospores. Results from this study support the potential of enterocin AS-48 as a biopreservative against G. stearothermophilus.

  6. 'Nano-immuno test' for the detection of live Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis bacilli in the milk samples using magnetic nano-particles and chromogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manju; Singh, Shoor Vir; Gupta, Saurabh; Chaubey, Kundan Kumar; Stephan, Bjorn John; Sohal, Jagdip Singh; Dutta, Manali

    2018-04-26

    Early rapid detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) bacilli in milk samples is the major challenge since traditional culture method is time consuming and laboratory dependent. We report a simple, sensitive and specific nano-technology based 'Nano-immuno test' capable of detecting viable MAP bacilli in the milk samples within 10 h. Viable MAP bacilli were captured by MAP specific antibody-conjugated magnetic nano-particles using resazurin dye as chromogen. Test was optimized using true culture positive (10-bovine and 12-goats) and true culture negative (16-bovine and 25-goats) raw milk samples. Domestic livestock species in India are endemically infected with MAP. After successful optimization, sensitivity and specificity of the 'nano-immuno test' in goats with respect to milk culture was 91.7% and 96.0%, respectively. Whereas, it was 90.0% (sensitivity) and 92.6% (specificity) with respect to IS900 PCR. In bovine milk samples, sensitivity and specificity of 'nano-immuno test' with respect to milk culture was 90.0% and 93.7%, respectively. However, with respect to IS900 PCR, the sensitivity and specificity was 88.9% and 94.1%, respectively. Test was validated with field raw milk samples (goats-258 and bovine-138) collected from domestic livestock species to detect live/viable MAP bacilli. Of 138 bovine raw milk samples screened by six diagnostic tests, 81 (58.7%) milk samples were positive for MAP infection in one or more than one diagnostic tests. Of 81 (58.7%) positive bovine raw milk samples, only 24 (17.4%) samples were detected positive for the presence of viable MAP bacilli. Of 258 goats raw milk samples screened by six diagnostic tests, 141 (54.6%) were positive for MAP infection in one or more than one test. Of 141 (54.6%) positive raw milk samples from goats, only 48 (34.0%) were detected positive for live MAP bacilli. Simplicity and efficiency of this novel 'nano-immuno test' makes it suitable for wide-scale screening of milk

  7. Detection of toxic shock toxin (tst gene in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine milk samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baniardalan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative pathogen of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle all over the world. This agent produces a variety of extracellular toxins and virulence factors in-cluding toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1 which is the major cause of toxic shock syndrome (TSS. In the present study, 76 S. aureus isolates have been obtained from milk samples collected from 7 dairy herds in Hamedan province of Iran. The isolates were identified based on the biochemical and molecular methods using PCR amplification of the femA gene. The staphylococcal isolates were also examined for the presence of TSST-1 (tst encoding gene. This gene was detected in only one S. aureus isolate (1.3%. The results revealed that S. aureus strains causing bovine mastitis may potentially produce staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, indicating that it is very important to follow the presence of TSST-1 producing S. aureus isolates in foodstuffs to protect consumers against the risk of toxic shock syndrome

  8. Preparation of milk samples for immunoassay and liquid chromatographic screening using matrix solid-phase dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, S A; Long, A R

    1994-01-01

    The use of drugs to maintain the health and maximize the output of dairy cattle has made the monitoring of milk for such agents essential. Screening tests based on immunological, microbial inhibition, and bacterial receptor assays have been developed for the detection of violative levels of therapeutic substances. However, such assays are not infallible, and false positive or negative results can occur when contaminants bind receptors or compete for the binding of the target residues. Such effects may arise from dietary sources, diseases, or other variables. Thus, a violation by such a test is not definitive until further confirmation is obtained. Our laboratory has developed extraction procedures for several drugs used in dairy production. Our method uses matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) to isolate drugs away from contaminants and to eliminate many possible interferences. MSPD can also be used to enhance the specificity of such assays by fractionating various classes of drugs that may cross-react. Similarly, such methods may be used for liquid chromatographic screening and confirmation of a suspect sample.

  9. Possible additional exposure to dioxin and dioxin-like compounds from waste incineration. Biomonitoring using human milk and animal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampaio, C.; M. Fatima Reis; J. Pereira Miguel [Inst. of Preventive Medicine, Univ. of Lisbon (Portugal); Murk, A. [Wageningen Univ., Dept. of Toxicology (Netherlands)

    2004-09-15

    In the ambit of an Environmental Health Survey Program relative to a MSW facility, which has been operating near to Lisbon since 1999 a biomonitoring study using human breast milk has been performed. Specific aims of this study were: (1) determine whether living in the vicinity of the incinerator increases dioxin maternal body burden and accordingly perinatal (intra-uterus and lactacional) exposure; (2) to investigate the possibility of increased human exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like compounds via locally produced food items from animal origin. Therefore, levels of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds have been determined in human milk samples collected in the vicinity of the incinerator and in a control area, for comparison. From the same areas, cow and sheep milk and eggs from free-range chickens have also been collected to get an indication of possible local additional exposure to air-borne dioxins via the food chain. Analyses of TCDD-equivalents (TEQs) were mainly performed with a reporter gene assay for dioxin-like activity, the DR-CALUX bioassay (Dioxin Responsive Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression).To determine congeners profile, some human milk samples have also been analysed for PCDD/Fs and relevant dioxin-like PCBs, by using high-resolution gas chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Both the Ethics Committees of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, and of the Maternity Dr. Alfredo da Costa have approved the study protocol.

  10. 40 K, 137 Cs and 232 Th activities in Brazilian milk samples measured by gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melquiades, Fabio L.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2000-01-01

    This work deals with the measurement of radioactive activities in powdered milk, with high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry, using a HPGe detector coupled to a standard electronic nuclear chain and a multichannel card of 8192 channels. Preliminary measurements were accomplished to define the kind of the system shield, the geometry of the sample recipient, the size of the sampling and the self absorption correction. It was possible to measure the radionuclides 40 K, 137 Cs and 208 Tl, whose activities were calculated according to the International Atomic Energy Agency norms. The detector efficiency was measured employing calibrated samples, prepared with IAEA certificate standards mixed with powdered milk. Tukey's average comparison test was used to check the repeatability of the measurements and the absence of significant systematic deviation. (author)

  11. Bacterial community profiling of milk samples as a means to understand culture-negative bovine clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Joanna S; Gorden, Patrick J; Munro, Daniel; Rong, Ruichen; Dong, Qunfeng; Plummer, Paul J; Wang, Chong; Phillips, Gregory J

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation and infection of bovine mammary glands, commonly known as mastitis, imposes significant losses each year in the dairy industry worldwide. While several different bacterial species have been identified as causative agents of mastitis, many clinical mastitis cases remain culture negative, even after enrichment for bacterial growth. To understand the basis for this increasingly common phenomenon, the composition of bacterial communities from milk samples was analyzed using culture independent pyrosequencing of amplicons of 16S ribosomal RNA genes (16S rDNA). Comparisons were made of the microbial community composition of culture negative milk samples from mastitic quarters with that of non-mastitic quarters from the same animals. Genomic DNA from culture-negative clinical and healthy quarter sample pairs was isolated, and amplicon libraries were prepared using indexed primers specific to the V1-V2 region of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and sequenced using the Roche 454 GS FLX with titanium chemistry. Evaluation of the taxonomic composition of these samples revealed significant differences in the microbiota in milk from mastitic and healthy quarters. Statistical analysis identified seven bacterial genera that may be mainly responsible for the observed microbial community differences between mastitic and healthy quarters. Collectively, these results provide evidence that cases of culture negative mastitis can be associated with bacterial species that may be present below culture detection thresholds used here. The application of culture-independent bacterial community profiling represents a powerful approach to understand long-standing questions in animal health and disease.

  12. DISTRIBUTION OF COAGULASE-NEGATIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI SPECIES ON TEAT SKIN AND IN MILK SAMPLES FROM DAIRY COWS IN AUTOMATIC MILKING SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmmod, Yasser Saadeldien Ibrahim; Svennesen, Line; Pedersen, Karl

    ) to identify the predisposing cow level risk factors for specific CNS IMI and teat colonization.In each herd, 30- 40 cows with somatic cell counts > 200,000 cells/ml in the previous milk recording are randomly selected and teat skin swabs and aseptic quarter foremilk samples are taken. Teat skin swabs...... are collected using a modified wet-dry method. First a wet swab immersed in ¼ Ringer’s solution followed by a dry swab are rotated 360° around the teat canal orifice and both swab tips transferred into one tube with 2 ml of ¼ Ringer’s solution. Samples are transported on ice for culturing in the laboratory...

  13. [Monitoring of udder health by quarterwise measurement of initial milking samples for electric conductivity--results of serial examinations of individual animals and herds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, H; Schulz, J; Beuche, W; Labitzke, H

    1981-01-01

    More than 400 cows were involved in three experimental series in which quarterwise measurement was applied continuously, even daly in a number of instances, to initial milking samples, with the view to establishing the electric conductivity of the milk. Electric cell count determination, high-speed mastitis tests, clinical examination of udders and secretions, and bacteriological milk tests were complementarily conducted. The major purpose of the effort was to find out whether milk conductivity measurement would be helpful in detecting subclinical mastitis. Conductivity measurement, in addition to being in fair agreement with milk cell count data, proved to be suitable an approach to high-continuity monitoring of udder condition, with no disruption of the production process being required. Specification of limit values and diagnostic value of differences between quarter milking data from one and the same udder were additional subjects of this study.

  14. Measurements of stable isotope ratios in milk samples from a farm placed in the mountains of Transylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdas, D. A., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro; Cristea, G., E-mail: gabriela.cristea@itim-cj.ro; Bot, A.; Puscas, R.; Radu, S.; Mirel, V. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath Str., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cordea, D. V.; Mihaiu, M. [University of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine, 3-5 Calea Manastur, 400372 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    Product origin is of great importance for consumers especially because its association in consumer's perception with food quality, freedom from disease or pollution. Stable isotope ratio analysis is a powerful technique in food authenticity and traceability control which has been introduced within the European wine industry to ensure authenticity of wine provenance and to detect adulteration. Isotopic ratios measurements have also been successfully to other food commodities like: fruit juices, honey and dairy foods. The δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 2}H content in milk water reflects the isotope composition of the ground water drunk by animals. Seasonal effects are also very important: in summer, milk water contains higher δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 2}H values due to the fresh plants that are ate by animals. Relative carbon stable isotope abundances in total milk reflect the isotopic composition of the diet fed to the dairy cows. In this study the hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of 15 milk samples coming from a unit placed in the mountains of Transylvania was investigated. The distribution of the obtained isotopic values was than discussed taking into account that all the animals were feed with the same type of forage and consumed water was taken from the same source.

  15. Measurements of stable isotope ratios in milk samples from a farm placed in the mountains of Transylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magdas, D. A.; Cristea, G.; Bot, A.; Puscas, R.; Radu, S.; Mirel, V.; Cordea, D. V.; Mihaiu, M.

    2013-01-01

    Product origin is of great importance for consumers especially because its association in consumer's perception with food quality, freedom from disease or pollution. Stable isotope ratio analysis is a powerful technique in food authenticity and traceability control which has been introduced within the European wine industry to ensure authenticity of wine provenance and to detect adulteration. Isotopic ratios measurements have also been successfully to other food commodities like: fruit juices, honey and dairy foods. The δ 18 O and δ 2 H content in milk water reflects the isotope composition of the ground water drunk by animals. Seasonal effects are also very important: in summer, milk water contains higher δ 18 O and δ 2 H values due to the fresh plants that are ate by animals. Relative carbon stable isotope abundances in total milk reflect the isotopic composition of the diet fed to the dairy cows. In this study the hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of 15 milk samples coming from a unit placed in the mountains of Transylvania was investigated. The distribution of the obtained isotopic values was than discussed taking into account that all the animals were feed with the same type of forage and consumed water was taken from the same source

  16. Comparison of PCR-ELISA and LightCycler real-time PCR assays for detecting Salmonella spp. in milk and meat samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perelle, Sylvie; Dilasser, Françoise; Malorny, Burkhard

    2004-01-01

    , minced beef and raw milk, and 92 naturally-contaminated milk and meat samples. When using either PCR-ELISA or LC-PCR assays, only Salmonella strains were detected. PCR-ELISA and LC-PCR assays gave with pure Salmonella cultures the same detection limit level of 10(3) CFU/ml, which corresponds respectively...

  17. Electrolyte profile of Malaysian mothers' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaudeen, S; Muslim, N; Faridah, K; Azman, A; Arshat, H

    1988-12-01

    The influence of socioeconomic status (ethnicity, income and parity) on electrolyte composition (sodium and potassium) in human milk is little known. We have thus quantitatively analyzed approximately 700 samples of milk (1-90 days postpartum) obtained from healthy Malaysian mothers' (Malay, Chinese and Indians) of full term infants. Results show that the mean concentration (mmol/l) of sodium is highest (48.2+or-1.7, Mean+or-SEM) in the Malaysian mothers' colostrum and this value decreased by 30% in their transitional milk and remained constant throughout subsequent days of lactation (mature milk). Ethnically, it is found that the level of sodium in colostrum of Malay and Chinese mothers were similar while the Indian mothers' colostrum showed apparently higher value (52.7+or-3.4 mmol/l) that is statistically insignificant. The transitional milk of all 3 ethnic groups studied exhibited similar levels of sodium. On subsequent days of lactation (mature milk) the Malay mothers exhibited lowest concentration (25.9+or-2.6 mmol/l) of sodium that is significantly (P0.05) different from that of Chinese and Indian mothers. Income and parity do not significantly affect the sodium level in Malaysian mothers' milk during all stages of lactation studied. The level of potassium, however did not change significantly with days of lactation. Like sodium, potassium too was not influenced by income and parity. (Author's).

  18. Prevalence, Virulence Potential, and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profile of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated From Bovine Raw Milk Samples Obtained From Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjita; Sharma, Vishnu; Dahiya, Dinesh Kumar; Khan, Aarif; Mathur, Manisha; Sharma, Amit

    2017-03-01

    Listeriosis is a serious foodborne disease of a global concern, and can effectively be controlled by a continuous surveillance of the virulent and multidrug-resistant strains of Listeria monocytogenes. This study was planned to investigate prevalence of L. monocytogenes in bovine raw milk samples. A total of 457 raw milk samples collected from 15 major cities in Rajasthan, India, were analyzed for the presence of L. monocytogenes by using standard microbiological and molecular methods. Five of the 457 samples screen tested positive for L. monocytogenes. Multiplex serotyping showed that 3/5 strains belonged to serotype 4b followed by one strain each to 1/2a and to 1/2c. Further virulence potential assessment indicated that all strains possessed inlA and inlC internalins, and, in addition, two strains also possessed the gene for inlB. All strains were positive for Listeriolysin O (LLO) and showed phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) activity on an in vitro agar medium with variations in production levels among the strains. A good correlation between the in vitro pathogenicity test and the chick embryo test was observed, as the strains showing higher LLO and PI-PLC activity were found to be lethal to fertilized chick embryos. All strains were resistant to the majority of antibiotics and were designated as multidrug-resistant strains. However, these strains were susceptible to 9 of the 22 tested antibiotics. The maximum zone of inhibition (mm) and acceptable minimum inhibitory concentration were observed with azithromycin, and thus it could be the first choice of a treatment. Overall, the presence of multidrug-resistant L. monocytogenes strains in the raw milk of Rajasthan region is an indicator of public health hazard and highlighting the need of consumer awareness in place and implementation of stricter food safety regulations at all levels of milk production.

  19. Comparison of Bovine coronavirus-specific and Bovine respiratory syncytial virus-specific antibodies in serum versus milk samples detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, Anna; Blanco-Penedo, Isabel; Fall, Nils

    2014-01-01

    Bovine coronavirus (BCV; Betacoronavirus 1) and Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) are significant causes of enteric and respiratory disease in beef and dairy cattle throughout the world. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays are widely used to detect serum antibodies for herd monitoring and prevalence studies. In dairy herds, milk is more readily collected than serum. Hence, in order to investigate the test agreement between serum and milk, both serum and milk samples from 105 cows in 27 dairy herds were analyzed in parallel for presence of immunoglobulin G antibodies to BCV and BRSV. The Bland-Altman analyses of data demonstrated good agreement between serum and milk antibody titers for both viruses. The results indicate milk samples are sufficient for surveillance of antibodies to BCV and BRSV.

  20. Antioxidative Activity of Colostrum and Human Milk: Effects of Pasteurization and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinković, Vesna; Ranković-Janevski, Milica; Spasić, Snežana; Nikolić-Kokić, Aleksandra; Lugonja, Nikoleta; Djurović, Dijana; Miletić, Srdjan; Vrvić, Miroslav M; Spasojević, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    Milk banks collect, pasteurize, and freeze/store human milk. The processing may alter redox properties of milk, but the effects have not been fully examined. We collected 10 mature milk and 10 colostrum samples and applied a battery of biochemical assays and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to inspect changes that milk undergoes with pasteurization and 30 days storage at -20°C. Pasteurization and storage of raw milk did not affect total nonenzymatic antioxidative capacity, but specific components and features were altered. Urate radical and ascorbyl radical emerge as products of exposure of milk to hydroxyl radical-generating system. Processing shifted the load of antioxidative activity from ascorbate to urate and lowered the capacity of milk to diminish hydroxyl radical. Pasteurization caused a significant drop in the activity of 2 major antioxidative enzymes-superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, whereas freezing/storage of raw milk affected only superoxide dismutase. Colostrum showed drastically higher total nonenzymatic antioxidative capacity, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability, and glutathione reductase activity compared with mature milk. Pasteurization and storage affect nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidative agents in human milk. It appears that nonenzymatic antioxidative systems in colostrum and milk are different. The effects of processing may be partially compensated by fortification/spiking with ascorbate before use.

  1. Does Circadian Variation of Mothers Affect Macronutrients of Breast Milk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetinkaya, Aslihan Köse; Dizdar, Evrim Alyamaç; Yarcı, Erbu; Sari, Fatma Nur; Oguz, Serife Suna; Uras, Nurdan; Canpolat, Fuat Emre

    2017-06-01

    Objective  To determine the within-day variation of fat, protein, and carbohydrate content of breast milk. Methods  The study was conducted at Zekai Tahir Burak Maternity Teaching Hospital between April 2013 and January 2014. We obtained milk samples from lactating mothers of hospitalized infants through hand expression after breast-feeding or pumping three times a day. A mid-infrared human milk analyzer was used for measuring the macronutrient contents of breast milk samples. Results  Lactating mothers of 52 infants (30 preterm, 22 term) were recruited to the study. No significant difference was found in protein, fat, and carbohydrate content of milk samples throughout the day. We compared within-day variation of macronutrients of transitional and mature milk, milk samples from the mothers of preterm and term infants, and samples collected by either hand expression or pumping. We did not find a significant difference between the groups. Conclusion  Absence of circadian variations in lipid, carbohydrate, and protein content of breast milk in our study may be related to ethnic differences, maternal nutritional status, different milk content measurement technique, and population characteristics. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  2. Aluminium sensitized spectrofluorimetric determination of fluoroquinolones in milk samples coupled with salting-out assisted liquid-liquid ultrasonic extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qinghai; Yang, Yaling; Liu, Mousheng

    2012-10-01

    An aluminium sensitized spectrofluorimetric method coupled with salting-out assisted liquid-liquid ultrasonic extraction for the determination of four widely used fluoroquinolones (FQs) namely norfloxacin (NOR), ofloxacin (OFL), ciprofloxacin (CIP) and gatifloxacin (GAT) in bovine raw milk was described. The analytical procedure involves the fluorescence sensitization of aluminium (Al3+) by complexation with FQs, salting-out assisted liquid-liquid ultrasonic extraction (SALLUE), followed by spectrofluorometry. The influence of several parameters on the extraction (the salt species, the amount of salt, pH, temperature and phase volume ratio) was investigated. Under optimized experimental conditions, the detection limits of the method in milk varied from 0.009 μg/mL for NOR to 0.016 μg/mL for GAT (signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) = 3). The relative standard deviations (RSD) values were found to be relatively low (0.54-2.48% for four compounds). The calibration graph was linear from 0.015 to 2.25 μg/mL with coefficient of determinations not less than 0.9974. The methodology developed was applied to the determination of FQs in bovine raw milk samples. The main advantage of this method is simple, accurate and green. The method showed promising applications for analyzing polar analytes especially polar drugs in various sample matrices.

  3. Determination of carcinogenic herbicides in milk samples using green non-ionic silicone surfactant of cloud point extraction and spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, N I; Zain, N N M; Raoov, M; Mohamad, S

    2018-04-01

    A new cloud point methodology was successfully used for the extraction of carcinogenic pesticides in milk samples as a prior step to their determination by spectrophotometry. In this work, non-ionic silicone surfactant, also known as 3-(3-hydroxypropyl-heptatrimethylxyloxane), was chosen as a green extraction solvent because of its structure and properties. The effect of different parameters, such as the type of surfactant, concentration and volume of surfactant, pH, salt, temperature, incubation time and water content on the cloud point extraction of carcinogenic pesticides such as atrazine and propazine, was studied in detail and a set of optimum conditions was established. A good correlation coefficient ( R 2 ) in the range of 0.991-0.997 for all calibration curves was obtained. The limit of detection was 1.06 µg l -1 (atrazine) and 1.22 µg l -1 (propazine), and the limit of quantitation was 3.54 µg l -1 (atrazine) and 4.07 µg l -1 (propazine). Satisfactory recoveries in the range of 81-108% were determined in milk samples at 5 and 1000 µg l -1 , respectively, with low relative standard deviation, n  = 3 of 0.301-7.45% in milk matrices. The proposed method is very convenient, rapid, cost-effective and environmentally friendly for food analysis.

  4. Antimicrobial susceptibility of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from bovine milk samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sampimon, O.C.; Lam, T.G.J.M.; Mevius, D.J.; Schukken, Y.H.; Zadoks, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether antimicrobial resistance profiles of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS) species isolated from milk of dairy cows differed between bacterial species, and to compare results obtained by phenotypic and genotypic profiling of resistance to penicillin,

  5. Transfer of K-40 from soil to grass and grass to milk: Samples of Brazilian rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabra, Karina B.M.; Peres, Sueli S.

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge of natural radionuclides concentration levels and their distribution in the environment allow to assessing the human exposure. Among of primordial radionuclides found in the earth's crust, 40 K is the largest contributor to the dose received by humans. In this paper, is presented a study carried out to estimate the activity concentration and to evaluate the transfer of 40 K along environmental compartments and exposure pathways. This study was performed in two rural sites of São Paulo, Brazil. In both locations, soil, grass, animal feed and cow milk samples were collected, conditioned, and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The activity concentrations obtained were similar for both sites, showing, in this case, that the difference in the animal diet probably does not have a significant influence on the transfer of 40 K to cow's milk. (author)

  6. ENZYME-LINKED-IMMUNOSORBENT-ASSAY FOR SCREENING OF MILK SAMPLES FOR SALMONELLA-TYPHIMURIUM IN DAIRY HERDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoorfar, Jeffrey; Wedderkopp, A.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the ability of an antibody-specific, O antigen-based ELISA to document Salmonella typhimurium herd infections by screening of milk samples. Three cattle populations, 20 herds with no history of salmonellosis, 8 herds with history of S typhimurium epsiodes within the previous 7...... months, and 220 herds of unknown disease status, were tested. A herd was considered ELISA positive if at least 5% of the cows had OD values > 0.3. Among the 20 herds without history of salmonellosis, only 2 herds were ELISA positive, whereas all 8 herds with a known history of salmonellosis were ELISA...... positive (herd specificity, 0.9 and herd sensitivity, 1.0). A sig nificant correlation (P history of salmonellosis. It was concluded that ELISA testing of individual milk sam ples can be used for surveillance...

  7. Transfer of K-40 from soil to grass and grass to milk: Samples of Brazilian rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seabra, Karina B.M.; Peres, Sueli S., E-mail: karina.uerj@ymail.com, E-mail: suelip@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN--RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The knowledge of natural radionuclides concentration levels and their distribution in the environment allow to assessing the human exposure. Among of primordial radionuclides found in the earth's crust, {sup 40}K is the largest contributor to the dose received by humans. In this paper, is presented a study carried out to estimate the activity concentration and to evaluate the transfer of {sup 40}K along environmental compartments and exposure pathways. This study was performed in two rural sites of São Paulo, Brazil. In both locations, soil, grass, animal feed and cow milk samples were collected, conditioned, and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The activity concentrations obtained were similar for both sites, showing, in this case, that the difference in the animal diet probably does not have a significant influence on the transfer of {sup 40}K to cow's milk. (author)

  8. Existing drug resistance among Staphylococcus spp. from raw milk samples in Khon Kaen province, Northeastern Thailand by direct quadriplex PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buppachat Trakarnchan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To describe the proportion of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and mupirocin resistant among the isolates from milk, three hundred and eighty-one samples were collected in Khon Kaen province, Thailand, during January to March, 2014. Quadriplex PCR was a method of choice. The occurrence of S. aureus and other Staphylococcus spp. were 21.26 and 34.12%, respectively. Among the 81 S. aureus isolates, 82.72 (67/81, 11.11 (9/81, and 6.17% (5/81 were S. aureus, S. aureus carrying mecA, and S. aureus harboring mupA genes, respectively. These two mutant genes may possibly be transferred to other bacteria in milk. Therefore, good hygienic practices and strict control may limit the spread.

  9. A headspace solid-phase microextraction procedure coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in milk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguinaga, N.; Campillo, N.; Vinas, P.; Hernandez-Cordoba, M. [University of Murcia, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Murcia (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    A sensitive and solvent-free method for the determination of ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, namely, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene, with up to four aromatic rings, in milk samples using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection has been developed. A polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene fiber was chosen and used at 75 C for 60 min. Detection limits ranging from 0.2 to 5 ng L{sup -1} were attained at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3, depending on the compound and the milk sample under analysis. The proposed method was applied to ten different milk samples and the presence of six of the analytes studied in a skimmed milk with vegetal fiber sample was confirmed. The reliability of the procedure was verified by analyzing two different certified reference materials and by recovery studies. (orig.)

  10. Mycotoxin Cocktail in the Samples of Oilseed Cake from Early Maturing Cotton Varieties Associated with Cattle Feeding Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Agha W; Sulyok, Michael; Böhm, Josef

    2015-06-12

    Cottonseed cake in South East Asia has been associated with health issues in ruminants in the recent years. The present study was carried out to investigate the health issues associated with cottonseed cake feeding in dairy animals in Pakistan. All the cake samples were confirmed to be from early maturing cotton varieties (maturing prior to or during Monsoon). A survey of the resource persons indicated that the feeding problems with cottonseed cake appeared after 4-5 months of post-production storage. All the cake samples had heavy bacterial counts, and contaminated with over a dozen different fungal genera. Screening for toxins revealed co-contamination with toxic levels of nearly a dozen mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 + B2 (556 to 5574 ppb), ochratoxin A + B (47 to 2335 ppb), cyclopiazonic acid (1090 to 6706 ppb), equisetin (2226 to 12672 ppb), rubrofusarin (81 to 1125), tenuazonic acid (549 to 9882 ppb), 3-nitropropionic acid (111 to 1032 ppb), and citrinin (29 to 359 ppb). Two buffalo calves in a diagnostic feed trial also showed signs of complex toxicity. These results indicate that inappropriate processing and storage of the cake, in the typical conditions of the subcontinent, could be the main contributory factors regarding the low quality of cottonseed cake.

  11. The Tchernobyl milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Nadai, E.A.; Pessenda, L.C.R.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1988-01-01

    The Tchernobyl nuclear accident contamined the milk exported to Brazil. A lot of analysis in this powder milk were realized in this powder milk were realized to identify the cesium 137 and 134 contamination. The results of the milk samples are discussed. (author)

  12. Human Milk Shows Immunological Advantages Over Organic Milk Samples For Infants in the Presence of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS in 3D Energy Maps Using an Organic Nanobiomimetic Memristor/Memcapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S-H. DUH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is well known for its immunological advantages of protection and support for healthy early childhood cognitive development and prevention of chronic diseases over cow milk for infants. However, little is known about how the immunological advantages are linked to reduce Pathological High Frequency Oscillation (pHFO regarding neural synapse net energy outcomes when lipopolysaccharide (LPS attacks at a clinical concentration range compared with that in cow milk in a 3D energy map. We developed a nanostructure biomimetic memristor/memcapacitor device with a dual function of chronoamperometric (CA sensing/voltage sensing for the direct quantitative evaluation of immunological advantages between human milk and organic cow milk for infants in the presence of wide LPS concentration ranges; those ranges were between 5.0 pg/mL to 500 ng/mL and from 50 ng/mL to 1 µg/mL for both a CA and a voltage method, respectively. The Detection of Limit (DOL results are as follows: 3.73×10-18 g LPS vs. 1.2×10-16 g LPS in 40 µL milk samples using the 3.11×10-7cm3 voltage sensor and the 0.031cm2 CA sensor, respectively, under antibody-free and reagent-free conditions. The 3D energy map results show that cow milk is ten-times more prone to E. Coli attack, and the positive link was revealed that Pathological High Frequency Oscillation (pHFO formations occurred over the studied LPS concentration range from 50 ng/mL up to 1000 ng/mL from Rapid Eye Movement (REM sleep frequency, fast gamma frequency to Sharp Wave-Ripple Complexes (SPW- R frequency. There had no pHFO with human milk samples at Slow Wave Sleeping (SWS, REM and SPW- R frequencies. The microbiota in the human milk samples successfully overcame the endotoxin attack from E. coli bacteria, however the pHFO only occurred at fast gamma frequency linked with the LPS level ≥ 500 ng/mL. Organic milk samples show an order of magnitude lower synapse energy density compared with human milk at SWS for with

  13. Evaluation of six sample preparation procedures for qualitative and quantitative proteomics analysis of milk fat globule membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Anderson, Elizabeth; Zhang, Sheng

    2018-04-12

    Proteomic analysis of membrane proteins is challenged by the proteins solubility and detergent incompatibility with MS analysis. No single perfect protocol can be used to comprehensively characterize the proteome of membrane fraction. Here, we used cow milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) proteome analysis to assess six sample preparation procedures including one in-gel and five in-solution digestion approaches prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. The largest number of MFGM proteins were identified by suspension trapping (S-Trap) and filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) methods, followed by acetone precipitation without clean-up of tryptic peptides method. Protein identifications with highest average coverage was achieved by Chloroform/MeOH, in-gel and S-Trap methods. Most distinct proteins were identified by FASP method, followed by S-Trap. Analyses by Venn diagram, principal-component analysis, hierarchical clustering and the abundance ranking of quantitative proteins highlight differences in the MFGM fraction by the all sample preparation procedures. These results reveal the biased proteins/peptides loss occurred in each protocol. In this study, we found several novel proteins that were not observed previously by in-depth proteomics characterization of MFGM fraction in milk. Thus, a combination of multiple procedures with orthologous properties of sample preparation was demonstrated to improve the protein sequence coverage and expression level accuracy of membrane samples. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Effect of KNO3 to remove silver interferences in the determination of mercury(II: Application in milk and breast milk samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Farahi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mercury determination was performed at rotating silver electrode (RSE using square wave voltammetry (SWV in electrolytic mixture of HCl (0.1 mol L−1 and KNO3 (0.2 mol L−1. The reproducibility, sensitivity and accuracy are good, provided the proper instrumental parameters and supporting electrolyte are used. The relationship between the peak current of mercury(II and its concentration is linear with regression equation: I(μA = 0.784 [Hg(II] + 49.5 (r2 = 0.9878 in the dynamic range from 1.0 × 10−7 to 8.0 × 10−4 mol L−1. The detection limit (DL,3σ and quantification limit (QL,10σ were 4.61 × 10−8 mol L−1 and 15.3 × 10−8 mol L−1, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD for seven replicate analysis of a solution containing 5.0 × 10−5 mol L−1 was 2.19%. Possible effects of Cu, Co, Fe, MnO4, Zn, were investigated but did not cause any significant interferences. Immobilization of mercury(II on the surface of rotating silver electrode obeyed to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. The calculated ΔG°ads value showed that the interaction between mercury and silver electrodes is mainly controlled by a chemisorption process. This methodology was potentially applied for mercury determination in milk and breast milk samples.

  15. [Detection of Weissella spp. in milk samples of two dairy cows with clinical mastitis. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Regina; Baumgartner, Martina; Urbantke, Verena; Wittek, Thomas; Stessl, Beatrix

    2016-10-12

    This case report describes the isolation and differentiation of Weissella (W.) spp. from the milk of two cows (A and B) with clinical mastitis (milk changes, asymmetry of the udder and increased somatic cell counts). Quarter milk samples obtained from two dairy cows of different farms had been submitted to the diagnostic laboratory of the Clinic for Ruminants in Vienna for bacteriological examination. Alpha-hemolytic catalase-negative gram-positive cocci in pure culture on Columbia blood agar were isolated and could not be assigned to a Lancefield group. The isolates were biochemically characterized as Leuconostoc spp. (API ® 20 Strep, bioMérieux). A control examination of cow B within 7 weeks confirmed these findings. 16S rDNA sequencing indicated W. paramesenteroides (cow A) and W. cibaria (cow B). The analysis by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed identical SmaI/ApaI profiles for both W. cibaria isolates (cow B), which differed from the W. paramesenteroides fingerprint of cow A (67% similarity). This study indicates a possible relationship between the detection of Weissella spp. and the occurrence of bovine intramammary infections.

  16. Magnetic bead and gold nanoparticle probes based immunoassay for β-casein detection in bovine milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y S; Meng, X Y; Zhou, Y; Zhang, Y Y; Meng, X M; Yang, L; Hu, P; Lu, S Y; Ren, H L; Liu, Z S; Wang, X R

    2015-04-15

    In this work, a double-probe based immunoassay was developed for rapid and sensitive determination of β-casein in bovine milk samples. In the method, magnetic beads (MBs), employed as supports for the immobilization of anti-β-casein polyclonal antibody (PAb), were used as the capture probe. Colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), employed as a bridge for loading anti-β-casein monoclonal antibody (McAb) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), were used as the amplification probe. The presence of β-casein causes the sandwich structures of MBs-PAb-β-casein-McAb-AuNPs through the interaction between β-casein and the anti-β-casein antibodies. The HRP, used as an enzymatic-amplified tracer, can catalytically oxidize the substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB), generating optical signals that are proportional to the quantity of β-casein. The linear range of the immunoassay was from 6.5 to 1520ngmL(-1). The limit of detection (LOD) was 4.8ngmL(-1) which was 700 times lower than that of MBs-antibody-HRP based immunoassay and 6-7 times lower than that from the microplate-antibody-HRP based assay. The recoveries of β-casein from bovine milk samples were from 95.0% to 104.3% that had a good correlation coefficient (R(2)=0.9956) with those obtained by an official standard Kjeldahl method. For higher sensitivity, simple sample pretreatment and shorter time requirement of the antigen-antibody reaction, the developed immunoassay demonstrated the viability for detection of β-casein in bovine milk samples. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Toxoplasma gondii and pre-treatment protocols for polymerase chain reaction analysis of milk samples: a field trial in sheep from Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Vismarra

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Ingestion of raw milk has been suggested as a risk for transmission to humans. Here the authors evaluated pre-treatment protocols for DNA extraction on T. gondii tachyzoite-spiked sheep milk with the aim of identifying the method that resulted in the most rapid and reliable polymerase chain reaction (PCR positivity. This protocol was then used to analyse milk samples from sheep of three different farms in Southern Italy, including real time PCR for DNA quantification and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism for genotyping. The pre-treatment protocol using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and Tris-HCl to remove casein gave the best results in the least amount of time compared to the others on spiked milk samples. One sample of 21 collected from sheep farms was positive on one-step PCR, real time PCR and resulted in a Type I genotype at one locus (SAG3. Milk usually contains a low number of tachyzoites and this could be a limiting factor for molecular identification. Our preliminary data has evaluated a rapid, cost-effective and sensitive protocol to treat milk before DNA extraction. The results of the present study also confirm the possibility of T. gondii transmission through consumption of raw milk and its unpasteurised derivatives.

  18. Triacylglycerol Analysis in Human Milk and Other Mammalian Species: Small-Scale Sample Preparation, Characterization, and Statistical Classification Using HPLC-ELSD Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten-Doménech, Isabel; Beltrán-Iturat, Eduardo; Herrero-Martínez, José Manuel; Sancho-Llopis, Juan Vicente; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto Francisco

    2015-06-24

    In this work, a method for the separation of triacylglycerols (TAGs) present in human milk and from other mammalian species by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography using a core-shell particle packed column with UV and evaporative light-scattering detectors is described. Under optimal conditions, a mobile phase containing acetonitrile/n-pentanol at 10 °C gave an excellent resolution among more than 50 TAG peaks. A small-scale method for fat extraction in these milks (particularly of interest for human milk samples) using minimal amounts of sample and reagents was also developed. The proposed extraction protocol and the traditional method were compared, giving similar results, with respect to the total fat and relative TAG contents. Finally, a statistical study based on linear discriminant analysis on the TAG composition of different types of milks (human, cow, sheep, and goat) was carried out to differentiate the samples according to their mammalian origin.

  19. Solid-Phase Extraction and Large-Volume Sample Stacking-Capillary Electrophoresis for Determination of Tetracycline Residues in Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Islas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid-phase extraction in combination with large-volume sample stacking-capillary electrophoresis (SPE-LVSS-CE was applied to measure chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline in milk samples. Under optimal conditions, the proposed method had a linear range of 29 to 200 µg·L−1, with limits of detection ranging from 18.6 to 23.8 µg·L−1 with inter- and intraday repeatabilities < 10% (as a relative standard deviation in all cases. The enrichment factors obtained were from 50.33 to 70.85 for all the TCs compared with a conventional capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE. This method is adequate to analyze tetracyclines below the most restrictive established maximum residue limits. The proposed method was employed in the analysis of 15 milk samples from different brands. Two of the tested samples were positive for the presence of oxytetracycline with concentrations of 95 and 126 µg·L−1. SPE-LVSS-CE is a robust, easy, and efficient strategy for online preconcentration of tetracycline residues in complex matrices.

  20. Monitoring of radiation in airdust, deposition and an overall country milk sample. Results in the Netherlands in 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overwater, R.M.W.; Aldenkamp, F.J.; Drost, R.M.S; Glastra, P.; Hiemastra, Y.S.; Kik, M.J.; Koolwijk, A.C.; Koolwijk, A.C.; Kwakman, P.J.M.; Koops, J.C.; Van Lunenburg, A.P.P.A.; Nissan, L.; Ockhuizen, A.; Reinen, H.A.J.M.; Tax, R.B.; Tijsmans, M.H.; Van Zanten, R.

    1998-02-01

    The results of radiation measurements of the atmosphere in the Netherlands by the RIVM Laboratory of Radiation Research (LSO) are presented for the year 1996. The programme of RIVM/LSO includes samples of airdust and deposition taken at the RIVM premises in Bilthoven, Netherlands. An overall country milk sample, a mixture of milk samples from four milk factories in the Netherlands, was also analysed. In 1996, the yearly average gross alpha-activity and gross beta-activity concentrations in airdust sampled with a high volume sampler were 0.0671 ± 0.0009 (SD 0.03) and 0.540 ± 0.003 (SD 0.33) mBq.m -3 , where SD illustrates the variation in weekly averages during the year. These values are of the same order as those of the period 1992-1995. The yearly average activity concentrations in airdust, measured using gamma-spectroscopy, for the nuclides 7Be, 137Cs and 210Pb were 3890 ± 50 (SD 1320), 1.60 ± 0.03 (SD 1.2) and 500 ± 10 (SD 390) mBq.m-3. The yearly total gross alpha- and gross beta-activities of the deposition in Bilthoven, Netherlands, were 16.4 ± 1.5 and 67 ± 5 Bq.m-2, and the yearly total deposition of 3H was 970 ± 50 Bq.m-2. The total activities of 137Cs, 7Be and 210Pb in deposition were 0.55 ± 0.03, 920 ± 20 and 64.9 ± 1.6 Bq.m-2, respectively. The 210Pb-analysis and 210Po-analysis results obtained using alpha-spectroscopy were 57 ± 3 and 9 ± 2 Bq.m-2. These activities are all of the same order as those in previous years. The yearly average concentration of 137Cs in consumer milk from a nationwide sample mix was 0.073 ± 0.010 Bq.L-1, which is almost equal to that of the previous year. The results for 90Sr are lower than the detection limit of 0.2 Bq.L-1. 22 refs

  1. Prevalence of pathogens in milk samples of dairy cows with clinical mastitis and in heifers at first parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois; Hansen, Inken; Reinecke, Annette; Heuwieser, Wolfgang

    2009-05-01

    Prevalence of mastitis pathogens in milk samples from dairy cows and heifers was studied over a period of 1 year (Aug 2005-Aug 2006) in ten dairy herds in Germany. Milk samples (n=8240) were collected from heifers without clinical mastitis at parturition (n=6915), from primiparous cows with clinical mastitis (n=751) and from older cows with clinical mastitis (n=574). Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) were the predominant group of bacteria isolated (46.8% of samples) from clinically healthy quarters of primiparous cows around parturition, followed by streptococci (12.6%), coliforms (4.7%) and Staphylococcus aureus (4.0%). Thirty-three percent of samples were negative on culture (range on farm level, 12.0-46.4%). In cases of clinical mastitis in primiparous and older cows, streptococci were the predominant finding (32.1 and 39.2%) followed by CNS (27.4 and 16.4%), coliforms (10.3 and 13.1%) and Staph. aureus (10.0 and 11.7%). Negative results were obtained from 21.3% (range, 0.0-30.6%) and 19.5% (range, 0.0-32.6%) of these samples. Results indicated substantial differences in the prevalence of pathogens among herds. There was a positive within-herd correlation between the monthly prevalences for Streptococcus dysgalactiae between the three groups of samples. This correlation was also found between clinical samples of primiparous and older cows for Staph. aureus. These correlations were not found for the other pathogens. Besides herd, prevalence of pathogens was influenced by parity, type of sample and season.

  2. Metalloproteomics Approach to Analyze Mercury in Breast Milk and Hair Samples of Lactating Women in Communities of the Amazon Basin, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerbino, M R; Vieira, José Cavalcante Souza; Braga, C P; Oliveira, G; Padilha, I F; Silva, T M; Zara, L F; Silva, N J; Padilha, P M

    2018-02-01

    Mercury is a potentially toxic element that is present in the environment of the Brazilian Amazon and is responsible for adverse health effects in humans. This study sought to assess possible protein biomarkers of mercury exposure in breast milk samples from lactating women in the Madeira and Negro Rivers in the Brazilian Amazon. The mercury content of hair samples of lactating women was determined, and the proteome of breast milk samples was obtained using two-dimensional electrophoresis after protein precipitation with acetone. Mercury measurements of protein spots obtained via protein fractionation were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), and it was observed that mercury is linked to proteins with molecular masses in the range of 14-26 kDa. The total mercury concentration was also determined by GFAAS in unprocessed milk, lyophilized milk, and protein pellets, with the purpose of determining the mercury mass balance in relation to the concentration of this element in milk and pellets. Approximately 85 to 97% of mercury present in the lyophilized milk from samples of lactating women of the Madeira River is bound in the protein fraction. From lactating women of the Negro River, approximately 49% of the total mercury is bound in the protein fraction, and a difference of 51% is bound in the lipid fraction.

