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Sample records for mature female guinea

  1. Presence of mother and unfamiliar female alters levels of testosterone, progesterone, cortisol, adrenocorticotropin, and behavior in maturing Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael B; Maken, Deborah S; Graves, Franklynn C

    2002-08-01

    Although the guinea pig is characterized by precocial physical development and minimal active maternal care, studies suggest the presence of the mother can influence neuroendocrine and behavioral activity of offspring even well beyond weaning. Previous results may have been influenced by the procedure of housing weaned subjects with the mother to within 2 days of testing. The present study examined approximately 40-day-old guinea pigs housed apart from the mother for 0 (not rehoused), 2, or 10 days. Rehousing without the mother led to elevations in plasma testosterone (measured in males), progesterone (measured in females), cortisol, and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) (both measured in males and females). Offspring housed without the mother for 10 days had the highest progesterone, cortisol, and ACTH levels. Testosterone elevations were observed in 2-day-, but not 10-day-, rehoused animals. Regardless of rehousing condition, 60 min isolation in a novel test cage elevated progesterone, cortisol, and ACTH, and reduced testosterone. These effects were all moderated if the subject was tested with the mother or another female. Sexual behavior toward the mother was observed frequently, but only in males housed apart from her prior to testing. Overall, males and females that had been housed apart from the mother interacted with her as they would an unfamiliar female. Our results corroborate previous findings, suggest the effect of housing apart from the mother on male testosterone is transitory, and indicate that continuous housing with the mother past weaning suppresses circulating progesterone in females and cortisol and ACTH in both sexes.

  2. Spontaneous reproductive pathology in female guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Parga, Tamara; La Perle, Krista M D; Newman, Shelley J

    2016-11-01

    Reproductive pathology of domestic guinea pigs is underreported to date. To provide a comprehensive review of uterine disease in guinea pigs, we performed a retrospective study of the pathology archives of the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine. By histology, 13 of 37 uterine lesions in 23 animals were neoplastic; the other 24 nonneoplastic lesions included cystic endometrial hyperplasia (16 of 24), endometrial hemorrhage (3 of 24), pyometra (2 of 24), polyp (2 of 24), and mucometra (1 of 24). The most common guinea pig uterine neoplasms were uterine leiomyomas (6 of 13), followed by adenomas (3 of 13) and leiomyosarcomas (1 of 13). Other neoplasms included anaplastic tumors of unknown origin (2 of 13) and choriocarcinoma (1 of 13). Both anaplastic tumors and the choriocarcinoma were positive for vimentin. The choriocarcinoma was positive for HSD83B1, indicating a trophoblastic origin and its final diagnosis. All were negative for cytokeratin and smooth muscle. In multiple animals, more than 1 tumor or lesion was reported. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression was nearly 100% in uterine neoplasms. Nearly all animals for which data were available had cystic rete ovarii (18 of 19); the animal with no cystic rete ovarii had paraovarian cysts. In our study, female pet guinea pigs had a tendency to develop cystic endometrial hyperplasia and uterine neoplasia. Factors for the development of these lesions could be cystic rete ovarii, hormone dysregulation, and/or age. Other factors could contribute to the development of uterine lesions. As in other species, early ovariohysterectomy could decrease the prevalence of uterine lesions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. Correlation Between Dental and Cervical Vertebral Maturation in Iranian Females

    OpenAIRE

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Eil, Nakissa; Ehsani, Sara; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2012-01-01

    Background Considerable variations in the development stage among patients of the same chronological age have led to introduce the concept of the developmental age based on the maturation of different organs such as cervical vertebrae or teeth. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the stages of tooth calcification and the cervical vertebral maturation in Iranian females. Patients and Methods Four hundred females (age range, 8 to 14 years) participate...

  4. Correlation Between Dental and Cervical Vertebral Maturation in Iranian Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Eil, Nakissa; Ehsani, Sara; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2012-01-01

    Background Considerable variations in the development stage among patients of the same chronological age have led to introduce the concept of the developmental age based on the maturation of different organs such as cervical vertebrae or teeth. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the stages of tooth calcification and the cervical vertebral maturation in Iranian females. Patients and Methods Four hundred females (age range, 8 to 14 years) participated in the study. To determine the dental maturational stage, calcification of the mandibular teeth except for third molars were rated according to the method suggested by Demirjian et al. To evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation, cervical vertebral morphologic changes were assessed on lateral cephalometric radiographs according to the method explained by Baccetti et al. Correlations between bone maturation and teeth calcification were showed by Spearman's correlation and Kendall’s tau-b coefficients. The relevant associations were investigated by ordinal logistic regression models. Results Correlations between the two stages were observed in the first and second premolars, canine and central incisors. All these correlations were significant. The association between cervical vertebral maturation and tooth calcification was greatest in the lateral incisor (odds ratio (OR) = 11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.6-18.3). However, considering the 95% CI for OR, no significant difference was detected among the second molar, first molar and lateral incisor. Conclusion The relationship between calcification of teeth and maturation of cervical bones was significant. Bone maturation can be predicted by using teeth calcification stages, especially in the second molar, first molar and lateral incisor. PMID:23599706

  5. Correlation between dental and cervical vertebral maturation in Iranian females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Solmaz; Eil, Nakissa; Ehsani, Sara; Bakhshandeh, Hooman

    2012-12-01

    Considerable variations in the development stage among patients of the same chronological age have led to introduce the concept of the developmental age based on the maturation of different organs such as cervical vertebrae or teeth. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the stages of tooth calcification and the cervical vertebral maturation in Iranian females. Four hundred females (age range, 8 to 14 years) participated in the study. To determine the dental maturational stage, calcification of the mandibular teeth except for third molars were rated according to the method suggested by Demirjian et al. To evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation, cervical vertebral morphologic changes were assessed on lateral cephalometric radiographs according to the method explained by Baccetti et al. Correlations between bone maturation and teeth calcification were showed by Spearman's correlation and Kendall's tau-b coefficients. The relevant associations were investigated by ordinal logistic regression models. Correlations between the two stages were observed in the first and second premolars, canine and central incisors. All these correlations were significant. The association between cervical vertebral maturation and tooth calcification was greatest in the lateral incisor (odds ratio (OR) = 11, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.6-18.3). However, considering the 95% CI for OR, no significant difference was detected among the second molar, first molar and lateral incisor. The relationship between calcification of teeth and maturation of cervical bones was significant. Bone maturation can be predicted by using teeth calcification stages, especially in the second molar, first molar and lateral incisor.

  6. X-ray induced dominant lethal mutations in mature and immature oocytes of guinea-pigs and golden hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.D.; Lyon, M.F.

    1975-01-01

    The induction of dominant lethal mutations by doses of 100-400 rad X-rays in oocytes of the guinea-pig and golden hamster was studied using criteria of embryonic mortality. For both species higher yields were obtained from mature than from immature oocytes. Data on fertility indicated that in the golden hamster immature oocytes were more sensitive to killing by X-rays than mature oocytes but that the converse was true in the guinea-pig. The dose-response relationship for mutation to dominant lethals in pre-ovulatory oocytes of guinea-pigs and golden hamsters was linear, both when based on pre- and post-implantation loss only. The rate per unit dose was higher for the golden hamster, and the old golden hamsters were possibly slightly more sensitive than young ones

  7. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases and ovarian morphological changes in androgenized cyclic female guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-rong; Shen, Ting; Wang, Yan-li; Wei, Quan-wei; Shi, Fang-xiong

    2016-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and ovarian morphological changes in androgenized cyclic female guinea pigs. Adult cyclic female guinea pigs were injected daily for 28 days with medium doses of testosterone propionate (TP; 1 mg/100g), high doses of TP (2 mg/100g), or saline (control). Serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol (E2), and progesterone (P4) were measured. Histologic sections of ovaries were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and by immunohistochemistry. Expressions of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the ovary were characterized by immunohistochemistry. After 28 days of TP injection, serum testosterone concentrations were increased dose-dependently. An appropriate dosage of TP could induce permanent anovulation in guinea pigs, making them a potential model for human polycystic ovary syndrome. MMP-2 and MMP-9 are jointly involved in the growth and atresia of ovarian follicles in cyclic guinea pigs. Increased numbers of atretic antral follicles in the ovary might be associated with the observed high expression of MMP-2 in androgenized cyclic guinea pigs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The mature female clothing shopper: Profiles and shopping behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Visser

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to profile the mature female clothing shopper. More specifically certain variables that could be attributed to differences in consumer behaviour were investigated. Mature female clothing shoppers were segmented as clothing moderates, clothing enthusiasts and the clothing unconcerned. These three cluster groups significantly differed regarding clothing involvement, clothing orientation, activities, interests, opinions, family orientation, needs and media usage. No significant differences were found among the three groups regarding evaluative criteria for clothing and clothing store attributes. Profiles of the clusters were developed, along with applicable marketing implications. Recommendations for further research are made. Opsomming  Hierdie studie is onderneem ten einde die vroulike kledingverbruikers van 55 en ouer te tipeer. Die veranderlikes wat 'n bydrae kon lewer ten opsigte van die verskille in verbruikersgedrag is ondersoek. Die verbruikers is gesegmenteer as die kledinggematigdes, kleding- entoesiaste en die kleding-onbetrokkenes. Die drie groeperings verskil beduidend van mekaar ten opsigte van die volgende veranderlikes naamlik: kleding-betrokkenheid, kleding-oriëntasie, aktiwiteite belangstellings, opinies, familie oriëntasie, behoeftes en media gebruik. Geen beduidende verskille kon gevind word tussen die drie groeperings ten opsigte van die veranderlikes evalueringskriteria van klere en winkeleienskappe nie. Profiele van die verskillende trosse is ontwikkel en die bemarkingsimplikasies is uitgewys. Aanbevelings vir verdere navorsing word gedoen.

  9. Female novelty and the courtship behavior of male guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus

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    Cohn D.W.H.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In several rodent species, an increase or recovery of sexual behavior can be observed when sexually satiated males are placed in contact with a novel mate. In order to assess the influence of female novelty on the courtship behavior of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus, four adult males were observed during four daily 15-min sessions while interacting with the same pregnant female (same-female sessions. A new female was presented during the fifth session (switched-female session. The duration of behavioral categories was obtained from videotape records using an observational software. From the first to the second session, all males decreased the time allocated to investigating (sniffing and licking, following, and mounting the female, and that response did not recover by the end of the same-female sessions. No similar decreasing tendencies were detected in the circling or rumba categories. A marked increase of investigating occurred in all males from the last same-female session (8.1, 11.9, 15.1 and 17.3 percent session time to the switched-female one (16.4, 18.4, 37.1 and 28.9 percent session time, respectively. Increases in following and circling were recorded in three of four males, and full-blown recovery of mounting in one male. No consistent changes in the females' responses to males (following or attacking were observed throughout testing. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that guinea pig males recognize individual females and that courtship responses may suffer a habituation/recovery process controlled by mate novelty.

  10. Relationship Between Age at Menarche and Skeletal Maturation Stages in Taiwanese Female Orthodontic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Eddie Hsiang-Hua; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Yao, Chung-Chen Jane; Tsai, Shih-Jaw; Liu, Jen-Pei; Chen, Yi-Jane; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2008-01-01

    Background/Purpose: The age at menarche reflects a pubertal girl's physiologic maturity. The aims of this study were to evaluate the relationship between the age at menarche and skeletal maturation in female orthodontic patients. Methods: Hand-wrist radiographs and lateral cephalometric radiographs from 304 adolescent female subjects (age, 8–18.9 years) were selected from the files of the Department of Orthodontics, National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). Hand-wrist bone maturation sta...

  11. Sex peculiarities of radiosensitivity. Communication IV. Action of ionizing radiation on the sexual cycles of mouse and guinea pig females

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseeva, L V; Kudryavtseva, A A [AN SSSR, Pushchino-na-Oke. Inst. Biologicheskoj Fiziki

    1975-01-01

    Animals (mice, guinea pigs) were irradiated with doses of 500, 700 and 750 R, while a control group was subjected to mock radiation. In all cases after mock and real irradiation, the sexual cycles of the female mice and guinea pigs were disturbed after 1 to 3 hours (after mock irradiation slightly, and after irradiation doses of 500 and 700 R to a greater extent). The restoration of the cycles of some animals after mock irradiation took place after 2 to 3 days, and of others after 10 to 14 days. After irradiation with doses of 500 to 700 R restoration of the cycles did not occur for two months and longer. Despite the considerable individual differences in the duration of the reaction, the delay was observed in all mice principally in the phase after heat, and in the guinea pigs during the inactive phase.

  12. Sex peculiarities of radiosensitivity. Communication 4. Action of ionizing radiation on the sexual cycles of mouse and guinea pig females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseeva, L.V.; Kudryavtseva, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    Animals (mice, guinea pigs) were irradiated with doses of 500, 700 and 750 r, while a control group was subjected to mock radiation. In all cases after mock and real irradiation, the sexual cycles of the female mice and guinea pigs were disturbed after 1-3 hours (after mock irradiation slightly, and after irradiation doses of 500 and 700 r to a greater extent). The restoration of the cycles of some animals after mock irradiation took place after 2 - 3 days, and of others after 10 - 14 days. After irradiation with doses of 500 - 700 r restoration of the cycles did not occur for two months and longer. Despite the considerable individual differences in the duration of the reaction, the delay was observed in all mice principally in the phase after heat, and in the guinea pigs during the inactive phase. (author)

  13. Studies on thyroid activity at sexual maturity in the male and female Bengal goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, V.P.; Pande, J.K.; Sanwal, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    Thyroid activity at sexual maturity in the male and female Black Bengal goats was investigated. No change could be recorded at the attainment of sexual maturity in either of the sexes. The cyclic female goats also failed to reflect any change in the thyroid activity during any phase of the oestrous cycle. Again the male goats also failed to reflect any differences in the thyroid activity from the females, either during their immature, or during their mature life. The observations presented thus reflect that the thyroid activity in goats is not influenced by the attainments of sexual maturity or by the sex, in this species. The thyroid gland activity was assessed by using the in vitro technique of triiodothyronine- 125 I uptake by resin. (author)

  14. Cervical vertebral maturation of female children with orofacial clefts.

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    Sun, Ling; Li, Wei Ran

    2013-09-01

    Objective : To evaluate the skeletal maturation of girls with orofacial clefts using the cervical vertebral maturation method. Design : Case-control study. Setting : The School of Stomatology, Peking University. Patients : A total of 173 girls with cleft lip and/or palate from 8 to 16 years old were compared with 1038 age-matched girls without clefts. Results : In the 8- to 9-year-olds, most of the girls from both groups were in cervical stage 1. In the 14- to 15-year-olds and 15- to 16-year-olds, almost all the girls from both groups were in cervical stages 5 and 6, and most of the 15- to 16-year-old girls were in cervical stage 6. Differences existed in each year for 9- to 14-year-olds, which was confirmed by statistical analysis. After ordinal logistical regression of data from girls 9 to 14 years of age, girls of the same age in the non-cleft lip and/or palate group were associated with 1.559 times the odds of having achieved higher cervical stages than those in the cleft lip and/or palate group. Most girls without cleft lip and/or palate were in cervical stages 3 and 4 in the 11- to 12-year-olds; whereas, it was not so obvious in the girls with cleft lip and/or palate. By the age of 12, girls with cleft lip and/or palate had 2.667 times the risk of delayed cervical stage 3, and the 95% confidence interval for the odds ratio was 1.013 to 7.019. Conclusions : Girls with cleft lip and/or palate are at a higher risk of delayed pubertal growth.

  15. Relationship between age at menarche and skeletal maturation stages in Taiwanese female orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Eddie Hsiang-Hua; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Jane Yao, Chung-Chen; Tsai, Shih-Jaw; Liu, Jen-Pei; Chen, Yi-Jane; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2008-07-01

    The age at menarche reflects a pubertal girl's physiologic maturity. The aims of this study were to evaluate the relationship between the age at menarche and skeletal maturation in female orthodontic patients. Hand-wrist radiographs and lateral cephalometric radiographs from 304 adolescent female subjects (age, 8-18.9 years) were selected from the files of the Department of Orthodontics, National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). Hand-wrist bone maturation stages were assessed using the NTUH Skeletal Maturation Index (NTUH-SMI). Cervical vertebral maturation stages (CVMS) were determined using the latest CVMS Index. Menarcheal ages were self-reported by the patients and verified by the patients' mothers. The relationships between the NTUH-SMI or CVM stages and menarcheal status were investigated. More than 90% of the 148 subjects who had already attained menstruation had skeletal maturation beyond the NTUH-SMI stage four or CVMS III. However, the subjects who had never experienced menarche mostly had skeletal maturation before NTUH-SMI stage five or CVMS IV. During the period of orthodontic treatment, 19 females experienced their menarche. The mean age at menarche for the 167 female patients in total was 11.97 years. In average, menarche occurred between NTUH-SMI stages four and five or between CVM stages III and IV. The percentage of girls with menses increased from 1.2% at age 9 to 6.6% at age 10, 39.5% at age 11, 81.4% at age 12, 97% at age 13, and 100% at age 14. Compared with the results obtained 20 years previously, we found a downward shift of 0.47 years per decade for the mean age at menarche in female orthodontic patients. The majority of female orthodontic patients have passed the pubertal growth spurt when they experience their menarche. Menarche usually follows the pubertal growth spurt by about 1 year and occurs after NTUH-SMI stage four or CVMS III.

  16. Glued to Which Face? Attentional Priority Effect of Female Babyface and Male Mature Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Zheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A more babyfaced individual is perceived as more child-like and this impression from babyface, as known as babyface effect, has an impact on social life among various age groups. In this study, the influence of babyfaces on visual selective attention was tested by cognitive task, demonstrating that the female babyface and male mature face would draw participants’ attention so that they take their eyes off more slowly. In Experiment 1, a detection task was applied to test the influence of babyfaces on visual selective attention. In this experiment, a babyface and a mature face with the same gender were presented simultaneously with a letter on one of them. The reaction time was shorter when the target letter was overlaid with a female babyface or male mature face, suggesting an attention capture effect. To explore how this competition influenced by attentional resources, we conducted Experiment 2 with a spatial cueing paradigm and controlled the attentional resources by cueing validity and inter-stimulus interval. In this task, the female babyface and male mature face prolonged responses to the spatially separated targets under the condition of an invalid and long interval pre-cue. This observation replicated the result of Experiment 1. This indicates that the female babyface and male mature face glued visual selective attention once attentional resources were directed to them. To further investigate the subliminal influence from a babyface, we used continuous flash suppression paradigm in Experiment 3. The results, again, showed the advantage of the female babyfaces and male mature faces: they broke the suppression faster than other faces. Our results provide primary evidence that the female babyfaces and male mature faces can reliably glue the visual selective attention, both supra- and sub-liminally.

  17. Effects of irradiation and adrenal cortex disfunction on ovarial-hormonal status of mature female rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E.F.; Banetskaya, N.V.; Sechko, L.K.; Pavlenko, V.S.; Popov, E.G.

    2003-01-01

    It was shown that development of glucocorticoid disfunction in mature rats (made by series of 10 mg/kg body wt subcutaneous corticosterone injections, during I month) essentially increased radiosensitivity of female reproductive organs. Additionally in the experimental conditions after external g-irradiation (1.0 Gy) development of atrophic processes in follicular apparatus of ovary caused severe ovarial disorders (polycystosis, fibrosis). Simultaneously degree of hormonal misregulations and upsets for systems of hormone reception in female sex tissues is aggravating. (authors)

  18. The influence of motion control shoes on the running gait of mature and young females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Kim; Stiles, Vicky; Dixon, Sharon

    2013-03-01

    This study compared the running gait of mature and young females, and investigated the effect of a motion control shoe. First, it was hypothesised that in a neutral shoe, mature females would display significantly greater rearfoot eversion, knee internal rotation and external adductor moments when compared to a younger group. Secondly, the motion control shoe would reduce rearfoot eversion and knee internal rotation in both groups. Thirdly it was hypothesised that the motion control shoe would increase knee external adductor moment, through an increase in knee varus and moment arm. 15 mature (40-60 years) and 15 young (18-25 years) females performed 10 running trials at 3.5ms(-1)±5% over a force platform. Two shoes were tested, the Adidas Supernova Glide (neutral), and the Adidas Supernova Sequence (motion control). Ankle and knee joint dynamics were analysed for the right leg, and the mean of ten trials was calculated. Joint moments were calculated using inverse dynamics. In the neutral condition, mature females presented greater peak rearfoot eversion, knee internal rotation, and external adductor moments than young females (p<0.05). A motion control shoe significantly reduced peak rearfoot eversion and knee internal rotation among both groups (p<0.05). No between shoe differences in knee external adductor moment were observed. A motion control shoe is recommended to reduce risk of injury associated with rearfoot eversion and knee internal rotation in mature females. However since the knee external adductor moment is a variable commonly associated with medial knee loading it is suggested that alternative design features are required to influence this moment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of sex pheromones and sexual maturation on locomotor activity in female sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Steibel, Juan Pedro; Li, Weiming

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization of male and female locomotor rhythmicity can play a vital role in ensuring reproductive success. Several physiological and environmental factors alter these locomotor rhythms. As sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, progress through their life cycle, their locomotor activity rhythm changes multiple times. The goal of this study was to elucidate the activity patterns of adult female sea lamprey during the sexual maturation process and discern the interactions of these patterns with exposure to male pheromones. During these stages, preovulated and ovulated adult females are exposed to sex pheromone compounds, which are released by spermiated males and attract ovulated females to the nest for spawning. The locomotor behavior of adult females was monitored in a natural stream with a passive integrated tag responder system as they matured, and they were exposed to a sex pheromone treatment (spermiated male washings) or a control (prespermiated male washings). Results showed that, dependent on the hour of day, male sex pheromone compounds reduce total activity (p reproductive synchrony of mature adults, thus increasing reproductive success in this species.

  20. The relationship between psychosocial maturity and assertiveness in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, J A; Olczak, P V

    1981-02-01

    The relationship between psychosocial maturity (psychological health) and assertiveness was investigated in a sample of United States college males and females. Results revealed a moderately high positive relationship between psychosocial maturity (PSM) and self-reported assertiveness on the Rathus and Galassi scales for both sexes. This relationship was slightly stronger (in terms of variance accounted for) for males than females, significant differences being obtained for Intimacy on the Rathus scale and PSM and Intimacy on the Galassi scale. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the personality components most consistently accounting for major portions of the variance in predicting male assertiveness scores on both the Rathus Assertiveness Schedule and the College Self-Expression Scale were Intimacy and Initiative, while in predicting female assertiveness, only Initiative was involved. The findings were related to previous research, recent work on the androgyny construct (instrumental vs. expressive behaviors), and exhortations for increased cooperation between schools of psychotherapy to establish it as a more unified discipline.

  1. The volitional travel speed varies with reproductive state in mature female brown trout Salmo trutta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jon Christian; Aarestrup, Kim; Dolby, Jes

    2009-01-01

    This study tested the effect of reproduction on the volitional travel speed of mature female brown trout Salmo trutta L. The downstream travel speed in the pre-spawning state was 0·25 m s−1 (95% CI : 0·19, 0·34) while it increased significantly to 0·65 m s−1 (95% CI: 0·49, 0·87) in the post...

  2. Changes in gene expression associated with reproductive maturation in wild female baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Courtney C; Tung, Jenny; Wray, Gregory A; Alberts, Susan C

    2012-01-01

    Changes in gene expression during development play an important role in shaping morphological and behavioral differences, including between humans and nonhuman primates. Although many of the most striking developmental changes occur during early development, reproductive maturation represents another critical window in primate life history. However, this process is difficult to study at the molecular level in natural primate populations. Here, we took advantage of ovarian samples made available through an unusual episode of human-wildlife conflict to identify genes that are important in this process. Specifically, we used RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to compare genome-wide gene expression patterns in the ovarian tissue of juvenile and adult female baboons from Amboseli National Park, Kenya. We combined this information with prior evidence of selection occurring on two primate lineages (human and chimpanzee). We found that in cases in which genes were both differentially expressed over the course of ovarian maturation and also linked to lineage-specific selection this selective signature was much more likely to occur in regulatory regions than in coding regions. These results suggest that adaptive change in the development of the primate ovary may be largely driven at the mechanistic level by selection on gene regulation, potentially in relationship to the physiology or timing of female reproductive maturation.

  3. Influence of feeding time on sexual maturity and carcass composition in female broiler breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avila VS de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available One thousand two hundred and ninety six Arbor Acres females and 144 males were used to study the influence of feeding time on sexual maturity and carcass composition. Treatments were: T1 = feeding at 6:30 am, T2 = 50% feeding at 6:30 am and 50% at 3:30 pm (dual, T3 = feeding at 11:00 am, T4 = feeding at 3:30 pm. Nutrition and management were as recommended to the commercial line. Variables studied were: sexual maturity at 5% production (SM, mean egg production percentage (PEP body weight (BW, carcass composition, tibia weight (TIBW and tibia calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P contents. Analysis of variance was used, and the means were compared using Student's t test. T2 females reached SM at 25.92 weeks, which was earlier (p0.10 on carcass dry matter (DM, ether extract (EE, crude protein (CP and ash (ASH. DM, EE, TIBW, Ca and P increased (p<0.05 whereas CP and ASH decreased with age. Time of feeding influenced body weight, but not carcass composition. Hens fed twice a day had earlier sexual maturity and similar egg production compared to those fed once at 6:30 am.

  4. Rac1 is dispensable for oocyte maturation and female fertility in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian-Xiu; Meng, Tie-Gang; Fan, Li-Hua; Yao, Yuan-Qing

    2017-01-01

    Oocyte maturation, the important process to produce female haploid gamete, accompanies with polarity establishment and highly asymmetric cell division to emit minor polar body within little cytoplasm. Microfilaments play central roles in polarity establishment and asymmetric cell division. Several actin regulators like WASP protein family as well as small GTPases function in microfilament dynamics, involving the process. Rac1, one member of RhoGTPases, has been reported to regulate the polarity and asymmetric cell division in mouse oocytes in vitro. The physiological role of Rac1 in mouse oocyte remains unknown. By conditional knockout technology, we specifically deleted Rac1 gene in mouse oocyte, and found that Rac1 deletion exerted little effect on mouse oocyte maturation including polarity establishment and asymmetric division, and the mutant mice showed normal fertility.

  5. [Establishment of cervical vertebral skeletal maturation of female children in Shanghai].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Chen, Rong-jing; Yu, Quan; Fan, Li; Chen, Wei; Shen, Gang

    2009-06-01

    To establish a method for quantitatively evaluating skeletal maturation of cervical vertebrae of female children in Shanghai. The samples were selected from lateral cephalometric radiographs of 240 Shanghai girls, aged 8 to 15 years. The parameters were measured to indicate the morphological changes of the third (C3) and fourth (C4) vertebrae in width, height and the depth of the inferior curvature. The independent-sample t test and stepwise multiple regression analysis were used to estimate the growth status and the ratios of C3, C4 cervical vertebrae by SPSS 15.0 software package. The physical and morphological contour of C3, C4 cervical vertebrae increased proportionately with the increment of age. The regression formula for indicating cervical vertebral skeletal age of female children in Shanghai was expressed by the equation Y= -5.696+8.010 AH3/AP3+6.654 AH3/H3+6.045AH4/PH4 (r=0.912). The regression formula resulted from morphological measurements quantitatively indicates the skeletal maturation of cervical vertebrae of female children in Shanghai.

  6. Gonadal transcriptome analysis of wild contaminated female European eels during artificial gonad maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillon, Lucie; Oses, Jennifer; Pierron, Fabien; Bureau du Colombier, Sarah; Caron, Antoine; Normandeau, Eric; Lambert, Patrick; Couture, Patrice; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Dufour, Sylvie; Bernatchez, Louis; Baudrimont, Magalie

    2015-11-01

    Since the early 1980s, the population of European eels (Anguilla anguilla) has dramatically declined. Nowadays, the European eel is listed on the red list of threatened species (IUCN Red List) and is considered as critically endangered of extinction. Pollution is one of the putative causes for the collapse of this species. Among their possible effects, contaminants gradually accumulated in eels during their somatic growth phase (yellow eel stage) would be remobilized during their reproductive migration leading to potential toxic events in gonads. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of organic and inorganic contaminants on the gonad development of wild female silver eels. Female silver eels from two sites with differing contamination levels were artificially matured. Transcriptomic analyses by means of a 1000 candidate gene cDNA microarray were performed on gonads after 11weeks of maturation to get insight into the mechanisms of toxicity of contaminants. The transcription levels of several genes, that were associated to the gonadosomatic index (GSI), were involved in mitotic cell division but also in gametogenesis. Genes associated to contaminants were mainly involved in the mechanisms of protection against oxidative stress, in DNA repair, in the purinergic signaling pathway and in steroidogenesis, suggesting an impairment of gonad development in eels from the polluted site. This was in agreement with the fact that eels from the reference site showed a higher gonad growth in comparison to contaminated fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mutation in SUMO E3 ligase, SIZ1, disrupts the mature female gametophyte in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Yu

    2012-01-09

    Female gametophyte is the multicellular haploid structure that can produce embryo and endosperm after fertilization, which has become an attractive model system for investigating molecular mechanisms in nuclei migration, cell specification, cell-to-cell communication and many other processes. Previous reports found that the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase, SIZ1, participated in many processes depending on particular target substrates and suppression of salicylic acid (SA) accumulation. Here, we report that SIZ1 mediates the reproductive process. SIZ1 showed enhanced expression in female organs, but was not detected in the anther or pollen. A defect in the siz1-2 maternal source resulted in reduced seed-set regardless of high SA concentration within the plant. Moreover, aniline blue staining and scanning electron microscopy revealed that funicular and micropylar pollen tube guidance was arrested in siz1-2 plants. Some of the embryo sacs of ovules in siz1-2 were also disrupted quickly after stage FG7. There was no significant affects of the siz1-2 mutation on expression of genes involved in female gametophyte development- or pollen tube guidance in ovaries. Together, our results suggest that SIZ1 sustains the stability and normal function of the mature female gametophyte which is necessary for pollen tube guidance. © 2012 Ling et al.

  8. The female guinea pig, a useful model for the genetic hazard of radiation in man; preliminary results on germ cell radiosensitivity in foetal, neonatal and adult animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, P.; Vankerkom, J.; Lambiet-Collier, M.

    1994-01-01

    A comparison was made of the radiosensitivities of the resting oocyte of guinea pig in its two different states, the 'large' resting and 'contracted' oocyte, also extending the investigations to the radiosensitivity of the female germ cells at earlier stages during intrauterine life. Irradiation induced a dose-dependent decrease in the total number of oocytes, and this effect was more pronounced in animals irradiated as adults (target cells: contracted resting oocytes). Our results also suggested that the LD 50 of the large guinea pig resting oocyte should be around 4 Gy, a value similar to that obtained recently for the equivalent human oocyte. This confirms the high radioresistance of the guinea pig oocyte and the consequent suitability of this species for further detailed studies in relation to genetic hazards in man. (author)

  9. Aerobic endurance in young female athletes in respect to sexual maturation, age and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tereza Silveira Böhme

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were, in young female athletes: a to describe the development of aerobic endurance in relation to different sexual maturation stages by each chronological age; b to verify the existence of significant differences among the sexual maturation stages in each age; c to describe the development of aerobic endurance in relation to different ages by each sexual stage; d to verify the existence of significant differences among the ages by each sexual stage; e to verify the influence of chronological age, sexual maturation, adiposity, muscularity, physical growth and kind of sport on aerobic endurance. The sample comprised 305 female young athletes from 10 to 17 years of age, of basketball, handball, soccer and track and field, who were measured for their physical growth, adiposity, muscularity, sexual maturation stage and aerobic endurance. The variance and multiple regression analyses indicated that sexual maturation had no significant influence on the aerobic endurance of these female young athletes. RESUMO Este trabalho de pesquisa teve por objetivos, com relação a jovens atletas do sexo feminino: a descrever o desenvolvimento da resistência geral aeróbia considerando-se os diferentes níveis de maturação biológica em cada idade cronológica; b verificar a existência de diferenças significativas entre os níveis de maturação em cada idade cronológica; c descrever o desenvolvimento da resistência geral aeróbia considerando-se as diferentes idades cronológicas em cada nível de maturação biológica; d verificar a existência de diferenças significativas entre as idades cronológicas de mesmo estágio maturacional; e verificar a influência da maturação biológica, crescimento físico, adiposidade subcutânea, muscularidade, idade cronológica e o tipo de modalidade esportiva praticada sobre a resistência geral aeróbia. Para isso, uma amostra de 305 jovens atletas mulheres na faixa etária de 10 a 17 anos das

  10. Maturation and reproductive cycle of female Pacific cod in waters adjacent to the southern coast of Hokkaido, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Tsutomu; Sakurai, Yasunori; Shimazaki, Kenji

    1992-01-01

    The maturation process and reproductive cycle of female Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus were examined in the waters adjacent to the southern and southeastern coasts of Hokkaido, Japan, by collecting fish between April 1989 and September 1990. Histological examination was made of the ovaries. During the course of ovarian maturation, a portion of the oocytes became isolated from immature oocytes at the yolk vesicle stage (less than 0.3mm in diameter) and gradually developed into a group of y...

  11. Correlation between cervical vertebral maturation and chronological age in a group of Iranian females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammadreza Safavi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62. The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Conclusion: Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients.

  12. Correlation between cervical vertebral maturation and chronological age in a group of Iranian females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Beikaii, Hanie; Hassanizadeh, Raheleh; Younessian, Farnaz; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62). The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Conclusion: Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients. PMID:26604958

  13. Correlation between cervical vertebral maturation and chronological age in a group of Iranian females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Seyed Mohammadreza; Beikaii, Hanie; Hassanizadeh, Raheleh; Younessian, Farnaz; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Correlation between chronological age at different stages of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) is important in clinical orthodontic practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between CVM stage and chronological age in a group of Iranian female patients. This study was conducted on 196 digital lateral cephalometry of female patients with the age ranged 9-14 years. The CVM stage was determined with two calibrated examiners, using the method developed by Baccetti and its correlation with mean chronological age was assessed by the Spearman rank-order. The intra and inter-agreements were evaluated by weighted Kappa statistics in overall diagnosis of stages, in addition to determination of presence or absent of concavities at the lower border of second, third and fourth cervical vertebrae and the shapes of the third and fourth vertebrae. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. The correlation coefficient between CVM stages and chronological age was relatively low (r = 0.62). The least amount of inter-observer agreement was determined to be at the clinical decision of the shape of the fourth vertebra. Regarding the low reported correlation, the concomitant usage of other skeletal indicators seems necessary for precise determination of physiological age of the patients.

  14. Calcium current activation kinetics in isolated pyramidal neurones of the Ca1 region of the mature guinea-pig hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, A R; Wong, R K

    1987-11-01

    1. Neurones were isolated from the CA1 region of the guinea-pig hippocampus and subjected to the whole-cell mode of voltage clamping, to determine the kinetics of voltage-gated Ca2+ channel activation. 2. Isolated neurones had an abbreviated morphology, having lost most of the distal dendritic tree during the isolation procedure. The electrical compactness of the cells facilitates voltage clamp analysis. 3. Block of sodium and potassium currents revealed a persistent current activated on depolarization above -40 mV, which inactivated slowly when the intracellular medium contained EGTA. The current was blocked by Co2+ and Cd2+, augmented by increases in Ca2+ and could be carried by Ba2+, suggesting that the current is borne by Ca2+. 4. Steady-state activation of the Ca2+ current was found to be well described by the Boltzman equation raised to the second power. 5. The open channel's current-voltage (I-V) relationship rectified in the inward direction and was consistent with the constant-field equation. 6. The kinetics of Ca2+ current onset followed m2 kinetics throughout the range of its activation. Tail current kinetics were in accord with this model. A detailed Hodgkin-Huxley model was derived, defining the activation of this current. 7. The kinetics of the currents observed in this regionally and morphologically defined class of neurones were consistent with the existence of a single kinetic class of channels.

  15. Neurokinin B is critical for normal timing of sexual maturation but dispensable for adult reproductive function in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    True, Cadence; Nasrin Alam, Sayeda; Cox, Kimberly; Chan, Yee-Ming; Seminara, Stephanie B

    2015-04-01

    Humans carrying mutations in neurokinin B (NKB) or the NKB receptor fail to undergo puberty due to decreased secretion of GnRH. Despite this pubertal delay, many of these patients go on to achieve activation of their hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in adulthood, a phenomenon termed reversal, indicating that NKB signaling may play a more critical role for the timing of pubertal development than adult reproductive function. NKB receptor-deficient mice are hypogonadotropic but have no defects in the timing of sexual maturation. The current study has performed the first phenotypic evaluation of mice bearing mutations in Tac2, the gene encoding the NKB ligand, to determine whether they have impaired sexual development similar to their human counterparts. Male Tac2-/- mice showed no difference in the timing of sexual maturation or fertility compared with wild-type littermates and were fertile. In contrast, Tac2-/- females had profound delays in sexual maturation, with time to vaginal opening and first estrus occurring significantly later than controls, and initial abnormalities in estrous cycles. However, cycling recovered in adulthood and Tac2-/- females were fertile, although they produced fewer pups per litter. Thus, female Tac2-/- mice parallel humans harboring NKB pathway mutations, with delayed sexual maturation and activation of the reproductive cascade later in life. Moreover, direct comparison of NKB ligand and receptor-deficient females confirmed that only NKB ligand-deficient animals have delayed sexual maturation, suggesting that in the absence of the NKB receptor, NKB may regulate the timing of sexual maturation through other tachykinin receptors.

  16. Female maturation, egg characteristics and fatty acids profile in the seahorse Hippocampus guttulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, M; Quintas, P; Chamorro, A; Silva, C

    2010-10-01

    Knowledge of the biology and ecology of seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) is scarce, but has been increasing in recent years due to their conservation status. Captivity breeding programmes can be a valuable source of information on the reproductive biology of seahorses. A captive broodstock of Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier 1829 was established in 2006 and kept under natural-like photoperiod and temperature. Female maturation was studied during the whole reproductive season in 2007. Most egg clutches were released from May (17°C; 15L:9D) to October (18°C; 13L:11D), with peak releases occurring in June-August (20°C; 16L:8D-14L:10D). Throughout the study, four egg morphotypes were found; two regression equations were proposed for estimating egg/yolk volume based on measurements of egg and yolk biometrics. Female weight was positively correlated with yolk volume/egg volume ratio (Y(v)/E(v)) (r(s)=0.523, n=21, P<0.05) but not with E(v) or Y(v). Egg dry weight (567±141μg) was correlated with Y(v) (r(s)=0.384, n=31, P<0.05). Mean clutch size and clutch biomass were 242±142 eggs and 137±87mg dry weight, respectively. Clutch size was positively correlated to female weight (r(s)=0.479, n=25, P<0.05). Inter-clutch intervals (days) were affected by temperature (°C) as described by the following equation: Interval=357.55e(-0.1283 Temp). Estimated inter-clutch intervals at 16, 18 and 20°C were 45.9, 35.5 and 27.5 days, respectively. Egg total lipids accounted for 31.9±3.1% dry weight. Absolute lipid content in eggs was correlated with egg dry weight (r(s)=0.907, n=41, P<0.001) and Y(v) (r(s)=0.384, n=41, P<0.5). In decreasing order of relative percentage, the most important fatty acids, were 18:1n9, 16:0, 18:2n6, 20:5n3, 18:0 and 22:6n-3. The level of n-3 HUFA was 18.5±0.7% (38.4±3.3mg/g dry weight). The profile of fatty acids in eggs resembled that displayed by the broodstock diet (enriched adult Artemia). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Maturity associated variance in physical activity and health-related quality of life in adolescent females: a mediated effects model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Joan E Hunter; Cumming, Sean P; Sherar, Lauren B; Standage, Martyn; Neville, Helen; Malina, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    This study tested a mediated effects model of psychological and behavioral adaptation to puberty within the context of physical activity (PA). Biological maturity status, physical self-concept, PA, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were assessed in 222 female British year 7 to 9 pupils (mean age = 12.7 years, SD = .8). Structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation and bootstrapping procedures supported the hypothesized model. Maturation status was inversely related to perceptions of sport competence, body attractiveness, and physical condition; and indirectly and inversely related to physical self-worth, PA, and HRQoL. Examination of the bootstrap-generated bias-corrected confidence intervals representing the direct and indirect paths between suggested that physical self-concept partially mediated the relations between maturity status and PA, and maturity status and HRQoL. Evidence supports the contention that perceptions of the physical self partially mediate relations maturity, PA, and HRQoL in adolescent females.

  18. Size increment of jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas mature females in Peruvian waters, 1989-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, Juan; Tafur, Ricardo; Taipe, Anatolio; Villegas, Piero; Keyl, Friedeman; Dominguez, Noel; Salazar, Martín

    2008-10-01

    Changes in population structure of the jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas in Peruvian waters were studied based on size-at-maturity from 1989 to 2004. From 1989 to 1999, mature squid belonging to the medium-sized group prevailed, but from 2001 on, mature squids were larger. This change is not related to the changes in sea surface temperature and we hypothesized that it was caused by the population increase of mesopelagic fishes as prey.

  19. Form of the male and female corpus callosum internal organization at the mature age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрий Петрович Костиленко

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the special features of the male and female corpus callosum internal organization at the mature age.Materials and methods: the total preparations of the male and female corpus callosum (10 preparation of each sex at 45–60 years old were used as the material. The given preparations were used to get from it the plate cuts in the two mutually perpendicular planes with 2 mm. thick. Then the received tissue plates of the corpus callosum underwent plastination in the epoxy. Then the preparations were extracted from the non-polymerized epoxy and placed on the polyethylene film that was covered with the other film of the same size. Further this stratified block was placed amid the two glasses of the equal size that shrunk together by placing the small load on it. After the complete polymerization the received epoxy plates with the corpus callosum tissue contained in it underwent the gentle grinding and the accurate polish and as the result was obtained the surface denudation of its tissue structures that were colored with the 1 % solution of blue methylene for 1% borax solution.Results of research: at the study of the corpus callosum plastinated cuts in saggital plane was revealed that the transverse platen-form elevations of its higher surface are the cord-form tenias standing out from within and going through the corpus callosum. At its studying in the transverse cut was established that in adults can be separated two types of corpus callosum by its density: the dense one and disperse one.At the large increases of the binocular loupe (microscope MBS-9 can be seen the gaps between the adjacent commissural cords. Within it can be detected the blood vessels. On the transverse cut of commissural cords in its depth are revealed the thinnest streaks which totality consists of the two alternate dark and light lines that form the layered striation. Among the series of the light lines are visible the interlayer that separate the whole depth of

  20. HIV knowledge, risk perception, and safer sex practices among female sex workers in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Eunice; Bauai, Ludwina; Sapuri, Mathias; Kaldor, John M; Fairley, Christopher K; Keogh, Louise A

    2011-01-01

    Sex workers are considered a high-risk group for sexually transmitted infections, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and are often targeted by prevention interventions with safer sex messages. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which knowledge of HIV and perception of risk influence safer sex practices among female sex workers (FSWs) in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. FSWs (n = 174) were recruited from 19 sites to participate in the study. Qualitative data were collected using semistructured interviews with FSWs (n = 142) through focus group discussions and (n = 32) individual interviews. In addition, quantitative data were collected from all FSWs using a short structured, demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using recurring themes and calculations of confidence intervals. Despite some common misperceptions, overall, most FSWs were basically aware of the risks of HIV and informed about transmission and prevention modalities but used condoms inconsistently. Most reported using condoms ‘sometimes’, almost one-sixth ‘never’ used condoms, only a fraction used condoms ‘always’ with clients, and none used condoms ‘always’ with regular sexual partners (RSPs). Among these FSWs, being knowledgeable about the risks, transmission, and prevention of HIV did not translate into safe sex. The findings suggest that certain contextual barriers to safer sex practices exist. These barriers could heighten HIV vulnerability and possibly may be responsible for infection in FSWs. Specific interventions that focus on improving condom self-efficacy in FSWs and simultaneously target clients and RSPs with safer sex messages are recommended. PMID:21445375

  1. Age Maturity of Female Japanese Quails Fed Diets Containing Katuk Leave Meal (Sauropus androgynus L.Merr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Wiradimadja

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the effects of katuk leave meal on sexual maturity in Japanese quail. Three hundred female Japanese quails, with 4 weeks age, were assigned into a completely randomized design with 4 treatments i.e., R1 (diet with neither katuk leave meal nor cholesterin, R2 (diet without katuk leave meal + 0.10% cholesterin, R3 (diet with 15% katuk leave meal without cholesterin, and R4 (diet with 15% katuk leave meal + 0.10% cholesterin. The parameters measured were estradiol hormone in plasma, and age maturity (five percent henday production. Estradiol hormone was measured with Radioimmunoassay. The data were collected and analyzed by using completely randomized design. The results showed that the addition of 15% katuk leave meal in the diet significantly decreased the estrogen concentration (P<0.05, so that slow down on the age maturity of female Japanese quail. (Animal Production 9(2: 67-72 (2007Key Words : Katuk leave meal, estradiol hormone, age maturity, quail

  2. Evaluation of Pain Assessment Techniques and Analgesia Efficacy in a Female Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus) Model of Surgical Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Vanessa L; Athavale, Stephanie; Simon, Katherine E; Kendall, Lon V; Nemzek, Jean A; Lofgren, Jennifer L

    2017-01-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are a frequently used species in research, often involving potentially painful procedures. Therefore, evidence-based recommendations regarding analgesia are critically needed to optimize their wellbeing. Our laboratory examined the efficacy of carprofen and extended-release (ER) buprenorphine, alone and as a multimodal combination, for relieving postsurgical pain in guinea pigs. Animals were assessed by using evoked (mechanical hypersensitivity), nonevoked (video ethogram, cageside ethogram, time-to-consumption test), and clinical (weight loss) measurements for 96 h during baseline, anesthesia–analgesia, and hysterectomy conditions. In addition, ER buprenorphine was evaluated pharmacologically. Guinea pigs treated with a single analgesic showed increased mechanical sensitivity for at least 96 h and indices of pain according to the video ethogram for as long as 8 h, compared with levels recorded during anesthesia–analgesia. In contrast, animals given both analgesics demonstrated increased mechanical sensitivity and behavioral evidence of pain for only 2 h after surgery compared with anesthesia–analgesia. The cageside ethogram and time-to-consumption tests failed to identify differences between conditions or treatment groups, highlighting the difficulty of identifying pain in guinea pigs without remote observation. Guinea pigs treated with multimodal analgesia or ER buprenorphine lost at least 10% of their baseline weights, whereas weight loss in carprofen animals was significantly lower (3%). Plasma levels for ER buprenorphine exceeded 0.9 ng/mL from 8 to 96 h after injection. Of the 3 analgesia regimens evaluated, multimodal analgesia provided the most effective pain control in guinea pigs. However the weight loss in the ER buprenorphine–treated animals may need to be considered during analgesia selection. PMID:28724492

  3. Comparison of the effects of the mother and an unfamiliar adult female on cortisol and behavioral responses of pre- and postweaning guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, F C; Hennessy, M B

    2000-03-01

    In the guinea pig, the presence of the mother, but not littermates, has been found to inhibit hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) responses during brief (30-60 min) exposure to novel surroundings both prior to and several weeks following the completion of weaning. In the present study, we found that an unfamiliar adult female inhibited plasma cortisol and vocalization responses of pre- and postweaning guinea pigs during a 60-min exposure to a novel environment. However, the presence of the mother still had a greater effect on the cortisol levels of the young, at least during the preweaning period. The moderating influence of the unfamiliar adult female on vocalizations and cortisol levels occurred despite behavioral interactions, such as heightened aggression and sexual behavior, not seen during tests with the mother. It is suggested that the unfamiliar adult female's effectiveness in reducing HPA activity during exposure to novelty may facilitate the change in patterns of social interaction occurring in recently weaned animals. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. Consequences of the presence of the mother or unfamiliar adult female on cortisol, ACTH, testosterone and behavioral responses of periadolescent guinea pigs during exposure to novelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, M B; Maken, D S; Graves, F C

    2000-08-01

    Periadolescent guinea pigs were exposed to a novel environment for 10, 30, 60, or 90 min while either alone or with either their biological mother or an unfamiliar adult female. Both classes of females reduced plasma cortisol, ACTH and vocalization responses to the novel environment, and did so to an equivalent degree. However, behavioral interactions with the mother and unfamiliar female differed considerably. The offspring exhibited more defensive behavior and were the targets of more agonistic acts when with the unfamiliar female, though one agonistic behavior, kicking, was observed more often in tests with the mother. Males displayed more social/courtship behavior and tumescence with the unfamiliar female. Further, males exhibited higher plasma testosterone levels when with the unfamiliar female than when either with the mother or alone. These data in conjunction with earlier findings suggest that the ability of unfamiliar adult females to moderate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity fully emerges during the periadolescent period, is not dependent on nurturant behavior by the adult female, and may facilitate the redirection of social behavior from the mother to unrelated adults. Further, mothers appear to inhibit maternally directed sexual behavior and plasma testosterone elevations in their periadolescent sons, effects which likely serve to inhibit inbreeding.