  3. Relationship of black layer and milk line development on maize seed maturity Relação entre o desenvolvimento da camada negra e da linha de transformação em amido e a maturidade de sementes de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.D. Vieira

    1995-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship of black layer and milk line development on maize seed maturity was evaluated under tropical conditions. Seed moisture (g.kg-1, standard germination - SG (7 days, 25°C, and vigor, using accelerated aging-AA (96 hours, 42°C and 100% of RH, cold test-CT only in 1991/92 (7 days at 10°C and 7 days at 25°C and electrical conductivity-EC (four 50-seed samples, 24 hours imbibition at 25°C and milk line and black layer formation (using a five-stage rating system were determined at 3 to 4 days intervals, using two genotypes (hybrid CX 133 and variety IAC 100 during the crop seasons of 1990/91 and 1991/92. The results showed that physiological maturity was reached before stage 4, based on seed germination and vigor (AA and CT values, which occurred before that stage and presented the lowest values of EC. On the other hand, moisture content levels of 300 to 350 g.kg-1 were reached only at stage 4. The milk line ratings proved useful in predicting physiological maturity as well as the harvest maturity.A relação entre o desenvolvimento da camada negra e da linha de transformação em amido e a maturidade fisiológica de sementes de milho foi estudada durante dois anos agrícolas (1990/91 e 1991/92. Para atingir os objetivos do trabalho, avaliou-se o grau de umidade, a germinação, o vigor (envelhecimento acelerado, teste frio e condutividade elétrica e o desenvolvimento da camada negra e da linha de transformação em amido para dois genótipos (CX 133 e IAC 100. Com base nos resultados de germinação e vigor das sementes verificou-se que a maturidade fisiológica foi alcançada antes do estádio 4. Por outro lado, graus de umidade de 30 a 35% foram alcançados somente no estádio de desenvolvimento 4. A linha de transformação em amido provou ser um instrumento útil para predizer a maturidade fisiológica e de colheita para sementes de milho.

  4. A methodology to measure cervical vertebral bone maturation in a sample from low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Luciana Barreto Vieira; Caldas, Maria de Paula; Haiter Neto, Francisco; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the applicability of the regression method for determining vertebral age developed by Caldas et al. (2007) by testing this method in children from low-income families of the rural zone. The sample comprised cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs of 76 boys and 64 girls aged 7.0 to 14.9 years living in a medium-sized city in the desert region of the northeastern region of Brazil, with an HDI of 0.678. C3 and C4 vertebrae were traced and measured on cephalometric radiographs to estimate the bone age. The average age, average hand-wrist age and average error estimated for girls and boys were, respectively, 10.62 and 10.44 years, 11.28 and 10.57 years, and 1.42 and 1.18 years. Based on these results, the formula proposed by Caldas et al. (2007) was not applicable to the studied population, and new multiple regression models were developed to obtain the children's vertebral bone age accurately.

  5. Nitric Oxide Metabolites and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Concentrations in Breast Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Öztürk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Nitric oxide plays a preventive role in the development of necrotizing enterocolitis. Oral nitrite and nitrate intake has gained importance with the discovery of the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide in acidic medium out of the synthesis of nitric oxide from L-arginine. Objective of this study was to examine the breast milk concentrations of nitric oxide and asymmetric dimethylarginine which is a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide and to compare these concentrations in terms of gestational age and maturity of breast milk. Study Design: Forty-one women were included in the study. Milk samples were collected from 3 groups of mothers as term, late preterm and preterm on the postpartum days 3, 7 and 28. Results: When breast milk concentrations of nitric oxide were compared according to the postnatal day of the milk independently from gestational age; nitric oxide concentration was higher in the colostrum than in the transition milk and mature milk (p=0,035; p=0,001; respectively. For the comparison of asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations among these groups and days; no statistically significant difference was observed in terms of gestational age and maturity of the milk (p=0.865, p=0.115; respectively. Conclusion: The highest nitric oxide concentration was found in the colostrum, suggesting that colostrum is a valuable food for newborns. Plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine were negatively correlated with nitric oxide and did not show a correlation with breast milk, suggesting that asymmetric dimethylargininedoesn’t make nitric oxide inhibition in breast milk.

  6. Analysis of industry-generated data. Part 1: a baseline for the development of a tool to assist the milk industry in designing sampling plans for controlling aflatoxin M1 in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisani, Marcello; Farkas, Zsuzsa; Serraino, Andrea; Zambrini, Angelo Vittorio; Pizzamiglio, Valentina; Giacometti, Federica; Ámbrus, Arpád

    2014-01-01

    The presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk was assessed in Italy in the framework of designing a monitoring plan actuated by the milk industry in the period 2005-10. Overall, 21,969 samples were taken from tankers collecting milk from 690 dairy farms. The milk samples were representative of the consignments of co-mingled milk received from multiple (two to six) farms. Systematic, biweekly sampling of consignments involved each of the 121 districts (70 in the North, 17 in the Central and 34 in the South regions of Italy). AFM1 concentration was measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay method (validated within the range of 5-100 ng kg(-1)) whereas an HPLC method was used for the quantification of levels in the samples that had concentrations higher than 100 ng kg(-1). Process control charts using data collected in three processing plants illustrate, as an example, the seasonal variation of the contamination. The mean concentration of AFM1 was in the range between 11 and 19 ng kg(-1). The 90th and 99th percentile values were 19-34 and 41-91 ng kg(-1), respectively, and values as high as 280 ng kg(-1) were reached in 2008. The number of non-compliant consignments (those with an AFM1 concentration above the statutory limit of 50 ng kg(-1)) varied between 0.3% and 3.1% per year, with peaks in September, after the maize harvest season. The variability between different regions was not significant. The results show that controlling the aflatoxins in feed at farm level was inadequate, consequently screening of raw milk prior to processing was needed. The evaluation of the AFM1 contamination level observed during a long-term period can provide useful data for defining the frequency of sampling.

  7. Recombinant plasmid-based quantitative Real-Time PCR analysis of Salmonella enterica serotypes and its application to milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokduman, Kurtulus; Avsaroglu, M Dilek; Cakiris, Aris; Ustek, Duran; Gurakan, G Candan

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the current study was to develop, a new, rapid, sensitive and quantitative Salmonella detection method using a Real-Time PCR technique based on an inexpensive, easy to produce, convenient and standardized recombinant plasmid positive control. To achieve this, two recombinant plasmids were constructed as reference molecules by cloning the two most commonly used Salmonella-specific target gene regions, invA and ttrRSBC. The more rapid detection enabled by the developed method (21 h) compared to the traditional culture method (90 h) allows the quantitative evaluation of Salmonella (quantification limits of 10(1)CFU/ml and 10(0)CFU/ml for the invA target and the ttrRSBC target, respectively), as illustrated using milk samples. Three advantages illustrated by the current study demonstrate the potential of the newly developed method to be used in routine analyses in the medical, veterinary, food and water/environmental sectors: I--The method provides fast analyses including the simultaneous detection and determination of correct pathogen counts; II--The method is applicable to challenging samples, such as milk; III--The method's positive controls (recombinant plasmids) are reproducible in large quantities without the need to construct new calibration curves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Implementation of the Bacillus cereus microbiological plate used for the screening of tetracyclines in raw milk samples with STAR protocol - the problem with false-negative results solved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspor Lainšček, P; Biasizzo, M; Henigman, U; Dolenc, J; Kirbiš, A

    2014-01-01

    In antibiotic residue analyses the first step of screening is just as important as the following steps. Screening methods need to be quick and inexpensive, but above all sensitive enough to detect the antibiotic residue at or below the maximum residue limit (MRL). In the case of a positive result, the next step is conducted and further methods are used for confirmation. MRLs stated in European Union Regulation 37/2010 for tetracyclines in raw milk are: 100 µg kg(-1) for tetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for oxytetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for chlortetracycline and no limit for doxycycline because it is prohibited for use in animals from which milk is produced for human consumption. The current five-plate microbiological screening method for the detection of antibiotic residues in raw milk was found to be simple and inexpensive, but not specific, sensitive and reliable enough to detect tetracycline at MRL in routine raw milk screening procedures. Spiking samples with tetracycline at the MRL level and applying them on Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 microbiological plates often gave false-negative results, indicating that tetracyclines may have to be inactivated or masked. Tetracyclines seem to bind to a certain component in milk. Consequently, when applying samples to the B. cereus microbiological plate the antibiotic cannot inhibit the growth of B. cereus which disables the formation of inhibition zones on the test plate. After adding the appropriate amount of citric acid into the milk samples, we solved the problem of false-negative results. During the validation 79 samples of milk were spiked with tetracyclines at different concentrations: 100 µg kg(-1) for tetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for oxytetracycline, 80 µg kg(-1) for chlortetracycline and 30 µg kg(-1) for doxycycline. Concentrations used in the validation matched the requirements for MRLs (they were either at or below the MRLs) stated in European Union Regulation 37/2010. The sensitivity of the validation was 100%.

  9. Validation of Performance of the Gen-Probe Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Viral Load Assay with Genital Swabs and Breast Milk Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVange Panteleeff, Dana; Emery, Sandra; Richardson, Barbra A.; Rousseau, Christine; Benki, Sarah; Bodrug, Sharon; Kreiss, Joan K.; Overbaugh, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) continues to spread at an alarming rate. The virus may be transmitted through blood, genital secretions, and breast milk, and higher levels of systemic virus in the index case, as measured by plasma RNA viral load, have been shown to correlate with increased risk of transmitting HIV-1 both vertically and sexually. Less is known about the correlation between transmission and HIV-1 levels in breast milk or genital secretions, in part because reliable quantitative assays to detect HIV-1 in these fluids are not available. Here we show that the Gen-Probe HIV-1 viral load assay can be used to accurately quantify viral load in expressed breast milk and in cervical and vaginal samples collected on swabs. Virus could be quantified from breast milk and swab samples spiked with known amounts of virus, including HIV-1 subtypes A, C, and D. As few as 10 copies of HIV-1 RNA could be detected above background threshold levels in ≥77% of assays performed with spiked breast milk supernatants and mock swabs. In genital swab samples from HIV-1-infected women, similar levels of HIV-1 RNA were consistently detected in duplicate swabs taken from the same woman on the same clinic visit, suggesting that the RNA values from a single swab sample can be used to measure genital viral load. PMID:12409354

  10. Validation of a commercial ELISA for the detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) specific antibodies in individual milk samples of Dutch dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramps, J.A.; Maanen, van K.; Mars, M.H.; Popma, J.K.; Rijn, van P.A.

    2008-01-01

    recently developed indirect ELISA for the detection of bluetongue virus (BTV)-specific antibodies in bovine milk samples was compared to that of the routinely used competitive ELISA on serum samples. During the bluetongue outbreak in the Netherlands in 2006, caused by BTV serotype 8, coupled serum

  11. Fatty acid compositions of preterm and term colostrum, transitional and mature milks in a sub-Saharan population with high fish intakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: There are no data on the fatty acid (FA) compositions of preterm and term milks for sub-Saharan African populations with advancing lactation. However, it is generally acknowledged that our ancestors evolved in sub-Saharan East-Africa, where they inhabited the land-water ecosystems.

  12. Latent class analysis of real time qPCR and bacteriological culturing for the diagnosis of Streptococcus agalactiae in cow composite milk samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmøy, Ingrid H.; Toft, Nils; Jørgensen, Hannah J.

    2018-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) has re-emerged as a mastitis pathogen among Norwegian dairy cows. The Norwegian cattle health services recommend that infected herds implement measures to eradicate S. agalactiae, this includes a screening of milk samples from all lactating cows....... The performance of the qPCR-test currently in use for this purpose has not been evaluated under field conditions. The objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the real-time qPCR assay in use in Norway (Mastitis 4 qPCR, DNA Diagnostics A/S, Risskov, Denmark) and compare...... it to conventional bacteriological culturing for detection of S. agalactiae in milk samples. Because none of these tests are considered a perfect reference test, the evaluation was performed using latent class models in a Bayesian analysis. Aseptically collected cow-composite milk samples from 578 cows belonging...

  13. Simultaneous Effects of Total Solids Content, Milk Base, Heat Treatment Temperature and Sample Temperature on the Rheological Properties of Plain Stirred Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Converti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was used to establish a relationship between total solids content, milk base, heat treatment temperature, and sample temperature, and consistency index, flow behaviour index, and apparent viscosity of plain stirred yogurts. Statistical treatments resulted in developments of mathematical models. All samples presented shear thinning fluid behaviour. The increase of the content of total solids (9.3–22.7 % and milk base heat treatment temperature (81.6–98.4 °C resulted in a significant increase in consistency index and a decrease in flow behaviour index. Increase in the sample temperature (1.6–18.4 °C caused a decrease in consistency index and increase in flow behaviour index. Apparent viscosity was directly related to the content of total solids. Rheological properties of yogurt were highly dependent on the content of total solids in milk.

  14. Anti-complement activities of human breast-milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogundele, M O

    1999-08-01

    It has long been observed that the human milk possesses significant anti-inflammatory properties, while simultaneously protecting the infant against many intestinal and respiratory pathogens. There is, however, a paucity of information on the degree and extent of this anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of different fractions of human milk on serum complement activity were analysed. Colostrum and milk samples from healthy voluntary lactating donors at different postpartum ages were obtained and pooled normal human serum was used as source of complement in a modified CH50 assay. Inherent complement activity in human milk was also investigated by measuring the deposition of an activated C3 fragment on a serum-sensitive bacteria, and by haemolytic assays. Most whole- and defatted-milk samples consistently showed a dose-dependent inhibition of the serum complement activity. This inhibition was greater in mature milk compared to transitional milk samples. It was enhanced by inactivation of milk complement, and diminished by centrifugation of milk samples, which partly removed fat and larger protein components including casein micelles. Inherent complement activity in human milk was also demonstrated by haemolysis of sensitised sheep erythrocytes and deposition of C3 fragments on solid-phase bacteria. These activities were highest in the colostrum and gradually decreased as lactation proceeded. Several natural components abundant in the fluid phase of the human breast-milk have been shown to be inhibitors of complement activation in vitro. Their physiological significance probably reside in their ability to prevent inflammatory-induced tissue damage of the delicate immature gastrointestinal tract of the new-born as well as the mammary gland itself, which may arise from ongoing complement activation.

  15. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...) Three of the last five milk samples have exceeded the maximum bacterial estimate of 500,000 per ml...

  16. Validation of Correction Algorithms for Near-IR Analysis of Human Milk in an Independent Sample Set-Effect of Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrri, Gynter; Fusch, Gerhard; Kwan, Celia; Choi, Dasol; Choi, Arum; Al Kafi, Nisreen; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-02-26

    Commercial infrared (IR) milk analyzers are being increasingly used in research settings for the macronutrient measurement of breast milk (BM) prior to its target fortification. These devices, however, may not provide reliable measurement if not properly calibrated. In the current study, we tested a correction algorithm for a Near-IR milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, Brookfield, CT, USA) for fat and protein measurements, and examined the effect of pasteurization on the IR matrix and the stability of fat, protein, and lactose. Measurement values generated through Near-IR analysis were compared against those obtained through chemical reference methods to test the correction algorithm for the Near-IR milk analyzer. Macronutrient levels were compared between unpasteurized and pasteurized milk samples to determine the effect of pasteurization on macronutrient stability. The correction algorithm generated for our device was found to be valid for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Pasteurization had no effect on the macronutrient levels and the IR matrix of BM. These results show that fat and protein content can be accurately measured and monitored for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Of additional importance is the implication that donated human milk, generally low in protein content, has the potential to be target fortified.

  17. Validation of Correction Algorithms for Near-IR Analysis of Human Milk in an Independent Sample Set—Effect of Pasteurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotrri, Gynter; Fusch, Gerhard; Kwan, Celia; Choi, Dasol; Choi, Arum; Al Kafi, Nisreen; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Commercial infrared (IR) milk analyzers are being increasingly used in research settings for the macronutrient measurement of breast milk (BM) prior to its target fortification. These devices, however, may not provide reliable measurement if not properly calibrated. In the current study, we tested a correction algorithm for a Near-IR milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, Brookfield, CT, USA) for fat and protein measurements, and examined the effect of pasteurization on the IR matrix and the stability of fat, protein, and lactose. Measurement values generated through Near-IR analysis were compared against those obtained through chemical reference methods to test the correction algorithm for the Near-IR milk analyzer. Macronutrient levels were compared between unpasteurized and pasteurized milk samples to determine the effect of pasteurization on macronutrient stability. The correction algorithm generated for our device was found to be valid for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Pasteurization had no effect on the macronutrient levels and the IR matrix of BM. These results show that fat and protein content can be accurately measured and monitored for unpasteurized and pasteurized BM. Of additional importance is the implication that donated human milk, generally low in protein content, has the potential to be target fortified. PMID:26927169

  18. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus from raw milk samples collected from the local vendors in the region of Tirupathi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhanthirakodi Sudhanthiramani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out with the aim to identify the suitability of the milk for consumer use with special reference to Staphylococcus aureus from milk samples collected from various local vendors and determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of those positive isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 110 milk samples were collected from the local milk vendors in and around Tirupathi region of India. All the samples were enriched with buffered peptone water in 9:1 ratio and the then inoculated on baird parker agar medium with added 2% egg yolk tellurite emulsion as selective medium for S.aureus and confirmed with mannitol salt agar, Gram’s staining and biochemical tests. The typical cultural characters with coagulase-positive samples were taken as positive samples the positive samples were tested for antibiotic susceptibility with 10 different antibiotics by employing disc diffusion method. Results: Prevalence of coagulase-positive S. aureus was 39.09% (43/110 from the milk samples. The antibiotic susceptibility test of positive isolates showed high resistant toward penicillin G 37/43 (86.04% and ampicillin 32/43 (74.42%, and also showed resistant to methicillin 6/43 (13.95%, cephalothin 6/43 (13.95%, tetracycline 6/43 (13.95%, ciprofloxacin 4/43 (9.30%, enrofloxacin 3/43 (6.97%, cefoxitin 2/43 (4.65%, gentamicin 2/43 (4.65%, and co-trimoxazole 2/43 (4.65%. Many individual isolates showed resistant against two or more antibiotics in our study. Conclusion: The above study results show that the milk samples collected from local vendor having S. aureus, which can induce disease condition as well as antibiotic resistant to the humans particularly young children and old age peoples by means of consumption of raw milk and its products. This is the public health issue, which needs to be solved by educating the local vendors regarding health problems related to unhygienic milk supply and make the awareness among the consumers about this

  19. Effect of the administration of a fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 on intestinal microbiota and gut associated immune cells of nursing mice and after weaning until immune maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmuega Esteban

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microbial colonization of the intestine after birth is an important step for the development of the gut immune system. The acquisition of passive immunity through breast-feeding may influence the pattern of bacterial colonization in the newborn. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of a probiotic fermented milk (PFM containing yogurt starter cultures and the probiotic bacteria strain Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 to mothers during nursing or their offspring, on the intestinal bacterial population and on parameters of the gut immune system. Results Fifteen mice of each group were sacrificed at ages 12, 21, 28 and 45 days. Large intestines were taken for determination of intestinal microbiota, and small intestines for the study of secretory-IgA (S-IgA in fluid and the study of IgA+ cells, macrophages, dendritic cells and goblet cells on tissue samples. The consumption of the PFM either by the mother during nursing or by the offspring after weaning modified the development of bifidobacteria population in the large intestine of the mice. These modifications were accompanied with a decrease of enterobacteria population. The administration of this PFM to the mothers improved their own immune system and this also affected their offspring. Offspring from mice that received PFM increased S-IgA in intestinal fluids, which mainly originated from their mother's immune system. A decrease in the number of macrophages, dendritic cells and IgA+ cells during the suckling period in offspring fed with PFM was observed; this could be related with the improvement of the immunity of the mothers, which passively protect their babies. At day 45, the mice reach maturity of their own immune system and the effects of the PFM was the stimulation of their mucosal immunity. Conclusion The present work shows the beneficial effect of the administration of a PFM not only to the mothers during the suckling period but also to

  20. The human milk study, HUMIS. Presentation of a birth cohort study which aims to collect milk samples from 6000 mothers, for the assessment of persistent organic pollutants (POPS), relating it to exposure factors and health outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eggesboe, M.; Stigum, H.; Becher, G.; Magnus, P. [Norwegian Inst. of Public Health, Oslo (Norway); Polder, A.; Skaare, J.U. [The Norwegian School of Veterinay Science, Oslo (Norway); Lindstroem, G. [Orebro Univ., Orebro (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Although PCB has been forbidden for more than 20 years now, and its levels in human milk is declining, it remains among the chemicals in human milk causing most concern with regard to its possible detrimental effects on the fetus and the breastfed child. Due to our industry, amongst others, the Norwegian population has been rather heavily exposed to PCB. Furthermore, new environmental toxicants are steadily entering the scene, such as the Brominated flame retardants. The level of Brominated flame retardants in human milk has shown an exponential increase during the last ten years, and this group of chemicals, are causing increasingly more concern. Studies from Sweden has shown that the levels differ greatly between individuals, however, for reasons yet unknown. In Norway, the highest levels of Brominated flame retardants ever measured in the world was reported from fish in Mjoesa. Surprisingly few attempts has been made to identify dietary habits or other life style factors that are associated with the levels of these toxicants in human milk. Such knowledge is needed in order for accurate prophylactic measures to be taken by the population and of special importance to women before and during child bearing age, in order to keep the levels in human milk as low as possible. Furthermore, there is great need for more knowledge of the effects of these toxicants on child health. The need for more research in this field, especially the need for prospective exposure data and the need for interdisciplinary approaches has been specifically targeted. Therefore a research initiative was taken in Norway to establish a prospective birth cohort which aims to recruit 6000 mother/child pairs, in whom human milk samples are collected in infancy and information on health outcomes are collected throughout the child's first seven years of life. The aim of this presentation is to describe this project in more detail and to give some preliminary results.

  1. Milk phospholipids: Organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid compared with conventional milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro, T; Gayoso, L; Rodríguez-Otero, J L

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the phospholipid content of conventional milk with that of organic milk and milk rich in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). The membrane enclosing the fat globules of milk is composed, in part, of phospholipids, which have properties of interest for the development of so-called functional foods and technologically novel ingredients. They include phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), and the sphingophospholipid sphingomyelin (SM). Milk from organically managed cows contains higher levels of vitamins, antioxidants, and unsaturated fatty acids than conventionally produced milk, but we know of no study with analogous comparisons of major phospholipid contents. In addition, the use of polyunsaturated-lipid-rich feed supplement (extruded linseed) has been reported to increase the phospholipid content of milk. Because supplementation with linseed and increased unsaturated fatty acid content are the main dietary modifications used for production of CLA-rich milk, we investigated whether these modifications would lead to this milk having higher phospholipid content. We used HPLC with evaporative light scattering detection to determine PE, PI, PC, PS, and SM contents in 16 samples of organic milk and 8 samples of CLA-rich milk, in each case together with matching reference samples of conventionally produced milk taken on the same days and in the same geographical areas as the organic and CLA-rich samples. Compared with conventional milk and milk fat, organic milk and milk fat had significantly higher levels of all the phospholipids studied. This is attributable to the differences between the 2 systems of milk production, among which the most influential are probably differences in diet and physical exercise. The CLA-rich milk fat had significantly higher levels of PI, PS, and PC than conventional milk fat, which is also attributed to dietary differences: rations for

  2. Carotenoid composition of human milk during the first month postpartum and the response to beta-carotene supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossage, Cynthia P; Deyhim, Mercedeh; Yamini, Sedigheh; Douglass, Larry W; Moser-Veillon, Phylis B

    2002-07-01

    Information is lacking regarding normal changes in milk carotenoid concentrations in healthy, well-nourished women during the first month of lactation. This study investigated milk carotenoid concentrations during days 4-32 postpartum and assessed the effects of maternal beta-carotene supplementation. Subjects (n = 21; aged 19-39 y) were randomly assigned to receive beta-carotene (30 mg/d) or placebo from days 4 to 32 postpartum. Each subject provided 8 diet records and 8 milk samples during the study. Diet records were analyzed for energy, macronutrients, vitamins A and E, and carotenoids. Milk samples were analyzed with HPLC for concentrations of carotenoids, retinol, and alpha-tocopherol. Data were analyzed by using repeated-measures analysis and orthogonal contrasts. No significant differences in average dietary intakes, body mass index, age, or parity were found between groups at baseline or after supplementation. Milk carotenoid concentrations decreased over time (P milk by day 32 postpartum. Milk lutein concentrations remained elevated throughout the study compared with values reported for mature milk, whereas plasma lutein concentrations decreased significantly over time. beta-carotene supplementation did not significantly change the milk concentrations of beta-carotene, the other carotenoids, retinol, or alpha-tocopherol. The lack of increase in milk beta-carotene despite supplementation suggests that transitional milk may be already nearly saturated with beta-carotene. The elevated milk lutein concentration and simultaneous decrease in plasma lutein suggest that lutein metabolism may be altered during early lactation.

  3. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated fibers for solid-phase microextraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water and milk samples before gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun-Xia; Jiang, Dong-Qing; Gu, Zhi-Yuan; Yan, Xiu-Ping

    2006-12-22

    Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental samples has raised great concerns due to the widespread use of PBDEs and their potential risk to humans. Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a fast, simple, cost-effective, and green sample preparation technique and is widely used for environmental analysis, but reports on the application of SPME for determination of PBDEs are very limited, and only a few publications dealing with commercial SPME fibers are available for extraction of PBDEs. Herein, we report a novel SPME method using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as the SPME fiber coating for gas chromatography with electron-capture detection (GC-ECD) of PBDEs in environmental samples. The MWCNTs coating gave much higher enhancement factors (616-1756) than poly (5% dibenzene-95% dimethylsiloxane) coating (139-384) and activated carbon coating (193-423). Thirty-minute extraction of 10 mL of sample solution using the MWCNTs coated fiber for GC-ECD determination yielded the limits of detection of 3.6-8.6 ng L(-1) and exhibited good linearity of the calibration functions (r(2)>0.995). The precision (RSD%, n=4) for peak area and retention time at the 500 ng L(-1) level was 6.9-8.8% and 0.6-0.9%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the analysis of real samples including local river water, wastewater, and milk samples. The recovery of the PBDEs at 500 ng L(-1) spiked in these samples ranged from 90 to 119%. No PBDEs were detected in the river water and skimmed milk samples, whereas in the wastewater sample, 134-215 ng L(-1) of PBDEs were found. The PBDEs were detected in all whole fat milk samples, ranging from 13 to 484 ng L(-1). In a semiskimmed milk sample, only BDE-47 was found at 21 ng L(-1).

  4. Diagnostic performance of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekouei, Omid; Durocher, Jean; Keefe, Greg

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the diagnostic performance of a commercial ELISA for detecting bovine leukemia virus antibodies in bulk-tank milk samples from eastern Canada. Sensitivity and specificity of the test were estimated at 97.2% and 100%, respectively. The test was recommended as a cost-efficient tool for large-scale screening programs. PMID:27429469

  5. Bile salt-stimulated lipase of human milk: characterization of the enzyme from preterm and term milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freed, L.M.; Hamosh, P.; Hamosh, M.

    1986-01-01

    The bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL) of human milk is an important digestive enzyme in the newborn whose pancreatic function is immature. Milk from mothers delivering premature infants (preterm milk) has similar levels of BSSL activity to that of mothers of term infants (term milk). This study has determined whether the BSSL in preterm milk has the same characteristics as that in term milk. Milk samples were collected during the first 12 wk of lactation from seven mothers of infants born at 26-30 wk (very preterm, VPT), 31-37 wk (preterm, PT) and 37-42 wk (term, T) gestation. BSSL activity was measured using 3 H-triolein emulsion as substrate. Time course, bile salt and enzyme concentration, pH and pH stability were studied, as well as inhibition of BSSL by eserine. The characteristics of BSSL from preterm and term milk were identical as were comparisons between colostrum and mature milk BSSL. BSSL from all milk sources had a neutral-to-alkaline pH optimum (pH 7.3-8.9), was stable at low pH for 60 min, and was 95-100% inhibited by eserine (greater than or equal to 0.6 mM). BSSL activity, regardless of enzyme source, was bile-salt dependent and was stimulated only by primary bile salts (taurocholate, glycocholate). The data indicate that the BSSL in milks of mothers delivering as early as 26 wk gestation is identical to that in term milk

  6. The effect of sampling frequency on the accuracy of estimates of milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    1ARC-Animal Improvement Institute, Private Bag X5013, Stellenbosch 7599, South Africa; 2Department of Animal. Science, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, ... weekly sampling procedure currently used by the South African National Dairy Cattle Performance Testing Scheme. However, replacement of proportional ...

  7. Molecular detection of Coxiella burnetii in goat bulk milk samples in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... useful for the diagnosis of acute infection due to the delay in antibody development. Furthermore, it is ... reaction (PCR) assay has become a useful tool for the detection of C. burnetii in clinical samples .... the efficiency of control schemes aimed at controlling and/or preventing C. burnetii infection in dairy.

  8. Survey on the presence of 90Sr in milk samples by a validated ultra low level liquid scintillation counting (LSC method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dell’Oro D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 90Sr is one of the most biologically hazardous radionuclides produced in nuclear fission processes and decays emitting high-energy beta particles turning 90Y. 90Sr is transferred from soil-plant to cow’s milk and then to humans if it is introduced into the environment. Radiostrontium is chemically similar to calcium entering the human body through several food chains and depositing in bone and blood-forming tissue (bone marrow. Among main foodstuffs assumed in human diet, milk is considered of special interest for radiostrontium determination, especially in emergency situations, because the consumption of contaminated milk is the main source of internal radiation exposure, particularly for infants. In this work an analytical method for the determination of radiostrontium in milk was developed and validated in order to determine low activity levels by liquid scintillation counting (LSC after achieving 90Y secular equilibrium condition. The analytical procedure was applied both in surveillance and routine programmes to detect radiocontamination in cow’s, goat and sheep milk samples.

  9. Selective molecularly imprinted polymer combined with restricted access material for in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS of parabens in breast milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Israel D.; Melo, Lidervan P.; Jardim, Isabel C.S.F.; Monteiro, Juliana C.S.; Nakano, Ana Marcia S.; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia C.

    2016-01-01

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer modified with restricted access material (a hydrophilic external layer), (MIP-RAM) was synthesized via polymerization in situ in an open fused silica capillary. This stationary phase was used as sorbent for in-tube solid phase microextraction (in-tube SPME) to determine parabens in breast milk samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) illustrate MIP surface modification after glycerol dimethacrylate (hydrophilic monomer) incorporation. The interaction between parabens and MIP-RAM was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The Scatchard plot for MIP-RAM presented two linear parts with different slopes, illustrating binding sites with high- and low-affinity. Endogenous compounds exclusion from the MIP-RAM capillary was demonstrated by in-tube SPME/LC-UV assays carried out with blank milk samples. The in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS method presented linear range from 10 ng mL"−"1 (LLOQ) to 400 ng mL"−"1 with coefficients of determination higher than 0.99, inter-assay precision with coefficient of variation (CV) values ranging from 2 to 15%, and inter-assay accuracy with relative standard deviation (RSD) values ranging from −1% to 19%. Analytical validation parameters attested that in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS is an appropriate method to determine parabens in human milk samples to assess human exposure to these compounds. Analysis of breast milk samples from lactating women demonstrated that the proposed method is effective. - Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted polymer modified with a hydrophilic external layer (RAM-MIP) was synthesized in a silica capillary. • RAM-MIP capillary, used as sorbent for in-tube SPME, established specific interaction with parabens present in milk samples. • The matrix components that interacted only with the hydrophilic external layer (non-adsorptive network) were excluded. • The

  10. Selective molecularly imprinted polymer combined with restricted access material for in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS of parabens in breast milk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Israel D.; Melo, Lidervan P. [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Jardim, Isabel C.S.F. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Monteiro, Juliana C.S.; Nakano, Ana Marcia S. [Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Queiroz, Maria Eugênia C., E-mail: mariaeqn@ffclrp.usp.br [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-08-17

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer modified with restricted access material (a hydrophilic external layer), (MIP-RAM) was synthesized via polymerization in situ in an open fused silica capillary. This stationary phase was used as sorbent for in-tube solid phase microextraction (in-tube SPME) to determine parabens in breast milk samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) illustrate MIP surface modification after glycerol dimethacrylate (hydrophilic monomer) incorporation. The interaction between parabens and MIP-RAM was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The Scatchard plot for MIP-RAM presented two linear parts with different slopes, illustrating binding sites with high- and low-affinity. Endogenous compounds exclusion from the MIP-RAM capillary was demonstrated by in-tube SPME/LC-UV assays carried out with blank milk samples. The in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS method presented linear range from 10 ng mL{sup −1} (LLOQ) to 400 ng mL{sup −1} with coefficients of determination higher than 0.99, inter-assay precision with coefficient of variation (CV) values ranging from 2 to 15%, and inter-assay accuracy with relative standard deviation (RSD) values ranging from −1% to 19%. Analytical validation parameters attested that in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS is an appropriate method to determine parabens in human milk samples to assess human exposure to these compounds. Analysis of breast milk samples from lactating women demonstrated that the proposed method is effective. - Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted polymer modified with a hydrophilic external layer (RAM-MIP) was synthesized in a silica capillary. • RAM-MIP capillary, used as sorbent for in-tube SPME, established specific interaction with parabens present in milk samples. • The matrix components that interacted only with the hydrophilic external layer (non-adsorptive network) were excluded.

  11. Direct determination of Pb in raw milk by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) with electrothermal atomization sampling from slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Tatiane Milão; Augusto Peres, Jayme; Lurdes Felsner, Maria; Cristiane Justi, Karin

    2017-08-15

    Milk is an important food in the human diet due to its physico-chemical composition; therefore, it is necessary to monitor contamination by toxic metals such as Pb. Milk sample slurries were prepared using Triton X-100 and nitric acid for direct analysis of Pb using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry - GF AAS. After dilution of the slurries, 10.00µl were directly introduced into the pyrolytic graphite tube without use of a chemical modifier, which acts as an advantage considering this type of matrix. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.64 and 2.14µgl -1 , respectively. The figures of merit studied showed that the proposed methodology without pretreatment of the raw milk sample and using external standard calibration is suitable. The methodology was applied in milk samples from the Guarapuava region, in Paraná State (Brazil) and Pb concentrations ranged from 2.12 to 37.36µgl -1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contain blood Abdominal cramps Runny nose Watery eyes Colic, in babies Milk allergy or milk intolerance? A ... fat milk, skim milk, buttermilk Butter Yogurt Ice cream, gelato Cheese and anything that contains cheese Half- ...

  13. A comparative study of minor and trace elements in human, animal and commercial milk samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.N.; Weginwar, R.G.; Chutke, N.L.

    1993-01-01

    Human, animal (cow, buffalo and goat) and commercial milk powders (for infants and adults) have been analyzed for 5 minor (Na, K, Mg, Cl and P) and 13 trace elements (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, As, Se, Sb, Cs and Br) by instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation. Milk standards NIST SRM 1549 and IAEA A-11 along with diet standards RM 8431a and IAEA H-9 were also analyzed for quality assurance. The method involves thermal neutron irradiation for 10 m, 1 h, 6 h and 1 week in a reactor followed by high resolution γ-spectrometry. Concentrations of Fe, Co, Zn, Sb and Se were also determined by radiochemical solvent extraction. Mean concentrations of Na, K, Mg, P, Cl, Fe, Mn and Cu in human milk (colostrum) are comparable with that of a WHO/IAEA study. It has, however, lower contents of toxic trace elements (Cr, Cd, Hg, Br, Se, Sb and As) compared to breast tissue from the same area. Cow milk is richer in Na, K, Cl, Mn and Se but it has comparable amounts of Mg, Zn, Br, Fe and Sb with respect to breast milk. Significant differences have been observed for elemental concentrations of Na, K, P and Fe in commercial formula milk powders for infants and adults. Infant's milk powders contain all the nutrient elements in balanced amounts required for the higher growth rate of a child. (author) 41 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  14. Validation of deep freezing of pilot samples for checking of time stability of indirect analyses of basic milk composition and for their long shelf-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oto Hanuš

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential part of raw milk component measurement is indirect infraanalyse. The checking of time measurement stability is important there. The preparation of pilot samples was described. Information about deep frozen milk pilot sample stability are sporadic. Aim of this work was to verify the stability of long-term stored and deep frozen pilot samples (FPSs. Pilot samples were frozen in liquid nitrogen bath −196 °C and after that stored at −21 °C for one month (A and more months (B till analyse. The pilot samples were measured by CombiFoss 6000: fat F (%; protein CP (%; lactose L (%; casein C (%; solid non fat SNF (%; urea U (mg/100ml; somatic cell count SCC (ths./ml. In the short-term (A experiment the impact of freezing on pilot milk samples was relatively small, in the framework of acceptable value of repeatability (±0.02 % for components. The stability of values of FPSs was better according to standard deviations for important F evaluation in H (Holstein breed samples. The repeatability of values of FPSs in the time was very good for other components. The repeatability was better for SCC in J (Jersey breed samples (±16.5 thousands/ml. That is why the higher variability (±30.1 thousands/ml in H sample is visible less sceptically. The apparent result trends were not observable in the repeatability development of important milk indicators in FPSs. The mild trend was only in CP, but this trend covered absolutely very small shift (variation range. There are only oscillations, which are similar between J and H samples. It is possible to attribute these oscillations rather to instrument effects than to sample effects. The oscilations were markedly higher in the long-term (B experiment. Between J and H samples the oscilations were very similar in curves F and L. It is also possible to attribute them more to instrumental effects. The repeatability values (standard deviations sd of FPSs were mostly lower than ±0.06 %. It is acceptable for

  15. Hot topic: Bovine milk samples yielding negative or nonspecific results in bacterial culturing--the possible role of PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism in mastitis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, K; Wimmer, M; Huber-Schlenstedt, R; Fehlings, K; Hölzel, C S; Bauer, J

    2012-01-01

    A large proportion of mastitis milk samples yield negative or nonspecific results (i.e., no mastitis pathogen can be identified) in bacterial culturing. Therefore, the culture-independent PCR-single strand conformation polymorphism method was applied to the investigation of bovine mastitis milk samples. In addition to the known mastitis pathogens, the method was suitable for the detection of fastidious bacteria such as Mycoplasma spp., which are often missed by conventional culturing methods. The detection of Helcococcus ovis in 4 samples might indicate an involvement of this species in pathogenesis of bovine mastitis. In conclusion, PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism is a promising tool for gaining new insights into the bacteriological etiology of mastitis. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Calibration strategies for the direct determination of Ca, K, and Mg in commercial samples of powdered milk and solid dietary supplements using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Augusto, Amanda; Barsanelli, Paulo Lopes; Pereira, Fabiola Manhas Verbi; Pereira-Filho, Edenir Rodrigues

    2017-04-01

    This study describes the application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the direct determination of Ca, K and Mg in powdered milk and solid dietary supplements. The following two calibration strategies were applied: (i) use of the samples to calculate calibration models (milk) and (ii) use of sample mixtures (supplements) to obtain a calibration curve. In both cases, reference values obtained from inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP OES) after acid digestion were used. The emission line selection from LIBS spectra was accomplished by analysing the regression coefficients of partial least squares (PLS) regression models, and wavelengths of 534.947, 766.490 and 285.213nm were chosen for Ca, K and Mg, respectively. In the case of the determination of Ca in supplements, it was necessary to perform a dilution (10-fold) of the standards and samples to minimize matrix interference. The average accuracy for powdered milk ranged from 60% to 168% for Ca, 77% to 152% for K and 76% to 131% for Mg. In the case of dietary supplements, standard error of prediction (SEP) varied from 295 (Mg) to 3782mgkg -1 (Ca). The proposed method presented an analytical frequency of around 60 samples per hour and the step of sample manipulation was drastically reduced, with no generation of toxic chemical residues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of maternal BMI and sampling strategy on the concentration of leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk across a single feed: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas, Nicholas J; Hyde, Matthew J; Herbert, Bronwen R; Jeffries, Suzan; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Mandalia, Sundhiya; Holmes, Elaine; Modi, Neena

    2016-07-07

    We tested the hypothesis that there is a positive association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and the concentration of appetite-regulating hormones leptin, insulin, ghrelin and resistin in breast milk. We also aimed to describe the change in breast milk hormone concentration within each feed, and over time. Mothers were recruited from the postpartum ward at a university hospital in London. Breast milk samples were collected at the participants' homes. We recruited 120 healthy, primiparous, breastfeeding mothers, aged over 18 years. Mothers who smoked, had multiple births or had diabetes were excluded. Foremilk and hindmilk samples were collected from 105 women at 1 week postpartum and 92 women at 3 months postpartum. We recorded maternal and infant anthropometric measurements at each sample collection and measured hormone concentrations using a multiplex assay. The concentration of leptin in foremilk correlated with maternal BMI at the time of sample collection, at 7 days (r=0.31, p=0.02) and 3 months postpartum (r=0.30, p=milk ghrelin and resistin were not correlated with maternal BMI. Ghrelin concentrations at 3 months postpartum were increased in foremilk compared with hindmilk (p=0.01). Concentrations of ghrelin were increased in hindmilk collected at 1  week postpartum compared with samples collected at 3 months postpartum (p=0.03). A trend towards decreased insulin concentrations in hindmilk was noted. Concentrations of leptin and resistin were not seen to alter over a feed. A positive correlation between maternal BMI and foremilk leptin concentration at both time points studied, and foremilk insulin at 3 months postpartum was observed. This may have implications for infant appetite regulation and obesity risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Identifying the major bacteria causing intramammary infections in individual milk samples of sheep and goats using traditional bacteria culturing and real-time polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovai, M; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Jubert, A; Lázaro, B; Lázaro, M; Leitner, G

    2014-09-01

    Use of DNA-based methods, such as real-time PCR, has increased the sensitivity and shortened the time for bacterial identification, compared with traditional bacteriology; however, results should be interpreted carefully because a positive PCR result does not necessarily mean that an infection exists. One hundred eight lactating dairy ewes (56 Manchega and 52 Lacaune) and 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats were used for identifying the main bacteria causing intramammary infections (IMI) using traditional bacterial culturing and real-time PCR and their effects on milk performance. Udder-half milk samples were taken for bacterial culturing and somatic cell count (SCC) 3 times throughout lactation. Intramammary infections were assessed based on bacteria isolated in ≥2 samplings accompanied by increased SCC. Prevalence of subclinical IMI was 42.9% in Manchega and 50.0% in Lacaune ewes and 41.7% in goats, with the estimated milk yield loss being 13.1, 17.9, and 18.0%, respectively. According to bacteriology results, 87% of the identified single bacteria species (with more than 3 colonies/plate) or culture-negative growth were identical throughout samplings, which agreed 98.9% with the PCR results. Nevertheless, the study emphasized that 1 sampling may not be sufficient to determine IMI and, therefore, other inflammatory responses such as increased SCC should be monitored to identify true infections. Moreover, when PCR methodology is used, aseptic and precise milk sampling procedures are key for avoiding false-positive amplifications. In conclusion, both PCR and bacterial culture methods proved to have similar accuracy for identifying infective bacteria in sheep and goats. The final choice will depend on their response time and cost analysis, according to the requirements and farm management strategy. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Changeover from signalling to energy-provisioning lipids during transition from colostrum to mature milk in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Watson, David G; Zhang, Rong; Hou, Rong; Loeffler, I Kati; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2016-11-03

    Among the large placental mammals, ursids give birth to the most altricial neonates with the lowest neonatal:maternal body mass ratios. This is particularly exemplified by giant pandas. To examine whether there is compensation for the provision of developmentally important nutrients that other species groups may provide in utero, we examined changes in the lipids of colostrum and milk with time after birth in giant pandas. Lipids that are developmental signals or signal precursors, and those that are fundamental to nervous system construction, such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and phosphatidylserines, appear early and then fall dramatically in concentration to a baseline at 20-30 days. The dynamics of lysophosphatidic acid and eicosanoids display similar patterns, but with progressive differences between mothers. Triglycerides occur at relatively low levels initially and increase in concentration until a plateau is reached at about 30 days. These patterns indicate an early provision of signalling lipids and their precursors, particularly lipids crucial to brain, retinal and central nervous system development, followed by a changeover to lipids for energy metabolism. Thus, in giant pandas, and possibly in all bears, lactation is adapted to provisioning a highly altricial neonate to a degree that suggests equivalence to an extension of gestation.

  20. Green and simple analytical method to determine benzimidazoles in milk samples by using salting-out assisted liquid-liquid extraction and capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada-Casado, Carmen; Del Olmo-Iruela, Monsalud; García-Campaña, Ana M; Lara, Francisco J

    2018-08-01

    A green and simple multiresidue method using capillary liquid chromatography (CLC) with UV-diode array detection (DAD) has been developed for the determination of sixteen benzimidazoles (BZs) and its metabolites in milk samples. The separation was achieved in  0.9985 for all BZs) with limits of detection (LOD) between 1.0 and 2.8 μg kg -1 . Relative standard deviations of repeatability and intermediate precision were below 1.6 and 14.2%, respectively. Satisfactory recoveries between 79.1 and 99.6% were also obtained for three types of milk samples (cow, sheep and goat). The advantages of a miniaturized technique such as CLC in terms of better efficiencies and reduced solvent consumption, combined with the simplicity of the SALLE procedure, make this method a useful alternative for the monitoring of these residues at trace level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cow's Milk Contamination of Human Milk Purchased via the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, Sarah A; Kulkarni, Manjusha M; McNamara, Kelly; Geraghty, Sheela R; Billock, Rachael M; Ronau, Rachel; Hogan, Joseph S; Kwiek, Jesse J

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration recommends against feeding infants human milk from unscreened donors, but sharing milk via the Internet is growing in popularity. Recipient infants risk the possibility of consuming contaminated or adulterated milk. Our objective was to test milk advertised for sale online as human milk to verify its human origin and to rule out contamination with cow's milk. We anonymously purchased 102 samples advertised as human milk online. DNA was extracted from 200 μL of each sample. The presence of human or bovine mitochondrial DNA was assessed with a species-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase subunit 5 gene. Four laboratory-created mixtures representing various dilutions of human milk with fluid cow's milk or reconstituted infant formula were compared with the Internet samples to semiquantitate the extent of contamination with cow's milk. All Internet samples amplified human DNA. After 2 rounds of testing, 11 samples also contained bovine DNA. Ten of these samples had a level of bovine DNA consistent with human milk mixed with at least 10% fluid cow's milk. Ten Internet samples had bovine DNA concentrations high enough to rule out minor contamination, suggesting a cow's milk product was added. Cow's milk can be problematic for infants with allergy or intolerance. Because buyers cannot verify the composition of milk they purchase, all should be aware that it might be adulterated with cow's milk. Pediatricians should be aware of the online market for human milk and the potential risks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Selective molecularly imprinted polymer combined with restricted access material for in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS of parabens in breast milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Israel D; Melo, Lidervan P; Jardim, Isabel C S F; Monteiro, Juliana C S; Nakano, Ana Marcia S; Queiroz, Maria Eugênia C

    2016-08-17

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer modified with restricted access material (a hydrophilic external layer), (MIP-RAM) was synthesized via polymerization in situ in an open fused silica capillary. This stationary phase was used as sorbent for in-tube solid phase microextraction (in-tube SPME) to determine parabens in breast milk samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) illustrate MIP surface modification after glycerol dimethacrylate (hydrophilic monomer) incorporation. The interaction between parabens and MIP-RAM was investigated by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The Scatchard plot for MIP-RAM presented two linear parts with different slopes, illustrating binding sites with high- and low-affinity. Endogenous compounds exclusion from the MIP-RAM capillary was demonstrated by in-tube SPME/LC-UV assays carried out with blank milk samples. The in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS method presented linear range from 10 ng mL(-1) (LLOQ) to 400 ng mL(-1) with coefficients of determination higher than 0.99, inter-assay precision with coefficient of variation (CV) values ranging from 2 to 15%, and inter-assay accuracy with relative standard deviation (RSD) values ranging from -1% to 19%. Analytical validation parameters attested that in-tube SPME/UHPLC-MS/MS is an appropriate method to determine parabens in human milk samples to assess human exposure to these compounds. Analysis of breast milk samples from lactating women demonstrated that the proposed method is effective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. FAAS and k/sub 0/-INAA analysis protocols for the determination of essential and toxic metals in fresh and packed milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasim, M.; Rahman, S.

    2012-01-01

    This study assesses the intake adequacy of elements determined in fresh, ultra high temperature (UHT) treated and powder milk samples. The samples were analyzed for fourteen elements (Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Rb, Sn, Sr and Zn) by semi-absolute k/sub 0/ instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) with proper method validation. NAA and AAS methodologies were validated by analyzing three reference materials. The results of 10 elements (Br, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn) determined in IAEA-336 by k/sub 0/-INAA, iodine in NIST-SRM-1572 (citrus leaves) by ENAA and 4 elements (Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb) by AAS are presented with 95% confidence intervals. The daily intakes were compared with the dietary reference intakes (DRIs) defined for male of age group 31-50 years. This comparison reveals that fresh milk is best in providing most of the essential elements (Ca, I, P, Zn, Mg). UHT treated and powder samples are slightly better in Cu and Fe. It can be said that fresh milk is good source of Ca, I, P and Zn but poor source of Fe. The daily intake of lead, identified in only two samples, was compared with the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) defined by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO), which is 25 mu g/(kg body weight). Lead was evaluated for a person drinking 250 ml of milk/day and weighing 70 kg. It produced weekly intake of 3.1 mu g, a value well below the PTWI. (Orig./A.B.)

  4. Antioxidant capacity of fresh and stored breast milk: is -80°C optimal temperature for freeze storage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Fatma Nur; Akdag, Arzu; Dizdar, Evrim Alyamac; Uras, Nurdan; Erdeve, Omer; Erel, Ozcan; Dilmen, Ugur

    2012-06-01

    To determine total antioxidant capacity and total oxidation status in fresh and freeze stored (at -80°C) breast milk during the stages of lactation. Samples of colostrum, transitional and mature milk were collected from 44 healthy women at 3, 8 and 30 days after birth. The total milk volume collected (6 ml) was divided in two aliquot parts: 3 ml for the fresh analysis which was done immediately after the extraction and 3 ml for storage under freezing conditions at -80°C for two months. The antioxidant status and oxidative stress of the fresh and stored breast milk were assessed via determination of total antioxidant capacity and total oxidation status. Antioxidant capacity of transitional and mature milk decreased (p = 0.0001, p = 0.028, respectively); however, antioxidant capacity of colostrum did not change by storage at -80°C (p > 0.05). Total antioxidant capacity of fresh and stored breast milk significantly decreased during the stages of lactation (p Total oxidation status showed no significant difference in fresh and stored breast milk during the stages of lactation (p > 0.05). Freeze storage of breast milk at -80°C for two months seems not to be the optimal condition to preserve the antioxidant capacity of breast milk.

  5. Isolation and identification of Mycoplasma agalactiae by culture and Polymerase Chain Reaction in Sheep and Goat Milk Samples in Kordestan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaki, P.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Contagious agalactiae (C.A. is one of the most common disease affecting small ruminants which is caused by Mycoplasma agalactiae. This disease is particularly widespread around the world and Iran is one of the countries that C.A. is present. The aim of this study was isolation and identification of M. agalactiae (MG with culture and PCR technique in milk samples in Kordestan province, Iran. A total of 367 milk samples were collected from sheep and goat. Specific published primers amplify a 375 bp gene of MG were used for PCR. Twenty (5.5% out of 367 were positive in PPLO agar and 5 (25% out of these isolates were positive with Mycoplasma agalactiae primers. Four (75% out of 5 isolates was from sheep and 1(25% from goat. Result of PCR with 367 milk samples showed that 11(3% of them were positive with these primers. The isolation of M. agalactiae showed that C.A is present in Kordestan province and our results suggested that PCR method because of reduces the time consuming could be an alternative method beside culture.

  6. The impact of freeze-drying infant fecal samples on measures of their bacterial community profiles and milk-derived oligosaccharide content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachery T. Lewis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Infant fecal samples are commonly studied to investigate the impacts of breastfeeding on the development of the microbiota and subsequent health effects. Comparisons of infants living in different geographic regions and environmental contexts are needed to aid our understanding of evolutionarily-selected milk adaptations. However, the preservation of fecal samples from individuals in remote locales until they can be processed can be a challenge. Freeze-drying (lyophilization offers a cost-effective way to preserve some biological samples for transport and analysis at a later date. Currently, it is unknown what, if any, biases are introduced into various analyses by the freeze-drying process. Here, we investigated how freeze-drying affected analysis of two relevant and intertwined aspects of infant fecal samples, marker gene amplicon sequencing of the bacterial community and the fecal oligosaccharide profile (undigested human milk oligosaccharides. No differences were discovered between the fecal oligosaccharide profiles of wet and freeze-dried samples. The marker gene sequencing data showed an increase in proportional representation of Bacteriodes and a decrease in detection of bifidobacteria and members of class Bacilli after freeze-drying. This sample treatment bias may possibly be related to the cell morphology of these different taxa (Gram status. However, these effects did not overwhelm the natural variation among individuals, as the community data still strongly grouped by subject and not by freeze-drying status. We also found that compensating for sample concentration during freeze-drying, while not necessary, was also not detrimental. Freeze-drying may therefore be an acceptable method of sample preservation and mass reduction for some studies of microbial ecology and milk glycan analysis.

  7. Synergistic effect of nisin and cone essential oil of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Miki ex Hu against Listeria monocytogenes in milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung In; Bajpai, Vivek K; Kang, Sun Chul

    2011-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of nisin and cone essential oil of Metasequoia glyptostroboides against Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19116 inoculated in whole (8%), low (1%) and skim (no fat content) milks. Essential oil at the concentrations of 2% and 5% revealed strong antilisterial effect against L. monocytogenes ATCC 19116 in all categories of milks. Nisin at the concentrations of 250 and 500 IU/ml displayed a remarkable antilisterial effect as compared to the control group. Also, the synergistic combinations of cone essential oil (1% and 2%) and nisin (62.5, 125, 250 and 500 IU/ml) had a remarkable antilisterial activity in all categories of whole, low and skim milks after 14 days. Results of this study indicate that the cone essential oil of M. glyptostroboides might be a useful candidate for using in food industry to control the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Environmental Streptococci Recovered from Bovine Milk Samples in the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Cameron

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Determination of antimicrobial susceptibility of bovine mastitis pathogens is important for guiding antimicrobial treatment decisions and for the detection of emerging resistance. Environmental streptococci are ubiquitous in the farm environment and are a frequent cause of mastitis in dairy cows. The aim of the study was to determine patterns of antimicrobial susceptibility among species of environmental streptococci isolated from dairy cows in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. The collection consisted of 192 isolates identified in milk samples collected from 177 cows originating from 18 dairy herds. Results were aggregated into: 1 Streptococcus uberis (n = 70, 2 Streptococcus dysgalactiae (n = 28, 3 other Streptococci spp. (n = 35, 4, Lactococcus spp. (n = 32, and 5 Enterococcus spp. (n = 27. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined using the Sensititre microdilution system and mastitis plate format. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data, with antimicrobial susceptibility as the outcome. The proportion of susceptible Streptococcus uberis ranged from 23% (for penicillin to 99% (for penicillin/novobiocin, with a median of 82%. All Streptococcus dysgalactiae were susceptible to all antimicrobials except for penicillin (93% susceptible and tetracycline (18% susceptible. The range of susceptibility for other Streptococcus spp. was 43% (for tetracycline to 100%, with a median percent susceptibility of 92%. Lactococcus spp. isolates displayed percent susceptibilities ranging from 0% (for penicillin to 97% (for erythromycin, median 75%. For the antimicrobials tested, the MIC were higher for Enterococcus spp. than for the other species. According to the multilevel models, there was a significant interaction between antimicrobial and bacterial species, indicating that susceptibility against a particular antimicrobial varied among the species of environmental streptococci and vice versa. Generally

  9. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy KidsHealth / For Teens / Milk Allergy What's in this ... to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, which ...

  10. Heavy metal content and element analysis of infant formula and milk powder samples purchased on the Tanzanian market: International branded versus black market products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, M; McCulloch, C R; Schoder, D

    2018-07-30

    Milk powder is a food for malnourished African children and for healthy infants of women with HIV/AIDS. High demand and low purchasing power has resulted in a huge informal, black market in Sub-Saharan Africa. Forty-three milk powder batches were analyzed for 43 chemical elements using ICP-MS One sample (2.3%) was contaminated at a lead concentration of 240 µg/kg dry weight exceeding the European threshold (130 µg/kg dry weight). Macroelement contents revealed a trend decreasing in concentration through skimmed, full cream products to infant formulae. Concentration ranges by dry weight differed in respect of uncertainty intervals of  ±10%. Median Ca, K and P concentrations declined from 11.14 g/kg to 3.21 g/kg, 14.11 g/kg to 4.95 g/kg and 9.12 g/kg to 2.75 g/kg dry mass, respectively. Milk powder samples obtained from the Tanzanian black market were comparable in respect of nutritional and chemical content to international branded full cream products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of Glyphosate Levels in Breast Milk Samples from Germany by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinborn, Angelika; Alder, Lutz; Michalski, Britta; Zomer, Paul; Bendig, Paul; Martinez, Sandra Aleson; Mol, Hans G.J.; Class, Thomas J.; Costa Pinheiro, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the validation and application of two independent analytical methods for the determination of glyphosate in breast milk. They are based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), respectively. For

  12. A label-free and portable multichannel surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for on site analysis of antibiotics in milk samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fernández, F.; Hegnerová, Kateřina; Piliarik, Marek; Sanchez-Baeza, F.; Homola, Jiří; Marko, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2010), s. 1231-1238 ISSN 0956-5663 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : surface plasmon resonance * antibiotic s * milk Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 5.361, year: 2010

  13. Determination of potassium-40 ({sup 40}K) in milk samples consumed in Iran and it's annual intake in different age categories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasisiar, F. [Iranian Nuclear Regulatory Authority (INRA), Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Environmental Radiation Protection Div., National Radiation Protection Dept., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Afshar, N. [Tarbiat Modarres Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    A large fraction of the natural radiation exposure is due to ingestion of food containing naturally radionuclides such as {sup 40}K. Potassium-40 is the largest contributor to the internal radiation dose received b y man also it is one of the essential elements in the body. The potassium-40 that enters the blood stream after ingestion or inhalation is quickly distributed to all organs and tissues. This radionuclide is eliminated from the body with a biological half -life 30 days. Potassium-40 can present both an external and an internal health hazard. The strong gamma radiation associated with the electron-capture decay process makes external exposure to this isotope a concern. While in the body, it poses a health hazard from both the beta particles and gamma rays. The health hazard of this radionuclide is associated with the cell damage caused by the ionizing radiation that results from radioactive decay, with the general potential for subsequent cancer induction. So, determination of this radionuclide and its dose assessment due to food ingestion seems to be very important. For this purpose, The environmental Monitoring Program in Iran has been implemented from several years ago. Gamma radiation exposures and natural radioactivity measurements in different environmental samples such as soils, water and foodstuffs from different parts of country and also imported food products have been determined. Since milk and its products are one of the main diet foodstuffs, In the present work, the concentration of potassium-40 in milk samples (powder and fresh) consumed in the country has been determined using gamma spectrometry with a high-purity Ge detector (H.P-Ge detector). The results showed that the activity concentration of {sup 40}K in both dried powder milk samples imported to the country and locally produced fresh milk samples in different parts of the country was between 30 -50 Bq.kg-1. The annual intake of this radionuclide was measured considering yearly milk

  14. Risk assessment due to ingestion of natural radionuclides and heavy metals in the milk samples: a case study from a proposed uranium mining area, Jharkhand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Soma; Singh, Gurdeep; Jha, V N; Tripathi, R M

    2011-04-01

    Ingestion of radionuclides and heavy metals through drinking water and food intake represents one of the important pathways for long-term health considerations. Milk and milk products are main constituents of the daily diet. Radionuclides and heavy metals can be apprehended in the ecosystem of the East Singhbhum region which is known for its viable grades of uranium, copper and other minerals. For the risk assessment studies, samples of milk were collected from twelve villages around Bagjata mining area and analysed for U(nat), 226Ra, 230Th, 210Po, Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu and Ni. Analysis of the results of the study reveals that the geometric mean of U(nat), 226Ra, 230Th and 210Po was 0.021, 0.24, 0.23 and 1.08 Bq l(-1), respectively. The ingestion dose was calculated to be 12.34 μSvY(-1) which is reflecting the natural background dose via the route of ingestion, and much below the 1 mSv limit set in the new ICRP recommendations. The excess lifetime cancer risk was estimated to be 1.72×10(-4) which is within the acceptable excess individual lifetime cancer risk value of 1×10(-4). The geometric mean of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Ni was 4.91, 0.29, 4.77, 0.56 and 0.48 mgl(-1), respectively; whereas the daily intake was computed to be 0.44, 0.03, 0.43, 0.05 and 0.04 mg/day, respectively. Pb was not detected in any of the samples. The hazard quotient revealed that the intake of the heavy metals through the ingestion of milk does not pose any apparent threat to the local people as none of the HQ of the heavy metals exceeds the limit of 1.

  15. Seasonal and Milking-to-Milking Variations in Cow Milk Fat, Protein and Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Raluca PAVEL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study was to examine milking-to-milking variations in milk fat, protein and SCC (somatic cell count. The second objective of this study was to examine variations of milk components (fat, protein and SCC over a period of six months (April-September 2010 at Agricultural Research Development Station Simnic. A total of 128 milk samples (64 morning milking and 64 evening milking ones from milk bulk tank commingled from 904 Holstein cows, were collected and analyzed for fat, protein and SCC. Data suggested that milking period effects milk fat, making the fat percentage lower in the morning compared with the evening milking period, effect which was not similar in protein content. Seasonal differences in milk fat and protein were also investigated. The season of year had influenced SCC, fat and protein: SCC increased, while fat and protein decreased. The period of the day when milking took place and the season influenced fat, protein and SCC, but the composition of milk, as well as its hygienic quality, fell within the aplicabile standards for raw milk.

  16. Seasonal and Milking-to-Milking Variations in Cow Milk Fat, Protein and Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Raluca PAVEL

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The first objective of this study was to examine milking-to-milking variations in milk fat, protein and SCC (somatic cell count. The second objective of this study was to examine variations of milk components (fat, protein and SCC over a period of six months (April-September 2010 at Agricultural Research Development Station Simnic. A total of 128 milk samples (64 morning milking and 64 evening milking ones from milk bulk tank commingled from 90�4 Holstein cows, were collected and analyzed for fat, protein and SCC. Data suggested that milking period effects milk fat, making the fat percentage lower in the morning compared with the evening milking period, effect which was not similar in protein content. Seasonal differences in milk fat and protein were also investigated. The season of year had influenced SCC, fat and protein: SCC increased, while fat and protein decreased. The period of the day when milking took place and the season influenced fat, protein and SCC, but the composition of milk, as well as its hygienic quality, fell within the aplicabile standards for raw milk.

  17. Urea in Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Projectsatbangalore

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a low-cost, portable instrument using CO2 and NH3 gas sensor technology to quantify and differentiate milk samples containing excess urea. Milk containing urea, in presence of urease enzyme hydrolyses urea to form ammonia and carbon dioxide.

  18. Rapid, sensitive and reproducible method for point-of-collection screening of liquid milk for adulterants using a portable Raman spectrometer with novel optimized sample well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, Michel K.; Holroyd, Steve E.; McGoverin, Cushla M.; Simpson, M. Cather; Williams, David E.

    2017-02-01

    Point-of-care diagnostics are of interest in the medical, security and food industry, the latter particularly for screening food adulterated for economic gain. Milk adulteration continues to be a major problem worldwide and different methods to detect fraudulent additives have been investigated for over a century. Laboratory based methods are limited in their application to point-of-collection diagnosis and also require expensive instrumentation, chemicals and skilled technicians. This has encouraged exploration of spectroscopic methods as more rapid and inexpensive alternatives. Raman spectroscopy has excellent potential for screening of milk because of the rich complexity inherent in its signals. The rapid advances in photonic technologies and fabrication methods are enabling increasingly sensitive portable mini-Raman systems to be placed on the market that are both affordable and feasible for both point-of-care and point-of-collection applications. We have developed a powerful spectroscopic method for rapidly screening liquid milk for sucrose and four nitrogen-rich adulterants (dicyandiamide (DCD), ammonium sulphate, melamine, urea), using a combined system: a small, portable Raman spectrometer with focusing fibre optic probe and optimized reflective focusing wells, simply fabricated in aluminium. The reliable sample presentation of this system enabled high reproducibility of 8% RSD (residual standard deviation) within four minutes. Limit of detection intervals for PLS calibrations ranged between 140 - 520 ppm for the four N-rich compounds and between 0.7 - 3.6 % for sucrose. The portability of the system and reliability and reproducibility of this technique opens opportunities for general, reagentless adulteration screening of biological fluids as well as milk, at point-of-collection.

  19. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (powdered milk)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in powdered milk were determined using radiochemical analysis. Six brands of commercial milk were purchased as samples in consuming districts in December 1984. Milk in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish was evaporated to dryness followed by carbonization and ashing. The maximum values of Sr-90 and Cs-137 were 33 +- 1.0 pCi/kg and 140 +- 2 pCi/kg, respectively, in skim milk manufactured by Meiji. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Comparative study for essential elements determination in milk products samples by INAA and ICP-AES; Estudo comparativo na determinacao de elementos essenciais em amostras de produtos lacteos por AANI e ICP-AES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Carmen S. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Equipamentos Especializados; Maihara, Vera A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica

    2002-07-01

    The mineral elements Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na and Zn were analyzed in milk products by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The study included four types of cheese (mozzarella, minas, prato, parmesan), chocolate milk and yogurt. The samples were purchased from the local markets. Average concentrations ranged from 3668 (chocolate milk) to 16558 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Ca; from 2.61 (parmesan cheese) to 28.9 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for Fe; from 673 (mozzarella cheese) to 10492 (chocolate milk) mg/kg for K; from 398 (yogurt) to 2280 (minas cheese) mg/kg for Mg; from 1681 (yogurt) to 15248 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Na; from 12.1 (chocolate milk) to 71.8 (parmesan cheese) mg/kg for Zn. Two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard reference materials (SRM 8435 Whole Milk Powder and SRM 1549 Non Fat Milk Powder) were analyzed to verify method accuracy. The statistic test used to determine the significance of the difference between the techniques was based on Unpaired t-Student test. Statistical test revealed no significance differences (P< 0,05) between the average values provided by the two methods for the most of determined elements. (author)

  1. Time-Dependent Expression Profiles of microRNAs and mRNAs in Rat Milk Whey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Hirohisa; Kosaka, Nobuyoshi; Shimizu, Takashi; Sekine, Kazunori; Ochiya, Takahiro; Takase, Mitsunori

    2014-01-01

    Functional RNAs, such as microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA, are present in milk, but their roles are unknown. To clarify the roles of milk RNAs, further studies using experimental animals such as rats are needed. However, it is unclear whether rat milk also contains functional RNAs and what their time dependent expression profiles are. Thus, we prepared total RNA from whey isolated from rat milk collected on days 2, 9, and 16 postpartum and analyzed using microarrays and quantitative PCR. The concentration of RNA in colostrum whey (day 2) was markedly higher than that in mature milk whey (days 9 and 16). Microarray analysis detected 161 miRNAs and 10,948 mRNA transcripts. Most of the miRNAs and mRNA transcripts were common to all tested milks. Finally, we selected some immune- and development-related miRNAs and mRNAs, and analysed them by quantitative PCR (in equal sample volumes) to determine their time-dependent changes in expression in detail. Some were significantly more highly expressed in colostrum whey than in mature milk whey, but some were expressed equally. And mRNA expression levels of some cytokines and hormones did not reflect the protein levels. It is still unknown whether RNAs in milk play biological roles in neonates. However, our data will help guide future in vivo studies using experimental animals such as rats. PMID:24533154

  2. Preparation of stir cake sorptive extraction based on polymeric ionic liquid for the enrichment of benzimidazole anthelmintics in water, honey and milk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yulei [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Siming Road, P.O. Box 1009, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zhang, Jie [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Huang, Xiaojia, E-mail: hxj@xmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Siming Road, P.O. Box 1009, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yuan, Dongxing [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, Key Laboratory of the Ministry of Education for Coastal and Wetland Ecosystem, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Siming Road, P.O. Box 1009, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2014-08-20

    Highlights: • A new polymeric ionic liquid-based monolith was prepared. • The monolith was used as the extractive medium of stir cake sorptive extraction. • The SCSE–AMIIDB can extract benzimidazole anthelmintics (BAs) effectively. • A combination of SCSE–AMIIDB–LD–HPLC/DAD was developed. • The combination was applied to monitor trace BAs in water, milk and honey samples. - Abstract: In this work, a new stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) using polymeric ionic liquid monolith as sorbent was prepared. The sorbent was obtained by in situ copolymerization of an ionic liquid, 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoro methyl)sulfonyl]imide (AMII) and divinylbenzene (DB) in the presence of N,N-dimethylformamide. The influence of the content of ionic liquid and the porogen in the polymerization mixture on extraction performance was studied thoroughly. The physicochemical properties of the polymeric ionic liquid were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mercury intrusion porosimetry. The usefulness of SCSE–AMIIDB was demonstrated by the enrichment of trace benzimidazole anthelmintics. Several parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were investigated, and under the optimized conditions, a simple and effective method for the determination of trace benzimidazoles residues in water, milk and honey samples was established by coupling SCSE–AMIIDB with high performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection (SCSE–AMIIDB–HPLC/DAD). Results indicated that the limits of detection (S/N = 3) for target compounds were 0.020–0.072 μg L{sup −1}, 0.035–0.10 μg L{sup −1} and 0.026–0.076 μg L{sup −1} in water, milk and honey samples, respectively. In addition, an acceptable reproducibility was achieved by evaluating the repeatability and intermediate precision with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 9% and 11%, respectively. Finally, the established AMII

  3. RNA sequencing of the human milk fat layer transcriptome reveals distinct gene expression profiles at three stages of lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle G Lemay

    Full Text Available Aware of the important benefits of human milk, most U.S. women initiate breastfeeding but difficulties with milk supply lead some to quit earlier than intended. Yet, the contribution of maternal physiology to lactation difficulties remains poorly understood. Human milk fat globules, by enveloping cell contents during their secretion into milk, are a rich source of mammary cell RNA. Here, we pair this non-invasive mRNA source with RNA-sequencing to probe the milk fat layer transcriptome during three stages of lactation: colostral, transitional, and mature milk production. The resulting transcriptomes paint an exquisite portrait of human lactation. The resulting transcriptional profiles cluster not by postpartum day, but by milk Na:K ratio, indicating that women sampled during similar postpartum time frames could be at markedly different stages of gene expression. Each stage of lactation is characterized by a dynamic range (10(5-fold in transcript abundances not previously observed with microarray technology. We discovered that transcripts for isoferritins and cathepsins are strikingly abundant during colostrum production, highlighting the potential importance of these proteins for neonatal health. Two transcripts, encoding β-casein (CSN2 and α-lactalbumin (LALBA, make up 45% of the total pool of mRNA in mature lactation. Genes significantly expressed across all stages of lactation are associated with making, modifying, transporting, and packaging milk proteins. Stage-specific transcripts are associated with immune defense during the colostral stage, up-regulation of the machinery needed for milk protein synthesis during the transitional stage, and the production of lipids during mature lactation. We observed strong modulation of key genes involved in lactose synthesis and insulin signaling. In particular, protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, F (PTPRF may serve as a biomarker linking insulin resistance with insufficient milk supply. This

  4. Callous-Unemotional Traits, Relational and Social Aggression, and Interpersonal Maturity in a Sample of Behaviorally Disordered Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, G. Ronald; Crothers, Laura M.; Hughes, Tammy L.; Kanyongo, Gibbs Y.; Kolbert, Jered B.; Parys, Kristen

    2018-01-01

    The authors examined the degree to which callous-unemotional traits and narcissism predict relational aggression, social aggression, and prosocial skills in a sample of 79 adolescent offenders (13-18 years old; 26% girls; 74% boys) attending a school for youth with behavior disorders in the Mid-Atlantic United States. Narcissism made a significant…

  5. Preconcentration and determination of boron in milk, infant formula, and honey samples by solid phase extraction-electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Garcia, I.; Vinas, P.; Romero-Romero, R. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Murcia, E-30071 Murcia (Spain); Hernandez-Cordoba, M. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Murcia, E-30071 Murcia (Spain)], E-mail: hcordoba@um.es

    2009-02-15

    This work presents alternative procedures for the electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of boron in milk, infant formulas, and honey samples. Honey samples (10% m/v) were diluted in a medium containing 1% v/v HNO{sub 3} and 50% v/v H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and introduced in the atomizer. A mixture of 20 {mu}g Pd and 0.5 {mu}g Mg was used for chemical modification. Calibration was carried out using aqueous solutions prepared in the same medium, in the presence of 10% m/v sucrose. The detection limit was 2 {mu}g g{sup -1}, equivalent to three times the standard error of the estimate (s{sub y/x}) of the regression line. For both infant formulas and milk samples, due to their very low boron content, we used a procedure based on preconcentration by solid phase extraction (Amberlite IRA 743), followed by elution with 2 mol L{sup -1} hydrochloric acid. Detection limits were 0.03 {mu}g g{sup -1} for 4% m/v honey, 0.04 {mu}g g{sup -1} for 5% m/v infant formula and 0.08 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for 15% v/v cow milk. We confirmed the accuracy of the procedure by comparing the obtained results with those found via a comparable independent procedure, as well by the analysis of four certified reference materials.

  6. High Levels of Chemokine C-C Motif Ligand 20 in Human Milk and Its Production by Oral Keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Alan G; Komesu, Marilena C; Duarte, Geraldo; Del Ciampo, Luiz A; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M; Yamamoto, Aparecida Y

    2017-03-01

    Chemokine C-C motif ligand 20 (CCL20) is implicated in the formation and function of mucosal lymphoid tissues. Although CCL20 is secreted by many normal human tissues, no studies have evaluated the presence of CCL20 in human milk or its production by oral keratinocytes stimulated by human milk. To evaluate the presence of CCL20 in breast milk and verify CCL20 secretion in vitro by oral keratinocytes stimulated with human and bovine milk, as well as its possible association with breast milk lactoferrin levels. The levels of CCL20 and lactoferrin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in human milk at three different stages of maturation from 74 healthy breastfeeding mothers. In vitro, oral keratinocytes were stimulated with human and bovine milk, and CCL20 was measured in their supernatant. High concentrations of CCL20 were detected in the human breast milk samples obtained during the first week (1,777.07 pg/mL) and second week postpartum (1,523.44 pg/mL), with a significantly low concentration in samples at 3-6 weeks postpartum (238.42 pg/mL; p stimulated higher CCL20 secretion by oral keratinocytes compared with bovine milk (p stimulation had no association with breast milk lactoferrin concentration. CCl20 is present at high levels in human milk, predominantly in the first and second week postpartum, but at significantly lower levels at 3-6 weeks postpartum. Human milk is capable of stimulating CCL20 secretion by oral keratinocytes, and this induction had no association with breast milk lactoferrin concentration.

  7. Cow's milk proteins in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E

    2012-01-01

    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  8. Determination of the micro-nutrient elements and the toxic in food of peruvian children of the city of Lima. Part I: determination through instrumental neutron activation of Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na in samples of milk and milk with cereal consumed by peruvian children in the age of weaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya R, E.; Bedregal, P.; Diaz, A.; Zavaleta, N.; Berlanga, R.

    1993-01-01

    The contents of Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na in milk and milk with cereal, consumed by the peruvian children were determined by short irradiation INAA using RP-10 reactor, with a thermal flux of 10 13 n/cm -2 s -1 and a pneumatic system. The comparative method with solutions of primary standards of each element determined was used. The IAEA-A11-milk powder, IAEA-H4-animal muscle and IAEA-V10-hay powder, reference materials were periodically analyzed, together with the samples, in order to check the quality of analytical results. (authors) 3 refs., 3 tabs, 2 figs

  9. Evaluation of camel milk for selected processing related parameters and comparisons with cow and buffalo milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam P. Sagar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cow and buffalo milk and camel milk were analyzed and compared for processing related parameters. The average heat stability of cow, buffalo and camel milk samples analyzed was 1807.4 seconds, 1574.6 seconds and 133.6 seconds respectively at 140 °C. Thus, the heat stability of camel milk was significantly lower than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The average rennet coagulation time (RCT of cow, buffalo and camel milk was 310.6 seconds, 257.4 seconds and 604.2 seconds respectively. Thus, RCT of camel milk was significantly higher than the cow milk and buffalo milk. The camel, cow and buffalo milk samples showed negative alcohol stability. The rate of acidity was increased propositionally with time in camel milk with no curd formation and weaker body.

  10. Molecular-based detection of the gastrointestinal pathogen Campylobacter ureolyticus in unpasteurized milk samples from two cattle farms in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koziel Monika

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Campylobacter jejuni and coli are collectively regarded as the most prevalent cause of bacterial foodborne illness worldwide. An emerging species, Campylobacter ureolyticus has recently been detected in patients with gastroenteritis, however, the source of this organism has, until now, remained unclear. Herein, we describe the molecular-based detection of this pathogen in bovine faeces (1/20 and unpasteurized milk (6/47 but not in poultry (chicken wings and caeca. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of the presence of this potential gastrointestinal pathogen in an animal source, possibly suggesting a route for its transmission to humans.

  11. Impact of processing on the digestibility of milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Processing of milk by homogenization and pasteurization causes changes in the milk proteins and fats, but there is little information about whether these changes affect milk digestibility. In this study, whole and skim milk samples were processed and compared to raw milk after all samples had underg...

  12. Maintenance of breast milk Immunoglobulin A after high-pressure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permanyer, M; Castellote, C; Ramírez-Santana, C; Audí, C; Pérez-Cano, F J; Castell, M; López-Sabater, M C; Franch, A

    2010-03-01

    Human milk is considered the optimal nutritional source for infants. Banked human milk is processed using low-temperature, long-time pasteurization, which assures microbial safety but involves heat denaturation of some desirable milk components such as IgA. High-pressure processing technology, the subject of the current research, has shown minimal destruction of food macromolecules. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of pressure treatments on IgA content. Moreover, bacterial load was evaluated after pressure treatments. The effects of high-pressure processing on milk IgA content were compared with those of low-temperature, long-time pasteurization. Mature human milk samples were heat treated at 62.5 degrees C for 30min or pressure processed at 400, 500, or 600MPa for 5min at 12 degrees C. An indirect ELISA was used to measure IgA in human milk whey obtained after centrifugation at 800xg for 10min at 4 degrees C. All 3 high-pressure treatments were as effective as low-temperature, long-time pasteurization in reducing the bacterial population of the human milk samples studied. After human milk pressure processing at 400MPa, 100% of IgA content was preserved in milk whey, whereas only 72% was retained in pasteurized milk whey. The higher pressure conditions of 500 and 600MPa produced IgA retention of 87.9 and 69.3%, respectively. These results indicate that high-pressure processing at 400MPa for 5min at 12 degrees C maintains the immunological protective capacity associated with IgA antibodies. This preliminary study suggests that high-pressure processing may be a promising alternative to pasteurization in human milk banking.

  13. The use of dissolvable layered double hydroxide components in an in situ solid-phase extraction for chromatographic determination of tetracyclines in water and milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phiroonsoontorn, Nattaphorn; Sansuk, Sira; Santaladchaiyakit, Yanawath; Srijaranai, Supalax

    2017-10-13

    This research presents a simple and green in situ solid phase extraction (is-SPE) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the simultaneous analysis of tetracyclines (TCs) including tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline. In is-SPE, TCs were efficiently extracted through the precipitation formation of dissolvable layered double hydroxides (LDHs) by mixing the LDH components such as magnesium and aluminum ions (both in metal chloride salts) thoroughly in an alkaline sample solution. After the centrifugation, the precipitate was completely dissolved with trifluoroacetic acid to release the enriched TCs, and then analyzed by HPLC. Under optimized conditions, this method gave good enrichment factors (EFs) of 41-93 with low limits of detection (LODs) of 0.7-6μg/L and limits of quantitation (LOQs) of 3-15μg/L. Also, the proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of TCs in water and milk samples with the recoveries ranging from 81.7-108.1% for water and 55.7-88.7% for milk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Iron concentrations in breast milk and selected maternal factors of human milk bank donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello-Neto, Julio; Rondó, Patrícia H C; Morgano, Marcelo A; Oshiiwa, Marie; Santos, Mariana L; Oliveira, Julicristie M

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between iron concentration in mature breast milk and characteristics of 136 donors of a Brazilian milk bank. Iron, vitamin A, zinc, and copper concentrations were assessed in human milk and maternal blood. Data were collected on maternal anthropometrics, obstetric, socioeconomic, demographic, and lifestyle factors. Iron, zinc, and copper in milk and zinc and copper in blood were detected by spectrophotometry. Vitamin A in milk and blood was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Hemoglobin was measured by electronic counting and serum iron and ferritin by colorimetry and chemoluminescence, respectively. Transferrin and ceruloplasmin were determined by nephelometry. According to multivariate linear regression analysis, iron in milk was positively associated with vitamin A in milk and with smoking but negatively associated with timing of breast milk donation (P milk of Brazilian donors may be influenced by nutritional factors and smoking.

  15. Longitudinal Study of Cytokine Expression, Lipid Profile and Neuronal Growth Factors in Human Breast Milk from Term and Preterm Deliveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmen Collado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk (BM is considered as a reference for infant nutrition. The role of bioactive components, such as cytokines, hormones, growth factors (GFs and fatty acids (FAs is poorly known, but they might be implicated in immune response development. The aim of this study was to identify the lipid profile and the spectrum of cytokines and neuronal GF in BM samples and analyse the influence of gestational age and lactation time on these components. This study used a longitudinal prospective method for the characterization of cytokines, FAs and GFs global profiles in 120 BM samples from 40 healthy mothers (20 preterm and 20 term collected as colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The cytokines were analysed by protein array (Ray Bio® Human Cytokine Array G6. Ray Biotech, Inc. Norcross, GA, USA and the FAs were analysed by gas chromatography. The FA profile was similar between the term and the preterm BM samples. Omega-3-α-linoleic and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA and omega-6-linoleic acid were the most abundant in the term and preterm samples during lactation. Omega-3 ETA and omega-3 EPA we observed exclusively in the preterm samples. The cytokine profile showed a different trend based on gestational age. A significantly higher expression of neurotrophic factors was found in the mature preterm milk samples as compared to the mature term samples. Our study is the first to identify the influence and interactions of perinatal factors on cytokine, GFs and FAs in human milk.

  16. Third molar maturity index (I3M) for assessing age of majority: study of a black South African sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelakopoulos, N; De Luca, S; Velandia Palacio, L A; Coccia, E; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2018-03-08

    The evaluation of the cutoff value of I 3M  = 0.08 for discriminating black South African minors from adults, and its relationship with chronological age. A sample of 833 panoramic radiographs of healthy black South African subjects (500 females and 333 males), in the age range of 14 to 24 years (mean age 17.67 years in females and 17.42 years in males), was retrospectively evaluated. ICC values were 99.10% (95% CI 97.70 to 99.70%) and 99.20% (95% CI 98.00 to 99.60%), for the intra- and inter-observer reliability, respectively. I 3M decreased as the real age gradually increased in both sexes. According to the logistic regression model, the variable sex was not significant when the probability that an individual is 18 years or older was calculated. The I 3M  = 0.08 was valuable in discriminating between adults and minors. The overall accuracy (ACC = fraction of accurately classified subjects) is 0.90 (95% CI 0.87-0.91); the proportion of correctly classified subjects (Se = sensitivity) is 0.80 (95% CI 0.76-0.84), and specificity (Sp) is 0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.97). The PPV (predictive positive value) is 0.96 (95% CI 0.95-0.97), and the negative predictive value is 0.76 (95% CI 0.72-0.80). The results show that I 3M is a valuable method to distinguish subjects who are around legal adult age in South Africa.

  17. Latent class analysis of real time qPCR and bacteriological culturing for the diagnosis of Streptococcus agalactiae in cow composite milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmøy, Ingrid H; Toft, Nils; Jørgensen, Hannah J; Mørk, Tormod; Sølverød, Liv; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2018-06-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) has re-emerged as a mastitis pathogen among Norwegian dairy cows. The Norwegian cattle health services recommend that infected herds implement measures to eradicate S. agalactiae, this includes a screening of milk samples from all lactating cows. The performance of the qPCR-test currently in use for this purpose has not been evaluated under field conditions. The objective of this study was to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the real-time qPCR assay in use in Norway (Mastitis 4 qPCR, DNA Diagnostics A/S, Risskov, Denmark) and compare it to conventional bacteriological culturing for detection of S. agalactiae in milk samples. Because none of these tests are considered a perfect reference test, the evaluation was performed using latent class models in a Bayesian analysis. Aseptically collected cow-composite milk samples from 578 cows belonging to 6 herds were cultured and tested by qPCR. While 37 (6.4%) samples were positive for S. agalactiae by bacteriological culture, 66 (11.4%) samples were positive by qPCR. The within-herd prevalence in the six herds, as estimated by the latent class models ranged from 7.7 to 50.8%. At the recommended cut-off (cycle threshold 37), the sensitivity of the qPCR was significantly higher at 95.3 (95% posterior probability interval [PPI] [84.2; 99.6]) than that of bacteriological culture at 58.2 (95% PPI [43.8; 74.4]). However, bacterial culture had a higher specificity of 99.7 (95% PPI [98.5; 100.0]) compared to the qPCR at 98.5 (95% PPI [94.6; 99.9]). The median estimated negative predictive values of qPCR was consistently higher than those of the BC at all estimated prevalences, and the superiority of the qPCR increased with increasing within-herd prevalence. The median positive predictive values of BC was in general higher than the estimates for the qPCR, however, at the highest prevalence the predictive ability of both tests were similar. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  18. Sensitive determination of melamine in milk and powdered infant formula samples by high-performance liquid chromatography using dabsyl chloride derivatization followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, M; Adeli, M

    2017-04-15

    A new and sensitive pre-column derivatization with dabsyl chloride followed by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction was developed for the analysis of melamine (MEL) in raw milk and powdered infant formula samples by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with visible detection. Derivatization with dabsyl chloride leads to improving sensitivity and hydrophobicity of MEL. Under optimum conditions of derivatization and microextraction steps, the method yielded a linear calibration curve ranging from 1.0 to 500μgL -1 with a determination coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.9995. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.1 and 0.3μgL -1 , respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD%) for intra-day (repeatability) and inter-day (reproducibility) at 25 and 100μgL -1 levels of MEL was less than 7.0% (n=6). Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied for the preconcentration and determination of MEL in different raw milk and powdered infant formula, and satisfactory results were obtained (relative recovery ⩾94%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Raw bovine milk improves gut responses to feeding relative to infant formula in preterm piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Jensen, Mikkel Lykke; Chatterton, Dereck Edward Winston

    2014-01-01

    For preterm neonates, the quality of the first milk is crucial for intestinal maturation and resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Among other factors, milk quality is determined by the stage of lactation and processing. We hypothesized that unprocessed mature bovine milk (BM, raw bovine...