  5. Pharmacokinetics and Paw Withdrawal Pressure in Female Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus) Treated with Sustained-Release Buprenorphine and Buprenorphine Hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brian J; Wegenast, Daniel J; Hansen, Ryan J; Hess, Ann M; Kendall, Lon V

    2016-11-01

    Providing appropriate analgesia is essential in minimizing pain and maintaining optimal animal care and welfare in laboratory animals. Guinea pigs are common animal models in biomedical research, often requiring analgesic support. Here we evaluated the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of a sustained-release formulation of buprenorphine (Bup-SR) in this species. Guinea pigs (n = 7 each group) received either Bup-HCl (0.05 mg/kg BID for 3 d) or Bup-SR (0.3 mg/kg once). Plasma collection and measurement of paw-withdrawal pressure (PWP) was conducted at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 26, 48, and 72 h after treatment. Plasma levels of Bup-HCl peaked at 2331 pg/mL at 1 h after administration and declined to 165 pg/mL by 12 h. Plasma concentrations of Bup-SR peaked at 1344 pg/mL at 26 h after administration and declined to 429 pg/mL by 48 h. The PWP of the Bup-HCltreated guinea pigs peaked at 674 g at 1 h and declined to 402 g at 6 h, whereas that of Bup-SRtreated guinea pigs at 1 h was 361 g, 555 g at 6 h (significantly higher than that after Bup-HCl), and peaked at 680 g at 12 h. The PWP of both treatments was similar from 24 to 72 h and ranged from 348 to 450 g. The plasma concentration and PWP showed good correlation. These results suggest that Bup-SR provides consistent analgesia equivalent to that of Bup-HCl for a prolonged period of time and that Bup-SR is an alternative method of analgesia in guinea pigs.

  6. Fecundity, reproductive seasonality and maturation size of Callinectes sapidus females (Decapoda: Portunidae in the Southeast coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Severino-Rodrigues

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available C. sapidus fisheries has a significant influence on the economy of some countries in North America and has a relative extensive literature in these regions. However, only few papers discuss the ecology of C. sapidus in the South Atlantic, despite its economic importance in that region. We studied the fecundity, reproductive seasonality and maturation size of C. sapidus females captured in the Southeast coast of Brazil from January to December 2002. Females were separated, weighted (Wt, and cephalothorax width (CW was measured. Furthermore, the eggs-masses were classified according to embryonic development, separated, weighted (We and fixed. Eggs were also separated and counted, resulting in the average number of eggs per individual (Ne. A total sample of 307 females was collected: 78 young, 130 adults and 99 ovigerous. Ovigerous females showed CW between 7.49 and 15.89cm with average of 12.21cm and were distributed throughout the sample period, with highest incidence between December and March. The onset of morphological maturity (L50 occurred at CW=10.33cm, and the size in which all were mature (L100 was CW=11.20cm. Individual fecundity ranged from 689 356 to 3 438 122 with an average of 2 006 974. The CW showed a positive growth trend with Ne and We. We concluded that in order to ensure the resource sustainability, it is necessary to prohibit captures of C. sapidus in these regions, especially during summer. Additionally, our studies suggest that the minimum capture size should be 11cm of carapace width.

  7. The chemosensitivity of labellar sugar receptor in female Phormia regina is paralleled with ovary maturation: Effects of serotonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Paolo; Stoffolano, John G; De Rose, Francescaelena; Barbarossa, Iole Tomassini; Liscia, Anna

    2015-11-01

    Oogenesis in most adult insects is a nutrient-dependent process involving ingestion of both proteins and carbohydrates that ultimately depends on peripheral input from chemoreceptors. The main goal of this study was to characterize, in the female blowfly Phormia regina, the responsive changes of the labellar chemoreceptors to carbohydrates and proteins in relation to four different stages along the ovarian cycle: (1) immature ovaries, (2) mid-mature ovaries, (3) mature ovaries and ready for egg-laying and (4) post egg-laying ovaries. Then, the possible effects exerted by exogenous serotonin on the chemoreceptor sensitivity profiles were investigated. Our results show that ovary length, width and contraction rate progressively increase from stage 1 to 3, when all these parameters reach their maximum values, before declining in the next stage 4. The sensitivity of the labellar "sugar" chemoreceptors to both sucrose and proteins varies during the ovarian maturation stages, reaching a minimum for sucrose in stage 3, while that to proteins begins. Exogenous 5-HT supply specifically increases the chemoreceptor sensitivity to sugar at the stages 3 and 4, while it does not affect that to proteins. In conclusion, our results provide evidence that in female blowflies the cyclic variations in the sensitivity of the labellar chemosensilla to sugars and proteins are time-related to ovarian development and that during the stages 3 and 4 the responsiveness of the sugar cell to sucrose is under serotonergic control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in females and males in different cervical vertebral maturation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya Gupta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross sectional study was to assess serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 levels in female and male subjects at various cervical vertebral maturation (CVM stages. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 60 subjects, 30 females and 30 males, in the age range of 8-23 years. For all subjects, serum IGF-1 level was estimated from blood samples by means of chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA. CVM was assessed on lateral cephalograms using the method described by Baccetti. Serum IGF-1 level and cervical staging data of 30 female subjects were included and taken from records of a previous study. Data were analyzed by Kruska-Wallis and Mann Whitney test. Bonferroni correction was carried out and alpha value was set at 0.003. RESULTS: Peak value of serum IGF-1 was observed in cervical stages CS3 in females and CS4 in males. Differences between males and females were observed in mean values of IGF-1 at stages CS3, 4 and 5. The highest mean IGF-1 levels in males was observed in CS4 followed by CS5 and third highest in CS3; whereas in females the highest mean IGF-1 levelswas observed in CS3 followed by CS4 and third highest in CS5. Trends of IGF-1 in relation to the cervical stages also differed between males and females. The greatest mean serum IGF-1 value for both sexes was comparable, for females (397 ng/ml values were slightly higher than in males (394.8 ng/ml. CONCLUSIONS: Males and females showed differences in IGF-1 trends and levels at different cervical stages.

  9. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in females and males in different cervical vertebral maturation stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shreya; Deoskar, Anuradha; Gupta, Puneet; Jain, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross sectional study was to assess serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in female and male subjects at various cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study sample consisted of 60 subjects, 30 females and 30 males, in the age range of 8-23 years. For all subjects, serum IGF-1 level was estimated from blood samples by means of chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA). CVM was assessed on lateral cephalograms using the method described by Baccetti. Serum IGF-1 level and cervical staging data of 30 female subjects were included and taken from records of a previous study. Data were analyzed by Kruska-Wallis and Mann Whitney test. Bonferroni correction was carried out and alpha value was set at 0.003. RESULTS: Peak value of serum IGF-1 was observed in cervical stages CS3 in females and CS4 in males. Differences between males and females were observed in mean values of IGF-1 at stages CS3, 4 and 5. The highest mean IGF-1 levels in males was observed in CS4 followed by CS5 and third highest in CS3; whereas in females the highest mean IGF-1 levelswas observed in CS3 followed by CS4 and third highest in CS5. Trends of IGF-1 in relation to the cervical stages also differed between males and females. The greatest mean serum IGF-1 value for both sexes was comparable, for females (397 ng/ml) values were slightly higher than in males (394.8 ng/ml). CONCLUSIONS: Males and females showed differences in IGF-1 trends and levels at different cervical stages. PMID:25992990

  10. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels in females and males in different cervical vertebral maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shreya; Deoskar, Anuradha; Gupta, Puneet; Jain, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this cross sectional study was to assess serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels in female and male subjects at various cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. The study sample consisted of 60 subjects, 30 females and 30 males, in the age range of 8-23 years. For all subjects, serum IGF-1 level was estimated from blood samples by means of chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA). CVM was assessed on lateral cephalograms using the method described by Baccetti. Serum IGF-1 level and cervical staging data of 30 female subjects were included and taken from records of a previous study. Data were analyzed by Kruska-Wallis and Mann Whitney test. Bonferroni correction was carried out and alpha value was set at 0.003. Peak value of serum IGF-1 was observed in cervical stages CS3 in females and CS4 in males. Differences between males and females were observed in mean values of IGF-1 at stages CS3, 4 and 5. The highest mean IGF-1 levels in males was observed in CS4 followed by CS5 and third highest in CS3; whereas in females the highest mean IGF-1 levelswas observed in CS3 followed by CS4 and third highest in CS5. Trends of IGF-1 in relation to the cervical stages also differed between males and females. The greatest mean serum IGF-1 value for both sexes was comparable, for females (397 ng/ml) values were slightly higher than in males (394.8 ng/ml). Males and females showed differences in IGF-1 trends and levels at different cervical stages.

  11. Selling Gender: Associations of Box Art Representation of Female Characters With Sales for Teen- and Mature-rated Video Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Christopher E

    2013-02-01

    Content analysis of video games has consistently shown that women are portrayed much less frequently than men and in subordinate roles, often in "hypersexualized" ways. However, the relationship between portrayal of female characters and videogame sales has not previously been studied. In order to assess the cultural influence of video games on players, it is important to weight differently those games seen by the majority of players (in the millions), rather than a random sample of all games, many of which are seen by only a few thousand people. Box art adorning the front of video game boxes is a form of advertising seen by most game customers prior to purchase and should therefore predict sales if indeed particular depictions of female and male characters influence sales. Using a sample of 399 box art cases from games with ESRB ratings of Teen or Mature released in the US during the period of 2005 through 2010, this study shows that sales were positively related to sexualization of non-central female characters among cases with women present. In contrast, sales were negatively related to the presence of any central female characters (sexualized or non-sexualized) or the presence of female characters without male characters present. These findings suggest there is an economic motive for the marginalization and sexualization of women in video game box art, and that there is greater audience exposure to these stereotypical depictions than to alternative depictions because of their positive relationship to sales.

  12. Selling Gender: Associations of Box Art Representation of Female Characters With Sales for Teen- and Mature-rated Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Near, Christopher E.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of video games has consistently shown that women are portrayed much less frequently than men and in subordinate roles, often in “hypersexualized” ways. However, the relationship between portrayal of female characters and videogame sales has not previously been studied. In order to assess the cultural influence of video games on players, it is important to weight differently those games seen by the majority of players (in the millions), rather than a random sample of all games, many of which are seen by only a few thousand people. Box art adorning the front of video game boxes is a form of advertising seen by most game customers prior to purchase and should therefore predict sales if indeed particular depictions of female and male characters influence sales. Using a sample of 399 box art cases from games with ESRB ratings of Teen or Mature released in the US during the period of 2005 through 2010, this study shows that sales were positively related to sexualization of non-central female characters among cases with women present. In contrast, sales were negatively related to the presence of any central female characters (sexualized or non-sexualized) or the presence of female characters without male characters present. These findings suggest there is an economic motive for the marginalization and sexualization of women in video game box art, and that there is greater audience exposure to these stereotypical depictions than to alternative depictions because of their positive relationship to sales. PMID:23467816

  13. Relationship Between Age at Menarche and Skeletal Maturation Stages in Taiwanese Female Orthodontic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddie Hsiang-Hua Lai

    2008-07-01

    Conclusion: The majority of female orthodontic patients have passed the pubertal growth spurt when they experience their menarche. Menarche usually follows the pubertal growth spurt by about 1 year and occurs after NTUH-SMI stage four or CVMS III.

  14. Mutation in SUMO E3 ligase, SIZ1, disrupts the mature female gametophyte in Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Yu; Zhang, Chunyu; Chen, Tong; Hao, Huaiqing; Liu, Peng; Bressan, Ray A.; Hasegawa, Paul M.; Jin, Jing Bo; Lin, Jinxing

    2012-01-01

    Female gametophyte is the multicellular haploid structure that can produce embryo and endosperm after fertilization, which has become an attractive model system for investigating molecular mechanisms in nuclei migration, cell specification, cell

  15. [The preliminary study of the efficiency of using cervical vertebral maturation of growth level of female adolescent idiopathic scoliosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di-qing; Chen, Zi-qiang; Li, Ming

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the reliability of cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) and to verify the possibility in the growth evaluation of female adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients as a helpful supplementary to the Risser sign. Coronal and lateral full-length spine X-ray film and left hand-wrist radiographs of 77 female adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis were selected from January 2010 to October 2010. The interval period between lateral length of the spine and left hand-wrist radiographs did not exceed 3 months. The CVM was assessed by a method developed by Baccetti and co-workers, whereas hand-wrist maturation was assessed by Fishman's method. The results were analyzed by Spearman correlation with patients Risser sign, chronological age, and menarche period. There were strong correlations between CVM and SMI or Risser sign (r = 0.862 and 0.762, P < 0.01). While in 26 patients whose Risser sign were 0-I, the correlation between CVM and SMI was more pronounced (r = 0.761, P < 0.01), compared with the correlation between Risser sign and SMI (r = 0.641, P < 0.01). CVM is a valid indicator of skeletal growth evaluation and can be used as a helpful supplementary to Risser sign.

  16. Differential expression of secretogranin II and chromogranin A genes in the female rat pituitary through sexual maturation and estrous cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anouar, Y.; Duval, J.

    1991-01-01

    Secretogranin II (SgII) is a protein of pituitary secretory granules released by LHRH-stimulated gonadotrope cells. Estrogens and androgens are modulators of SgII release. Experiments were performed to determine the regulation of expression of the SgII gene in the female rat pituitary, during sexual maturation and according to the estrous cycle. Age- and cycle-related changes in SgII mRNA content were estimated through cytoplasmic slot blot; SgII content was determined by western blotting; maturation of the protein was controlled through [35S]sulfate labeling. Variations in chromogranin A (CgA), another protein of secretory granules, were analyzed in the same experimental conditions to assess the specificity of SgII regulation. The pituitary SgII concentration increased between days 7 and 21 (2.2-fold) and then declined to the initial 7-day-old value. Simultaneously, the CgA concentration went through a maximum between days 14 and 21 and then strongly dropped to barely detectable levels in the adult pituitary. The SgII mRNA concentration followed roughly the same pattern as the protein. Moreover, the sulfation level remained constant between days 14 and 60. These results demonstrated a regulatory mechanism operating, during sexual maturation, on the SgII gene and not on the protein processing or on storage/release steps. In the 4-day cycling females, the pituitary SgII mRNA and protein contents were the lowest during estrus. They then increased to their highest values in diestrus II. Moreover, the sulfation level of SgII was significantly higher during estrus than during any other stage. Due to its low content level, variations in pituitary CgA could not be demonstrated during the cycle

  17. Impact of curcumin supplementation in monochromatic light on lipid serum profile of sexually mature female Magelang ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kasiyati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of curcumin supplementation inexpose monochromatic light on serum lipid concentrations of sexually mature female magelang duck. One hundred and ninety two female magelang ducks were assigned into a completely randomized design with a 4×4 factorial arrangement and each experimental unit was repeated 3 times, each with 4 female magelang ducks. The first factor was dose of curcumin supplementation consisted of 4 levels i.e., 0, 9, 18, and 36 mg/duck/day. The second factor was the color of monochromatic light consisted of 4 levels i.e., white, red, green, and blue colors. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA. The result showed that serum concentrations of triglyceride, cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL, and low density lipoprotein (LDL were lower (P<0.05 while high density lipoprotein (HDL were higher (P<0.05 in experimental ducks supplemented with a curcumin dose of 36 mg/duck/day in variety of monochromatic light colors compared to control experimental ducks without curcumin supplementation. The curcumin doses of 18 or 36 mg/duck/day within red, green, or blue light had the potential to modulate lipid metabolism, as indicated by the increased serum concentration of HDL and the decreased serum concentrations of triglyceride, cholesterol, VLDL, and LDL of the experimental female magelang ducks.

  18. Early Adversity, Elevated Stress Physiology, Accelerated Sexual Maturation, and Poor Health in Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Jay; Ruttle, Paula L.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary-minded developmentalists studying predictive-adaptive-response processes linking childhood adversity with accelerated female reproductive development and health scientists investigating the developmental origins of health and disease (DOoHaD) may be tapping the same process, whereby longer-term health costs are traded off for…

  19. Physical and chemical properties of meat from scavenging chickens and helmeted guinea fowls in response to age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musundire, M T; Halimani, T E; Chimonyo, M

    2017-08-01

    1. The effects of age and sex on body weight, carcass traits, physical and chemical properties of breast muscle from chickens and helmeted guinea fowls managed under village free-range conditions were assessed in random samples of 48 guinea fowls and 48 chickens obtained from local markets. 2. Guinea fowls had higher body weight, hot carcass weight, cold dressed weight and breast weight than chickens. 3. Guinea fowls had more dry matter, protein and less fat than chickens. Ash content did not differ between guinea fowls and chickens. Protein and fat increased, whereas dry matter and ash decreased with age (P meat was lighter, less red and more yellow than guinea fowl meat. Cooking loss was higher in guinea fowls, male and grower birds than chickens, females and adult birds, respectively. Shear force was affected by age, as mature birds had a higher value than growers. 5. Guinea fowl carcasses contained more meat that was leaner, higher in protein and redder compared with chicken meat. As age increased the meat increased in protein and fat content and shear force, whereas colour became darker, redder and yellower.

  20. Contrasting female-male mortality ratios after routine vaccinations with pentavalent vaccine versus measles and yellow fever vaccine. A cohort study from urban Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Lund, Najaaraq

    2016-01-01

    , DTP vaccine is associated with increased female mortality relative to male mortality. In 2008, Guinea-Bissau replaced DTP with the DTP-containing pentavalent vaccine (Penta; DTP-H. influenza type B-Hepatitis B) at 6, 10 and 14weeks and yellow fever vaccine (YF) was to be given with MV. We investigated......BACKGROUND: In addition to protection against the target diseases, vaccines may have non-specific effects (NSEs). Measles vaccine (MV) has beneficial NSEs, providing protection against non-measles deaths, most so for girls. By contrast, though protecting against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis...... possible sex-differential mortality rates following Penta and MV+YF vaccination. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) registers vaccines given by the three government health centres in the study area and vital status through demographic surveillance. We assessed the association between sex and mortality...

  1. The role of the maturation stage of thymocytes on the phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A responses in thymocyte and lymph node lymphocyte cocultures in guinea pig. Effects of pretreatment of thymocytes with thymosin or levamisole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soppi, E

    1981-02-01

    Guinea pig thymocytes (TH) and lymph node lymphocytes (LNL) synergized optimally in both phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin (Con A) responses in mixtures containing 0.3 x 10(6) TH and 0.2 x 10(6) LNL. Using discontinuous albumin gradient centrifugation thymocytes were separated into two subpopulations (F4 and F6) at different stages of maturation. Immature, PHA and Con A unresponsive F6 thymocytes synergized significantly only in the PHA response. More mature, PHA and Con A responsive F4 thymocytes cooperated well in the Con A response, but only a small synergy was observed in the PHA response. Pretreatment of the unfractionated thymocytes with the low concentration (0.05 microgram/ml) of thymosin decreased significantly their capacity to interact with LNL in both PHA and Con A responses. Preincubation of F4 thymocytes with the high concentration (200 microgram/ml) of thymosin increased the synergy in PHA response. All other combinations with thymosin or levamisole and thymocytes were ineffective on the mitogenic responses in the TH and LNL cocultures. Altogether, the results how that the thymocyte populations that induce synergy in PHA, or in (PHA and) Con A responses represent the two subpopulations of thymocytes with different maturation stages. The differential effects of the two concentrations of thymosin on the thymocytes support further the concept that the thymocytes synergizing in responses to both mitogens are more mature than those synergizing only PHA response. Thus, the ability of thymocytes to interact with LNL is dependent on the maturation stage of thymocytes, and can be utilized to study the differentiation of thymocytes.

  2. Female reproductive traits of a commercially exploited skate: Atlantoraja platana (Günther, 1880) (Chondrichthyes, Rajidae). Ovarian morphology, gametogenesis and microscopic verification of maturity criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, A C; Wehitt, A; Díaz Andrade, M C; Di Giacomo, E E; Galíndez, E J

    2017-10-01

    Atlantoraja platana is an endemic species of the Southwest Atlantic Ocean, and is one of the most captured by the local bottom trawl industrial fisheries. In this work, the microscopic architecture of mature female's gonads and the dynamics of follicle development are studied as a contribution to raise awareness of reproductive biology of the species. Folliculogenesis depicts the same histologic pattern as in other Elasmobranchs. Follicles in different degrees of maturation coexist in mature animals. The oogonia were only found in immature individuals. Likewise, atretic follicles were recorded in ovaries of all sexual maturity stages. The microscopic size recorded from the beginning of yolk input is smallest than the detected with the necked eye. This study provides valuable information about female's gametogenesis that could be taken into account in the development of fisheries management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in uptake of 3H-progesterone by female rat brain and pituitary from birth to sexual maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presl, J.; Figarova, V.; Herzmann, J.; Roehling, S.

    1975-01-01

    3 H-progesterone uptake by various parts of the brain, pituitary and skeletal muscle was compared in newborn, 5-, 10-, 15-, 20-, 25-and 50-day-old female rats at 1 hr after a single intraperitoneal injection of 50 μCi/100 g body weight. High uptake values in newborn animals and in those aged 5 days were found in all tissues investigated. A sharp decrease in accumulation was observed from birth and/or 5th day of life. The uptake by the pituitary was higher than those by other tissues investigated. The ratio of radioactivity concentration between the tissues and the cerebellar cortex increased significantly only in the posterior hypothalamus of adult females (at the age of 50 days). In the pituitary the ratio tissue/cortex was already significantly higher in newborns. The high level of brain radioactivity in the youngest animals probably was a manifestation of high plasma concentrations of the tritiated progesterone. The striking decrease in the uptake of radioactivity by the brain and pituitary during the first two weeks of life most likely reflected a decreased level of plasma radioactivity, as shown indirectly by the concomitant decrease in the labelled progesterone uptake by the skeletal muscle. The increase in the tissue/cortex ratio in the posterior hypothalamus with the attainment of sexual maturity suggested the first appearance of a specific binding capacity for the progesterone which is present in the pituitary since birth. (author) assumed to be

  4. Spatial variation in size at onset of maturity of female southern rock lobster Jasus edwardsii around Tasmania, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb Gardner

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available P align=justify>The size at onset of maturity (SOM of female Jasus edwardsii (Hutton, 1875 was estimated at 50 sites around Tasmania, Australia, based on the presence of ovigerous setae. There was a distinct spatial cline with the largest SOM being found at northwestern sites and the smallest at southwestern sites. Variation in SOM between sites was substantial and ranged from 59 mm to 112 mm carapace length. The observed decline in SOM from north to south was the reverse of that described for the same species at similar latitudes in New Zealand, which suggests that SOM in J. edwardsii is regulated by factors in addition to temperature. The effect of density on female SOM was investigated by comparing SOM estimates from two marine reserves with adjacent fished sites; however, there was no evidence of a decline in SOM with increasing density as predicted. A model of SOM predicted by latitude and longitude is described to facilitate spatial modelling of lobster stocks. The substantial and predictable spatial variation in SOM implies that management of this fishery would be improved by incorporating spatial elements, such as regional legal minimum size limits.

  5. Social preferences of developing guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) from the preweaning to the periadolescent periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael B; Young, Travis L; O'Leary, Shonagh K; Maken, Deborah S

    2003-12-01

    Preference tests in a novel environment (Experiment 1) and unobtrusive observations in a specialized living environment (Experiment 2) examined the attractiveness of various classes of conspecifics for maturing guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). It was found that (a). the young continued to remain near the mother well beyond weaning; (b). there was increased time spent with unrelated adult females, but not males, after weaning; (c). male and female offspring behaved similarly; and (d). littermates spent considerable time with each other. These results provide no evidence that guinea pigs approaching sexual maturity begin to associate preferentially with novel animals or potential breeding partners. Choices were largely predictable from earlier findings of the ability of various classes of conspecifics to reduce hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity of the young.

  6. Prenatal stress modifies behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function in female guinea pig offspring: effects of timing of prenatal stress and stage of reproductive cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Amita; Matthews, Stephen G

    2008-12-01

    Prenatal stress is associated with altered behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function postnatally. Recent studies suggest that these outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress. The majority of these studies have been carried out in male offspring. We hypothesized that a short period of prenatal stress would result in female offspring that exhibit differences in open-field behavior and HPA axis activity, but the outcome would depend on the timing of the prenatal stress and the stage of the reproductive cycle. Pregnant guinea pigs were exposed to a strobe light during the fetal brain growth spurt [gestational d 50-52 (PS50)] or during the period of rapid brain myelination [gestational d 60-62 (PS60)]. Open-field activity was assessed in juvenile and adult female offspring. HPA axis function was tested in adult offspring. All tests in adulthood were carried out during the estrous and luteal phases of the reproductive cycle to determine the effect of stage on HPA axis programming. Tissues were collected upon completion of the study for analysis by in situ hybridization. PS60 offspring exhibited decreased activity in an open field during the estrous phase of the reproductive cycle compared with control offspring. Both PS50 and PS60 offspring exhibited a lower salivary cortisol response to a stressor, only during the estrous phase. Consistent with the behavioral and endocrine data, PS60 females exhibited lower plasma estradiol levels, reduced ovary weight, and increased glucocorticoid receptor mRNA in the paraventricular nucleus. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that there are effects of prenatal stress on behavior and HPA axis functioning in female offspring but that the outcomes are dependent on the timing of the prenatal stress together with the status of the reproductive cycle.

  7. [Reproductive pattern and mean size of sexual maturity of female lobsters Panulirus gracilis (Decapoda: Palinuridae) in Playa Lagarto, Guanacaste, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo Madrigal, Helven

    2012-12-01

    The lobster P. gracilis is important as a fishery resource and also contributes to food security of fishers in coastal communities in the North Pacific of Costa Rica. Due to the importance of updating knowledge related to the reproductive pattern of this species, we analyzed 357 specimens of female lobsters caught by the fishing methods of "hookah" and lung diving, from November 2007 to October 2008 in Playa Lagarto. Furthermore, we examined the size composition by depth; monthly pattern of reproductive activity (RAI) associated with the relative increase in sea surface temperature, and also the mean size at maturity using Generalized Linear Models. Four physiological states of sexual maturity showed that females with no signs of mating or sexual maturity have a minimum mean size of 62.3mm of cephalothorax length (CL). There are characteristics of functional maturity from very small sizes ranging from 30 to 50mm CL, being the smallest berried female reported for this specie of 35.8mm CL and the highest percentage of mature females between 70 and 80mm CL. Percentages of RAI remained above 50% during the year except October and January. In addition, it observed an increase in the RAI that started from April and continued until August associated with a relative increase in temperature on March, although the correlation was not significant (r2=0.49, p>0.05). It is possible that the low mean size at maturity (70.2mm LC) for P. gracilis in this region is related to the fishing activity. It recommends the establishment of a ban in the region of at least five months (April-August) in order to protect the reproductive seasonality of the species and to promote a recruitment increase in the fishing areas.

  8. Routine vaccinations associated with divergent effects on female and male mortality at the paediatric ward in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veirum, Jens Erik; Sodemann, Morten; Biai, Sidu

    2005-01-01

    was 0.54 (0.28-0.97). Among children having received diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and oral polio (OPV) as the last vaccines, girls had higher case fatality than boys, the mortality ratio being 1.63 (1.03-2.59). The female to male ratios were significantly inversed for DTP and OPV versus measles...

  9. Contrasting female-male mortality ratios after routine vaccinations with pentavalent vaccine versus measles and yellow fever vaccine. A cohort study from urban Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisker, Ane B; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Lund, Najaaraq; Djana, Queba; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Martins, Cesario L; Benn, Christine S

    2016-08-31

    In addition to protection against the target diseases, vaccines may have non-specific effects (NSEs). Measles vaccine (MV) has beneficial NSEs, providing protection against non-measles deaths, most so for girls. By contrast, though protecting against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis, DTP vaccine is associated with increased female mortality relative to male mortality. In 2008, Guinea-Bissau replaced DTP with the DTP-containing pentavalent vaccine (Penta; DTP-H. influenza type B-Hepatitis B) at 6, 10 and 14weeks and yellow fever vaccine (YF) was to be given with MV. We investigated possible sex-differential mortality rates following Penta and MV+YF vaccination. Bandim Health Project (BHP) registers vaccines given by the three government health centres in the study area and vital status through demographic surveillance. We assessed the association between sex and mortality by vaccination status in Cox proportional hazards models with age as underlying timescale. Follow-up was censored at a subsequent vaccination contact or after 6months of follow-up. Between September 2008 and April 2011, we registered 23,448 vaccination contacts for children aged 42-365days; 17,313 were for Penta and 3028 for MV (2907 co-administered with YF). During follow-up 112 children died. The female/male mortality rate ratio was 1.73 (1.11-2.70) following Penta and 0.38 (0.12-1.19) after MV (p=0.02 for same effect). Adjusting for maternal education or weight-for-age at the time of vaccination did not change the estimates. Penta appears to have the same negative effects on mortality as those seen for DTP. Assessing post-vaccination mortality for boys and girls is necessary to improve the vaccination programme. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Chris

    2004-02-17

    Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) is a parasitic disease that is limited to remote, rural villages in 13 sub-Saharan African countries that do not have access to safe drinking water. It is one the next diseases targeted for eradication by the World Health Organization. Guinea worm disease is transmitted by drinking water containing copepods (water fleas) that are infected with Dracunculiasis medinensis larvae. One year after human ingestion of infected water a female adult worm emerges, typically from a lower extremity, producing painful ulcers that can impair mobility for up to several weeks. This disease occurs annually when agricultural activities are at their peak. Large proportions of economically productive individuals of a village are usually affected simultaneously, resulting in decreased agricultural productivity and economic hardship. Eradication of guinea worm disease depends on prevention, as there is no effective treatment or vaccine. Since 1986, there has been a 98% reduction in guinea worm disease worldwide, achieved primarily through community-based programs. These programs have educated local populations on how to filter drinking water to remove the parasite and how to prevent those with ulcers from infecting drinking-water sources. Complete eradication will require sustained high-level political, financial and community support.

  11. Distribution of total mercury, methyl mercury and selenium in pod of killer whales (Orcinus Orca) stranded in the northern area of Japan: Comparison of mature females with calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, Tetsuya [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan)]. E-mail: endotty@hoku-iryo-u.ac.jp; Kimura, Osamu [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Hisamichi, Yohsuke [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Minoshima, Yasuhiko [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Health Sciences University of Hokkaido, 1757 Ishikari-Tobetsu, Hokkaido 061-0293 (Japan); Haraguchi, Koichi [Daiichi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 22-1 Tamagawa-Cho, Minami-Ku, Fukuoka 815-8511 (Japan); Kakumoto, Chiharu [Marine Wildlife Center of JAPAN - Incorporated Non Profit Organization/NPO, 1-35-103, N21W6 Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0021 (Japan); Kobayashi, Mari [Marine Wildlife Center of JAPAN - Incorporated Non Profit Organization/NPO, 1-35-103, N21W6 Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0021 (Japan)

    2006-11-15

    Total mercury (T-Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle from a pod of killer whales including five mature females and three calves stranded in the northern area of Japan were analyzed. In the mature female, contamination level of T-Hg in the liver sample (62.2 {+-} 21.9 {mu}g/wet g) was markedly higher than that in kidney sample and muscle sample. The molar ratio of T-Hg to Se in the liver sample was approximately 1, and those in the kidney and muscle samples were markedly lower than 1. These results suggest that the formation of HgSe compound increases the hepatic accumulation of mercury (Hg). In contrast, contamination level of T-Hg in the calf organs was much lower than that in the mature female organs. These results suggest that the transfer of Hg from the mother to the fetus via placenta and/or to calf via milk is trace. - Total mercury, methyl mercury and selenium concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle from a pod of killer whales stranded in the northern area of Japan were analyzed.

  12. Distribution of total mercury, methyl mercury and selenium in pod of killer whales (Orcinus Orca) stranded in the northern area of Japan: Comparison of mature females with calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tetsuya; Kimura, Osamu; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Minoshima, Yasuhiko; Haraguchi, Koichi; Kakumoto, Chiharu; Kobayashi, Mari

    2006-01-01

    Total mercury (T-Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle from a pod of killer whales including five mature females and three calves stranded in the northern area of Japan were analyzed. In the mature female, contamination level of T-Hg in the liver sample (62.2 ± 21.9 μg/wet g) was markedly higher than that in kidney sample and muscle sample. The molar ratio of T-Hg to Se in the liver sample was approximately 1, and those in the kidney and muscle samples were markedly lower than 1. These results suggest that the formation of HgSe compound increases the hepatic accumulation of mercury (Hg). In contrast, contamination level of T-Hg in the calf organs was much lower than that in the mature female organs. These results suggest that the transfer of Hg from the mother to the fetus via placenta and/or to calf via milk is trace. - Total mercury, methyl mercury and selenium concentrations in liver, kidney and muscle from a pod of killer whales stranded in the northern area of Japan were analyzed

  13. Prepubertal exposure to arsenic(III) suppresses circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) delaying sexual maturation in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Michael P; Saca, James C; Hamilton, Alina; Solano, Rene F; Rivera, Jesse R; Whitehouse-Innis, Wendy; Parsons, Jason G; Dearth, Robert K

    2014-04-01

    Arsenic (As) is a prevalent environmental toxin readily accessible for human consumption and has been identified as an endocrine disruptor. However, it is not known what impact As has on female sexual maturation. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of prepubertal exposure on mammary gland development and pubertal onset in female rats. Results showed that prepubertal exposure to 10 mg/kg of arsenite (As(III)) delayed vaginal opening (VO) and prepubertal mammary gland maturation. We determined that As accumulates in the liver, disrupts hepatocyte function and suppresses serum levels of the puberty related hormone insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in prepubertal animals. Overall, this is the first study to show that prepubertal exposure to As(III) acts peripherally to suppress circulating levels of IGF-1 resulting in delayed sexual maturation. Furthermore, this study identifies a critical window of increased susceptibility to As(III) that may have a lasting impact on female reproductive function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    Equatorial Guinea is situated on the Gulf of Guinea along the west African coast between Cameroon and Gabon. The people are predominantly of Bantu origin. The country's ties with Spain are significant; in 1959, it became the Spanish Equatorial region ruled by Spain's commissioner general. Recent political developments in Equatorial Guinea include the formation of the Democratic Party for Equatorial Guinea in July of 1987 and the formation of a 60-member unicameral Chamber of Representatives of the People in 1983. Concerning the population, 83% of the people are Catholic and the official language is Spanish. Poverty and serious health, education and sanitary problems exist. There is no adequate hospital and few trained physicians, no dentists, and no opticians. Malaria is endemic and immunization for yellow fever is required for entrance into the country. The water is not potable and many visitors to the country bring bottled water. The tropical climate of Equatorial Guinea provides the climate for the country's largest exports and source of economy; cacao, wood and coffee. Although the country, as a whole, has progressed towards developing a participatory political system, there are still problems of governmental corruption in the face of grave health and welfare conditions. In recent years, the country has received assistance from the World Bank and the United States to aid in its development.

  15. The guinea pig as an animal model for developmental and reproductive toxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, Meredith S; Wehner, Nancy G

    2009-04-01

    Regulatory guidelines for developmental and reproductive toxicology (DART) studies require selection of "relevant" animal models as determined by kinetic, pharmacological, and toxicological data. Traditionally, rats, mice, and rabbits are the preferred animal models for these studies. However, for test articles that are pharmacologically inactive in the traditional animal models, the guinea pig may be a viable option. This choice should not be made lightly, as guinea pigs have many disadvantages compared to the traditional species, including limited historical control data, variability in pregnancy rates, small and variable litter size, long gestation, relative maturity at birth, and difficulty in dosing and breeding. This report describes methods for using guinea pigs in DART studies and provides results of positive and negative controls. Standard study designs and animal husbandry methods were modified to allow mating on the postpartum estrus in fertility studies and were used for producing cohorts of pregnant females for developmental studies. A positive control study with the pregnancy-disrupting agent mifepristone resulted in the anticipated failure of embryo implantation and supported the use of the guinea pig model. Control data for reproductive endpoints collected from 5 studies are presented. In cases where the traditional animal models are not relevant, the guinea pig can be used successfully for DART studies. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Effect of Valsartan on the hormones of Pituitary-gonadal axis Performance in mature female Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Hosseini

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: Valsartan , as a receptor antagonist of Ang II inhibits the secretion of gonadotropin hormones and accelerates their effect on blocking the follicular cells of the female sex ,causing the reduction of female hormones.

  17. [Protein content in urine of male and female water vole (Arvicola amphibious) at the period of spring growth and sexual maturation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarova, G G; Proskurniak, L P

    2012-01-01

    The study was carried out on the captive bread water voles Arvicola amphibious kept in vivarium. At the first decade of January, March, and June, the body length and anogenital distance were measured, the body mass was determined, and urine was collected for determination of its protein content. The obtained results have shown that the protein content depends on sex of the animals and is connected with the reproductive status of males and their dimension-weight characteristics. The urinary protein excretion level in females remained stable at different months, whereas in males its sharp rise was noted at the period of spring growth and sexual maturation. The significant sexual differences were established in March and enhanced in June. In March the urine protein content in males was noted to correlate positively with the body mass and length and with the anogenital distance. The males reached sexual maturity at the earlier calendar terms than the females did; in sexually mature males the urine protein content was significantly higher than in the sexually immature ones.

  18. The impact of different doses of vitamin A supplementation on male and female mortality. A randomised trial from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakymenko, Dorthe; Benn, Christine S; Martins, Cesario

    2011-01-01

    if diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine (DTP) was the most recent vaccination. We aimed to test these observations. METHODS: During national immunisations days in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa, combining oral polio vaccination and VAS, we randomised 8626 children between 6 months and 5 years of age to receive...

  19. Acquired Smell? Mature Females of the Common Green Bottle Fly Shift Semiochemical Preferences from Feces Feeding Sites to Carrion Oviposition Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Bekka S; Babcock, Tamara; Gries, Regine; Benn, Arlan; Gries, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    We investigated foraging decisions by adult females of the common green bottle fly, Lucilia sericata, in accordance with their physiological state. When we gave female flies a choice between visually occluded, fresh canine feces (feeding site) and a CO2-euthanized rat (carrion oviposition site), 3-d-old "protein-starved" females responded equally well to feces and carrion, whereas protein-fed gravid females with mature oocytes responded only to carrion, indicating resource preferences based on a fly's physiological state. Dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) is known to attract gravid L. sericata females to carrion. Therefore, we analyzed headspace from canine feces by gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) and GC/mass spectrometry. In bioassays, of the 17 fecal odorants that elicited GC-EAD responses from fly antennae, a blend of indole and one or more of the alcohols phenol, m-/p-cresol and 1-octen-3-ol proved as attractive to flies as canine feces. Unlike young females, gravid females need to locate carrion for oviposition and distinguish between fresh and aging carrion, the latter possibly detrimental to offspring. Gravid female L. sericata accomplish this task, in part, by responding to trace amounts of DMTS emanating from fresh carrion and by discriminating against carrion as soon it begins to produce appreciable amounts of indole, which is also the second-most abundant semiochemical in fresh canine feces, and apparently serves as an indicator of food rather than oviposition resources. Our results emphasize the importance of studying foraging choices by flies in accordance with their physiological stage.

  20. Analysis of ovary-specific genes in relation to egg maturation and female nutritional condition in the mosquitoes Georgecraigius atropalpus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telang, Aparna; Rechel, Julie A; Brandt, Jessica R; Donnell, David M

    2013-03-01

    Analysis of the reproductive physiology of anautogenous mosquitoes at the molecular level is complicated by the simultaneity of ovarian maturation and the digestion of a blood meal. In contrast to anautogenous mosquitoes, autogenous female mosquitoes can acquire greater nutrient stores as larvae and exhibit higher ovarian production of ecdysteroids at adult eclosion. These features essentially replace the role of a blood meal in provisioning the first batch of eggs and initiating egg development. To gain insight into the process of ovary maturation we first performed a transcript analysis of the obligatory autogenous mosquito Georgecraigius atropalpus (formerly Ochlerotatus atropalpus). We identified ESTs using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) of transcripts from ovaries at critical times during oogenesis in the absence of blood digestion. Preliminary expression studies of genes such as apolipophorin III (APO) and oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) suggested these genes might be cued to female nutritional status. We then applied our findings to the medically important anautogenous mosquito Aedes aegypti. RNAi-based analyses of these genes in Ae. aegypti revealed a reduction in APO transcripts leads to reduced lipid levels in carcass and ovaries and that OSBP may play a role in overall lipid and sterol homeostasis. In addition to expanding our understanding of mosquito ovarian development, the continued use of a comparative approach between autogenous and anautogenous species may provide novel intervention points for the regulation of mosquito egg production. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoch-Ligeti, C.; Congdon, C.C.; Deringer, M.K.; Stewart, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder developed in 17 of 68 untreated and in 26 of 83 irradiated guinea pigs of inbred strains 2 and 13. The carcinomas spread widely by direct extension and through lymphatic and blood vessels to lymph nodes, mesenteries, omenta, abdominal wall, liver, lungs, bones, and spleen. Whole-body exposure to gamma or x radiation increased both the number of tumors and metastases in male inbred guinea pigs but not in females. Significantly fewer (9 of 98) noninbred than inbred guinea pigs developed gallbladder carcinomas after irradiation. In 9 untreated noninbred guinea pigs gallbladder carcinomas were not found. Inasmuch as the effect of irradiation was not dose-dependent, an indirect systemic effect of irradiation was postulated. This is the first report on the occurrence of spontaneous gallbladder adenocarcinomas in guinea pigs

  2. Cartilage Degeneration, Subchondral Mineral and Meniscal Mineral Densities in Hartley and Strain 13 Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yubo; Scannell, Brian P; Honeycutt, Patrick R; Mauerhan, David R; H, James Norton; Hanley Jr, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a joint disease involved in articular cartilage, subchondral bone, meniscus and synovial membrane. This study sought to examine cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone mineral density (BMD) and meniscal mineral density (MD) in male Hartley, female Hartley and female strain 13 guinea pigs to determine the association of cartilage degeneration with subchondral BMD and meniscal MD. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD in 12 months old guinea pigs were examined with histochemistry, X-ray densitometry and calcium analysis. We found that male Hartley guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD than female Hartley guinea pigs, but not female strain 13 guinea pigs. Female strain 13 guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration and higher subchondral BMD, but not meniscal MD, than female Hartley guinea pigs. These findings indicate that higher subchondral BMD, not meniscal MD, is associated with more severe cartilage degeneration in the guinea pigs and suggest that abnormal subchondral BMD may be a therapeutic target for OA treatment. These findings also indicate that the pathogenesis of OA in the male guinea pigs and female guinea pigs are different. Female strain 13 guinea pig may be used to study female gender-specific pathogenesis of OA. PMID:26401159

  3. Effect of gamma radiation on the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia Kuehniella, mature larvae and acceptability of irradiated larvae by Bracon hebetor females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2011-06-01

    Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, mature 5 t h instar larvae were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50-350 Gy at 50 Gy increment and the effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence and sex ratio were investigated. In addition, effects of irradiation on the rate of development to pupae and adults and the acceptance of irradiated larvae by B. hebetor females were examined. Results showed that the radio-sensitivity of E. kuehniella larvae increased with increasing dose. Pupation was significantly affected at 100 Gy dose, and completely prevented at 350 Gy dose. Adult emergence was only slightly different from pupation; emergence was significantly affected at 100 Gy dose and completely prevented at 300 Gy dose. Irradiation also negatively affected the rate of development of larvae to pupae and adults. While more than 98% of control larvae pupated within 10 days of treatment, this ratio decreased to about 79% in larvae exposed to 50 Gy and less than 4% in larvae exposed to 100 Gy dose. The rate of development to the adult stage was also similarly affected. While 97% of control insects emerged as adults in the 1st 20 days of treatment, this ratio decreased to about 53, 2 and zero percent in larvae exposed to 50, 100 and 150 Gy dose respectively. In addition, irradiation significantly affected male: female ratio; sex ratio was skewed in favor of males, and at 250 Gy dose all emerged moths were males. Furthermore, irradiation had no adverse effect on the degree of acceptance of mature larvae to parasitization; irradiated insects were as acceptable to B. hebetor females as unirradiated ones. (author)

  4. Effect of gamma radiation on the Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia Kuehniella, mature larvae and acceptability of irradiated larvae by Bracon hebetor female

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, M.

    2012-01-01

    Mediterranean flour moth, Ephestia kuehniella, mature 5 t h instar larvae were exposed to gamma radiation dosages ranging from 50-350 Gy at 50 Gy increment and the effects of gamma radiation on pupation, adult emergence and sex ratio were investigated. In addition, effects of irradiation on the rate of development to pupae and adults and the acceptance of irradiated larvae by B. hebetor females were examined. Results showed that the radio-sensitivity of E. kuehniella larvae increased with increasing dose. Pupation was significantly affected at 100 Gy dose, and completely prevented at 350 Gy dose. Adult emergence was only slightly different from pupation; emergence was significantly affected at 100 Gy dose and completely prevented at 300 Gy dose. Irradiation also negatively affected the rate of development of larvae to pupae and adults. While more than 98% of control larvae pupated within 10 days of treatment, this ratio decreased to about 79% in larvae exposed to 50 Gy and less than 4% in larvae exposed to 100 Gy dose. The rate of development to the adult stage was also similarly affected. While 97% of control insects emerged as adults in the 1st 20 days of treatment, this ratio decreased to about 53, 2 and zero percent in larvae exposed to 50, 100 and 150 Gy dose respectively. In addition, irradiation significantly affected male: female ratio; sex ratio was skewed in favor of males, and at 250 Gy dose all emerged moths were males. Furthermore, irradiation had no adverse effect on the degree of acceptance of mature larvae to parasitization; irradiated insects were as acceptable to B. hebetor females as unirradiated ones. (author)

  5. Bone mineral density, chemical composition and biomechanical properties of the tibia of female rats exposed to cadmium since weaning up to skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzóska, M M; Majewska, K; Moniuszko-Jakoniuk, J

    2005-10-01

    The influence of exposure to cadmium (Cd) during skeletal development on the risk of bone fractures at the stage of skeletal maturity was investigated on a female rat model of human exposure. The tibias of rats treated with 1, 5 or 50 mg Cd/l in drinking water for 3, 6, 9 and 12 months (since weaning) were used. The exposure to Cd dose- and time-dependently influenced the tibia bone mineral density (BMD) and chemical composition. In skeletally matured animals, at each level of the exposure to Cd, the BMD at the whole tibia and its diaphysis as well as the percentage of minerals content in the bone, including the content of zinc, copper and iron, were decreased compared to control. Moreover, in the 50 mg Cd/l group, the percentage of organic components content increased. The Cd-induced changes, at all levels of exposure, resulted in weakening in the yield strength and fracture strength of the tibia (a three-point bending test of the diaphysis and compression test with vertical loading) of the skeletally matured females. A very important and clinically useful finding of this study is that a decrease (even by several percent) in the tibia BMD results in weakness in the bone biomechanical properties and that the BMD may predict the risk of its fracture at the exposure to Cd. Moreover, the results together with our previous findings seem to suggest that tibia, due to higher vulnerability of its diaphysis, compared to the femoral diaphysis, to damage by Cd may be more useful than femur to investigate the effect of Cd on the cortical bone. The present study revealed that a low exposure to Cd (1 mg Cd/l), corresponding to low human environmental exposure, during the skeletal development affects the tibia mineral status leading to weakening in its mechanical properties at the skeletal maturity. The findings allow for the conclusion that environmental exposure to Cd during childhood and adolescence may enhance the risk of low BMD and fractures at adulthood.