  20. FT-Raman and chemometric tools for rapid determination of quality parameters in milk powder: Classification of samples for the presence of lactose and fraud detection by addition of maltodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues Júnior, Paulo Henrique; de Sá Oliveira, Kamila; de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Rocha; De Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa; Stephani, Rodrigo; Pinto, Michele da Silva; de Carvalho, Antônio Fernandes; Perrone, Ítalo Tuler

    2016-04-01

    FT-Raman spectroscopy has been explored as a quick screening method to evaluate the presence of lactose and identify milk powder samples adulterated with maltodextrin (2.5-50% w/w). Raman measurements can easily differentiate samples of milk powder, without the need for sample preparation, while traditional quality control methods, including high performance liquid chromatography, are cumbersome and slow. FT-Raman spectra were obtained from samples of whole lactose and low-lactose milk powder, both without and with addition of maltodextrin. Differences were observed between the spectra involved in identifying samples with low lactose content, as well as adulterated samples. Exploratory data analysis using Raman spectroscopy and multivariate analysis was also developed to classify samples with PCA and PLS-DA. The PLS-DA models obtained allowed to correctly classify all samples. These results demonstrate the utility of FT-Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics to infer about the quality of milk powder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Genetic comparison of milk production and composition in three maternal rabbit lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Gamal Fawzy EL Nagar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare 3 Spanish maternal rabbit lines (A, V and LP in terms of milk production and composition. These lines were founded on different criteria but selected for litter size at weaning. A total of 194 mature does in their third or higher parity were used. The milk yield of does was recorded at 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 15, 16 and 17 d post-partum (dpp. The milk production traits studied were weekly milk yield (WMY; g/wk and milk conversion ratio (MCR; grams of litter gain per grams of milk suckled during the first 21  dpp. The milk composition traits studied were fat (%, protein  (%, ash (%, lactose (% and total solids (%. The milk samples to be analysed were collected from each doe at 18 dpp. Data were analysed using single trait mixed and fixed models with and without covariates; the covariates were number born alive (NBA and doe weight at kindling (DW. The overall mean of WMY, during the first 3 wk, was 1547±16 g/wk. Milk yields during the different lactation weeks were for line A 872±39, 1503±39 and 1865±39 g for first, second and third lactation weeks, respectively. In line V, the corresponding values were 919±35, 1633±35 and 2004±35  g, and in line LP, they were 1043±36, 1819±36 and 2254±36  g. Means of MCR were 0.41±0.01, 0.41±0.01 and 0.42±0.01 for A, V and LP lines, respectively. Overall means of fat, protein, ash, lactose and total solids (% were 14.62±0.17, 11.10±0.07, 1.89±0.04, 2.67±0.12 and 30.27±0.24, respectively. The differences between lines for milk production traits were significant except for MCR, while the differences between lines for milk composition traits were not significant. NBA had significant effects on all milk yield traits but had no significant effects on milk composition traits. DW only had a significant effect on weekly milk yield. The parity order had no significant effect either for milk production traits or milk composition traits in multiparous does, except

  2. Milk removal

    OpenAIRE

    Ferneborg, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Milk from dairy cows is a staple dietary component for humans all over the world. Regardless of whether milk is consumed in its purest, unaltered form or as high-end products such as fine cheese or ice cream, it needs to be of high quality when taken from the cow, produced at a low price and produced in a system that consider aspects such as animal health, animal welfare and sustainability. This thesis investigated the role of milk removal and the importance of residual milk on milk yield...

  3. of market milk supplies a survey of penicillin contaminatio

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to the preparation used and the dosage administered. The excretion of penicillin in milk ... of antibiotic contamination of the milk supply as a veterinary and public health problem .... milk samples, and to the Director of the Abattoir and Livestock.

  4. Changes in the Milk Metabolome of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) with Time after Birth--Three Phases in Early Lactation and Progressive Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhihe; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Loeffler, I Kati; Watson, David G; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2015-01-01

    Ursids (bears) in general, and giant pandas in particular, are highly altricial at birth. The components of bear milks and their changes with time may be uniquely adapted to nourish relatively immature neonates, protect them from pathogens, and support the maturation of neonatal digestive physiology. Serial milk samples collected from three giant pandas in early lactation were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling and multivariate analysis. Changes in milk metabolites with time after birth were analysed by Principal Component Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and further supported by Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis, revealing three phases of milk maturation: days 1-6 (Phase 1), days 7-20 (Phase 2), and beyond day 20 (Phase 3). While the compositions of Phase 1 milks were essentially indistinguishable among individuals, divergences emerged during the second week of lactation. OPLS regression analysis positioned against the growth rate of one cub tentatively inferred a correlation with changes in the abundance of a trisaccharide, isoglobotriose, previously observed to be a major oligosaccharide in ursid milks. Three artificial milk formulae used to feed giant panda cubs were also analysed, and were found to differ markedly in component content from natural panda milk. These findings have implications for the dependence of the ontogeny of all species of bears, and potentially other members of the Carnivora and beyond, on the complexity and sequential changes in maternal provision of micrometabolites in the immediate period after birth.

  5. Changes in the Milk Metabolome of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) with Time after Birth – Three Phases in Early Lactation and Progressive Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Liang; Zhang, Zhihe; Hou, Rong; Wang, Hairui; Loeffler, I. Kati; Watson, David G.; Kennedy, Malcolm W.

    2015-01-01

    Ursids (bears) in general, and giant pandas in particular, are highly altricial at birth. The components of bear milks and their changes with time may be uniquely adapted to nourish relatively immature neonates, protect them from pathogens, and support the maturation of neonatal digestive physiology. Serial milk samples collected from three giant pandas in early lactation were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling and multivariate analysis. Changes in milk metabolites with time after birth were analysed by Principal Component Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and further supported by Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis, revealing three phases of milk maturation: days 1–6 (Phase 1), days 7–20 (Phase 2), and beyond day 20 (Phase 3). While the compositions of Phase 1 milks were essentially indistinguishable among individuals, divergences emerged during the second week of lactation. OPLS regression analysis positioned against the growth rate of one cub tentatively inferred a correlation with changes in the abundance of a trisaccharide, isoglobotriose, previously observed to be a major oligosaccharide in ursid milks. Three artificial milk formulae used to feed giant panda cubs were also analysed, and were found to differ markedly in component content from natural panda milk. These findings have implications for the dependence of the ontogeny of all species of bears, and potentially other members of the Carnivora and beyond, on the complexity and sequential changes in maternal provision of micrometabolites in the immediate period after birth. PMID:26630345

  6. Changes in the Milk Metabolome of the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca with Time after Birth--Three Phases in Early Lactation and Progressive Individual Differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Zhang

    Full Text Available Ursids (bears in general, and giant pandas in particular, are highly altricial at birth. The components of bear milks and their changes with time may be uniquely adapted to nourish relatively immature neonates, protect them from pathogens, and support the maturation of neonatal digestive physiology. Serial milk samples collected from three giant pandas in early lactation were subjected to untargeted metabolite profiling and multivariate analysis. Changes in milk metabolites with time after birth were analysed by Principal Component Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and further supported by Orthogonal Partial Least Square-Discriminant Analysis, revealing three phases of milk maturation: days 1-6 (Phase 1, days 7-20 (Phase 2, and beyond day 20 (Phase 3. While the compositions of Phase 1 milks were essentially indistinguishable among individuals, divergences emerged during the second week of lactation. OPLS regression analysis positioned against the growth rate of one cub tentatively inferred a correlation with changes in the abundance of a trisaccharide, isoglobotriose, previously observed to be a major oligosaccharide in ursid milks. Three artificial milk formulae used to feed giant panda cubs were also analysed, and were found to differ markedly in component content from natural panda milk. These findings have implications for the dependence of the ontogeny of all species of bears, and potentially other members of the Carnivora and beyond, on the complexity and sequential changes in maternal provision of micrometabolites in the immediate period after birth.

  7. Quality of bulk tank milk samples from Danish dairy herds based on real-time polymerase chain reaction identification of mastitis pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katholm, Jørgen; Bennedsgaard, T.W.; Koskinen, M.T.

    2012-01-01

    Results of a commercial real-time PCR analysis for 11 mastitis pathogens from bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from all 4,258 Danish dairy herds in November 2009 to January 2010 were compared with somatic cell count (SCC) and total bacteria count (TBC) estimates in BTM. For Streptococcus agalactiae......, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis, a low real-time PCR cycle threshold (Ct) value (corresponding to high bacterial DNA quantity) was correlated with higher SCC and higher TBC. For Staphylococcus aureus, low Ct values were correlated only with higher SCC. For the environmental mastitis...... pathogens Klebsiella spp., Enterococcus spp., and Escherichia coli, low Ct values had a correlation with higher TBC. Staphylococcus spp. were found in the BTM from all herds, Strep. uberis in 95%, Staph. aureus in 91%, and Strep. dysgalactiae in 86%, whereas E. coli, Klebsiella, and Strep. agalactiae were...

  8. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Camel milk and milk products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Brezovečki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk and camel milk products have always been highly esteemed playing even today an important role in the diet of the population in the rural areas of Africa, Asia and the Middle East, with scarce agricultural areas, high temperatures and small amount of precipitation. In aggravated environmental circumstances, camels may produce more milk than any other species, while their demand for food is very modest. A camel produces between 1000 and 2000 L of milk during the lactation period of 8 to 18 months, while the daily production of milk is between 3 and 10 L. The goal of the overview is to present the chemical composition of camel milk, and products made from camel milk. On average camel milk contains 81.4-87 % water, 10.4 % dry matter, 1.2-6.4 % milk fat, 2.15-4.90 % protein, 1.63-2.76 % casein, 0.65-0.80 % whey protein, 2.90-5.80 % lactose and 0.60-0.90 % ash. Variations in the contents of camel milk may be attributed to several factors such as analytical methods, geographical area, nutrition conditions, breed, lactation stage, age and number of calvings. Camel milk is becoming an increasingly interesting product in the world, not only for its good nutritive properties, but also for its interesting and tasteful products.

  10. Molecular Characterization of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Isolated from Ruminant and Donkey Raw Milk Samples and Traditional Dairy Products in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Momtaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the current study were to detect the virulence factors and antibiotic resistance of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, in animal milk and dairy products in Iran. After E. coli dentification with culture method, PCR assay were developed for detection of pathogenic genes, serotypes and antibiotic resistance genes of E. coli. Results showed that out of 719 samples, 102 (14.18% were confirmed to be positive for E. coli and out of 102 positive samples, 17.64% were O26 and 13.72% were O157 and 1.96% were O91 and 1.96% were O145 serotypes. Totally, the prevalence of stx1 and papA genes were the highest while the prevalence of sfaS and fyuA were the lowest in the positive samples. PCR results showed that tetA, tetB were the highest (64.70% and aac(3-IV were the lowest (27.45% antibiotic resistant genes in E. coli positive samples. Our study indicated that the isolated E. coli trains in these regions had a highest antibiotic resistance to tetracycline (58.82% and the lowest to nitrofurantoin (3.92%. tetA gene and E. coli O157 serotype had highest and aac(3-IV gene, and E. coli O145 serotype had a lowest frequency rates of antibiotics resistance genes, in the region.

  11. Quality control of banked milk in Brasilia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Simone G; Dórea, José G

    2006-08-01

    The authors studied quality control procedures at human milk banks and nutritional profiles of 909 milk samples (from 195 donors, aged 15 to 45 years) from banked human milk (BHM) in Brasília, Brazil. Number of donations per donor ranged from 1 to > 10 that consisted mostly of mature milk (90.9%) with a mean total energy of 529 +/- 85 kcal/L and a mean total lipid of 22.7 g/L +/- 13.2. Microbiological quality (titrable acidity-Dornic, degrees D) was suitable for infant feeding in 99.2% of samples (< 8 degrees D), ranging from 2 degrees D to 8 degrees D (mean 4.8 +/- 1.4 degrees D). Most BHM (98.1%) samples were dispensed to inpatient infants (1-7 days) diagnosed with respiratory distress (30.1%), prematurity (20.7%), metabolic distress (16.0%), jaundice (14.4%), bacterial infection (6.0%), pneumonia (3.3%), congenital cardiac distress (2.2%), or other conditions (6.2%). Well-motivated mothers and trained staff are serving and sustaining an important life-saving network with long-lasting impact on public health.

  12. B-Vitamin Levels in Human Milk among Different Lactation Stages and Areas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiangnan; Yang, Zhenyu; Shao, Bing; Yin, Shi-An; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2015-01-01

    To determine the contents of B-vitamins in human milk in China, we analyzed 1778 human milk samples from the sample bank of the National High Technique R & D Program (863 Projects) which was a cross-sectional survey and covered 6419 human milk samples from healthy lactating mothers who were at different stages of lactation (0-330 days postpartum) in 11 provinces of China. The contents of free forms of six B-vitamins in these human milk samples were analyzed by using UPLC-MS/MS. The median concentrations of free form of 6 B-vitamins in colostrums, transitional milk, 15-180 d mature milk and 181-330 d mature milk were respectively as follows: thiamin 5.0 µg/L, 6.7 µg/L, 21.1 µg/L and 40.7 µg/L; riboflavin 29.3 µg/L, 40.6 µg/L, 33.6 µg/L and 29.6 µg/L; niacin 470.7 µg/L, 661.3 µg/L, 687.0 µg/L and 571.3 µg/L; vitamin B-6 4.6 µg/L, 16.1 µg/L, 62.7 µg/L and 80.7 µg/L; flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) 808.7 µg/L, 1162.8 µg/L, 1023.9 µg/L and 1057.2 µg/L; pantothenic acid 1770.9 µg/L, 2626.8 µg/L, 2213.0 µg/L and 1895.5 µg/L. The contents of 6 B-vitamins varied significantly among the different lactation stages and different areas (coastal area vs inland area, rural area vs urban area). The present study indicated that the concentrations of B-vitamins in colostrum were generally much lower than those in transitional milk and mature milk. Further studies are warranted for their roles and significance on B-vitamins in colostrum in nutrition and metabolism of neonates.

  13. Monitoring Milk Somatic Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of somatic cells in milk is a widely disputed issue in milk production sector. The somatic cell counts in raw milk are a marker for the specific cow diseases such as mastitis or swollen udder. The high level of somatic cells causes physical and chemical changes to milk composition and nutritional value, and as well to milk products. Also, the mastitic milk is not proper for human consumption due to its contribution to spreading of certain diseases and food poisoning. According to these effects, EU Regulations established the maximum threshold of admitted somatic cells in raw milk to 400000 cells / mL starting with 2014. The purpose of this study was carried out in order to examine the raw milk samples provided from small farms, industrial type farms and milk processing units. There are several ways to count somatic cells in milk but the reference accepted method is the microscopic method described by the SR EN ISO 13366-1/2008. Generally samples registered values in accordance with the admissible limit. By periodical monitoring of the somatic cell count, certain technological process issues are being avoided and consumer’s health ensured.

  14. Elemental composition of human and animal milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, G.V.

    1982-09-01

    A review is presented of the elemental composition of human and animal milk with special reference to trace elements determined through nuclear techniques, particularly neutron activation analysis (NAA). In the joint IAEA/WHO research project, 16 of the 24 elements under investigation have been analysed by NAA with the aid of advanced research nuclear reactors. Literature data are discussed and tabulated in 50 separate tables (one for each element) mainly for the period after 1950. Each table uses a standard format comprising 10 columns indicating (1) source of milk (e.g. human or animal), (2) status of the milk (colostrum, transitional or mature), (3) country of origin, (4) year of data publication, (5) mean concentration, (6) range of single values or standard deviation of the mean, (7) number of samples analysed, (8) analytical technique employed, (9) literature source of the data, and (10) relevant remarks, if any. The most abundant data refer to the minor elements Ca, Cl, K, Mg, N, Na, P and S and to the trace elements Cu, Fe and Zn. Fewer data are available for Cd, Hg, I, Mn, Pb and Se. For the remaining elements, including such biologically important trace elements as As, Co, Cr, F, Mo, Ni, Si and Sn, very few reliable data so far appear to exist

  15. Comparative analysis of concentrations of lead, cadmium and mercury in cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk, as well as persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons in maternal milk samples from Germany and Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javanmardi, F.

    2001-01-01

    The concentration of the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury in cord blood, maternal blood and breast milk has been studied. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Mercury was determined using the flow-injection hydride technique. According to the concentrations of heavy metals and chlorinated hydrocarbons we ascertained for the region of Rendsburg, the toxic risk for infants relative to the consumption of contaminated maternal milk can be viewed as very slight. (orig.) [de

  16. A survey of the exposure to Ostertagia ostertagi in dairy cow herds in Europe through the measurement of antibodies in milk samples from the bulk tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, A B; J Vercruysse; Charlier, J

    2008-10-20

    Measurement of antibodies to Ostertagia ostertagi in bulk tank milk (BTM) has value as a diagnostic indicator for potential production losses and anthelmintic treatment responses in dairy herds. Most of the recent data on O. ostertagi antibodies in milk have been generated in Belgium and Canada; the purpose of this study was to determine the range of O. ostertagi antibody levels in several European countries. BTM samples were collected during the autumn of 2005 and 2006 from a total of 1185 dairy herds from dairy farming regions in Denmark, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the United Kingdom. Antibody titres to O. ostertagi were determined by indirect ELISA and expressed as optical density ratios (ODR). In addition, relationships between ODR and management practices were investigated. For each country the mean ODR and the 25th-75th percentile values were determined. Mean BTM ODR values in herds with access to yards, paddocks and pastures ranged from 0.3 in Italy to 0.6 in Portugal and the UK/Ireland. The BTM ODR values obtained in this study were generally lower than those described in the literature for Belgium, but comparable with those in Canada. Variations between different European countries appeared to reflect different husbandry practices, particularly those related to access to pasture. The association analyses showed correlations between the BTM O. ostertagi ODR, outside access and grazing management, consistent with the publications from Belgium and Canada. When diagnostic values appropriate for different production situations and environments have been further validated, the test will provide an objective, quantitative assessment of the O. ostertagi status of a dairy herd and the possible impact this may have on performance and potential responses to anthelmintic treatment. This represents a significant step forward in evidence-based medicine for dairy veterinarians, advisors and farmers.

  17. Lutein concentration in human milk during early lactation and its relationship with dietary lutein intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Hellas; Castellazzi, Anna Maria; Pietri, Amedeo; Roggi, Carla; Turconi, Giovanna

    2009-10-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the lutein concentration in human milk during early lactation and its relationship with dietary lutein intake measured through the administration of a short FFQ. A cross-sectional study in which an FFQ was administered twice: on day 3 (T0) and day 30 (T1) postpartum; meanwhile two breast milk samples were collected. Maternal plasma samples were obtained at T0. The comparison of dietary lutein intakes and likewise lutein concentrations in breast milk at T0 and T1 were analysed with Student's t test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to determine the association between dietary lutein intake and lutein concentration in milk and plasma, respectively, as well as the correlation between breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations at T0. Pavia, northern Italy. Twenty-one pregnant women, age range 24-42 years, were recruited during their last trimester on a voluntary basis. Both breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations were significantly correlated with dietary lutein intake (r = 0.86, P = 0.0001 and r = 0.94, P = 0.0001, respectively). There was a clear significant correlation between milk and plasma lutein concentrations (r = 0.87, P = 0.0001). Mature milk lutein concentration, although significantly reduced at T1 (P lutein intake (r = 0.82, P = 0.0001). Even though milk lutein concentration decreased during early lactation, it remained significantly correlated with daily lutein intake. Therefore, while awaiting further research, dietary recommendations advising intake of fresh fruit and vegetables rich in lutein, throughout the whole duration of pregnancy and lactation, are extremely useful.

  18. Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in set theory and readily available software have enabled social science researchers to bridge the variable-centered quantitative and case-based qualitative methodological paradigms in order to analyze multi-dimensional associations beyond the linearity assumptions, aggregate...... effects, unicausal reduction, and case specificity. Based on the developments in set theoretical thinking in social sciences and employing methods like Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA), and set visualization techniques, in this position paper, we propose...... and demonstrate a new approach to maturity models in the domain of Information Systems. This position paper describes the set-theoretical approach to maturity models, presents current results and outlines future research work....

  19. A retrospective evaluation of a Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) antibody ELISA on bulk-tank milk samples for classification of the BHV-1 status of Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylin, Britta; Strøger, Ulla; Rønsholt, Leif

    2000-01-01

    Bulk-tank milk samples analysed in a Bovine Herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) blocking ELISA are still in use in the Danish BHV-1 programme as a tool to classify dairy herds as BHV-1 infected or BHV-1 free herds. in this retrospective study, we used data from the Danish BHV-1 eradication campaign to evaluate...

  20. Preparation of stir cake sorptive extraction based on poly(4-vinylbenzoic acid-divinylbenzene) monolith and its application in sensitive determination of β-agonists in milk and swine urine samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xiaojia, E-mail: hxj@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Linli; Yuan, Dongxing

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • A new poly(4-vinylbenzoic acid-divinylbenzene) monolith was first prepared. • The porous monolith was used as sorbent of stir cake sorptive extraction. • The new sorbent could extract β-agonists effectively by multiple interactions. • Method of determination of trace β-agonists in milk and urine samples was developed. -- Abstract: In this study, a new stir cake sorptive extraction (SCSE) based on poly(4-vinylbenzoic acid-divinylbenzene) (VBADB) monolith was prepared. The effect of preparation conditions of monolith on extraction efficiencies was investigated in detail. Several characteristic techniques, such as elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the monolithic material. The combination of SCSE-VBADB with high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) detection was developed for sensitive determination of ultra-trace β-agonists in milk and swine urine samples. In order to obtain the optimal extraction conditions of SCSE-VBADB for β-agonists, several extractive parameters, including pH values and ionic strength in sample matrix, extraction and desorption time were optimized. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection (S/N = 3) for the target analytes were 0.007–0.030 μg/L in milk and 0.002–0.011 μg/L in swine urine, respectively. Excellent method reproducibility was achieved in terms of intraday and interday precisions, indicated by the RSDs of both <10.0%, respectively. Finally, the proposed method was successfully used to detect β-agonists in different milk and swine urines samples. Acceptable recoveries ranged from 50.3% to 113% and 50.1% to 92.2% for milk and swine urine samples, respectively; and the RSDs for reproducibility were less than 8.0% for target analytes in all real samples.

  1. Concentration of free amino acids in human milk of women with gestational diabetes mellitus and healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Katharina; Bancher-Todesca, Dagmar; Graf, Thorsten; Garo, Fritz; Roth, Erich; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Worda, Christof

    2013-02-01

    It is generally agreed that breastfeeding has a positive effect on the metabolic situation in diabetic mothers. However, negative long-term effects are described for breastfed offspring of diabetic women. It is unknown if the composition of free amino acids (FAAs) in breastmilk of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) differs from that in milk of healthy women. We studied the amount of FAAs in breastmilk of women with GDM and women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Human milk samples of 68 women (21 GDM and 47 NGT) were analyzed. Contents of FAAs in milk samples, obtained within the first 4 days after delivery (colostrum) and 6 weeks later (mature milk), were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Total amounts of FAAs in colostrum and in mature milk were compared between the groups. The impact of maternal age, body mass index (BMI), gestational age at birth, birth weight, and diagnosis of GDM on the total amount of FAAs was evaluated. Overall, the total amount of FAAs increased significantly from colostrum to mature milk in both groups (pmilk (1,560 μmol/L vs. 1,730 μmol/L and 2,440 μmol/L vs. 2,723 μmol/L, respectively). No significant influence on the total amount of FAAs at both measurements of maternal age, BMI, gestational age at birth, birth weight, and diagnosis of GDM could be observed by regression analyses. The content of FAAs of human milk does not significantly differ between women with GDM and women with NGT.

  2. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in milk (powdered milk)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Sr-90 and Cs-137 in powdered milk were determined using radiochemical analysis. Four brands of commercial milk were purchased as samples in consuming districts in June and July 1985. Milk in a stainless steel pan or a porcelain dish was evaporated to dryness followed by carbonization and ashing. The maximum values of Sr-90 and Cs-137 were 31 +- 1.2 pCi/kg and 62 +- 1.5 pCi/kg, respectively, in skim milk manufactured by Meiji. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Impact of Freezing Time on Dornic Acidity in Three Types of Milk: Raw Donor Milk, Mother's Own Milk, and Pasteurized Donor Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Román, Sara; Escuder-Vieco, Diana; García-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Alonso-Díaz, Clara; Lora, David; Martín-Pelegrina, María Dolores; Pallás-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2016-03-01

    Although under certain circumstances it is necessary to express milk, there are not many recommendations about the ideal storage conditions for human milk. The objectives of this study were to analyze the effects on Dornic acidity of frozen storage at -20 °C in three types of milk: raw donor milk, mother's own raw milk, and pasteurized donor milk. Forty-three samples of raw donor milk, 40 samples of pasteurized donor milk, and 16 samples of mother's own milk were analyzed. Dornic acidity was measured at time 0, before freezing. The remaining aliquots were frozen and analyzed after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks and after 2 and 3 months. In raw donor milk, the median acidity at the start was 3 °D (interquartile range [IQR] 2-3 °D); after 3 months, it was 5 °D (IQR 3-7 °D), with a significant increase in acidity after the second week. In mother's own milk, the mean acidity at the start was 3 °D (IQR 2-4 °D) and 7 °D (IQR 4-8 °D) at 3 months. The increase was significant after the third week. In pasteurized donor milk, the mean acidity was 3 °D (IQR 2-3 °D) at the start and 2 °D (IQR 2-3 °D) at the end. When comparing the three types of milk, there were significant differences from the first week between the two types of raw milk and the pasteurized milk (p raw milks (p = 0.77). Dornic acidity in unpasteurized milk significantly increases with the duration of freezing, probably due to the action of lipases, which is lost with pasteurization. It would be advisable to reduce the length of freezing time for unpasteurized milk.

  4. Gamma spectrometric determination of radioactivity in milk, milk products and breast-milk after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raics, Peter; Gyarmati, Edit

    1988-01-01

    Ge(Li) spectrometer was used to determine specific activities for nuclides 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 129 Te m , 132 Te, 131 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 La. Measurements lasted for 70 days. Maximum specific activities of commercial milk and breast-milk for 131 I were 225, and 133 Bq/l, respectively. Milk samples of cows stalled by different feeds, of scalded, unscalded milk, and of milk products were compared. Radioacitivity of powdered milk, parsley and red currant was also measured. Detailed results for nuclides as a function of time are listed in five tables. (author) 10 refs.; 5 tabs

  5. Selective ionic liquid ferrofluid based dispersive-solid phase extraction for simultaneous preconcentration/separation of lead and cadmium in milk and biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasih Ramandi, Negin; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, a selective ionic liquid ferrofluid has been used in dispersive solid phase extraction (IL-FF-D-SPE) for simultaneous preconcentration and separation of lead and cadmium in milk and biological samples combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. To improve the selectivity of the ionic liquid ferrofluid, the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles with a magnetic core as sorbent was modified by loading 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphtol. Due to the rapid injection of an appropriate amount of ionic liquid ferrofluid into the aqueous sample by a syringe, extraction can be achieved within a few seconds. In addition, based on the attraction of the ionic liquid ferrofluid to a magnet, no centrifugation step is needed for phase separation. The experimental parameters of IL-FF-D-SPE were optimized using a Box-Behnken design (BBD) after a Plackett-Burman screening design. Under the optimum conditions, the relative standard deviations of 2.2% and 2.4% were obtained for lead and cadmium, respectively (n=7). The limit of detections were 1.21 µg L(-1) for Pb(II) and 0.21 µg L(-1) for Cd(II). The preconcentration factors were 250 for lead and 200 for cadmium and the maximum adsorption capacities of the sorbent were 11.18 and 9.34 mg g(-1) for lead and cadmium, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of Cold-Induced Aggregation Microextraction Based on Ionic Liquid for Determination of Trace Amount of Cadmium and Lead in Powder Milk Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Delavar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: cold-induced aggregation micro extraction based (CIAME based on ionic liquid was used as a rapid and simple method for determination trace amounts of cadmium and lead in milk powder by analysis with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS. Methods: Sample solution containing of Cd2+ and Pb2+ in dynamic range, phosphate buffer (pH = 9, 3 ml, diethyl dithiocarbamate (complexing agent, Triton X-100, NaPF6 ,[HMIM][PF6] (extraction solvent were transferred into conical bottom glass tube. Sample was kept in a thermostated bath and then ice bath; a cloudy solution was formed. Two phases separated by centrifugation. After removing of aqueous phase, IL-phase was dissolved in methanol and diluted was injected to the FAAS by microsampler introduction. Results: ILs, containing imidazoliumcation and hexafluoro phosphate anion, [HMIM][PF6](70mg, 200 mg NaPF6 ,0.01 mol.L-1 DDTC, 0.015% of Triton X-100 obtained, pH 9 and centrifuge time; 5 min (4000 rmp was chosen. Detection limit were obtained 0.12 µgL-1, 1.61µgL-1, RSD 0.95%, 2.2% and enrichment factor of 70, 67 for Cd and Pb, respectively. Conclusion: CIAME allows determination of cadmium and lead in real samples in a simple, rapid and safe method with only a small amount of ionic liquid was used. In comparison with the organic solvent extraction, CIAME is much safer and the determination of species in high ionic strength samples is possible.

  7. Relationship between udder morphology traits, alveolar and cisternal milk compartments and machine milking performances of dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ayadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 dairy dromedary camels under intensive conditions in late lactation (275±24 days were used to study the relationship between external and internal udder morphology and machine milking performances. Measurements of udder and teat morphology were obtained immediately before milking and in duplicate. Individual milk yield, lag time and total milking time were recorded during milking, and milk samples were collected and analyzed for milk composition thereafter. Cisternal and alveolar milk volumes and composition were evaluated at 9 h milking interval. Results revealed that dairy camels had well developed udders and milk veins, with medium sized teats. On average, milk yield as well as milk fat and protein contents were 4.80±0.50 L d-1, 2.61±0.16% and 3.08±0.05%, respectively. The low fat values observed indicated incomplete milk letdown during machine milking. Lag time, and total milking time were 3.0±0.3, and 120.0±8.9s, on average, respectively. Positive correlations (p<0.05 were observed between milk yield and udder depth (r=0.37, distance between teats (r=0.57 and milk vein diameter (r=0.28, while a negative correlation was found with udder height (r=-0.25, p<0.05. Cisternal milk accounted for 11% of the total udder milk. Positive correlations were observed between total milk yield and volume of alveolar milk (r=0.98; p<0.001 as well as with volume of cisternal milk (r=0.63, p<0.05. Despite the low udder milk storage capacity observed in dairy camels, our study concluded that the evaluated dromedary sample had adequate udder morphology for machine milking. Finally, positive relationships were detected between milk yield and udder morphology traits of dairy camels.

  8. Milk and dairy products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiechen, A.; Heine, K.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1985-01-01

    Gammaspectroscopic measurements are taken as an example to describe the monitoring programme of the FRG for monitoring of milk and dairy products. A table shows the number of milk samples taken every year in the FRG in the general environment, and in the vicinity of nuclear installations, together with the radioactivity data obtained by gammaspectroscopy. Due to the decreasing radioactivity as a result of the nuclear weapons tests fallout, the number of samples taken in the general environment has been cut down to half over the period under review. The monitoring capacity set free by this decision has been used during this period for enhanced monitoring of milk and dairy products in regions where nuclear installations such as nuclear power plants have been operating. The nuclides of interest are Sr-90, Cs-137, J-131. (orig./DG) [de

  9. A novel microextraction technique based on 1-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate ionic liquid for the preconcentration of zinc in water and milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdolmohammad-Zadeh, H.; Sadeghi, G.H.

    2009-01-01

    A simple dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction methodology based on the application of 1-hexylpyridinium hexafluorophosphate [HPy][PF 6 ] ionic liquid (IL) as an extractant solvent was proposed for the preconcentration of trace levels of zinc as a prior step to determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Zinc was complexed with 8-hydroxyquinoline (oxine) and extracted into ionic liquid. Some effective factors that influence the microextraction efficiency such as pH, oxine concentration, amount of IL, ionic strength, temperature and centrifugation time were investigated and optimized. In the optimum experimental conditions, the limit of detection (3 s) and the enhancement factor were 0.22 μg L -1 and 71, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for six replicate determinations of 13 μg L -1 Zn was 1.92%. In order to validate the developed method, a certified reference material (NIST SRM 1549) was analyzed and the determined values were in good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method was successfully applied to the trace determination of zinc in water and milk samples.

  10. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Furtado, Jeremy; Van Ormer, Matthew; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-10-28

    Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%-53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk-fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation.

  11. Academic Achievement of High School Students in Relation to Their Anxiety, Emotional Maturity and Social Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puar, Surjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the non-cognitive variables like anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity and their relationship with academic achievement and also to see the locale-wise differences on the basis of their anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity. The study was conducted over a sample of 400 (200…

  12. Milk Iodine Content in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Paulíková

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to map actual iodine status and its seasonal differences in raw milk of dairy cows, sheep, and goats in various regions of Slovakia. Iodine concentrations were determined in 457 samples of raw milk from dairy cows, 78 samples of sheep, and 16 samples of goat milk collected in various regions of Slovakia from 2002 to 2007. Among all the 457 samples of bovine milk, iodine content below 50 μg l-1 was recorded in 114 samples (24.94%; 294 samples (64.33% ranged between 50 and 200 μg l-1; 19 samples (4.16% from 200 to 500 μg l-1; 17 samples (3.72% between 500 and 1 000 μg l-1, and 13 samples (2.85% showed iodine concentrations over 1 000 μg l-1. regional concentrations showed the highest values in the Western, then Middle and Eastern Slovakia, and the lowest values in Northern Slovakia (p p -1 in 49 sheep (62.8% and in 6 goats below 60 μg l-1 (37.5%, which are indicative of iodine deficiency. When comparing seasonal differences, sheep and goat milk had higher iodine content during the winter feeding period, however, in dairy cows we recorded the opposite ratio. Except for goat milk (p < 0.01 the seasonal differences were not significant.

  13. Beyond maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessmer, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Industry has undergone to decades of evolution in experience, technology and business practices. Link-Miles Simulation Corporation (LMSC) has been contracted to build 68 Full Scope Nuclear Simulators during the 1970's and 1980's. Traditional approaches to design, development and testing have been used to satisfy specifications for initial customer requirements. However, the Industry has matured. All U.S. Nuclear Utilities own, or have under contract, at least one simulator. Other industrial nations have centralized training facilities to satisfy the simulator training needs. The customer of the future is knowledgeable and experienced in the development and service of nuclear simulators. The role of the simulator vendor is changing in order to alter the traditional approach for development. Covenants between the vendors and their customers solidify new complementary roles. This paper presents examples of current simulator project development with recommendations for future endeavors

  14. Higher concentrations of branched-chain amino acids in breast milk of obese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Arnaud; Hankard, Régis; Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Ferchaud-Roucher, Véronique; Darmaun, Dominique; Boquien, Clair-Yves

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition during fetal life and early childhood is thought to play a crucial role in the risk for developing metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in the future adult and branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) intake may play a role in the development of obesity. The aim of this study was to compare the breast milk amino acid profiles of obese and normal weight (control) breast-feeding mothers. Fifty obese and 50 control breast-feeding mothers were enrolled. Age and parity were similar in both groups. Breast milk samples were collected at the end of the first month of lactation. Free amino acid (FAA) concentrations in breast milk were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Comparisons between groups were performed using a two-tailed paired t test. We analyzed 45 breast milk samples from each group. Body mass index was 34.3 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) in the obese group and 21.6 ± 1.4 kg/m(2) in the control group (P milk of obese mothers (95.5 ± 38.2 μM versus 79.8 ± 30.9 μM; P = 0.037), as was tyrosine concentration (13.8 ± 7.1 μM versus 10.6 ± 5.2 μM; P = 0.016). The mature breast milk of obese mothers contained 20% more BCAA and 30% more tyrosine than breast milk of control mothers. Whether altered breast milk FAA profile affects metabolic risk in the breast-fed child remains to be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Holder Pasteurization on Activin A Levels in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peila, Chiara; Coscia, Alessandra; Bertino, Enrico; Li Volti, Giovanni; Galvano, Fabio; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Visser, Gerard H A; Gazzolo, Diego

    2016-11-01

    There is evidence that mother's own milk is the best nutrient in terms of multiorgan protection and infection prevention. However, when maternal milk is scarce, the solution can be represented by donor milk (DM), which requires specific storage procedures such as Holder Pasteurization (HoP). HoP is not free from side effects since it is widely known that it causes qualitative/quantitative changes in milk composition, particularly in the protein content. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of HoP on Activin A, a neurobiomarker known to play an important role in the development and protection of the central nervous system. In 24 mothers who delivered preterm (n = 12) and term (n = 12) healthy newborns, we conducted a pretest/test study where the milk donors acted as their own controls. Each sample was divided into two parts: the first was frozen at -80°C (Group 1); the second was Holder-pasteurized before freezing at -80°C (Group 2). Activin A was quantified using an ELISA test. Activin A was detected in all samples. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the two groups, also when the analysis was stratified for gestational age at delivery and milk maturation degree (p > 0.05, for both). The present findings on the absence of any side effects of HoP on the milk concentration of Activin A offer additional support to the efficacy of HoP in DM storage. Our data open up to further investigations on neurobiomarkers' assessment in human milk and their preanalytical stability according to storage procedures.

  16. Milk Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... flavor Baked goods Caramel candies Chocolate Lactic acid starter culture and other bacterial cultures Luncheon meat, hot ... Cream of tartar Lactic acid (however, lactic acid starter culture may contain milk) Oleoresin Sodium lactate Sodium ...

  17. Somatic cell counts in bulk milk and their importance for milk processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, N. R.; Mikulec, D. P.; Radovanović, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    Bulk tank milk somatic cell counts are the indicator of the mammary gland health in the dairy herds and may be regarded as an indirect measure of milk quality. Elevated somatic cell counts are correlated with changes in milk composition The aim of this study was to assess the somatic cell counts that significantly affect the quality of milk and dairy products. We examined the somatic cell counts in bulk tank milk samples from 38 farms during the period of 6 months, from December to the May of the next year. The flow cytometry, Fossomatic was used for determination of somatic cell counts. In the same samples content of total proteins and lactose was determined by Milcoscan. Our results showed that average values for bulk tank milk samples were 273,605/ml from morning milking and 292,895/ml from evening milking. The average values for total proteins content from morning and evening milking are 3,31 and 3,34%, respectively. The average values for lactose content from morning and evening milking are 4,56 and 4,63%, respectively. The highest somatic cell count (516,000/ml) was detected in bulk tank milk sample from evening milk in the Winter and the lowest content of lactose was 4,46%. Our results showed that obtained values for bulk tank milk somatic cell counts did not significantly affected the content of total proteins and lactose.

  18. Human milk benefits and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fani Anatolitou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is uniquely superior for infant feeding and represents the perfect example of individualization in Pediatrics. Human milk is not a uniform body fluid but a secretion of the mammary gland of changing composition. Foremilk differs from hindmilk, and colostrum is strikingly different from transitional and mature milk. Milk changes with time of day and during the course of lactation. Extensive research has demonstrated health, nutritional, immunologic, developmental, psychological, social, economic and environmental benefits of human milk. Breastfeeding results in improved infant and maternal health outcomes in both the industrialized and developing world. Some specific topics will be discussed such as the preventive effect of human milk on infections, overweight, obesity and diabetes, malignant disease, neurodevelopmental outcomes, reduction of necrotizing enterocolitis. Important health benefits of breastfeeding and lactation are also described for mothers. Finally, contraindications to breastfeeding and supplementation of breastfed infants are presented. Interventions to promote breastfeeding are relatively simple and inexpensive. Infant feeding should not be regarded as a lifestyle choice but rather as a basic health issue.

  19. Microbiological examination of milk in Tarakeswar, India with special ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to assess the milk quality in Tarakeswar, India with special reference to coliforms. By standard plate count (SPC) method, out of ten raw milk samples, the microbial colonies were found to be high in six samples and the colony content was low in rest four samples. In pasteurized milk samples, the ...

  20. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and milk products from central highlands of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Eyasu Tigabu; Woldetsadik, Daniel Asrat; Mekonen, Tesfu Kassa; Gezahegn, Haile Alemayehu; Gebreyes, Wondwossen Abebe

    2015-11-30

    Listeria monocytogenes is of major significance in human and veterinary medicine. Most human Listeria infections are foodborne and the association of contaminated milk and dairy produce consumption with human listeriosis is noteworthy. In Ethiopia, there is limited data regarding the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and dairy products. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence of L. monocytogenes in raw bovine milk and dairy produce. A total of 443 milk and milk product samples were microbiologically analyzed following methods recommended by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual to isolate Listeria spp. The overall prevalence of Listeria spp. was 28.4% and specifically that of L. monocytogenes was 5.6%. Taking the prevalence of Listeria spp. into consideration, cheese was found to be highly contaminated at 60%, followed by pasteurized milk samples (40%), raw milk (18.9%) and yoghurt (5%). Considering the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes only, raw milk had the lowest contamination while cheese had the highest, followed by pasteurized milk and yoghurt. Raw milk and milk products produced in urban and peri-urban areas of central Ethiopia were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, L. monocytogenes. The detection of this pathogen in raw milk and milk products warrants an urgent regulatory mechanism to be put in place and also the potential role of milk processing plants in the contamination of dairy products should be investigated.

  1. Potassium in milk and milk products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, E.Z.; Nuguid, Z.F.S.; Tangonan, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The amount of potassium in imported processed milk was determined by gamma spectral analysis. The results show that the potassium content of diluted infant formula milk is closest to the reported mean concentration of potassium in human milk while other milk types have potassium values similar to the potassium content of cow milk. (Auth.). 2 figs., 5 refs

  2. Results from raw milk microbiological tests do not predict the shelf-life performance of commercially pasteurized fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, N H; Ranieri, M L; Murphy, S C; Ralyea, R D; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2011-03-01

    Analytical tools that accurately predict the performance of raw milk following its manufacture into commercial food products are of economic interest to the dairy industry. To evaluate the ability of currently applied raw milk microbiological tests to predict the quality of commercially pasteurized fluid milk products, samples of raw milk and 2% fat pasteurized milk were obtained from 4 New York State fluid milk processors for a 1-yr period. Raw milk samples were examined using a variety of tests commonly applied to raw milk, including somatic cell count, standard plate count, psychrotrophic bacteria count, ropy milk test, coliform count, preliminary incubation count, laboratory pasteurization count, and spore pasteurization count. Differential and selective media were used to identify groups of bacteria present in raw milk. Pasteurized milk samples were held at 6°C for 21 d and evaluated for standard plate count, coliform count, and sensory quality throughout shelf-life. Bacterial isolates from select raw and pasteurized milk tests were identified using 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Linear regression analysis of raw milk test results versus results reflecting pasteurized milk quality consistently showed low R(2) values (tests and results from tests used to evaluate pasteurized milk quality. Our findings suggest the need for new raw milk tests that measure the specific biological barriers that limit shelf-life and quality of fluid milk products. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of Total RNA Isolation Methods for Analysis of Immune-Related microRNAs in Market Milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sangnam; Park, Mi Ri; Son, Seok Jun; Kim, Younghoon

    2015-01-01

    Bovine milk provides essential nutrients, including immunologically important molecules, as the primary source of nutrition to newborns. Recent studies showed that RNAs from bovine milk contain immune-related microRNAs (miRNA) that regulate various immune systems. To evaluate the biological and immunological activity of miRNAs from milk products, isolation methods need to be established. Six methods for extracting total RNAs from bovine colostrums were adopted to evaluate the isolating efficiency and expression of miRNAs. Total RNA from milk was presented in formulation of small RNAs, rather than ribosomal RNAs. Column-combined phenol isolating methods showed high recovery of total RNAs, especially the commercial columns for biofluid samples, which demonstrated outstanding efficiency for recovering miRNAs. We also evaluated the quantity of five immune-related miRNAs (miR-93, miR-106a, miR-155, miR-181a, miR-451) in milk processed by temperature treatments including low temperature for long time (LTLT, 63℃ for 30 min)-, high temperature for short time (HTST, 75℃ for 15 s)-, and ultra heat treatment (UHT, 120-130℃ for 0.5-4 s). All targeted miRNAs had significantly reduced levels in processed milks compared to colostrum and raw mature milk. Interestingly, the amount of immune-related miRNAs from HTST milk was more resistant than those of LTLT and UHT milks. Our present study examined defined methods of RNA isolation and quantification of immune-specific miRNAs from small volumes of milk for use in further analysis.