  6. Female sexual maturation and reproduction after prepubertal exposure to estrogens and endocrine disrupting chemicals: a review of rodent and human data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasier, G; Toppari, J; Parent, A-S; Bourguignon, J-P

    2006-07-25

    Natural hormones and some synthetic chemicals spread into our surrounding environment share the capacity to interact with hormone action and metabolism. Exposure to such compounds can cause a variety of developmental and reproductive detrimental abnormalities in wildlife species and, potentially, in human. Many experimental and epidemiological data have reported that exposure of the developing fetus or neonate to environmentally relevant concentrations of some among these endocrine disrupters induces morphological, biochemical and/or physiological disorders in brain and reproductive organs, by interfering with the hormone actions. The impact of such exposures on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and subsequent sexual maturation is the subject of the present review. We will highlight epidemiological human studies and the effects of early exposure during gestational, perinatal or postnatal life in female rodents.

  7. Effects of a traditional Chinese medicine, Longdanxiegan formula granule, on Toll-like receptor pathway in female guinea pigs with recurrent genital herpes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Lin; Deng, Yihui; Liu, Xiaodan; Zou, Zhixiang; Mi, Lan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Longdanxiegan formula granule (LDXGFG), a Chinese traditional medicine on Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway in recurrent genital herpes. An experimental recurrent genital herpes model was constructed using herpes guinea pig model. The effect of LDXGFG on expression levels of TLR pathway genes were detected using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, the dendritic cells and Langerhans cells were isolated and the TLR pathway genes of these cells were assayed after LDXGFG treatment. The result suggested two different expression patterns of TLR pathway genes in genital herpes and recurrent genital herpes, including upregulated genes and downregulated genes. TLR1, TLR4, TLR6, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, and TLR10 showed a significant decrease while, TLR2, TLR3, and TLR5 increased in genital herpes and recurrent genital herpes guinea pigs. Meanwhile, the downregulated genes in genital herpes and recurrent genital herpes were stimulated by LDXGFG. By contrast, the upregulated genes decreased significantly after LDXGFG treatment. In both dendritic cells and Langerhans cells, the TLR pathway genes exhibited same pattern: the LDXGFG corrected the abnormal expression of TLR pathway genes. The present results suggest that LDXGFG is an alternative, inexpensive, and lasting-effect medicine for herpes simplex virus 2 infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Life history of the silvertip shark Carcharhinus albimarginatus from Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Jonathan J.; Chin, Andrew; Baje, Leontine; Tobin, Andrew J.; Simpfendorfer, Colin A.; White, William T.

    2017-06-01

    Growth and maturity of the silvertip shark Carcharhinus albimarginatus from Papua New Guinea were estimated to form the basis of future population assessments. Samples were collected from commercial longline vessels targeting sharks in the Bismarck and Solomon Seas. A total of 48 C. albimarginatus—28 males (95-219 cm total length, TL) and 20 females (116-250 cm TL)—provided data for the analyses. Employing back-calculation techniques accounted for missing juvenile length classes and supplemented the sample size. A multi-model framework incorporating the Akaike information criterion was used to estimate growth parameters. The von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF) provided the best-fit growth estimates. Parameter estimates were L 0 = 72.1 cm TL, k = 0.04 yr-1 and L ∞ = 311.3 cm TL for males; and L 0 = 70.8 cm TL, k = 0.02 yr-1 and L ∞ = 497.9 cm TL for females. The biologically implausible L ∞ occurred for females as their growth did not asymptote; a typical trait of large shark species. The maximum age estimated from vertebral analysis was 18 yr for both sexes, while the calculated longevity from the VBGF parameters was 27.4 yr for males and 32.2 yr for females. Males matured at 174.7 cm TL and 10.5 yr old, while females matured at 208.9 cm TL and 14.8 yr old.

  9. A new species of Spauligodon (Nematoda; Oxyuroidea; Pharyngodonidae) and other Nematodes in Cyrtodactylus epiroticus (Squamata; Gekkonidae) from Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, Charles R; Goldberg, Stephen R; Kraus, Fred

    2017-12-20

    Spauligodon papuensis sp. nov. from the large intestines of Cyrtodactylus epiroticus (Gekkonidae) from Papua New Guinea is described and illustrated. Spauligodon papuensis sp. nov. represents the 54th species assigned to the genus and the second species from the Oceanic Region. The new species is separated from congeners by the unique combination of aspinose filamentous tail and no spicule in the male; and spinose filamentous tail, fusiform, flanged eggs, and postbulbar vulva in the female. Four additional species of nematodes were also found in C. epiroticus: mature specimens of Cosmocerca zugi, Falcaustra papuensis, Physalopteroides milnensis and larvae of Abbreviata sp.

  10. Unilateral flank ovariohysterectomy in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanska, D; Rozanski, P; Orzelski, M; Chlebicka, N; Putowska, K

    2016-11-01

    To describe a simple, minimally invasive method of ovariohysterectomy via a unilateral flank approach in guinea pigs, for use in routine desexing of healthy female guinea pigs or treatment of ovarian cysts. The subjects of this retrospective study were 41 client-owned guinea pigs submitted for routine desexing or treatment of ovarian cysts. They included 16 healthy female guinea pigs aged 8-12 months (Group 1), and 15 females aged from 9 months to 3 years (Group 2), and 10 females aged from 3 to 7 years (Group 3) with different-sized ovarian cysts. Prior to surgery, the animals received clinical examination, blood testing (complete blood count and serum biochemistry profile) and examination of the abdomen using ultrasonography, to assess the condition of the reproductive tract and ensure the guinea pigs were fit for surgery. Ovariohysterectomy was performed via a unilateral flank incision made close to the erector spinae muscle starting approximately 1 cm caudal to the last rib. Both ovaries, uterine horns, and the uterine cervix were localised, ligated, and dissected through this unilateral retroperitoneal incision. Ovariohysterectomy was successfully completed via a single flank incision in 38/41 (93%) guinea pigs. Three guinea pigs with ovarian cysts from Group 3, which were >6 years old died during surgery due to circulatory and respiratory failure under anaesthesia. In the remaining 38 cases, surgery proceeded without complications. A further two guinea pigs from Group 3 were reluctant to move or eat for the first 3 days after surgery but recovered after provision of supportive care. All 38 animals fully recovered and wound healing was normal. This is the first report of ovariohysterectomy via a unilateral flank incision in guinea pigs. This approach is a simple, minimally invasive and safe alternative to the midline or bilateral flank approaches currently used for surgery of the reproductive tract in guinea pigs.

  11. Effect of stress during handling, seawater acclimation, confinement, and induced spawning on plasma ion levels and somatolactin-expressing cells in mature female Liza ramada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Noha A; Hashem, Amal M; Ibrahim, Amal A E; Mousa, Mostafa A

    2012-08-01

    The present experiments were designed to determine the effect of different stress factors; handling, seawater acclimation, confinement, and induced spawning on plasma cortisol, hydro mineral balance as well as changes in size, number and integrated intensity of somatolactin (SL)-expressing cells in Liza ramada mature females confined to fresh water ponds. The plasma levels of cortisol, PO(4)(3-), Na(+), and K(+) were higher, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were lower than controls during transportation without anesthesia. By using clove oil (5 mg L(-1)) as an anesthetic during transportation, the plasma cortisol, PO(4) (3-), Na(+), and K(+) were similar to controls, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were higher. During seawater acclimation, the plasma cortisol and minerals were significantly higher except Na(+) which was lower than controls. In addition, during induction of spawning, the plasma levels of cortisol, PO(4)(3-), Na(+), K(+), and Mg(2+) were significantly higher than controls. The SL-producing cells are located in the pars intermedia (PI) bordering the neurohypophysis. The stress affected the number, size, and immunostaining of SL-expressing cells. During seawater acclimation, the size and the integrated intensity of SL immunoreactivity were lower, but the number of these cells was higher than controls. Furthermore, the number, size, and the integrated intensity of SL immunoreactivity were significantly lower than controls during handling and after spawning, which was opposite to confinement. The response of SL-expressing cells in PI in parallel with changes in cortisol and hydro mineral balance induced by stress support the possible role of SL in the adaptive response of fish to stress. © 2012 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  12. Sex-specific impact of prenatal stress on growth and reproductive parameters of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöpper, Hanna; Klaus, Teresa; Palme, Rupert; Ruf, Thomas; Huber, Susanne

    2012-12-01

    Body condition and reproductive maturation are parameters of reproductive success that are influenced by sexual hormones rising in the circulation during the time of puberty. Various endocrine systems can be programmed by conditions experienced during early life. Stress for instance is supposed to be capable of influencing fetal development, leading to adjustments of offspring's later physiology. We examined whether prenatal stress (induced by exposure to strobe light) during early- to mid-gestation was capable of affecting later reproductive parameters in guinea pigs (Cavia aperea f. porcellus). Therefore, we measured the levels of testosterone and progesterone from the age of day 12-124 in prenatally stressed (PS, n = 20) and unaffected control animals (n = 24). Furthermore, we determined the timing of puberty and growth. Body weight development revealed significantly faster growth in PS females compared to control animals. The onset of first estrus was slightly earlier in PS females, however not significantly so. Cycle lengths and levels of progesterone differed between groups over the course of time with higher progesterone levels and more constant cycles among PS females compared to control females who displayed marked differences between first and subsequent cycles. Levels of testosterone did not differ between groups. We conclude that prenatal stress accelerates growth and maturity in females, but not in males.

  13. Gastric volvulus in guinea pigs: comparison with other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Emily S; Boivin, Gregory P

    2011-07-01

    Gastric volvulus has been documented in several species of animals and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report 2 cases of gastric volvulus in guinea pigs that died without detection of prior clinical signs. Both guinea pigs were adult female guinea pigs in a breeding colony and had given birth to multiple litters; one was pregnant at the time of death. Gastric rotations of 540° and 360° were identified at necropsy examination. These cases include the first known report of gastric rotation greater than 360° in any species. Although gastric volvulus has been reported to occur in guinea pigs, little is known about its risk factors, etiology, and pathogenesis. We conducted a literature review to compare gastric volvulus between guinea pigs and other species. Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science

  14. Gastric Volvulus in Guinea Pigs: Comparison with Other Species

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley, Emily S; Boivin, Gregory P

    2011-01-01

    Gastric volvulus has been documented in several species of animals and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report 2 cases of gastric volvulus in guinea pigs that died without detection of prior clinical signs. Both guinea pigs were adult female guinea pigs in a breeding colony and had given birth to multiple litters; one was pregnant at the time of death. Gastric rotations of 540° and 360° were identified at necropsy examination. These cases include the first known report of g...

  15. Effects of domestication on biobehavioural profiles: a comparison of domestic guinea pigs and wild cavies from early to late adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Domestication can lead to marked alterations in the biobehavioural profile of a species. Furthermore, during ontogeny, the individual phenotype of an animal can be shaped by the environment in important phases such as adolescence. We investigated differences in biobehavioural profiles between domestic guinea pigs and their ancestor, the wild cavy, over the course of adolescence. At this age, comparisons between the two groups have not been conducted yet. Male guinea pigs and cavies were subjected to a series of tests twice: during the early and late phase of adolescence. We analysed emotional and social behaviours as well as cortisol reactivity and testosterone levels. Results Concerning emotional behaviour, cavies were more explorative and showed more anxiety-like behaviour in the open field test and dark-light test. They also were more risk-taking when having to jump off an elevated platform. Regarding social behaviour, cavies showed less social activity towards unfamiliar females and infants. Furthermore, while guinea pigs and cavies did not differ in basal cortisol levels, cavies showed distinctly higher and prolonged cortisol responses when exposed to an unfamiliar environment. Cavies also had lower basal testosterone titres. No substantial changes in biobehavioural profiles were revealed over the course of adolescence in both groups. Conclusions Domestication led to a substantial shift in the biobehavioural profile of the guinea pig regarding all investigated domains in early and late adolescence. Hence, the differentiation between guinea pigs and cavies emerges early in ontogeny, well before the attainment of sexual maturity. The young individuals already show adaptations that reflect the differences between the natural habitat of cavies and the man-made housing conditions guinea pigs are exposed to. Higher levels of exploration and risk-taking and lower levels of anxiety-like behaviour are necessary for cavies in order to cope with their

  16. Absorption of cadmium in the newborn and juvenile guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasser, L.B.; Jarboe, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    The accepted premise that absorption is enhanced in the newborn animal is based primarily on studies using the rat, which has a relatively immature gastrointestinal system at birth. This study was conducted to determine if enhanced absorption of cadmium also occurs in the guinea pig, a species that is more precocious at birth than the rat. Newborn guinea pigs were administered a single oral dose of 5 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd (0.25 mCi of /sup 115m/Cd per milligram of cadmium) between 8 and 24 hr of age and killed at intervals between 1 and 14 days after the dosing. Juvenile guinea pigs were similarly dosed with 20 μCi of /sup 115m/Cd and killed 1 to 5 days later. Guinea pigs dosed on the day of birth absorbed approximately 6% of the dose by 1 day after the dosing and nearly 25% of the dose by 11 days. This is a cumulative absorption five times that found in rats dosed at 24 hr and two times that of rats dosed at 2 hr. The residence time of cadmium in the gastrointestinal tract was longer in newborn guinea pigs than in juvenile guinea pigs but was still significantly less than that in the newborn rat. We concluded that the absorption of cadmium from the gastrointestinal tract was greater in newborn guinea pigs than in rats, even though the residence time of cadmium in the intestinal tract was less in guinea pigs than in rats and the maturity at birth of the guinea pig is greater than that of the rat. The bases of these differences were not readily apparent

  17. [Experiences with cage combinations for guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Zychlinski, J

    1989-01-01

    Special cage units described in 1982 for guinea pigs have been used either as cages for small groups of breeding animals or for caging of growing animals. By using these cages the following advantages have been noted; the cage size can be adapted to number, age and body weight of the animals; aggression and panic are avoided by corners, walls and tunnels; economic use of breeding males by mating with more females.

  18. Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    This discussion of Guinea-Bissau focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government and political conditions; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and Guinea-Bissau. In 1983 the population was estimated at 827,000 with an annual estimated growth rate of 2.2%. 87% of the population was rural, with 13% living in urban areas. The infant mortality rate is 200/1000 with a life expectancy of 42 years. The population comprises several diverse tribal groups, each with its own language, customs, and social organization. Most people are farmers and follow the traditional religious beliefs of their forebears. Most of the nonindigenous population consists of a significant Cape Verdian ethnic community, a small Portuguese community engaged primarily in commerce and civil service, and a few foreign technical consultants. Guinea-Bissau is a small enclave on the west coast of Africa, bounded by Senegal and on the south and east by Guinea (Conakry). Portugal claimed Portuguese Guinea in 1446 when the fleet of Nuno Tristao arrived on the west coast of Africa. In 1956 the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) was organized clandestinely by the Amilcar Cabral and Raphael Barbosa. The PAIGC moved its headquarters to Conakry in 1960 and began an armed rebellion in 1961. Despite the presence of more than 30,000 Portuguese troops, the PAIGC exercised influence over much of the country by 1972. It established civilian rule in the territory that it controlled and elections took place for a National Assembly. The National Assembly of the PAIGC declared the independence of Guinea-Bissau on September 24, 1973. Portugal granted "de jure" independence on September 10, 1974, when the US recognized the new nation. Guinea-Bissau is a 1-party state. Until May 1984, power was held by a provisional government responsible to a Revolutionary Council. In May 1984 the Revolutionary Council was dissolved, and the 150-member National

  19. On a new bird of paradise from Central New Guinea, Falcinellus meyeri albicans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1915-01-01

    Among the collection of birdskins brought home by the third expedition to Mount Wilhelmina in the Snow Mountains of New Guinea there are some specimens, males and females, of a bird of paradise, much resembling Falcinellus meyeri (Finsch) from South-east New Guinea, but differing in some points.

  20. Rediscovery of the Threatened River Sharks, Glyphis garricki and G. glyphis, in Papua New Guinea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William T White

    Full Text Available Recent surveys of the shark and ray catches of artisanal fishers in the Western Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG resulted in the rediscovery of the threatened river sharks, Glyphis garricki and Glyphis glyphis. These represent the first records of both species in PNG since the 1960s and 1970s and highlight the lack of studies of shark biodiversity in PNG. Two individuals of G. garricki and three individuals of G. glyphis were recorded from coastal marine waters of the Daru region of PNG in October and November 2014. The two G. garricki specimens were small individuals estimated to be 100-105 cm and ~113 cm total length (TL. The three G. glyphis specimens were all mature, one a pregnant female and two adult males. These are the first adults of G. glyphis recorded to date providing a more accurate maximum size for this species, i.e. ~260 cm TL. A single pup which was released from the pregnant female G. glyphis, was estimated to be ~65 cm TL. Anecdotal information from the fishers of pregnant females of G. glyphis containing 6 or 7 pups provides the first estimate of litter size for this species. The jaws of the pregnant female G. glyphis were retained and a detailed description of the dentition is provided, since adult dentition has not been previously documented for this species. Genetic analyses confirmed the two species cluster well within samples from these species collected in northern Australia.

  1. Lower Cretaceous Source Rock and its Implication for the Gulf of Guinea Petroleum System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, B.R.; Griffith, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    Current petroleum system models for the Gulf of Guinea propose Tertiary-age deltaic organic material as the principal source for the hydrocarbons found there. Although previous workers recognized numerous difficulties and inconsistencies, no alternative model has been resented to adequately explain the complete petroleum system. We propose that the principal source rock for the Gulf of Guinea system occurs in upper lower Cretaceous-age shales at the rift-drift transition. Tertiary loading and the consequent maturation of this lower Cretaceous source rock can explain the controls on tap formation, reservoir distribution and hydrocarbon types found in the Gulf of Guinea

  2. Guinea pig maximization test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1985-01-01

    Guinea pig maximization tests (GPMT) with chlorocresol were performed to ascertain whether the sensitization rate was affected by minor changes in the Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) emulsion used. Three types of emulsion were evaluated: the oil phase was mixed with propylene glycol, saline...

  3. Correlation between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwei; Hu, Haikun; Guo, Jing; Liu, Zeping; Liu, Renkai; Li, Fan; Zou, Shujuan

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dental and skeletal maturity. Digital panoramic radiographs and lateral skull cephalograms of 302 patients (134 boys and 168 girls, ranging from 8 to 16 years of age) were examined. Dental maturity was assessed by calcification stages of the mandibular canines, first and second premolars, and second molars, whereas skeletal maturity was estimated by the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient was used to measure the association between CVM stage and dental calcification stage of individual teeth. The mean chronologic age of girls was significantly lower than that of boys in each CVM stage. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity ranged from 0.391 to 0.582 for girls and from 0.464 to 0.496 for boys (P cervical vertebral maturation stage. The development of the mandibular second molar in females and that of the mandibular canine in males had the strongest correlations with cervical vertebral maturity. Therefore, it is practical to consider the relationship between dental and skeletal maturity when planning orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in set theory and readily available software have enabled social science researchers to bridge the variable-centered quantitative and case-based qualitative methodological paradigms in order to analyze multi-dimensional associations beyond the linearity assumptions, aggregate...... effects, unicausal reduction, and case specificity. Based on the developments in set theoretical thinking in social sciences and employing methods like Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA), and set visualization techniques, in this position paper, we propose...... and demonstrate a new approach to maturity models in the domain of Information Systems. This position paper describes the set-theoretical approach to maturity models, presents current results and outlines future research work....

  5. Cytological Determination Of The Estrus Cycle In Guinea Pigs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cytologic study was carried out to determine the Estrus cycle in 5 female guinea pigs of reproductive age, for a period of 28 days in the Animal House of the College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu. Vaginal smears were collected from the animals and made on clean grease-free slides, fixed in ...

  6. The guinea-pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I; Anjo, M D

    1980-01-01

    14C ring-labelled hydrocortisone, testosterone and benzoic acid dissolved in acetone were applied to the backs of guinea-pigs (4 microgram/cm2). Percutaneous absorption was quantified by following the excretion of tracer in urine and faeces for 5 days. Absorption of hydrocortisone and benzoic acid...... was 2.4% (s.d. = 0.5; n = 3) and 31.4% (s.d. = 9.1; n = 3) of the applied dose respectively, similar to published human absorption data. Testosterone was absorbed to a greater extent in guinea-pigs (34.9% +/- 5.4; n = 5) than man. A thioglycollate based depilatory cream significantly increased the skin...

  7. Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    The situation of the island archipelago nation of Papua New Guinea is reviewed in terms of its geography, people, history, government, politics economy and foreign relations. Papua New Guinea consists of the eastern half of the main island of New Guinea (the western portion is Indonesia), and several island groups, all located northeast of Australia. The island has extreme geographical variations, ranging from precipitous mountains to extensive swamps and river valleys, all in a monsoon cimate. As a result, there are hundreds of small groups each with unique cultures and languages; over 650 languages, many unrelated to each other. The population is estimated at 3.5 million, growing at about 2.5% per year. Historically, the region has been occupied by Germany, Britain, Japan, and the U.S. The country came under the international trusteeship system in 1949, and now has a vigorous parliamentary government. The economy is based on subsistence agriculture, but is buttressed by resources such as gold, copper, and other metals, oil, timber, tropical agricultural products, fish. The only indusry is local production, since the minimum wage is too high to compete with Asian labor.

  8. Temperature Preference in IAF Hairless and Hartley Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleven, Gale A; Joshi, Prianca

    2016-03-01

    The Hairless strain of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) is the result of a spontaneous recessive mutation first identified at the Institute Armand Frappier (IAF) in 1978. Despite the longstanding availability of this strain, little is known about its thermoregulatory behavior. The aim of this study was to determine temperature preference in Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs by observing each strain in a ring-shaped apparatus containing a nonlinear temperature gradient. Temperatures were maintained by separately controlled heating mats lining the apparatus. Set point temperatures ranged from 24 to 38 °C. Guinea pigs (Hartley female, Hairless female, and Hairless male guinea pigs; n = 8 each group) were placed either singly or in pairs at 1 of the 8 randomized starting points within the apparatus. Subjects were observed for 30 min and coded for location within the temperature gradient by both frequency and duration. When placed singly in the apparatus, all 3 groups spent more time in the 30 °C zones. However, when placed as pairs with a cagemate, Hartley female guinea pigs spent more time in the cooler range of temperatures from 24 to 30 °C, whereas Hairless guinea pigs preferred a range of 30 to 38 °C. These results confirm a temperature preference of 30 ± 2 °C for both Hartley and Hairless guinea pigs when singly housed. However, data from the paired housing condition suggest that context plays an important role in thermoregulatory behavior.

  9. Gender Differences in the Anatomy of the Perineal Glands in Guinea Pigs and the Effect of Castration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iburg, T. M.; Arnbjerg, J.; Ruelokke, M. L.

    2013-01-01

    Perineal glands in guinea pigs are part of the sebaceous glandular complex. Their secretions are used for scent marking. This is important for social status and can be seen in both sexes and castrated males. Discrepancy exits about the existence of these glands in female guinea pigs and knowledge...

  10. Beyond maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessmer, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Industry has undergone to decades of evolution in experience, technology and business practices. Link-Miles Simulation Corporation (LMSC) has been contracted to build 68 Full Scope Nuclear Simulators during the 1970's and 1980's. Traditional approaches to design, development and testing have been used to satisfy specifications for initial customer requirements. However, the Industry has matured. All U.S. Nuclear Utilities own, or have under contract, at least one simulator. Other industrial nations have centralized training facilities to satisfy the simulator training needs. The customer of the future is knowledgeable and experienced in the development and service of nuclear simulators. The role of the simulator vendor is changing in order to alter the traditional approach for development. Covenants between the vendors and their customers solidify new complementary roles. This paper presents examples of current simulator project development with recommendations for future endeavors

  11. Maternal stress in pregnancy affects myelination and neurosteroid regulatory pathways in the guinea pig cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Greer A; Palliser, Hannah K; Shaw, Julia C; Palazzi, Kerrin L; Walker, David W; Hirst, Jonathan J

    2017-11-01

    Prenatal stress predisposes offspring to behavioral pathologies. These may be attributed to effects on cerebellar neurosteroids and GABAergic inhibitory signaling, which can be linked to hyperactivity disorders. The aims were to determine the effect of prenatal stress on markers of cerebellar development, a key enzyme in neurosteroid synthesis and the expression of GABA A receptor (GABA A R) subunits involved in neurosteroid signaling. We used a model of prenatal stress (strobe light exposure, 2 h on gestational day 50, 55, 60 and 65) in guinea pigs, in which we have characterized anxiety and neophobic behavioral outcomes. The cerebellum and plasma were collected from control and prenatally stressed offspring at term (control fetus: n = 9 male, n = 7 female; stressed fetus: n = 7 male, n = 8 female) and postnatal day (PND) 21 (control: n = 8 male, n = 8 female; stressed: n = 9 male, n = 6 female). We found that term female offspring exposed to prenatal stress showed decreased expression of mature oligodendrocytes (∼40% reduction) and these deficits improved to control levels by PND21. Reactive astrocyte expression was lower (∼40% reduction) following prenatal stress. GABA A R subunit (δ and α6) expression and circulating allopregnanolone concentrations were not affected by prenatal stress. Prenatal stress increased expression (∼150-250% increase) of 5α-reductase type-1 mRNA in the cerebellum, which may be a neuroprotective response to promote GABAergic inhibition and aid in repair. These observations indicate that prenatal stress exposure has marked effects on the development of the cerebellum. These findings suggest cerebellar changes after prenatal stress may contribute to adverse behavioral outcomes after exposure to these stresses.

  12. Charting the neglected West: The social system of Guinea baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Julia; Kopp, Gisela H; Dal Pesco, Federica; Goffe, Adeelia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Kalbitzer, Urs; Klapproth, Matthias; Maciej, Peter; Ndao, Ibrahima; Patzelt, Annika; Zinner, Dietmar

    2017-01-01

    Primate social systems are remarkably diverse, and thus play a central role in understanding social evolution, including the biological origin of human societies. Although baboons have been prominently featured in this context, historically little was known about the westernmost member of the genus, the Guinea baboon (Papio papio). Here, we summarize the findings from the first years of observations at the field site CRP Simenti in the Niokolo Koba National Park in Senegal. Guinea baboons reveal a nested multi-level social organization, with reproductive units comprising one "primary" male, one to several females, young, and occasionally "secondary" males at the base of the society. Three to five units form "parties," which team up with other parties to form a "gang." Different gangs have largely overlapping home ranges and agonistic interactions between different parties or gangs are rare. Some but not all strongly socially bonded males are highly related, and population genetic and behavioral evidence indicate female-biased dispersal. Females play an important role in intersexual bond formation and maintenance, and female tenure length varies between a few weeks to several years. While the social organization resembles that of hamadryas baboons (P. hamadryas), the social structure differs considerably, specifically in terms of low male aggressiveness and female freedom. Despite substantial differences in social organization and social structure, the acoustic structure of Guinea baboon vocalizations does not differ substantially from that of other baboon taxa. With its multi-level organization, stable bonds between males and females, as well as a high-degree of male-male cooperation and tolerance, Guinea baboons constitute an intriguing model for reconstructing human social evolution. © 2017 American Association of Physical Anthropologists.

  13. AFSC/ABL: Female Giant Grenadier maturity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Giant grenadiers Albatrossia pectoralis are caught as bycatch in deep-sea commercial fisheries in relatively large numbers. The population appears to be stable,...

  14. Alsophila weidenbrueckii (Cyatheaceae), a new scaly tree fern from Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehnert, M.

    2016-01-01

    The scaly tree fern Alsophila weidenbrueckii is described and illustrated as new to science. It occurs in the Bismarck range in north-eastern New Guinea at 1200–2100 m in evergreen wet mountain forest. The species reaches maturity at a comparatively old age and large size and regenerates only in

  15. Lamington, Papua New Guinea Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dormant stratovolcano in Papua New Guinea suddenly exploded in 1951. Nuees ardentes (glowing avalanches) shot down the mountain at 100 km per hour, devastated...

  16. The provision of potable water in eradication of Guinea worm infection in Ezza North, Southeastern, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ede, Alison Okorie; Nwaokoro, Joakin Chidozie; Iwuala, C C; Amadi, A N; Akpelu, Ugochinyere Alvana

    2014-10-01

    Guinea worm is a parasite found in unprotected drinking water sources, causes considerable morbidity and loss of agricultural production among rural people. The study was to determine the current status of Guinea worm infection in Ezza North and to evaluate the impact of control measures on guinea worm infection. A total of 200 individuals in Ezza North Southeastern, Nigeria were examined for guinea worm infection. A standardized questionnaire was used to determine the effect of potable water on guinea worm eradication/control, the source of drinking water, information on the knowledge, attitude, symptom management practices, availability of health facilities and boreholes installation status. The instrument for data collection was well constructed, validated and reliable tested questionnaire by an expert. Data obtained was analyzed using Epi-Info model 3.4 versions. Results of a study indicated majority of the respondents 195 (97.5 %) have access to safe drinking water supply which indicated no case of Guinea worm infection. The active use of potable water supply was found among the age group of 20-30 years 71 (35.5 %) and higher in male (57.5 %) than females (42.5 %). The drastic reduction of Guinea worm infection to zero (0) level in Ezza North were due to multiple factors as health education, availability of functional boreholes, presence of health centers for immediate treatment if any case discovered.

  17. Epidemiology of Epidemic Ebola Virus Disease in Conakry and Surrounding Prefectures, Guinea, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Adriana; Brody, Debra; Coronado, Fátima; Rondy, Marc; Fiebig, Lena; Carcelen, Andrea; Deyde, Varough M; Mesfin, Samuel; Retzer, Kyla D; Bilivogui, Pepe; Keita, Sakoba; Dahl, Benjamin A

    2016-02-01

    In 2014, Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was first reported during March in 3 southeastern prefectures in Guinea; from there, the disease rapidly spread across West Africa. We describe the epidemiology of EVD cases reported in Guinea's capital, Conakry, and 4 surrounding prefectures (Coyah, Dubreka, Forecariah, and Kindia), encompassing a full year of the epidemic. A total of 1,355 EVD cases, representing ≈40% of cases reported in Guinea, originated from these areas. Overall, Forecariah had the highest cumulative incidence (4× higher than that in Conakry). Case-fatality percentage ranged from 40% in Conakry to 60% in Kindia. Cumulative incidence was slightly higher among male than female residents, although incidences by prefecture and commune differed by sex. Over the course of the year, Conakry and neighboring prefectures became the EVD epicenter in Guinea.

  18. Assessment of skeletal maturation using mandibular second molar maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S; Goyal, S; Gugnani, N

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between cervical vertebrae maturation and mandibular second molar calcification stages. The study was designed as a retrospective, descriptive and crosssectional research project. Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms and panoramic radiographs of 99 males and 110 females in the age range of 7 to 18 years 7 months were evaluated with Demirjian Index (DI) and cervical vertebrae maturation indicators (CVMI) of Hassel and Farman. A null hypothesis was proposed that there is no relation between CVMI and DI. A highly significant association (Pearson's contingency coefficient 0.713 for males and 0.863 for females) was found between DI and CVMI. In males, the DI stage E corresponded to stage 2 of CVMI (pre-peak of pubertal growth spurt) and DI stages F and G corresponded to stages 3 and 4 of CVMI (peak of pubertal growth spurt). DI stage H was associated with stages 5 and 6 of CVMI (end of pubertal growth spurt). In females, the DI stages C, D corresponded to CVMI stages 1, 2; DI stages E, F with CVMI stages 3, 4; DI stages G, H with CVMI stages 5, 6. Mandibular second molar calcification stages can be used as indicators for assessment of skeletal maturity.

  19. [Spontaneous neoplasms in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khar'kovskaia, N A; Khrustalev, S A; Vasil'eva, N N

    1977-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of the data of foreign literature and the results of their personal studies of spontaneous neoplasms in 40 guinea pigs of national breeding observed during observed during a 5-year period. In 4 of them malignant tumors were diagnosed-lympholeucosis (2 cases), dermoid ovarian cysts and also cancer and adenoma of the adrenal cortex (in one animal). The neoplasms described developed in guinea pigs, aged over 4 years, and they are referred to as mostly common tumors in this species of animals.

  20. Histochemical localization of cholinesterase activity in the dental epithelium of guinea pig teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardena, C K; Takano, Y

    2004-07-01

    Cholinesterase is known for its remarkable diversity in distribution and function. An association of this enzyme with proliferative and morpho-differentiating tissues has been reported in several species. Here we report on the first evidence of the presence of cholinesterase in the enamel organ of continuously erupting incisors and molars of the guinea pig. Frozen sections of the incisors and molars of the guinea pig were incubated for histochemical demonstration of cholinesterase activity by means of the thiocholine method as described by Karnovsky and Root. The cholinesterase activity was observed in several types of cells of the dental epithelium; cells forming the basal portion of the enamel organ, outer enamel epithelium and maturation stage ameloblasts of both the incisors and molars. In the crown analogue side, the outer enamel epithelial cells gained strong reactions for cholinesterase and maintained the reaction throughout the secretory and maturation stages of amelogenesis. In contrast, cholinesterase reactions were lacking in the inner enamel epithelium, pre-ameloblasts, and secretory ameloblasts. In the early stage of enamel maturation, ameloblasts began to show positive reactions for cholinesterase, which was upregulated in the incisal direction. Although both tooth types showed similar reactive patterns for cholinesterase at the growing ends, maturation ameloblasts depicted a different pattern of staining displaying the reactions only sporadically in molars. These data indicate the role of cholinesterase in the enamel organ in tooth morphogenesis and function of guinea pig teeth. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  1. Guinea Worm in a Frog

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-09

    Dr. Mark Eberhard, a retired parasitologist and CDC guest researcher, discusses Guinea worm infection in a wild-caught frog.  Created: 3/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/9/2017.

  2. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Nesensohn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  3. Characterization of fetal growth by repeated ultrasound measurements in the wild guinea pig (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, K; Guenther, A; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2014-08-01

    Fetal growth during pregnancy has previously been studied in the domesticated guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus) after dissecting pregnant females, but there are no studies describing the fetal growth in their wild progenitor, the wild guinea pig (C aperea). In this study, 50 pregnancies of wild guinea pig sows were investigated using modern ultrasound technique. The two most common fetal growth parameters (biparietal diameter [BPD] and crown-rump-length [CRL]) and uterine position were measured. Data revealed similar fetal growth patterns in the wild guinea pig and domesticated guinea pig in the investigated gestation period, although they differ in reproductive milestones such as gestation length (average duration of pregnancy 68 days), average birth weight, and litter mass. In this study, pregnancy lasted on average 60.2 days with a variance of less than a day (0.96 days). The measured fetal growth parameters are strongly correlated with each (R = 0.91; P guinea pig. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Slab replacement maturity guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the use of maturity method to determine early age strength of concrete in slab : replacement application. Specific objectives were (1) to evaluate effects of various factors on the compressive : maturity-strength relationship ...

  5. A Pilot Study of Uterine Artery Embolization with Tris-Acryl Gelatin Microspheres in Guinea Pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Wenquan; Tan Guosheng; Guo Wenbo; Yang Jianyong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to establish guinea pigs as an animal model for uterine artery embolization (UAE) with tris-acryl gelatin microspheres (TAGM). Methods: Twenty-five female adult guinea pigs were randomly divided into two groups, including a uterine artery casting mould group (n = 10) and a UAE group (n = 15). Pelvic angiography and vascular casting mould were performed in the first group. The anatomical characters of the pelvic cavity in guinea pigs were described. In the second group, the technical feasibility of performing UAE with TAGM in guinea pigs was investigated. The histopathological slides of the uterus of guinea pigs after UAE were examined to inspect the outcomes of UAE. Results: The uterine artery springs from the internal iliac artery, ascends tortuously along the cervix, and gives off vertically 8–10 branches to the cervix uteri and uterine horns. The diameters of the trunk of the uterine artery and its first branch were 0.32 ± 0.027 mm and 0.14 ± 0.01 mm, respectively. For UAE animals, the dosages of 40–120 and 100–300 μm TAGM were 0.033 ± 0.003 ml and 0.015 ± 0.002 ml, respectively. On histopathological slides, embosphere particles were found in the first branches of the uterine artery, the subserous arteries, and the intramural arteries. Inflammatory reactions in the uterus were common in guinea pigs after UAE. Local or dispersed areas of necrosis in uterus also were observed in a few guinea pigs. Conclusions: Guinea pigs are an appropriate and feasible model for UAE with TAGM.

  6. On the western fringe of baboon distribution: mitochondrial D-loop diversity of Guinea Baboons (Papio papio Desmarest, 1820 (Primates: Cercopithecidae in Coastal Guinea-Bissau, western Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Ferreira da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Like many primate species in West Africa, habitat loss and intensive hunting are threatening the poorly studied Guinea Baboon (Papio papio. These factors contributed to a significant population contraction during the last 30 years. Our study presents genetic diversity estimates for the Guinea Baboon based on a 391 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial DNA D-loop hypervariable region I. We used non-invasively collected genetic samples from two locations in Guinea-Bissau: Cufada Lagoons Natural Park and Cantanhez Forest National Park. Although most sampling was opportunistic, we observed and collected samples from two dames (social units. Among the 25 sequences obtained, we found seven closely related mtDNA haplotypes and one highly different haplotype. The presence of this divergent haplotype suggests a contact area between genetically differentiated populations in Cufada Lagoons Natural Park, or dispersal of individuals. The samples gathered from both regions share two of the most common haplotypes in different frequencies, but also exhibit unique haplotypes. No significant genetic differentiation was found between social units from both regions, possibly due to common ancestral origin or frequent dispersal between sampling locations. The presence of different maternal lineages in the same social unit and a higher percentage of variation within social units suggest historical female-biased dispersal for Guinea-Bissau Baboons. We further compared mitochondrial genetic diversity of Guinea and Hamadryas Baboons. We found lower haplotype, nucleotide and theta diversity for Guinea Baboons, which points to different demographic histories of these species. This work supports the need for additional genetic studies within the full Guinea Baboon range.

  7. Newly divided eosinophils limit ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in nonsensitized guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicher, Sarah A; Jacoby, David B; Fryer, Allison D

    2017-06-01

    Ozone causes vagally mediated airway hyperreactivity and recruits inflammatory cells, including eosinophils, to lungs, where they mediate ozone-induced hyperreactivity 1 day after exposure but are paradoxically protective 3 days later. We aimed to test the role of newly divided eosinophils in ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in sensitized and nonsensitized guinea pigs. Nonsensitized and sensitized guinea pigs were treated with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label newly divided cells and were exposed to air or ozone for 4 h. Later (1 or 3 days later), vagally induced bronchoconstriction was measured, and inflammatory cells were harvested from bone marrow, blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Ozone induced eosinophil hematopoiesis. One day after ozone, mature eosinophils dominate the inflammatory response and potentiate vagally induced bronchoconstriction. However, by 3 days, newly divided eosinophils have reached the lungs, where they inhibit ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity because depleting them with antibody to IL-5 or a TNF-α antagonist worsened vagally induced bronchoconstriction. In sensitized guinea pigs, both ozone-induced eosinophil hematopoiesis and subsequent recruitment of newly divided eosinophils to lungs 3 days later failed to occur. Thus mature eosinophils dominated the ozone-induced inflammatory response in sensitized guinea pigs. Depleting these mature eosinophils prevented ozone-induced airway hyperreactivity in sensitized animals. Ozone induces eosinophil hematopoiesis and recruitment to lungs, where 3 days later, newly divided eosinophils attenuate vagally mediated hyperreactivity. Ozone-induced hematopoiesis of beneficial eosinophils is blocked by a TNF-α antagonist or by prior sensitization. In these animals, mature eosinophils are associated with hyperreactivity. Thus interventions targeting eosinophils, although beneficial in atopic individuals, may delay resolution of airway hyperreactivity in nonatopic individuals. Copyright

  8. Morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass tillers at different ages under intermittent stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Amorim Barbosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to assess morphogenetic and structural characteristics of tillers of guinea grass cv. Tanzania at different ages. The pastures of guinea grass were managed in six pasture conditions related to the combination of three frequencies (90, 95, and 99% light interception and two post-grazing heights (25 and 50 cm. In these six pastures conditions, three tiller ages were evaluated (young, mature, and old. The design was of completely randomized block with three replications. Young tillers exhibited higher leaf appearance rate and leaf elongation rate and, consequently, higher final leaf length and number of live leaves than mature and old tillers, regardless of the pasture condition. On pastures managed with 90 or 95% light interception associated with a post-grazing height of 25 cm, old tillers presented longer leaf lifespan than young and mature ones. There is a progressive reduction in the vigor of growth of pastures of guinea grass cv. Tanzania with advancing tiller age.

  9. A correlative study of dental age and skeletal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachan, Kiran; Sharma, Vijay Prakash; Tandon, Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal age had been assessed by comparison between maturation of hand-wrist with stages of cervical vertebrae or canine calcification stages in past and this had been closely related to craniofacial growth. The importance of pubertal growth spurt in various types of orthodontic therapies is already established. Hence, this study was aimed to evaluate the relationship of skeletal maturity by hand-wrist with cervical vertebral maturation indicators and canine calcification stages. The study consisted of randomly selected 90 children from Lucknow population with 45 males (age range 10-13 years) and 45 females (age range 9-12 years). Lateral Cephalogram, hand-wrist x-ray, and periapical x-rays of maxillary and mandibular right canines were taken. Mean, standard deviation was calculated of different groups. Correlation was made among cervical vertebral maturation, hand wrist maturation, and canine calcification stages at various age groups. There was strong correlation between skeletal maturation indicator and cervical vertebral maturation indicator for both male (0.849) and female (0.932), whereas correlation between skeletal maturation indicator and canine calcification was good for both male and female (0.635, 0.891). It was concluded that cervical vertebral maturation indicator and canine calcification stages can also be used for assessing skeletal maturity.

  10. ORGANIZATIONAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY

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    Yana Derenskaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article is aimed at developing a set of recommendations for achieving a higher level of organizational project maturity at a given enterprise. Methodology. For the purposes of the current research, the available information sources on the components of project management system are analysed; the essence of “organizational maturity” and the existing models of organizational maturity are studied. The method of systemic and structural analysis, as well as the method of logical generalization, are employed in order to study the existing models of organizational maturity, to describe levels of organizational maturity, and finally to develop a set of methodological recommendations for achieving a higher level of organizational project maturity at a given enterprise. The results of the research showed that the core elements of project management system are methodological, organizational, programtechnical, and motivational components. Project management encompasses a wide range of issues connected with organizational structure, project team, communication management, project participants, etc. However, the fundamental basis for developing project management concept within a given enterprise starts with defining its level of organizational maturity. The present paper describes various models of organizational maturity (staged, continuous, petal-shaped and their common types (H. Кеrzner Organizational Maturity Model, Berkeley PM Maturity Model, Organizational Project Management Maturity Model, Portfolio, Program & Project Management Maturity Model. The analysis of available theoretic works showed that the notion “organizational project maturity” refers to the capability of an enterprise to select projects and manage them with the intention of achieving its strategic goals in the most effective way. Importantly, the level of maturity can be improved by means of formalizing the acquired knowledge, regulating project-related activities

  11. External Genital Development, Urethra Formation, and Hypospadias Induction in Guinea Pig: A Double Zipper Model for Human Urethral Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanshan; Shi, Mingxin; Zhu, Dongqing; Mathews, Ranjiv; Zheng, Zhengui

    2018-03-01

    To determine whether the guinea pig phallus would be an appropriate model of human penile development, we characterized the embryology and sexual differentiation of guinea pig external genitalia and attended to induce hypospadias in males and tubular urethra formation in females pharmacologically. The external genitalia of guinea pig were collected from genital swelling initiation to newborn stages, and scanning electronic microscopy and histology were performed to visualize the morphology and structure. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the androgen receptor localization. Bicalutamide and methyltestosterone were given to pregnant dams to reveal the role and timing of androgen in guinea pig penile masculinization. Canalization and dorsal-to-ventral movement of the urethral canal develops the urethral groove in both sexes, and then the males perform distal-opening-proximal-closing to form tubular urethra. More nuclear-localized androgen receptor is found in proximal genital tubercles of males than in females at (E) 29. Antiandrogen treatment at E26-E30 can cause hypospadias, and methyltestosterone administration at E27-E31 can induce tubular urethra formation in females. Fetal development of the guinea pig phallus is homologous to that of humans. Although guinea pig has structures similar to mouse, the urethral groove and the tubular urethra formation are more similar to humans. Antiandrogen treatment causes hypospadias in males and additional androgen induces tubular urethra formation in females. Thus, guinea pig is an appropriate model for further study of cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in distal-opening-proximal-closing in tubular urethra formation and the evaluation of the pathophysiological processes of hypospadias. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Modeling production functions and economic weights in intensive meat production of guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Mariam; Cruz, Danny Julio; Blasco, Agustín

    2017-10-01

    A profit function for a typical commercial farm of intensive guinea pig production was designed. The simulated farm contained 86 cages with a ratio of 7:1 females/males, with continuous mating. Kits were weaned at 15 days of age and slaughtered for meat production at 90 days of age. The absolute (EW) and relative economic weights of the main traits were calculated. The highest EW were kits produced per kindling (US$25), kits weaned per kindling (US$22), kits born alive per kindling (US$20), and the number of kindlings per female and year (US$12). Profit, returns, and costs per female and year were US$15, 68, and 53, respectively. Returns came from the production of young guinea pigs and discarded reproductive adults for meat production, 90 and 10% of the total returns. The highest costs were feeding and labor, 44 and 23% of the total cost. The EW and profit did not substantially change when simulating variations of ±20% in the prices of kilograms of fattening feed and kilograms of live weight of guinea pig, showing their robustness to future variations in market prices or to variations in prices between countries. The results obtained highlight the importance of the feeding costs in the guinea pig meat production.

  13. The influence of biological maturation on anthropometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether biological maturation would significantly influence the anthropometric determinants of talent identification among U-14 provincial girl tennis players. Twenty-six of the top thirty-two provincial female players (mean age = 13.21± 0.72 years) from the Northern Gauteng and the ...

  14. Epidemiology of Epidemic Ebola Virus Disease in Conakry and Surrounding Prefectures, Guinea, 2014–2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Debra; Coronado, Fátima; Rondy, Marc; Fiebig, Lena; Carcelen, Andrea; Deyde, Varough M.; Mesfin, Samuel; Retzer, Kyla D.; Bilivogui, Pepe; Keita, Sakoba; Dahl, Benjamin A.