  4. Production and quality evaluation of probiotic soy milk | Onyibe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soy milk is produced from a protein rich legume with high nutritional value. Adding probiotic agent(s) to soy milk increases its health value. In this study, soy milk and probiotic soy milk samples were produced, their qualities evaluated and shelf life at different temperatures of storage monitored. Products were of good taste ...

  5. PIXE analysis of powdered milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallak, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    An accelerator-based study, using proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) was performed on four full-cream and four half-cream brands of powdered milk commonly consumed in Jordan. The elements detected in the samples are S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. The significance of some of these elements is discussed from the viewpoint of nutrition and also their effect on milk processing and dairy technology. The standard reference milk sample, A-11, which is distributed by IAEA was also examined, and the results for trace elements detected are compared with the values certified by IAEA. (author)

  6. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of N-acetyllactosamine and lacto-N-biose, the two major building blocks of human milk oligosaccharides in human milk samples by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using a porous graphitic carbon column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Réka; Jankovics, Péter; Béni, Szabolcs

    2015-11-27

    This study presents a validated, porous graphitic carbon stationary phase-based LC-MS/MS method for the identification and quantification of lacto-N-biose (LNB) and N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc). These compounds are the major building blocks of human milk oligosaccharides, however the presence of their unbound form in human milk has not been examined so far. The separation of these highly related structures in their alditol form was accomplished by a gradient LC method and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) analysis after appropriate sample preparation including size-exclusion chromatography and solid-phase extraction. Baseline separation of the components provides the selectivity for the method. Validation was performed according to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Guidelines and the method was found to be precise and accurate. Using our developed and validated method we were able to identify and quantify both saccharides in human milk for the first time. Based on our results the LacNAc concentration is in the range of 6.7-31μg/mL while LNB concentration decreased from 26μg/mL below the detection limit during the first week of lactation. The presence of LNB and LacNAc in human milk also implies new biological functions which can lead us closer to the understanding of the various functions of this complex biofluid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Comparison of Nutritional Antioxidant Content in Breast Milk, Donor Milk, and Infant Formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrine Hanson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Human milk is the optimal food for human infants, including infants born prematurely. In the event that a mother of a hospitalized infant cannot provide breast milk, donor milk is considered an acceptable alternative. It is known that the macronutrient composition of donor milk is different than human milk, with variable fat content and protein content. However, much less is known about the micronutrient content of donor milk, including nutritional antioxidants. Samples of breast milk from 12 mothers of infants hospitalized in the Newborn Intensive Care Unit until were collected and analyzed for concentrations of nutritional antioxidants, including α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein + zeaxanthin, retinol, and α-tocopherol. Additionally, a homogenized sample of donor milk available from a commercial milk bank and samples of infant formulas were also analyzed. Concentrations of nutritional antioxidants were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared to breast milk collected from mothers of hospitalized infants, commercially available donor milk had 18%–53% of the nutritional antioxidant content of maternal breast milk. As donor milk is becoming a common nutritional intervention for the high risk preterm infant, the nutritional antioxidant status of donor milk–fed premature infants and outcomes related to oxidative stress may merit further investigation.

  8. A Comparative Study Between the Antibacterial Effect of Nisin and Nisin-Loaded Chitosan/Alginate Nanoparticles on the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus in Raw and Pasteurized Milk Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohri, Maryam; Alavidjeh, Mohammad Shafiee; Haririan, Ismaeil; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Ebrahimi, Seyed Esmaeil Sadat; Sani, Hadi Tarighati; Sadjadi, Seyed Kazem

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial effect of nisin-loaded chitosan/alginate nanoparticles as a novel antibacterial delivery vehicle. The nisin-loaded nanoparticles were prepared using colloidal dispersion of the chitosan/alginate polymers in the presence of nisin. After the preparation of the nisin-loaded nanoparticles, their physicochemical properties such as size, shape, and zeta potential of the formulations were studied using scanning electron microscope and nanosizer instruments, consecutively. FTIR and differential scanning calorimetery studies were performed to investigate polymer-polymer or polymer-protein interactions. Next, the release kinetics and entrapment efficiency of the nisin-loaded nanoparticles were examined to assess the application potential of these formulations as a candidate vector. For measuring the antibacterial activity of the nisin-loaded nanoparticles, agar diffusion and MIC methods were employed. The samples under investigation for total microbial counts were pasteurized and raw milks each of which contained the nisin-loaded nanoparticles and inoculated Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 19117 at 10(6) CFU/mL), pasteurized and raw milks each included free nisin and S. aureus (10(6) CFU/mL), and pasteurized and raw milks each had S. aureus (10(6) CFU/mL) in as control. Total counts of S. aureus were measured after 24 and 48 h for the pasteurized milk samples and after the time intervals of 0, 6, 10, 14, 18, and 24 h for the raw milk samples, respectively. According to the results, entrapment efficiency of nisin inside of the nanoparticles was about 90-95%. The average size of the nanoparticles was 205 nm, and the average zeta potential of them was -47 mV. In agar diffusion assay, an antibacterial activity (inhibition zone diameter, at 450 IU/mL) about 2 times higher than that of free nisin was observed for the nisin-loaded nanoparticles. MIC of the nisin-loaded nanoparticles (0.5 mg/mL) was about four times less than

  9. Aluminum based metal-organic framework-polymer monolith in solid-phase microextraction of penicillins in river water and milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirio, Stephen; Liu, Wan-Ling; Lin, Chen-Lan; Lin, Chia-Her; Huang, Hsi-Ya

    2016-01-08

    gL(-1). Finally, the MIL-53-polymer was applied for the extraction of penicillin in river water and milk by spiking trace-level penicillin for as low as 50μgL(-1) and 100μgL(-1) with recoveries ranging from 80.8% to 90.9% (<6.7% RSDs) in river water and 81.1% to 100.7% (<7.1% RSDs) in milk sample, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mediterranean milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Jörg

    2004-03-01

    Milk and dairy products are part of a healthy Mediterranean diet which, besides cow's milk, also consists of sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk--alone or as a mixture---as raw material. The fat and protein composition of the milk of the various animal species differs only slightly, but in every case it has a high priority in human nutrition. The milk proteins are characterized by a high content of essential amino acids. Beyond that macromolecules,which have various biological functions, are available or may be formed by proteolysis in milk. Taking this into consideration, the technology of different well-known Italian and German cheese types is presented and the differences as well as correspondences regarding nutrition are discussed. Especially Ricotta and Mascarpone are discussed in detail. Ricotta represents a special feature as this cheese is traditionally made of whey and cream. Thus the highly valuable whey proteins which contain a higher amount of the amino acids lysine, methionine and cysteic acid in comparison to casein and, additionally, to soy protein, are made usable for human nutrition. Finally, it is pointed out on the basis of individual examples that technologies to enrich whey proteins in cheese are already available and in use. Thus, the flavor of low fat cheese is improved and the nutritional value is increased.

  11. Cow's milk and children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milk and children; Cow's milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough ...

  12. Radioactivity of milk in Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuletic, V.; Vitorovic, G.; Mitrovic, B.; Pantelic, G.; Andric, V.

    2011-01-01

    After the accident in Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan, radionuclides released into the atmosphere during the accident were detected in different environmental samples in Serbia. Samples of cow, goat and sheep milk were collected at 13 sites in Serbia and activity concentrations of 40 K, 131 I and 137 Cs were determined. Results confirm transfer of 131 I to goat and sheep milk. [sr

  13. Ultrasound assisted combined molecularly imprinted polymer for selective extraction of nicotinamide in human urine and milk samples: Spectrophotometric determination and optimization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaram, Arash; Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Dashtian, Kheibar

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted dispersive solid phase microextraction followed by UV-vis spectrophotometer (UA-DSPME-UV-vis) was designed for extraction and preconcentration of nicotinamide (vitamin B 3 ) by HKUST-1 metal organic framework (MOF) based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP). This new material was characterized by FTIR and FE-SEM techniques. The preliminary Plackett-Burman design was used for screening and subsequently the central composite design justifies significant terms and possible construction of mathematical equation which give the individual and cooperative contribution of variables like HKUST-1-MOF-NA-MIP mass, sonication time, temperature, eluent volume, pH and vortex time. Accordingly the optimum condition was set as: 2.0mg HKUST-1-MOF-NA-MIP, 200μL eluent and 5.0min sonication time in center points other variables were determined as the best conditions to reach the maximum recovery of the analyte. The UA-DSPME-UV-vis method performances like excellent linearity (LR), limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification of 10-5000μgL -1 with R 2 of 0.99, LOD (1.96ngmL -1 ), LOQ (6.53μgL -1 ), respectively show successful and accurate applicability of the present method for monitoring analytes with within- and between-day precision of 0.96-3.38%. The average absolute recoveries of the nicotinamide extracted from the urine, milk and water samples were 95.85-101.27%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Polyaniline/MWCNTs/starch modified carbon paste electrode for non-enzymatic detection of cholesterol: application to real sample (cow milk).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Vineeta; Singh, Karan P; Yadav, Vijay L

    2018-03-01

    Nanocomposite materials are potentially revolutionizing many technologies, including sensors. In this paper, we described the application of "PANI/MWCNTs/Starch" modified carbon paste electrode (PCS-CPE) as a simple and highly sensitive cholesterol sensor. This novel nano-composite material has integrated nano-morphology, where polyaniline could interact effectively with the additives; pi-pi stacking "MWCNTs," and covalently bonded with starch. Specific binding sites (sugar chains), better electro-catalytic properties and fast electron transfer facilitated the oxidation of cholesterol. Fourier transform infrared spectra confirmed the interaction of cholesterol with the composite material. The sensing response of PCS was measured by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry (0.1 M PBS-5 used as supporting electrolyte). As the amount of cholesterol increased in the test solution, cyclic voltammograms showed a rise of peak current (cathodic and anodic). Under the normal experimental conditions, the developed sensor exhibited wide linear dynamic range (0.032 to 5 mM) (upper limit is due to lack of solubility of cholesterol), high sensitivity (800 μAmM -1  cm -2 ), low detection limit (0.01 mM) and shorter response time (within 4-6 s). Analytical specificity, selectivity, and sensitivity during cholesterol estimation were compared with the response of some other analytes (ascorbic acid, glucose, l-dopa, urea and lactic acid). This novel sensor was successfully applied to estimate cholesterol in cow milk (used as a model real sample). The sensing platform is highly sensitive and shows a linear response towards cholesterol without using any additional redox mediator or enzyme, thus this material is extremely promising for the realization of a low-cost integrated cholesterol sensor device. Graphical abstract Cyclic voltammetric response of cholesterol of composite modified carbon paste capillary electrode.

  15. Amiata donkey milk chain: animal health evaluation and milk quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ragona

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an investigation of Amiata donkey health and quality of milk for human consumption. Thirty-one lactating dairy jennies were examined. The following samples were collected: faecal samples from the rectum of animals for parasitological examination; cervical swabs for the detection of bacteria causing reproductive disorders; and blood samples for serological diagnosis of main zoonotic (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and donkey abortion agents (Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Salmonella abortus equi, Equine viral arterithis virus, Equine herpesvirus type 1. In addition, individual milk samples were collected and analysed for mastitis- causing pathogens and milk quality. Regarding animal health, we detected a high prevalence of strongyle parasites in donkeys. It is very important to tackle parasitic diseases correctly. Selective control programmes are preferable in order to reduce anthelmintic drug use. For dairy donkeys, withdrawal periods from anthelmintic drugs need to be carefully managed, in accordance with EU and national regulations. The isolation of Staphylococcus aureus in milk highlights the importance of preventing contamination during milking, by adopting appropriate hygiene and safety practices at a farm level. Lysozyme activity was high compared to cow’s milk, contributing to the inhibitory activity against certain bacteria. Donkey milk was characterised by high lactose content, low caseins, low fat, higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids compared to ruminant milks. Unsaturated fatty acids and omega 3 fatty acids in particular have become known for their beneficial health effect, which is favourable for human diet. These characteristics make it suitable for infants and children affected by food intolerance/ allergies to bovine milk proteins and multiple food allergies as well as for adults with dyslipidemias. It is also recommended to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  16. The 90Sr, 137Cs, 3H and 131I content in surface water and sediments of the Danube, Olt and Arges river and in milk samples for the year 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podeanu, G.; Iancu, E.

    1975-01-01

    The radioactivity of the measured radionuclides in water decreased from their discharge into the Danube to the mouth of the river. The amounts of certain radioisotopes in water samples, sediments, and milk are far below the maximum permissible concentrations. With some exceptions, the radioactivity of 137 Cs is lower than that of 90 Sr. With some exceptions, the highest values for the radionuclides studied were measured during the summer months. (orig./RW) [de

  17. The analysis of milk components and pathogenic bacteria isolated from bovine raw milk in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y K; Koo, H C; Kim, S H; Hwang, S Y; Jung, W K; Kim, J M; Shin, S; Kim, R T; Park, Y H

    2007-12-01

    Bovine mastitis can be diagnosed by abnormalities in milk components and somatic cell count (SCC), as well as by clinical signs. We examined raw milk in Korea by analyzing SCC, milk urea nitrogen (MUN), and the percentages of milk components (milk fat, protein, and lactose). The associations between SCC or MUN and other milk components were investigated, as well as the relationships between the bacterial species isolated from milk. Somatic cell counts, MUN, and the percentages of milk fat, protein, and lactose were analyzed in 30,019 raw milk samples collected from 2003 to 2006. The regression coefficients of natural logarithmic-transformed SCC (SCCt) on milk fat (-0.0149), lactose (-0.8910), and MUN (-0.0096), and those of MUN on milk fat (-0.3125), protein (-0.8012), and SCCt (-0.0671) were negative, whereas the regression coefficient of SCCt on protein was positive (0.3023). When the data were categorized by the presence or absence of bacterial infection in raw milk, SCCt was negatively associated with milk fat (-0.0172), protein (-0.2693), and lactose (-0.4108). The SCCt values were significantly affected by bacterial species. In particular, 104 milk samples infected with Staphylococcus aureus had the highest SCCt (1.67) compared with milk containing other mastitis-causing bacteria: coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 755, 1.50), coagulase-positive staphylococci (except Staphylococcus aureus; n = 77, 1.59), Streptococcus spp. (Streptococcus dysgalactiae, n = 37; Streptococcus uberis, n = 12, 0.83), Enterococcus spp. (n = 46, 1.04), Escherichia coli (n = 705, 1.56), Pseudomonas spp. (n = 456, 1.59), and yeast (n = 189, 1.52). These results show that high SCC and MUN negatively affect milk components and that a statistical approach associating SCC, MUN, and milk components by bacterial infection can explain the patterns among them. Bacterial species present in raw milk are an important influence on SCC in Korea.

  18. Contaminants in milk and impact of heating: an assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Vandana; Bahman, Sanjivan; Thakur, Lalit K; Singh, Santosh Kumar; Dua, Ajit; Ganguly, Sanjeev

    2012-01-01

    The major contaminants usually encountered in milk and milk products include pesticide residues, heavy metals, and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Primarily, milk get contaminated before milching, from the cattle feed, from sources/materials used during the processing of milk as well as improper handling of the milk during the pre- and postprocessing period. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of household practices on milk contaminants. Samples of pasteurized as well as unpasteurized milk (Vendor's milk) were analyzed for AFM1, pesticide residues, and heavy metals. Simulating the household practices, the impact of boiling on these contaminants was assessed. The contaminant Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) was detected at a concentration ranging from 0.071-0.075 ppb in unpasteurized as well as pasteurized milk samples analyzed during the course of study. Moreover, boiling had no impact on the quantity of AFM1 present in the milk. Pesticides and heavy metal contents were found to be within acceptable limits in all the milk samples tested. Mycotoxins especially aflatoxins in cattle feed and their consequential presence in milk and milk products is a serious concern world over as they are reported carcinogens. These fungal toxins are resistant to high temperatures and may lead to various health hazards. Preventive steps must be taken at each stage to ensure good quality of milk and milk products free from these contaminants. Awareness programs and education for the dairy farmers and milk processors may be helpful in this regard.

  19. USE OF SILVER IONS IN PASTEURIZED MILK PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    A. Mamaev; K. Leshukov; S. Stepanova

    2012-01-01

    The means of pasteurized milk shelf life prolongation by electro-chemical diffusion of silver ions has been introduced. Three samples of pasteurized milk were test subjects. In the course of study the following data have been examined: organoleptic, physicochemical, microbiological parameters of check samples and pilot samples of raw and pasteurized milk. Its shelf life has been determined. It has been determined that the test results of raw and pasteurized milk samples processed by various c...

  20. Effects of light and copper ions on volatile aldehydes of milk and milk fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeno, W.; Bassette, R.; Crang, R.E.

    1988-09-01

    Raw, laboratory-pasteurized and plant-pasteurized homogenized milks were exposed to copper ions (5 ppm), to sunlight or fluorescent light and the effects determined on the composition of volatile aldehydes. The greatest change due to copper treatment was an increase in n-hexanal; acetaldehyde showed the least response in each of the sources of milk. The responses were similar from all three sources of milk with laboratory-pasteurized milk samples showing the greatest responses for each aldehyde analyzed. Similar milk samples exposed to sunlight also showed an increase in volatile aldehydes from all milk sources but with the greatest response being acetaldehyde and n-pentanal components. The milk fraction most susceptible to changes in the presence of light was neutralized whey, whereas resuspended cream was most susceptible to copper exposure. Overall, dialyzed whey appeared to be influenced more than other milk fractions by both light and copper ions.

  1. Identification of cow milk in goat milk by nonlinear chemical fingerprint technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yong-Jie; Dong, Wen-Bin; Fan, Cheng; Wang, Er-Dan

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this paper was to develop a nonlinear chemical fingerprint technique for identifying and detecting adulteration of goat milk with cow milk. In this study, by taking the Belousov-Zhabotinsky oscillatory chemical reaction using acetone and substrates in goat milk or cow milk as main dissipative substances, when the same dosage of goat milk and cow milk was introduced to the "H +  + Mn 2+  + BrO 3 -  + acetone" oscillating system respectively, nonlinear chemical fingerprints were obtained for goat milk and cow milk from the same origin. The results showed that inductive time value and the content of cow milk in goat milk had a linear relationship in the range of 0-100% and the corresponding regression coefficient was 0.9991. A detection limit of 0.0107 g/g was obtained, and the content of cow milk in mixed milk was calculated. The proposed method in this study was simple, economical and effective. In addition, the method did not need the pretreatment and separation of samples for identifying and evaluating cow milk adulteration in goat milk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk samples in Londrina (Parana State, Brazil) region; Medida de tracos radioativos em amostras de leite em po da regiao de Londrina - PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melquiades, Fabio Luiz

    2000-07-01

    This work deals with the measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk, with high resolution gamma spectrometry, using a HPGe detector with relative efficiency of 10%, coupled to the electronic nuclear chain and a multichannel card of 8192 channels. Some tests were realized before beginning the measurements. The first of them was to define the shield to be used, making several measured with different shields according to the available materials, opting finally for a shield composed of bricks of lead (10 cm thickness), plates of iron (4nm thickness) and of aluminum (2 mm thickness). Four different geometries for the samples recipients were tested, and the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 liters totally filled was the one which supplied the best peak/background ratio. A statistical inference was also realized to determine the sampling that represents each one of the lots of milk to be measured, resulting in a number of 6 samples, for a confidence level of 95%. Two different kinds of powdered milk produced at Londrina were analyzed, Integral Powdered Milk Cativa and Integral Powdered Milk Polly. The samples were properly put in the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 L, sealed and kept for 40 days to reach the secular equilibrium. The counting time for each measurement was two days. It was possible to identify the radionuclides {sup 40} K, {sup 137} Cs and {sup 232} Th (from {sup 208} Tl), whose activities were calculated according to the International Atomic Energy Agency norms (IAEA, 1989). The detector efficiency was measured using calibrated samples, prepared with the certified reference materials IAEA-326 and IAEA-375. Corrections for self-absorption were accomplished, based on measures of samples with different densities. The results obtained for the powdered milk Cativa were: 464{+-} 12 Bq/kg for {sup 40} K, 3,46 {sup {+-}} 1,05 and 0,46 {+-} 1,05 and 0,46 {+-} 0,16 Bq/kg for the minimum detectable activities of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 232} Th, respectively. For the milk Polly

  3. Measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk samples in Londrina (Parana State, Brazil) region; Medida de tracos radioativos em amostras de leite em po da regiao de Londrina - PR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melquiades, Fabio Luiz

    2000-07-01

    This work deals with the measurement of radioactive lines in powdered milk, with high resolution gamma spectrometry, using a HPGe detector with relative efficiency of 10%, coupled to the electronic nuclear chain and a multichannel card of 8192 channels. Some tests were realized before beginning the measurements. The first of them was to define the shield to be used, making several measured with different shields according to the available materials, opting finally for a shield composed of bricks of lead (10 cm thickness), plates of iron (4nm thickness) and of aluminum (2 mm thickness). Four different geometries for the samples recipients were tested, and the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 liters totally filled was the one which supplied the best peak/background ratio. A statistical inference was also realized to determine the sampling that represents each one of the lots of milk to be measured, resulting in a number of 6 samples, for a confidence level of 95%. Two different kinds of powdered milk produced at Londrina were analyzed, Integral Powdered Milk Cativa and Integral Powdered Milk Polly. The samples were properly put in the Marinelli beaker of 2,1 L, sealed and kept for 40 days to reach the secular equilibrium. The counting time for each measurement was two days. It was possible to identify the radionuclides {sup 40} K, {sup 137} Cs and {sup 232} Th (from {sup 208} Tl), whose activities were calculated according to the International Atomic Energy Agency norms (IAEA, 1989). The detector efficiency was measured using calibrated samples, prepared with the certified reference materials IAEA-326 and IAEA-375. Corrections for self-absorption were accomplished, based on measures of samples with different densities. The results obtained for the powdered milk Cativa were: 464{+-} 12 Bq/kg for {sup 40} K, 3,46 {sup {+-}} 1,05 and 0,46 {+-} 1,05 and 0,46 {+-} 0,16 Bq/kg for the minimum detectable activities of {sup 137} Cs and {sup 232} Th, respectively. For the milk Polly

  4. Measurement of some radiologically and nutritionally important trace elements in human milk and commercially available milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Suma; Sathyapriya, R.S.; Nair, M.G.; Ravi, Prabhat; Bhati, Sharda

    2011-01-01

    Milk is considered to be a complete food and an almost indispensable part of the diets of infants and children. In this paper we present the concentration of some radiologically and nutritionally important trace elements such as Th, Cs, Co, Rb, Fe, Ca and Zn present in human milk and commercially available milk. The trace elements in human and other milk samples were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis technique. The results show that higher concentrations of Th, Cs, Ca and Rb were found in ordinary milk samples in comparison with the human milk samples. Whereas, a higher concentrations of Fe and Co were observed in human milk samples. These data will be useful for the nutritional and biokinetic studies of these elements in infants and children of different age groups. (author)

  5. Transfer of estradiol to human milk. [Radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, S.; Nygren, K.G.; Johansson, E.D.B.

    1978-11-15

    A radioimmunoassay for the measurement of estradiol in human milk is evaluated. The detection limit was found to be 25 pg of estradiol per milliliter of milk. In milk samples collected from four lactating women during three to four months and from one pregnant and lactating woman, the concentration of estradiol was found to be below the detection limit of the assay. When six lactating women were given vaginal suppositories containing 50 or 100 mg of estradiol, it was possible to estimate the estradiol concentration in milk. A ratio of transfer of estradiol from plasma to milk during physiologic conditions is calculated to be less than 100 : 10.

  6. Transfer of estradiol to human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, S.; Nygren, K.G.; Johansson, E.D.B.

    1978-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for the measurement of estradiol in human milk is evaluated. The detection limit was found to be 25 pg of estradiol per milliliter of milk. In milk samples collected from four lactating women during three to four months and from one pregnant and lactating woman, the concentration of estradiol was found to be below the detection limit of the assay. When six lactating women were given vaginal suppositories containing 50 or 100 mg of estradiol, it was possible to estimate the estradiol concentration in milk. A ratio of transfer of estradiol from plasma to milk during physiologic conditions is calculated to be less than 100 : 10

  7. Effects of milk preservation using the lactoperoxidase system on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sodium percarbonate to fresh milk. Yoghurt and Bambui cheese were processed separately from treated and untreated (control) milk samples. Yogurt was produced from both the treated and the control milk samples at 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% (v/v) culture levels. Yogurt samples were analysed for acidity, protein content and dry

  8. Comprehensive and quantitative profiling of lipid species in human milk, cow milk and a phospholipid-enriched milk formula by GC and MS/MSALL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokol, Olena; Ulven, Trond; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2015-01-01

    a comparative lipid analysis of human milk, cow milk, and Lacprodan® PL-20, a phospholipid-enriched milk protein concentrate for infant formula. The GC analysis showed that human milk and Lacprodan have a similar FA profile with higher levels of unsaturated FAs as compared to cow milk. In-depth lipidomic...... analysis by MS/MSALL revealed that each type of milk sample comprised distinct composition of molecular lipid species. Lipid class composition showed that the human and cow milk contain a higher proportion of triacylglycerols (TAGs) as compared to Lacprodan. Notably, the MS/MSALL analysis demonstrated...... that the similar FA profile of human milk and Lacprodan determined by GC analysis is attributed to the composition of individual TAG species in human milk and glycerophospholipid species in Lacprodan. Moreover, the analysis of TAG molecules in Lacprodan and cow milk showed a high proportion of short-chain FAs...

  9. Raw Milk Hygiene at Local Markets and Automatic Milk Dispenser Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Şteţca

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, direct sales of raw milk to the final consumer is developed based on the local regulations. These are in accordance to European Regulation that must meet some quality requirements for the total number of germs, somatic cells, without antibiotics, coming from healthy animals who did not suffer from diseases that can be transmitted to humans through milk. Raw milk is sold in Romania in local markets and by automatic milk dispenser machines. Based on these regulations, a study regarding the quality and security to human health of raw milk was conducted on the commercialized milk in local markets and automatic milk dispensers. During May-June 2014 samples of raw milk were collected from Cluj-Napoca local markets and automatic milk dispensers. All samples were kept to refrigeration conditions until the moment of analyze which took place at the sampling day. The following parameters were taken into account: fat content, protein, casein, lactose, nonfat dry matter, pH, milk freezing point, added water, antibiotics residues, milk urea, number of germ cells and somatic cells. All obtained results were verified by the validated methods applied. Our research can be forward conducted in order to verify the hygiene and composition of milk from the whole dairy chain. 

  10. Additional certification of the content (mass fraction) of iodine in two spiked samples of skim milk powder. CRM No. 150-151

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griepink, B

    1986-01-01

    This report describes the additional certification of the iodine content in two skim milk powder reference materials, which are previously certified (Report EUR 9251) for their contents of Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg and Pb. The analyses were made using various independent methods applied by different laboratories. The results are given in detail.

  11. Ion exchange chromatography on a new form of tin dioxide for the isolation of strontium radioisotopes from fission products: an application to milk samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stella, R.; Valentini, M.T.G.; Maggi, L.

    1990-01-01

    An amorphous, partially-reduced tin dioxide, having properties of an inorganic exchanger, was tested for application to fission product separations. Due to the good sorption of both strontium and barium the application of the exchanger to radiostrontium isolation from fission product mixtures is subjected to important restrictions. An application to 90 Sr determination in milk is proposed. (author)

  12. Milk Thistle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Grants and Contracts General Award Mechanisms Small Business Research Grant Program (SBIR) Funding for: Natural Product Research ... Festi D. Silybin and the liver: from basic research to clinical practice. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2011;17(18):2288-2301. Milk ...

  13. Milk Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s leading food company has expanded its business into the dairy industry A combined financial venture between China’s largest agricultural trading and processing company and a private equity firm formed to milk profits from the dairy business has led to

  14. Identification of Variable Traits among the Methicillin Resistant and Sensitive Coagulase Negative Staphylococci in Milk Samples from Mastitic Cows in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Mahato

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus causing bovine mastitis has been very well investigated worldwide. However, there are only limited reports on the characterization of methicillin resistant and sensitive coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS across the globe. Hence, in the present study, we aim to determine the phenotypic traits based on antimicrobial susceptibility profile and genotypic characterization by verifying the presence of resistance determinants, virulence and toxin genes present in the CoNS causing clinical mastitis. We obtained 62 CoNS isolates from 167 mastitic milk samples collected from three different states of India. The 62 isolates comprises of 10 different CoNS species S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus, S. chromogenes, S. saprophyticus, S. xylosus, S. simulans, S. agnetis, S. epidermidis, S. gallinarum, and S. cohinii. Susceptibility screening against 11 antibiotics determined 45.16% isolates as multidrug resistant (resistant to more than two class of antibiotic, 46.74% resistant (one or two antibiotic class and 8.06% isolates were pan-sensitive (sensitive to all drugs. High resistance was observed against oxacillin and cefoxitin, whereas all isolates were susceptible toward vancomycin and linezolid. Fifty three isolates were methicillin resistant and 9 isolates were sensitive as determined by oxacillin susceptibility assay. The methicillin resistance gene, mecA was found in 95.16% isolates and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec typing predominantly revealed Type III (n = 34 and Type V (n = 18. Interestingly, 11.9% of mecA positive isolates were oxacillin susceptible and referred as oxacillin susceptible mecA positive staphylococci (OS-MRS. Additionally, genes encoding for enterotoxin, (sea, seb, seh, see toxic shock syndrome (tsst, exfoliatin (eta, etb, etd and virulence (pvl, Y-hlg were also screened. Of all the genes examined, 67.74% of isolate were positive for the Y-hlg gene, followed by the sea gene in

  15. Determination of Dornic acidity as a method to select donor milk in a milk bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Román, Sara; Garcia-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Chaves-Sánchez, Fernando; De la Cruz-Bertolo, Javier; Pallas-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2013-02-01

    Dornic acidity may be an indirect measurement of milk's bacteria content and its quality. There are no uniform criteria among different human milk banks on milk acceptance criteria. The main aim of this study is to report the correlation between Dornic acidity and bacterial growth in donor milk in order to validate the Dornic acidity value as an adequate method to select milk prior to its pasteurization. From 105 pools, 4-mL samples of human milk were collected. Dornic acidity measurement and culture in blood and McConkey's agar cultures were performed. Based on Dornic acidity degrees, we classified milk into three quality categories: top quality (acidity pasteurize in a human milk bank based in quality and safety criteria.

  16. The Protein Component of Sow Colostrum and Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Hurley, W L

    2016-01-01

    The production of colostrum and milk by the sow are primary limiting factors affecting survival, growth and development of the piglets. The proteins of colostrum and milk provide not only a supply of amino acids to the neonate but also a wide range of bioactive factors. Proteins in sow mammary...... secretions include those associated with the milk fat membranes, caseins, mammary-derived whey proteins, immunoglobulins, hormones and growth factors, enzymes, and a wide range of other proteins. Concentrations of most milk-specific proteins typically are lower in colostrum than in milk, while concentrations...... of immunoglobulins and other bioactive proteins often are enriched in colostrum compared with mature milk. Dietary protein is utilized for milk protein production with approximately 50% efficiency. During both the colostrum period and at peak lactation as much as 700–800 g of protein is secreted daily by today...

  17. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  18. Human Milk Composition: Nutrients and Bioactive Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The composition of human milk is the biologic norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules, e.g., lactoferrin, are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. A dynamic, bioactive fluid, human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, and varies within feeds, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing. Pasteurized donor milk is now commonly provided to high risk infants and most mothers in the U.S. express and freeze their milk at some point in lactation for future infant feedings. Many milk proteins are degraded by heat treatment and freeze-thaw cycles may not have the same bioactivity after undergoing these treatments. This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, sources of its variation, and its clinical relevance. PMID:23178060

  19. Loss of triglycerides and carotenoids in human milk after processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacken, K J M; Vogelsang, A; van Lingen, R A; Slootstra, J; Dikkeschei, B D; van Zoeren-Grobben, D

    2009-11-01

    Human milk (HM) is considered to be the best nutrition for preterm infants. However, storage, heating or tube feeding can cause a decline in essential nutrients, which can lead to the loss of antioxidant vitamins, resulting in an increased risk for oxygen radical diseases. Recently we found that carotenoids, present in human milk, can play a role in the antioxidant protection of preterm infants. In this study we evaluated the effect of processing HM and infant formula on the triglycerides and carotenoid concentrations. The triglyceride, alpha- and beta-carotene, lutein and lycopene concentrations of 30 samples of mature HM of mothers who delivered a term infant and 10 samples of infant formula were measured after refrigeration, freezing, microwave heating and tube feeding with and without exposure to normal light and phototherapy, imitating the clinical feeding routine in the NICU. After tube feeding triglyceride, lutein and beta-carotene concentrations decreased with 33%, 35% and 26% respectively. The decrease in triglycerides in HM accounts for 16% of the total caloric intake of neonates. Triglyceride and carotenoid concentrations in HM remained stable after refrigeration, freezing or low temperature microwave heating, except for lutein which decreased after refrigeration and freezing. In infant formula no differences were found. Mature human milk can be stored safely in a freezer and heated in a microwave oven without loss of fat or carotenoids. The clinically important loss of fat during tube feeding is probably the most important contributing factor to the decrease in lutein and beta-carotene in tube feeding, with only a small role for peroxidation during light-exposure.

  20. THE INVESTIGATION OF BRUCELLA ANTIBODY WITH MILK RING TEST AND AGGLUTINATION TEST IN MILK COLLECTED FROM SAMSUN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goknur TERZI

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study Brucella antibodies were investigated with agglutination test (Whey-AT and Milk Ring Test (MRT in a total of 100 milk samples as 50 of cow milk and 50 of goat milk collected from center and villages of Samsun. According to MRT Brucella antibodies was positive at 10 samples (20 % of cow milk and 6 samples (12 % of goat milk. In cow milk, 4 (8 % positive, 3 (6 % suspicious and 43 (86 % negative samples; in goat milk 3 (6 % positive, 2 (4 % suspicious and 45 (90 % negative samples were determined according to antibodies titre of serum agglutination test (Whey-AT. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2006; 5(3.000: 196-203

  1. Composition and Variation of Macronutrients, Immune Proteins, and Human Milk Oligosaccharides in Human Milk From Nonprofit and Commercial Milk Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith-Dennis, Laura; Xu, Gege; Goonatilleke, Elisha; Lebrilla, Carlito B; Underwood, Mark A; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2018-02-01

    When human milk is unavailable, banked milk is recommended for feeding premature infants. Milk banks use processes to eliminate pathogens; however, variability among methods exists. Research aim: The aim of this study was to compare the macronutrient (protein, carbohydrate, fat, energy), immune-protective protein, and human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) content of human milk from three independent milk banks that use pasteurization (Holder vs. vat techniques) or retort sterilization. Randomly acquired human milk samples from three different milk banks ( n = 3 from each bank) were analyzed for macronutrient concentrations using a Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy human milk analyzer. The concentrations of IgA, IgM, IgG, lactoferrin, lysozyme, α-lactalbumin, α antitrypsin, casein, and HMO were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The concentrations of protein and fat were significantly ( p < .05) less in the retort sterilized compared with the Holder and vat pasteurized samples, respectively. The concentrations of all immune-modulating proteins were significantly ( p < .05) less in the retort sterilized samples compared with vat and/or Holder pasteurized samples. The total HMO concentration and HMOs containing fucose, sialic acid, and nonfucosylated neutral sugars were significantly ( p < .05) less in retort sterilized compared with Holder pasteurized samples. Random milk samples that had undergone retort sterilization had significantly less immune-protective proteins and total and specific HMOs compared with samples that had undergone Holder and vat pasteurization. These data suggest that further analysis of the effect of retort sterilization on human milk components is needed prior to widespread adoption of this process.

  2. Covariance among milking frequency, milk yield, and milk composition from automatically milked cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvendahl, Peter; Chagunda, G G

    2011-01-01

    Automatic milking systems allow cows voluntary access to milking and concentrates within set limits. This leads to large variation in milking intervals, both within and between cows, which further affects yield per milking and composition of milk. This study aimed to describe the degree to which ...

  3. Detection of non-milk fat in milk fat by gas chromatography and linear discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, R; Vega, S; Díaz, G; Sánchez, J; Coronado, M; Ramírez, A; Pérez, J; González, M; Schettino, B

    2009-05-01

    Gas chromatography was utilized to determine triacylglycerol profiles in milk and non-milk fat. The values of triacylglycerol were subjected to linear discriminant analysis to detect and quantify non-milk fat in milk fat. Two groups of milk fat were analyzed: A) raw milk fat from the central region of Mexico (n = 216) and B) ultrapasteurized milk fat from 3 industries (n = 36), as well as pork lard (n = 2), bovine tallow (n = 2), fish oil (n = 2), peanut (n = 2), corn (n = 2), olive (n = 2), and soy (n = 2). The samples of raw milk fat were adulterated with non-milk fats in proportions of 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% to form 5 groups. The first function obtained from the linear discriminant analysis allowed the correct classification of 94.4% of the samples with levels <10% of adulteration. The triacylglycerol values of the ultrapasteurized milk fats were evaluated with the discriminant function, demonstrating that one industry added non-milk fat to its product in 80% of the samples analyzed.

  4. Functional properties of milk drinks flavored with mangaba pulp and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    luiz eduardo nascimento

    2016-08-24

    Aug 24, 2016 ... In this context, the functional properties of. *Corresponding ..... properties of fermented milk drinks. .... samples showed typical colony formation, which results .... skim milk in the presence of pectin and kappa-carrageenan.

  5. Effect of Camel Milk's Supplementation on Serum Glucose Levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Camel Milk, Serum glucose, Lipid profile, Diabetes. INTRODUCTION. Diabetes is ... all products of Randox Laboratories, Switzerland. Fresh camel milk samples .... Abbott, R.D., Wilson, P.W., Kannel, W.B. and. Castelli, W.P. (1988).

  6. PRESENCE OF ENTEROCOCCI IN COW MILK AND THEIR ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kročko

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Enterococci represent an important part of contaminate microflora in raw milk and dairy products. They constitute significant part of nosocomial pathogens with a remarkable capacity of expressing resistance to several antimicrobial  agents. We aimed to assess occurrence and antibiotic resistance of enterococci in the raw milk samples and pasteurized milk samples. In this study total bacterial count, psychrotrophic count and count of enterococci were determine in raw milk cistern samples, storage tank milk samples and milk samples after pasteurization. A collection of 46 enterococcal isolates were identified and screened for their antibiotic resistance. Isolates of E. faecalis were dominant in raw milk samples (56.5 %. Sensitive to teicoplanine (30 mcg/disk were 97.9 % of enterococcal isolates and 15.2 % isolates were resistant to vankomycin (30 mcg/disk.  

  7. Sol-gel-graphene-based fabric-phase sorptive extraction for cow and human breast milk sample cleanup for screening bisphenol A and residual dental restorative material before analysis by HPLC with diode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria; Filippou, Olga; Marinou, Eirini; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2017-06-01

    Fabric-phase sorptive extraction has already been recognized as a simple and green alternative to the conventional sorbent-based sorptive microextraction techniques, using hybrid organic-inorganic sorbent coatings chemically bonded to a flexible fabric surface. Herein, we have investigated the synergistic combination of the advanced material properties offered by sol-gel graphene sorbent and the simplicity of Fabric phase sorptive extraction approach in selectively extracting bisphenol A and residual monomers including bisphenol A glycerolatedimethacrylate, urethane dimethacrylate, and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate derived dental restorative materials from cow and human breast milk samples. Different coatings were evaluated. Final method development employed sol-gel graphene coated media. The main experimental parameters influencing extraction of the compounds, such as sorbent chemistry used, sample loading conditions, elution solvent, sorption stirring time, elution time, impact of protein precipitation, amount of sample, and matrix effect, were investigated and optimized. Absolute recovery values from standard solutions were 50% for bisphenol A, 78% for T triethylene glycol dimethacrylate, 110% for urethane dimethacrylate, and 103% for bisphenol A glycerolatedimethacrylate, while respective absolute recovery values from milk were 30, 52, 104, and 42%. Method validation was performed according to European Decision 657/2002/EC in terms of selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, and precision. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Subclinical mastitis occurs frequently in association with dramatic changes in inflammatory/anti-inflammatory breast milk components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuaillon, Edouard; Viljoen, Johanes; Dujols, Pierre; Cambonie, Gilles; Rubbo, Pierre-Alain; Nagot, Nicolas; Bland, Ruth M; Badiou, Stéphanie; Newell, Marie-Louise; Van de Perre, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Subclinical mastitis (SCM) is a frequent, but poorly characterized entity that may influence immune development of breastfed infants. Mechanisms driving the emergence of SCM and changes in immunological content of human milk during SCM remain to be explored. In this study, the breast milk environment was to describe during SCM. One hundred and ten samples of mature breast milk were collected from 44 healthy, HIV-negative mothers, included in a large infant feeding intervention cohort (ANRS 1271/Vertical Transmission Study). Immune markers related to inflammatory/anti-inflammatory balances and secreted in response to bacterial exposure were explored in SCM breast milk samples (Na/K ratio > 1) and compared to non-SCM controls. SCM was observed in 23% of women (95% confidence interval (CI): 21-24) and associated with higher levels of inflammatory markers (β2 microgobulin, PS100A9, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, and RANTES) and Th1-related cytokines (IL-2R, IL-12p40/70, IFN-α, IFN-γ, CXCL-9, andIP-10). High levels of factors secreted in response to bacteria and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure were observed in SCM breast milk samples (MIP-1α, MIP-1β, LPS binding protein, α-defensins, and antileukoproteinase 1). SCM is associated with important changes in breast milk microenvironment, with a proinflammatory/Th1-cytokine predominant profile. During SCM, cytokine imbalances in breast milk may have a notable influence on mucosal immune system of the infant early in life.