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was first reported during March in 3 southeastern prefectures in Guinea; from there, the disease rapidly spread across West Africa. We describe the epidemiology of EVD cases reported in Guinea’s capital, Conakry, and 4 surrounding prefectures (Coyah, Dubreka, Forecariah, and Kindia), encompassing a full year of the epidemic. A total of 1,355 EVD cases, representing ≈40% of cases reported in Guinea, originated from these areas. Overall, Forecariah had the highest cumulative incidence (4× higher than that in Conakry). Case-fatality percentage ranged from 40% in Conakry to 60% in Kindia. Cumulative incidence was slightly higher among male than female residents, although incidences by prefecture and commune differed by sex. Over the course of the year, Conakry and neighboring prefectures became the EVD epicenter in Guinea. PMID:26812047

  15. Dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, A; Mueller, R S; Werckenthin, C; Straubinger, R K; Hein, J

    2012-05-25

    The frequency of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. To determine the frequency and types of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. First, 2153 samples collected from pet Guinea pigs (n=1132) and rabbits (n=1021) with suspected dermatophytosis and submitted to three different laboratories for fungal culture were analysed. Subsequently, healthy Guinea pigs and rabbits, animals with skin lesions and with noncutaneous diseases were examined prospectively for dermatophytes. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was the most common fungal species isolated (91.6% and 72.3% of positive cultures from Guinea pigs (n=431) and rabbits (n=83), respectively). Animals with positive fungal culture did not show any gender predisposition, but affected animals were younger than those with negative fungal culture (PGuinea pigs and 0/140 healthy rabbits. In addition, fungal cultures of Guinea pigs with skin lesions (n=26) and other diseases (n=25) were positive in 7.7% and 8.0% respectively. Samples collected from 17 rabbits with skin lesions and 32 rabbits with noncutaneous disease were all negative in culture. T. mentagrophytes is the most common dermatophyte in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits, asymptomatic carriers are regularly seen in Guinea pigs, but not in rabbits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Vaginal Microbiota of Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hafner, L. M.; Rush, C. M.; Timms, P.

    2011-01-01

    The vaginae of four guinea pigs were swabbed and samples cultured aerobically on horse blood agar, in 5 per cent carbon dioxide on MRS agar or anaerobically on anaerobic horse blood agar. Vaginal microbiota consisted almost exclusively of gram-positive bacteria including Corynebacterium, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus and Lactobacillus species.Keywords: guinea pigs, vaginal microbiota, vaginal vaccines.

  17. African Journals Online: Papua New Guinea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Papua New Guinea. Home > African Journals Online: Papua New Guinea. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is ...

  18. Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

  19. Diagnostic assessment of skeletal maturity through dental maturation in Hispanic growing individuals

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    Alejandra Cisternas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to explore dental maturation as a diagnostic test for skeletal maturation. Materials and Methods: Six hundred and fifty-seven growing individuals were classified according to their cervical vertebral maturity and dental maturity, both determined in lateral cephalograms and panoramic radiographs, respectively. The correlation between cervical and dental stages was established for each gender. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was made, and sensitivity and specificity values were established. Results: Correlation was found between cervical and dental maturation for females (r = 0.73; P<0.001 and males (r = 0.60; P<0.001. Sensitivity for dental Stage F, as an indicator of a postmaturation peak stage, was 87.21% for females and 97.1% for males, whereas specificity for the same stage was 82.92% and 72.3% for females and males, respectively. Conclusions: Dental maturation evaluation could contribute determining whether a patient is in a pre- or post-growth spurt stage.

  20. Endocrine tumours in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Künzel, Frank; Mayer, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Functional endocrine tumours have long been thought to be rare in guinea pigs, although conditions such as hyperthyroidism and hyperadrenocorticism have been documented with increasing frequency so the prevalence of hormonal disorders may have been underestimated. Both the clinical signs and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism in guinea pigs appear to be very similar to those described in feline hyperthyroidism, and methimazole has been proven to be a practical therapy option. Hyperadrenocorticism has been confirmed in several guinea pigs with an adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test using saliva as a non-invasive sample matrix; trilostane has been successfully used to treat a guinea pig with hyperadrenocorticism. Insulinomas have only rarely been documented in guinea pigs and one animal was effectively treated with diazoxide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section... Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the animals...

  2. Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

    2015-01-01

    Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Self-Esteem and Emotional Maturity in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jupian J.; Sand, Margaret C.

    1981-01-01

    Determined if self-esteem is related to emotional maturity. Scores from 200 male and female college students on Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory and on the Washburne Social-Adjustment Inventory were correlated. Students high in self-esteem were found to be more emotionally mature than students low in self-esteem. (Author)

  4. Five-Factor Personality Traits as Predictor of Career Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atli, Abdullah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to determine the predictive strength of personality traits based on the five-factor theory on the level of career maturity Research Methods: The sample of the study included a total of 429 high school students, 248 females (57.8%) and 181 males (42.2%). The study utilized the "Career Maturity Scale" to determine…

  5. Correlation between chronological age, cervical vertebral maturation and Fishman's skeletal maturity indicators in southern Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhal, Hessa Abdulla; Wong, Ricky W K; Rabie, A Bakr M

    2008-07-01

    To investigate the correlation between chronological age, cervical vertebral maturation (CVM), and Fishman's hand-wrist skeletal maturity indicators in southern Chinese. Four hundred contemporary hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs of southern Chinese subjects were randomly selected and analyzed. The female subjects were between 10 and 15 years of age, and the male subjects were between 12 and 17 years of age; all subjects were within the circumpubertal period. The CVM was assessed using the method developed by Baccetti and coworkers, but the hand-wrist maturation was assessed using the method developed by Fishman. These two methods and the chronological age were correlated using the Spearman rank correlation analysis. The CVM was significantly correlated with the hand-wrist skeletal age (Spearman r male = 0.9206, female = 0.9363). All patients in the cervical maturation stage (CS3) of CVM were discovered to be in the skeletal maturational indicator (SMI2 or SMI3) stages of hand-wrist maturation (HWM), which was around the peak of the growth spurt. Low correlations were found between the CVM and chronological age (male r = 0.7577; female r = 0.7877) and between the HWM and chronological age (male r = 0.7492; female r = 0.7758). CVM is a valid indicator of skeletal growth during the circumpubertal and has a high correlation with the HWM for the southern Chinese population. However, the low correlations found between the chronological age and both CVM and HWM showed that the chronological age was not suitable to measure skeletal maturity.

  6. Analysis of the relationship between relative abundance of mature, impregnated females of Pleoticus muelleri (Bate, 1888 (Crustacea, Decapoda and environmental variables through statistical models Análisis de la relación entre la abundancia relativa de las hembras maduras e impregnadas de Pleoticus muelleri (Bate, 1888 (Crustácea, Decapoda y las variables ambientales aplicando modelos estadísticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Fernández

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the relative abundance of mature and impregnated females of the Argentine red shrimp Pleoticus muelleri (Bate 1888 and environmental variables was analyzed using statistical methods. Analyzed data carne from the research cruises of the Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP carned out durmg January 2000, 2001, 2005, and 2007; March 2006; and November 2004, 2005, and 2006 in San Jorge Gulf (Argentina. The biological variables considered were the relative abundances of mature and impregnated female shrimp, whereas the environmental variables corresponded to depth, bottom water temperature and salinity, and the difference between surface and bottom water temperature and salinity. Generalized additive models were used as an exploratory tool for the numerical data and the general linear models as a confirmatory tool. The results showed that the distributions and abundances of mature and impregnated females were related to the bottom water temperature and salinity and to depth. The relationship increased along with temperature; with salinity, however, it decreased for mature females and increased for impregnated females. An optimal depth range was evidenced, where the largest concentrations of these individuáis were located.Se presenta el análisis de la relación entre la abundancia relativa de las hembras maduras e impregnadas del langostino Pleoticus muelleri (Bate, 1888 y las variables ambientales, mediante la aplicación de modelos estadísticos. Los datos analizados provienen de las campañas de investigación del Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo Pesquero (INIDEP realizadas en enero de 2000, 2001, 2005 y 2007, marzo de 2006 y noviembre de 2004, 2005 y 2006 en el Golfo San Jorge (Argentina. Se consideraron las variables biológicas: abundancia relativa de hembras maduras y de hembras impregnadas de langostino y las variables ambientales: profundidad, temperatura y salinidad

  7. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachser Norbert

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus, starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment. In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Results Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. Conclusion The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all

  8. Wild genius - domestic fool? Spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewejohann, Lars; Pickel, Thorsten; Sachser, Norbert; Kaiser, Sylvia

    2010-03-25

    Domestic animals and their wild relatives differ in a wide variety of aspects. The process of domestication of the domestic guinea pig (Cavia aperea f. porcellus), starting at least 4500 years ago, led to changes in the anatomy, physiology, and behaviour compared with their wild relative, the wild cavy, Cavia aperea. Although domestic guinea pigs are widely used as a laboratory animal, learning and memory capabilities are often disregarded as being very scarce. Even less is known about learning and memory of wild cavies. In this regard, one striking domestic trait is a reduction in relative brain size, which in the domesticated form of the guinea pig amounts to 13%. However, the common belief, that such a reduction of brain size in the course of domestication of different species is accomplished by less learning capabilities is not at all very well established in the literature. Indeed, domestic animals might also even outperform their wild conspecifics taking advantage of their adaptation to a man-made environment.In our study we compared the spatial learning abilities of wild and domestic guinea pigs. We expected that the two forms are different regarding their learning performance possibly related to the process of domestication. Therefore wild cavies as well as domestic guinea pigs of both sexes, aged 35 to 45 days, were tested in the Morris water maze to investigate their ability of spatial learning. Both, wild cavies and domestic guinea pigs were able to learn the task, proving the water maze to be a suitable test also for wild cavies. Regarding the speed of learning, male as well as female domestic guinea pigs outperformed their wild conspecifics significantly. Interestingly, only domestic guinea pigs showed a significant spatial association of the platform position, while other effective search strategies were used by wild cavies. The results demonstrate that domestic guinea pigs do not at all perform worse than their wild relatives in tests of spatial

  9. Exocelina baliem sp. n., the only known pond species of New Guinea Exocelina Broun, 1886 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Shaverdo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Exocelina baliem sp. n. is described from the Baliem Valley in the Central Mountain Range of New Guinea (Papua Province, Indonesia.striolate elytra, different structure and setation of the male and female genitalia and tarsomeres, and inhabiting swampy ponds, the new species differs from all known New Guinea species, which have smooth elytra and are stream associated. It forms a monophyletic group with the Australian E. ferruginea (Sharp, 1882 and New Caledonian E. inexspectata Wewalka, Balke & Hendrich, 2010, based on shape of the paramere and structure of the male tarsi. Habitus, protarsomeres, and male and female genitalia are illustrated, comparing some structures with E. ferruginea and two New Guinea stream species. We briefly discuss the biogeographic relevance of this discovery.

  10. Blood-feeding Behaviors of Anopheles stephensi But Not Phlebotomus papatasi are Influenced by Actively Warming Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus) Under General Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    differential biting behaviors on warmed or unwarmed guinea pig hosts. (A) Warmed (dashed line with square time points) and control (solid line with circle time ...Fig. 2. Sand flies do not display differential biting behaviors on warmed or unwarmed guinea pig hosts. (A) Warmed (dashed line with square time ...books/NBK54050/ Peterson D, Brown A. 1951. Studies of the responses of the female Aedes mosquito. Part III. The response of Aedes aegypti (L.) to a warm

  11. Maturity of the PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.; Rapin, M.; Aboudarham, L.; Bitsch, D.

    1983-03-01

    Figures illustrating the predominant position of the PWR system are presented. The question is whether on the basis of these figures the PWR can be considered to have reached maturity. The following analysis, based on the French program experience, is an attempt to pinpoint those areas in which industrial maturity of the PWR has been attained, and in which areas a certain evolution can still be expected to take place

  12. Correlation between Dental Maturity by Demirjian Method and Skeletal Maturity by Cervical Vertebral Maturity Method using Panoramic Radiograph and Lateral Cephalogram

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    Madhusudhanan Mallika Mini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiographs are effective tools in assessing the stages of bone maturation in dentistry. The cervical vertebral maturation method is a proven effective tool in assessing the adolescent growth spurt than hand-wrist radiographs in an individual. Assessment of dental calcification stages are a reliable method for determining dental maturity. Panoramic imaging can be used as the primary imaging modality for assessing maturity if a correlation can be found out between tooth calcification stages and cervical vertebral maturation stages. This study was conducted to determine the correlation between dental maturity stage and cervical vertebral maturity stage and to estimate predictor variables for cervical vertebral maturation stages (CVMS stratified by gender in a tertiary hospital setting. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted among patients accessing orthodontic care in radiology outpatient clinic, Oral Medicine and Radiology department, Government Dental College Thiruvananthapuram for a period of 15 months. Participants were selected between the ages of 8 and 16 years. Panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms were used to determine dental maturity stages using Demirjian method and CVMS using Bacetti and Franchi method, respectively. Results: One hundred patients (males = 46, females = 54 were included in the study; the spearman rank order correlation revealed significant relationship. The correlation ranged from 0.61 to 0.74 for females and 0.48 to 0.51 for males. Second premolar showed highest correlation and canine the lowest for both females and males. Stage G of mandibular second premolar signifies the pubertal growth period in this study population. By ordinal regression model, G stage of second premolar was found to be a significant predictor in males and stage H followed by G and F in females for the age group of 12–14 years. Conclusion: Dental maturation stages were significantly correlated with CVMS

  13. High lenticular tolerance to ultraviolet radiation-B by pigmented guinea-pig; application of a safety limit strategy for UVR-induced cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Vino C; Kakar, Manoj; Söderberg, Per G; Löfgren, Stefan

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine a threshold measure, maximum tolerable dose (MTD), for avoidance of UVR-B-induced cataract in the pigmented guinea-pig. Thirty pupil-dilated anesthetized young female guinea-pigs, divided into five equal groups, received between 0 and 84.9 kJ/m(2) unilateral UVR-B. Lens extraction and in vitro lens photography occurred 24 hr after exposure. Measurement of intensity of lens light scattering served as quantifying tool for the degree of cataract. Data analysis included regression, using a second order polynomial model. The applied MTD concept was based on the UVR-B dose-response curve obtained for the pigmented guinea-pig. A smaller number of pigmented guinea-pigs, pigmented rats and albino rats underwent morphometric analysis of the anterior segment geometry. All eyes exposed to UVR-B developed cataract in the anterior subcapsular region. MTD for avoidance of UVR-B-induced cataract was 69.0 kJ/m(2) in the pigmented guinea-pig. Iris was considerably thicker in the guinea-pig than in the rats. Lens blockage by the dilated iris was lowest in the guinea-pig. Maximum tolerable dose for avoidance of UVR-B-induced cataract in the pigmented guinea-pig was 69.0 kJ/m(2), over 10-fold higher than the threshold 5 kJ/m(2) obtained by Pitts et al. in the pigmented rabbit. Maximum tolerable dose is an appropriate method for estimation of toxicity for UVR-B-induced cataract in the guinea-pig. The pigmented guinea-pig is significantly less sensitive to UVR-B exposure than the pigmented rabbit and pigmented rat. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Acta Ophthalmol.

  14. Maturidade sexual das fêmeas de Callinectes danae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Portunidae nos estuários dos rios Botafogo e Carrapicho, Itamaracá, PE, Brasil Sexual maturity of females of Callinectes danae (Crustacea, Decapoda, Portunidae in the estuaries of the Botafogo and Carrapicho rivers, Itamaracá, PE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline do Vale Barreto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Callinectes danae (Smith, 1869, siri-azul, constitui um importante recurso pesqueiro nos estuários dos rios Botafogo e Carrapicho. O objetivo do presente estudo foi estimar a maturidade sexual das fêmeas de C. danae. Os espécimes foram capturados, entre outubro de 2003 a junho de 2004, com auxílio de um barco de pesca equipado com rede de arrasto do tipo "wing-trawl" e arrastados durante 5 minutos. No laboratório, os siris foram contados, numerados, sexados, pesados e mensurados. A largura da carapaça (LC foi medida na base do espinho lateral e a largura do abdome (LA mensurada na altura da articulação do quinto esternito abdominal. Um total de 596 fêmeas de C. danae foram analisadas: 417 (69,97% no rio Botafogo e 179 (30,03% no Carrapicho; as fêmeas não-ovígeras apresentaram LC de 18,38 a 101 mm (59,14 ± 13,65 mm e 26,70 a 83,48 mm (59,16 ± 13,77 mm, nos respectivos rios; a LC de fêmeas ovígeras foi de 57,04 a 83,30 mm (67,68 ± 6,56 mm. As médias de larguras das carapaças não apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significativas O conhecimento da maturidade sexual das fêmeas de Callinectes danae é de grande importância para o seu manejo e conservação. O L50 gonadal foi estimado em 63,58 mm (chi2 = 140,47; g.l. = 1; p Callinectes danae (Smith, 1869 is an important fishery resource in the Botafogo and Carrapicho river estuaries. The aim of this study was to estimate the sexual maturity of C. danae. Specimens were captured between October 2003 and June 2004 with the aid of a fishing boat equipped with a wing-trawl and trawling took place during 5 minutes each time. In the laboratory, the crabs were counted, numbered, sexed, weighed, and measured. The carapace width (CW was measured at the base of the lateral spine and the abdomen width (AW was measured at the point of the articulation of the fifth abdominal esternite. A total of 596 females of C. danae were analyzed: 417 (69.97% from Botafogo River and 179 (30.03% from

  15. A step forward for understanding the morbidity burden in Guinea: a national descriptive study

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    Hu Guoqing

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little evidence on the burden of disease has been reported about Guinea. This study was conducted to demonstrate the morbidity burden in Guinea and provide basic evidence for setting health priorities. Methods A retrospective descriptive study was designed to present the morbidity burden of Guinea. Morbidity data were extracted from the National Health Statistics Report of Guinea of 2008. The data are collected based on a pyramid of facilities which includes two national hospitals (teaching hospitals, seven regional hospitals, 26 prefectural hospitals, 8 communal medical centers, 390 health centers, and 628 health posts. Morbidity rates were calculated to measure the burden of non-fatal diseases. The contributions of the 10 leading diseases were presented by sex and age group. Results In 2008, a total of 3,936,599 cases occurred. The morbidity rate for males was higher than for females, 461 versus 332 per 1,000 population. Malaria, respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, helminthiases, and malnutrition ranked in the first 5 places and accounted for 74% of the total burden, respectively having a rate of 148, 64, 33, 32, and 14 per 1,000 population. The elderly aged 65+ had the highest morbidity rate (611 per 1,000 population followed by working-age population (458 per 1,000 population and children (396 per 1,000 population while the working-age population aged 25-64 contributed the largest part (39% to total cases. The sex- and age-specific spectrum of morbidity burden showed a similar profile except for small variations. Conclusion Guinea has its unique morbidity burden. The ten leading causes of morbidity burden, especially for malaria, respiratory infections, diarrheal diseases, helminthiases, and malnutrition, need to be prioritized in Guinea.

  16. The oil boom in Equatorial Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frynas, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    In less than a decade, Equatorial Guinea has transformed itself from an African backwater into one of the world's fastest growing economies and a sought-after political partner in the Gulf of Guinea. The sole reason for this transformation has been the discovery of oil and gas. This article outlines the rise of Equatorial Guinea as one of Africa's leading oil-producing countries and investigates the political, economic and social effects of becoming a petro-state. The article is based on the author's field research in Equatorial Guinea in the autumn of 2003 and interviews with senior oil company staff, government officials and staff of international organizations as well as secondary sources. This research demonstrates how reliance on oil and gas exports can lead to profound changes in a country's political economy. (author)

  17. Mature Oocyte Cryopreservation for Fertility Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tina; Motan, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, advances in cancer treatment have led to a dramatic improvement in long term survival. This has led to an increasing focus on quality of life after surviving cancer treatment, with fertility being an important aspect. Given the known reproductive risks of cancer therapies, there has been a growing interest in the field of fertility preservation (also referred to as oncofertility). Mature oocyte cryopreservation is no longer considered experimental and has become a realistic option for reproductive aged women prior to undergoing cancer treatment. Additionally, as cryopreservation techniques improve, mature oocyte cryopreservation is increasing being marketed to healthy women without cancer wishing to delay child bearing, also termed "social egg freezing". This chapter provides a review of the current technology, use, and outcomes of mature oocyte cryopreservation. It also outlines the ethical debate surrounding social egg freezing and directions for future research in female fertility preservation.

  18. Polysaccharide prodigiosan therapy of irradiated guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chertkov, K.S.; Mosina, Z.M.; Khramchenkova, S.P.

    1976-01-01

    In the experiments with irradiated guinea-pigs, a therapeutic action of prodigiosan has been detected. A parenteral administration of the preparation (125 to 500 μg/kg) within the interval from 15 min to 6 hours after a short-term exposure increased the survival of animals to 50%. Prodigiosan administered to guinea-pigs given prolonged irradiation failed to affect the survival rate

  19. Developmental expression of Toll‑like receptors in the guinea pig lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lingjie; Yang, Jiali; Yang, Li; Shi, Juan; Xue, Jing; Li, Yong; Liu, Xiaoming

    2017-03-01

    The guinea pig is a useful model for investigating infectious and non‑infectious lung diseases due to the sensitivity of its respiratory system and susceptibility to infectious agents. Toll‑like receptors (TLRs) are important components of the innate immune response and are critical for lung immune function. In the present study, the differentiation of epithelial cells in the guinea pig lung was examined during gestation by studying anatomic morphology and the major epithelial cell types using cell type‑specific markers. The developmental expression of all 9 TLRs and the TLR signaling adaptors myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF‑6) were investigated by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analysis. The formation of lung lobes in guinea pigs was observed at 45 days of gestation (dGA), along with the expression of the basal cell marker keratin 14 and the alveolar type II cell marker pro‑surfactant protein. However, the cube cell marker secretoglobin family1A member 1 and ciliated cell marker b‑tubulin IV were only detected in the lungs from 52 dGA onward. The expression levels of all TLRs, MyD88 and TRAF‑6 were determined in lung tissues harvested from embryos, newborn, postnatal and adult animals. The expression levels of all TLR signaling components displayed similar dynamic expression patterns with gestation age and postnatal maturation time, except for TLR‑4 and TLR‑7. mRNA expression levels of TLR components were significantly increased in the lungs at 45 and 52 dGA, compared with later developmental stages. These results suggest that TLR expression in the guinea pig lung is developmentally regulated, enhancing the understanding of lung biology in guinea pig models.

  20. English and Tok Pisin (New Guinea Pidgin English) in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaine, Suzanne

    1989-01-01

    Tok Pisin, New Guinea Pidgin English, is becoming increasingly important as a "lingua franca" in Papua New Guinea, even though English is the country's official language. Urban versus rural and spoken versus written varieties of the pidgin are examined, and the influence of English on Tok Pisin is investigated. 73 references. (Author/CB)

  1. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found...... to be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support...... for the affine term structure model....

  2. Evaluation of portable near infrared spectrophotometer to stage maturity in channel catfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonadal maturity of channel catfish varies within the same cohort of fish. Female channel catfish with superior maturity need to be identified and staged for higher success to induce spawn wit ovulating hormones to produce channel x blue hybrid catfish fry in hatcheries. Maturation is not synchron...

  3. Short-term environmental enrichment exposure induces proliferation and maturation of doublecortin-positive cells in the prefrontal cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunling; Zhang, Mengqi; Shang, Lei; Cynthia, Ngobe Akume; Li, Zhi; Yang, Zhenyu; Chen, Dan; Huang, Jufang; Xiong, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that doublecortin-positive immature neurons exist predominantly in the superficial layer of the cerebral cortex of adult mammals such as guinea pigs, and these neurons exhibit very weak properties of self-proliferation during adulthood under physiological conditions. To verify whether environmental enrichment has an impact on the proliferation and maturation of these immature neurons in the prefrontal cortex of adult guinea pigs, healthy adult guinea pigs were subjected to short-term environmental enrichment. Animals were allowed to play with various cognitive and physical stimulating objects over a period of 2 weeks, twice per day, for 60 minutes each. Immunofluorescence staining results indicated that the number of doublecortin-positive cells in layer II of the prefrontal cortex was significantly increased after short-term environmental enrichment exposure. In addition, these doublecortin-positive cells co-expressed 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (a marker of cell proliferation), c-Fos (a marker of cell viability) and NeuN (a marker of mature neurons). Experimental findings showed that short-term environmental enrichment can induce proliferation, activation and maturation of doublecortin-positive cells in layer II of the prefrontal cortex of adult guinea pigs. PMID:25206818

  4. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Infection Among Sex Workers in Papua New Guinea: First Results from the Papua New Guinea and Australia Sexual Health Improvement Project (PASHIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wand, Handan; Siba, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the individual and combined impacts of socio-demographic and sexual behaviours on HIV diagnosis among 523 female sex workers who participated in the Papua New Guinea and Australia Sexual Health Improvement Project. Logistic regression models were used to identify the factors associated with HIV positivity. We estimated their population level impacts in order to quantify the proportion of HIV seropositivity is attributed to these factors. Less than 40 % of women consented to get tested for HIV. HIV prevalence was 7 % (95 % CI 4-11 %); lack of education and knowledge/awareness of HIV accounted for ~70 % of the HIV diagnoses. A major obstacle is lack of interest for testing. Our study underscored the major challenges in this culturally, linguistically heterogeneous country. The epidemic in Papua New Guinea requires targeted prevention interventions among those at highest risk of acquiring or transmitting infection.

  5. Grammar Maturity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaytsev, V.; Pierantonio, A.; Schätz, B.; Tamzalit, D.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of a software language (whether modelled by a grammar or a schema or a metamodel) is not limited to development of new versions and dialects. An important dimension of a software language evolution is maturing in the sense of improving the quality of its definition. In this paper, we

  6. Maturing interorganisational information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313946809

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of nine chapters, divided over five parts. PART I is an introduction and the last part contains the conclusions. The remaining, intermediate parts are: PART II: Developing a maturity model for chain digitisation. This part contains two related studies concerning the development

  7. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  8. Influence of body condition on reproductive output in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Catherine Louise; Bonnet, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Reproduction is expensive. Substantial body reserves (i.e. high body condition) are usually required for females to undertake offspring production. In many vertebrates, maternal body condition positively influences reproductive output, and emaciated individuals skip reproduction. However, the impact of extremely high body condition, more specifically obesity, on animal reproductive performance remains poorly understood and research has generated contradictory results. For instance, obesity negatively affects fertility in women, but does not influence reproductive capacity or reproductive output in laboratory rodents. We examined the influence of high body condition on reproductive status and reproductive output in the guinea pig. In captivity, when fed ad libitum, guinea pigs store large amounts of fat tissues and exhibit a tendency for obesity. Our results show that obesity negatively affected reproduction in this species: both the proportion of fertile females and litter size were lower in the fattest females. Therefore, guinea pigs may represent suitable organisms to better understand the negative effect of obesity on reproduction. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  9. Skeletal maturity assessment using mandibular canine calcification stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildana Džemidžić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aims of this study were: to investigate the relationship between mandibular canine calcification stages and skeletal maturity; and to evaluate whether the mandibular canine calcification stages may be used as a reliable diagnostic tool for skeletal maturity assessment. Materials and methods. This study included 151 subjects: 81 females and 70 males, with ages ranging from 9 to 16 years (mean age: 12.29±1.86 years. The inclusion criteria for subjects were as follows: age between 9 and 16 years; good general health without any hormonal, nutritional, growth or dental development problems. Subjects who were undergoing or had previously received orthodontic treatment were not included in this study. The calcification stages of the left permanent mandibular canine were assessed according to the method of Demirjian, on panoramic radiographs. Assessment of skeletal maturity was carried out using the cervical vertebral maturation index (CVMI, as proposed by the Hassel-Farman method, on lateral cephalograms. The correlation between the calcification stages of mandibular canine and skeletal maturity was estimated separately for male and female subjects. Results. Correlation coefficients between calcification stages of mandibular canine and skeletal maturity were 0.895 for male and 0.701 for female subjects. Conclusions. A significant correlation was found between the calcification stages of the mandibular canine and skeletal maturity. The calcification stages of the mandibular canine show a satisfactory diagnostic performance only for assessment of pre-pubertal growth phase.

  10. Studies on vertical transmission of Trichinella spiralis in experimentally infected guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Eliana; Fiel, Cesar; Bernat, Gisele; Muchiut, Sebastián; Steffan, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    An experimental study to enhance knowledge on the capability of Trichenella spiralis to pass from guinea pigs to progeny at different periods of pregnancy or lactation was performed. For this purpose, 18 female adult guinea pigs were inoculated with 100 or 1000 T. spiralis muscle larvae (ML) during early, late gestation and during lactation period. The presence of T. spiralis (ML) in mothers and newborns was studied through enzymatic digestion from muscle samples. ML were observed in 9 of 42 newborn guinea pigs and levels of infection were significantly higher when infections of mothers were done during late gestation (p = 0.0046) with the high infective dose (p = 0.0043). T. spiralis ML were not recovered from any of the newborns from mothers infected in the lactation period. Ten out of 18 infected mothers presented larvae 1 in their mammary glands. Muscle samples from the tongue and the masseter showed the highest larval burdens. These observations confirm previous reports on that ML of T. spiralis are capable to pass through placental tissues to reach and encyst in striated muscle groups of newborn guinea pigs. This study may also reinforce the importance of preventive programs to control trichinellosis in those endemic areas where pregnant women would have high risk of infection.

  11. Case Report of a Satin Guinea Pig with Fibrous Osteodystrophy That Resembles Human Pseudohypoparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gallego

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A case report of a 2-year-old female satin guinea pig with a history of dental overgrowth and lameness and radiological lesions of fibrous osteodystrophy is presented. The most relevant clinical findings were bone demineralization, high level of parathyroid hormone (PTH, normophosphatemia, normal ionized calcium, and low total thyroxine (tT4 with a normal renal function. Long-term treatment was based on teeth coronal reduction and maintaining a balanced diet. PTH measurement was performed with a kit suitable for rats to test 4 different paired samples of guinea pigs and resulted in similar results for each pair of measurements. Two kits routinely employed in dogs and cats failed in measuring PTH in guinea pig serum samples. The ionized calcium, PTH, and tT4 values, not previously reported in similar cases, were obtained. The determination of tT4 could be useful in the diagnosis of fibrous osteodystrophy in guinea pigs. The observed findings show similarity with human pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia, a disease caused by an inactivating heterozygous mutation of the stimulatory G protein α subunit from the maternal genome that induces multiple hormone resistance and that courses with a syndrome called Albright hereditary osteodystrophy. Naturally occurring pseudohypoparathyroidism in animals has been reported previously only in a ferret.

  12. Age of biological maturity of Malaysian girls by ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Laily Abu Bakar; Prasanta K Majumdar; Tan Boon Ann

    1983-01-01

    This study estimates the age of biological maturity, defined as the end of adolescent sterility, of Malaysian girls by employing an indiredt methodology. Biological maturity usually occurs about 3 years after puberty. Adolescent subfecundity is due to anovulatory cycles or to short luteal phases among menarchial girls. In this study, age at biological maturity is estimated by considering retrospective fertility and family survey data on marriage, 1st birt, and contraceptive use. The waiting time for the biologically mature females to conceive is 3.0 months; 3.2 months among the Malays, 2.7 months among the Chinese, and 2.8 months among the Indians. The maximum age of attaining biological maturity is 20 for all ethnic groups except Indians (19 years). The maximum age is estimated by considering females whose 1st pregnancy ended in a live birth and who have been living most of the time with their husbands since marriage, with no contraceptive usage. The expected age of biological maturity at birth is 15.6 years; 15.3 years for the Malays, 15.4 years for the Chinese, and 14.8 years for the Indians. The means age of attaining biological maturity coincides with the expected age of attaining biological maturity at birth.

  13. Correlation between Cervical Vertebral Maturation Stages and Dental Maturation in a Saudi Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayef H Felemban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to compare the cervical vertebra maturation stages method and dental maturity using tooth calcification stages. Methods: The current study comprised of 405 subjects selected from orthodontic patients of Saudi origin coming to clinics of the specialized dental centers in western region of Saudi Arabia. Dental age was assessed according to the developmental stages of upper and lower third molars and skeletal maturation according to the cervical vertebrae maturation stage method. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal-Wallis H, Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-Square test; t-test and Spearman correlation coefficient for inter group comparison. Results: The females were younger than males in all cervical stages. The CS1-CS2 show the period before the peak of growth, during CS3-CS5 it’s the pubertal growth spurt and CS6 is the period after the peak of the growth. The mean age and standard deviation for cervical stages of CS2, CS3 and CS4 were 12.09 ±1.72 years, 13.19 ±1.62 and 14.88 ±1.52 respectively. The Spearman correlation coefficients between cervical vertebrae and dental maturation were between 0.166 and 0.612, 0.243 and 0.832 for both sexes for upper and lower third molars. The significance levels for all coefficients were equal at 0.01 and 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the skeletal maturity increased with the increase in dental ages for both genders. An early rate of skeletal maturation stage was observed in females. This study needs further analysis using a larger sample covering the entire dentition.

  14. A Comparison of Skeletal Maturation assessed from MP3 and Its Correlation with Dental Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Vardhan Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the various ossification stages of middle phalanges of third finger (MP3 and developmental stages of 2nd mandibular molar during the entire process of pubertal growth spurt. Evaluate the feasibility of recording MP3 stages using standard dental X-ray film. The mandibular 2nd molar exhibited highly significant correlation for both the males and females. This study showed a good correlation between the MP3 and dental maturity indicators. Therefore, 2nd molar tooth could be used as maturity indicator for the entire period of pubertal growth spurt. It can be used as an adjunct to the hand and wrist radiograph.

  15. A new species of Rhododendron from New Guinea (Ericaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kores, Paul

    1978-01-01

    The Star Mountains of New Guinea are situated at the geographic center of the Island of New Guinea extending on both sides of the Indonesian-Papua New Guinea border. Access to these mountains from either side of the border which divides the island is relatively difficult and as a result few

  16. Development of a Guinea Pig Lung Deposition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Development of a Guinea Pig Lung Deposition Model Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. January...4 Figure 2. Particle deposition in the lung of the guinea pig via endotracheal breathing...Particle deposition in the lungs of guinea pigs via nasal breathing. ......................................... 12 v PREFACE The research work

  17. The multidrug resistance 1 gene Abcb1 in brain and placenta: comparative analysis in human and guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Jane J; Petropoulos, Sophie; Suderman, Matthew; Iqbal, Majid; Moisiadis, Vasilis; Turecki, Gustavo; Matthews, Stephen G; Szyf, Moshe

    2014-01-01

    The Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1; alternatively ABCB1) gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP binding cassette transporter, extrudes multiple endogenous and exogenous substrates from the cell, playing an important role in normal physiology and xenobiotic distribution and bioavailability. To date, the predominant animal models used to investigate the role of P-gp have been the mouse and rat, which have two distinct genes, Abcb1a and Abcb1b. In contrast, the human has a single gene, ABCB1, for which only a single isoform has been validated. We and others have previously shown important differences between Abcb1a and Abcb1b, limiting the extrapolation from rodent findings to the human. Since the guinea pig has a relatively long gestation, hemomonochorial placentation and neuroanatomically mature offspring, it is more similar to the human, and may provide a more comparable model for investigating the regulation of P-gp in the brain and placenta, however, to date, the Abcb1 gene in the guinea pig remains to be characterized. The placenta and fetal brain are barrier sites that express P-gp and that play a critical role of protection of the fetus and the fetal brain from maternally administered drugs and other xenobiotics. Using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative PCR (QPCR) to sequence the expressed isoforms of guinea pig Abcb1, we demonstrate that like the human, the guinea pig genome contains one gene for Abcb1 but that it is expressed as at least three different isoforms via alternative splicing and alternate exon usage. Further, we demonstrate that these isoforms are more closely related to human than to rat or mouse isoforms. This striking, overall similarity and evolutionary relatedness between guinea pig Abcb1 and human ABCB1 indicate that the guinea pig represents a relevant animal model for investigating the function and regulation of P-gp in the placenta and brain.

  18. [Conception rate and embryo development in guinea pigs with synchronized estrus induced by progesterone implant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, H; Kosaka, T; Takahashi, K W

    1994-01-01

    Observations were made on the timing of mating and the pre-implantation development of fertilized eggs in guinea pigs synchronized by long-term progesterone treatment. Females received a subcutaneous implant of progesterone-filled silastic tubing for 14 days. Copulation was observed from the evening of day 4 to the morning of day 6 in 53 of 54 females (98%). Most of them (47/53, 89%) copulated on day 5 after removal of the tubing. Designating the day of copulation (day 5 after removal of the tubing) as day 0 of gestation, embryos collected from the genital tract were at the 4-cell, 8-cell, morula, and blastocyst stages on days 1, 3, 4 and 5 of gestation, respectively. Eggs were recovered at high incidence (85-100%) from days 1 to 5 of gestation. On day 6 gestation, no eggs were recovered from the genital tract, suggesting that implantation had occurred. The mean litter size (+/- S. D.) was 4.0 +/- 0.8 pups, which were born normally after a mean gestation period of 67 +/- 1 days in 7 synchronized females. Since the female guinea pigs synchronized by the long-term progesterone treatment had normal reproductive ability similar to that of cyclic females, this technique would make it possible to obtain animals at a scheduled time even in smaller-sized colonies. In addition, observations on the pre-implantation development of embryos in females with synchronized estrus might be a useful aid in the field of reproductive research.

  19. Malignant transformation of guinea pig cells after exposure to ultraviolet-irradiated guinea pig cytomegalovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isom, H.C.; Mummaw, J.; Kreider, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    Guinea pig cells were malignantly transformed in vitro by ultraviolet (uv)-irradiated guinea pig cytomegalovirus (GPCMV). When guinea pig hepatocyte monolayers were infected with uv-irradiated GPCMV, three continuous epithelioid cell lines which grew in soft agarose were established. Two independently derived GPCMV-transformed liver cells and a cell line derived from a soft agarose clone of one of these lines induced invasive tumors when inoculated subcutaneously or intraperitoneally into nude mice. The tumors were sarcomas possibly derived from hepatic stroma or sinusoid. Transformed cell lines were also established after infection of guinea pig hepatocyte monolayers with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or simian virus 40 (SV40). These cell lines also formed colonies in soft agarose and induced sarcomas in nude mice. It is concluded that (i) GPCMV can malignantly transform guinea pig cells; (ii) cloning of GPCMV-transformed cells in soft agarose produced cells that induced tumors with a shorter latency period but with no alteration in growth rate or final tumor size; and (iii) the tumors produced by GPCMV-and HCMV-transformed guinea pig cells were more similar to each other in growth rate than to those induced by SV40-transformed guinea pig cells

  20. A Drosophila Model to Image Phagosome Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A. Brooks

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Phagocytosis involves the internalization of extracellular material by invagination of the plasma membrane to form intracellular vesicles called phagosomes, which have functions that include pathogen degradation. The degradative properties of phagosomes are thought to be conferred by sequential fusion with endosomes and lysosomes; however, this maturation process has not been studied in vivo. We employed Drosophila hemocytes, which are similar to mammalian professional macrophages, to establish a model of phagosome maturation. Adult Drosophila females, carrying transgenic Rab7-GFP endosome and Lamp1-GFP lysosome markers, were injected with E. coli DH5α and the hemocytes were collected at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after infection. In wild-type females, E. coli were detected within enlarged Rab7-GFP positive phagosomes at 15 to 45 minutes after infection; and were also observed in enlarged Lamp1-GFP positive phagolysosomes at 45 minutes. Two-photon imaging of hemocytes in vivo confirmed this vesicle morphology, including enlargement of Rab7-GFP and Lamp1-GFP structures that often appeared to protrude from hemocytes. The interaction of endosomes and lysosomes with E. coli phagosomes observed in Drosophila hemocytes was consistent with that previously described for phagosome maturation in human ex vivo macrophages. We also tested our model as a tool for genetic analysis using 14-3-3e mutants, and demonstrated altered phagosome maturation with delayed E. coli internalization, trafficking and/or degradation. These findings demonstrate that Drosophila hemocytes provide an appropriate, genetically amenable, model for analyzing phagosome maturation ex vivo and in vivo.

  1. Determinants of relative skeletal maturity in South African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Nicola L; Rousham, Emily K; Johnson, William; Norris, Shane A; Pettifor, John M; Cameron, Noël

    2012-01-01

    The variation of skeletal maturity about chronological age is a sensitive indicator of population health. Age appropriate or advanced skeletal maturity is a reflection of adequate environmental and social conditions, whereas delayed maturation suggests inadequate conditions for optimal development. There remains a paucity of data, however, to indicate which specific biological and environmental factors are associated with advancement or delay in skeletal maturity. The present study utilises longitudinal data from the South African Birth to Twenty (Bt20) study to indentify predictors of relative skeletal maturity (RSM) in early adolescence. A total of 244 black South African children (n=131 male) were included in this analysis. Skeletal maturity at age 9/10 years was assessed using the Tanner and Whitehouse III RUS technique. Longitudinal data on growth, socio-economic position and pubertal development were entered into sex-specific multivariable general linear regression models with relative skeletal maturity (skeletal age-chronological age) as the outcome. At 9/10 years of age males showed an average of 0.66 years delay in skeletal maturation relative to chronological age. Females showed an average of 1.00 year delay relative to chronological age. In males, being taller at 2 years (pdetermining the rate of skeletal maturation during childhood independently of current stature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Condition of pro-oxidant and antioxidant systems in guinea pigs’ lungs under the condition of immobilization stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhailo Stepanovych Reheda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the results of alterations in indices of pro-oxidant (conjugated diene and malondialdehyde and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, ceruloplasmin, catalase systems in guinea pigs’ lungs  under the conditions of immobilization stress. The experiment was conducted on 40 female guinea pigs weighing 0.18-0.20 kg. The animals were divided into 4 groups, each contained 10 guinea pigs: I – intact guinea pigs ( control, II–guinea pigs with model of IS on1st day of experiment;Ш–animals on 2nd  day of experiment;IV- group of animals on 34th day of experimental model of IS. The results of our experimental work showed  a significant accumulation of lipid peroxidation products in the lung`s tissure in different periods ( on 1st, 2nd and 34th days of immobilization stress. The state of antioxidant defence was characterized by moderate decrease of inzymes activity (superoxide dismutase, catalase and ceruloplasmin. disorders of balance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant systems couse oxidative stress development.

  3. Lack of effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issaka-Tinorgah, A.; Magnussen, P.; Bloch, P.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm was tested in a single-blind placebo-controlled trial; 400 adults were randomly allocated to a single dose of ivermectin (150 µg/kg) or placebo. Fifty-four of the 385 participants who were followed for 15 months developed a total of 69 emergent...... guinea-worms. There was no significant differencein the proportion of persons with emergent guinea-worms between the 2 treatment groups; 58% appeared in males. 80% of emergent guinea-worms were located below the knee. Migration of guinea-worms in the tissues was not affected. It is concluded...

  4. Maturation of the human fetal startle response: Evidence for sex-specific maturation of the human fetus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Class, Quetzal A.; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Glynn, Laura M.; Sandman, Curt A.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the evidence for early fetal experience exerting programming influences on later neurological development and health risk, very few prospective studies of human fetal behavior have been reported. In a prospective longitudinal study, fetal nervous system maturation was serially assessed by monitoring fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in 191 maternal/fetal dyads. Responses were not detected at 26 weeks gestational age (GA). Sex-specific, age-characteristic changes in the FHR response to VAS were observed by 31 weeks’ GA. Males showed larger responses and continued to exhibit maturational changes until 37 weeks’ GA, females however, presented with a mature FHR startle response by 31 weeks’ GA. The results indicate that there are different rates of maturation in the male and female fetus that may have implications for sex-specific programming influences. PMID:19726143

  5. Maturation of the human fetal startle response: evidence for sex-specific maturation of the human fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Claudia; Davis, Elysia Poggi; Class, Quetzal A; Gierczak, Matt; Pattillo, Carol; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A

    2009-10-01

    Despite the evidence for early fetal experience exerting programming influences on later neurological development and health risk, very few prospective studies of human fetal behavior have been reported. In a prospective longitudinal study, fetal nervous system maturation was serially assessed by monitoring fetal heart rate (FHR) responses to vibroacoustic stimulation (VAS) in 191 maternal/fetal dyads. Responses were not detected at 26 weeks gestational age (GA). Sex-specific, age-characteristic changes in the FHR response to VAS were observed by 31 weeks' GA. Males showed larger responses and continued to exhibit maturational changes until 37 weeks' GA, females however, presented with a mature FHR startle response by 31 weeks' GA. The results indicate that there are different rates of maturation in the male and female fetuses that may have implications for sex-specific programming influences.

  6. People Capability Maturity Model. SM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    tailored so it consumes less time and resources than a traditional software process assessment or CMU/SEI-95-MM-02 People Capability Maturity Model...improved reputation or customer loyalty. CMU/SEI-95-MM-02 People Capability Maturity Model ■ L5-17 Coaching Level 5: Optimizing Activity 1...Maturity Model CMU/SEI-95-MM-62 Carnegie-Mellon University Software Engineering Institute DTIC ELECTE OCT 2 7 1995 People Capability Maturity

  7. Vitamin C deficiency in weanling guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Trueba, Gilberto Perez; Poulsen, Henrik E.

    2007-01-01

    Neonates are particularly susceptible to malnutrition due to their limited reserves of micronutrients and their rapid growth. In the present study, we examined the effect of vitamin C deficiency on markers of oxidative stress in plasma, liver and brain of weanling guinea pigs. Vitamin C deficiency...... increased, while protein oxidation decreased (P¼0003). The results show that the selective preservation of brain ascorbate and induction of DNA repair in vitamin C-deficient weanling guinea pigs is not sufficient to prevent oxidative damage. Vitamin C deficiency may therefore be particularly adverse during...

  8. Maturity effects in energy futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos (Calgary Univ., AB (CA). Dept. of Economics)

    1992-04-01

    This paper examines the effects of maturity on future price volatility and trading volume for 129 energy futures contracts recently traded in the NYMEX. The results provide support for the maturity effect hypothesis, that is, energy futures prices to become more volatile and trading volume increases as futures contracts approach maturity. (author).

  9. Mature consumers’ relationship with their perfume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey DRYLIE-CAREY

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Glamorous and stylish, perfume is an evocative product that provokes a stimulus of the senses. It is suggested that the basis for consumer choice for this product should be based on olfactory preference, however the process related decision-making has been shown to be more complex. The mature consumer purchase decision making in this product category is often associated with long standing, established, luxury fragrance brands. In addition, at the frontline of the perfume sales process are fragrance consultants, who possess invaluable information on consumer involvement with perfume products and brands. Hence, this paper investigates CBR (consumer brand relationship and the subsequent perfume purchase behaviour of mature female consumers from a dual (industry and consumer perspective. Results indicate that important perceptual differences related to brand relationships with perfume exist between fragrance consultants and experts on one hand and consumers on the other. This research promotes a deeper understanding of current consumer approach and issues surrounding female mature purchasing behaviour for this unique category of product, and complements the growing body of literature related to luxury brands.

  10. Prolactin family of the guinea pig, Cavia porcellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, S M Khorshed; Konno, Toshihiro; Rumi, M A Karim; Dong, Yafeng; Weiner, Carl P; Soares, Michael J

    2010-08-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a multifunctional hormone with prominent roles in regulating growth and reproduction. The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) has been extensively used in endocrine and reproduction research. Thus far, the PRL cDNA and protein have not been isolated from the guinea pig. In the present study, we used information derived from the public guinea pig genome database as a tool for identifying guinea pig PRL and PRL-related proteins. Guinea pig PRL exhibits prominent nucleotide and amino acid sequence differences when compared with PRLs of other eutherian mammals. In contrast, guinea pig GH is highly conserved. Expression of PRL and GH in the guinea pig is prominent in the anterior pituitary, similar to known expression patterns of PRL and GH for other species. Two additional guinea pig cDNAs were identified and termed PRL-related proteins (PRLRP1, PRLRP2). They exhibited a more distant relationship to PRL and their expression was restricted to the placenta. Recombinant guinea pig PRL protein was generated and shown to be biologically active in the PRL-responsive Nb2 lymphoma cell bioassay. In contrast, recombinant guinea pig PRLRP1 protein did not exhibit PRL-like bioactivity. In summary, we have developed a new set of research tools for investigating the biology of the PRL family in an important animal model, the guinea pig.

  11. Acute and latent infection by bovine herpesvirus type 2 in a guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Fabrício Dias; Cargnelutti, Juliana Felipetto; Masuda, Eduardo Kenji; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo Furtado

    2010-02-01

    Bovine herpetic mammillits is a self-limiting cutaneous disease of the udder and teats of cows associated with bovine herpesvirus 2 (BoHV-2) whose pathogenesis is poorly understood. This article describes the use of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) to study the pathogenesis of BoHV-2 infection. Twelve weanling female guinea pigs inoculated subcutaneously with BoHV-2 in the genitalia and teats developed local hyperemia, edema, vesicles, ulcers and scabs. Infectious virus was recovered between days 3 and 7 post-infection (pi) from the genital area (9/12) and teats (1/12); and all inoculated animals seroconverted (virus-neutralizing titers of 16-128). Histological examination of lesions revealed lymphoplasmacytic perivascular infiltrates and intranuclear inclusion bodies in keratinocytes. PCR examination of tissues collected at day 35 pi detected latent viral DNA predominantly in lumbosacral spinal segments. In another experiment, eight females inoculated with BoHV-2 in the genitalia and treated with dexamethasone (Dx) at day 35 pi developed mild to moderate local signs, yet no virus could be recovered from lesions. PCR examination of spinal segments from these animals confirmed the presence of latent viral DNA. These results demonstrate that guinea pigs are susceptible to BoHV-2 infection and therefore may be used to study selected aspects of BoHV-2 biology.

  12. Insulin-like growth factor I: a biologic maturation indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Ramy Abdul Rahman; Soliman, Sanaa Abou Zeid; Foda, Manal Yehya; Fayed, Mona Mohamed Salah

    2012-11-01

    Determination of the maturation level and the subsequent evaluation of growth potential during preadolescence and adolescence are important for optimal orthodontic treatment planning and timing. This study was undertaken to evaluate the applicability of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) blood level as a maturation indicator by correlating it to the cervical vertebral maturation index. The study was conducted with 120 subjects, equally divided into 60 males (ages, 10-18 years) and 60 females (ages, 8-16 years). A lateral cephalometric radiograph and a blood sample were taken from each subject. For each subject, cervical vertebral maturation and IGF-I serum level were assessed. Mean values of IGF-I in each stage of cervical vertebral maturation were calculated, and the means in each stage were statistically compared with those of the other stages. The IGF-I mean value at each cervical vertebral maturation stage was statistically different from the mean values at the other stages. The highest mean values were observed in stage 4, followed by stage 5 in males and stage 3 in females. IGF-I serum level is a reliable maturation indicator that could be applied in orthodontic diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN DENTAL AND SKELETAL MATURATION STAGES IN CROATIAN SUBJECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srkoc, Tamara; Mestrović, Senka; Anić-Milosević, Sandra; Slaj, Mladen

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the stages of calcification of teeth and cervical vertebral maturation. The sample consisted of 295 subjects (129 male and 166 female), mean age 13.36 ± 2.65 (range 7-18) years. Dental age was evaluated from panoramic radiographs according to the method of Demirjian. Cervical vertebral maturation was determined on lateral cephalometric radiographs using cervical vertebrae maturation stages (CVS). For assessing the relationship between cervical vertebral and dental maturation, percentage distributions of the stages of calcification for each studied tooth were calculated. Only in the first CVS stage, boys and girls were of the same age. In all other stages (CVS 2-CVS 6) girls were by 0.98 (range 0.23-1.86) younger than boys. Gender differences in the mineralization pattern were also observed. It was found that dental maturation was finished earlier in female subjects. The highest correlation coefficient between dental and skeletal maturity was found for second premolars. Mineralization pattern of second premolars could be considered as a guideline for prediction of the pubertal growth spurt. Dental maturation stages might be clinically useful as a reliable indicator of facial growth.

  14. Decreased heterotopic osteogenesis in vitamin-D-deficient, but normocalcemic guinea pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic-Goclawska, A.; Toverud, S. U.; Kaminski, A.; Boass, A.; Yamauchi, M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of vitamin D deficiency unhampered by hypocalcemia on de novo bone formation was studied in guinea pigs. Heterotopic induction of osteogenesis was evaluated 4 weeks after intramuscular transplantation of allogenic urinary bladder transitional epithelium from vitamin-D-repleted (+D) donors into +D and -D recipients. In -D recipients the frequency of osteogenesis and the amount of induced bone were significantly diminished; induced bone was less mature, scantly cellular woven bone poorly repopulated with bone marrow. No effect of vitamin D deficiency on orthotopic bone growth and on mineralization of orthotopic and heterotopically induced bone was observed. It is proposed that in addition to inducing factors (BMPs, growth factors) which may be responsible for transformation of mesenchymal cells to osteoprogenitor cells, normal concentrations of 1,25-(OH)2D3 may be required for proliferation and further differentiation of these cells into osteoblasts and for expression of genes engaged in extracellular matrix formation and maturation.

  15. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    Yeast surface display is an effective tool for antibody affinity maturation because yeast can be used as an all-in-one workhorse to assemble, display and screen diversified antibody libraries. By employing the natural ability of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently recombine multiple DNA...... laboratory conditions. A particular emphasis was put on using molecular techniques in conjunction with microenvironmental measurements (O2, pH, irradiance), a combination that is rarely found but provides a much more detailed understanding of “cause and effect” in complex natural systems...

  16. Vitamin C deficiency reduces muscarinic receptor coronary artery vasoconstriction and plasma tetrahydrobiopterin concentration in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsted, Gry Freja; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken Marie

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin C (vitC) deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, but its specific interplay with arteriolar function is unclear. This study investigates the effect of vitC deficiency in guinea pigs on plasma biopterin status and the vasomotor responses in coronary arteries...... exposed to vasoconstrictor/-dilator agents. Dunkin Hartley female guinea pigs (n = 32) were randomized to high (1500 mg/kg diet) or low (0 to 50 mg/kg diet) vitC for 10-12 weeks. At euthanasia, coronary artery segments were dissected and mounted in a wire-myograph. Vasomotor responses to potassium......-1 were unaffected by vitC status. The study shows that vitC deficiency decreases tetrahydrobiopterin concentrations and muscarinic receptor mediated contraction in coronary arteries. This attenuated vasoconstrictor response may be linked to altered production of vasoactive arachidonic acid...

  17. Replication-defective lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus vectors expressing guinea pig cytomegalovirus gB and pp65 homologs are protective against congenital guinea pig cytomegalovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardin, Rhonda D; Bravo, Fernando J; Pullum, Derek A; Orlinger, Klaus; Watson, Elizabeth M; Aspoeck, Andreas; Fuhrmann, Gerhard; Guirakhoo, Farshad; Monath, Thomas; Bernstein, David I

    2016-04-12

    Congenital cytomegalovirus infection can be life-threatening and often results in significant developmental deficits and/or hearing loss. Thus, there is a critical need for an effective anti-CMV vaccine. To determine the efficacy of replication-defective lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMV) vectors expressing the guinea pig CMV (GPCMV) antigens, gB and pp65, in the guinea pig model of congenital CMV infection. Female Hartley strain guinea pigs were divided into three groups: Buffer control group (n = 9), rLCMV-gB group (n = 11), and rLCMV-pp65 (n = 11). The vaccines were administered three times IM at 1.54 × 10(6)FFU per dose at 21-day intervals. At two weeks after vaccination, the female guinea pigs underwent breeding. Pregnant guinea pigs were challenged SQ at ∼ 45-55 days of gestation with 1 × 10(5)PFU of GPCMV. Viremia in the dams, pup survival, weights of pups at delivery, and viral load in both dam and pup tissues were determined. Pup survival was significantly increased in the LCMV-gB vaccine group. There was 23% pup mortality in the gB vaccine group (p = 0.044) and 26% pup mortality in the pp65 vaccine group (p = 0.054) compared to 49% control pup mortality. The gB vaccine induced high levels of gB binding and detectable neutralizing antibodies, reduced dam viremia, and significantly reduced viral load in dam tissues compared to control dams (p < 0.03). Reduced viral load and transmission in pups born to gB-vaccinated dams was observed compared to pups from pp65-vaccinated or control dams. The rLCMV-gB vaccine significantly improved pup survival and also increased pup weights and gestation time. The gB vaccine was also more effective at decreasing viral load in dams and pups and limiting congenital transmission. Thus, rLCMV vectors that express CMV antigens may be an effective vaccine strategy for congenital CMV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Lenschow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  19. Development of rat female genital cortex and control of female puberty by sexual touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Sigl-Glöckner, Johanna; Brecht, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Rat somatosensory cortex contains a large sexually monomorphic genital representation. Genital cortex undergoes an unusual 2-fold expansion during puberty. Here, we investigate genital cortex development and female rat sexual maturation. Ovariectomies and estradiol injections suggested sex hormones cause the pubertal genital cortex expansion but not its maintenance at adult size. Genital cortex expanded by thalamic afferents invading surrounding dysgranular cortex. Genital touch was a dominant factor driving female sexual maturation. Raising female rats in contact with adult males promoted genital cortex expansion, whereas contact to adult females or nontactile (audio-visual-olfactory) male cues did not. Genital touch imposed by human experimenters powerfully advanced female genital cortex development and sexual maturation. Long-term blocking of genital cortex by tetrodotoxin in pubescent females housed with males prevented genital cortex expansion and decelerated vaginal opening. Sex hormones, sexual experience, and neural activity shape genital cortex, which contributes to the puberty promoting effects of sexual touch.

  20. Picture Communication in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bruce L.

    1980-01-01

    Reports the major findings of a study that investigated the effectiveness of using pictures of different art styles (stick figures, faceless outline drawings, detailed black-and-white, detailed black-and-white with watercolor wash, and black-and-white photographs) with 423 new readers in Papua New Guinea. (JD)

  1. The Papua and New Guinea Herbarium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Womersley, J.S.; Botanist, Forest

    1951-01-01

    A short account of the establishment of the Herbarium of the Department of Forests, Papua and New Guinea appeared on p. 61, no 3, volume I of Flora Malesiana Bulletin. This Herbarium has now been firmly established and is constantly receiving collections of plants from various parts of Papua and New

  2. ECG telemetry in conscious guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, Sabine; Vormberge, Thomas; Igl, Bernd-Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    During preclinical drug development, monitoring of the electrocardiogram (ECG) is an important part of cardiac safety assessment. To detect potential pro-arrhythmic liabilities of a drug candidate and for internal decision-making during early stage drug development an in vivo model in small animals with translatability to human cardiac function is required. Over the last years, modifications/improvements regarding animal housing, ECG electrode placement, and data evaluation have been introduced into an established model for ECG recordings using telemetry in conscious, freely moving guinea pigs. Pharmacological validation using selected reference compounds affecting different mechanisms relevant for cardiac electrophysiology (quinidine, flecainide, atenolol, dl-sotalol, dofetilide, nifedipine, moxifloxacin) was conducted and findings were compared with results obtained in telemetered Beagle dogs. Under standardized conditions, reliable ECG data with low variability allowing largely automated evaluation were obtained from the telemetered guinea pig model. The model is sensitive to compounds blocking cardiac sodium channels, hERG K(+) channels and calcium channels, and appears to be even more sensitive to β-blockers as observed in dogs at rest. QT interval correction according to Bazett and Sarma appears to be appropriate methods in conscious guinea pigs. Overall, the telemetered guinea pig is a suitable model for the conduct of early stage preclinical ECG assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mesothelium of Reissner's membrane in guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, Jørgen

    1990-01-01

    The mesothelial cells of Reissner's membrane in guinea pigs were found to be connected by junctional complexes. No cell discontinuities or gaps were observed by scanning or transmission electron microscopy. These results are not in accordance with previous studies. They were achieved by in vivo...

  4. Piraatlus Guinea lahes ja Nigeerias / Eero Tepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tepp, Eero

    2013-01-01

    Guinea lahes lokkava piraatluse põhjused ja tegurid, mis seda soodustavad: seaduselüngad, looduslikud tingimused, ebapädev korrakaitse, poliitiline olustik, kultuuriline vastuvõetavus, majanduslik tasuvus. Sõjalised ja mittesõjalised meetmetest, mida rakendatakse piraatlusevastases võitluses

  5. Arrangement of Renal Arteries in Guinea Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazensky, David; Flesarova, Slavka

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe origin, localization, and variations of renal arteries in guinea pig. The study was carried out on 26 adult guinea pigs. We prepared corrosion casts of the guinea pig arterial system. Batson's corrosion casting kit no. 17 was used as the casting medium. In 57.7% of specimens, a. renalis dextra was present as a single vessel with different level of its origin from aorta abdominalis. In 38.5% of specimens, two aa. renales dextrae were present with variable origin and arrangement. The presence of three aa. renales dextrae we found in one specimen. In 76.9% of specimens, a. renalis sinistra was present as a single vessel with different level of its origin from aorta abdominalis and variable arrangement. In 23.1% of specimens, we found two aa. renales sinistrae with variable origin and arrangement. The anatomical knowledge of the renal arteries, and its variations are of extreme importance for the surgeon that approaches the retroperitoneal region in several experiments, results of which are extrapolated in human. This is the first work dealing with the description of renal arteries arrangement in guinea pig. Anat Rec, 300:556-559, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Iinformation accessibility and farmers manageriability of guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the farmers' access to information and their manageriability of the intervention programme in the study area. To achieve the objective, there was need to determine farmers' information accessibility and manageriability of guinea worm intervention package; then determine farmers satisfaction with the ...

  7. Spatial learning impairment in prepubertal guinea pigs prenatally exposed to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos: Toxicological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamczarz, Jacek; Pescrille, Joseph D.; Gavrushenko, Lisa; Burke, Richard D.; Fawcett, William P.; DeTolla, Louis J.; Chen, Hegang; Pereira, Edna F.R.; Albuquerque, Edson X.

    2017-01-01

    Exposure of the developing brain to chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus (OP) pesticide used extensively in agriculture worldwide, has been associated with increased prevalence of cognitive deficits in children, particularly boys. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that cognitive deficits induced by prenatal exposure to sub-acute doses of CPF can be reproduced in precocial small species. To address this hypothesis, pregnant guinea pigs were injected daily with CPF (25 mg/kg, s.c.) or vehicle (peanut oil) for 10 days starting on presumed gestation day (GD) 53–55. Offspring were born around GD 65, weaned on postnatal day (PND) 20, and subjected to behavioral tests starting around PND 30. On the day of birth, butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), an OP bioscavenger used as a biomarker of OP exposures, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a major molecular target of OP compounds, were significantly inhibited in the blood of CPF-exposed offspring. In their brains, BuChE, but not AChE, was significantly inhibited. Prenatal CPF exposure had no significant effect on locomotor activity or on locomotor habituation, a form of non-associative memory assessed in open fields. Spatial navigation in the Morris water maze (MWM) was found to be sexually dimorphic among guinea pigs, with males outperforming females. Prenatal CPF exposure impaired spatial learning more significantly among male than female guinea pigs and, consequently, reduced the sexual dimorphism of the task. The results presented here, which strongly support the test hypothesis, reveal that the guinea pig is a valuable animal model for preclinical assessment of the developmental neurotoxicity of OP pesticides. These findings are far reaching as they lay the groundwork for future studies aimed at identifying therapeutic interventions to treat and/or prevent the neurotoxic effects of CPF in the developing brain. PMID:27296654

  8. Maternal vitamin C deficiency does not reduce hippocampal volume and beta-tubulin III intensity in prenatal Guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stine Normann; Schjoldager, Janne Gram; Paidi, Maya Devi

    2016-01-01

    Marginal vitamin C (vitC) deficiency affects 5% to 10% of adults including subpopulations such as pregnant women and newborns. Animal studies link vitC deficiency to deleterious effects on the developing brain, but exactly how the brain adapts to vitC deficiency and the mechanisms behind...... the observed deficits remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that vitC deficiency in utero may lead to a decreased neuronal maturation and increased cellular death giving rise to alterations of the hippocampal morphology in a guinea pig model. Brains from prenatal guinea pig pups (n = 9-10 in each group......) subjected to either a sufficient (918 mg vitC/kg feed) or deficient (100 mg vitC/kg feed) maternal dietary regimen were assessed with regards to hippocampal volume and beta-tubulin isotype III staining intensity at 2 gestational time points (45 and 56). We found a distinct differential regional growth...

  9. Mature Cystic Renal Teratoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, Alpaslan; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Akkaya, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Teratomas are rare germline tumors that originate from one or more embryonic germ cell layers. Teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and less than 30 cases of primary intrarenal teratomas have been published to date. We report the main radiologic features of an unusual case of mature cystic teratoma arising from the left kidney in a two-year-old boy. A left-sided abdominal mass was detected on physical examination and B-Mod Ultrasound (US) examination revealed a heterogeneous mass with central cystic component. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a lobulated, heterogeneous, hypodense mass extending craniocaudally from the splenic hilum to the level of the left iliac fossa. Nephrectomy was performed and a large, fatty mass arising from the left kidney was excised. The final pathologic diagnosis was confirmed as cystic renal teratoma

  10. Vocal communication in a complex multi-level society: constrained acoustic structure and flexible call usage in Guinea baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciej, Peter; Ndao, Ibrahima; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Fischer, Julia

    2013-09-23

    To understand the evolution of acoustic communication in animals, it is important to distinguish between the structure and the usage of vocal signals, since both aspects are subject to different constraints. In terrestrial mammals, the structure of calls is largely innate, while individuals have a greater ability to actively initiate or withhold calls. In closely related taxa, one would therefore predict a higher flexibility in call usage compared to call structure. In the present study, we investigated the vocal repertoire of free living Guinea baboons (Papio papio) and examined the structure and usage of the animals' vocal signals. Guinea baboons live in a complex multi-level social organization and exhibit a largely tolerant and affiliative social style, contrary to most other baboon taxa. To classify the vocal repertoire of male and female Guinea baboons, cluster analyses were used and focal observations were conducted to assess the usage of vocal signals in the particular contexts. In general, the vocal repertoire of Guinea baboons largely corresponded to the vocal repertoire other baboon taxa. The usage of calls, however, differed considerably from other baboon taxa and corresponded with the specific characteristics of the Guinea baboons' social behaviour. While Guinea baboons showed a diminished usage of contest and display vocalizations (a common pattern observed in chacma baboons), they frequently used vocal signals during affiliative and greeting interactions. Our study shows that the call structure of primates is largely unaffected by the species' social system (including grouping patterns and social interactions), while the usage of calls can be more flexibly adjusted, reflecting the quality of social interactions of the individuals. Our results support the view that the primary function of social signals is to regulate social interactions, and therefore the degree of competition and cooperation may be more important to explain variation in call usage

  11. Use of recombinant human thyroid-stimulating hormone for evaluation of thyroid function in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jörg; Wagner, Robert; Mitchell, Mark A; Fecteau, Kellie

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of administration of recombinant human (rh) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) for evaluation of thyroid function in euthyroid guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Prospective, experimental study. 10 healthy, sexually intact, pet guinea pigs (approx 1 year of age). Guinea pigs were given rhTSH (100 μg, IM); plasma thyroxine concentrations were determined prior to and 3 and 4 hours after rhTSH injection. The animals were housed in 2 groups on the basis of sex and fed different commercial maintenance diets according to their husbandry. There was no significant difference in thyroxine concentrations between males and females before or after rhTSH injection. There was also no difference between thyroxine concentrations at 3 versus 4 hours after rhTSH injection. There was a significant difference between thyroxine concentrations before (median, 9.05 nmol/L [0.70 μg/dL]; 10% to 90% range, 7.39 to 16.99 nmol/L [0.57 to 1.32 μg/dL]) and after (mean ± SD, 23.95 ± 4.2 nmol/L) rhTSH injection. Euthyroid guinea pigs had plasma thyroxine concentrations of at least 7.30 nmol/L (0.57 μg/dL) and an increase of at least 2.6 times prestimulation thyroxine concentrations at 3 or 4 hours after stimulation. The results suggested that rhTSH administered IM can be used for the TSH stimulation testing in guinea pigs. We suggest thyroxine concentration in a euthyroid guinea pig should at least double 3 to 4 hours after rhTSH injection.

  12. Pharmacokinetics and Adverse Effects of 3 Sustained-release Buprenorphine Dosages in Healthy Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Andrea S; Putta, Sumanth K; Casebolt, Donald B; Louie, Stan G

    2017-11-01

    In guinea pigs, studies addressing the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetic profiles of different sustained-release buprenorphine (SRB) formulations are still in their infancy. Here we assessed the pharmacokinetic profiles of 3 SRB dosages (SR-LAB, ZooPharm; SRBLow, 0.15 mg/kg; SRBMedium, 0.3 mg/kg; and SRBHigh, 0.6 mg/kg) for 72 h after a single subcutaneous administration to 8 (4 male and 4 female) healthy guinea pigs. Body weight, fecal output, and cortisol levels were also monitored and the results compared with those of the sham group. Within the first h after administration, the maximal plasma concentration (Cmax) of the drug was 64.3 ± 9.2 ng/mL (males) and 71.3 ± 3.7 ng/mL (females) in the SRBHigh group; 11.5 ± 3.2 ng/mL (males) and 6.9 ± 0.9 ng/mL (females) in the SRBMedium group; and 2.3 ± 0.8 ng/mL (males) and 2.0 ± 0.5 ng/mL (females) in the SRBLow group. After 72 h, therapeutic levels of the drug (>1 ng/mL) were observed only in guinea pigs treated with SRBHigh (both sexes) and males treated with SRBMediu cm. Fecal output (quantity and distribution) and body weight were significantly lower in the SRB groups as compared with the sham group, and with the SRBHigh group showing larger reductions. Baseline levels of serum cortisol in healthy females (1440 ± 106 ng/mL) were significantly greater than in males (550 ± 66 ng/mL). But, independent of the sex, SRB administration significantly reduced those levels. In conclusion, the data indicate that all 3 SRB dosages can be safely used in guinea pigs. However, therapeutic levels of the drug were observed for at least 48 h only guinea pigs treated with SRBHigh and SRBMedium. Further investigation is needed to determine if these dosages can alleviate pain in guinea pigs.

  13. Fisheries-induced evolution in growth, maturation and reproductive investment of the sexually dimorphic North Sea plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Walraven, L.; Mollet, F. M.; van Damme, C. J. G.; Rijnsdorp, A. D.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the onset of sexual maturation, reproductive investment and growth of North Sea plaice are studied between three periods: 1900s, 1980s and 2000s. Probabilistic maturation reaction norms of both males and females, describing the probability of becoming mature conditional on age and size,

  14. Developing maturity grids for assessing organisational capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John

    2009-01-01

    Keyword: Maturity Model,Maturity Grid,Maturity Matrix,Organisational Capabilities,Benchmarking,New Product Development,Perfirmance Assessment......Keyword: Maturity Model,Maturity Grid,Maturity Matrix,Organisational Capabilities,Benchmarking,New Product Development,Perfirmance Assessment...

  15. Modeling non-maturing liabilities

    OpenAIRE

    von Feilitzen, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Non‐maturing liabilities, such as savings accounts, lack both predetermined maturity and reset dates due to the fact that the depositor is free to withdraw funds at any time and that the depository institution is free to change the rate. These attributes complicate the risk management of such products and no standardized solution exists. The problem is important however since non‐maturing liabilities typically make up a considerable part of the funding of a bank. In this report different mode...

  16. Heterogeneity of Opioid Binding Sites in Guinea Pig Spinal Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-30

    MEDICAL CENTER WILFORD HALL AIR FORCE MEDICAL CENTER Title of Thesis: "Heterogeneity of Opioid Binding Sites in Guinea Pig Spinal Cord" Name of...that the use of any copyrighted material in the dissertation manuscript entitled: "Heterogeneity of Opioid Binding Sites in Guinea Pig Spinal Cord...University of the Health Sciences 11 Abstract Title of Thesis: Heterogenity of Opioid Binding Sites In Guinea Pig Spinal Cord Gary Dean Zarr MAJ/ANC

  17. Survival and maturation rates of the African rodent Mastomys natalensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sluydts, Vincent; Crespin, Laurent; Davis, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    the model fit. On the other hand we showed that maturation rates were correlated negatively with density the previous month and positively to cumulative rainfall over the past three months. Survival estimates of both adults and subadults varied seasonally, with higher estimates during the increase phase......Survival and maturation rates of female Mastomys natalensis were analysed based on a ten-year onthly capture-recapture data set. We investigated whether direct and delayed density dependent and independent (rainfall) variables accounted for the considerable variation in demographic traits....... It was estimated that seasonal and annual covariates accounted for respectively 29 and 26% of the total variation in maturation rates and respectively 17 and 11% of the variation in survival rates. Explaining the between-year differences in maturation rates with annual past rainfall or density did not improve...

  18. Sexual maturation in the Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Terri L; Reinhart, Paul R; Romo, John S; Candra, Dedi; Suhaery, Andriansyah; Stoops, Monica A

    2013-01-01

    To help save the Sumatran rhino from extinction, the captive breeding program must capitalize on each rhino's reproductive lifespan. Doing so requires knowing when calves are sexually mature. The goal of this study was to monitor physiological changes associated with sexual maturation in two captive born calves (one male and one female) to determine the approximate age of maturity for both sexes of this species. Fecal testosterone metabolites were monitored in the male calf from 6 months to 7 years of age, and fecal pregnane metabolites were measured in the female calf from 6 months to 5.5 years of age. In addition, rectal ultrasonography was employed to monitor changes in ovarian activity from 2 to 5.5 years of age. The male calf's fecal testosterone concentrations reached levels comparable to those detected in samples from adult males when he was 6-6.5 years of age. The first pre-ovulatory sized follicle was observed on the ovaries of the female calf when she was 4.75 years old, but fecal pregnane metabolite concentrations only reached maximum mean concentrations and variability when she was 5-5.5 years of age. Results from this study indicate that male and female Sumatran rhino calves are sexually mature at 6-6.5 and 5-5.5 years of age, respectively. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Twenty-four-Hour Measurement of Intraocular Pressure in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari-Mood, Maneli; Mehdi-Rajaei, Seyed; Sadjadi, Reza; Selk-Ghaffari, Masoud; Williams, David L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure intraocular pressure (IOP) in intact, healthy guinea pigs (15 male, 15 female) every 2 h for a 24-h period. First, IOP was measured by using rebound tonometry (RBT). After a 1-min rest period, 0.5% proparacaine ophthalmic solution, a topical anesthetic, was applied to both eyes; 4 min after anesthetic instillation, IOP was measured by using applanation tonometry (APT). The IOP was lower during the light period (0700 to 1900) than during the dark phase (2000 to 0600). The lowest IOP by both RBT and APT (3.68 and 13.37 mm Hg, respectively) occurred at 0700, whereas maximal IOP occurred at 2300 for RBT (8.12 mm Hg) but at 2100 for APT (20.62 mm Hg). No significant differences in IOP between the left and right eyes or between RBT and APT were noted. In addition, daily variations in the IOP of guinea pigs seem to be independent of sex and body weight. The results of this study may be beneficial in the diagnosis and observation of glaucoma in guinea pigs.

  20. Chlamydial Protease-Like Activity Factor Mediated Protection Against C. trachomatis In Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Koundinya Lanka, Gopala Krishna; Chambers, James P.; Guentzel, M. Neal; Zhong, Guangming; Murthy, Ashlesh K.; Arulanandam, Bernard P.

    2016-01-01

    We have comprehensively demonstrated using the mouse model that intranasal immunization with recombinant chlamydial protease-like activity factor (rCPAF) leads to a significant reduction in bacterial burden, genital tract pathology and preserves fertility following intravaginal genital chlamydial challenge. In the present report, we evaluated the protective efficacy of rCPAF immunization in guinea pigs, a second animal model for genital chlamydial infection. Using a vaccination strategy similar to the mouse model, we intranasally immunized female guinea pigs with rCPAF plus CpG deoxynucleotides (CpG; as an adjuvant), and challenged intravaginally with C. trachomatis serovar D (CT-D). Immunization with rCPAF/CpG significantly reduced vaginal CT-D shedding and induced resolution of infection by day 24, compared to day 33 in CpG alone treated and challenged animals. Immunization induced robust anti-rCPAF serum IgG 2 weeks following the last immunization, and was sustained at a high level 4 weeks post challenge. Upregulation of antigen specific IFN-γ gene expression was observed in rCPAF/CpG vaccinated splenocytes. Importantly, a significant reduction in inflammation in the genital tissue in rCPAF/CpG-immunized guinea pigs compared to CpG-immunized animals was observed. Taken together, this study provides evidence of the protective efficacy of rCPAF as a vaccine candidate in a second animal model of genital chlamydial infection. PMID:27990018

  1. Enriched open field facilitates exercise and social interaction in 2 strains of guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Jacob S; Bellinger, Seanceray A; Joshi, Prianca; Kleven, Gale A

    2014-07-01

    Current housing guidelines for laboratory rodents include recommendations for enrichment. Working with guinea pigs, we have developed an open-field enrichment paradigm that provides several aspects of this species' natural environment. These naturalistic aspects include access to increased space for exploration, access to western timothy (Phleum pratense L.) hay, and grouping as a herd to facilitate social interaction. To determine the immediate effect on behavior from access to the enriched environment, female guinea pigs from 2 strains, IAF Hairless and NIH Hartley, were observed in both standard home cages and an open-field enriched environment. Subjects were housed with cagemates in pairs for the home-cage observation and were grouped as a herd when in the open-field arena. Behaviors were videorecorded for 1 h and then scored. Salivary cortisol levels were measured both prior to and immediately after behavioral observations. Analyses revealed higher levels of activity and social interaction in the open-field arena compared with the home cage, with no significant change in salivary cortisol levels. These results suggest that exposure to the open-field environment provide increased opportunities for exercise and social enrichment. Although additional studies are needed to determine long-term effects on experimental outcomes, the open-field configuration holds promise as a laboratory enrichment paradigm for guinea pigs.

  2. Oil and gas in Papua New Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, A.D.; Lattimore, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper documents the current status of oil and gas reserves and production in Papua New Guinea. It then provides an assessment of future prospects for the industry in the context of both the international market for oil and gas and local constraints on the industry's growth. Finally, an estimate of the impact of the industry's development on the economy of PNG is presented. (author)

  3. Elastase-induced emphysema in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loscutoff, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Pulmonary function changes measured in guinea pigs 4 to 5 wk following intratracheal instillation of crystalline porcine pancreatic elastase resembled comparable changes in humans with moderately severe pulmonary emphysema. Compared with saline-treated controls, elastase-treated animals had increased values for all divisions of lung volume, increased static compliance and prolonged time constants. Since humans with emphysema are especially sensitive to air pollutants, elastase-treated animals may be useful as sensitive animal models in inhalatio toxicology

  4. Whose Maturity is it Anyway?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results from an ongoing empirical study that seeks to understand the influence of different quantitative methods on the design and assessment of maturity models. Although there have been many academic publications on maturity models, there exists a significant lack of understa...

  5. Evaluation of Male Reproductive Features as Maturity Indices for Short-finned Squid (IIlex illecebrosus)

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, M. L.; Mallet, M. D.; O'Dor, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    Various aspects of maturation in male IIlex illecebrosus were examined in an attempt to find evidence for a more realistic maturity scale than that currently in use. Simple indices, based on morphology of the hectocotylized arm, failed to provide satisfactory relationships, but the observed variation in hectocotylus measurements may provide useful insights into the population ecology of the species. The earlier maturation of males than females and the observed premature release of spermato...

  6. Reproductive performance and gestational effort in relation to dietary fatty acids in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Matthias; Millesi, Eva; Siutz, Carina; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Quint, Ruth; Wallner, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Dietary saturated (SFAs) and polyunsaturated (PUFAs) fatty acids can highly affect reproductive functions by providing additional energy, modulating the biochemical properties of tissues, and hormone secretions. In precocial mammals such as domestic guinea pigs the offspring is born highly developed. Gestation might be the most critical reproductive period in this species and dietary fatty acids may profoundly influence the gestational effort. We therefore determined the hormonal status at conception, the reproductive success, and body mass changes during gestation in guinea pigs maintained on diets high in PUFAs or SFAs, or a control diet. The diets significantly affected the females' plasma fatty acid status at conception, while cortisol and estrogen levels did not differ among groups. SFA females exhibited a significantly lower body mass and litter size, while the individual birth mass of pups did not differ among groups and a general higher pup mortality rate in larger litters was diminished by PUFAs and SFAs. The gestational effort, determined by a mother's body mass gain during gestation, increased with total litter mass, whereas this increase was lowest in SFA and highest in PUFA individuals. The mother's body mass after parturition did not differ among groups and was positively affected by the total litter mass in PUFA females. While SFAs reduce the litter size, but also the gestational effort as a consequence, PUFA supplementation may contribute to an adjustment of energy accumulations to the total litter mass, which may both favor a mother's body condition at parturition and perhaps increase the offspring survival at birth.

  7. Host selection by a phytophagous insect: the interplay between feeding, egg maturation, egg load, and oviposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding movement patterns of phytophagous insects among plants is a primary goal of insect ecology. Adult females may visit plants for the purpose of depositing eggs, feeding, or both. For some species, egg maturation may be dependent on adult feeding. As a result, rates of egg maturation m...

  8. Maturation of the penaeid prawn Metapenaeus moyebi in Mandovi Estuary, Goa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Achuthankutty, C.T; Parulekar, A

    Metapenaeus moyebi contributed a good share of penaeid prawn population in the Mandovi Estuary of Goa, India throughout the year. Both males and females of this species with fully mature gonads were observed in the estuary, suggesting further...

  9. Changes in gene expression during follicle maturation in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failure to successfully complete ovarian follicle maturation is one of the most common reproductive problems in captive female broodstock, often requiring the use of reproductive assistance technologies. An improved understanding of how requisite environmental and social conditions translate in...

  10. The diagnostic performance of chronologic age in the assessment of skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; De Toffol, Laura; Ghiozzi, Bruno; Cozza, Paola

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between chronologic age the and individual skeletal maturity as assessed by means of the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method during the circumpubertal period. The evaluated sample of 600 subjects consisted of 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females) for each of 6 age groups, from 9 years through 14 years of age. Individual skeletal maturity for all subjects was determined by using the CVM method. The relationship between chronologic age and the most prevalent CVM stage at each age group was evaluated statistically by means of indicators of diagnostic test performance that specify the ability of a diagnostic test to identify a condition. The diagnostic performance of chronologic age for the detection of the onset of the adolescent peak in skeletal maturation was very low both in males and in females. In male subjects, the chronologic age of 9 years +/- 6 months presented with strong diagnostic power for the identification of a pre-pubertal stage in skeletal maturation. In female subjects, the chronologic age of 14 years +/- 6 months corresponded with a strong probability of a postpubertal stage in skeletal maturation. In males, chronologic age can identify a pre-pubertal stage of skeletal development, and in females a post-pubertal stage. In both males and females, chronologic age cannot recognize the onset of the adolescent peak in skeletal maturation.

  11. An annotated ornithological bibliography of Guinea-Bissau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazevoet, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Guinea-Bissau, a former Portuguese colony, is a small country (36,125 km²) in West Africa bordered by Senegal in the north and Guinea (Conakry) in the east and south. Little is known about the country’s ornithology and comparatively few papers on its birds have been published. The following is an

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS IN GUINEA-PIG UTERUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOODS, HN; WILLIM, KD; BODDEKE, HWGM; ENTZEROTH, M

    1993-01-01

    To characterize the muscarinic receptor present in guinea-pig uterus smooth muscle the affinities of a series of 27 muscarinic receptor antagonists for M1 (rat cortex), M2 (rat heart), M3 (rat submandibular gland), m4 (transfected in CHO cells) and muscarinic binding sites in guinea-pig uterus

  13. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Epidemiological evidence of listeriosis in guinea pigs fed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium that infects livestock and humans. We report the first outbreak of invasive listeriosis caused by L. monocytogenes in a guinea pig breeding colony. Eighty to 100% mortality rate was recorded in the colony of 80 guinea pigs within four weeks outbreak. On epidemiologic investigation ...

  15. Ebola Virus Imported from Guinea to Senegal, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka, Daye; Fall, Gamou; Diallo, Viviane Cissé; Faye, Ousmane; Fortes, Louise Deguenonvo; Faye, Oumar; Bah, Elhadji Ibrahim; Diallo, Kadia Mbaye; Balique, Fanny; Ndour, Cheikh Tidiane; Seydi, Moussa; Sall, Amadou Alpha

    2017-06-01

    In March 2014, the World Health Organization declared an outbreak of Ebola virus disease in Guinea. In August 2014, a case caused by virus imported from Guinea occurred in Senegal, most likely resulting from nonsecure funerals and travel. Preparedness and surveillance in Senegal probably prevented secondary cases.

  16. Quality Attributes Of Two Species Of Indigenous Guinea Fowl Meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As the duration of storage of the guinea fowl meats increased percentage of weight loss, cooking loss, pH, and tenderness scores increased (P < 0.05). Prepackaging or salting of guinea fowl meats reduced (P< 0.05) percentages of weight loss, cooking loss and increased (P < 0.05) pH, water holding Capacity and sensory ...

  17. Piper (Piperaceae) in New Guinea: the climbing species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, R.O.

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen climbing Piper species are accepted for New Guinea. The three endemics, P. arfakianum, P. subcanirameum and P. versteegii, are fully described. Eight taxa of unclear circumscription are noted. A new variety of P. macropiper, endemic to Morobe Province of Papua New Guinea, is described. The

  18. Transplacental absorption of 238Pu in rats and guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.

    1980-01-01

    Pregnant rats and guinea pigs were injected intravenously with 238 Pu citrate to determine if the potential for in utero accumulation of 238 Pu by these two species is related to the stage of development at which immunity is gained. Although guinea pigs retained more 238 Pu after birth than rats, the difference was not significant

  19. Crossed Looks: Globalisations and Curriculum in Guinea-Bissau

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rui; dos Santos, Júlio Gonçalves; Pacheco, José Augusto

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on education in Guinea-Bissau in the context of globalisations, examining the concept of globalisation and its relation to education and the curriculum. It focuses on the relatively neglected area of national education policies in Guinea-Bissau, comparing differences and common points of interference/influence of multilateral…

  20. Briti eliit üritas kukutada Ekvatoriaal-Guinea valitsust

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Ekvatoriaal-Guineas ja Zimbabwes on vahistatud kümneid inimesi, keda süüdistatakse riigipöördekatses Ekvatoriaal-Guineas. Suurbritannia endise peaministri Margaret Thatcher'i poega Mark Thatcher'it süüdistatakse riigipöördekatse rahastamisele kaasaaitamises

  1. A 2-D guinea pig lung proteome map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinea pigs represent an important model for a number of infectious and non-infectious pulmonary diseases. The guinea pig genome has recently been sequenced to full coverage, opening up new research avenues using genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics techniques in this species. In order to furth...

  2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BEHAVIORAL AND AUTONOMIC THERMOREGULATION IN THE GUINEA PIG

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study was conducted to correlate the preferred thermal environment of the unrestrained guinea pig with the activity of its thermoregulatory effectors when maintained under a wide range of ambient temperatures (Ta). Eight male guinea pigs were used in a series of experiments o...

  3. The Guinea Pigs of a Problem-Based Learning Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sarasvathie; McKenna, Sioux

    2016-01-01

    Participants in a study on learning the clinical aspects of medicine in a problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum repeatedly referred to themselves as "Guinea pigs" at the mercy of a curriculum experiment. This article interrogates and problematises the "Guinea pig" identity ascribed to and assumed by the first cohort of…

  4. An Analysis Of Guinea Worm Infection On Yam Productivity In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guinea worm infection has been reported to be one of the external diseconomies factors that limit agricultural productivity of the rural farm households. The study examined the determinants of farmers' vulnerability to guineaworm infection and the effect of guinea worm infection on yam yield in the study area. A stratified ...

  5. Confinement lowers fertility rate of helmeted guinea fowl ( Numida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... common game bird in Africa and there have been efforts to domesticate it for use as a source of human food. An important obstacle in successful domestication of guinea fowl is their low fertility rate.We studied the effects of semi-confinement on the fertility rates of helmeted guinea fowl by comparing egg fertility, hatch rate ...

  6. Extraction and application of dyestuffs from the leaves of guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work is aimed at assessing the dyeing and colouring potentials of ethanol extracts from the leaves of guinea corn and the skin of onion. It is intended to apply the purified dye extracts on textile, drink and food. The leaves of guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor) and the skin of onion (Allium cepa) were collected, ...

  7. First records in Guinea Bissau of Adamawa Turtle Dove Streptopelia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are no confirmed records of the Adamawa Turtle Dove Streptopelia hypopyrrha in north-eastern Guinea Bissau and there is very little information available on the biology of the species. Eight individuals of the Adamawa Turtle Dove were identified from the game bags of sport hunters in north-eastern Guinea Bissau, ...

  8. Significance of skeletal muscle digitalis receptors for [3H]ouabain distribution in the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjeldsen, K.; Norgaard, A.; Hansen, O.; Clausen, T.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of specific digitalis glycoside binding sites in skeletal muscle for the digitalis glycoside distribution in the guinea pig was evaluated using [ 3 H]ouabain and [ 3 H]digoxin binding assays. Measurements of [ 3 H]ouabain binding capacity (EOmax) in gastrocnemius and heart muscles in vitro gave values of 474 +/- 15 and 1,092 +/- 39 pmol/g wet wt., respectively, in 4-week-old guinea pigs. Hence the total amount of [ 3 H]ouabain binding sites in skeletal muscle and the heart was around 42,700 and 1,200 pmol, respectively. The apparent dissociation constants (Kd) for ouabain receptor interaction was 0.7 X 10(-7) and 1.5 X 10(-7) M for skeletal muscle and heart, respectively. Comparison of [ 3 H]ouabain and [ 3 H]digoxin binding revealed that these drugs are competitive. From birth to maturity the concentration of [ 3 H]ouabain binding sites in guinea pigs decreased from 803 +/- 58 to 304 +/- 28 pmol/g wet wt. in gastrocnemius muscle and from 1,458 +/- 31 to 1,079 +/- 19 pmol/g wet wt. in the heart. After i.p. injection, measurements of the distribution of [ 3 H]ouabain in plasma, skeletal muscle and the heart showed an almost equal relative specific occupancy of digitalis glycoside receptors in skeletal muscle and the heart: When 10% of the digitalis receptors in the heart were occupied by [ 3 H]ouabain, 13% of those in the skeletal muscles were occupied. It was calculated that 1 hr after the i.p. administration of [ 3 H]ouabain the amount of [ 3 H]ouabain specifically bound to the skeletal muscles and the heart corresponded to 5 times and 1/10 the amount available in the extracellular pool, respectively

  9. Slab replacement maturity guidelines : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Concrete sets in hours at moderate temperatures, : but the bonds that make concrete strong continue : to mature over days to years. However, for : replacement concrete slabs on highways, it is : crucial that concrete develop enough strength : within ...

  10. SOUL System Maturation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest...

  11. SOUL System Maturation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest...

  12. Determinants of loan maturity in small business lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiqur Rahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of loan maturity of small and medium enterprises (SMEs in the context of Visegrad countries: Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Poland, and Hungary. The data of instead of for this paper was obtained from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS, which is a joint project of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the World Bank. By using a binary logistic model, we have found that loan maturity is shorter for older and mature firms, firms owned by female and firms experiencing a shortage of liquidity. At the same time, we have also found that firms having concentrated ownership structure and more tangible assets can borrow for a longer period. In addition to that, we have found evidence that loan maturity is longer for the firms located closer to a bank branch. We also provide empirical support for the assumption that bank low competition is associated with longer maturity. From the obtained results, we may recommend SMEs to borrow from banks that are within their vicinity since this may increase the maturity of loans. Policy makers are recommended to implement policies so that to alleviate gender-related discrimination and take initiatives to moderate the level of competition at this market.

  13. Naturally Engineered Maturation of Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano J. Scuderi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease remains one of the most prominent causes of mortalities worldwide with heart transplantation being the gold-standard treatment option. However, due to the major limitations associated with heart transplants, such as an inadequate supply and heart rejection, there remains a significant clinical need for a viable cardiac regenerative therapy to restore native myocardial function. Over the course of the previous several decades, researchers have made prominent advances in the field of cardiac regeneration with the creation of in vitro human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte tissue engineered constructs. However, these engineered constructs exhibit a functionally immature, disorganized, fetal-like phenotype that is not equivalent physiologically to native adult cardiac tissue. Due to this major limitation, many recent studies have investigated approaches to improve pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte maturation to close this large functionality gap between engineered and native cardiac tissue. This review integrates the natural developmental mechanisms of cardiomyocyte structural and functional maturation. The variety of ways researchers have attempted to improve cardiomyocyte maturation in vitro by mimicking natural development, known as natural engineering, is readily discussed. The main focus of this review involves the synergistic role of electrical and mechanical stimulation, extracellular matrix interactions, and non-cardiomyocyte interactions in facilitating cardiomyocyte maturation. Overall, even with these current natural engineering approaches, pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes within three-dimensional engineered heart tissue still remain mostly within the early to late fetal stages of cardiomyocyte maturity. Therefore, although the end goal is to achieve adult phenotypic maturity, more emphasis must be placed on elucidating how the in vivo fetal microenvironment drives cardiomyocyte

  14. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  15. The strategy of the key players in the African oil sector (the Gulf of Guinea)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copinsch, Ph.

    2001-01-01

    The African oil industry, (particularly in the deep water offshore fields of the Gulf of Guinea), is symbolic of the new balance of power taking shape in the oil industry between the international companies and the host state on the one hand, and between the petrol companies themselves on the other. In an area rich in potential and which has become highly competitive, the traditional players in the region's oil development sector (Shell, Chevron and TotalFinaElf) which have for so long been sheltered from genuine competition in their respective areas of activity, must now face up to the renewed ambitions of new 'Super Majors' (in particular ExxonMobil), not to mention those of many independent companies seeking to internationalize their business. Several reasons explain this change. Firstly, the main developments are now taking place offshore with deep water drilling, and financial solidity and technological competence have replaced the closeness of political links as key factors of success. In these conditions, the risk of long term marginalization for the medium-sized companies is considerable. Secondly, the need to achieve profitability stressed by the major petrol groups is opening the door to the independents who are operating a niche policy (based on marginal or mature fields which no longer interest the majors). This type of competition tends to promote activity and to open up new countries to exploration and production (in particular Equatorial Guinea). (author)

  16. Changes in Neuroactive Steroid Concentrations After Preterm Delivery in the Guinea Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirst, Jonathan J.; Palliser, Hannah K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a major cause of neurodevelopmental disorders. Allopregnanolone, a key metabolite of progesterone, has neuroprotective and developmental effects in the brain. The objectives of this study were to measure the neuroactive steroid concentrations following preterm delivery in a neonatal guinea pig model and assess the potential for postnatal progesterone replacement therapy to affect neuroactive steroid brain and plasma concentrations in preterm neonates. Methods: Preterm (62-63 days) and term (69 days) guinea pig pups were delivered by cesarean section and tissue was collected at 24 hours. Plasma progesterone, cortisol, allopregnanolone, and brain allopregnanolone concentrations were measured by immunoassay. Brain 5α-reductase (5αR) expression was determined by Western blot. Neurodevelopmental maturity of preterm neonates was assessed by immunohistochemistry staining for myelination, glial cells, and neurons. Results: Brain allopregnanolone concentrations were significantly reduced after birth in both preterm and term neonates. Postnatal progesterone treatment in preterm neonates increased brain and plasma allopregnanolone concentrations. Preterm neonates had reduced myelination, low birth weight, and high mortality compared to term neonates. Brain 5αR expression was also significantly reduced in neonates compared to fetal expression. Conclusions: Delivery results in a loss of neuroactive steroid concentrations resulting in a premature reduction in brain allopregnanolone in preterm neonates. Postnatal progesterone therapy reestablished neuroactive steroid levels in preterm brains, a finding that has implications for postnatal growth following preterm birth that occurs at a time of neurodevelopmental immaturity. PMID:23585339

  17. Toxicity of Chevron Escravos crude oil and chemical dispersant on guinea pig testicular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonne, Onyenmechi Johnson; Onyiaorah, Igwebuike Victor; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2013-01-01

    Chemical contaminants have been found to affect reproductive functions in mammals. This study investigated the effect of Chevron Escravos crude oil and Emulsol L.W. dispersant on the testicular functions of guinea pig. Eight groups of seven sexually mature male guinea pigs each were given 1250, 2500, or 5000 mg/kg of crude oil and dispersant for 7 days. The fluid and food intake and body weight of the animals were measured daily throughout the study. After the exposure period, sperm quality analysis was carried out, and fructose and lactate dehydrogenase were analyzed in tissue homogenate, while testosterone and estradiol were assayed in blood. The right testis was also processed for histological analysis. The epididymal sperm number and fructose level of treated animals showed a significant dose-dependent decrease (pguinea pigs. The possible mechanism of toxicity is suggested to be by stimulation of hormone production from the adrenal cortex, causing a negative feedback on gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the pituitary gland to suppress spermatogenesis.