  9. Comparison of Surti goat milk with cow and buffalo milk for physicochemical characteristics, selected processing-related parameters and activity of selected enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Darshna B.; Kapadiya, Dharti B.; Jain, Amit Kumar; Mehta, Bhavbhuti M.; Darji, Vijaykumar B.; Aparnathi, Kishorkumar D.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the physicochemical characteristics, selected processing-related parameters and activity of selected enzymes in Surti goat milk. Materials and Methods: Milk samples from Surti goats and buffalo milk samples were collected during the period from July 2013 to January 2014 at Reproductive Biology Research Unit, Anand Agricultural University (AAU), Anand. Milk samples from Kankrej cows were collected from Livestock Research Station, AAU, Anand. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical characteristics such as acidity, viscosity, surface tension, specific gravity, refractive index, freezing point, and electrical conductivity. Samples were also analyzed for selected processing-related parameters such as heat coagulation time (HCT), rennet coagulation time (RCT), rate of acid production by starter culture, alcohol stability, and activity of selected enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase activity, catalase activity, proteolytic activity, and lipase activity. Results: Goat milk had the highest acidity, viscosity and surface tension, followed by cow milk and buffalo milk. However, the differences in acidity, specific gravity, surface tension, refractive index, electrical conductivity, HCT and lipase activity of three types of milk studied, viz., goat, cow, and buffalo milk were found statistically non-significant (pmilk had the highest specific gravity, followed by those found in cow and goat milk. The viscosity, freezing point and RCT of goat milk was significantly lower (p>0.05) than that of the buffalo milk. However, the difference in viscosity, freezing point and RCT of goat milk and that of the cow milk was statistically non-significant. The cow milk had the highest refractive index, followed by goat and buffalo milk. The cow milk had the highest proteolytic activity and heat coagulation time (HCT), followed by those found in buffalo and goat milk. The goat milk had the lowest freezing point, lipase activity, and RCT, followed by

  10. Selenium in human milk: An Australian study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumming, F.J.; Fardy, J.J.; Woodward, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The aims of this Australian study were to determine (total) selenium concentration in breast milk and in maternal blood, and to assess the relationship between the two. The authors also aimed to assess the infants' selenium intake. Twenty lactating women from Brisbane (Queensland) participated in the study, at 6-12 weeks post-partum. Small samples (approximately 10 ml) of breast-milk were manually expressed at the beginning and end of a mid-morning feed, from the first breast offered at that feed. Venous blood samples (10 ml) were also collected from the mothers. Milk and blood samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Babies' milk intake over a 24-hour period was estimated using a modified test-weighing technique. Infant selenium intakes were calculated directly for each infant, using his/her mother's milk selenium level and his/her own 24-hour breast milk intake. The mean selenium concentration in maternal blood was 101 (±SD 19) ng/g and in maternal serum 81 (±15) ng/g. Breast milk selenium concentrations (11.9 ± 3.5 ng/g) were fairly low by international standards. There was no correlation between selenium concentrations in milk and blood (or serum). The infants' 24-hour breast-milk intakes were 856 ± 172 g, and their selenium intakes were 10.7 ± 4.1 μg per day

  11. Enzymatic-fluorometric quantification of cholesterol in bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes an enzymatic–fluorometric method for the determination of cholesterol in milk and other opaque matrices. The initial step of the method is to liberate chemically and physically bound cholesterol from the milk fat globule membrane by enzymatic action. The method is able...... to discriminate between esterified and free cholesterol in milk. The analysis is cost effective and is developed to work directly on whole, fresh milk thereby eliminating time consuming and tedious pre-treatment procedures of the sample. More than 1000 milk samples were analysed on the day of sampling. The total...... concentration of milk cholesterol ranged from 80 to 756 μM (n = 1068; mean 351 μM). Milk cholesterol was significantly correlated to milk fat concentration as analysed by mid-infra red spectrometry (r = 0.630; n = 853) and by an enzymatic–fluorometric method (triacylglycerol) (r = 0.611; n = 842)....

  12. Selenium and vitamin E concentrations in human milk and formula milk from Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sziklai-Laszlo, I.; Majchrzak, D.; Elmadfa, I.; Cser, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic roles of vitamin E and selenium are closely related, and to a very great extent, each can compensate for the deficiency of the other. The aim of the study was to determine and compare the Se and vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherol) contents of breast milk and commercially available infant formulas in Hungary. The Se content was measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), while the α-, and γ-tocopherol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean Se concentration was 17.4±2.8 μg/L in transitional and 13.8±2.3 μg/L in mature milk. It was found that, all of the starter (ST), the follow-on (FO) and the specialized formulas (SF) had lower Se content than breast milk. Transitional breast milk resulted in a higher Se intake (14 μg/day) than mature milk (11 μg/day). The daily Se intakes in Hungarian infants were within the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) range. The natural vitamin E contents of human milk were similar during the early and late lactation. Mature breast milk had 3.30±1.13 mg/L α-TE concentration and this was significantly higher than that of in ST (1.98±1.57), and FO (1.77±0.78), or in SF ready to feed preparations (1.03±0.74). The present study suggests that the formulas for the optimal development of young infants, should contain concentrations of these antioxidants on a level which is comparable to that of the human milk. (author)

  13. Effects of lactation number, milk yield and milk composition on freezing point of milk of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Otwinowska-Mindur; Ewa PTAK

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the influence of lactation number, daily milk yield, somatic cell count and milk composition on the freezing point of milk of Polish Holstein-Friesian cows. The data comprised 3,067,343 test day milk samples collected in 2014 from 865,198 first seven lactations of 714,018 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, made available by the Polish Federation of Cattle Breeders and Dairy Farmers. The cows calved in 20,043 herds in 2013 and 2014. Four lactation classes w...

  14. [Contamination of human milk with aerobic flora: Evaluation of losses for a human milk bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, C; Courdent, P; Charlet, C; Dumoulin, D; Courcol, R; Pierrat, V

    2015-05-01

    In France, human milk banks pasteurize milk for the mother's own hospitalized baby (personalized milk) and for donation. There is specific legislation regulating the activity of human milk banks with bacterial screening of donor milk before and after pasteurization. Milk should be tested for Staphylococcus aureus and total aerobic flora. Any sample of milk positive for aerobic flora and/or S. aureus before and/or after pasteurization should be discarded. The real pathogenicity of the total aerobic flora is actually debated as well as the usefulness of systematic postpasteurization screening. The aim of this study was to quantify milk losses related to prepasteurization contamination by total aerobic flora in a regional milk bank, to identify losses due to contamination with S. aureus or aerobic flora, and to analyze differences between centers. This was a prospective observational study conducted in the regional human milk bank of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais area in France. Data were collected from six major centers providing 80% of the milk collected between June 2011 and June 2012. Variables were the volumes of personalized milk collected by each center, volumes of contaminated milk, and the type of bacteria identified. During the study period, the regional human milk bank treated 4715 L (liters) of personalized milk and 508 L (10.8%) were discarded due to bacteriological screening. Among these 508 L, 43% were discarded because of a prepasteurization contamination with aerobic flora, 55% because of a prepasteurization contamination with S. aureus, and 2% because of other pathogenic bacteria. Postpasteurization tests were positive in 25 samples (0.5%). Only five of these 25 samples were positive before pasteurization and in all cases with S. aureus. A total of 218 L were destroyed because of prepasteurization contamination with total aerobic flora, while the postpasteurization culture was sterile. There was a great difference between centers in the percentage of

  15. [Human milk, immune responses and health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løland, Beate Fossum; Baerug, Anne B; Nylander, Gro

    2007-09-20

    Besides providing optimal nutrition to infants, human milk contains a multitude of immunological components. These components are important for protection against infections and also support the development and maturation of the infant's own immune system. This review focuses on the function of some classical immunocomponents of human milk. Relevant studies are presented that describe health benefits of human milk for the child and of lactation for the mother. Relevant articles were found mainly by searching PubMed. Humoral and cellular components of human milk confer protection against infections in the respiratory--, gastrointestinal--and urinary tract. Human milk also protects premature children from neonatal sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. There is evidence that human milk may confer long-term benefits such as lower risk of certain autoimmune diseases, inflammatory bowel disease and probably some malignancies. Human milk possibly affects components of the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies demonstrate long-term health benefits of lactation also for the mother. A reduced incidence of breast cancer is best documented. An increasing number of studies indicate protection against ovarian cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and type II diabetes.

  16. Retinol and α-Tocopherol in the Breast Milk of Women after a High-Risk Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna Sámano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is scant information about whether, after a high-risk pregnancy, breast milk provides enough vitamins for assuring satisfactory bodily reserves in newborns. Objective: To comparatively evaluate, in women with high-risk and normal pregnancy, the concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in breast milk. Methods: This cross-sectional, analytical study was evaluated with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Informed consent was signed by 95 mothers with a high-risk pregnancy and 32 mothers with a normal pregnancy. From the mothers with a high-risk pregnancy were obtained: 23 samples of colostrum, 24 of transitional milk, and 48 of mature milk. From the normal pregnancy group, 32 mature milk samples were collected. Pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI and the gestational weight gain were noted. Models of logistic regression were constructed to identify the variables related to a low concentration of either retinol or α-tocopherol in breast milk. Results: The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in mature milk was 60 (interquartile range (IQR, 41–90 and 276 (103–450 μg/dL, respectively, for the high-risk pregnancy group, and 76 (65–91 and 673 (454–866 µg/dL, respectively, for the normal pregnancy group (p = 0.001. The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol was similar in the subgroups of mothers with different disorders during gestation. A clear correlation was found between a greater pregestational weight and a lower concentration of retinol (Rho = –0.280, p = 0.006, and between α-tocopherol and retinol in all cases (Rho = 0.463, p = 0.001. Among women having a high-risk pregnancy, those delivering prematurely rather than carrying their pregnancy to term had a reduced concentration of retinol (54 (37–78 vs. 70 (49–106 µg/dL; p = 0.002 and a tendency to a lower concentration of α-tocopherol in breast milk (185 (75–410 vs. 339 (160–500 µg/dL; p = 0.053. Compared to mothers with

  17. Retinol and α-Tocopherol in the Breast Milk of Women after a High-Risk Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sámano, Reyna; Martínez-Rojano, Hugo; Hernández, Rosa M; Ramírez, Cristina; Flores Quijano, María E; Espíndola-Polis, José M; Veruete, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    There is scant information about whether, after a high-risk pregnancy, breast milk provides enough vitamins for assuring satisfactory bodily reserves in newborns. To comparatively evaluate, in women with high-risk and normal pregnancy, the concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in breast milk. This cross-sectional, analytical study was evaluated with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Informed consent was signed by 95 mothers with a high-risk pregnancy and 32 mothers with a normal pregnancy. From the mothers with a high-risk pregnancy were obtained: 23 samples of colostrum, 24 of transitional milk, and 48 of mature milk. From the normal pregnancy group, 32 mature milk samples were collected. Pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI) and the gestational weight gain were noted. Models of logistic regression were constructed to identify the variables related to a low concentration of either retinol or α-tocopherol in breast milk. The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol in mature milk was 60 (interquartile range (IQR), 41-90) and 276 (103-450) μg/dL, respectively, for the high-risk pregnancy group, and 76 (65-91) and 673 (454-866) µg/dL, respectively, for the normal pregnancy group ( p = 0.001). The concentration of retinol and α-tocopherol was similar in the subgroups of mothers with different disorders during gestation. A clear correlation was found between a greater pregestational weight and a lower concentration of retinol ( Rho = -0.280, p = 0.006), and between α-tocopherol and retinol in all cases ( Rho = 0.463, p = 0.001). Among women having a high-risk pregnancy, those delivering prematurely rather than carrying their pregnancy to term had a reduced concentration of retinol (54 (37-78) vs. 70 (49-106) µg/dL; p = 0.002) and a tendency to a lower concentration of α-tocopherol in breast milk (185 (75-410) vs. 339 (160-500) µg/dL; p = 0.053). Compared to mothers with a normal pregnancy, those with a high-risk pregnancy

  18. Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses of Glycogen in Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui-Yatsuhashi, Hiroko; Furuyashiki, Takashi; Takata, Hiroki; Ishida, Miyuki; Takumi, Hiroko; Kakutani, Ryo; Kamasaka, Hiroshi; Nagao, Saeko; Hirose, Junko; Kuriki, Takashi

    2017-02-22

    Identification as well as a detailed analysis of glycogen in human milk has not been shown yet. The present study confirmed that glycogen is contained in human milk by qualitative and quantitative analyses. High-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) and high-performance size exclusion chromatography with a multiangle laser light scattering detector (HPSEC-MALLS) were used for qualitative analysis of glycogen in human milk. Quantitative analysis was carried out by using samples obtained from the individual milks. The result revealed that the concentration of human milk glycogen varied depending on the mother's condition-such as the period postpartum and inflammation. The amounts of glycogen in human milk collected at 0 and 1-2 months postpartum were higher than in milk collected at 3-14 months postpartum. In the milk from mothers with severe mastitis, the concentration of glycogen was about 40 times higher than that in normal milk.

  19. Bacteriological monitoring of unheated human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, D C; Poll, R A; Roberts, C

    1979-10-01

    To assess the bacteriological quality of unpooled expressed breast milk, a pilot bottle sample of each donation was examined before the milk was given to the neonate. Provided the milk did not contain greater than 2500 organisms/ml or potential pathogens it was used unheated. Milk containing between 2500 and 5000 organisms/ml and no potential pathogens was used after pasteurisation. Using these criteria, 67% of 460 donations were acceptable. However, because the bacteriological quality varied, 45% of domiciliary donations were discarded compared with only 29% of those from hospital.

  20. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk and milk filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Bogdanovičová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work is focused on the monitoring of Staphylococcus aureus prevalence in raw milk and milk filters, its antibiotic resistance and detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Samples of raw cow´s milk and milk filters were collected in the period from 2012 till 2014, from 50 dairy farms in the Czech Republic. The total of 261 samples (164 samples of raw milk and 97 milk filters were cultivated on Baird-Parker agar. Both the typical and atypical colonies were examined by plasmacoagulase test and PCR method was used for detection of species specific fragment SA442 and mecA gene. Standard disk diffusion method was used to determinate resistance to antimicrobial agents. The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus was detected on 25 farms (50%. The antimicrobial resistance showed differences between the farms. Total of 58 samples were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, of which were 37 (14.2% isolated from raw milk samples and 21 (8.1% from milk filters. From these samples we isolated 62 Staphylococcus aureus strains, 41 isolates bacteria S. aureus from raw milk (66.1% and 21 isolates S. aureus from milk filters (33.9%. The presence of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates was low, most of them were resistant to amoxicilin. According to the results obtained by the PCR method for the methicillin - resistant S. aureus (MRSA, the mecA gene was present in 6 strains (9.7%, 4 isolates obtained from milk samples (6.5% and 2 isolates from milk filters (3.2%.  These isolates can be considered as a possible source of resistance genes, which can be spread through the food chain. Nowadays, a globally unfavourable increasing trend of prevalence of methicillin resistant staphylococci strains especially Staphylococcus aureus is being observed worldwide. The improper hygiene and poor farm management practices contributed to the presence of S. aureus in the milk. This may have contributed to the high level of S. aureus isolated

  1. Persistent organic pollutants in breast milk of primiparae and multiparae Mothers sampled from three health facilities in the Greater Accra and Central Regions of Ghana: Levels of Contamination, Influencing factors and infant risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankson-Arthur, Sarah

    2016-07-01

    Human Breast milk is the optimal source of nutrition for babies and infants during the first six (6) months following birth. Breast milk protects the infants against diseases and infections. Interestingly, because breast milk is a lipid-rich tissue, it attracts, retains and accumulates lipophilic contaminants like persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the ambient environment. The lipophilic contaminant load of the mother’s breast milk is subsequently, transferred to the breast-fed child. This makes breast milk an important biological matrix for the monitoring of the lactating mother’s body burden of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The study, assessed the levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) [polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticide (OCPs)] in the breast milk of lactating mothers (primiparae and multiparae) who reside within the catchment areas and attend child welfare clinic at one of three health facilities in Southern Ghana [Princess Marie Louis (PML) Children Hospital (Korle Wokon, Accra Central); GAEC Hospital (Kwabenya, Accra); and Gomoa Brofo Community based Health and Planning Services, (Gomoa Brofo, Gomoa West district, Central region)]. The study also evaluated the factors (age of lactating mothers, parity and area of residence) influencing the accumulation of the POPs; and, in addition, assessed the potential health risk associated with the ingestion of breast milk by the infants through estimation of the infant’s daily intakes and hazard quotient. A total of two hundred and eighty-eight (288) healthy lactating mothers between the ages of 17-38 years from the three sampling locations [PML (135), GAEC (112), CHPS (41)] were selected for the study based on questionnaires administered to obtain information on the mothers [personal characteristics, number of births (parity), age, weight, height and body mass index (BMI)]. The non-invasive sampling technique was used for the collection of breast milk samples. Gas

  2. ß-defensin-2 in breast milk displays a broad antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Baricelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the antimicrobial activity of ß-defensin-2 produced in the mammary gland and secreted in human breast milk. METHODS: The peptide production was performed by DNA cloning. ß-defensin-2 levels were quantified in 61 colostrum samples and 39 mature milk samples from healthy donors, by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Using halo inhibition assay, this study assessed activity against seven clinical isolates from diarrheal feces of children between 0 and 2 years of age. The activity of ß-defensin-2 against three opportunistic pathogens that can cause nosocomial infections was determined by microdilution test. RESULTS: The peptide levels were higher in colostrum (n = 61 than in mature milk samples (n = 39, as follows: median and range, 8.52 (2.6-16.3 µg/ml versus 0.97 (0.22-3.78, p < 0.0001; Mann-Whitney test. The recombinant peptide obtained showed high antimicrobial activity against a broad range of pathogenic bacteria. Its antibacterial activity was demonstrated in a disk containing between 1-4 µg, which produced inhibition zones ranging from 18 to 30 mm against three isolates of Salmonella spp. and four of E. coli. ß-defensin-2 showed minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of 0.25 µg/mL and 0.5 µg/mL for S. marcescen and P. aeruginosa, respectively, while a higher MIC (4 µg/mL was obtained against an isolated of multidrug-resistant strain of A. baumannii. CONCLUSIONS: To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to report ß-defensin-2 levels in Latin American women. The production and the activity of ß-defensin-2 in breast milk prove its importance as a defense molecule for intestinal health in pediatric patients.

  3. Human milk metagenome: a functional capacity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Human milk contains a diverse population of bacteria that likely influences colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies, however, have been limited to characterization of this microbial community by 16S rRNA analysis. In the present study, a metagenomic approach using Illumina sequencing of a pooled milk sample (ten donors) was employed to determine the genera of bacteria and the types of bacterial open reading frames in human milk that may influence bacterial establishment and stability in this primal food matrix. The human milk metagenome was also compared to that of breast-fed and formula-fed infants’ feces (n = 5, each) and mothers’ feces (n = 3) at the phylum level and at a functional level using open reading frame abundance. Additionally, immune-modulatory bacterial-DNA motifs were also searched for within human milk. Results The bacterial community in human milk contained over 360 prokaryotic genera, with sequences aligning predominantly to the phyla of Proteobacteria (65%) and Firmicutes (34%), and the genera of Pseudomonas (61.1%), Staphylococcus (33.4%) and Streptococcus (0.5%). From assembled human milk-derived contigs, 30,128 open reading frames were annotated and assigned to functional categories. When compared to the metagenome of infants’ and mothers’ feces, the human milk metagenome was less diverse at the phylum level, and contained more open reading frames associated with nitrogen metabolism, membrane transport and stress response (P milk metagenome also contained a similar occurrence of immune-modulatory DNA motifs to that of infants’ and mothers’ fecal metagenomes. Conclusions Our results further expand the complexity of the human milk metagenome and enforce the benefits of human milk ingestion on the microbial colonization of the infant gut and immunity. Discovery of immune-modulatory motifs in the metagenome of human milk indicates more exhaustive analyses of the functionality of the human

  4. NMR-based metabolite profiling of human milk: A pilot study of methods for investigating compositional changes during lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Junfang; Domellöf, Magnus; Zivkovic, Angela M.; Larsson, Göran; Öhman, Anders; Nording, Malin L.

    2016-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight metabolites in human milk are gaining increasing interest in studies of infant nutrition. In the present study, the milk metabolome from a single mother was explored at different stages of lactation. Metabolites were extracted from sample aliquots using either methanol/water (MeOH/H_2O) extraction or ultrafiltration. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used for metabolite identification and quantification, and multi- and univariate statistical data analyses were used to detect changes over time of lactation. Compared to MeOH/H_2O extraction, ultrafiltration more efficiently reduced the interference from lipid and protein resonances, thereby enabling the identification and quantification of 36 metabolites. The human milk metabolomes at the early (9–24 days after delivery) and late (31–87 days after delivery) stages of lactation were distinctly different according to multi- and univariate statistics. The late lactation stage was characterized by significantly elevated concentrations of lactose, choline, alanine, glutamate, and glutamine, as well as by reduced levels of citrate, phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, and N-acetylglucosamine. Our results indicate that there are significant compositional changes of the human milk metabolome also in different phases of the matured lactation stage. These findings complement temporal studies on the colostrum and transitional metabolome in providing a better understanding of the nutritional variations received by an infant. - Highlights: • 36 metabolites were simultaneously quantified in human milk by NMR. • Ultrafiltration more efficiently reduces interferences than MeOH/H_2O extraction. • Compositional changes of the human milk exist during the matured lactation stage.

  5. NMR-based metabolite profiling of human milk: A pilot study of methods for investigating compositional changes during lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Junfang [Department of Chemistry, Umeå University (Sweden); Domellöf, Magnus [Department of Clinical Sciences, Pediatrics, Umeå University (Sweden); Zivkovic, Angela M. [Foods for Health Institute, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Larsson, Göran [Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Unit of Research, Education and Development-Östersund, Umeå University (Sweden); Öhman, Anders, E-mail: anders.ohman01@umu.se [Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Umeå University (Sweden); Nording, Malin L., E-mail: malin.nording@umu.se [Department of Chemistry, Umeå University (Sweden)

    2016-01-15

    Low-molecular-weight metabolites in human milk are gaining increasing interest in studies of infant nutrition. In the present study, the milk metabolome from a single mother was explored at different stages of lactation. Metabolites were extracted from sample aliquots using either methanol/water (MeOH/H{sub 2}O) extraction or ultrafiltration. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used for metabolite identification and quantification, and multi- and univariate statistical data analyses were used to detect changes over time of lactation. Compared to MeOH/H{sub 2}O extraction, ultrafiltration more efficiently reduced the interference from lipid and protein resonances, thereby enabling the identification and quantification of 36 metabolites. The human milk metabolomes at the early (9–24 days after delivery) and late (31–87 days after delivery) stages of lactation were distinctly different according to multi- and univariate statistics. The late lactation stage was characterized by significantly elevated concentrations of lactose, choline, alanine, glutamate, and glutamine, as well as by reduced levels of citrate, phosphocholine, glycerophosphocholine, and N-acetylglucosamine. Our results indicate that there are significant compositional changes of the human milk metabolome also in different phases of the matured lactation stage. These findings complement temporal studies on the colostrum and transitional metabolome in providing a better understanding of the nutritional variations received by an infant. - Highlights: • 36 metabolites were simultaneously quantified in human milk by NMR. • Ultrafiltration more efficiently reduces interferences than MeOH/H{sub 2}O extraction. • Compositional changes of the human milk exist during the matured lactation stage.

  6. Viscosity and Analytical Differences between Raw Milk and UHT Milk of Czech Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumbár V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Viscosity and analytical differences in four milk samples from Czech cows were described. Three samples of UHT milk (0.5%, 1.5%, and 3.5% fat and one sample of raw milk from a Czech bio-farm were analyzed. The following analytical properties were observed: titratable acidity, fat content, dry matter content, and protein content. Titratable acidity and dry matter content decreased in dependence upon the increasing milk fat content. The protein content ranged 3.51-3.57 g per 100 g milk. The milk flow behaviour represented by density, dynamic and kinematic viscosity, as well as the dependence of the milk flow behaviour on temperature were investigated. These properties were measured using a digital densitometer and a rotary viscometer. Milk density was studied at temperatures ranging 0-60 °C and dynamic viscosity at 0-100 °C. With increasing temperature, the density and dynamic viscosity of the studied milk samples decreased. The temperature dependence of dynamic viscosity was manifested in all samples. Kinematic viscosity was calculated from experimental data. Furthermore, mathematical models using Power law and Gaussian fitting were constructed. Determination coefficients achieved high values (0.843-0.997.

  7. Comparison of Surti goat milk with cow and buffalo milk for physicochemical characteristics, selected processing-related parameters and activity of selected enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshna B. Prajapati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the physicochemical characteristics, selected processing-related parameters and activity of selected enzymes in Surti goat milk. Materials and Methods: Milk samples from Surti goats and buffalo milk samples were collected during the period from July 2013 to January 2014 at Reproductive Biology Research Unit, Anand Agricultural University (AAU, Anand. Milk samples from Kankrej cows were collected from Livestock Research Station, AAU, Anand. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical characteristics such as acidity, viscosity, surface tension, specific gravity, refractive index, freezing point, and electrical conductivity. Samples were also analyzed for selected processing-related parameters such as heat coagulation time (HCT, rennet coagulation time (RCT, rate of acid production by starter culture, alcohol stability, and activity of selected enzymes such as alkaline phosphatase activity, catalase activity, proteolytic activity, and lipase activity. Results: Goat milk had the highest acidity, viscosity and surface tension, followed by cow milk and buffalo milk. However, the differences in acidity, specific gravity, surface tension, refractive index, electrical conductivity, HCT and lipase activity of three types of milk studied, viz., goat, cow, and buffalo milk were found statistically non-significant (p0.05 than that of the buffalo milk. However, the difference in viscosity, freezing point and RCT of goat milk and that of the cow milk was statistically non-significant. The cow milk had the highest refractive index, followed by goat and buffalo milk. The cow milk had the highest proteolytic activity and heat coagulation time (HCT, followed by those found in buffalo and goat milk. The goat milk had the lowest freezing point, lipase activity, and RCT, followed by those found in cow and buffalo milk. The goat milk had the highest electrical conductivity, followed by those found in buffalo and cow milk. The

  8. Strontium 90 in Swedish dairy milk 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillberg-Wickman, M.; Oestergren, I.

    1980-01-01

    The contamination of strontium-90 in Swedish milk during 1978 is practically the same as in 1977. The country-wide mean ratio of strontium-90 to calcium in milk is 0.12 Bq 90 Sr(gCa) -1 , based on monthly determinations of samples obtained from 8 dairy plants situated throughout the country. (author)

  9. Human Milk Macronutrients Content: Effect of Advanced Maternal Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubetzky, Ronit; Sever, Orna; Mimouni, Francis B; Mandel, Dror

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about the effect of advanced maternal age upon macronutrients of human milk. This study was designed to study contents of macronutrients (fat, lactose, and protein) in human milk collected in the first 2 weeks of life in older (≥35 years) compared with younger (Macronutrient contents were measured at 72 hours, 7 days, and 14 days after delivery using infrared transmission spectroscopy. The groups did not differ in terms of maternal prepregnancy weight, height, and diet or infant birth weight or gestational age. They differed significantly in terms of maternal age and maternal weight after pregnancy. Fat content in colostrum and carbohydrate content in mature milk were significantly higher in the older mothers group. Moreover, carbohydrates in mature milk correlated positively with maternal age. Fat content at an infant age of 7 days and 2 weeks was not affected by maternal age. There was no significant relationship between maternal body weight for height (or body mass index) and energy, protein, fat or lactose content at any stage. Fat content of colostrum and carbohydrate content of mature milk obtained from mothers with advanced age are elevated compared with those of younger mothers. Moreover, there is a positive correlation between maternal age and carbohydrate content in mature milk. The biological significance of our findings is yet to be determined.

  10. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Nesensohn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  11. Slab replacement maturity guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the use of maturity method to determine early age strength of concrete in slab : replacement application. Specific objectives were (1) to evaluate effects of various factors on the compressive : maturity-strength relationship ...

  12. Seasonal variation in the Dutch bovine raw milk composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heck, J.M.L.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Dijkstra, J.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we determined the detailed composition of and seasonal variation in Dutch dairy milk. Raw milk samples representative of the complete Dutch milk supply were collected weekly from February 2005 until February 2006. Large seasonal variation exists in the concentrations of the main

  13. Composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The composition of milk is of most importance to the dairy industry and human health. This study was conducted to provide data on the composition of raw cow milk and artisanal yoghurt collected in Maroua (Cameroon). Milk and yoghurt samples were collected from 11 breeding sites and 12 producers in the city of Maroua, ...

  14. 90Sr and 137Cs in powdered milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Japan Chemical Analysis Center has analyzed the contents of strontium-90 and cesium-137 in powdered milk under the commission of Science and Technology Agency. The samples were purchased on the open market in Tokyo from the powdered milk producers. The analysis of strontium-90 and cesium-137 content was radiochemically carried out using the method applied for the analysis of fresh milk. (author)

  15. Composition of colostrum and milk of South African indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of colostrum, early and late lactation milk from thirteen South African indigenous Nguni goats (SAING) were analysed for contents of total solids (TS), solids-not-fat (SNF), fat, protein, lactose, ash and energy. Relationships between colostrum or milk and some parameters such as litter size (LS), milk yield (MY) and ...

  16. Theory of Reasoned Action predicts milk consumption in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, J L; Blake, A J; Rankin, S A; Douglass, L W

    1999-01-01

    To determine the factors influencing the consumption or avoidance of milk in women. One hundred women completed food frequency questionnaires and a milk attitudes questionnaire framed within the Theory of Reasoned Action and performed sensory evaluations of different milk samples. Differences among milk types were assessed using 2-way analysis of variance and least-significant-difference mean comparison procedures. Correlation and multiple regression analyses, and standardized partial regression coefficients, were used to determine the contribution of each component of the model in predicting behavior. Mean age of the 100 subjects was 39 years (range = 20-70 years). Milk consumption among subjects was low; 23 subjects indicated that they seldom or never drank milk. Data from the dairy frequency questionnaire showed that the primary milk for 42%, 36%, 27%, and 18% of the milk drinkers was skim, 2%, 1%, and whole, respectively (subjects could indicate more than 1 type of milk consumed). The Theory of Reasoned Action indicated that health and familiarity belief items were most associated with attitudes toward milk consumption. Skim milk had significantly lower scores for taste and texture belief items than 1%, 2%, and whole milk (P reasons other than beliefs about taste and texture or actual sensory preference. This study identifies important factors contributing to milk consumption such as beliefs, attitudes, and sensory evaluation, which can be used to develop a specific framework in which to examine other components of milk consumption behavior.

  17. Milk Allergy in Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth / For Parents / Milk Allergy in ... Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy People of any age can have a milk ...

  18. Effect of leaving milk trucks empty and idle for 6 h between raw milk loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Eva; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth; Waite-Cusic, Joy G

    2018-02-01

    The US Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO) allows milk tanker trucks to be used repeatedly for 24 h before mandatory clean-in-place cleaning, but no specifications are given for the length of time a tanker can be empty between loads. We defined a worst-case hauling scenario as a hauling vessel left empty and dirty (idle) for extended periods between loads, especially in warm weather. Initial studies were conducted using 5-gallon milk cans (pilot-scale) as a proof-of-concept and to demonstrate that extended idle time intervals could contribute to compromised raw milk quality. Based on pilot-scale results, a commercial hauling study was conducted through partnership with a Pacific Northwest dairy co-op to verify that extended idle times of 6 h between loads have minimal influence on the microbiological populations and enzyme activity in subsequent loads of milk. Milk cans were used to haul raw milk (load 1), emptied, incubated at 30°C for 3, 6, 10, and 20 h, and refilled with commercially pasteurized whole milk (load 2) to measure cross-contamination. For the commercial-scale study, a single tanker was filled with milk from a farm known to have poorer quality milk (farm A, load 1), emptied, and refilled immediately (0 h) or after a delay (6 h) with milk from a farm known to have superior quality milk (farm B, load 2). In both experiments, milk samples were obtained from each farm's bulk tank and from the milk can or tanker before unloading. Each sample was microbiologically assessed for standard plate count (SPC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and coliform counts. Selected isolates were assessed for lipolytic and proteolytic activity using spirit blue agar and skim milk agar, respectively. The pilot-scale experiment effectively demonstrated that extended periods of idle (>3 h) of soiled hauling vessels can significantly affect the microbiological quality of raw milk in subsequent loads; however, extended idle times of 6 h or less would not measurably compromise milk

  19. Identification of lactose ureide, a urea derivative of lactose, in milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, K; Sasaki, A; Oritani, T; Hosono, A

    2011-12-01

    With the widespread consumption of milk, the complete characterization of the constituents of milk and milk products is important in terms of functionality and safety. In this study, a novel nonreducing carbohydrate was separated from powdered skim milk and was identified using electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry (m/z 385.1[M + H(+)]), ¹H, ¹³C, ¹H¹H-correlation spectroscopy, and heteronuclear single quantum-nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The carbohydrate was identified as a lactose derivative of urea, N-carbamoyl-o-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-D-glucopyranosylamine (lactose ureide, LU). For the HPLC analysis of LU in milk and milk products, benzoylated LU, hepta-o-benzoyl lactose ureide (melting point 137-139°C; m/z 1,113 [M + H⁺]; wavelength of maximum absorption, λ(max), 229 nm; molar extinction coefficient, ε, 8.1037 × 10⁷), was used as a standard. The crude nonreducing carbohydrate fraction from raw milk, thermally processed milk, and milk products such as powdered milks were directly benzoylated and subjected to HPLC analysis using an octadecylsilyl column to determine the quantity of LU. The content of LU in 10% solutions of powdered skim milk and powdered infant formula (5.0±1.1 and 4.9±1.5 mg/L, respectively) were almost 3-fold higher than that of UHT milk (1.6±0.5 mg/L) and higher than that of low-temperature, long-time-processed (pasteurized at 65°C for 30 min) milk (1.2±0.3 mg/L) and the fresh raw milk sample (0.3±0.1 mg/L). A time-course of the LU content in raw milk during heating at 110°C revealed that LU increased with time. From these results, it is likely that LU is formed by the Maillard-type reaction between the lactose and urea in milk and milk products. Because the concentration of LU in milk increased with the degree of processing heat treatment, it could serve as an indicator of the thermal deterioration of milk. Although it is known that the human intestine is unable to digest LU, the gastrointestinal bacteria

  20. [Comparison of organic component and di-n-butyl phthalate between human milk and cow milk products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-jie; Cao, Jia; Shu, Wei-qun

    2011-01-01

    To explore types of organic components and pollution level of di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) between human milk and cow milk products. Forty healthy postpartum women with an average age of (27.44 ± 3.43) years old were selected, and a 5 ml sample of breast milk were collected. Four different brands of fresh cow milk and 1 brand of milk powder were randomly selected in the market. A total of 15 samples were collected with 3 from each brand, and the qualitative analysis of types of organic components and quantitative analysis of DBP were conducted by gas-chromatography and mass-spectrometry (GC/MS) method. A total of 176 different types of organic components were detected in 40 samples of human milk (averaged at (10.58 ± 4.16) types per sample); 37 different types were detected in 12 samples of fresh cow milk (averaged at (8.67 ± 1.61) types per sample); while 31 types of organic components were detected in 3 samples of milk powder (averaged at (12.67 ± 0.58) types per sample). It was obvious that the types of organic components in milk powder were significantly higher than the other two groups (t = 2.09, 4.00, P milk and cow milk was 9-octadecenoic acid (45.00% (18/40) in human milk; 53.33% (8/15) in cow milk). DBP concentrations were (57.78 ± 35.42) µg/L, (20.76 ± 6.60) µg/L and (0.45 ± 0.05) mg/kg (equal to (66.78 ± 7.60) µg/L) in human milk, fresh cow milk and milk powder, respectively. The DBP concentration in fresh cow milk was significantly lower than those in human milk and milk powder (t = 37.02, 46.02, P milk and cow milk contain different types of organic pollutants, some of which have toxic effects on reproduction and human development.

  1. Evaluation of the Influence of Frequency of Milk Collection and Milking Dayshift on the Microbiological Quality of Raw Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Reguillo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of milk collection frequency (24 h versus 48 h and milking dayshift (morning and evening on total mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB and psychrotrophic bacteria (PSY counts in raw milk samples. MAB counts were determined by flow cytometry (BactoScan and PSY counts by the plate counting agar method. An univariate statistical analysis was performed to find out significant differences among the studied factors. Results obtained showed that collecting milk every 24 h was effective in reducing MAB and PSY counts by 32 and 18%, respectively, compared to 48 h milk collection. This positive impact allowed reducing up to 4°C the temperature of the heat treatment in the dairy industry, thus involving energy savings of 22%. Milking during the mornings showed a significant reduction of MAB counts in comparison to milking performed during the evenings (P<0.05. These results are highly useful for the improvement of milk quality through the optimization of collection and milking systems set at primary production.

  2. Prediction of fetal lung maturity using the lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio analysis with a simplified sample preparation, using a commercial microtip-column combined with mass spectrometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Ho-Seok; Chung, Hee-Jung; Choi, Young Sik; Min, Won-Ki; Jung, So Young

    2015-07-01

    Fetal lung maturity is estimated using the lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio (L/S ratio) in amniotic fluid and it is commonly measured with thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The TLC method is time consuming and technically difficult; however, it is widely used because there is no alternative. We evaluated a novel method for measuring the L/S ratio, which involves a tip-column with a cation-exchange resin and mass spectrometry. Phospholipids in the amniotic fluid were extracted using methanol and chloroform. Choline-containing phospholipids such as lecithin and sphingomyelin were purified by passing them through the tip-column. LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF were used to directly analyze the purified samples. The L/S ratio by mass spectrometry was calculated from the sum peak intensity of the six lecithin, and that of sphingomyelin 34:1. In 20 samples, the L/S ratio determined with TLC was significantly correlated with that obtained by LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF. There was a 100% concordance between the L/S ratio by TLC and that by LC-MS/MS (kappa value=1.0). The concordance between the L/S ratio by TLC and that by MALDI-TOF was also 100% (kappa value=1.0). Our method provides a faster, simpler, and more reliable assessment of fetal lung maturity. The L/S ratio measured by LC-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF offers a compelling alternative method to traditional TLC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of the foal at the milking and dietary supplementation with extra virgin olive oil on jennet milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Giosuè

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the foal at the milking and the extra virgin olive oil supplementation in the diet, on the milk obtained by 12 Ragusana jennets were studied. The jennets were each fed 3.5+1.5 kg/d of concentrate+bran, and hay ad libitum. They were divided into 2 equal groups with one group receiving an additional dietary supplement of 100 ml/d of olive oil. Milk was collected at day 20 post foal- ing and every 15-18 d for 5 times. At each collection period jennets were milked 4-times per day. At 07:30 h foals were separated from the jennets and after a 4 hour interval were milked manually (1MNF;1st milking, foal absent. At the end of the 1MNF, each jennet was milked again, with the foals kept near the udder, but prevented from suckling (2MYF; 2nd milking, foal present. After 2MYF, foals were removed a second time and the sequence repeated after another 4 hour interval for the 3rd (3MNF and 4th (4MYF milkings. Milk yield was recorded at each milking and samples analyzed for qualitative variables. The milk yield was 26% higher than that reported by Giosuè et al. (2008 in similar conditions. The milk fat content were positively influenced by the presence of the foal at the milking but was not effect by the dietary supplement of olive oil.

  4. The changes of proteins fractions shares in milk and fermented milk drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonczar, Genowefa; Walczycka, Maria; Duda, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to observe the changes which take place in the electrophoretic picture of milk proteins after pasteurisation and inoculation with different starter cultures (both traditional and probiotic). After incubation, the yoghurt, kefir, acidified milk, fermented Bifidobacterium bifidum drink and Lactobacillus acidophillus drink were chilled for 14 days to observe the changes which occurred. The research materials were raw and pasteurised milk, as well as fermented milk- based drinks. The raw milk used for research came from Polish Holstein-Fresian black and white cows. The milk was sampled 3 times and divided into 5 parts, each of which was pasteurised at 95°C for 10 min and then cooled for inoculation: yoghurt to 45°C, kefir and acidified milk to 22°C and drinks with Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus acidophillus to 38°C. Milk was inoculated with lyophilised, direct vat starter cultures, in an amount equal to 2% of the working starter. For the production of fermented drinks, the subsequent starters were applied: "YC-180" Christian Hansen for yoghurt, "D" Biolacta-Texel-Rhodia for kefir, CH-N--11 Christian Hansen for acidified milk, starter by Christian Hansen for the probiotic Bifidobacterium bifidum milk, starter by Biolacta-Texel-Rhodia for the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophillus milk. The analyses were conducted in raw, pasteurised and freshly fermented milk as well as in milk drinks stored for 14 days. The total solid content was estimated by the drying method; the fat content by the Gerber method; the lactose content by the Bertrand method; the protein content by the Kjeldahl method with Buchi apparatus; the density of milk was measured with lactodensimeter; acidity with a pH-meter; and potential acidity by Soxhlet-Henkl method (AOAC, 1990). The electrophoretic separation of proteins in raw and pasteurised milk, as well as in freshly produced milk drinks and those stored for 14 days, was performed with SDS-PAGE (on

  5. Comparison of mid-infrared transmission spectroscopy with biochemical methods for the determination of macronutrients in human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Dolores; Fraga, Miriam; Gormaz, María; Torres, Ester; Vento, Máximo

    2014-07-01

    The variability of human milk (HM) composition renders analysis of its components essential for optimal nutrition of preterm fed either with donor's or own mother's milk. To fulfil this requirement, various analytical instruments have been subjected to scientific and clinical evaluation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a rapid method for the analysis of macronutrients in HM as compared with the analytical methods applied by cow's milk industry. Mature milk from 39 donors was analysed using an infrared human milk analyser (HMA) and compared with biochemical reference laboratory methods. The statistical analysis was based on the use of paired data tests. The use of an infrared HMA for the analysis of lipids, proteins and lactose in HM proved satisfactory as regards the rapidity, simplicity and the required sample volume. The instrument afforded good linearity and precision in application to all three nutrients. However, accuracy was not acceptable when compared with the reference methods, with overestimation of the lipid content and underestimation of the amount of proteins and lactose contents. The use of mid-infrared HMA might become the standard for rapid analysis of HM once standardisation and rigorous and systematic calibration is provided. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Identification of sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with the levels of human β-defensin-1 and human β-defensin-2 in the human milk of Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Fang; Cao, Rui-Ming; Li, Jing; Wu, Jing; Wu, Sheng-Mei; Chen, Tong-Xin

    2014-03-14

    Human milk provides infants with various immune molecules. The objective of the present study was to measure human β-defensin-1 (hBD-1) and human β-defensin-2 (hBD-2) levels in the colostrum and mature milk of healthy Han Chinese, to identify factors regulating milk hBD-1 and hBD-2 expression and to explore the potential protective effect of milk hBD-1 and hBD-2 on infants. A total of 100 mothers and their babies were recruited into the study. Sociodemographic characteristics and other factors were obtained by a questionnaire. Babies were followed up for a period of 6 months. Colostrum samples (n 100) and mature milk samples (n 82) were collected by hand expression. The hBD-1 and hBD-2 concentrations were measured by ELISA. The hBD-1 and hBD-2 levels differed in the colostrum and mature milk. In the colostrum, the concentration ranges of hBD-1 and hBD-2 were 1·04-12·81 μg/ml and 0·31-19·12 ng/ml, respectively. In mature milk, the hBD-1 and hBD-2 levels were 1·03-31·76 ng/ml and 52·65-182·29 pg/ml, respectively. Several independent factors influence their production. The multivariable analysis showed a strong association between pre-pregnancy BMI and hBD-1 levels in the colostrum (P=0·001), mode of delivery was significantly associated with hBD-2 levels in the colostrum (P=0·006) and gestational age was significantly associated with hBD-1 levels in mature milk (P= 0·010). During the first 6 months of life, the incidence rate of upper respiratory infection was found to be less in the high-colostrum hBD-1 group than in the low-colostrum hBD-1 group (χ²=4·995, P=0·025). The present study suggested that the abundance of hBD-1 in the colostrum may have a protective function against upper respiratory infection for infants younger than 6 months.

  7. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    OpenAIRE

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC ...

  8. Breast milk fat content of mothers to small-for-gestational-age infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domany, K Armoni; Mandel, D; Kedem, M Hausman; Lubetzky, R

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the composition of human milk (HM) expressed by mothers of asymmetrically growth-restricted infants. To test the null hypothesis that lactating mothers of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants produce milk with fat content similar to that of lactating mothers of infants whose growth is appropriate for gestational age (AGA). Fifty-six lactating mothers of newborns (26 SGA and 30 AGA) were recruited within the first 3 days of delivery. Creamatocrit (CMT) levels in HM were measured at 72 h, 7 days and 14 days postdelivery in capillary tubes after centrifugation at 9000 r.p.m. for 5 min. The groups did not differ in terms of maternal age, body mass index, gestational age (GA), pregnancy weight gain and parity. They differed significantly in terms of infant's birth weight by design. The mean CMT levels at the three time points were similar for the two groups. This remained true when timing of the sample (colostrum, transitional, mature milk) was introduced as a confounder in the analysis of variance (general linear model). Fat content of HM is not affected by fetal growth status. We suggest that mothers of SGA infants may be reassured that their milk contains adequate amount of fat that is appropriate for the growth of their infants.

  9. Haptoglobin and serum amyloid A in bulk tank milk in relation to raw milk quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerstedt, Maria; Waller, Karin Persson; Sternesjö, Ase

    2009-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate relationships between the presence of the two major bovine acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA) and raw milk quality parameters in bulk tank milk samples. Hp and SAA have been suggested as specific markers of mastitis but recently also as markers for raw milk quality. Since mastitis has detrimental effects on milk quality, it is important to investigate whether the presence of Hp or SAA indicates such changes in the composition and properties of the milk. Bulk tank milk samples (n=91) were analysed for Hp, SAA, total protein, casein, whey protein, proteolysis, fat, lactose, somatic cell count and coagulating properties. Samples with detectable levels of Hp had lower casein content, casein number and lactose content, but higher proteolysis than samples without Hp. Samples with detectable levels of SAA had lower casein number and lactose content, but higher whey protein content than samples without SAA. The presence of acute phase proteins in bulk tank milk is suggested as an indicator for unfavourable changes in the milk composition, e.g. protein quality, due to udder health disturbances, with economical implications for the dairy industry.

  10. Color Changes of UHT Milk During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnja M. Sikimić

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study measurements of color parameters of UHT milk were performed, by using a MOM-color 100 photoelectric tristimulus colorimeter. Colors of UHT milk samples containing 3.2% and 1.6% milk fat, processed under industrial conditions, packed in polyethylene terephtalate (PET based packages, and stored for 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days at ambient temperature (20±5°C were examined. Results are shown in four different systems that define measurement of color parameters expressed in: CIE, CIE L*a*b*, Hünter and ANLAB – Adams Nickerson systems. Average value of mean reflectance of UHT milk determined in CIE system statistically is highly significantly changed, (p < 0.01 depending on duration of storaging, percentage of milk fat, as well as on the interaction of the mentioned factors. For the UHT milk with 1.6% milk fat statistically significant (p < 0.05 decrease of psychometric chroma b* occurs after 60 days, and for milk with 3.2% milk fat established on 45th day of storage.

  11. Assessment of raw milk quality and stakeholders' awareness on milk-borne health risks in Arusha City and Meru District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngasala, J Uma Bukuku; Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel; Mtambo, Mkumbukwa Madundo Angelo

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the quality of raw milk and stakeholders' awareness on milk-borne health risks and factors for poor milk hygiene in Arusha City and Meru District, Tanzania between October and December 2012. A total of 105 smallholder dairy farmers, milk vendors and milk retailers were interviewed, and milk samples were collected for physical, microbial and antibiotic residue analysis using standard procedures. Questionnaire results indicated high level of awareness (94 %) that drinking raw milk can predispose consumers to milk-borne diseases; nevertheless, 65 % of respondents consumed raw milk. Physicochemical analyses showed some of the milk had sediments (20 %), bad smell (21 %) and had clotted on alcohol test (27 %). About 36 % of milk samples had pH below 6.6, and 25 % had specific gravity below 1.028 g/ml. The mean total viable count (TVC) of milk from vendors is significantly (P milk samples assessed had a higher TVC than the level recommended (2.0 × 10(5) cfu/ml) by the East African Community (EAC) standards. Up to 91 % of the milk samples had bacterial growth that included Eschericia coli (66 %), Staphylococcus aureus (33 %), Corynebacterium (11 %) and Pseudomonas (10 %). All smallholder dairy farmers were aware of drug residues, but majority (57 %) were unaware of human health effects caused by veterinary drug residues in milk. Up to 97 % of respondents reported to comply with drug withdrawal periods. This possibly led to all milk samples analysed to be negative from detectable levels of antibiotic residues. It is concluded that the level of awareness on milk quality is high, although practices associated with milking and post-harvest handling predispose milk to bacterial contamination which is a public health risk to milk consumers.

  12. Impact of pasteurization on the antibacterial properties of human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gysel, Marjan; Cossey, Veerle; Fieuws, Steffen; Schuermans, Annette

    2012-08-01

    Growing evidence favours the use of human milk for the feeding of preterm newborns based on its many beneficial effects. Despite the many benefits, human milk has been associated as a possible vehicle of transmission for a number of infections. Although pasteurization of human milk can diminish the risk of neonatal infection, it also significantly reduces the concentrations of immunological components in human milk due to thermal damage. In order to evaluate the impact of pasteurization on the antibacterial properties of human milk, we aimed to compare the capacity of raw and pasteurized human milk to inhibit bacterial proliferation. Therefore, a single milk sample was collected from ten healthy lactating mothers. Each sample was divided into two aliquots; one aliquot was pasteurized, while the other was kept raw. Both aliquots were inoculated either with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus and incubated at 37 °C during 8 h. Viable colony counts from the inoculated samples were performed at regular time points to compare the bacterial growth in both forms of breast milk. Relative to the tryptic soy broth control sample, both raw and pasteurized milk samples exhibited an inhibitory effect on the growth of E. coli and S. aureus. Compared with the raw portion, growth inhibition was significantly lower in the pasteurized milk at every time point beyond T0 (after 2, 4 and 8 h of incubation) (p = 0.0003 for E. coli and p pasteurization adversely affects the antibacterial properties of human milk.

  13. Rapid discrimination between buffalo and cow milk and detection of adulteration of buffalo milk with cow milk using synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with multivariate methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durakli Velioglu, Serap; Ercioglu, Elif; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2017-05-01

    This research paper describes the potential of synchronous fluorescence (SF) spectroscopy for authentication of buffalo milk, a favourable raw material in the production of some premium dairy products. Buffalo milk is subjected to fraudulent activities like many other high priced foodstuffs. The current methods widely used for the detection of adulteration of buffalo milk have various disadvantages making them unattractive for routine analysis. Thus, the aim of the present study was to assess the potential of SF spectroscopy in combination with multivariate methods for rapid discrimination between buffalo and cow milk and detection of the adulteration of buffalo milk with cow milk. SF spectra of cow and buffalo milk samples were recorded between 400-550 nm excitation range with Δλ of 10-100 nm, in steps of 10 nm. The data obtained for ∆λ = 10 nm were utilised to classify the samples using principal component analysis (PCA), and detect the adulteration level of buffalo milk with cow milk using partial least square (PLS) methods. Successful discrimination of samples and detection of adulteration of buffalo milk with limit of detection value (LOD) of 6% are achieved with the models having root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and the root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values of 2, 7, and 4%, respectively. The results reveal the potential of SF spectroscopy for rapid authentication of buffalo milk.

  14. Colostrum immunoglobulin G concentration of multiparous Jersey cows at first and second milking is associated with parity, colostrum yield, and time of first milking, and can be estimated with Brix refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Del-Río, N; Rolle, D; García-Muñoz, A; Rodríguez-Jiménez, S; Valldecabres, A; Lago, A; Pandey, P

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate colostrum IgG concentration harvested at first and second milking from multiparous Jersey cows, the dam's lactation number, colostrum yield, and time of first milking. In addition, we validated the use of a Brix refractometer to estimate IgG concentration in colostrum from multiparous Jersey cows using radial immunodiffusion as the reference method. Colostrum samples and total weight of colostrum harvested at first (n = 134) and second (n = 68) milking were collected from 134 multiparous Jersey cows housed in a California herd. Fresh colostrum samples were analyzed for IgG concentration with Brix refractometry and frozen samples by radial immunodiffusion. A total of 90.4 and 42.7% of the samples from first and second milking met industry standards of quality for IgG concentration (>50 g/L). Second and third lactation cows had similar colostrum IgG concentration but lower than cows on their fourth and greater lactation. At second milking, 56.4% of cows on their fourth or greater lactation had colostrum IgG concentrations >50 g/L. When colostrum yield increased from low (6 kg), IgG concentration decreased. Higher IgG concentration was observed on colostrum harvested at 50 IgG g/L was 20.9% based on logit equations with Youden's index criterion and 18.0% based on accuracy criterion. For colostrum harvested at second milking, similar Brix thresholds were obtained, 19.2 and 19.0%, regardless of whether Youden's index or accuracy was used as the selection criterion. Our results indicate that the dam's lactation number, colostrum yield, and time of first milking relative to calving are associated with IgG concentration in colostrum from multiparous Jersey cows. Second milking colostrum from mature Jersey cows should be evaluated to extend colostrum supply on dairies especially during times of shortage. Readings of %Brix can be used to rapidly estimate IgG concentration in Jersey colostrum harvested at first and second milking

  15. Quality of human milk expressed in a human milk bank and at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Mayla S; Oliveira, Angela M de M; Hattori, Wallisen T; Abdallah, Vânia O S

    2017-08-30

    To evaluate the quality of the human milk expressed at home and at a human milk bank. This a retrospective, analytical, and observational study, performed by assessing titratable acidity records and the microbiological culture of 100 human milk samples expressed at home and at a human milk bank, in 2014. For the statistical analysis, generalized estimating equations (GEE) and the chi-squared test were used. When comparing the two sample groups, no significant difference was found, with 98% and 94% of the samples being approved among those collected at the milk bank and at home, respectively. No main interaction effect between local and titratable acidity records (p=0.285) was observed, and there was no statistically significant difference between the expected and observed values for the association between the collection place and the microbiological culture results (p=0.307). The quality of human milk expressed at home and at the milk bank are in agreement with the recommended standards, confirming that the expression of human milk at home is as safe as expression at the human milk bank, provided that the established hygiene, conservation, storage, and transport standards are followed. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Influência da ingestão de sardinha nos níveis de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados da série ômega3 no leite materno The influence of sardine consumption on the omega-3 fatty acid content of mature human milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose V. Patin

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: A proposta deste trabalho foi verificar a influência da ingestão de sardinha, alimento rico em ácidos graxos poliinsaturados da série ômega3, na composição do leite materno. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo avaliou 31 nutrizes acompanhadas no Hospital Guilherme Álvaro, as quais receberam 2 kg de sardinha fresca por duas vezes, em intervalos de 15 dias. Nos tempos 0, 15 e 30 dias, realizou-se inquérito alimentar de 24 horas e coleta de leite. Determinaram-se os ácidos graxos do leite materno por cromatografia a gás. Para análise estatística dos resultados, utilizaram-se testes não paramétricos, com nível de significância p OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate what effect the intake of sardines, rich in omega-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, has on the composition of breastmilk. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 31 nursing mothers under observation at the Hospital Guilherme Álvaro. Each was given 2 kg of fresh sardines twice with a 15-day interval. Milk was sampled and a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire was applied on days 0, 15 and 30. Milk was assayed for fatty acid content by gas chromatography. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using nonparametric tests with significance set at p < 0.05. RESULTS: The results demonstrate that the nutritional intake of the nursing mothers was adequate at all three sample points. With regard to the omega-3 series fatty acid content of the breastmilk, it was observed that regular consumption and shorter intervals between intake and milk collection resulted in higher concentrations of docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid at 15 and 30 days into the study. Fatty acids from the omega-3 and omega-6 series exhibited a significant correlation, r² was 0.58 and 0.59 at 15 and 30 days, respectively. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that incorporating fish into the diets of nursing mother during lactation, in the form of 100 g of

  17. An innovative approach: cow/oat milk based kefir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayil Dinkçi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of kefir production using cow-oat milk mixture. Therefore kefir samples with 20, 40 and 60 % of oat milk were produced. The effect of oat-milk ratio on physicochemical, rheological, microbiological and sensory characteristics of the kefir samples was studied during 21 days storage at refrigerated conditions. Increasing oat milk concentration affected the whey-off and apparent viscosity by higher whey off and lower viscosity results. Also the proteolytic activity of the samples was decreased by raising the oat milk concentrations. Increase of the oat milk concentration leaded to a decrease of pH of the samples. Statistical analysis showed that the lactococci and lactobacilli viable cell counts differed among the samples while the highest count was detected in sample with the highest amount of oat milk. The control sample (without oat milk had higher yeast count during the storage period. The final product with 20 % of oat-milk and without addition of flavour was found to be the most acceptable by the sensory panellists. The results indicate the possibility for a new cow/oat milk based kefir.

  18. Human Milk MicroRNA and Total RNA Differ Depending on Milk Fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaweed, Mohammed; Hepworth, Anna R; Lefèvre, Christophe; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T; Hassiotou, Foteini

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNA have been recently discovered in human milk signifying potentially important functions for both the lactating breast and the infant. Whilst human milk microRNA have started to be explored, little data exist on the evaluation of sample processing, and analysis to ensure that a full spectrum of microRNA can be obtained. Human milk comprises three main fractions: cells, skim milk, and lipids. Typically, the skim milk fraction has been measured in isolation despite evidence that the lipid fraction may contain more microRNA. This study aimed to standardize isolation of microRNA and total RNA from all three fractions of human milk to determine the most appropriate sampling and analysis procedure for future studies. Three different methods from eight commercially available kits were tested for their efficacy in extracting total RNA and microRNA from the lipid, skim, and cell fractions of human milk. Each fraction yielded different concentrations of RNA and microRNA, with the highest quantities found in the cell and lipid fractions, and the lowest in skim milk. The column-based phenol-free method was the most efficient extraction method for all three milk fractions. Two microRNAs were expressed and validated in the three milk fractions by qPCR using the three recommended extraction kits for each fraction. High expression levels were identified in the skim and lipid milk factions for these microRNAs. These results suggest that careful consideration of both the human milk sample preparation and extraction protocols should be made prior to embarking upon research in this area. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Relationship of goat milk flow emission variables with milking routine, milking parameters, milking machine characteristics and goat physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, G; Panzalis, R; Ruegg, P

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the relationship between milk flow emission variables recorded during milking of dairy goats with variables related to milking routine, goat physiology, milking parameters and milking machine characteristics, to determine the variables affecting milking performance and help the goat industry pinpoint farm and milking practices that improve milking performance. In total, 19 farms were visited once during the evening milking. Milking parameters (vacuum level (VL), pulsation ratio and pulsation rate, vacuum drop), milk emission flow variables (milking time, milk yield, maximum milk flow (MMF), average milk flow (AVMF), time until 500 g/min milk flow is established (TS500)), doe characteristics of 8 to 10 goats/farm (breed, days in milk and parity), milking practices (overmilking, overstripping, pre-lag time) and milking machine characteristics (line height, presence of claw) were recorded on every farm. The relationships between recorded variables and farm were analysed by a one-way ANOVA analysis. The relationships of milk yield, MMF, milking time and TS500 with goat physiology, milking routine, milking parameters and milking machine design were analysed using a linear mixed model, considering the farm as the random effect. Farm was significant (Pfarms, being similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Few milking parameters and milking machine characteristics affected the tested variables: average vacuum level only showed tendency on MMF, and milk pipeline height on TS500. Milk yield (MY) was mainly affected by parity, as the interaction of days in milk with parity was also significant. Milking time was mainly affected by milk yield and breed. Also significant were parity, the interaction of days in milk with parity and overstripping, whereas overmilking showed a slight tendency. We concluded that most of the studied variables were mainly related to goat physiology characteristics, as the effects of milking parameters and

  20. Maturation disparity between hand-wrist bones in a Chinese sample of normal children: An analysis based on automatic boneXpert and manual Greulich and Pyle atlas assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ji; Dig, Xiao Yi [Dept. of Radiology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai (China); Lin, Fang Qin [Dept. of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China)

    2016-06-15

    To assess the maturation disparity of hand-wrist bones using the BoneXpert system and Greulich and Pyle (GP) atlas in a sample of normal children from China. Our study included 229 boys and 168 girls aged 2 - 14 years. The bones in the hand and wrist were divided into five groups: distal radius and ulna, metacarpals, proximal phalanges, middle phalanges and distal phalanges. Bone age (BA) was assessed separately using the automatic BoneXpert and GP atlas by two raters. Differences in the BA between the most advanced and retarded individual bones and bone groups were analyzed. In 75.8% of children assessed with the BoneXpert and 59.4% of children assessed with the GP atlas, the BA difference between the most advanced and most retarded individual bones exceeded 2.0 years. The BA mean differences between the most advanced and most retarded individual bones were 2.58 and 2.25 years for the BoneXpert and GP atlas methods, respectively. Furthermore, for both methods, the middle phalanges were the most advanced group. The most retarded group was metacarpals for BoneXpert, while metacarpals and the distal radius and ulna were the most retarded groups according to the GP atlas. Overall, the BAs of the proximal and distal phalanges were closer to the chronological ages than those of the other bone groups. Obvious and regular maturation disparities are common in normal children. Overall, the BAs of the proximal and distal phalanges are more useful for BA estimation than those of the other bone groups.

  1. MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MILK FROM DONKEYS FARMED IN CAMPANIA REGION: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sarno

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Interest in donkey’s milk destined to human consumption is increasing owing to its complex composition and unique functional properties. The microbiological profile of donkeys’ raw milk was investigated. Individual donkey milk samples were collected from 8 asses after mechanical milking and filtration in a farm of Campania region. A total of 133 samples were analyzed. Total plate count bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae were enumerated. Other microbiological characteristics were monitored as established by legislation in force on the sale of raw milk. Results showed a low contamination level of the raw milk in accordance with other authors. No correlations were evidenced between milk contamination and lactation stage.

  2. Udder size and milk production potentials of goats and sheep in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During these periods, the udder sizes of the dams were measured weekly before hand milking thrice a week to determine the milk yield. Samples of the milk were analysed for th.eir composition. The results showed that the udder size increased with increasing milk yield (112 - 248ml) up to the peak of lactation which was ...

  3. Influence of somatic cell count on mineral content and salt equilibria of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primo Mariani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to study the effect of somatic cell count on mineral content and salt equilibria at the level of quarter milk samples. Ten Italian Friesian cows, in which two homologous quarters (front quarters in 1 cow, rear quarters in 6 cows and both rear and front quarters in 3 cows were characterised by a milk SCC400,000 cells/mL (HC-milk, respectively, were selected. Cows were milked at quarter level during the morning milking and a single sample was collected from each selected quarter, thus, 26 quarter milk samples were collected. Compared to LC-milk, HC-milk was characterised by a lower content of phosphorus and potassium and by a higher content of both sodium and chloride. The equilibrium of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between the colloidal and soluble phase of milk and the mineralisation degree of the casein micelles, were not different between HC and LC milk.

  4. Elephant’s breast milk contains large amounts of glucosamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    TAKATSU, Zenta; TSUDA, Muneya; YAMADA, Akio; MATSUMOTO, Hiroshi; TAKAI, Akira; TAKEDA, Yasuhiro; TAKASE, Mitsunori

    2016-01-01

    Hand-reared elephant calves that are nursed with milk substitutes sometimes suffer bone fractures, probably due to problems associated with nutrition, exercise, sunshine levels and/or genetic factors. As we were expecting the birth of an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), we analyzed elephant’s breast milk to improve the milk substitutes for elephant calves. Although there were few nutritional differences between conventional substitutes and elephant’s breast milk, we found a large unknown peak in the breast milk during high-performance liquid chromatography-based amino acid analysis and determined that it was glucosamine (GlcN) using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. We detected the following GlcN concentrations [mean ± SD] (mg/100 g) in milk hydrolysates produced by treating samples with 6M HCl for 24 hr at 110°C: four elephant’s breast milk samples: 516 ± 42, three cow’s milk mixtures: 4.0 ± 2.2, three mare’s milk samples: 12 ± 1.2 and two human milk samples: 38. The GlcN content of the elephant’s milk was 128, 43 and 14 times greater than those of the cow’s, mare’s and human milk, respectively. Then, we examined the degradation of GlcN during 0–24 hr hydrolyzation with HCl. We estimated that elephant’s milk contains >880 mg/100 g GlcN, which is similar to the levels of major amino acids in elephant’s milk. We concluded that a novel GlcN-containing milk substitute should be developed for elephant calves. The efficacy of GlcN supplements is disputed, and free GlcN is rare in bodily fluids; thus, the optimal molecular form of GlcN requires a further study. PMID:28049867

  5. From milk to diet: feed recognition for milk authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, E; Gianì, S; Mastromauro, F; Breviario, D

    2009-11-01

    The presence of plastidial DNA fragments of plant origin in animal milk samples has been confirmed. An experimental plan was arranged with 4 groups of goats, each provided with a different monophytic diet: 3 fresh forages (oats, ryegrass, and X-triticosecale) and one 2-wk-old silage (X-triticosecale). Feed-derived rubisco (ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase, rbcL) DNA fragments were detected in 100% of the analyzed goat milk samples, and the nucleotide sequence of the PCR-amplified fragments was found to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments amplified from the plant species consumed in the diet. Two additional chloroplast-based molecular markers were used to set up an assay for distinctiveness, conveniently based on a simple PCR. In one case, differences in single nucleotides occurring within the gene encoding for plant maturase K (matK) were exploited. In the other, plant species recognition was based on the difference in the length of the intron present within the transfer RNA leucine (trnL) gene. The presence of plastidial plant DNA, ascertained by the PCR-based amplification of the rbcL fragment, was also assessed in raw cow milk samples collected directly from stock farms or taken from milk sold on the commercial market. In this case, the nucleotide sequence of the amplified DNA fragments reflected the multiple forages present in the diet fed to the animals.

  6. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone in bovine milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Miriam; Figueredo, Nancy; Castillo, Sonia; Pizarro

    2002-01-01

    A system for the measurement of progesterone in bovine milk by radioimmunoassay has been developed and validated. This assay includes an iodine tracer purified by HPLC, the standard prepared in fat-free milk and an antibody anti-progesterone combined with second antibody. The detection limit of the assay is at 0.2 nmol/L calculated from the maximum binding menus two standard deviations and the precision is satisfactory. In the recovery assay was used 4 milk different samples and the result was 98% of recuperation. The progesterone was determinate in milk samples from post-partum animals taking samples three times per week for 40 days. The assay is simple, rapid and possibility the progesterone measurement without sample dilution, distinguish the cyclic changes of this hormone that reflect the ovarian activity in the animals. (author)

  7. Investigation of prostaglandin levels in human milk after high performance liquid chromatography purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu-Wang, C.Y.; Neu, J.

    1986-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate five prostaglandins (PGs), i.e. PGE 2 , PGF/sub 2α/, 13-14-dihydro-15-keto-PGF/sub 2α/ (DHKF/sub 2α/), thromboxane B 2 (TXB 2 ) and 6-keto-PGF/sub 1α/), measured by (RIA) after C 18 Sep-Pak extraction and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Two trials were performed. In each trial, 3-5 mature human milk samples were pooled, acidified and extracted for PGs. The separation of PGs by HPLC was achieved by using an isocratic solvent system of acetonitrile/water (pH 3.0) (32/68, V/V). The PG levels from the two trials were determined and averaged after monitoring the recoveries. The results indicate that PGE 2 and DHKF/sub 2α/ are the two major PGs found in extracted human milk. However, after HPLC purification, no predominant PG is found and the levels of all the five PGs are much lower compared to the extracted sample. Since the immunoreactive material was also detected in HPLC fractions not within the PG peak, low levels of PG found in human milk after HPLC is likely due to the purification step removing the bulk of nonspecific immunoreactive substances present in the sample

  8. Human Milk Analysis Using Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh-Wargo, Sharon; Valentic, Jennifer; Khaira, Sharmeel; Super, Dennis M; Collin, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The composition of human milk is known to vary with length of gestation, stage of lactation, and other factors. Human milk contains all nutrients required for infant health but requires fortification to meet the needs of low-birth-weight infants. Without a known nutrient profile of the mother's milk or donor milk fed to a baby, the composition of the fortified product is only an estimate. Human milk analysis has the potential to improve the nutrition care of high-risk newborns by increasing the information about human milk composition. Equipment to analyze human milk is available, and the technology is rapidly evolving. This pilot study compares mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy to reference laboratory milk analysis. After obtaining informed consent, we collected human milk samples from mothers of infants weighing milk obtained by MIR vs reference laboratory analysis. MIR analysis appears to provide an accurate assessment of macronutrient content in expressed human milk from mothers of preterm infants. The small sample size of this study limits confidence in the results. Measurement of lactose is confounded by the presence of oligosaccharides. Human milk analysis is a potentially useful tool for establishing an individualized fortification plan. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  9. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of ionic liquids supported on silica as a sorbent for fully automated online solid-phase extraction with LC-MS determination of sulfonamides in bovine milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Meire Ribeiro; Mauro Lanças, Fernando

    2018-03-10

    Sulfonamides are antibiotics widely used in the treatment of diseases in dairy cattle. However, their indiscriminate use for disease control may lead to their presence in tissues and milk and their determination requires a sample preparation step as part of an analytical approach. Among the several sample preparation techniques available, those based upon the use of sorptive materials have been widely employed. Recently, the application of ionic liquids immobilized on silica surfaces or polymeric materials has been evaluated for such an application. This manuscript addresses the evaluation of silica-based ionic liquid obtained by a sol-gel synthesis process by basic catalysis as sorbent for online solid-phase extraction with liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for sulfonamides determination. Infrared vibrational spectroscopy confirmed the presence of the ionic liquid on the silica surface, suggesting that the ionic liquid was anchored on to the silica surface. Other sorbents varying the ionic liquid alkyl chain were also synthesized and evaluated by off-line solid-phase extraction in the sulfonamide extraction. As the length of the alkyl chain increased, the amount of extracted sulfonamides decreased, possibly due to a decrease in the electrostatic interaction caused by the reduction in the polarity, as well as the presence of a hexafluorophosphate anion that increases the hydrophobic character of the material. The use of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate as a selective ionic liquid sorbent enabled the isolation and sulfonamide preconcentration in bovine milk by online solid-phase extraction with liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification for the method developed was 5-7, 5 μg/mL, with extraction recoveries ranging between 74 and 93% and intra- and interassay between 1.5-12.5 and 2.3-13.1, respectively. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag Gmb

  11. A novel metal-organic framework composite MIL-101(Cr)@GO as an efficient sorbent in dispersive micro-solid phase extraction coupling with UHPLC-MS/MS for the determination of sulfonamides in milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiuna; Zhao, Pan; Ye, Xiu; Zhang, Lianjun; Wang, Ting; Chen, Qinyu; Hou, Xiaohong

    2017-07-01

    As a novel material, metal-organic framework/graphite oxide (MIL-101(Cr)@GO) has great potential for the pretreatment of trace analytes. In the present study, MIL-101(Cr)@GO was synthesized using a solvothermal synthesis method at the nanoscale and was applied as sorbent in the dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (DMSPE) for the enrichment of the trace sulfonamides (SAs) from milk samples for the first time. Several experimental parameters including kinds of sorbents, the effect of pH, the amount of MIL-101(Cr)@GO, ionic strength, adsorption time, desorption solvent and desorption time were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the linear ranges were from 0.1 to 10μg/L, 0.2-20μg/L or 0.5-50μg/L for the analytes with regression coefficients (r) from 0.9942 to 0.9999. The limits of detection were between 0.012 and 0.145μg/L. The recoveries ranged from 79.83% to 103.8% with relative standard deviations (RSDs)MIL-101(Cr)@GO exhibited remarkable advantages compared to MIL-101(Cr), MIL-100(Fe), activated carbon and other sorbent materials used in pretreatment methods. A simple, rapid, sensitive, inexpensive and less solvent consuming method of DMSPE-ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (DMSPE-UHPLC-MS/MS) was successfully applied to the pre-concentration and determination of twelve SAs in milk samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of the type of milking and storage of milk on the chem ical composition, Somatic Cell Count and bacterial count Total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Leite Peixoto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The refrigeration of milk and the usage of mechanical milking are important to obtain milk in accordance with quality standards. In this work we evaluated the influence of the type of milking process and type of storage on the quality of the refrigerated milk. It was obtained 1363 refrigerated milk samples stored in single or collective expansion tanks, from manually or mechanically milked animals. The experiment was carried out in a 2x2 randomized factorial scheme. Two types of expansion tanks (single and collective and two types of milking (manual and mechanical. The average comparison test and Tukey test was carried out with 95% confidence. The levels of fat, protein, lactose and defatted dry extract, were evaluated according to the type of milking and type of milk storage. The values obtained were higher when compared to the values stabilished by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. The level of milk fat was higher in samples with somatic cell count above 501,000 SC/mL. However, the levels of protein and defatted dry extract were higher in samples with somatic cell count below 500,000 SC/mL. The type of milking and the type of storage have influence on parameters related to milk quality such as levels of fat, protein, lactose and somatic cell count. The milk chemical composition revealed in accordance with the values stabilished by the Brazilian legislation. The total bacterial count did not vary with storage type nor the type of milking.

  13. A longitudinal study of human milk composition in the second year postpartum: implications for human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Maryanne T; Fogleman, April D; Newburg, David S; Allen, Jonathan C

    2017-01-01

    While the composition of human milk has been studied extensively in the first year of lactation, there is a paucity of data regarding human milk composition beyond one year postpartum. Policies vary at milk banks around the world regarding how long lactating women are eligible to donate their milk. The primary purpose of this study is to describe longitudinal changes in human milk composition in the second year postpartum to support the development of evidence based guidelines regarding how long lactating women can donate human milk to a milk bank. Nineteen lactating women in North Carolina provided monthly milk samples from 11 months to 17 months postpartum (N = 131), and two non-profit milk banks provided (N = 33) pooled, unpasteurized milk samples from 51 approved donors less than one year postpartum. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the concentration of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme, Immunoglobulin A, oligosaccharides and sodium in longitudinal samples of mother's milk between 11 and 17 months postpartum, while zinc and calcium concentrations declined, and no changes were observed in lactose, fat, iron and potassium. Human milk in the second year postpartum contained significantly higher concentrations of total protein, lactoferrin, lysozyme and Immunoglobulin A, than milk bank samples, and significantly lower concentrations of zinc, calcium, iron and oligosaccharides. Accepting milk bank donations beyond one year postpartum is a potential strategy for increasing the supply of donor milk, but may require mineral fortification. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Iodine concentration of milk-alternative drinks available in the UK in comparison with cows' milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Sarah C; Hill, Sarah; Infante, Heidi Goenaga; Elghul, Sarah; Nezianya, Carolina J; Rayman, Margaret P

    2017-10-01

    Iodine deficiency is present in certain groups of the UK population, notably in pregnant women; this is of concern as iodine is required for fetal brain development. UK milk is rich in iodine and is the principal dietary iodine source. UK sales of milk-alternative drinks are increasing but data are lacking on their iodine content. As consumers may replace iodine-rich milk with milk-alternative drinks, we aimed to measure the iodine concentration of those available in the UK. Using inductively coupled plasma-MS, we determined the iodine concentration of seven types of milk-alternative drink (soya, almond, coconut, oat, rice, hazelnut and hemp) by analysing forty-seven products purchased in November/December 2015. For comparison, winter samples of conventional (n 5) and organic (n 5) cows' milk were included. The median iodine concentration of all of the unfortified milk-alternative drinks (n 44) was low, at 7·3 μg/kg, just 1·7 % of our value for winter conventional cows' milk (median 438 μg/kg). One brand (not the market leader), fortified its soya, oat and rice drinks with iodine and those drinks had a higher iodine concentration than unfortified drinks, at 280, 287 and 266 μg/kg, respectively. The iodine concentration of organic milk (median 324 μg/kg) was lower than that of conventional milk. Although many milk-alternative drinks are fortified with Ca, at the time of this study, just three of forty-seven drinks were fortified with iodine. Individuals who consume milk-alternative drinks that are not fortified with iodine in place of cows' milk may be at risk of iodine deficiency unless they consume alternative dietary iodine sources.

  15. Role of milk protein-based products in some quality attributes of goat milk yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursel, A; Gursoy, A; Anli, E A K; Budak, S O; Aydemir, S; Durlu-Ozkaya, F

    2016-04-01

    Goat milk yogurts were manufactured with the fortification of 2% (wt/vol) skim goat milk powder (SGMP), sodium caseinate (NaCn), whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein isolate (WPI), or yogurt texture improver (YTI). Yogurts were characterized based on compositional, microbiological, and textural properties; volatile flavor components (with gas chromatography); and sensory analyses during storage (21d at 5 °C). Compared with goat milk yogurt made by using SGMP, the other goat milk yogurt variants had higher protein content and lower acidity values. Goat milk yogurts with NaCn and WPC, in particular, had better physical characteristics. Using WPI caused the hardest structure in yogurt, leading to higher syneresis values. Acetaldehyde and ethanol formation increased with the incorporation of WPI, WPC, or YTI to yogurt milk. The tyrosine value especially was higher in the samples with NaCn and YTI than in the samples with WPC and WPI. Counts of Streptococcus thermophilus were higher than the counts of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, possibly due to a stimulatory effect of milk protein-based ingredients other than SGMP on the growth of S. thermophilus. Yogurt with NaCn was the best accepted among the yogurts. For the parameters used, milk protein-based products such as NaCn or WPC have promising features as suitable ingredients for goat milk yogurt manufacture. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. ORGANIZATIONAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Derenskaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article is aimed at developing a set of recommendations for achieving a higher level of organizational project maturity at a given enterprise. Methodology. For the purposes of the current research, the available information sources on the components of project management system are analysed; the essence of “organizational maturity” and the existing models of organizational maturity are studied. The method of systemic and structural analysis, as well as the method of logical generalization, are employed in order to study the existing models of organizational maturity, to describe levels of organizational maturity, and finally to develop a set of methodological recommendations for achieving a higher level of organizational project maturity at a given enterprise. The results of the research showed that the core elements of project management system are methodological, organizational, programtechnical, and motivational components. Project management encompasses a wide range of issues connected with organizational structure, project team, communication management, project participants, etc. However, the fundamental basis for developing project management concept within a given enterprise starts with defining its level of organizational maturity. The present paper describes various models of organizational maturity (staged, continuous, petal-shaped and their common types (H. Кеrzner Organizational Maturity Model, Berkeley PM Maturity Model, Organizational Project Management Maturity Model, Portfolio, Program & Project Management Maturity Model. The analysis of available theoretic works showed that the notion “organizational project maturity” refers to the capability of an enterprise to select projects and manage them with the intention of achieving its strategic goals in the most effective way. Importantly, the level of maturity can be improved by means of formalizing the acquired knowledge, regulating project-related activities

  17. Turkish Women's Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors on Wet-Nursing, Milk Sharing and Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Ahmet; Uzun, S Utku

    2018-04-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to determine Turkish women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors on wet-nursing, milk sharing, and human milk banking in a primary care setting located in a semi-rural area. Description Donated human milk is a feasible option for feeding infants and children. Currently, there is a debate on the topic starts with the preparations to launch a human milk bank in a large city in Turkey. Several previous papers reported women's opinions in large hospital based studies. Little is known about women's views and practice on donated human milk in the rural areas of Turkey. Assessment The study sample was recruited among married women aged 15-49 years who had given birth within the past 5 years and who were in a family health center for any reason in Honaz, Denizli, Turkey. A total of 240 women were included in the study. The data were collected by questionnaire created by the researchers and consisting of two parts: sociodemographic characteristics, and women's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors on wet-nursing, milk sharing and human milk banking. Results Thirty women (12.5%) had had a wet-nurse; 20 women (8.7%) wet-nursed babies before; and 17 (7.2%) of the women's children had a wet-nurse. If necessary, 80.9 and 78.3% were willing to accept to do wet-nursing and milk sharing, respectively. 150 (62.5%) heard of human milk banks; 55 (22.9%) approved of the establishment of milk banks. However, only 46 women (19.1%) were willing to donate to the bank. Possibility of marriages between milk siblings (76.8%) was the main reason for not considering the donation. Women's education was another factor affecting their opinion on breast milk sharing and donation to human milk banks. Less educated women were sympathetic to milk sharing (p = 0.02), however, more educated mothers had a propensity to donate to milk banks (p = 0.02). Conclusion Wet-nursing decreased over the years in Turkey, but still an ongoing small child feeding method

  18. [Breast is best--human milk for premature infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskin, Arieh; Bader, David

    2003-03-01

    Nutrition for preterm babies is aimed at achieving expected intrauterine growth and accretion of nutrients. Early trophic feedings should be started as soon as possible for gastrointestinal priming. Mother's (breast) milk is the best food for preterm babies. Its advantages are in host defence, nutritional components and suitability for gut absorption, as well as its psychological and developmental value. The limitations of human milk for preterm babies, mainly in protein and minerals, can be compensated for by using powdered human milk fortifier. Sucking skills usually mature around 34 weeks, corrected gestational age. Thus, small preemies are initially fed by orogastric tubes, meaning that expressed breast milk is used. Support of lactation in mothers of preemies mandates protection of the mother and child bonding process and early skin to skin contact ("kangeroo care"). Methods for storage of expressed breast milk and the recommended length of storage are discussed. Milk bank mandates pasteurization and freezing of the donors' milk. Most of the nutritional and immunological advantages of human milk are preserved after such treatments. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in preterm infants, that were acquired from mother's expressed breast milk, are not uncommon, and require further attention.

  19. Occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk produced in dairy farms in São Paulo state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Fagundes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of Staphylococcus aureus in milk produced in 37 farms located in the regions of Ribeirão Preto and São Carlos, state of São Paulo, Brazil. Two-hundred and eight samples of milk from individual cows showing subclinical mastitis, and 37 samples of bulk tank milk were analyzed. S. aureus strains were detected in 18 (7.3% milk samples: 14 (6.7% from samples of individual cows, and 4 (10.8% from bulk tank milk. Two individual milk samples (14.3% and two bulk milk samples contained enterotoxigenic S. aureus. PFGE analysis revealed the genetic heterogeneity of the strains isolated from raw milk, which presented to 13 S. aureus patterns. Results confirmed the potential transmission of staphylococcal food poisoning to consumers via milk of cows affected by subclinical mastitis, mainly when raw milk is ingested.

  20. Establishment and application of milk fingerprint by gel filtration chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, P; Li, J; Li, Z; Hao, J; Zan, L

    2016-12-01

    Raw milk adulteration frequently occurs in undeveloped countries. It not only reduces the nutritional value of milk, but it is also harmful to consumers. In this paper, we focused on investigating an efficient method for the quality control of raw milk protein. A gel filtration chromatography (GFC) fingerprint method combined with chemometrics was developed for fingerprint analysis of raw milk. To optimize the GFC conditions, milk fat was removed by centrifugation, and GFC analysis was performed on a Superdex 75 10/300GL column (Just Scientific, Shanghai, China) with 0.2 M NaH 2 PO 4 -Na 2 HPO 4 buffer (pH 7.0) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 0.5mL/min, and the detection wavelength was set at 280 nm. Ten batches of 120 raw milk samples were analyzed to establish the GFC fingerprint under optimal conditions. Six major peaks common to the chromatogram of each raw milk sample were selected for fingerprint analysis, and the characteristic peaks were used to establish a standard chromatographic fingerprint. Principal component analysis was then applied to classify GFC information of adulterated milk and raw milk, allowing adulterated samples to be effectively screened out from the raw milk in principal component analysis scores plot. The fingerprint method demonstrates promising features in detecting milk protein adulteration. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Cow's milk - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on ... year old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics ( ...

  2. The impact of changes in the milk payment system and season on the hygienic quality of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat PAŠIĆ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper were to investigate the impact of changes in the milk payment system and the season on the hygienic quality of raw milk. The bulk cow’s milk samples were collected throughout the whole area of Bosnia and Herzegovina over the period of four years (2010-2013, from farms that deliver milk to the dairy industry. The total bacterial count (TBC was analysed in 52,999 milk samples and the somatic cell count (SCC in 53,363 milk samples. The results of the research showed that the proportion of bulk milk with the SCC < 300,000 mL-1 significantly increased in the observed period, as well as the proportion of farms that produce milk of EU quality (P < 0.05. The season had a significant effect (P < 0.05 on the SCC; in April the proportion of bulk milk with SCC < 300,000 mL-1 was significantly higher (P < 0.05. A significant increase (P < 0.05 in the proportion of milk with the TBC < 200,000 cfu∙mL -1 was perceived, as well as the proportion of farms which deliver that type of milk (P < 0.05. A Significant lower (P < 0.05 proportion of milk in the summer period with TBC < 200,000 cfu∙mL-1 was determined. It can be concluded that consistent appliance of regulations which determine the quality of milk, leads to the improvement of the hygienic quality of redeemed milk, as illustrated by the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This kind of milk payment system is important for both, the higher economic benefit of farms and the dairy processing industry.

  3. The use of the milk progesterone assay in cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberg, E.; Choi, H.S.; Moestl, E.

    1981-01-01

    The progesterone concentration in milk-fat was determined in samples from 167 cows in 51 herds taken on day 0, 6 and 20 after artificial insemination. The rectal palpation verified pregnancy in 85% of the cows classified on their milk-progesterone concentration as ''probably pregnant''. According to the milk progesterone concentration it was possible already three weeks after artificial insemination to classify 25% of all examined cows as ''non pregnant''. Seven cows were inseminated at an inappropriate time as revealed by a high progesterone concentration in milk-fat on the day of insemination. The relevance of milk progesterone determinations as an aid for veterinary surgeons is briefly discussed. (author)

  4. Quality of raw milk from a farm with automatic milking system in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumíra Janštová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the quality of raw cow’s milk from an automatic milking system. Samples of milk (48 were analyzed chemically and microbiologically and the somatic cell count, freezing point and inhibitor residues were determined. For comparison purposes, milk analysis data from two farms using conventional machine milking and 2008 milk analysis report data for the Czech Republic were used. All physical and chemical characteristics of the study samples were within the established limits. The average content (% of chemical indicators was following: fat 3.79 ± 0.18, protein 3.46 ± 0.06, casein 2.67 ± 0.09, lactose 4.82 ± 0.04 and NFS 8.96 ± 0.11. The values for freezing point and somatic cells count were 221 ± 46.103·ml-1 and -0.521 ± 0.003 °C respectively. No inhibitor residue was detected in any of the samples. Microbiological values were lower than the limits: the total microbial count (2.3·104 CFU·ml-1, psychrotrophic count (6.3·103 CFU·ml-1, coliform count (2.4·101 CFU·ml-1, Escherichia coli count (3.2·101 CFU·ml-1, enterococci count (8.5·101 CFU·ml-1 and Staphylococcus aureus count (1.1·101 CFU·ml-1. The study provides a comprehensive view on the quality of milk produced by robotic milking. The automatic milking system seems to be excellent in terms of milking and milk hygiene.