  18. Kisspeptin Expression in Guinea Pig Hypothalamus: Effects of 17β-Estradiol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Martha A.; Xue, Changhui; Rønnekleiv, Oline K.

    2013-01-01

    Kisspeptin is essential for reproductive functions in humans. As a model for the human we have used the female guinea pig, which has a long ovulatory cycle similar to that of primates. Initially, we cloned a guinea pig kisspeptin cDNA sequence and subsequently explored the distribution and 17β-estradiol (E2) regulation of kisspeptin mRNA (Kiss1) and protein (kisspeptin) by using in situ hybridization, real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry. In ovariectomized females, Kiss1 neurons were scattered throughout the preoptic periventricular areas (PV), but the vast majority of Kiss1 neurons were localized in the arcuate nucleus (Arc). An E2 treatment that first inhibits (negative feedback) and then augments (positive feedback) serum luteinizing hormone (LH) increased Kiss1 mRNA density and number of cells expressing Kiss1 in the PV at both time points. Within the Arc, Kiss1 mRNA density was reduced at both time points. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed the in situ hybridization results during positive feedback. E2 reduced the number of immunoreactive kisspeptin cells in the PV at both time points, perhaps an indication of increased release. Within the Arc, the kisspeptin immunoreactivity was decreased during negative feedback but increased during positive feedback. Therefore, it appears that in guinea pig both the PV and the Arc kisspeptin neurons act cooperatively to excite gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons during positive feedback. We conclude that E2 regulation of negative and positive feedback may reflect a complex interaction of the kisspeptin circuitry, and both the PV and the Arc respond to hormone signals to encode excitation of GnRH neurons during the ovulatory cycle. PMID:22173890

  19. Dracunculiasis: An incidental diagnosis in a Saudi female

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, Fayaz A.; Khan, Nadra N.

    2007-01-01

    Dracunculiasis is a disabling and economically crippling parasitic infestation transmitted by drinking contaminated water. Although the disease has been eradicated from most parts of the world, it is still endemic in some tropical African countries. Here we report a 65-year-old female from the southern region of Saudi Arabia with radiological evidence of heavy load of guinea worms. This case could represent the local reemergence of disease. (author)

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: Guinea baboon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Guinea baboon Papio papio Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Papio_papio_L.png Papio_papi...o_NL.png Papio_papio_S.png Papio_papio_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papi...o&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NS ...

  1. Monitoring the progressive increase of the longest episode of spontaneous movements in Guinea pig fetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekulić S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the changes in the duration of spontaneous movements in the guinea pig fetus after the appearance of its first movements. Every day from the 25th to the 35th gestation day, one fetus from each of twenty pregnant animals was examined by ultrasound. Fetal movements were observed for 5 min. The episode with the longest period of movement was taken into consideration and was recorded as: 3 s. Days 25 and 26 were characterized by episodes lasting 3 s (χ2 = 140.51 p <0.05. Tracking the dynamics of progressive increases in the longest episode of spontaneous movement could be a useful factor in estimating the maturity and condition of a fetus. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175006/2011

  2. Comparison of Human and Guinea Pig Acetylcholinesterase Sequences and Rates of Oxime-Assisted Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    of appropriate animal model systems. For OP poisoning, the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is a commonly used animal model because guinea pigs more...endogenous bioscavenger in vivo. Although guinea pigs historically have been used to test OP poisoning therapies, it has been found recently that guinea pig AChE...transcribed mRNA encoding guinea pig AChE, amplified the resulting cDNA, and sequenced this product. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of

  3. Queering gender in contemporary female Bildung narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šnircová Soňa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores, in the context of feminist discussions about the Bildungsroman, a contemporary British novel that offers shocking images of female coming of age at the turn of the millennium. Queering gender and introducing male elements into the heroine’s process of maturation, the analysed novel appears to raise questions about the continuous relevance of the feminist distinction between male and female version of the genre. The paper however argues that although significantly rewriting both female Bildung and pornographic narratives, Helen Walsh’s Brass can still be read as a variation of the female Bildungsroman and an example of its contemporary developments.

  4. Female offenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vivienne de Vogel; Marijke Louppen

    2017-01-01

    Although girls and women represent only a minority of the forensic mental health and prison populations, studies worldwide suggest that there has been a steady increase in the number of females being convicted for committing offenses, especially violent offenses. In this chapter, an overview will

  5. General health workers' description of mental health problems and treatment approaches used in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koka, Betty E; Deane, Frank P; Lyons, Geoffrey Cb; Lambert, Gordon

    2014-11-01

    Papua New Guinea is a developing country with limited resources for specialist mental health services. Little is known about the mental health and treatment services of Papua New Guinea. The aim of this study was to clarify the presenting mental health problems encountered by Papua New Guinean health workers and the common treatment approaches used. A total of 203 Papua New Guinean health workers completed a retrospective quantitative survey about their three most recent mental health patients. The survey asked about presenting symptomatology, diagnoses (including culture-bound diagnoses) and treatment approaches. The major presenting mental health problems for males included schizophrenia, substance use disorder, sorcery and spirit possession. Depression was the most common diagnoses for women, followed by sorcery and somatisation. Over 65% of patients were prescribed psychotropic medication, over 50% received some form of psychological intervention and 28% were receiving traditional treatments. Somatic symptoms are common among both male and female Papua New Guineans; however, males may be more likely to present with psychotic symptoms and females with mood-related problems. Schizophrenia and depression are commonly identified with substance use disorder more problematic among males. Culture-specific explanations and treatment are commonly used. © The Author(s) 2013.

  6. Relation between individual differences in sexual behavior and plasma testosterone levels in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, C F; Feder, H H

    1976-05-01

    After 3 tests for male sex behavior, adult male guinea pigs were classified as either low-activity (LA, no ejaculations) or high-activity (HA, ejaculation during at least 2 behavior tests). In one experiment, resting levels of peripheral plasma testosterone (T), measured by radioimmunoassay, did not differ between the groups (LA=2.22 +/- 0.17 ng/ml, HA=2.09 +/- 0.11 ng/ml, X +/- SEM). However, plasma T levels were significantly higher in HA males 2 min after a sex test (2.27 +/- 0.24 ng/ml) than in LA males (1.40 +/- 0.20 ng/ml). A second experiment confirmed these results and also demonstrated that exposure of HA or LA males to an estrous female placed on the opposite side of a wire mesh barrier similarly led to higher T levels in HA than in LA males. These results indicate that a) behavioral differences between HA and LA guinea pigs are not attributable to differences in resting T levels, b) HA and LA males perceive the sex test situation differently, leading to slight increases in T in HA males and slight decreases in T in LA males, and c) these changes in T level are not dependent on copulation but can be induced by mere exposure to the sight smell and/or sound of an estrous female.

  7. Mediastinal Mature Teratoma Revealed by Empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Raoufi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas are germ cell tumors, manifested with a great variety of clinical features; the most common extragonadal site is the anterior mediastinum. In this case, we report the patient with a large mature mediastinal teratoma with several components of ectodermal and endothermal epithelium. A 24-year-old female patient presented with history of persistent chest pain and progressively aggravating dyspnea for the previous 3 months. A chest X-ray showed a large opacity of the entire left hemithorax. Transcutaneous needle aspiration revealed a purulent fluid. The tube thoracostomy was introduced and the effusion was evacuated. Some weeks later, patient was seen in emergency for persistent cough and lateral chest pain. CT scan revealed a mass of the left hemithorax. The mass showed heterogeneous density, without compressing mediastinum great vessels and left hilar structures. Lipase value was elevated in needle aspiration. The patient underwent a total resection of the mediastinum mass via a left posterolateral thoracotomy. Microscopy revealed a mature teratoma with cystic structures. The patient subsequently made a full recovery. This case provide benign mediastinal teratoma with total atelectasis of left lung and elevated lipase value in needle transcutaneous aspiration; this event is explained by pancreatic component in the cystic tumor. Total removal of the tumor is adequate treatment for this type of teratoma and the prognosis is excellent.

  8. Chronologic age and skeletal maturation of the cervical vertebrae and hand-wrist: is there a relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Tancan; Ramoglu, Sabri Ilhan; Basciftci, Faruk Ayhan; Sari, Zafer

    2006-11-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the relationship between chronologic age and maturation of cervical vertebrae, (2) to identify the relationship between chronologic age and maturation stage evaluated by hand-wrist radiographs, and (3) to determine whether the maturation of cervical vertebrae correlates with maturation indicated by hand-wrist radiographs in a Turkish population. The samples were derived from lateral cephalometric and hand-wrist radiographs of 503 subjects (213 male, 290 female; ages, 5.3-24.1 years). Cervical vertebral development was evaluated by the method of Hassel and Farman. Skeletal maturation of each hand-wrist radiograph was determined according to the method described by Björk and Grave, and Brown's system. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients were estimated separately for males and females to measure the relationships among chronologic age, cervical vertebral maturation, and the skeletal maturation measured at the hand-wrist. The Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.72 (P cervical vertebrae skeletal maturation, and 0.79 (P maturation via hand-wrist radiographs. The correlation coefficient between hand-wrist and cervical-vertebrae maturation was 0.86 (P cervical-vertebrae maturation stages are clinically useful maturity indicators of the pubertal growth period Turkish subjects.

  9. Blood profiles in unanesthetized and anesthetized guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Wendy R; Johnston, Matthew S; Higgins, Sarah; Izzo, Angelo A; Kendall, Lon V

    2016-01-01

    The guinea pig is a common animal model that is used in biomedical research to study a variety of systems, including hormonal and immunological responses, pulmonary physiology, corticosteroid response and others. However, because guinea pigs are evolutionarily a prey species, they do not readily show behavioral signs of disease, which can make it difficult to detect illness in a laboratory setting. Minimally invasive blood tests, such as complete blood counts and plasma biochemistry assays, are useful in both human and veterinary medicine as an initial diagnostic technique to rule in or rule out systemic illness. In guinea pigs, phlebotomy for such tests often requires that the animals be anesthetized first. The authors evaluated hematological and plasma biochemical effects of two anesthetic agents that are commonly used with guinea pigs in a research setting: isoflurane and a combination of ketamine and xylazine. Hematological and plasma biochemical parameters were significantly different when guinea pigs were under either anesthetic, compared to when they were unanesthetized. Plasma proteins, liver enzymes, white blood cells and red blood cells appeared to be significantly altered by both anesthetics, and hematological and plasma biochemical differences were greater when guinea pigs were anesthetized with the combination of ketamine and xylazine than when they were anesthetized with isoflurane. Overall these results indicate that both anesthetics can significantly influence hematological and plasma biochemical parameters in guinea pigs.

  10. Functional analysis of guinea pig β1-adrenoceptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshio; Takahashi, Hiromi; Shibata, Sayuri; Namiki, Kana; Kimura, Sadao; Koike, Katsuo; Kasuya, Yoshitoshi

    2011-12-01

    Although similarity of pharmacological responses to certain stimuli between guinea pigs and humans has been reported, this has been poorly defined by a molecular biological approach. In this study, we cloned the gene of guinea pig ?1-adrenoceptor (ADRB1). The deduced amino acid sequence of guinea pig ADRB1 (467-aa) showed 91% and 92% identity with the human and rat ADRB1 sequences, respectively. Using HEK293T cells expressing guinea pig, human and rat ADRB1s independently, we elucidated the functional characteristics of each ADRB1. The ligand-binding profiles and the concentration-response relationships for isoprenaline-induced cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production were similar among the three ADRB1s. Isoprenaline also induced phosphorylation of extracellular-signal related kinases (ERK) through ADRB1s in a concentration-dependent manner. The minimum effective concentration of isoprenaline for phosphorylation of ERK, through guinea pig ADRB1 was the same as through human ADRB1, but markedly lower than that of through rat ADRB1. ERK phosphorylation through guinea pig ADRB1 was sensitive to pertussis toxin, a dominant-negative ras and PD98059, indicating that a G(i)-mediated pathway is involved in the ADRB1/ERK signaling loop. These results suggest that the G(i)-coupling efficacy of guinea pig and human ADRB1s may be higher than that of rat ADRB1.

  11. Reproductive cycle of Macrobrachium amazonicum females (Crustacea, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CMS. Sampaio

    Full Text Available Macrobrachium amazonicum is considered a favorite Brazilian species of freshwater prawn for cultivation as a result of its quick development and because it is easy to maintain in captivity. The aim of this work is to describe the sexual cycle stages and determine maturation age of the female M. amazonicum, which was collected monthly from June, 2002 to May, 2003 in the Jaguaribe River, Itaiçaba, Ceará. A monthly sample of water was also collected to determine the following parameters: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and salinity. A monthly sample of females was selected among the individuals caught, to determine the total weight (W T, carapace length (L C and abdomen+telson length (L A+T and to register the number of non-ovigerous females (NOF and ovigerous females (OF. Determining ovarian maturation stages of M. amazonicum was done in a laboratory by observing macroscopic characters such as coloring, size, location and appearance of ovarians examined by transparent carapace. The first maturation age was determined from the relative frequency of the total length (L T of young and adult females. The environmental parameters of the Jaguaribe River did not hold any influence in the number of individuals collected. A total of 1,337 prawns were sampled, 513 males (38.4% and 824 females (61.6%. The proportion between males and females in the studied population was of 1:1.6. Among the collected females, 492 (50.7% did not carry eggs in their abdomens (NOF and 332 (40.3% carried eggs in their abdomens (OF. There was no record of intact females. Non-ovigerous females with mature ovaries were recorded throughout all the months of collection. The female ovaries were classified as immature (IM, rudimentary (RU, intermediary (IN and mature (M. M. amazonicum females reach their first sexual maturity between 4.5 and 5.5 cm of total length.

  12. Biosynthesis of plasmenylcholine in guinea pig heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wientzek, M.; Choy, P.C.

    1986-01-01

    In some mammalian hearts, up to 40% of the choline phosphoglyceride (CPG) exists as plasmenylcholine (1-alkenyl-2-acyl-glycero-3-phosphocholine). Although the majority of diacylphosphatidylcholine (PC) in mammalian hearts is synthesized from choline via the CDP-choline pathway, the formation of plasmenylcholine from choline was not known. In this study, they investigated the biosynthesis of plasmenyl-choline in the isolated guinea pig heart by perfusion with [ 3 H]choline. Labelled choline containing metabolites and labelled plasmenylcholine were isolated and determined at different perfusion time points. Significant amounts of labelling were found only in choline, phosphocholine, CDP-choline, plasmenyl-choline and PC. In addition, a precursor-product relationship was observed between the labelling of CDP-choline and plasmenylcholine. Such a relationship was not observed between choline and plasmenylcholine. Hence, they postulate that the incorporation of choline into plasmenylcholine is via the CDP-choline pathway and not via base exchange. The ability to condense 1-alkenyl-2-acyl-glycerol with CDP-choline was also demonstrated in vitro with guinea pig heart microsomes

  13. Investigation of the effect of tribulus terrestris extract on the main biochemical and haematological indices of the blood in guinea fowls (Numida meleagris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christo CHRISTEV

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research was to investigate the effect of Bulgarian additive Vemoherb-T (dry extract of the annual plant Tribulus terrestris – L, produced by Vemo 99 Ltd Company, Sofia on main biochemical characteristics and hematological parameters of the blood in guinea fowl (Numida meleagris. An experiment was carried out with 30 Pearl-gray Guinea fowl (32 weeks old, distributed in two groups – a control and an experimental, 12 female and 3 male each. All birds were fed the same mixture for breeder guinea fowl. Vemoherb-T was supplemented to the compound feed of the experimental group in a daily dose of 10 mg/kg body weight for a period of 12 weeks. The tested product decreased significantly the levels of total triglycerides (P < 0.05, total cholesterol (P <0.01 and glucose (P < 0.01; P < 0.001 in male and female birds respectively in the blood serum. It was established significantly higher total protein- ((P < 0.001 and calcium (P<0.01 values in the blood serum of the treated birds. The addition of Vemoherb-T increased significantly hemoglobin level, the number of erythrocytes and leukocytes and decreased the number of eosinophils in guinea fowl from the both sexes.

  14. Sustaining Exploration in Mature Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayo, A.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration is a business like any other business driven by opportunity, resources and expectation of profit. Therefore, exploration will thrive anywhere the opportunities are significant, the resources are available and the outlook for profit (or value creation) is good. To sustain exploration activities anywhere, irrespective of the environment, there must be good understanding of the drivers of these key investment criteria. This paper will examine these investment criteria as they relate to exploration business and address the peculiarity of exploration in mature basin. Mature basins are unique environment that lends themselves a mix of fears, paradigms and realities, particularly with respect to the perception of value. To sustain exploration activities in a mature basin, we need to understand these perceptions relative to the true drivers of profitability. Exploration in the mature basins can be as profitable as exploration in emerging basins if the dynamics of value definition-strategic and fiscal values are understood by operators, regulators and co ventures alike. Some suggestions are made in this presentation on what needs to be done in addressing these dynamic investment parameters and sustaining exploration activities in mature basins

  15. Salmonella arizonaeInfection In A Guinea Pig Breeding Unit

    OpenAIRE

    GÜREL, Aydın; AYYILDIZ, Gülbin

    1998-01-01

    Salmonella arizonae infection was detected in guinea pigs kept for breeding. Two months old 50 quinea pigs were died in the breedig unit. Three death and 2 live guinea pigs were brought to Veterinary Faculty of İstanbul. The live 2 were euthanasied and necropcy was performed on all guinea pigs. The fluid about 50 cc. in the abdomen, the necrosis and pseudomembranes in the liver and spleen were observed. On histopathology, the foci of various coagulative necrosis were seen in the liver. The...

  16. Female infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D.A.; Yoder, I.

    1984-01-01

    Infertility, defined as 1 year of unprotected intercourse without conception, is becoming of increasingly important medical concern. Fertility in both the male and the female is at its peak in the twenties. Many couples today have postponed marriage and/or childbearing into their 30s until careers are established, but at that point fertility may be diminished. The current epidemic of venereal disease has been associated with an increasing incidence of tubal scarring. In addition, the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) and birth control pills for contraception have let to later problems with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovulation disturbances. The problem of infertility intensifies as the number of babies available for adoption decreases. Therefore, it is estimated that approximately 10-20% of couples will eventually seek medical attention for an infertility-related problem. Fortunately, marked improvements in the results of tubal surgery are concurrently occurring secondary to refinements in microsurgical techniques, and many medical alternatives to induce ovulation are being developed. The male factor causes infertility in 30-40 % of couples, and the female factor is responsible in approximately 50% of couples. No cause is found in 10-20% of couples. This chapter discusses the role of coordinated imaging in the diagnosis and therapy of infertility in the female

  17. Public Sector IS Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony

    2011-01-01

    Online applications and processing of tax forms, driver licenses, and construction permits are examples of where policy attention and research have been united in efforts aiming to categorize the maturity level of e-services. Less attention has been attributed to policy areas with continuous online...... citizenpublic interaction, such as in public education. In this paper we use a revised version of the Public Sector Process Rebuilding (PPR) maturity model for mapping 200 websites of public primary schools in Denmark. Findings reveal a much less favorable picture of the digitization of the Danish public sector...... compared to the high ranking it has received in the international benchmark studies. This paper aims at closing the gap between the predominant scope of maturity models and the frequency of citizen-public sector interaction, and calls for increased attention to the activities of government where the scale...

  18. Bicarbonate Transport During Enamel Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kaifeng; Paine, Michael L

    2017-11-01

    Amelogenesis (tooth enamel formation) is a biomineralization process consisting primarily of two stages (secretory stage and maturation stage) with unique features. During the secretory stage, the inner epithelium of the enamel organ (i.e., the ameloblast cells) synthesizes and secretes enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) into the enamel space. The protein-rich enamel matrix forms a highly organized architecture in a pH-neutral microenvironment. As amelogenesis transitions to maturation stage, EMPs are degraded and internalized by ameloblasts through endosomal-lysosomal pathways. Enamel crystallite formation is initiated early in the secretory stage, however, during maturation stage the more rapid deposition of calcium and phosphate into the enamel space results in a rapid expansion of crystallite length and mineral volume. During maturation-stage amelogenesis, the pH value of enamel varies considerably from slightly above neutral to acidic. Extracellular acid-base balance during enamel maturation is tightly controlled by ameloblast-mediated regulatory networks, which include significant synthesis and movement of bicarbonate ions from both the enamel papillary layer cells and ameloblasts. In this review we summarize the carbonic anhydrases and the carbonate transporters/exchangers involved in pH regulation in maturation-stage amelogenesis. Proteins that have been shown to be instrumental in this process include CA2, CA6, CFTR, AE2, NBCe1, SLC26A1/SAT1, SLC26A3/DRA, SLC26A4/PDS, SLC26A6/PAT1, and SLC26A7/SUT2. In addition, we discuss the association of miRNA regulation with bicarbonate transport in tooth enamel formation.

  19. Spheno-Occipital Synchondrosis Fusion Correlates with Cervical Vertebrae Maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Fernández-Pérez

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the closure stage of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and the maturational stage of the cervical vertebrae (CVM in growing and young adult subjects using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. CBCT images with an extended field of view obtained from 315 participants (148 females and 167 males; mean age 15.6 ±7.3 years; range 6 to 23 years were analyzed. The fusion status of the synchondrosis was determined using a five-stage scoring system; the vertebral maturational status was evaluated using a six-stage stratification (CVM method. Ordinal regression was used to study the ability of the synchondrosis stage to predict the vertebral maturation stage. Vertebrae and synchondrosis had a strong significant correlation (r = 0.89 that essential was similar for females (r = 0.88 and males (r = 0.89. CVM stage could be accurately predicted from synchondrosis stage by ordinal regression models. Prediction equations of the vertebral stage using synchondrosis stage, sex and biological age as predictors were developed. Thus this investigation demonstrated that the stage of spheno-occipital synchondrosis, as determined in CBCT images, is a reasonable indicator of growth maturation.

  20. [Estrogens and feminine brain maturation during adolescence: emergency contraceptive pill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Moratalla, Natalia; Errasti Alcalá, Tania; Santiago, Esteban

    2011-01-01

    In the period between puberty and maturity takes place the process of brain maturation. Hormone levels induce changes in neurons and direct the architecture and structural functionality thus affecting patterns of development of different brain areas. The onset of puberty brings with it the invasion of the female brain by high levels of hormones, cyclic surges of estrogen and progesterone in addition to steroids produced in situ. Control centers of emotions (amygdala), memory and learning (hippocampus) and sexual activity (hypothalamus) are modified according to the cyclical concentrations of both hormones. Sex hormones stimulate multimodal actions, both short and longer terms, because neurons in various brain areas have different types of receptors, membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear. The composition of emergency contraceptive pill (postcoital pill) with high hormonal content raises the urgency of a thorough knowledge about the possible effect that the lack of control of the menstrual cycle in a time of consolidation of brain maturation, can bring in structuring and development of brain circuitry. Changes in the availability of sex steroids during puberty and adolescence underlie psychiatric disorders whose prevalence is typically feminine, such as depression, anxiety disorders. It is a fundamental ethical duty to present scientific data about the influence of estrogen in young female brain maturation, both for full information to potential users, and also to induce the appropriate public health measures.

  1. Spheno-Occipital Synchondrosis Fusion Correlates with Cervical Vertebrae Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Pérez, María José; Alarcón, José Antonio; McNamara, James A; Velasco-Torres, Miguel; Benavides, Erika; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Catena, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the closure stage of the spheno-occipital synchondrosis and the maturational stage of the cervical vertebrae (CVM) in growing and young adult subjects using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images with an extended field of view obtained from 315 participants (148 females and 167 males; mean age 15.6 ±7.3 years; range 6 to 23 years) were analyzed. The fusion status of the synchondrosis was determined using a five-stage scoring system; the vertebral maturational status was evaluated using a six-stage stratification (CVM method). Ordinal regression was used to study the ability of the synchondrosis stage to predict the vertebral maturation stage. Vertebrae and synchondrosis had a strong significant correlation (r = 0.89) that essential was similar for females (r = 0.88) and males (r = 0.89). CVM stage could be accurately predicted from synchondrosis stage by ordinal regression models. Prediction equations of the vertebral stage using synchondrosis stage, sex and biological age as predictors were developed. Thus this investigation demonstrated that the stage of spheno-occipital synchondrosis, as determined in CBCT images, is a reasonable indicator of growth maturation.

  2. Analyzing Protein Changes in Guinea Pig Tissue Lysates Using Non-guinea Pig Specific Antibodies: Procedures for Western Blotting and Examples Using 16 Individual Antibodies for Common CNS Proteins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Erik A; Daugherty, Kelly S

    2006-01-01

    ... behavioral and protein changes due to the absence of guinea pig-specific antibodies. We have developed a procedure to determine the specificity of commercially available, non-guinea pig-specific antibodies in guinea pig lysates...

  3. Cervical vertebral and dental maturity in Turkish subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, Güvenç; Ozer, Törün; Hamamci, Nihal

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between the stages of calcification of teeth and the cervical vertebral maturity stages in Turkish subjects. A retrospective cross-sectional study was designed. The final study population consisted of 590 Turkish subjects. Statistical analysis of the data was performed with computer software. Spearman rank order correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationship between cervical vertebral and dental maturation. For a better understanding of the relationship between cervical vertebral maturation indexes and dental age, percentage distributions of the studied teeth were also calculated. Strict correlations were found between dental and cervical vertebral maturation of Turkish subjects. For males, the sequence from lowest to the highest was third molar, central incisor, canine, first premolar, second premolar, first molar, and second molar. For females, the sequence from lowest to the highest was third molar, canine, second premolar, first premolar, central incisor, first molar, and second molar. Dental maturation stages can be used as a reliable indicator of facial growth.

  4. Acute toxicity of organophosphorus compounds in guinea pigs is sex- and age-dependent and cannot be solely accounted for by acetylcholinesterase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, William P; Aracava, Yasco; Adler, Michael; Pereira, Edna F R; Albuquerque, Edson X

    2009-02-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that the acute toxicity of the nerve agents S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl]-O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), O-pinacolyl methylphosphonofluoridate (soman), and O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (sarin) in guinea pigs is age- and sex-dependent and cannot be fully accounted for by the irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The subcutaneous doses of nerve agents needed to decrease 24-h survival of guinea pigs by 50% (LD(50) values) were estimated by probit analysis. In all animal groups, the rank order of LD(50) values was sarin > soman > VX. The LD(50) value of soman was not influenced by sex or age of the animals. In contrast, the LD(50) values of VX and sarin were lower in adult male than in age-matched female or younger guinea pigs. A colorimetric assay was used to determine the concentrations of nerve agents that inhibit in vitro 50% of AChE activity (IC(50) values) in guinea pig brain extracts, plasma, red blood cells, and whole blood. A positive correlation between LD(50) values and IC(50) values for AChE inhibition would support the hypothesis that AChE inhibition is a major determinant of the acute toxicity of the nerve agents. However, such a positive correlation was found only between LD(50) values and IC(50) values for AChE inhibition in brain extracts from neonatal and prepubertal guinea pigs. These results demonstrate for the first time that the lethal potencies of some nerve agents in guinea pigs are age- and sex-dependent. They also support the contention that mechanisms other than AChE inhibition contribute to the lethality of nerve agents.

  5. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation on skin of guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wenwen; Chen Qiang; Li Peng; Ling Ling; Lin Xiaochen; Ren Shuping; Liu Yajuan; Li Yun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the adverse effects of ultraviolet B (UV-B) on the skin of guinea pig. Methods: Guinea pig skin was irradiated with UV-B, the skin changes in external appearance, pathology, and the contents of OH and O 2 - produced in the skin were determined to study the adverse effects of UV-B on the guinea pig skin. Results: UV-B caused red swelling and desquamation of skin, with the increasing of the UV-B irradiation, the cells in stratum spinosum began to proliferate vigorously, the MDA and ROS contents in UVB radiation group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: UV-B can cause injury to guinea pig skin and has the potential to produce skin cancer. (authors)

  6. (MSV) resistant maize varieties for adaptation to a southern guinea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (19), pp. ... the development of superior maize varieties for the southern guinea savanna ecology. Key words: Zea ... tional agricultural research systems have succeeded in converting ...

  7. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in Guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken Marie

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features...... of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require...... repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e...

  8. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

    1977-01-01

    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  9. Regulators of growth plate maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Joyce Adriana Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is known to play an important role in longitudinal bone growth and growth plate maturation, but the mechanism by which estrogens exert their effect is not fully understood. In this thesis this role is further explored. Chapter 1 contains a general introduction to longitudinal bone growth

  10. Shortage of vaccines during a yellow fever outbreak in Guinea.

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan, N; Barry, M; Van Herp, M; Zeller, H

    2001-01-01

    A yellow fever epidemic erupted in Guinea in September, 2000. From Sept 4, 2000, to Jan 7, 2001, 688 instances of the disease and 225 deaths were reported. The diagnosis was laboratory confirmed by IgM detection in more than 40 patients. A mass vaccination campaign was limited by insufficient international stocks. After the epidemic in Guinea, the International Coordinating Group on Vaccine Provision for Epidemic Meningitis Control decided that 2 million doses of 17D yellow fever vaccine, bei...

  11. Spleens and holoendemic malaria in West New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    METSELAAR, D

    1956-01-01

    The author describes the results obtained in recent malaria surveys in West New Guinea, where what is essentially holoendemic malaria prevails. However, the spleen-rate in adults differs markedly from what is regarded as normal under holoendemic conditions according to the definition put forward at the Malaria Conference in Equatorial Africa in 1950. The author therefore concludes that that definition is not properly applicable to New Guinea.

  12. Rearing and gamma radiation effects on mature pupae of pink bollworm and their F1 progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Z.A.; Ahmed, N.; Hussain, T.

    1993-01-01

    Pink bollworm larvae were successfully reared in captivity on a casein wheat germ diet. The substitution of casein with soyflour, corn-cob grit and wheat germ, and casein for peanut flour, resulted in delayed development, reduced pupal recovery and fecundity of the adult moths. This reduction was more drastic in corn-cob grit and peanut flour diets. The irradiation of mature pupae at 50-200 Gy resulted in decreased adult emergence with increased gamma radiation doses, and more deformed moths were recorded at a dose of 200 Gy. Adults following irradiation of mature pupae when crossed with untreated males or females or treated individuals crossed to treated exhibited reduced fecundity and fertility with the increasing doses. This reduction was more pronounced when treated males were crossed with treated females. Females were relatively more sensitive to gamma radiation, as a reduced number of eggs was obtained when treated females were crossed with untreated males. At 200 Gy, no F 1 progeny were obtained from any cross involving treated parents. The fecundity and fertility were reduced significantly when F 1 males or F 1 females from male parents irradiated as mature pupae were mated with untreated insects at both 100 and 150 Gy. However, inherited sterility was more pronounced when F 1 males were crossed with untreated females than when F 1 females were crossed with untreated males. Similarly reduced fecundity and fertility in F 1 progeny from female parents irradiated as mature pupae, both at 100 and 150 Gy, were also recorded in crosses as described for male F 1 progeny. The fecundity and fertility were the lowest in F 1 progeny of both male and female parents irradiated as mature pupae when compared with the F 1 progeny of male or female irradiated parents separately. (author). 28 refs, 7 tabs

  13. A lack of cerebral lateralization in schizophrenia is within the normal variation in brain maturation but indicates late, slow maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, L F

    1999-10-19

    The planum temporale (PT) bias, PT leftward, PT symmetry, and PT rightward reversal and sidedness preference, consistent right-handedness, ambilaterality, and consistent left-handedness are placed on a continuum mirroring the normal variation in rate of brain maturation. Maturational rate declines as we pass from PT leftward bias and consistent right-handedness to PT reversal and consistent left-handedness. Concomitantly, we expect an increased prevalence of males due to their pubertal age being about 2 years later than that of females, and a shift in cognitive profile from higher verbal scores than performance scores on the WAIS to higher performance than verbal scores. Three disorders fulfilling the criteria of late CNS maturation apart from the corresponding cognitive profile were studied: infantile autism (IA), schizophrenia (S), and developmental dyslexia (DD). These disorders have in common deficits in cognition, perception, and somatomotor function. The deficits range from an arrest in brain development (which is evident in infancy superimposed on late maturation in IA) to overall delayed brain and somatic development in S (culminating in postpubertal psychotic episodes and persistent and generalized residual deficits). Finally, reading inability, problems in perception (vision and hearing) and in motor coordination, particularly between the two hemispheres, characterize DD. Enhancing brain maturation and the prevalence of 'normal' cerebral asymmetry--laterality is preferable if we want to reduce the risk of developing the above-mentioned disorders. It is suggested that in the past environmental challenges have favored early maturation, with its abundant neuronal population, arborization and excessive density of synapses and cerebral excitability which has powered evolution through the mechanism of natural selection. Early maturation is obtainable through optimal nutrition, including a satisfactory amount of marine fat (PUFA), before and during pregnancy and

  14. Leucocyte profile and offspring production of guinea pig (Cavia cobaya given Anredera cordifolia leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wijayanti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine leucocyte and offspring production of guinea pig (Cavia cobaya giving Anredera cordifolia leaf extract. Materials used were female 16 heads of guinea pig with body weight of 425g. The treatments were an extract of A. cordifolia leaf at doses of 0, 10, 50 and 90 mg/head, designated as T0, T1, T2 and T3, respectively. A. cordifolia leaf extract was administered orally from 10 days prepartum to 10 days postpartum. Blood was taken at 10 days prepartum and 10 days postpartum. Total birth of the offspring was observed. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and if there was effect of treatment, then continued with Duncan multiple range test and Chi-Square test for fetal production between the given A. cordifolia leaf extract and control. The result showed that there was no significant difference for 10 days prepartum after addition of A cordifolia leaf extract treatment. The postpartum treated showed a total 50 mg/head level increaed for monocytes than that of level 0, 10 and 90 mg/head. Ten days postpartum treatment showed the total increase for leucocyte and monocytes total were 50 and 90 mg/head, respectively compared to 10 mg/head level. Total lymphocyte of 90 mg/head increased compared to level 10 and 50 mg/head. The highest total neutrophil as found at level of 50 mg/head which increased compared to the level of 0 and 10 mg/head. ProvisioningA. cordifolialeaf extract at doses level of 50 and 90 mg/head could increase litter size (P<0.05; χ2=9.267 and decreased offspring mortality (P<0.05; χ2=6.4. In conclusion, by giving 50 mg/head A. cordifolia leaf extract could increase leucocyte profile and offspring production of guinea pig.

  15. The actions of isoprenaline and mirabegron in the isolated whole rat and guinea pig bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persyn, Sara; De Wachter, Stefan; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques; Eastham, Jane; Gillespie, James

    2016-07-01

    β3-adrenoceptor agonists influence overactive bladder in humans and animal models. However, data is emerging that the mode of action of these drugs is complex. The present study explored the actions of the β3-adrenergic agonist mirabegron and the non-selective agonist isoprenaline on the contractile systems in the rat and guinea pig bladder. Intravesical pressure was measured in isolated whole bladders from female adult animals. In both species spontaneous contractile activity was observed. The muscarinic agonist arecaidine produced complex responses consisting of an initial transient pressure rise followed by complex phasic activity. Three contractile elements were identified: intrinsic micro-contractile activity, initial transient response and steady state phasic activity. The intrinsic and steady state activity could be further divided into a baseline pressure with superimposed phasic activity. The effects of isoprenaline and mirabegron were investigated on these elements. In the rat, the micro-contractile activity could be completely inhibited by isoprenaline (full agonist). The arecaidine-induced initial and steady state baseline pressures were partially reduced, while the phasic activity was little affected. In the guinea pig, both the arecaidine-induced baseline pressure and the phasic activity were affected by isoprenaline. Mirabegron didn't produce significant inhibitory effects in any of the contractile elements in either species. These results show that complex contractile systems operate in the rat and guinea pig bladder that can be modulated by β1/β2-adrenoceptor mechanisms. No evidence was obtained for any β3-dependent regulation of contraction. These data support similar data in humans. Therefore the primary site of therapeutic action of β3-adrenergic agonists remains unknown. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Peat in the mountains of New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Hope

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Peatlands are common in montane areas above 1,000 m in New Guinea and become extensive above 3,000 m in the subalpine zone. In the montane mires, swamp forests and grass or sedge fens predominate on swampy valley bottoms. These mires may be 4–8 m in depth and up to 30,000 years in age. In Papua New Guinea (PNG there is about 2,250 km2 of montane peatland, and Papua Province (the Indonesian western half of the island probably contains much more. Above 3,000 m, peat soils form under blanket bog on slopes as well as on valley floors. Vegetation types include cushion bog, grass bog and sedge fen. Typical peat depths are 0.5‒1 m on slopes, but valley floors and hollows contain up to 10 m of peat. The estimated total extent of mountain peatland is 14,800 km2 with 5,965 km2 in PNG and about 8,800 km2 in Papua Province. The stratigraphy, age structure and vegetation histories of 45 peatland or organic limnic sites above 750 m have been investigated since 1965. These record major vegetation shifts at 28,000, 17,000‒14,000 and 9,000 years ago and a variable history of human disturbance from 14,000 years ago with extensive clearance by the mid-Holocene at some sites. While montane peatlands were important agricultural centres in the Holocene, the introduction of new dryland crops has resulted in the abandonment of some peatlands in the last few centuries. Despite several decades of research, detailed knowledge of the mountain peatlands is poor and this is an obstacle to scientific management.

  17. [Arbovirus circulation in the Republic of Guinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butenko, A M

    1996-01-01

    In 1978-1991 the USSR-Guinea Virological and Microbiological Laboratory functioned in Kindia, the Republic of Guinea. Arbovirus activity in this country was studied by a number of virologists and other specialists. Their personal contribution and achievements in this collaboration are reflected in the present paper. About 74,000 mosquitoes, 100,000 Ixodidae ticks, 1,500 wild birds, 2,700 bats, 106 monkeys, and 308 other mammals, 927 blood samples collected from febrile patients were examined in 1978-1989, using inoculation of new-born white mice. As a result of this work 127 strains of the following arboviruses were isolated: Chikungunia (1 strain), Dengue 2 (4), Saboya (7), Wesselsbron (1), Bunyamwera (4), M'Poko (5), Rift Valley Fever (6), CHF-Congo (9), Dugbe (22), Bhanja (6), Forecariah (2), Jos (26), Abadina (15), Kindia (2), Ark 6956 (1), Fomede (2), Bluetongue (9), Mossuril (2), AnK 6009 (1), and Kolente (2). Dengue 2, Wesselsbron, Bunyamwera, M'Poko, Kindia, Mossuril viruses were isolated from mosquitoes. Ixodidae ticks were sources for isolation of Chikungunia, Saboya, CCHF, Dugbe, Bhanja, Forecaciah, Jos, Abadina, Kindia, Ark 6956, Fomede, Bluetongue, and Kolente viruses. Saboya, RVF, Fomede, Kolente, AnK 6909 were isolated from bats (Chiroptera); Saboya, Abadina, and Bluetongue viruses from birds. One strain of Dugbe virus was originated from the brain of Cercopithecus patas. Bunyamwera and Abadina viruses were isolated from the blood of two febrile patients. Serological identification of many strains was kindly conducted at the Pasteur Institute, Dakar (J. P.Digoutte) and some at the YARU, USA (R. Shope). Kindia and Ark 6956 (Reovirus, gr. Palyam), Fomede (gr. Chobar Gorge), Forecariah (Bunyavirus, gr. Bhanja), Kolente (Rhabdovirus) were identified as an original type of Lagos bat virus. The results of seroepidemiological surveys are also presented.

  18. Female condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, W

    1997-06-01

    Early versions of a female condom were available in the 1920s and 1960s, but they were little used and soon forgotten. It took the arrival of AIDS, and the urgent need for a wider range of female-controlled barrier techniques, to rekindle scientific interest in this method. In the 1980s, three groups in Europe and the USA began development of new female condom designs, comprising 'Femidom (Reality)', the 'Bikini Condom', and 'Women's Choice'. Apart from differences in their physical design, Femidom differs from the others in that it is made of a polyurethane membrane, which has several advantages over latex. Of the three, Femidom is the most advanced in terms of development and clinical testing, and it is the only one to have reached the marketing stage. Laboratory studies and clinical trials suggest that its contraceptive efficacy is similar to that documented for the male condom, though a direct comparison is not possible because no comparative clinical trials have, as yet, been undertaken. Reported 'typical-use' pregnancy rates range from 12.4 to 22.2% at 6 months of use in the USA and Latin America, respectively, while a study in the UK observed a rate of 15% at 12 months. As with all barrier methods, most failures appear to be associated with poor compliance or incorrect use. 'Perfect-use' pregnancy rates were substantially lower, indicating that Femidom can be very effective, if used consistently and correctly. Evidence for Femidom's effectiveness to protect against transmission of sexual disease-causing organisms, including HIV, is still very limited and based largely on laboratory studies. Whilst, in theory, the condom should confer reliable protection, its efficacy in clinical use will depend upon correct and consistent use and upon the product's ability to maintain an effective physical barrier throughout penetrative intercourse. In this respect, the results of recent and ongoing clinical studies are expected with much interest. How valuable Femidom will

  19. Cervical vertebral maturation as a biologic indicator of skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rodrigo César; de Miranda Costa, Luiz Felipe; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Bolognese, Ana Maria; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2012-11-01

    To identify and review the literature regarding the reliability of cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) staging to predict the pubertal spurt. The selection criteria included cross-sectional and longitudinal descriptive studies in humans that evaluated qualitatively or quantitatively the accuracy and reproducibility of the CVM method on lateral cephalometric radiographs, as well as the correlation with a standard method established by hand-wrist radiographs. The searches retrieved 343 unique citations. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Six articles had moderate to high scores, while 17 of 23 had low scores. Analysis also showed a moderate to high statistically significant correlation between CVM and hand-wrist maturation methods. There was a moderate to high reproducibility of the CVM method, and only one specific study investigated the accuracy of the CVM index in detecting peak pubertal growth. This systematic review has shown that the studies on CVM method for radiographic assessment of skeletal maturation stages suffer from serious methodological failures. Better-designed studies with adequate accuracy, reproducibility, and correlation analysis, including studies with appropriate sensitivity-specificity analysis, should be performed.

  20. Ultraviolet-evoked prostaglandin biosynthesis in varying stages of keratinocyte differentiation in guinea pig skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmali, R A; Safai, B

    1984-09-01

    Prostaglandin (PG) production by guinea pig epidermal cells was evaluated at various incubation intervals in normal and UV-exposed cultures. Prostaglandins have been implicated as mediators of the early phase of erythema in skin exposed to sunlight or UV-radiation. Using a density gradient centrifugation procedure, the epidermal cells were fractionated according to the various maturation stages of epidermal keratinocytes: high-density epidermal cells (HDEC) consisting of round, less mature cells; low-density epidermal cells (LDEC) consisting of polygonal keratinized cells; and intermediate-density epidermal cells (IDEC) consisting of both HDEC and LDEC. When cultures of 1 X 10(6) cells were incubated at 37 degrees C in 5% CO/sub 2/ the highest concentrations of five PG moieties measured were present in supernatants from the LDEC cultures as compared to those of IDEC or HDEC. Levels of PGF 2 alpha were much higher than the rest, which were found in the order PGF2 alpha greater than PGE2 greater than PGE1 greater than 6-keto-PGF1 alpha greater than thromboxane (TX)B2. UV-irradiation induced increases in all but TXA2 production. These results identify and quantitate five compounds produced as a result of exaggerated activity of the cyclooxygenase induced by UV-irradiation.

  1. Association between frontal sinus morphology and cervical vertebral maturation for the assessment of skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Hafiz Taha; Shaikh, Attiya; Fida, Mubassar

    2016-10-01

    Various methods have been proposed to evaluate a patient's developmental status. However, most of them lacked precision and failed to give a reliable estimate of skeletal maturity. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association between frontal sinus morphology and cervical vertebral maturation for the assessment of skeletal maturity and to determine its validity in assessing the different stages of the adolescent growth spurt. A cross-sectional study was performed on the pretreatment lateral cephalograms of 252 subjects aged 8 to 21 years. The sample was divided into 6 groups based on the cervical vertebral maturation stages. The frontal sinus index was calculated by dividing the frontal sinus height and width, and the cervical stages were evaluated on the same radiograph. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to compare frontal sinus index values at different cervical stages, and the post hoc Dunnett T3 test was applied to compare frontal sinus index values between adjacent cervical stages for each sex. The Kendall tau-b values were computed to assess the correlation between the cervical stages and the sinus index. A P value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. The height and width of the frontal sinus were significantly larger in the male subjects than in the females. A significant association was found between the frontal sinus height and width and cervical stages (P ≤0.001) in both sexes. However, the changes in the frontal sinus index across the different cervical stages were found to be significant (P ≤0.001) in male subjects only. Similarly, a weak negative correlation was found between the sinus index and the cervical stages in male subjects (tau-b = -0.271; P cervical stages. The frontal sinus index cannot be used to identify the prepubertal, pubertal, and postpubertal stages of the adolescent growth spurt. Therefore, it cannot be used as a reliable maturity indicator. Copyright © 2016 American Association of

  2. Prevalence of fur mites (Chirodiscoides caviae) in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Santoro, Domenico

    2014-04-01

    Chirodiscoides caviae is the most common fur mite affecting guinea pigs; infestation is generally asymptomatic. No studies have been published on the prevalence of such mites in guinea pigs in southern Italy. We sought to evaluate the prevalence and the clinical signs of C. caviae infestation in guinea pigs in southern Italy. Clinical records of guinea pigs evaluated from August 2012 to July 2013 were retrospectively searched. In this retrospective matched case-control study, records of guinea pigs with evidence of C. caviae infestation were selected. The prevalence of C. caviae infestation was evaluated and exposure variables were assessed among guinea pigs with and without infestation using stepwise conditional logistic regression. Guinea pigs seen during the same time period, but without a diagnosis of C. caviae, were included as control animals. The prevalence of C. caviae was 32% (42 of 131); 66.6% of affected guinea pigs (28 of 42) originated from pet shops, whereas 28% (14 of 42) were privately owned. Thirty-one guinea pigs (73.8%) were asymptomatic, whereas 11 (26.1%) showed clinical signs (pruritus, alopecia, erythema and scaling). The most frequently affected area was the lumbosacral region (38 of 42). Guinea pigs in pet shops were more likely to be affected by C. caviae than owned guinea pigs (odds ratio, 5.12; 95% confidence interval, 2.32-11.29; P guinea pigs in southern Italy. Chirodiscoides mites should be sought in guinea pigs, particularly in animals coming from pet shops. © 2014 ESVD and ACVD.