  5. USE OF SILVER IONS IN PASTEURIZED MILK PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mamaev

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The means of pasteurized milk shelf life prolongation by electro-chemical diffusion of silver ions has been introduced. Three samples of pasteurized milk were test subjects. In the course of study the following data have been examined: organoleptic, physicochemical, microbiological parameters of check samples and pilot samples of raw and pasteurized milk. Its shelf life has been determined. It has been determined that the test results of raw and pasteurized milk samples processed by various concentration of silver ions showed minor difference in organoleptic, physic-chemical, microbiological parameters and shelf life span. In this connection it appears reasonable to use the smallest concentration of silver ions - 50 micrograms per liter for milk shelf life prolongation as it is considered the least harmful for person's organism. Infusion of silver ions in the concentration of 50 micrograms per liter allows to prolong raw and pasteurized milk shelf life by two days.

  6. Special Milk Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…

  7. The raw milk quality from organic and conventional agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Čuboň

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment the parameters of milk quality from organic and conventional dairy farm were analyzed. The number of somatic cells was 219. 103 . ml−1 in the organic milk and 242. 103 . ml−1 in the conventional milk. It seems that conditions of organic farming could be able to have a positive effect of health of mammary gland. We found the highest number of somatic cells at the end of the year (336.103 . ml−1 in organic milk in December, respectively 336.103 . ml−1 in conventional milk in November. The total bacteria count was higher in organic milk (86.103 CFU . ml−1 than conventional (51.103 CFU . ml−1 likewise the number of coliform bacteria. Number of coliform bacteria was by conventional milk under 1000 CFU . ml−1 for all samples. The highest number of coliform bacteria in organic milk was achieved in February (1000 CFU . ml−1. We found higher content of fat (4.23 g . 100g−1 and protein (3.41 g . 100g−1 by organic milk in comparison with the conventional milk (4.11 g . 100g−1, resp. 3.39 g . 100g−1. The higher content of protein and fat in organic milk and the higher protein content in conventional milk were determined in December. The heat resistance was determined by 96 % ethanol required to coagulation of 2 ml of milk. The conventional milk has significantly lower heat resistance (1.38 ml than the organic one (1.86 ml. Better heat stability by organic milk and higher content of Ca (144.29 mg . 100g−1 correspond with higher technological quality of organic milk.

  8. Bioactive Milk for Intestinal Maturation in Preterm Neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi

    The fetal small intestine grows dramatically fast during the second and third trimester of human pregnancy. Many intestinal functions are therefore affected by preterm birth, including gastrointestinal motility, digestive and absorptive function, mucosal barrier function, and the intestinal...

  9. Seasonal variation in the Dutch bovine raw milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, J M L; van Valenberg, H J F; Dijkstra, J; van Hooijdonk, A C M

    2009-10-01

    In this study, we determined the detailed composition of and seasonal variation in Dutch dairy milk. Raw milk samples representative of the complete Dutch milk supply were collected weekly from February 2005 until February 2006. Large seasonal variation exists in the concentrations of the main components and milk fatty acid composition. Milk lactose concentration was rather constant throughout the season. Milk true protein content was somewhat more responsive to season, with the lowest content in June (3.21 g/100 g) and the highest content in December (3.38 g/100 g). Milk fat concentration increased from a minimum of 4.10 g/100 g in June to a maximum of 4.57 g/100 g in January. The largest (up to 2-fold) seasonal changes in the fatty acid composition were found for trans fatty acids, including conjugated linoleic acid. Milk protein composition was rather constant throughout the season. Milk unsaturation indices, which were used as an indication of desaturase activity, were lowest in spring and highest in autumn. Compared with a previous investigation of Dutch dairy milk in 1992, the fatty acid composition of Dutch raw milk has changed considerably, in particular with a higher content of saturated fatty acids in 2005 milk.

  10. Cow's milk quality and energy value during different lactation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamończyk, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The quality of dairy products, raw milk in particular, depends on many factors. Low bacterial and somatic cell counts are basic determinants of the appropriate raw milk quality. The objective of the work was to assess the effect of selected factors, that is, the age of cows and their daily milk performance, on cytological quality (somatic cell count) and energy value of milk produced at individual stages of lactation. Somatic cell count and energy value of cow's milk were assessed. A total of 229 792 milk samples were examined. Data for analysis were taken from milk records of 350 dairy herds. It was demonstrated that, of all the lactations studied, the fi rst lactation (from calving to the 100th day of lactation) was characterised by the highest daily milk performance (25.1 kg) and the lowest somatic cell count (356 thous./1 ml), fat, protein and dry matter contents (4.06, 2.96 and 12.41%, respectively) and milk calorific value (732 kcal/kg). The highest energy value was recorded in cow's milk produced towards the end of lactation, that is from day 300 till the end of lactation (842 kcal/kg). High milk calorific value in late lactation and high fat and protein contents were accompanied by low raw milk quality.

  11. Survey to determine why people drink raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Gerard E; Belkoff, Stephen M

    2014-11-01

    Fragility fractures associated with osteoporosis extract a large financial and personal toll on society. Pharmaceutical or dietary calcium intake is needed to increase bone mineral density to prevent fragility fractures. Although dairy products are a good source of calcium, patients who are unable to digest lactose tend to avoid them and are put at a greater risk for fracture than the general population. Anecdotal reports suggest that lactose maldigesters, when consuming raw milk, have a dramatic reduction in symptoms relative to pasteurized milk. The mechanism of the reported reduction in symptoms, if true, is unknown. The purpose of the current study was to survey raw milk drinkers to ascertain their health-related motivations for consuming raw milk, especially as they relate to lactose maldigestion. An online survey regarding raw milk was completed by 153 of 1527 members of a raw milk-buying community. The primary reason the respondents cited for drinking raw milk was that they believed it was more healthful; 30% reported some gastrointestinal discomfort when drinking pasteurized milk, yet almost all (99%) reported consuming raw milk without discomfort. Despite the reports of gastrointestinal discomfort, only 5% of respondents had been diagnosed as lactose intolerant by a medical professional, and only 1% had been diagnosed as lactose intolerant via the gold-standard hydrogen breath test. The primary motivation for drinking raw milk is its perceived health value, not its digestibility. Although raw milk appears to be more easily digested than pasteurized milk in our survey sample, the mechanism of digestibility remains unknown.

  12. Studies on acetate, propionate and glucose utilization for milk fat and other milk components in buffalo and cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahal, C.K.; Varma, A.; Singh, U.B.; Ranjhan, S.K.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on two lactating buffaloes and two lactating cows, to study the differences in the utilization of 14 C-acetate, 14 C-propionate and 3 H-glucose for the synthesis of milk fat, milk casein and milk lactalbumin. The animals were maintained on identical condition of feed. Single infusion technique was used throughout the course of investigation. Samples of milk were collected at different time intervals between 0 to 48 h and the radioactivity was determined in different milk fractions after separation. (author)

  13. Studies on acetate, propionate and glucose utilization for milk fat and other milk components in buffalo and cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahal, C K; Varma, A; Singh, U B; Ranjhan, S K [Indian Veterinary Research Inst., Izatnagar. Div. of Animal Nutrition

    1974-12-01

    Experiments were conducted on two lactating buffaloes and two lactating cows, to study the differences in the utilization of /sup 14/C-acetate, /sup 14/C-propionate and /sup 3/H-glucose for the synthesis of milk fat, milk casein and milk lactalbumin. The animals were maintained on identical condition of feed. Single infusion technique was used throughout the course of investigation. Samples of milk were collected at different time intervals between 0 to 48 h and the radioactivity was determined in different milk fractions after separation.

  14. Instrumental trace element analysis of California market milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.C.; Langhorst, A.L.; Ralston, H.R.; Heft, R.

    1975-01-01

    Trace element analysis for 15 elements (Zn, Na, Br, Rb, Sr, Mg, Al, Ca, Cl, I, K, Fe, Co, Se, Cs) was carried out on 32 samples of California market milk and 6 samples of Colorado milk in a pilot study of toxic and nutrient trace elements in the soil-forage-cow-milk food chain. The techniques of instrumental neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence analysis are described. Sample collection, preparation, analysis, and data reduction procedures are discussed. The mean values and variations of trace element concentrations in milk are compared to data from other studies. (U.S.)

  15. Strontium-90 and cesium-137 in raw milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Under the commission of Science and Technology Agency, prefectural public health laboratories and institutes and Japan Chemical Analysis Center have measured the levels of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in milk samples. Sampling was done as follows: 4 times of raw milk samples a year in 10 prefectures for the report to WHO, 2 times of raw milk samples a year in 4 prefectures; and 2 times of city milk samples a year in 29 prefectures. Three litters of fresh milk were collected and carbonated in the prefectural public health laboratories and institutes of each prefecture, and the carbonated samples were collected at Japan Chemical Analysis Center. At Japan Chemical Analysis Center, these collected samples were radiochemically analysed for 90 Sr and 137 Cs using the method applied for the analysis of the radionuclides contents in total diet materials. (author)

  16. Prevalence of the pathogen microorganisms in raw cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelovski Ljupco

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Staphylococcus spp. and E. coli in the raw cow milk. In this study 133 milk-tank samples from several milk collecting points were analysed. After the tests the following prevalence was detected: for Listeria spp. 13 positive samples (9.77%, with 9 Listeria monocytogenes samples confirmed (6.76%. Salmonella spp. was not detected in any of the the samples. The biggest presence was detected for Staphylococcus spp. with 113 positive samples (85.0%. Further testes has shown prevalence of coagulase-positive staphylococci of 73% (97 positive samples. Escherichia coli was confirmed in 57 samples (46.0%. The results from this study clearly indicate that pathogen microorganisms which are important for the human health can be found in the raw cow milk and their presence can be potential hazard for contamination of the milk-processing establishments.

  17. Food safety of milk and dairy product of dairy cattle from heavy metal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlia, E.; Rahmah, KN; Suryanto, D.

    2018-01-01

    Food safety of milk and dairy products is a prerequisite for consumption, which must be free from physical, biological and chemical contamination. Chemical contamination of heavy metals Pb (Plumbum/Lead) and Cd (Cadmium) is generally derived from the environment such as from water, grass, feed additives, medicines and farm equipment. The contamination of milk and dairy products can affect quality and food safety for human consumption. The aim of this research is to investigate contamination of heavy metals Pb and Cd on fresh milk, pasteurized milk, and dodol milk compared with the Maximum Residue Limits (MRL). The methods of this researched was through case study and data obtained analyzed descriptively. Milk samples were obtained from Bandung and surrounding areas. The number of samples used was 30 samples for each product: 30 samples of fresh milk directly obtained from dairy farm, 30 samples of pasteurized milk obtained from street vendors and 30 samples of dodol milk obtained from home industry. Parameters observed were heavy metal residues of Pb and Cd. The results showed that: 1) approximately 83% of fresh milk samples were contaminated by Pb which 57% samples were above MRL and 90% samples were contaminated by Cd above MRL; 2) 67% of pasteurized milk samples were contaminated by Pb below MRL; 3) 60% of dodol milk samples were contaminated by Pb and Cd above MRL.

  18. Microbiological quality of milk in Tanzania: from Maasai stable to African consumer table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoder, Dagmar; Maichin, Andreas; Lema, Benedict; Laffa, John

    2013-11-01

    In Tanzania, pastoralists such as the Maasai and small urban farmers are responsible for the country's milk production, and 95% of the national milk supply is sold without regulation. This study was conducted using hygiene checklists and milk sampling to investigate milk quality and safety at various steps throughout the milk production chain. In regions of Dar es Salaam and Lake Victoria, 196 milk samples were collected: 109 samples of raw milk, 41 samples of packed or open served heat-treated products, and 46 samples of fermented products. Samples were taken from (i) the production level (pastoralists and urban farmers), (ii) the collection level (middlemen and depots), (iii) processors (dairies), and (iv) retailers (kiosks). Samples were analyzed for hygiene criteria (total bacteria, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and coagulase-positive staphylococci) and foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella, enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Adequate heating of milk for drinking was determined via heat labile alkaline phosphatase and lactoperoxidase analysis. Total bacterial counts indicated that only 67% (73 of 109) of raw milk samples and 46% (19 of 41) of heat-treated samples met national Tanzanian standards. Bulk milk samples taken from the traditional milking vessels of Maasai pastoralists had the lowest total bacterial counts: ≥ 1 × 10(2) CFU/ml. Foodborne pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella were isolated from 10.1% (11 of 109) of raw milk samples but were not detected in heat-treated or fermented products, and 83% of heat-treated milk samples were lactoperoxidase negative, indicating overpasteurization. Coliforms were detected in 41% (17 of 41) of processed milk samples, thus indicating a high rate of recontamination. A progressive decrease in microbial quality along the milk production chain was attributed to departures from traditional methods, inadequate milk containers, long transport distances, lack of cooling, and

  19. The Comparison of Effect of Human Milk and Powdered Milk on the Shigella dysenteriae Invasion in Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdeye Azadi Aghdam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shigella species are the common etiologic agents of bacterial dysentery. Many epidemiological studies have shown that breastfeeding may protect infants against intestinal infections. Among the components of milk, glycosylated proteins inhibit the adhesion of enteric pathogens in the laboratory. Immunoglobulins mainly secretory immunoglobulin A, glycosylated compounds, and oligosaccharides of breast milk are associated with protection against different intestinal pathogens. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different proteins of breast milk and powdered milk on the invasion of Shigella colonies. Materials and Methods: To accomplish this goal, breast milk samples were provided from two donors in the first 6 months of breastfeeding and powdered milk with different brands were obtained from the market. Then the proteins were extracted by precipitation using ammonium sulfate and dialysis using dialysis bag and protein bands were separated through SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Finally, the obtained milk proteins through Hela cells culture were tested and evaluated for the adhesion and invasion of the Shigella. Results: Our results revealed that the adhesion and invasion of Shigella stains were more inhibited by low concentrations of breast milk proteins in comparison with powdered milk. This concentration was about 2.75 mg/mL for the proteins of breast milk and 0.5 mg/mL for the proteins of powdered milk and this inhibition in different dilutions of breast milk was 71.21% and those of powdered milk was 27.19% in average. There was a significant difference between breast milk and powdered milk (P < 0.5 considering their inhibitory behavior. Conclusion: The results revealed that the components of breast milk inhibit the adhesion and consequently invasion of Shigella and inhibit bacterial dysentery.

  20. Post-Exercise Muscle Protein Synthesis in Rats after Ingestion of Acidified Bovine Milk Compared with Skim Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Kyosuke; Kanda, Atsushi; Tagawa, Ryoichi; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Ikegami, Shuji; Itoh, Hiroyuki

    2017-09-27

    Bovine milk proteins have a low absorption rate due to gastric acid-induced coagulation. Acidified milk remains liquid under acidic conditions; therefore, the absorption rate of its protein may differ from that of untreated milk. To investigate how this would affect muscle protein synthesis (MPS), we compared MPS after ingestion of acidified versus skim milk in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for 2 h and were immediately administered acidified or skim milk, then euthanized at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min afterwards. Triceps muscle samples were excised for assessing fractional synthetic rate (FSR), plasma components, intramuscular free amino acids and mTOR signaling. The FSR in the acidified milk group was significantly higher than in the skim milk group throughout the post-ingestive period. Plasma essential amino acids, leucine, and insulin levels were significantly increased in the acidified milk group at 30 min after administration compared to the skim milk group. In addition, acidified milk ingestion was associated with greater phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1), and sustained phosphorylation of 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1). These results indicate that compared with untreated milk, acidified milk ingestion is associated with greater stimulation of post-exercise MPS.

  1. Post-Exercise Muscle Protein Synthesis in Rats after Ingestion of Acidified Bovine Milk Compared with Skim Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Nakayama

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bovine milk proteins have a low absorption rate due to gastric acid-induced coagulation. Acidified milk remains liquid under acidic conditions; therefore, the absorption rate of its protein may differ from that of untreated milk. To investigate how this would affect muscle protein synthesis (MPS, we compared MPS after ingestion of acidified versus skim milk in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats swam for 2 h and were immediately administered acidified or skim milk, then euthanized at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min afterwards. Triceps muscle samples were excised for assessing fractional synthetic rate (FSR, plasma components, intramuscular free amino acids and mTOR signaling. The FSR in the acidified milk group was significantly higher than in the skim milk group throughout the post-ingestive period. Plasma essential amino acids, leucine, and insulin levels were significantly increased in the acidified milk group at 30 min after administration compared to the skim milk group. In addition, acidified milk ingestion was associated with greater phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt and ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1, and sustained phosphorylation of 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1. These results indicate that compared with untreated milk, acidified milk ingestion is associated with greater stimulation of post-exercise MPS.

  2. Q fever through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products - a risk profile and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P; Kelly, L; Mearns, R; Duggan, J; Snary, E L

    2015-05-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii which is endemic in cattle, sheep and goats in much of the world, including the United Kingdom (UK). There is some epidemiological evidence that a small proportion of cases in the developed world may arise from consumption of unpasteurised milk with less evidence for milk products such as cheese. Long maturation at low pH may give some inactivation in hard cheese, and viable C. burnetii are rarely detected in unpasteurised cheese compared to unpasteurised milk. Simulations presented here predict that the probability of exposure per person to one or more C. burnetii through the daily cumulative consumption of raw milk in the UK is 0·4203. For those positive exposures, the average level of exposure predicted is high at 1266 guinea pig intraperitoneal infectious dose 50% units (GP_IP_ID50 ) per person per day. However, in the absence of human dose-response data, the case is made that the GP_IP_ID50 unit represents a very low risk through the oral route. The available evidence suggests that the risks from C. burnetii through consumption of unpasteurised milk and milk products (including cheese) are not negligible but they are lower in comparison to transmission via inhalation of aerosols from parturient products and livestock contact. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Comprehensive and quantitative profiling of lipid species in human milk, cow milk and a phospholipid-enriched milk formula by GC and MS/MSALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokol, Elena; Ulven, Trond; Færgeman, Nils J; Ejsing, Christer S

    2015-06-01

    Here we present a workflow for in-depth analysis of milk lipids that combines gas chromatography (GC) for fatty acid (FA) profiling and a shotgun lipidomics routine termed MS/MS ALL for structural characterization of molecular lipid species. To evaluate the performance of the workflow we performed a comparative lipid analysis of human milk, cow milk, and Lacprodan® PL-20, a phospholipid-enriched milk protein concentrate for infant formula. The GC analysis showed that human milk and Lacprodan have a similar FA profile with higher levels of unsaturated FAs as compared to cow milk. In-depth lipidomic analysis by MS/MS ALL revealed that each type of milk sample comprised distinct composition of molecular lipid species. Lipid class composition showed that the human and cow milk contain a higher proportion of triacylglycerols (TAGs) as compared to Lacprodan. Notably, the MS/MS ALL analysis demonstrated that the similar FA profile of human milk and Lacprodan determined by GC analysis is attributed to the composition of individual TAG species in human milk and glycerophospholipid species in Lacprodan. Moreover, the analysis of TAG molecules in Lacprodan and cow milk showed a high proportion of short-chain FAs that could not be monitored by GC analysis. The results presented here show that complementary GC and MS/MS ALL analysis is a powerful approach for characterization of molecular lipid species in milk and milk products. : Milk lipid analysis is routinely performed using gas chromatography. This method reports the total fatty acid composition of all milk lipids, but provides no structural or quantitative information about individual lipid molecules in milk or milk products. Here we present a workflow that integrates gas chromatography for fatty acid profiling and a shotgun lipidomics routine termed MS/MS ALL for structural analysis and quantification of molecular lipid species. We demonstrate the efficacy of this complementary workflow by a comparative analysis of

  4. Effect of days in milk and milk yield on testing positive in milk antibody ELISA to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Toft, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Milk samples are becoming more used as a diagnostic specimen for assessment of occurrence of antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). This study assessed the effect of days in milk (DIM) and milk yield on testing positive in a commercial MAP specific milk antibody ELISA...... from the first couple of DIM should be excluded from MAP testing until further information on their significance is established. Milk yield also had a significant effect on odds of testing positive due to its diluting effect. Inclusion of milk yield in the interpretation of test results could improve...... among 222,774 Danish Holstein cows. Results showed that odds of testing positive on 1-2 DIM were 9-27 times higher than the rest of lactation, where the chance of testing positive varied less. The reason is most likely a high concentration of non-specific antibodies in colostrum. Consequently, samples...

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the properties of various kinds of milk fat. II. Fatty acids composition of milk fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girgis, E.S.; Rady, A.H.; Kamal, T.H.; Shehata, T.E.; Ibrahim, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    Fresh cow's, buffalo's and goat's milk fat were subjected to ascendent doses of 8-rays of 250, 500 and 750 K.rad as compared to raw milk samples (control). The methyl esters of fats separated from these samples were analyzed using gas liquid chromatographic technique. Total saturated fatty acids (T.S.F.A.) were 70.46%, 67.44% and 72.85%, while total unsaturated fatty acid (T.U.F.A.) were 29.51%, 32.54% and 27.15% for cow's buffalo's and goat's raw milk fats, respectively. Water insoluble volatile fatty acids (W.I.V.F.A.) were much higher in goat's raw milk fat (23.24%) than in cows (6.34%) and buffaloes (5.25%) ones. Palmitic acid represents the predominant saturated fatty acid, while oleic acid represents the major unsaturated fatty acids in the three kinds of milk fat. Linoleic acid was present only in buffalo's and goat's raw milk fat. The exposure of buffalo's and goat's milk to 8-rays doses increased TSFA and decreased TUFA of their fats. Meanwhile the same doses induced a minor change in both TSFA and TUFA of cow's milk one. Also, 8-irradiation increased the relative percentage of Palmitic acid in the three types of milk fat, while linoleic acid decreased in buffalo's and goat's milk fat. Besides, W.I.V.F.A. showed a gradual decrease, when the three types of milk were exposed to ascendent doses of 8-rays

  6. Human Milk Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2016-01-01

    Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Human milk banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing.

  8. Rapid measurement of macronutrients in breast milk: How reliable are infrared milk analyzers?✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusch, Gerhard; Rochow, Niels; Choi, Arum; Fusch, Stephanie; Poeschl, Susanna; Ubah, Adelaide Obianuju; Lee, Sau-Young; Raja, Preeya; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background & aims Significant biological variation in macronutrient content of breast milk is an important barrier that needs to be overcome to meet nutritional needs of preterm infants. To analyze macronutrient content, commercial infrared milk analyzers have been proposed as efficient and practical tools in terms of efficiency and practicality. Since milk analyzers were originally developed for the dairy industry, they must be validated using a significant number of human milk samples that represent the broad range of variation in macronutrient content in preterm and term milk. Aim of this study was to validate two milk analyzers for breast milk analysis with reference methods and to determine an effective sample pretreatment. Current evidence for the influence of (i) aliquoting, (ii) storage time and (iii) temperature, and (iv) vessel wall adsorption on stability and availability of macronutrients in frozen breast milk is reviewed. Methods Breast milk samples (n = 1188) were collected from 63 mothers of preterm and term infants. Milk analyzers: (A) Near-infrared milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, USA) and (B) Mid-infrared milk analyzer (Miris, Sweden) were compared to reference methods, e.g. ether extraction, elemental analysis, and UPLC-MS/MS for fat, protein, and lactose, respectively. Results For fat analysis, (A) measured precisely but not accurately (y = 0.55x + 1.25, r2 = 0.85), whereas (B) measured precisely and accurately (y = 0.93x + 0.18, r2 = 0.86). For protein analysis, (A) was precise but not accurate (y = 0.55x + 0.54, r2 = 0.67) while (B) was both precise and accurate (y = 0.78x + 0.05, r2 = 0.73). For lactose analysis, both devices (A) and (B) showed two distinct concentration levels and measured therefore neither accurately nor precisely (y = 0.02x + 5.69, r2 = 0.01 and y = −0.09x + 6.62, r2 = 0.02 respectively). Macronutrient levels were unchanged in two independent samples of stored breast milk (−20 °C measured with IR; −80

  9. Establishing Quantitative Standards for Residual Alkaline Phosphatase in Pasteurized Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Chon, Jung-Whan; Lim, Jong-Soo; Kim, Hong-Seok; Kang, Il-Byeong; Jeong, Dana; Song, Kwang-Young; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Kwang-Yup; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay is a rapid and convenient method for verifying milk pasteurization. Since colorimetric ALP assays rely on subjective visual assessments, their results are especially unreliable near the detection limits. In this study, we attempted to establish quantitative criteria for residual ALP in milk by using a more objective method based on spectrophotometric measurements. Raw milk was heat-treated for 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 min and then subjected to ALP assays. The quantitative criteria for residual ALP in the milk was determined as 2 μg phenol/mL of milk, which is just above the ALP value of milk samples heat-treated for 30 min. These newly proposed methodology and criteria could facilitate the microbiological quality control of milk.

  10. Time resolved fluorescence of cow and goat milk powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandao, Mariana P.; de Carvalho dos Anjos, Virgílio; Bell., Maria José V.

    2017-01-01

    Milk powder is an international dairy commodity. Goat and cow milk powders are significant sources of nutrients and the investigation of the authenticity and classification of milk powder is particularly important. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to distinguish chemical composition and structure modifications could assist develop a portable and non-destructive methodology to perform milk powder classification and determine composition. This study goal is to differentiate milk powder samples from cows and goats using fluorescence lifetimes. The samples were excited at 315 nm and the fluorescence intensity decay registered at 468 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes of 1.5 ± 0.3, 6.4 ± 0.4 and 18.7 ± 2.5 ns for goat milk powder; and 1.7 ± 0.3, 6.9 ± 0.2 and 29.9 ± 1.6 ns for cow's milk powder. We discriminate goat and cow powder milk by analysis of variance using Fisher's method. In addition, we employed quadratic discriminant analysis to differentiate the milk samples with accuracy of 100%. Our results suggest that time-resolved fluorescence can provide a new method to the analysis of powder milk and its composition.

  11. Aflatoxin M1 in buffalo and cow milk in Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Recep; Ince, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Potential hazardous human exposure to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) via consumption of milk and milk products has been demonstrated by many researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of this mycotoxin in buffalo and cow milk samples in the city of Afyonkarahisar, Turkey. For this purpose, 126 buffalo and 124 cow milk samples were collected from dairy farms in Afyonkarahisar province. AFM1 levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Although AFM1 was not detected in cow milk samples, AFM1 was found above the limit of detection (milk samples. The results of this study indicated the importance of continuous surveillance of commonly consumed milk or milk product samples for AFM1 contamination in Turkey.

  12. Yield and quality of milk and udder health in Martina Franca ass: effects of daily interval and time of machine milking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Martemucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty asses of Martina Franca breed, machine milked twice a day, were used to assess the influence of milking interval (3-h, 5-h, and 8-h; N=5 and time (700, 1200 and 1900 on milk yield and udder health. Individual milk samples were taken to determine fat, protein and lactose con- tent. Sensory analysis profile was also assessed. Milk’s total bacterial count (TBC, somatic cell con- tent (SCC and udder’s skin temperature were considered to assess udder health. Milk yield increases by 28.4% (P<0.01 with a milking interval from 3-h to 8-h and is higher (P<0.01 at morning milking. The maximum milk yield per milking corresponds to 700 milking (1416.9 mL thus indicating a circa- dian rhythm in milk secretion processes. Milking intervals of 5 and 8 hours cause a decrease (P<0.01 in milk fat and lactose content. The 8-h interval leads to an increase (P<0.01 in SCC but without any significance for the health udder. No alterations about CBT, clinical evaluation and temperature of ud- der were observed. Milk organoleptic characteristics were better in the 3-h interval milking.

  13. Milk--the promoter of chronic Western diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2009-06-01

    Common chronic diseases of Western societies, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cancer, hypertension, obesity, dementia, and allergic diseases are significantly influenced by dietary habits. Cow's milk and dairy products are nutritional staples in most Western societies. Milk and dairy product consumption is recommended by most nutritional societies because of their beneficial effects for calcium uptake and bone mineralization and as a source of valuable protein. However, the adverse long-term effects of milk and milk protein consumption on human health have been neglected. A hypothesis is presented, showing for the first time that milk protein consumption is an essential adverse environmental factor promoting most chronic diseases of Western societies. Milk protein consumption induces postprandial hyperinsulinaemia and shifts the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis to permanently increased IGF-1 serum levels. Insulin/IGF-1 signalling is involved in the regulation of fetal growth, T-cell maturation in the thymus, linear growth, pathogenesis of acne, atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, obesity, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, thus affecting most chronic diseases of Western societies. Of special concern is the possibility that milk intake during pregnancy adversely affects the early fetal programming of the IGF-1 axis which will influence health risks later in life. An accumulated body of evidence for the adverse effects of cow's milk consumption from fetal life to childhood, adolescence, adulthood and senescence will be provided which strengthens the presented hypothesis.

  14. Comparison of the compositions of the stool microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula, cow milk-based formula, or breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Gerald W; Lawley, Blair; Munro, Karen; Gowri Pathmanathan, Siva; Zhou, Shao J; Makrides, Maria; Gibson, Robert A; Sullivan, Thomas; Prosser, Colin G; Lowry, Dianne; Hodgkinson, Alison J

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the compositions of the fecal microbiotas of infants fed goat milk formula to those of infants fed cow milk formula or breast milk as the gold standard. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene sequences was used in the analysis of the microbiotas in stool samples collected from 90 Australian babies (30 in each group) at 2 months of age. Beta-diversity analysis of total microbiota sequences and Lachnospiraceae sequences revealed that they were more similar in breast milk/goat milk comparisons than in breast milk/cow milk comparisons. The Lachnospiraceae were mostly restricted to a single species (Ruminococcus gnavus) in breast milk-fed and goat milk-fed babies compared to a more diverse collection in cow milk-fed babies. Bifidobacteriaceae were abundant in the microbiotas of infants in all three groups. Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium breve, and Bifidobacterium bifidum were the most commonly detected bifidobacterial species. A semiquantitative PCR method was devised to differentiate between B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis and was used to test stool samples. B. longum subsp. infantis was seldom present in stools, even of breast milk-fed babies. The presence of B. bifidum in the stools of breast milk-fed infants at abundances greater than 10% of the total microbiota was associated with the highest total abundances of Bifidobacteriaceae. When Bifidobacteriaceae abundance was low, Lachnospiraceae abundances were greater. New information about the composition of the fecal microbiota when goat milk formula is used in infant nutrition was thus obtained.

  15. Maturity of the PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.; Rapin, M.; Aboudarham, L.; Bitsch, D.

    1983-03-01

    Figures illustrating the predominant position of the PWR system are presented. The question is whether on the basis of these figures the PWR can be considered to have reached maturity. The following analysis, based on the French program experience, is an attempt to pinpoint those areas in which industrial maturity of the PWR has been attained, and in which areas a certain evolution can still be expected to take place

  16. Exploring the use of mothers' own milk as oral care for mechanically ventilated very low-birth-weight preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibeau, Shelley; Boudreaux, Cynthia

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the use of mothers' own milk (colostrums, transitional milk, and mature milk) as oral care in the ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)-prevention bundle of mechanically ventilated preterm infants weighing 1500 g or less. Mechanically ventilated preterm infants weighing 1500 g or less admitted to a regional level III NICU in the Gulf South between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2009. Retrospective descriptive. Oral care with mothers' own milk was implemented as part of the VAP-prevention bundle in the neonatal intensive care unit in the fourth quarter of 2007. Using retrospective deidentified data retrieved from the electronic medical record, the primary and secondary outcome variables were collected among eligible infants (≤1500 g) admitted January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2007 (before implementation) and January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2009 (after implementation). Sample characteristics, including infant gestational age, birth weight, and gender, as well as maternal age, type of delivery, and incidence of maternal chorioamnionitis, were also collected. Data analysis included frequencies and distributions to summarize sample characteristics and variables of interest. Appropriate tests for differences were conducted on outcome variables between the before and after groups of the human milk oral care intervention. The feasibility outcome variable included nursing compliance with the oral care procedure. The safety outcome variable included record of any adverse events associated with the oral care procedure. The efficacy health outcomes included the rate of positive tracheal aspirates, positive blood cultures, the number of ventilator days, and length of stay. Infant age (26.1-26.6 weeks) and weight (840-863 g) were similar in the before (n = 70) and after (n = 68) sample subjects. There were no statistically significant differences in ventilator days, χ² (46, n = 115) = 46.22, P = .46, and length of stay, χ (75, n

  17. Trefoil factors in human milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Nexø, Ebba; Wendt, A

    2008-01-01

    We measured concentrations of the gastrointestinal protective peptides Trefoil factors in human milk. By the use of in-house ELISA we detected high amounts of TFF3, less TFF1 and virtually no TFF2 in human breast milk obtained from 46 mothers with infants born extremely preterm (24-27 wk gestation......), preterm (28-37 wk gestation), and full term (38-42 wk gestation). Samples were collected during the first, second, third to fourth weeks and more than 4 wks postpartum. Median (range) TFF1 [TFF3] concentrations in human milk were 320 (30-34000) [1500 (150-27,000)] pmol/L in wk 1, 120 (30-720) [310 (50......-7100)] pmol/L in wk 2, 70 (20-670) [120 (20-650)] pmol/L in wks 3 to 4, and 60 (30-2500) [80 (20-540)] pmol/L in > 4 wks after delivery. The lowest concentrations of TFF1 and TFF3 were found later than 2 wks after birth. In conclusion, TFF was present in term and preterm human milk with rapidly declining...

  18. Changes in cisternal udder compartment induced by milking interval in dairy goats milked once or twice daily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salama, A A K; Caja, G; Such, X

    2004-01-01

    from wk 2 of lactation. Average milk yields for wk 4 and 8 were 1.76 and 2.24 L/d, for goats milked 1x and 2x, respectively. For each half udder, cisternal area was measured by ultrasonography and cisternal milk was measured by machine milking after i.v. injection of an OT receptor blocking agent...... multiparous goats at all milking intervals. Cisternal recoil was studied in a sample of multiparous goats milked 1x (n = 4) and 2x (n = 4) by scanning cisterns by ultrasonography at 0, 5, 15, and 30 min after an OT challenge for each milking interval. Cisternal area increased after OT injection for the 8...

  19. [Association of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin in breast milk with the growth of infants with exclusive breastfeeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Li; Yang, Fan; Xiong, Fei

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the association of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin in breast milk with the weight growth velocity of infants with exclusive breastfeeding. A total of 67 full-term singleton infants who received regular child care and exclusive breastfeeding and their mothers were enrolled. The nutritional status was evaluated based on the measurements of body weight and body length (underweight, growth retardation, emaciation, overweight, and obesity). Z score was used to calculate growth velocity, and according to the ΔZ score, the infants were divided into poor growth group, low growth velocity group, and normal growth velocity group. Mature breast milk samples were collected from their mothers, and ELISA was used to measure the levels of leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin. The emaciation group had a significantly lower level of leptin in breast milk than the non-emaciation group (Pobesity group had a significantly lower level of adiponectin than the non-overweight/obesity group (Pmilk was positively correlated with Z score of current body weight and ΔZ score compared with birth weight (r s =0.280 and 0.290 respectively; Pmilk was an important influencing factor for the Z score of body weight (β=0.161, Pmilk, including leptin, adiponectin, and ghrelin, may regulate the growth and development of infants to a certain degree, but long-term studies and observation are needed to investigate their association with offspring growth and development and the health-promoting effect of breast milk on offspring.

  20. Microbiological quality of goat's milk obtained under different production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Kyozaire

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive. A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270 were analysed, of which 31.1 % were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3 %, compared with 43.3 % and 36.7 % infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative, were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7 % of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3 % of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16 450 colony forming units (CFU/mℓ compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36 300 CFU/mℓ or handmilking (48 000 CFU/mℓ. No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk. In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk.

  1. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence detection of heavy metals in Bangladesh cows’ milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.N. Jolly

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is considered that cow's milk is almost complete food for human as it provides most of the micronutrients and macronutrients. The cow's milks are essential for the growth and development especially for children. The main compositions of cow's milk are protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals which are well defined. Presently, the study of micronutrients and toxic elements in cow's milk has been widely carried out particularly in the industrialized and polluted regions because of its possibility of contamination, and thereby health risk of the consumers. The elemental composition in local cow's milk samples in Bangladesh is not well studied yet. The present study was therefore aimed to determine the level of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Mn, Cu, Zn and Fe in cow's milk using EDXRF technique. Subsequently, the experimental data was used to calculate the human health risk through the intake of both powder and liquid cows’ milk available in Bangladesh. The results showed that powder milk contains significantly higher concentration of heavy metals than liquid milk samples. The HRI (health risk index and HI (hazard index values for most of the elements in all milk samples were within the safe limit (1. MPI (metal pollution index value for powder milk samples are very high compared to other type of milk samples analyzed in this study. Therefore, it has been suggested that heavy metal contamination through local powder milk samples might have significant negative impact (threat on human health.

  2. ANALYSIS OF EXPECTED PRICE DYNAMICS BETWEEN FLUID MILK FUTURES CONTRACTS AND CASH PRICES FOR FLUID MILK

    OpenAIRE

    T. Randall FORTENBERY; Robert A. CROPP; Hector O. ZAPATA

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide an empirical evaluation of the expected relationship between cash and futures prices for fluid milk. This is done using historic cash prices from 1988 to 1995, and making inferences about how futures prices would have behaved if they had traded during this sample period. Futures prices are simulated over the sample period based on two assumptions about futures market behavior for fluid milk. The first is that the futures market will essentially price ...

  3. On-line milk spectrometry: analysis of bovine milk composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Kyle; Kuennemeyer, Rainer; Woolford, Murray; Claycomb, Rod

    2005-04-01

    We present partial least squares (PLS) regressions to predict the composition of raw, unhomogenised milk using visible to near infrared spectroscopy. A total of 370 milk samples from individual quarters were collected and analysed on-line by two low cost spectrometers in the wavelength ranges 380-1100 nm and 900-1700 nm. Samples were collected from 22 Friesian, 17 Jersey, 2 Ayrshire and 3 Friesian-Jersey crossbred cows over a period of 7 consecutive days. Transmission spectra were recorded in an inline flowcell through a 0.5 mm thick milk sample. PLS models, where wavelength selection was performed using iterative PLS, were developed for fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell content. The root mean square error of prediction (and correlation coefficient) for the nir and visible spectrometers respectively were 0.70%(0.93) and 0.91%(0.91) for fat, 0.65%(0.5) and 0.47%(0.79) for protein, 0.36%(0.49) and 0.45%(0.43) for lactose, and 0.50(0.54) and 0.48(0.51) for log10 somatic cells.

  4. Radiation levels in Ecuadorian Cattle Milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinoso, Teresa; Vasquez, Ramiro

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The radiation and natural radioactivity present in the ground from a radioactive decay of 238 U, 235 U and 232 Th, and of the radioisotope 40 K can be transferred to the nutritional chain of the human being. Milk is a food considered basic within population's diet. The Ecuadorian Highlands has the greater production of cattle milk in the country, this industry needs great extensions of graze and available superficial water, which the cows consumed for crude milk production, with the consequent product industrialization. In the present research, gamma radiation levels where monitoring in 12 crude milk representative samples of the zone. The measurements where carried out using an equipment of spectrometry gamma ray system, with a detector of Hiperpuro Germanium (GeHp), which has been used in the analysis of standard and samples spectrums, with a constant geometry of the sample holder. The spectrums of the milk analysis show the presence of the radioisotopes coming from uranium radioactive decay. The majority of the values of activity concentration are below the minimum detection activity, unlike the potassium that presents a detectable but a non quantitative spectrum. So far, with the results obtained it is possible to guarantee the milk consumption and its derivatives in the Andean Region of the country. Related research will allow us implementing the radiological monitoring of this and other foods in the country, in order to protected population health. (author)

  5. The national scheme for monitoring radioactive fallout in milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B.M.R.

    1979-01-01

    The National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell, assumed responsibility for the national milk monitoring scheme on Jan. 1, 1979. Milk contamination provides a good guide to radioactivity in the British diet. Brief reference is made to U.K. surveys of radioactive fallout in human food prior to January 1979, and current arrangements for the sampling of milk in the U.K. are explained. The milk is analysed for 90 Sr, 137 Cs and stable calcium. Additional samples are collected to check for 131 I or other short-lived isotopes in the event of atmospheric nuclear tests or accidents involving possible releases of radioactivity. (U.K.)

  6. Effect of substituting barley with glycerol as energy feed on feed intake, milk production and milk quality in dairy cows in mid or late lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    intake, and milking frequency were recorded daily, while milk composition and milk FA daily were analyzed weekly. Milk sensory analysis was performed on fresh and 7 d stored samples for the four diets. The PMR intake increased almost 1 kg from Gly0 to Gly12, and decreased by approximately 1 kg from Gly12......The experiment reported in this research paper aimed to determine the level at which glycerol can substitute barley in grass-clover silage-based ration for dairy cows in mid or late lactation, without affecting milk production, milk composition, milk free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and milk sensory...... quality. Forty Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design. Crude glycerol substituted barley in the partially mixed ration (PMR) of the cows at inclusion levels of 0% (Gly0), 6% (Gly6), 12% (Gly12), and 18% (Gly18) of dietary dry matter (DM). Individual milk production, feed...

  7. KEFIRS MANUFACTURED FROM CAMEL (CAMELUS DRAMEDARIUS MILK AND COW MILK: COMPARISON OF SOME CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kavas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the production possibilities of kefir from fresh camel milk fermented with grain. The findings were then compared with kefir manufactured from cow’s milk. Cow’s milk was fermented with 2.5% grains. The 1% (v/w glucose enriched camel’s milk was fermented with 10% grains and left in an incubator at 25°C. Physical-chemical and sensorial analyses of the kefir sampleswere measured on day one (18 hours of storage and microbiological analyses were measured on days one, three and five. Some physical-chemical parameters were found to be higherin camel milk and its kefir than in cow milk and its kefir, some were found to be close and some were found to be lower. Addition of 1% glucose and 10% grains to the camel milk affected the titrationacidity and viscosity of kefir to significant levels. The kefir produced from camel milk was perceived as sourer, whereas its other properties were found to be close to those of cow milk. Thecholesterol levels of camel milk and its kefir were detected to be higher when compared to those of cow milk and its kefir, but the cholesterol level decreased in both examples after the productionof kefir. In terms of the composition of fatty acids, it was determined that SFA and the small, medium chain fatty acids ratio was low in camel milk and its kefir, but MUFA and the long chainfatty acids ratio was high. PUFA ratio was high in camel milk but low in its kefir. In microbiological analysis, yeast levels increased in kefir samples with the Lactobacillus ssp. strains, and theincrease in the number of yeasts was higher than in the cow milk kefir. In kefir samples, Lactobacillus ssp. strains increased on day one and three of storage, but diminished after day three.

  8. Body measures and milk production, milk fat globules granulometry and milk fatty acid content in Cabannina cattle breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Communod

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to achieve scientific information about body measures and milk production of Cabannina cattle, a local breed reared in northern Italy. Fourteen body measures and five morphologic indexes were recorded from 86 heads enrolled in the herd book. Low differences between males and females of the same age-class were shown. Body measures were generally greater than those reported in previous studies, probably due to recent crosses. With reference to milk production, 991 test-day records from 128 lactations of 59 cows were analysed. Average milk daily production was 8 kg/d in 1st lactation to 10.61 in 3rd (P<0.05; the parameters of the Wood equation draw atypical curve