  3. Chronic prenatal ethanol exposure increases adiposity and disrupts pancreatic morphology in adult guinea pig offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, C C; Mongillo, D L; Brien, D C; Stepita, R; Poklewska-Koziell, M; Winterborn, A; Holloway, A C; Brien, J F; Reynolds, J N

    2012-12-17

    Ethanol consumption during pregnancy can lead to a range of adverse developmental outcomes in children, termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Central nervous system injury is a debilitating and widely studied manifestation of chronic prenatal ethanol exposure (CPEE). However, CPEE can also cause structural and functional deficits in metabolic pathways in offspring. This study tested the hypothesis that CPEE increases whole-body adiposity and disrupts pancreatic structure in guinea pig offspring. Pregnant guinea pigs received ethanol (4 g kg(-1) maternal body weight per day) or isocaloric-sucrose/pair-feeding (control) for 5 days per week throughout gestation. Male and female CPEE offspring demonstrated growth restriction at birth, followed by a rapid period of catch-up growth before weaning (postnatal day (PD) 1-7). Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in young adult offspring (PD100-140) revealed increased visceral and subcutaneous adiposity produced by CPEE. At the time of killing (PD150-200), CPEE offspring also had increased pancreatic adipocyte area and decreased β-cell insulin-like immunopositive area, suggesting reduced insulin production and/or secretion from pancreatic islets. CPEE causes increased adiposity and pancreatic dysmorphology in offspring, which may signify increased risk for the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  4. Social stimuli cause changes of plasma oxytocin and behavior in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BERNARD WALLNER

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT is a key factor in the initiation and regulation of sociosexual behavior. The present study analyzes the effects of cohabitation and social challenge on plasma OXT concentration rates in guinea pig pairs in relation to male sociosexual behavior. The cohabitation phase lasted 3 days. On day 4, the pair was socially challenged by introducing an unfamiliar male. Displayed male sexual behavior varied significantly during cohabitation, with peaks on day 1. Sociopositive behavior, i.e., side-by-side contact, was increased on days 3 and 4. Cohabitation per se led to elevated plasma OXT concentrations only in males. In contrast, both sexes reacted with increased plasma OXT concentrations to the social challenge (day 4. At that time, male OXT was significantly correlated with sexual behavior and female OXT with sociosexual behavior received from the partner. Additionally, pairs were synchronized in their OXT release during days 3 and 4. We conclude that cohabitation causes sexually dimorphic plasma OXT concentration patterns in guinea pigs. Secondly, the conformity of OXT release in both sexes may represent an endocrine marker for long-term cohabitation, which is reflected behaviorally by increased spatial proximity

  5. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also

  6. Developing Competitive Excellence in the Talented Female Athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildenhaus, Kevin J.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the historical development of female participation in sports, then identifies the unique issues associated with women's struggles for athletic acceptance and competitive excellence. Topics discussed include talent recognition and development, sex roles and socialization, physiology and maturation, coaching the female athlete,…

  7. Computer Based Assessment of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Stages Using Digital Lateral Cephalograms

    OpenAIRE

    Dzemidzic, Vildana; Sokic, Emir; Tiro, Alisa; Nakas, Enita

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was aimed to investigate the reliability of a computer application for assessment of the stages of cervical vertebra maturation in order to determine the stage of skeletal maturity. Material and methods: For this study, digital lateral cephalograms of 99 subjects (52 females and 47 males) were examined. The following selection criteria were used during the sample composition: age between 9 and 16 years, absence of anomalies of the vertebrae, good general health, no histo...

  8. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity classification. 51.1904 Section 51.1904... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1904 Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red when ripe, but are not overripe or soft...

  9. Radiographic assessment of skeletal maturation stages for orthodontic patients: hand-wrist bones or cervical vertebrae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Eddie Hsiang-Hua; Liu, Jen-Pei; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Tsai, Shih-Jaw; Yao, Chung-Chen Jane; Chen, Mu-Hsiung; Chen, Yi-Jane; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2008-04-01

    The skeletal maturation status of a growing patient can influence the selection of orthodontic treatment procedures. Either lateral cephalometric or hand-wrist radiography can be used to assess skeletal development. In this study, we examined the correlation between the maturation stages of cervical vertebrae and hand-wrist bones in Taiwanese individuals. The study group consisted of 330 male and 379 female subjects ranging in age from 8 to 18 years. A total of 709 hand-wrist and 709 lateral cephalometric radiographs were analyzed. Hand-wrist maturation stages were assessed using National Taiwan University Hospital Skeletal Maturation Index (NTUH-SMI). Cervical vertebral maturation stages were determined by the latest Cervical Vertebral Maturation Stage (CVMS) Index. Spearman's rank correlation was used to correlate the respective maturation stages assessed from the hand-wrist bones and the cervical vertebrae. The values of Spearman's rank correlation were 0.910 for males and 0.937 for females, respectively. These data confirmed a strong and significant correlation between CVMS and NTUH-SMI systems (p less than 0.001). After comparison of the mean ages of subjects in different stages of CVMS and NTU-SMI systems, we found that CVMS I corresponded to NTUH-SMI stages 1 and 2, CVMS II to NTUH-SMI stage 3, CVMS III to NTUHSMI stage 4, CVMS IV to NTUH-SMI stage 5, CVMS V to NTUH-SMI stages 6, 7 and 8, and CVMS VI to NTUH-SMI stage 9. Our results indicate that cervical vertebral maturation stages can be used to replace hand-wrist bone maturation stages for evaluation of skeletal maturity in Taiwanese individuals.

  10. 9 CFR 3.36 - Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... live guinea pigs and hamsters. 3.36 Section 3.36 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH..., Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Guinea Pigs and Hamsters Transportation Standards § 3.36 Primary enclosures used to transport live guinea pigs and hamsters. No person subject to the Animal Welfare...

  11. Use of a Guinea pig-specific transcriptome array for evaluation of protective immunity against genital chlamydial infection following intranasal vaccination in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Shradha; Gupta, Rishein; Veselenak, Ronald L; Li, Yansong; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Murthy, Ashlesh K; Cap, Andrew P; Guentzel, M Neal; Chambers, James P; Zhong, Guangming; Rank, Roger G; Pyles, Richard B; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs have been used as a second animal model to validate putative anti-chlamydial vaccine candidates tested in mice. However, the lack of guinea pig-specific reagents has limited the utility of this animal model in Chlamydia sp. vaccine studies. Using a novel guinea pig-specific transcriptome array, we determined correlates of protection in guinea pigs vaccinated with Chlamydia caviae (C. caviae) via the intranasal route, previously reported by us and others to provide robust antigen specific immunity against subsequent intravaginal challenge. C. caviae vaccinated guinea pigs resolved genital infection by day 3 post challenge. In contrast, mock vaccinated animals continued to shed viable Chlamydia up to day 18 post challenge. Importantly, at day 80 post challenge, vaccinated guinea pigs experienced significantly reduced genital pathology - a sequelae of genital chlamydial infections, in comparison to mock vaccinated guinea pigs. Sera from vaccinated guinea pigs displayed antigen specific IgG responses and increased IgG1 and IgG2 titers capable of neutralizing GPIC in vitro. Th1-cellular/inflammatory immune genes and Th2-humoral associated genes were also found to be elevated in vaccinated guinea pigs at day 3 post-challenge and correlated with early clearance of the bacterium. Overall, this study provides the first evidence of guinea pig-specific genes involved in anti-chlamydial vaccination and illustrates the enhancement of the utility of this animal model in chlamydial pathogenesis.

  12. Hypervitaminosis D in Guinea Pigs with α-Mannosidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, JanLee A; Brice, Angela K; Bagel, Jessica H; Mexas, Angela M; Yoon, Sea Young; Wolfe, John H

    2013-01-01

    A colony of guinea pigs (n = 9) with α-mannosidosis was fed a pelleted commercial laboratory guinea pig diet. Over 2 mo, all 9 guinea pigs unexpectedly showed anorexia and weight loss (11.7% to 30.0% of baseline weight), and 3 animals demonstrated transient polyuria and polydipsia. Blood chemistry panels in these 3 guinea pigs revealed high-normal total calcium, high-normal phosphate, and high ALP. Urine specific gravity was dilute (1.003, 1.009, 1.013) in the 3 animals tested. Postmortem examination of 7 animals that were euthanized after failing to respond to supportive care revealed renal interstitial fibrosis with tubular mineralization, soft tissue mineralization in multiple organs, hepatic lipidosis, and pneumonia. Analysis of the pelleted diet revealed that it had been formulated with a vitamin D3 content of more than 150 times the normal concentration. Ionized calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D values were both high in serum saved from 2 euthanized animals, confirming the diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D. This report discusses the clinical signs, blood chemistry results, and gross and histologic findings of hypervitaminosis D in a colony of guinea pigs. When unexpected signs occur colony-wide, dietary differentials should be investigated at an early time point. PMID:23582422

  13. Evaluation of Ebola Virus Countermeasures in Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) pathology in humans remains incompletely understood; therefore, a number of rodent and nonhuman primate (NHP) models have been established to study the disease caused by this virus. While the macaque model most accurately recapitulates human disease, rodent models, which display only certain aspects of human disease but are more cost-effective, are widely used for initial screens during EBOV countermeasure development. In particular, mice and guinea pigs were among the first species used for the efficacy testing of EBOV vaccines and therapeutics. While mice have low predictive value, guinea pigs have proven to be a more reliable predictor for the evaluation of countermeasures in NHPs. In addition, guinea pigs are larger in size compared to mice, allowing for more frequent collection of blood samples at larger volumes. However, guinea pigs have the disadvantage that there is only a limited pool of immunological tools available to characterize host responses to vaccination, treatment and infection. In this chapter, the efficacy testing of an EBOV vaccine and a therapeutic in the guinea pig model are described.

  14. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birck, Malene M; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken M; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-10-11

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e.g., the saphenous and jugular veins, each technique containing both advantages and disadvantages(4,5). Here, we present four different blood sampling techniques for either conscious or anaesthetized guinea pigs. The procedures are all non-terminal procedures provided that sample volumes and number of samples do not exceed guidelines for blood collection in laboratory animals(6). All the described methods have been thoroughly tested and applied for repeated in vivo blood sampling in studies within our research facility.

  15. A guinea pig model of Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Krause, Keeton K; Azouz, Francine; Nakano, Eileen; Nerurkar, Vivek R

    2017-04-11

    Animal models are critical to understand disease and to develop countermeasures for the ongoing epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV). Here we report that immunocompetent guinea pigs are susceptible to infection by a contemporary American strain of ZIKV. Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were inoculated with 10 6 plaque-forming units of ZIKV via subcutaneous route and clinical signs were observed. Viremia, viral load in the tissues, anti-ZIKV neutralizing antibody titer, and protein levels of multiple cytokine and chemokines were analyzed using qRT-PCR, plaque assay, plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) and multiplex immunoassay. Upon subcutaneous inoculation with PRVABC59 strain of ZIKV, guinea pigs demonstrated clinical signs of infection characterized by fever, lethargy, hunched back, ruffled fur, and decrease in mobility. ZIKV was detected in the whole blood and serum using qRT-PCR and plaque assay. Anti-ZIKV neutralizing antibody was detected in the infected animals using PRNT. ZIKV infection resulted in a dramatic increase in protein levels of multiple cytokines, chemokines and growth factors in the serum. ZIKV replication was observed in spleen and brain, with the highest viral load in the brain. This data demonstrate that after subcutaneous inoculation, the contemporary ZIKV strain is neurotropic in guinea pigs. The guinea pig model described here recapitulates various clinical features and viral kinetics observed in ZIKV-infected patients, and therefore may serve as a model to study ZIKV pathogenesis, including pregnancy outcomes and for evaluation of vaccines and therapeutics.

  16. Inner ear test battery in guinea pig models - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Yi-Ho

    2018-06-01

    This study reviewed the development of the inner ear test battery comprising auditory brainstem response (ABR), and caloric, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) tests in guinea pig models at our laboratory over the last 20 years. Detailed description of the methodology for testing the small animals is also included. Inner ear disorders, i.e. ototoxicity, noise exposure, or perilymph fistula were established in guinea pig models first. One to four weeks after operation, each animal underwent ABR, oVEMP, cVEMP, and caloric tests. Then, animals were sacrificed for morphological study in the temporal bones. Inner ear endorgans can be comprehensively evaluated in guinea pig models via an inner ear test battery, which provides thorough information on the cochlea, saccule, utricle, and semicircular canal function of guinea pigs. Coupled with morphological study in the temporal bones of the animals may help elucidate the mechanism of inner ear disorders in humans. The inner ear test battery in guinea pig models may encourage young researchers to perform basic study in animals and stimulate the progress of experimental otology which is in evolution.

  17. Sex Genotyping of Archival Fixed and Immunolabeled Guinea Pig Cochleas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depreux, Frédéric F; Czech, Lyubov; Whitlon, Donna S

    2018-03-26

    For decades, outbred guinea pigs (GP) have been used as research models. Various past research studies using guinea pigs used measures that, unknown at the time, may be sex-dependent, but from which today, archival tissues may be all that remain. We aimed to provide a protocol for sex-typing archival guinea pig tissue, whereby past experiments could be re-evaluated for sex effects. No PCR sex-genotyping protocols existed for GP. We found that published sequence of the GP Sry gene differed from that in two separate GP stocks. We used sequences from other species to deduce PCR primers for Sry. After developing a genomic DNA extraction for archival, fixed, decalcified, immunolabeled, guinea pig cochlear half-turns, we used a multiplex assay (Y-specific Sry; X-specific Dystrophin) to assign sex to tissue as old as 3 years. This procedure should allow reevaluation of prior guinea pig studies in various research areas for the effects of sex on experimental outcomes.

  18. Radiation induced micrencephaly in guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, L.K.; Johnston, D.A.; Felleman, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    A brain weight deficit of about 70 mg was induced at doses of approximately 75-mGy and a deficit of 60 mg was induced at 100 mGy. This confirms the effects projected and observed by Wanner and Edwards. Although the data do not demonstrate a clear dose-response relationship between the 75-mGy and 100-mGy groups, the data are statistically consistent with a dose-response effect because of the overlapping confidence intervals. The lack of a statistically significant observation is most likely related to the small difference in doses and the limited numbers of animals examined. There are several factors that can influence the brain weight of guinea pig pups, such as caging and housing conditions, the sex of the animal, and litter size. These should be taken into account for accurate analysis. Dam weight did not appear to have a significant effect. The confirmation of a micrencephalic effect induced x rays at doses of 75-mGy during this late embryonic stage of development is consistent with the findings of small head size induced in those exposed prior to the eight week of conception at Hiroshima. This implies a mechanism for micrencephaly different from those previously suggested and lends credence to a causal relation between radiation and small head size in humans at low doses as reported by Miller and Mulvihill. 16 refs., 13 tabs

  19. Radiation protection in hospitals of Equatorial Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabat Macambo, P.

    2001-01-01

    With a population of four hundred thousand (400.000) inhabitants and distributed in a territory of 28 thousand (28.000) km 2 , the use of ionizing radiations for medical practice in Equatorial Guinea is few and decreasing. It is used for diagnostic practices in the main hospitals of the country, where the work burden is not over 20 patients per day. The political, social and economical embryonic development of the country until recently had a negative influence on indicators and health organisations, so that even now the country does not have any radiological protection law, this shortness, in addition with the old architectural structure that x ray tools is lodging, as well as dosimetrical lack of employed staff, put this staff under risk of electromagnetic energy. This is to show the present survey of medical activities with ionizing radiation and to request technical support for implementing suitably the basic standards of radiation protection which will help us as basis for the elaboration outline law, on radiological protection in accordance with the new guidelines of the International Atomic Energy Agency. (author)

  20. Methadone hydrochloride: acute administration, disposition and effects on hepatic function in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, R C; Ecobichon, D J

    1981-01-01

    d,1-Methadone hydrochloride was administered orally to adult female albino guinea pigs at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight every 12 h for 10 consecutive days. Twelve hours after a dose, subgroups of animals were sacrificed at 2, 5 and 10 days for tissue (blood plasma, brain, liver and kidney) methadone residue analysis and the in vitro measurement of hepatic microsomal p-nitroanisole O-demethylase (OD), aniline hydroxylase (AH) and glucuronosyltransferase (GT) activities. No overt toxicity was observed during treatment other than a decrease in body weight. Withdrawal signs were absent during the 14-day post-treatment regression period. Tissue methadone levels were constant except for a decreased concentration in the liver at 5 and 10 days. No effect on hepatic OD and AH was observed during treatment but a significant decrease in GT activity was measured which returned to normal values 14 days after terminating treatment.

  1. Analyzing Protein Changes in Guinea Pig Tissue Lysates Using Non-guinea Pig Specific Antibodies: Procedures for Western Blotting and Examples Using 16 Individual Antibodies for Common CNS Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    guinea pig model does present a significant problem...trying to correlate behavioral and protein changes due to the absence of guinea pig -specific antibodies. We...have developed a procedure to determine the specificity of commercially available, non- guinea pig -specific antibodies in guinea pig lysates.

  2. Academic Achievement of High School Students in Relation to Their Anxiety, Emotional Maturity and Social Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puar, Surjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the non-cognitive variables like anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity and their relationship with academic achievement and also to see the locale-wise differences on the basis of their anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity. The study was conducted over a sample of 400 (200…

  3. Maturity models in supply chain sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Correia, Elisabete; Carvalho, Helena; Azevedo, Susana G.

    2017-01-01

    A systematic literature review of supply chain maturity models with sustainability concerns is presented. The objective is to give insights into methodological issues related to maturity models, namely the research objectives; the research methods used to develop, validate and test them; the scope...... of maturity levels. The comprehensive review, analysis, and synthesis of the maturity model literature represent an important contribution to the organization of this research area, making possible to clarify some confusion that exists about concepts, approaches and components of maturity models...

  4. Melatonin accelerates maturation inducing hormone (MIH): induced oocyte maturation in carps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattoraj, Asamanja; Bhattacharyya, Sharmistha; Basu, Dipanjan; Bhattacharya, Shelley; Bhattacharya, Samir; Maitra, Saumen Kumar

    2005-02-01

    The present communication is an attempt to demonstrate the influence of melatonin on the action of maturation inducing hormone (MIH) on the maturation of oocytes in carps. The oocytes from gravid female major carp Labeo rohita were isolated and incubated separately in Medium 199 containing (a) only MIH (1 microg/ml), (b) only melatonin (at concentrations of 50, 100 or 500 pg/ml), and (c) both melatonin and MIH, but at different time intervals. In the latter group, melatonin was added to the incubating medium either (i) 4 h before addition of MIH, (ii) 2 h before addition of MIH, (iii) co-administered with MIH (0 h interval) or (iv) 2 h after addition of MIH. In each case, oocytes were further incubated for 4, 8, 12 or 16 h post- administration of MIH, and the effects of treatment on oocyte maturation were evaluated by considering the rate (%) of germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Incubation of oocytes in a medium containing only melatonin did not result in GVBD of any oocyte. Nearly all the oocytes underwent GVBD when incubated with MIH for 16 h. Administration of melatonin along with MIH (at 0 h interval) or 2 h after addition of MIH did not result in any significant change in the rate of GVBD compared to that in a medium containing only MIH. However, it was quite interesting to observe that incubation of oocytes with melatonin especially 4 h prior to addition of MIH in the medium, led to an accelerated rate of GVBD in the oocytes. Experiments with the oocytes of another major carp Cyprinus carpio following an identical schedule depicted similar results except a difference in the optimum melatonin dose. In L. rohita, 50 pg/ml melatonin had maximum acceleratory effect on MIH-induced GVBD of oocytes, while it was 100 pg/ml in C. carpio. Further study revealed that pre-incubation with melatonin accelerates the action of MIH on the formation of a complex of two proteins (MPF), a regulatory component called cyclin B and the catalytic component protein kinase known as

  5. A comparison of skeletal maturation in patients with tooth agenesis and unaffected controls assessed by the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Christine; Gill, Daljit S; Jones, Steven P

    2013-12-01

    The aims of this study were to (1) investigate if there is a difference in skeletal maturation between tooth agenesis and control patients and (2) whether skeletal maturation is affected by the severity of tooth agenesis. The cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) index can be used to assess skeletal maturation. A retrospective cross-sectional study. Eastman Dental Hospital, London, UK. A total of 360 cephalograms of patients aged 9-17 years (164 males and 196 females) allocated to four subgroups (mild, moderate and severe tooth agenesis patients, and controls) were assessed retrospectively. There were 90 patients in each of the four subgroups. The skeletal maturation of each subject was assessed both quantitatively and qualitatively using the CVM index. All patients in the study were either currently receiving treatment or had been discharged from the hospital. There was no statistically significant relationship between skeletal maturation and the presence of tooth agenesis. Furthermore, there was no statistically significant relationship between the skeletal maturity of patients and different severities of tooth agenesis. The data obtained from this group of patients and using this measurement tool alone does not supply sufficient reason to reject the null hypothesis. However, it suggests that it is possible that no difference exists between the groups.

  6. Maturity and growth population dynamics of Norway pout (Trisopterus esmarkii) in the North Sea, Skagerrak, and Kattegat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Gwladys; Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Larsen, Lena I.

    2009-01-01

    and Scottish coasts and between Shetland and Norway. Sex ratios indicate that males, which mature younger than females (age-at-50%-maturity, respectively, 1.2 and 1.5 years), migrate out of the Skagerrak–Kattegat to the spawning grounds before females. There is a decrease in the 2+-group maturity ratios......The population dynamics of the Norway pout stock in the North Sea are investigated by statistical analyses, and GIS of ICES International Bottom Trawl Surveys (IBTS) and Danish commercial catch data from 1983 to 2006. The stock spawns mainly around mid-February along the northeastern English...

  7. The Logistic Maturity Model: Application to a Fashion Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Battista

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the structure of the logistic maturity model (LMM in detail and shows the possible improvements that can be achieved by using this model in terms of the identification of the most appropriate actions to be taken in order to increase the performance of the logistics processes in industrial companies. The paper also gives an example of the LMM’s application to a famous Italian female fashion firm, which decided to use the model as a guideline for the optimization of its supply chain. Relying on a 5-level maturity staircase, specific achievement indicators as well as key performance indicators and best practices are defined and related to each logistics area/process/sub-process, allowing any user to easily and rapidly understand the more critical logistical issues in terms of process immaturity.

  8. Maturity Models Development in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2015-01-01

    Maturity models are widespread in IS research and in particular, IT practitioner communities. However, theoretically sound, methodologically rigorous and empirically validated maturity models are quite rare. This literature review paper focuses on the challenges faced during the development...... literature reveals that researchers have primarily focused on developing new maturity models pertaining to domain-specific problems and/or new enterprise technologies. We find rampant re-use of the design structure of widely adopted models such as Nolan’s Stage of Growth Model, Crosby’s Grid, and Capability...... Maturity Model (CMM). Only recently have there been some research efforts to standardize maturity model development. We also identify three dominant views of maturity models and provide guidelines for various approaches of constructing maturity models with a standard vocabulary. We finally propose using...

  9. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  10. Helminths of the guinea pig, Cavia porcellus (Linnaeus, in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Worm burdens were evaluated and compared in two groups of the guinea pig, Cavia poreellus (Linnaeus, 1758: animals of the first group were conventionally maintained in an institutional animal house and those of the second group were openly kept in pet shops in Brazil. Animals from both sources were infected only with the nematode Paraspidodera uncinata (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1914 (10% of prevalence in guinea pigs from lhe institutional facility and 40% in those animals from the pet shop. Other helminth samples recovered from Brazilian guinea pigs during 52 years and that are deposited in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute (CHIOC were also analyzed. Paraspidodera uncinata and the cestode Monoecocestus parcitesticulatus Rêgo, 1960 were identified in these samples.

  11. Developing guinea pig brain as a model for cortical folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Jun; Sato, Haruka; Shimamura, Kenji

    2017-05-01

    The cerebral cortex in mammals, the neocortex specifically, is highly diverse among species with respect to its size and morphology, likely reflecting the immense adaptiveness of this lineage. In particular, the pattern and number of convoluted ridges and fissures, called gyri and sulci, respectively, on the surface of the cortex are variable among species and even individuals. However, little is known about the mechanism of cortical folding, although there have been several hypotheses proposed. Recent studies on embryonic neurogenesis revealed the differences in cortical progenitors as a critical factor of the process of gyrification. Here, we investigated the gyrification processes using developing guinea pig brains that form a simple but fundamental pattern of gyri. In addition, we established an electroporation-mediated gene transfer method for guinea pig embryos. We introduce the guinea pig brain as a useful model system to understand the mechanisms and basic principle of cortical folding. © 2017 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  12. Radiation-induced bone tumours in the guinea-pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A remarkably high proportion of guinea-pigs given localized irradiations of 20 Gy x-rays developed bone tumours, 46% of all irradiated with 20 Gy and 86% of those that survived at least a year. Untreated controls were not included in the present experiment, but the authors refer to an earlier experiment using guinea-pigs from the same colony where no bone tumour occurred in 69 unirradiated animals followed for their natural life span i.e. up to 87 months. It is concluded that the author's strain of guinea-pig (details given in a previous paper, Int. J. Radiol. Biol., 40, 265) is particularly prone to radiation-induced bone tumours. Their possible value for investigating processes associated with radiation induction of bone tumours is further enhanced by their relatively large size and long life span (up to 7 years). (U.K.)

  13. Jejuno-jejunal intussusception in a guinea pig (Cavia porcellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara J. Fetzer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available An approximately four-year-old male castrated guinea pig (Cavia porcellus was presented for painful defecation with a 24-hour history of hyporexia and intermittent episodes of rolling behavior. Upon presentation the patient was quiet, alert, and responsive, and mildly hypothermic. Abdominal palpation revealed an approximately 2-cm long oblong mass within the caudal abdomen. Abdominal radiographs revealed gastric dilation without volvulus and a peritoneal mass effect. The patient was euthanized following gastric reflux of brown malodorous fluid from his nares and oral cavity. A necropsy was performed and revealed a jejuno-jejunal intussusception causing mechanical gastrointestinal ileus, and gastric dilatation without volvulus. While non-obstructive gastrointestinal stasis is common and obstructive ileus is uncommon in guinea pigs, this report shows that intestinal intussusception is a differential in guinea pigs with ileus and gastric dilatation.

  14. Role of intensive training in the growth and maturation of artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, Robert M; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Armstrong, Neil; Beunen, Gaston P; Caine, Dennis; Daly, Robin M; Lewis, Richard D; Rogol, Alan D; Russell, Keith

    2013-09-01

    Short stature and later maturation of youth artistic gymnasts are often attributed to the effects of intensive training from a young age. Given limitations of available data, inadequate specification of training, failure to consider other factors affecting growth and maturation, and failure to address epidemiological criteria for causality, it has not been possible thus far to establish cause-effect relationships between training and the growth and maturation of young artistic gymnasts. In response to this ongoing debate, the Scientific Commission of the International Gymnastics Federation (FIG) convened a committee to review the current literature and address four questions: (1) Is there a negative effect of training on attained adult stature? (2) Is there a negative effect of training on growth of body segments? (3) Does training attenuate pubertal growth and maturation, specifically, the rate of growth and/or the timing and tempo of maturation? (4) Does training negatively influence the endocrine system, specifically hormones related to growth and pubertal maturation? The basic information for the review was derived from the active involvement of committee members in research on normal variation and clinical aspects of growth and maturation, and on the growth and maturation of artistic gymnasts and other youth athletes. The committee was thus thoroughly familiar with the literature on growth and maturation in general and of gymnasts and young athletes. Relevant data were more available for females than males. Youth who persisted in the sport were a highly select sample, who tended to be shorter for chronological age but who had appropriate weight-for-height. Data for secondary sex characteristics, skeletal age and age at peak height velocity indicated later maturation, but the maturity status of gymnasts overlapped the normal range of variability observed in the general population. Gymnasts as a group demonstrated a pattern of growth and maturation similar to

  15. Effects of Crocin Supplementation during In Vitro Maturation of Mouse Oocytes on Glutathione Synthesis and Cytoplasmic Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Mokhber Maleki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crocin is an active ingredient of saffron (Crocus sativus L. and its antioxidant properties have been previously investigated. This carotenoid scavenges free radicals and stimulates glutathione (GSH synthesis; consequently, it may protect cells against oxidative stress. The aim of this research is to protect oocytes from oxidative stress by the addition of a natural source antioxidant. Materials and Methods: In the present in vitro experimental study, we collected cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs from mouse ovaries of euthanized, 6-8 week-old female Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI mice. Oocytes were subjected to in vitro maturation (IVM in the presence of either crocin (5 or 10 μg/ml, 5 mM buthionine-[S-R]- sulfoximine (BSO, or the combination of crocin plus BSO. Oocytes that matured in vitro in a medium without crocin or BSO supplements were considered as controls. Following 16-18 hours of IVM, matured oocytes (n=631 were fertilized by capacitated sperm from NMRI male mice, and cultured in vitro for up to 96 hours to assess preimplantation embryonic development. The levels of GSH in metaphase II (MII oocytes after IVM (n=240 were also assessed by the 5, 5-dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB-GSH reductase recycling assay. Results: Supplementation of IVM media with 10 μg/ml crocin significantly (P<0.05 increased nuclear maturation, preimplantation development and GSH concentrations compared with the control group. Maturation of oocytes in IVM medium supplemented with BSO alone or the combination of 5 μg/ml crocin and BSO drastically decreased GSH concentrations and subsequently resulted in low rates of maturation, fertilization and blastocyst development. However, the combination of 10 μg/ml crocin with 5 mM BSO increased the level of nuclear maturation which was comparable to the control group. Conclusion: Supplementation of IVM media with crocin can improve nuclear maturation rates and subsequent developmental potential

  16. Activation of dormant ovarian follicles to generate mature eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Cheng, Yuan; Liu, Shuang; Klein, Cynthia; Liu, Shu; Duan, En-Kui; Hsueh, Aaron J W

    2010-06-01

    Although multiple follicles are present in mammalian ovaries, most of them remain dormant for years or decades. During reproductive life, some follicles are activated for development. Genetically modified mouse models with oocyte-specific deletion of genes in the PTEN-PI3K-Akt-Foxo3 pathway exhibited premature activation of all dormant follicles. Using an inhibitor of the Phosphatase with TENsin homology deleted in chromosome 10 (PTEN) phosphatase and a PI3K activating peptide, we found that short-term treatment of neonatal mouse ovaries increased nuclear exclusion of Foxo3 in primordial oocytes. After transplantation under kidney capsules of ovariectomized hosts, treated follicles developed to the preovulatory stage with mature eggs displaying normal epigenetic changes of imprinted genes. After in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, healthy progeny with proven fertility were delivered. Human ovarian cortical fragments from cancer patients were also treated with the PTEN inhibitor. After xeno-transplantation to immune-deficient mice for 6 months, primordial follicles developed to the preovulatory stage with oocytes capable of undergoing nuclear maturation. Major differences between male and female mammals are unlimited number of sperm and paucity of mature oocytes. Thus, short-term in vitro activation of dormant ovarian follicles after stimulation of the PI3K-Akt pathway allows the generation of a large supply of mature female germ cells for future treatment of infertile women with a diminishing ovarian reserve and for cancer patients with cryo-preserved ovaries. Generation of a large number of human oocytes also facilitates future derivation of embryonic stem cells for regenerative medicine.

  17. Guinea pig ID-like families of SINEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, David H; Schaetz, Brian A; Beitler, Lindsey; Bonney, Kevin M; Jamison, Nicole; Wiesner, Cathy

    2009-05-01

    Previous studies have indicated a paucity of SINEs within the genomes of the guinea pig and nutria, representatives of the Hystricognathi suborder of rodents. More recent work has shown that the guinea pig genome contains a large number of B1 elements, expanding to various levels among different rodents. In this work we utilized A-B PCR and screened GenBank with sequences from isolated clones to identify potentially uncharacterized SINEs within the guinea pig genome, and identified numerous sequences with a high degree of similarity (>92%) specific to the guinea pig. The presence of A-tails and flanking direct repeats associated with these sequences supported the identification of a full-length SINE, with a consensus sequence notably distinct from other rodent SINEs. Although most similar to the ID SINE, it clearly was not derived from the known ID master gene (BC1), hence we refer to this element as guinea pig ID-like (GPIDL). Using the consensus to screen the guinea pig genomic database (Assembly CavPor2) with Ensembl BlastView, we estimated at least 100,000 copies, which contrasts markedly to just over 100 copies of ID elements. Additionally we provided evidence of recent integrations of GPIDL as two of seven analyzed conserved GPIDL-containing loci demonstrated presence/absence variants in Cavia porcellus and C. aperea. Using intra-IDL PCR and sequence analyses we also provide evidence that GPIDL is derived from a hystricognath-specific SINE family. These results demonstrate that this SINE family continues to contribute to the dynamics of genomes of hystricognath rodents.

  18. Guinea Pig Oxygen-Sensing and Carotid Body Functional Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Obeso, Elvira; Docio, Inmaculada; Olea, Elena; Cogolludo, Angel; Obeso, Ana; Rocher, Asuncion; Gomez-Niño, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Mammals have developed different mechanisms to maintain oxygen supply to cells in response to hypoxia. One of those mechanisms, the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors, is able to detect physiological hypoxia and generate homeostatic reflex responses, mainly ventilatory and cardiovascular. It has been reported that guinea pigs, originally from the Andes, have a reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia compared to other mammals, implying that CB are not completely functional, which has been related to genetically/epigenetically determined poor hypoxia-driven CB reflex. This study was performed to check the guinea pig CB response to hypoxia compared to the well-known rat hypoxic response. These experiments have explored ventilatory parameters breathing different gases mixtures, cardiovascular responses to acute hypoxia, in vitro CB response to hypoxia and other stimuli and isolated guinea pig chemoreceptor cells properties. Our findings show that guinea pigs are hypotensive and have lower arterial pO2 than rats, probably related to a low sympathetic tone and high hemoglobin affinity. Those characteristics could represent a higher tolerance to hypoxic environment than other rodents. We also find that although CB are hypo-functional not showing chronic hypoxia sensitization, a small percentage of isolated carotid body chemoreceptor cells contain tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme and voltage-dependent K+ currents and therefore can be depolarized. However hypoxia does not modify intracellular Ca2+ levels or catecholamine secretion. Guinea pigs are able to hyperventilate only in response to intense acute hypoxic stimulus, but hypercapnic response is similar to rats. Whether other brain areas are also activated by hypoxia in guinea pigs remains to be studied. PMID:28533756

  19. Guinea Pig Oxygen-Sensing and Carotid Body Functional Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Obeso, Elvira; Docio, Inmaculada; Olea, Elena; Cogolludo, Angel; Obeso, Ana; Rocher, Asuncion; Gomez-Niño, Angela

    2017-01-01

    Mammals have developed different mechanisms to maintain oxygen supply to cells in response to hypoxia. One of those mechanisms, the carotid body (CB) chemoreceptors, is able to detect physiological hypoxia and generate homeostatic reflex responses, mainly ventilatory and cardiovascular. It has been reported that guinea pigs, originally from the Andes, have a reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia compared to other mammals, implying that CB are not completely functional, which has been related to genetically/epigenetically determined poor hypoxia-driven CB reflex. This study was performed to check the guinea pig CB response to hypoxia compared to the well-known rat hypoxic response. These experiments have explored ventilatory parameters breathing different gases mixtures, cardiovascular responses to acute hypoxia, in vitro CB response to hypoxia and other stimuli and isolated guinea pig chemoreceptor cells properties. Our findings show that guinea pigs are hypotensive and have lower arterial pO 2 than rats, probably related to a low sympathetic tone and high hemoglobin affinity. Those characteristics could represent a higher tolerance to hypoxic environment than other rodents. We also find that although CB are hypo-functional not showing chronic hypoxia sensitization, a small percentage of isolated carotid body chemoreceptor cells contain tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme and voltage-dependent K + currents and therefore can be depolarized. However hypoxia does not modify intracellular Ca 2+ levels or catecholamine secretion. Guinea pigs are able to hyperventilate only in response to intense acute hypoxic stimulus, but hypercapnic response is similar to rats. Whether other brain areas are also activated by hypoxia in guinea pigs remains to be studied.

  20. Immunoglobulin Genomics in the Guinea Pig (Cavia porcellus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yongchen; Bao, Yonghua; Meng, Qingwen; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Meng, Qingyong; Ren, Liming; Li, Ning; Zhao, Yaofeng

    2012-01-01

    In science, the guinea pig is known as one of the gold standards for modeling human disease. It is especially important as a molecular and cellular biology model for studying the human immune system, as its immunological genes are more similar to human genes than are those of mice. The utility of the guinea pig as a model organism can be further enhanced by further characterization of the genes encoding components of the immune system. Here, we report the genomic organization of the guinea pig immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy and light chain genes. The guinea pig IgH locus is located in genomic scaffolds 54 and 75, and spans approximately 6,480 kb. 507 VH segments (94 potentially functional genes and 413 pseudogenes), 41 DH segments, six JH segments, four constant region genes (μ, γ, ε, and α), and one reverse δ remnant fragment were identified within the two scaffolds. Many VH pseudogenes were found within the guinea pig, and likely constituted a potential donor pool for gene conversion during evolution. The Igκ locus mapped to a 4,029 kb region of scaffold 37 and 24 is composed of 349 Vκ (111 potentially functional genes and 238 pseudogenes), three Jκ and one Cκ genes. The Igλ locus spans 1,642 kb in scaffold 4 and consists of 142 Vλ (58 potentially functional genes and 84 pseudogenes) and 11 Jλ -Cλ clusters. Phylogenetic analysis suggested the guinea pig’s large germline VH gene segments appear to form limited gene families. Therefore, this species may generate antibody diversity via a gene conversion-like mechanism associated with its pseudogene reserves. PMID:22761756

  1. Decidual tissue growth and regression in the guinea pig: regulation by uterine blood flow and relation to circulating progesterone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garris, D R

    1984-05-01

    The role of uterine blood flow (UBF) in the modulation of experimentally induced decidua formation was assessed in mature guinea pigs. The response to endometrial trauma, as indexed by uterine weight changes, was dependent upon the type of stimulus used, with deciduogenic effectiveness as follows: saline = oil = knife scratch less than scissor cut. Both the knife scratch and scissor cut techniques induced elevations in UBF compared with control values. Neither uterine weight nor UBF increased when trauma was applied to unresponsive uteri, indicating that inflammation was not the cause of uterine hyperemia. Uterine weight increased from basal levels on the day of trauma (i.e. day 5 of the estrous cycle) to a maximal weight between days 10 and 12 posttrauma. Maximal growth of the induced decidua occurred under conditions of elevated UBF. Subsequently, UBF declined between days 10 and 15 posttrauma, preceding the associate resorption of the induced decidua. During the period of decidua growth, serum progesterone levels were elevated compared with those in control animals. These data indicate that experimentally induced decidua formation in the guinea pig is associated with uterine hyperemia and increased corpus luteum activity, both of which are necessary for proper endometrial differentiation. It is hypothesized that these events mimic the uterine hyperemia associated with blastocyst implanplantation and early placentation in this species.

  2. Methylation changes associated with early maturation stages in the Atlantic salmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Figueroa Andrés

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early maturation in the Atlantic salmon is an interesting subject for numerous research lines. Prior to sea migration, parr can reach sexual maturation and successfully fertilize adult female eggs during the reproductive season. These individuals are known as precocious parr, mature parr or "sneakers". Reasons for early maturation are unknown and this transitory stage is usually considered to be a threshold trait. Here, we compare methylation patterns between mature and immature salmon parr from two different rivers in order to infer if such methylation differences may be related to their maturation condition. First we analyzed genetic differences between rivers by means of AFLPs. Then, we compared the DNA methylation differences between mature and immature parrs, using a Methylation-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP, which is a modification of the AFLPs method by making use of the differential sensitivity of a pair of restriction enzymes isoschizomeres to cytosine methylation. The tissues essayed included brain, liver and gonads. Results AFLPs statistical analysis showed that there was no significant differentiation between rivers or a significant differentiation between maturation states in each river. MSAP statistical analysis showed that among the three tissues sampled, the gonads had the highest number of significant single-locus variation among populations with 74 loci followed by brain with 70 and finally liver with only 12. Principal components analysis (PCA of the MSAP profiles revealed different profiles among different tissues (liver, brain and testis clearly separating maturation states in the testis tissue when compared to the liver. Conclusions Our results reveal that genetically-similar mature and immature salmon parr present high levels of DNA methylation variation in two of the three analyzed tissues. We hypothesize that early maturation may be mostly mediated by epigenetic processes rather than by

  3. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates from humans in Equatorial Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, María Alejandra; Iborra, Asunción; Vargas, Antonio; Nsie, Eugenia; Mbá, Luciano; Fuentes, Isabel

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the study was to perform a molecular characterization of clinical isolates of Cryptosporidium species from Equatorial Guinea. Standard laboratory methods were used to identify 35 cryptosporidiosis cases among 185 patients. PCR-RFLP successfully identified 34 Cryptosporidium species from these 35 cases, comprising C. parvum (52.9%), C. hominis (44.1%) and C. meleagridis (2.9%); over 90% of the species were isolated from HIV-positive patients. This is the first report of the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium species isolated from humans in Equatorial Guinea and shows that zoonotic and anthroponotic transmission is present in this country.

  4. Good Order at Sea in the Gulf of Guinea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Lindskov Jacobsen, Katja

    In this chapter, we first outline the maritime security situation in the Gulf of Guinea region at present. It is examined in the context of Good Order at Sea. Second, we describe the most recent maritime security initiative launched during the Yaoundé Summit in 2013. During the summit, West...... and Central African states decided to establish six maritime zones along their coastline in order to improve the maritime security in the Gulf of Guinea. A process heavily supported by UN’s International Maritime Organisation (IMO). Finally, the chapter suggests that maritime security issues in the Gulf...

  5. Guinea pig complement potently measures vibriocidal activity of human antibodies in response to cholera vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Whun; Jeong, Soyoung; Ahn, Ki Bum; Yang, Jae Seung; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2017-12-01

    The vibriocidal assay using guinea pig complement is widely used for the evaluation of immune responses to cholera vaccines in human clinical trials. However, it is unclear why guinea pig complement has been used over human complement in the measurement of vibriocidal activity of human sera and there have not been comparison studies for the use of guinea pig complement over those from other species. Therefore, we comparatively investigated the effects of complements derived from human, guinea pig, rabbit, and sheep on vibriocidal activity. Complements from guinea pig, rabbit, and human showed concentration-dependent vibriocidal activity in the presence of quality control serum antibodies. Of these complements, guinea pig complement was the most sensitive and effective over a wide concentration range. When the vibriocidal activity of complements was measured in the absence of serum antibodies, human, sheep, and guinea pig complements showed vibriocidal activity up to 40-fold, 20-fold, and 1-fold dilution, respectively. For human pre- and post-vaccination sera, the most potent vibriocidal activity was observed when guinea pig complement was used. In addition, the highest fold-increases between pre- and post- vaccinated sera were obtained with guinea pig complement. Furthermore, human complement contained a higher amount of V. cholerae- and its lipopolysaccharide-specific antibodies than guinea pig complement. Collectively, these results suggest that guinea pig complements are suitable for vibriocidal assays due to their high sensitivity and effectiveness to human sera.

  6. [Management of ectopic pregnancy in Conakry, Guinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, T; Diallo, Y; Toure, A; Diallo, F B; Balde, A A; Hyjazi, Y; Diallo, M S

    2009-12-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is one of the most frequent hemorrhagic emergencies encountered in gynecology and obstetrics. The purpose of this 16-month descriptive prospective study at the Ignace Deen Gynecology-Obstetric clinic at Conakry University Hospital in Guinea was to assess diagnostic techniques and therapeutic attitudes regarding ectopic pregnancy in a low-resource setting. The frequency of ectopic pregnancy was 1.4%. Mean patient age was 28.9 years. Ectopic pregnancy was often observed at the second or third pregnancy (47.1%) in women who were giving birth for the second or third time (36.0%) and had a history of sexually transmitted infections (88.2%) or abortions (43.1%). Most women had no schooling (60.8 %), were poor and lived in a marital home (86.3%). Presenting symptoms included the classic triad of amenorrhea (98.0%), abdominopelvic pain (92.2%), and vaginal bleeding (62.7%). Definitive diagnosis was achieved by ultrasound examination in 76.6% of cases and by puncture of the Douglas pouch in 84%. The most frequent site of ectopic pregnancy was the ampulla of the uterine tube (66.9%). Abdominal and ovarian pregnancy was observed in 3 and 4 of the 51 cases respectively. Surgical management was performed in all cases. The most frequent procedure was salpingectomy (80.3%). Proper treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STI), start-up of post-abortion care facilities, and provision of information during early consultation at the first signs of pregnancy would help reduce the frequency and improve the prognosis of ectopic pregnancy.

  7. Ebola Surveillance - Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Lucy A; Schafer, Ilana J; Nolen, Leisha D; Gorina, Yelena; Redd, John T; Lo, Terrence; Ervin, Elizabeth; Henao, Olga; Dahl, Benjamin A; Morgan, Oliver; Hersey, Sara; Knust, Barbara

    2016-07-08

    Developing a surveillance system during a public health emergency is always challenging but is especially so in countries with limited public health infrastructure. Surveillance for Ebola virus disease (Ebola) in the West African countries heavily affected by Ebola (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) faced numerous impediments, including insufficient numbers of trained staff, community reticence to report cases and contacts, limited information technology resources, limited telephone and Internet service, and overwhelming numbers of infected persons. Through the work of CDC and numerous partners, including the countries' ministries of health, the World Health Organization, and other government and nongovernment organizations, functional Ebola surveillance was established and maintained in these countries. CDC staff were heavily involved in implementing case-based surveillance systems, sustaining case surveillance and contact tracing, and interpreting surveillance data. In addition to helping the ministries of health and other partners understand and manage the epidemic, CDC's activities strengthened epidemiologic and data management capacity to improve routine surveillance in the countries affected, even after the Ebola epidemic ended, and enhanced local capacity to respond quickly to future public health emergencies. However, the many obstacles overcome during development of these Ebola surveillance systems highlight the need to have strong public health, surveillance, and information technology infrastructure in place before a public health emergency occurs. Intense, long-term focus on strengthening public health surveillance systems in developing countries, as described in the Global Health Security Agenda, is needed.The activities summarized in this report would not have been possible without collaboration with many U.S and international partners (http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/ebola/outbreaks/2014-west-africa/partners.html).

  8. Potassium transport across guinea pig distal colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechkemmer, G.; Halm, D.R.; Frizzell, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    Active absorption and secretion of K was studied by measuring bidirectional 42 K fluxes across short-circuited guinea pig distal colon. Tissues were pretreated with mucosal (m) and serosal (s) indomethacin (1 μM) and amiloride (0.1 mM, m) to suppress spontaneous, electrogenic Cl secretion and Na absorption. Under these conditions, the short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) was 0.4 μeq/cm 2 h while electroneutral K absorption was 2.8 μeq/cm 2 h. Epinephrine (5 μM, s) stimulated electrogenic K secretion, reducing net K absorption to 1.3 μeq/cm 2 h. Bumetanide (0.1 mM, s) abolished this K secretion and restored K absorption to control values, suggesting mechanistic similarities between K and Cl secretion. K absorption was inhibited 40% by the gastric H/K ATPase inhibitor, omeprazole (0.1 mM, m), and was abolished by ouabain (0.1 mM, m). Neutral K absorption does not appear to be mediated by an apical membrane Na/K pump since: the effect of mucosal ouabain on K absorption does not require the presence of mucosal or serosal Na, unidirectional Na fluxes are not influenced by mucosal ouabain, and K absorption is not affected when Na absorption is abolished by amiloride. Net K transport is determined by the balance between electroneutral K absorption and electrogenic K secretion. The ouabain sensitivity of K absorption suggests that colonic H/K ATPase differs from its gastric counterpart

  9. Diet and food consumption of the pearl cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis (Teleostei: Cichlidae: relationships with gender and sexual maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo F. Bastos

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of the pearl cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis for the aquarium fish trade worldwide and its wide distribution, many aspects of its biology, such as the relationships between its feeding ecology and reproductive behavior, are not fully understood in natural conditions on its native habitat. In this paper, we investigated its diet focusing on how differences in diet and food consumption are related to differences in gender and sexual maturity. The digestive tract of each individual was dissected and had its content analyzed, whereas each gonad was microscopically analyzed to determine gender (male/female and sexual maturity (immature/mature. A total of 28 females and 31 males were analyzed. Mature individuals were more common than immature specimens both for males (64.50% and females (64.30%. The analysis of 52 individuals with non-empty digestive tracts revealed a diet comprised of 27 items. According to the Index of Alimentary importance (%IAi, the most important food items in the diet were Gastropoda (37.30%, fragments of vascular plants (15.16%, detritus (10.14%, Amphipoda (9.24%, and fish scales (6.29%. Mature males had more empty stomachs (65.00% when compared to immature males (27.27% and immature (55.56% and mature females (40.00%. Also, mature females seemed to have more food consumption (greater mean values of total volume in their digestive tracts than mature males. Some hypotheses are proposed in order to distinguish if this gender-based difference in food consumption in mature individuals of the pearl cichlid could be associated with the development of primary and secondary sexual characteristics or with asymmetrical time invested in parental care activities.

  10. Infection of guinea pigs with vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus Transmitted by Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez De León, Adalberto A; O'Toole, Donal; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2006-05-01

    Intrathoracically inoculated Culicoides sonorensis Wirth & Jones were capable of transmitting vesicular stomatitis New Jersey virus (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Vesiculovirus, VSNJV) during blood feeding on the abdomen of six guinea pigs. None of the guinea pigs infected in this manner developed clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis despite seroconversion for VSNJV. Guinea pigs infected by intradermal inoculations of VSNJV in the abdomen also failed to develop clinical signs of vesicular stomatitis. Three guinea pigs given intradermal inoculations of VSNJV in the foot pad developed lesions typical of vesicular stomatitis. Transmission by the bite of C. sonorensis may have facilitated guinea pig infection with VSNJV because a single infected C. sonorensis caused seroconversion and all guinea pigs infected by insect bite seroconverted compared with 50% of the guinea pigs infected by intradermal inoculation with a higher titer VSNJV inoculum. The role of C. sonorensis in the transmission of VSNJV is discussed.

  11. Maturity group classification and maturity locus genotyping of early-maturing soybean varieties from high-latitude cold regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongchang; Jiang, Bingjun; Wu, Cunxiang; Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu

    2014-01-01

    With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15', E 127°27', H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially.

  12. The maturity of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Favini, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The ever-increasing use of atomic energy since 1950 has generated a set of rules called for practical reasons Nuclear Law. This branch of law covers a wide scope of related activities and, specialized studies have apparently foreseen all conceivable hypotheses. The international character of Nuclear Law explains the basic harmony of international legislation. The methods of comparative Law and International Private Law as well as the joint, indepth work of scientists and jurists will bring about steady progress towards legislative unity and prompt solution to conflicts. The expectable revitalization of nuclear-electric programs early in the 21st. century will give rise to a Nuclear juridical community which can already be perceived through the maturity Nuclear Law has reached. (Author) [es

  13. Progesterone transfer among cohabitating female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greville, Lucas J; Pollock, Tyler; Salter, Joseph C; Faure, Paul A; deCatanzaro, Denys

    2017-06-01

    Experiments using female mice and bats have demonstrated that tritium-labeled 17β-estradiol ( 3 H-E 2 ) can be absorbed via cutaneous and intranasal routes and distributed to reproductive and neural tissues. Radioactivity has also been measured in tissues of untreated females after 48h cohabitation with 3 H-E 2 injected males. The present study was designed to quantify steroid transfer among female bats. Radioactive quantification via liquid scintillation counting revealed absorption of tritium-labeled progesterone ( 3 H-P 4 ) in adult females 1h after cutaneous and intranasal application (10μCi). Subsequently, pairs of mature females were each housed for 48h with a single mature female that had been administered 3 H-P 4 (50μCi) via intraperitoneal injection. Radioactivity was observed in all collected tissues of all non-injected females at levels significantly greater than the control group. Following the same paradigm, radioactivity was not observed in the tissues of untreated female bats that were housed with stimulus females treated with 3 H-E 2 (50μCi). Enzyme immunoassays revealed measurable levels of unconjugated progesterone and estradiol in the urine of female bats, suggesting urine as a vector for steroid transfer. Given that bats of this species live in predominantly female roosts in very close contact, progesterone transfer among individuals is likely to occur in natural roosts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex Differences in Maturation of Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived β Cells in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Nelly; Bruin, Jennifer E; O'Dwyer, Shannon; Schuster, Hellen; Rezania, Alireza; Kieffer, Timothy J

    2018-04-01

    Pancreatic progenitors derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are now in clinical trials for insulin replacement in patients with type 1 diabetes. Animal studies indicate that pancreatic progenitor cells can mature into a mixed population of endocrine cells, including glucose-responsive β cells several months after implantion. However, it remains unclear how conditions in the recipient may influence the maturation and ultimately the function of these hESC-derived cells. Here, we investigated the effects of (1) pregnancy on the maturation of human stage 4 (S4) pancreatic progenitor cells and (2) the impact of host sex on both S4 cells and more mature stage 7 (S7) pancreatic endocrine cells implanted under the kidney capsule of immunodeficient SCID-beige mice. Pregnancy led to increased proliferation of endogenous pancreatic β cells, but did not appear to affect proliferation or maturation of S4 cells at midgestation. Interestingly, S4 and S7 cells both acquired glucose-stimulated C-peptide secretion in females before males. Moreover, S4 cells lowered fasting blood glucose levels in females sooner than in males, whereas the responses with S7 cells were similar. These data indicate that the host sex may impact the maturation of hESC-derived cells in vivo and that this effect can be minimized by more advanced differentiation of the cells before implantation.

  15. The skeletal maturation status estimated by statistical shape analysis: axial images of Japanese cervical vertebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, S M; Kim, Y-I; Choi, Y-S; Yamaguchi, T; Maki, K; Cho, B-H; Park, S-B

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate axial cervical vertebral (ACV) shape quantitatively and to build a prediction model for skeletal maturation level using statistical shape analysis for Japanese individuals. The sample included 24 female and 19 male patients with hand-wrist radiographs and CBCT images. Through generalized Procrustes analysis and principal components (PCs) analysis, the meaningful PCs were extracted from each ACV shape and analysed for the estimation regression model. Each ACV shape had meaningful PCs, except for the second axial cervical vertebra. Based on these models, the smallest prediction intervals (PIs) were from the combination of the shape space PCs, age and gender. Overall, the PIs of the male group were smaller than those of the female group. There was no significant correlation between centroid size as a size factor and skeletal maturation level. Our findings suggest that the ACV maturation method, which was applied by statistical shape analysis, could confirm information about skeletal maturation in Japanese individuals as an available quantifier of skeletal maturation and could be as useful a quantitative method as the skeletal maturation index.

  16. A maturity model for blockchain adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huaiqing; Chen, Kun; Xu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rapid development of the blockchain technology and its various applications has rendered it important to understand the guidelines for adopting it. Methods: The comparative analysis method is used to analyze different dimensions of the maturity model, which is mainly based on the commonly used capability maturity model. Results: The blockchain maturity model and its adoption process have been discussed and presented. Conclusions: This study serves as a guide to institutions to...

  17. Differences in Mating Propensity Between Immature Female Color Morphs in the Damselfly Ischnura elegans (Insecta : Odonata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammers, Martijn; Ana Sanchez-Guillen, Rosa; Van Gossum, Hans

    Female-limited color polymorphisms occur in a variety of animal taxa where excessive male sexual harassment may explain the coexistence of multiple female color morphs. In the color polymorphic damselfly Ischnura elegans, mature and immature female color morphs coexist at the mating site where males

  18. Resisting State Iconoclasm Among the Loma of Guinea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg, Christian Kordt

    -term suppression, including the exposure of secrecy, by the postcolonial authorities. In recent years the famous male ritual association known as Poro has even taken on new significance in the context of political upheaval in the war-torn border area between Guinea and Liberia. Drawing on extensive fieldwork...

  19. Survey of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Ovidio, Dario; Noviello, Emilio; Ianniello, Davide; Cringoli, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Little information is available on the occurrence of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in cavies kept as pets in southern Italy. Fresh fecal samples were randomly collected from 60 guinea pigs housed in pet shops or privately owned. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to identify and count helminthic eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts/oocysts. In addition, the specimens were analyzed also by the Remel Xpect® Giardia/Cryptosporidium immunoassay. Intestinal parasites were detected in 19 out of 60 guinea pigs (31.7 %). Paraspidodera uncinata eggs were found in 13.3 % (8/60) of the rodents examined, Nippostrongylus-like eggs in 10 % (6/60), and finally Eimeria caviae oocysts were found in 10 % (6/60) of the animals. In one case, both E. caviae oocysts and P. uncinata eggs were found. None of the samples was positive for Cryptosporidium or Giardia. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first survey of endoparasites in pet guinea pigs in Italy.

  20. Composition and characteristics of urinary calculi from guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Michelle G; Ruby, Annette L; Drazenovich, Tracy L; Westropp, Jodi L

    2009-01-15

    To determine the mineral composition of calculi, anatomic locations of the calculi, and findings of urinalysis and bacteriologic culture of urine and calculi in guinea pigs with urolithiasis. Cross-sectional study. 127 guinea pigs. Records of urinary calculi that had been submitted to the University of California Stone Laboratory from 1985 through 2003 were reviewed. In addition, submissions of urinary calculi for evaluation by the laboratory were prospectively solicited from 2004 through 2007. Prospectively obtained calculi were accompanied by a urine sample for urinalysis and bacteriologic culture and a completed questionnaire. All calculi were analyzed by use of polarized light microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. A subset of calculi was examined by means of x-ray diffractometry (XRD). 83% (43/52) of calculi from the laboratory database and 93% (70/75) of calculi that were prospectively solicited were composed of 100% calcium carbonate. Analysis via XRD confirmed that 5 of 6 calculi from a subset that had the greatest gross morphologic variation were composed of 100% calcite. Although many guinea pigs had received anti-microbials before bacteriologic cultures of urine were performed, Corynebacterium renale was isolated from 5 urine samples. Contrary to findings of other studies, urinary calculi analyzed for the present study were most commonly composed of 100% calcium carbonate, and infrared spectroscopy or XRD was necessary to differentiate this mineral from others. Treatments, including diet and husbandry practices, should be developed to help prevent development of calcium carbonate calculi in guinea pigs.

  1. A new fish of the family Scorpaenidae from New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1964-01-01

    The ichthyological collections brought together in various parts of New Guinea by staff members of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie in 1954 and 1955 (cf. Boeseman, 1963), contain a series of scorpion-fishes which are here described as a new species, representing a new genus. Cheroscorpaena

  2. Plague in Guinea Pigs and Its Prevention by Subunit Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quenee, Lauriane E.; Ciletti, Nancy; Berube, Bryan; Krausz, Thomas; Elli, Derek; Hermanas, Timothy; Schneewind, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    Human pneumonic plague is a devastating and transmissible disease for which a Food and Drug Administration–approved vaccine is not available. Suitable animal models may be adopted as a surrogate for human plague to fulfill regulatory requirements for vaccine efficacy testing. To develop an alternative to pneumonic plague in nonhuman primates, we explored guinea pigs as a model system. On intranasal instillation of a fully virulent strain, Yersinia pestis CO92, guinea pigs developed lethal lung infections with hemorrhagic necrosis, massive bacterial replication in the respiratory system, and blood-borne dissemination to other organ systems. Expression of the Y. pestis F1 capsule was not required for the development of pulmonary infection; however, the capsule seemed to be important for the establishment of bubonic plague. The mean lethal dose (MLD) for pneumonic plague in guinea pigs was estimated to be 1000 colony-forming units. Immunization of guinea pigs with the recombinant forms of LcrV, a protein that resides at the tip of Yersinia type III secretion needles, or F1 capsule generated robust humoral immune responses. Whereas LcrV immunization resulted in partial protection against pneumonic plague challenge with 250 MLD Y. pestis CO92, immunization with recombinant F1 did not. rV10, a vaccine variant lacking LcrV residues 271-300, elicited protection against pneumonic plague, which seemed to be based on conformational antibodies directed against LcrV. PMID:21406168

  3. A general measles vaccination campaign in urban Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, S.; Thysen, S. M.; Rodrigues, A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Measles vaccination campaigns targeting children aged 9–59 months are conducted every three years in Guinea-Bissau. Studies have demonstrated beneficial non-specific effects of measles vaccine. We compared mortality one year after the December 2012 measles vaccination campaign in Bissa...

  4. Reflections on the Fiftieth Reunion of the Guinea Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loud, Oliver

    1988-01-01

    A member of the original faculty of the experimental Ohio State University Laboratory High School reflects at a fiftieth reunion of the first graduating class. Students were used as guinea pigs to determine the effects of providing teenagers with liberating, interesting, and customized education from university faculty. (SM)

  5. A new ostracod (Entocytheridae, Notocytherinae) on New Guinea crayfish1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, D.G.; Hart, C.W.

    1970-01-01

    In 1967 we examined the crayfish collections in the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, to determine if the crayfishes collected in New Guinea in 1954 by Dr. L. B. Holthuis, Dr. L. D. Brongersma, and Dr. M. Boeseman (Boeseman, 1963) were hosts to commensal ostracods. Of the collections

  6. Petroleum scene heating in fledgling crude exporter Papua New Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Operators, paced by a feisty independent based in Port Moresby, have drilled a string of discoveries near the infrastructure of the Kutubu development project that supports Papua New Guinea crude exports. All signs point to the increasing likelihood of good sized -- maybe world class -- oil discoveries that promise to sustain exploration and development interest beyond 2000. Also in the offing are world class gas strikes that eventually could support a liquefied natural gas export project. And integration is the newest concept in Papua New Guinea petroleum. Efforts are under way to build the country's first refineries. Most operators in Papua New Guinea believe thy have merely scratched the surface of the country's oil and gas potential. Thy agree there still will be frustrations and setbacks -- political as well as technical -- but the prevailing opinion is that these problems are no greater than they are in a number of other countries with similar exploration/development potential. The paper discusses the development of Papua New Guinea's oil and gas industry, and exploratory drilling in areas other than Kutubu

  7. Identity and Ethnomathematics Projects in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Indigenous students may find mathematics in schools difficult because there is discontinuity between cultural mathematics and school mathematics. One of the reasons for this is that their teacher's identity as a mathematical thinker may not link to their cultural ways of thinking. In Papua New Guinea, there is a subject to assist student teachers…

  8. Five new species of Barringtonia (Lecythidaceae) from Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jebb, M.; Prance, G.T.

    2011-01-01

    Five new species of Barringtonia from Papua New Guinea are described and discussed: B. lumina, B. monticola, B. pinnifolia, B. serenae and B. tagala. All five species belong to section Barringtonia with closed flower buds. Notes are also provided for the seven monocaulous pachycaul species of

  9. Folk Opera: Stories Crossing Borders in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseman, B.; Baldwin, A.; Linthwaite, H.

    2014-01-01

    The Life Drama project is a drama-based sexual health promotion project, developed by a cross-cultural research team in Papua New Guinea (PNG) over the past four years. Recognising the limitations of established theatre-in-education and theatre-for-development approaches when working across cultures, the research team explored ways of tapping into…

  10. Mother Tongue-Based Bilingual Education in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Susan; Paraide, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Papua New Guinea (PNG), an independent state in the southwest Pacific, is the most linguistically diverse country in the world. Its roughly six million people speak over 800 distinct languages. In spite of this diversity, in 1995 the Papua New Guinean government established a mother tongue-based bilingual education programme in which community…

  11. Dracunculus medinensis (Guinea worm disease): a rare cause of calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gospos, C.

    1980-01-01

    Tangled whorly calcifications were seen in the abdominal subcutaneous tissues of a negro patient from Africa. The differential diagnosis of such calcifications - rarely observed in Europe - includes a variety of parasites. In this patient, Dracunculus medinensis (guinea worm disease) was the cause.

  12. Remuneration disparities in Oceania: Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marai, Leo; Kewibu, Vincent; Kinkin, Elly; Peter Peniop, John; Salini, Christian; Kofana, Genesis

    2010-10-01

    This paper explores the impact of remuneration differences on workers in the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea. In these countries remunerative differences are linked to government policy (in Papua New Guinea) and job contracts (in the Solomon Islands), and have impacted on industrial relations in both settings (strike action). A total of N = 350 professionals (n = 60 expatriates) from 54 organizations in aid, government, higher education and industry (mean response rate = 36%) responded to an organizational survey form. Remuneration ratios between international and local respondents based on the World Bank's index of purchasing power parity approached 9:1. In both sites staff compared pay and benefits (remuneration) packages: Internationally remunerated staff rated their ability higher than their local counterparts did; locally remunerated groups reported more injustice in remuneration, were more demotivated by the gaps, and were more likely to be thinking about leaving the organization. In-country workshops of N = 40 largely local stakeholders from aid and community organizations plus government ministries considered the survey's findings and recommended: in Solomon Islands, (a) introducing a policy of localization, (b) establishing a remuneration commission (already existent in Papua New Guinea), and (c) reducing the remunerative gap; in Papua New Guinea, (d) reversing the post-Independence "dual pay system" (currently official policy), (e) instituting pay-for-performance, and (f) ensuring the existent localization policy is applied to recruitment, selection, and staff career planning and management.

  13. Evaluation of community-based surveillance for Guinea worm, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-03

    Aug 3, 2012 ... deleted at the Data Manager Level in Loki. Conclusion. Community-based surveillance for guinea worm is a good example of a surveillance system on which an integrated disease surveillance system can be based in countries with poor surveillance like South Sudan. This makes its potential value to ...

  14. Notes on New Guinea Rubiaceae. Versteegia and Maschalodesme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridsdale, C.E.; Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1972-01-01

    Within the rain forests of New Guinea there are many small pachycaul treelets belonging to the Rubiaceae. Generally these are rare in occurrence and poorly represented in the herbarium, due in part to the problem of protecting rami- or cauliflorous flowers and fruits during routine processing and

  15. The Implementation of Curricular Reform: Tanzania and Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Murray; Vulliamy, Graham

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the origins and policy characteristics of the Education for Self Reliance project in Tanzania and the Secondary Schools Community Extension Project in Papua New Guinea. Compares the sociopolitical climate, the policy characteristics, the role of academic assessment, policy change, and examples of the existing policy in the two countries.…

  16. Notes on two small collections of Birds from new Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1964-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Over the past few years the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie has received, from different sources, several small collections of birds from various parts of New Guinea. This is a report on two of these. No ornithologist accompanied the expedition to the Sterren-gebergte (Star

  17. Piper (Piperaceae) in New Guinea: the non-climbing species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardner, R.O.

    2003-01-01

    A taxonomic account is given of six Piper species of New Guinea: P. bolanicum spec. nov., P. gibbil­imbum, P. recessum spec. nov., P. subbullatum, P. triangulare and P. wabagense. These small shrubby trees are best represented in secondary growth and forest at 1300–2500 m altitude, with P.

  18. Effects of Perfluoroisobutene on Guinea Pig Isolated Lung Preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    guinea pigs showed increased sensitivity to 5-hydroxytryptamine, bradykinin, isoprenaline and a thromboxane A2 analogue, but not to carbachol, histamine, prostaglandin D2, adenosine or potassium. These changes were not detected in the TS. If PFIB-induced changes in lung pharmacology contribute to oedema, antagonists of identified mediators may be useful as pretreatments/therapies to pulmonary

  19. Seasonal variation in child mortality in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bibi Uhre; Byberg, Stine; Aaby, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: In many African countries, child mortality is higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. We investigated the effect of season on child mortality by time periods, sex and age in rural Guinea-Bissau. Methods: Bandim health project follows children under-five in a health...

  20. Feeding ecology of wintering terns in Guinea-Bissau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brenninkmeijer, A; Stienen, EWM; Klaassen, M; Kersten, M.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the feeding ecology of Little Terns Sterna albifrons , Sandwich Terns S. sandvicensis and Royal Terns S. maxima in the Archipelago dos Bijagos (11degrees40'N, 15degrees45'W) in Guinea-Bissau (West Africa) during the winter of 1992/1993. More than 95% of all prey taken by these terns were

  1. Guinea pig ductus arteriosus. II - Irreversible closure after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, F. S.; Cooke, P. H.

    1972-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism underlying irreversibility of ductal closure after birth, studies were undertaken to determine the exact time course for the onset of irreversible closure of the guinea pig ductus arteriosus. Parallel studies of the reactivity of ductal smooth muscle to oxygen and studies of the postpartum cellular changes within the vessel were also carried out.

  2. Perilymphatic and endolymphatic pressure in the normal guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warmerdam, TJ; Schroder, FHH; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ

    1999-01-01

    Perilymphatic and endolymphatic pressures were measured consecutively in the normal guinea pig using a WPI 900A micropressure system. The mean (n = 10) perilymphatic and endolymphatic pressures were 2.26 and 2.31 cm H2O, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the

  3. Cost and Return Analysis of Ginger Production in the Guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focuses on the cost and return analysis of ginger production in the guinea savannah agro ecology of Nigeria. The study is aimed at highlighting the profitability of ginger production with a view to informing and influencing farmers and relevant stakeholders. The study was conducted at Kajuru, Kaduna state in the ...

  4. Guinea worm eradication program in Borno state: The need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to update the status of Guinea worm and Eradication Program in Borno State and to demonstrate the effectiveness of adopting appropriate intervention strategies. The assessment of the prevalence of Dracunculus medinensis was carried out by active case search. Three hundred and ten ...

  5. Prevalence And Disabilities Caused By Guinea-Worm Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was carried out in 2001 to ascertain the status of Guinea worm disease infection among farm households in Ebonyi Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State. A total of 3,777 respondents were randomly sampled from 15 communities that comprised the LGA. The sample respondents were clinically examined ...

  6. Absorption of transuranic nitrates by rats, guinea pigs, and dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.F.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption of 238 Pu and 241 Am from the gstrointestinal tract was found to be quite similar for rats, guinea pigs, and dogs. Different oxidation state mixtures of 238 Pu nitrate (95% versus 65% Pu IV) were absorbed to about the same extent

  7. The alpine flora of Mount Wilhelm (New Guinea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogland, R.D.

    1958-01-01

    The flora of the higher mountains of New Guinea has been the object of several extensive collecting trips in the past forty years. Until quite recently, however, a serious gap in our knowledge was the very scanty information available from the area between Mount Wilhelmina in the West and Mount

  8. A Set Theoretical Approach to Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2016-01-01

    characterized by equifinality, multiple conjunctural causation, and case diversity. We prescribe methodological guidelines consisting of a six-step procedure to systematically apply set theoretic methods to conceptualize, develop, and empirically derive maturity models and provide a demonstration......Maturity Model research in IS has been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. To address these criticisms, this paper proposes a novel set-theoretical approach to maturity models...

  9. Petroleum service projects in the Gulf of Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken-Worgu, Kenneth Chukwumeka

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this record of study is to examine the major facets involved in managing several petroleum service projects located in three different countries in the Gulf of Guinea simultaneously, while effectively engaging in business development activities for the Oil and Industrial Services Group (OIS). This work also furnishes adequate background on related subject matters to enable understanding of the projects presented. The petroleum services sector is the back bone of the oil and gas industry. Services companies are vital to the success of all petroleum and energy producers in the USA, the Gulf of Guinea and the world. There is a need and demand for these service companies because they play various roles such as logistics, drilling, construction, dredging, pipe laying, procurement, food supply, human resource supply, etc. The Gulf of Guinea comprises of countries from west and central Africa. This project was limited to Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon. This area holds the largest petroleum reserves in Africa and plays a vital role in the global supply of petroleum. The Oil and Industrial Services Group (OIS), plans to establish herself as one of the leading petroleum service companies in this gulf. To manage this expansion, I have taken the role of Gulf of Guinea manager to apply my background as a petroleum engineer as well as my business skills to build a successful division of the company. This work provides a record of study of the management of services, projects and contracts carried out by the OIS group in the gulf of Guinea. The following are the specific projects in the Gulf of Guinea that I participated in: Managing delivering, maintenance and marketing of offshore vessels, Offshore pipe laying project, Integrated pipeline maintenance project, Development a petroleum technical training facilities, Agbami pipe insulation project, Engineering lift project and Capital budgeting analysis for potential investments. The details of the specific

  10. [Clinical comments on female homosexuality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeul, M

    1993-02-01

    In psychoanalytic theory, homosexual women are regarded as being possessed by violent hatred of the mother. They are held to identify with the male or the phallic and to display an absence of "normal" femaleness. Their attendant immaturity makes them incapable of love. The author takes issue with the assumption that normality is synonymous with mature, reciprocal heterosexuality. With reference to a case study of a homosexual woman, she traces the structure of a lesbian love relationship. The patient is the involuntary witness of sexual intercourse between the parents. The mixture of alarm and excitement which this arouses sparks off female desires that revive early libidinous experiences with the mother. The girl desires her mother, without however identifying with the father. In her later relationships with women she does not relate to her partners as a disguised man but as a woman. Identification with the father serves as a defence against the desire for-and the fear of-identification at a female level.

  11. Toluene-induced hearing loss in the guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waniusiow, Delphine; Campo, Pierre; Venet, Thomas; Cossec, Benoît; Cosnier, Frédéric; Beydon, Dominique; Rieger, Benoît; Burgart, Manuella; Ferrari, Luc; Parietti-Winkler, Cécile

    2009-10-01

    Toluene is a high-production industrial solvent, which can disrupt the auditory system in rats. However, toluene-induced hearing loss is species dependent. For instance, despite long-lasting exposures to high concentrations of aromatic solvent, no study has yet succeeded in causing convincing hearing loss in the guinea pig. This latter species can be characterized by two metabolic particularities: a high amount of hepatic cytochrome P-450s (P-450s) and a high concentration of glutathione in the cochlea. It is therefore likely that the efficiency of both the hepatic and cochlear metabolisms plays a key role in the innocuousness of the hearing of guinea pigs to exposure to solvent. The present study was carried out to test the auditory resistance to toluene in glutathione-depleted guinea pigs whose the P-450 activity was partly inhibited. To this end, animals on a low-protein diet received a general P-450 inhibitor, namely SKF525-A. Meanwhile, they were exposed to 1750 ppm toluene for 4 weeks, 5 days/week, 6 h/day. Auditory function was tested by electrocochleography and completed by histological analyses. For the first time, a significant toluene-induced hearing loss was provoked in the P-450-inhibited guinea pigs. However, the ototoxic process caused by the solvent exposure was different from that observed in the rat. Only the stria vascularis and the spiral fibers were disrupted in the apical coil of the cochlea. The protective mechanisms developed by guinea pigs are discussed in the present publication.

  12. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  13. Preliminary Study On Gonad Maturity Stages of the Sea Cucumber Paracaudina australis from Kenjeran Water, Surabaya, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widianingsih, Widianingsih; Zaenuri, Muhammad; Anggoro, Sutrisno; Pancasakti Kusumaningrum, Hermin; Hartati, Retno

    2018-02-01

    The holothurian Paracaudina australis is belong to family Caudinidae, ordo Molpadida and class Holothuroidea. This species is among the most common holothurian widely distributed in the tropical water. The purpose of this reseach is to do preliminary study on maturity stages of sea cucumber Paracaudina australis from Kenjeran Water, Surabaya, Indonesia. This research was conducted on April 2016. Samples were collected randomly on the Kenjeran Water, Surabaya. The result showed that there are five stages of gonad maturity. At the stage of maturity 1, the gonad was not clearly distinguished, there were unbranched small tubule. At the stage of maturity 2, there were small branched of tubules. At this stage, gonad can be differentiated between male and female. At the stage of maturity 3, tubule can been branched not only for male but also female. At the stage of maturity 4, the gonad was good mature, there were clearly branched tubule. At the stage of matury 5, there were generally had empty tubule except for a few relict unreleased spermatozoa. At female gonad, there were shrunken tubule and relict oocytes were presented in the lumen of the tubule.

  14. Cervical vertebral maturation and dental age in coeliac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costacurta, M; Condò, R; Sicuro, L; Perugia, C; Docimo, R

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the cervical vertebral maturation and dental age, in group of patients with coelic disease (CD), in comparison with a control group of healthy subjects. At the Paediatric Dentistry Unit of PTV Hospital, "Tor Vergata" University of Rome, 120 female patients, age range 12.0-12.9 years were recruited. Among them, 60 subjects (Group 1) were affected by CD, while the control group (Group 2) consisted of 60 healthy subjects, sex and age-matched. The Group 1 was subdivided, according to the period of CD diagnosis, in Group A (early diagnosis) and Group B (late diagnosis). The skeletal age was determined by assessing the cervical vertebral maturation, while the dental age has been determined using the method codified by Demirjiyan. STATISTICS.: The analyses were performed using the SPSS software (version 16; SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA). In all the assessments a significant level of alpha = 0.05 was considered. There are no statistically significant differences between Group 1 and Group 2 as for chronological age (p=0.122). Instead, from the assessment of skeletal-dental age, there are statistically significant differences between Group 1 - Group 2 (pcervical vertebral maturity can be assessed with a low cost, non invasive, easy to perform exam carried out through the routine radiographic examinations such as orthopanoramic and lateral teleradiography.

  15. Age, growth rate and size at sexual maturity of Labeobarbus aeneus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of 193 L. aeneus collected by gillnetting, 96 were assessed for sexual maturity, and ages were estimated using scales (n = 143) and whole otoliths (n = 167). Whole otoliths were found to be the most appropriate method for ageing. Both males and females were present in all age classes, which ranged from 2 to 19 years.

  16. Onset and Maturation of Fetal Heart Rate Response to the Mother's Voice over Late Gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisilevsky, Barbara S.; Hains, Sylvia M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Term fetuses discriminate their mother's voice from a female stranger's, suggesting recognition/learning of some property of her voice. Identification of the onset and maturation of the response would increase our understanding of the influence of environmental sounds on the development of sensory abilities and identify the period when…

  17. Incidence of physical injury of mature male parr in a natural population of brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, M.M.; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Dieperink, C.

    2000-01-01

    In a brown trout Salmo trutta population, there was a much higher frequency of injuries among mature male parr than among immature or female parr. The quantitative data are discussed in relation to spawning success and overall fitness. (C) 2000 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles....

  18. Mapping Subcortical Brain Maturation during Adolescence: Evidence of Hemisphere-and Sex-Specific Longitudinal Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, Meg; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Kline, Alexandria; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2013-01-01

    Early to mid-adolescence is an important developmental period for subcortical brain maturation, but longitudinal studies of these neurodevelopmental changes are lacking. The present study acquired repeated magnetic resonance images from 60 adolescent subjects (28 female) at ages 12.5 and 16.5 years to map changes in subcortical structure volumes.…

  19. Sexual maturity cycle and spawning of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides in the Davis Strait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundersen, A. C.; Stenberg, Claus; Fossen, I.

    2010-01-01

    Female sexual maturation cycle and the main spawning time of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides in the Davis Strait were studied through regularly collected samples during 1 year starting in spring 2003. Samples were collected from the southern slope of the Davis Strait Ridge between...

  20. Explaining Why Early-Maturing Girls Are More Exposed to Sexual Harassment in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Therése; Bayram Özdemir, Sevgi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested two competing explanations of the previously established link between early female puberty and sexual harassment in early adolescence. The sample included 680 seventh-grade Swedish girls (M[subscript age] = 13.40, SD = 0.53). Findings revealed that looking more sexually mature and being sexually active mediated the link…

  1. Refugees in Papua New Guinea: government response and assistance, 1984-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, R

    1992-01-01

    The refugee situation after the 1984 movement from Indonesia is examined in terms of policy implications and assistance as well as the welfare and education of refugees. Information was collected from government sources and documents and from households in camps and communities over a 3-month period and was published in a government report in February, 1988. This article provides a review of the border issues, resistance and exodus, reactions within Papua New Guinea, 1984-85 border crossings, social and demographic refugee profiles, government response, UN involvement, border refugee camp conditions, repatriation and relocation, reasons for the exodus, and relocation to and conditions in East Awin and the implications. This exodus from West Papua New Guinea (a region now called Irian Jaya) after Indonesia's take over in 1962 represents a unique situation, which also has lessons for other asylum seekers looking for refuge status in friendly neighboring countries. International agreements, such as the Geneva Convention and Protocol, can disrupt social networks and households when the relocation they permit is implemented. Full economic and social participation is hampered by a low quality provision of education and social services. The gain is in removing "destabilizing threats to the host state and society," at the expense of the economic and residential security of the migrants. Humanitarianism hides inequalities; internationalism, in this case, confirmed Indonesian sovereignty and large scale economic exploitation. An estimated 300,000 Melanesians have died since the take over, which amounts to 30% of the total population in 1970. Persecution was the reason for migration to Papua New Guinea; migration numbers are not accurate and range from the official 2000-3000 to 12,000 in 1984. Reactions to the migration have been mixed, and fear of the military might of Indonesia is real. The government was not prepared to cope with the scale of migration and had no plans for

  2. The Changing Face of Librarianship in Papua New Guinea: Libraries for Life in the Papua New Guinea Information Society?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obi, Margaret J.

    "Libraries for life" in Papua New Guinea today is not an impossible goal to strive for to achieve with today's new and old information and communication technologies. However, in order for this to happen, a number of questions will need to be asked. There are three that need immediate attention: (1) What is an "information…

  3. Age at maturity of Mediterranean marine fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. TSIKLIRAS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review we collected data on the age at maturity (tm and maximum reported age (tmax for 235 stocks of Mediterranean marine fishes, belonging to 82 species, 37 families, 12 orders and 2 classes (Actinopterygii and Elasmobranchii. Among Actinopterygii (mean tm ± SD = 2.20 ± 1.43 y, n = 215, tm ranged from 0.3 y, for the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, to 12 y, for dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus, while among Elasmobranchii (mean tm ± SD = 5.94 ± 2.47 y, n = 20, tm ranged between 2.7 y, for brown ray Raja miraletus, and 12 y for picked dogfish Squalus acanthias. Overall, the tmax ranged between 1 y, for transparent goby Aphia minuta, and 70 y, for wreckfish Polyprion americanus. The mean tmax of Actinopterygii (tmax ± SD = 10.14 ± 9.42 y was lower than that of Elasmobranchii (tmax ± SD = 14.05 ± 8.47 y. The tm exhibited a strong positive linear relation with tmax for both Actinopterygii (logtm = 0.58 ´ logtmax – 0.25, r2 = 0.51, P < 0.001 and Elasmobranchii (logtm = 0.67 ´ logtmax – 0.006, r2 = 0.51, P = 0.007. The mean tm/tmax did not differ significantly with sex within Actinopterygii (ANOVA: F = 0.27, P = 0.60, n = 90; females: mean ± SD = 0.276 ± 0.143; males: mean ± SD = 0.265 ± 0.138 and Elasmobranchii (ANOVA: F = 1.44, P = 0.25, n = 10; females: mean ± SD = 0.499 ± 0.166; males: mean ± SD = 0.418 ± 0.133. Finally, the dimensionless ratio tm/tmax was significantly lower (ANOVA: F = 31.04, P < 0.001 for Actinopterygii (mean ± SD = 0.270 ± 0.135, n = 180 than for Elasmobranchii, (mean ± SD = 0.458 ± 0.152, n = 20, when stocks with combined sexes were excluded from the analysis.

  4. Asymptotic weight and maturing rate in mice selected for body conformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Masso Ricardo J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth patterns of four lines of mice selected for body conformation were analyzed with the logistic function, in order to provide baseline information about the relationship between asymptotic weight and maturing rate of body weight. Two lines were divergently selected favoring the phenotypic correlation between body weight and tail length (agonistic selection: CBi+, high body weight and long tail; CBi-, low body weight and short tail, whereas the other two lines were generated by a disruptive selection performed against the correlation between the aforementioned traits (antagonistic selection: CBi/C, high body weight and short tail; CBi/L, low body weight and long tail. The logistic parameters A (asymptotic weight and k (maturing rate behaved in CBi/C and CBi- mice and in CBi+ females as expected in terms of the negative genetic relationship between mature size and earliness of maturing. An altered growth pattern was found in CBi/L mice and in CBi+ males, because in the former genotype, selected for low body weight, the time taken to mature increased, whereas in the latter, selected for high body weight, there was a non-significant increase in the same trait. In accordance with the selective criterion, different sources of genetic variation for body weight could be exploited: one inversely associated with earliness of maturing (agonistic selection, and the other independent of maturing rate (antagonistic selection, showing that genetic variation of A is partly independent of k.

  5. Examining the Level of Career maturity among Foreign Asian Students by measuring Academic Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Tekke

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Asian individuals are dependent and collectivist compared with the western individuals that are independent and individualistic. Foreign Asian students choosing similar courses with their country friends do not reveal their career maturity and also lead to negative effect on their choices.  This study aims at examining the level of career maturity of foreign Asian students in Malaysia based on academic level by using the Career Maturity Inventory. Two hundred and twenty nine ( Male=106, Female= 123 international students studying in various semesters completed the Career Maturity Inventory and it was reported that there were no significant differences between respondents of different academic semesters with regard to level of career maturity, this might reflect an educational level bias in the construction of the career decision-making. The findings of the current study are not consistent with theoretical expectations and prior research that international undergraduate senior students would be having higher career maturity than international undergraduate fresh students. Research emphasizes the reason behind might result from dependent and collectivist Asian culture that leading to fresh international students are higher career maturity compared to senior international students.

  6. Quantitative skeletal evaluation based on cervical vertebral maturation: a longitudinal study of adolescents with normal occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Liu, J; Xu, T; Long, X; Lin, J

    2010-07-01

    The study aims were to investigate the correlation between vertebral shape and hand-wrist maturation and to select characteristic parameters of C2-C5 (the second to fifth cervical vertebrae) for cervical vertebral maturation determination by mixed longitudinal data. 87 adolescents (32 males, 55 females) aged 8-18 years with normal occlusion were studied. Sequential lateral cephalograms and hand-wrist radiographs were taken annually for 6 consecutive years. Lateral cephalograms were divided into 11 maturation groups according to Fishman Skeletal Maturity Indicators (SMI). 62 morphological measurements of C2-C5 at 11 different developmental stages (SMI1-11) were measured and analysed. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing, correlation coefficient analysis and variable cluster analysis were used for statistical analysis. Of the 62 cervical vertebral parameters, 44 were positively correlated with SMI, 6 were negatively correlated and 12 were not correlated. The correlation coefficients between cervical vertebral parameters and SMI were relatively high. Characteristic parameters for quantitative analysis of cervical vertebral maturation were selected. In summary, cervical vertebral maturation could be used reliably to evaluate the skeletal stage instead of the hand-wrist radiographic method. Selected characteristic parameters offered a simple and objective reference for the assessment of skeletal maturity and timing of orthognathic surgery. Copyright 2010 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of a novel bile alcohol sulfate released by sexually mature male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li

    Full Text Available A sulphate-conjugated bile alcohol, 3,12-diketo-4,6-petromyzonene-24-sulfate (DKPES, was identified using bioassay-guided fractionation from water conditioned with sexually mature male sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus. The structure and relative stereochemistry of DKPES was established using spectroscopic data. The electro-olfactogram (EOG response threshold of DKPES was 10(-7 Molar (M and that of 3-keto petromyzonol sulfate (3 KPZS; a known component of the male sea lamprey sex pheromone was 10(-10 M. Behavioural studies indicated that DKPES can be detected at low concentrations by attracting sexually mature females to nests when combined with 3 KPZS. Nests baited with a mixture of DKPES and 3 KPZS (ratio 1∶29.8 attracted equal numbers of sexually mature females compared to an adjacent nest baited with 3 KPZS alone. When DKPES and 3 KPZS mixtures were applied at ratios of 2∶29.8 and 10∶29.8, the proportion of sexually mature females that entered baited nests increased to 73% and 70%, respectively. None of the sexually mature females released were attracted to nests baited with DKPES alone. These results indicated that DKPES is a component of the sex pheromone released by sexually mature male sea lamprey, and is the second biologically active compound identified from this pheromone. DKPES represents the first example that a minor component of a vertebrate pheromone can be combined with a major component to elicit critical sexual behaviors. DKPES holds considerable promise for increasing the effectiveness of pheromone-baited trapping as a means of sea lamprey control in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  8. The maturing of microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas M

    2006-09-01

    A.J. Kluyver and C.B. van Niel introduced many scientists to the exceptional metabolic capacity of microbes and their remarkable ability to adapt to changing environments in The Microbe's Contribution to Biology. Beyond providing an overview of the physiology and adaptability of microbes, the book outlined many of the basic principles for the emerging discipline of microbial ecology. While the study of pure cultures was highlighted, provided a unifying framework for understanding the vast metabolic potential of microbes and their roles in the global cycling of elements, extrapolation from pure cultures to natural environments has often been overshadowed by microbiologists inability to culture many of the microbes seen in natural environments. A combination of genomic approaches is now providing a culture-independent view of the microbial world, revealing a more diverse and dynamic community of microbes than originally anticipated. As methods for determining the diversity of microbial communities become increasingly accessible, a major challenge to microbial ecologists is to link the structure of natural microbial communities with their functions. This article presents several examples from studies of aquatic and terrestrial microbial communities in which culture and culture-independent methods are providing an enhanced appreciation for the microbe's contribution to the evolution and maintenance of life on Earth, and offers some thoughts about the graduate-level educational programs needed to enhance the maturing field of microbial ecology.

  9. Motivational maturity and helping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, M; Green, L

    1977-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the independent influences of conative development (the Maslow needs hierarchy) upon behavioral aspects of prosocial orientations. It provides a behavioral demonstration of conative effects in a helping paradigm, among college-age men. A comparison of the conative data across the ages of 15-22 provided a cross-sectional view of conative development itself. Conative maturity was found to be predictive of greater helping among college-age men. Situational demands were demonstrated which tended to mask, but not override, these predispositional influences on helping. The cross-sectional data on conative development point to probable movement to early esteem concerns among high school men who have reached the conative level of love and belonging. On the other hand, the stability across the years of 15-22 of proportion of safety concerns suggests fixation of such concerns in those exhibiting them in high school. Results are discussed in terms of conative growth for development of prosocial orientations.

  10. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Levinson, Alex; Mater, J.; Drummond, R.

    2010-04-28

    The integration of automation associated with electricity resources (including transmission and distribution automation and demand-side resources operated by end-users) is key to supporting greater efficiencies and incorporating variable renewable resources and electric vehicles into the power system. The integration problems faced by this community are analogous to those faced in the health industry, emergency services, and other complex communities with many stakeholders. To highlight this issue and encourage communication and the development of a smart grid interoperability community, the GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) created an Interoperability Context-Setting Framework. This "conceptual model" has been helpful to explain the importance of organizational alignment in addition to technical and informational interface specifications for "smart grid" devices and systems. As a next step to building a community sensitive to interoperability, the GWAC is investigating an interoperability maturity model (IMM) based on work done by others to address similar circumstances. The objective is to create a tool or set of tools that encourages a culture of interoperability in this emerging community. The tools would measure status and progress, analyze gaps, and prioritize efforts to improve the situation.

  11. Antenatal assessment of fetal maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstner, G.; Reinold, E.; Wolf, G.

    1979-01-01

    334 ultrasound-cephalometries and 231 X-ray fetographies were performed for antenatal assessment of fetal maturity as well as for exact estimation of gestational age in women with unknown date of confinement. The accuracy of the predictions was compared. Ultrasound-cephalometry gave best results when performed until the 20th week of gestation. A correct prediction was obtained in 80.4% of cases. After the 20th week of gestation, the accuracy of prediction decreased. Radiology on the contrary gave optimal results at the end of pregnancy. A correct prediction of the date of confinement was obtained in 73.8% of cases, when the X-ray fetography was performed between the 37th and 40th week of gestation. At the end of gestation radiography should be performed, if there is a discrepancy between ultrasound and clinical estimation or if ultrasound-cephalometry was not carried out in early pregnancy - especially if induction of labour is necessary. (author)

  12. Vitamin C Deficiency Reduces Muscarinic Receptor Coronary Artery Vasoconstriction and Plasma Tetrahydrobiopterin Concentration in Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gry Freja Skovsted

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin C (vitC deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk, but its specific interplay with arteriolar function is unclear. This study investigates the effect of vitC deficiency in guinea pigs on plasma biopterin status and the vasomotor responses in coronary arteries exposed to vasoconstrictor/-dilator agents. Dunkin Hartley female guinea pigs (n = 32 were randomized to high (1500 mg/kg diet or low (0 to 50 mg/kg diet vitC for 10–12 weeks. At euthanasia, coronary artery segments were dissected and mounted in a wire-myograph. Vasomotor responses to potassium, carbachol, sodium nitroprusside (SNP, U46619, sarafotoxin 6c (S6c and endothelin-1 (ET-1 were recorded. Plasma vitC and tetrahydrobiopterin were measured by HPLC. Plasma vitC status reflected the diets with deficient animals displaying reduced tetrahydrobiopterin. Vasoconstrictor responses to carbachol were significantly decreased in vitC deficient coronary arteries independent of their general vasoconstrictor/vasodilator capacity (p < 0.001. Moreover, in vitC deficient animals, carbachol-induced vasodilator responses correlated with coronary artery diameter (p < 0.001. Inhibition of cyclooxygenases with indomethacin increased carbachol-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting an augmented carbachol-induced release of vasodilator prostanoids. Atropine abolished carbachol-induced vasomotion, supporting a specific muscarinic receptor effect. Arterial responses to SNP, potassium, S6c, U46619 and ET-1 were unaffected by vitC status. The study shows that vitC deficiency decreases tetrahydrobiopterin concentrations and muscarinic receptor mediated contraction in coronary arteries. This attenuated vasoconstrictor response may be linked to altered production of vasoactive arachidonic acid metabolites and reduced muscarinic receptor expression/signaling.

  13. Digital Maturity of the Firm's Business Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groskovs, Sergejs; Vemula, Sreekanth

    We propose a digital maturity assessment model as an instrument for researchers and a strategic tool for managers. Existing literature lacks a conceptually clear way to measure the construct of digital maturity at the level of the firms business model. Our proposed instrument thus opens avenues f...

  14. A maturity model for industrial supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameri, A.P.; McKay, K.N.; Wiers, V.C.S.

    2013-01-01

    This article takes an evolutionary view of supply chains to suggest a series of distinct, contextual phases for supply chain execution and what maturity might mean at each phase. For example, what is best practice in a mature industry might not be best practice in a pioneering situation.Three

  15. 7 CFR 1421.101 - Maturity dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... filed and disbursed except, for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral. The maturity date for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral will be the maturity date applicable to the original loan... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING...

  16. Cone and Seed Maturation of Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett

    1976-01-01

    If slightly reduced yields and viability are acceptable, loblolly and slash cone collections can begin 2 to 3 weeks before maturity if the cones are stored before processing. Longleaf(P. palestris Mill.) pine cones should be collected only when mature, as storage decreased germination of seeds from immature cones. Biochemical analyses to determine reducing sugar...

  17. POSTTREATMENT NEUROBLASTOMA MATURATION TO GANGLIONIC CELL TUMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Ryzhova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cells can differentiate into more mature forms in undifferentiated or poorly differentiated tumors, such as medulloblastomas with increased nodularity, as well as neuroblastomas. The authors describe 2 cases of neuroblastoma maturation into ganglioneuroblastoma 5 months after chemotherapy in a 2-year-old girl and 3 years after radiotherapy in a 16-year-old girl.

  18. Moving towards maturity in business model definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Lund, Morten; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    The field of business models has, as is the case with all emerging fields of practice, slowly matured through the development of frameworks, models, concepts and ideas over the last 15 years. New concepts, theories and models typically transcend a series of maturity phases. For the concept of Bus...

  19. Assessing the Harvest Maturity of Brazilian Mangoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, T.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Vanoli, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Eccher Zerbini, P.C.; Torricelli, A.; Filgueiras, H.; Spinelli, L.

    2010-01-01

    No clear criterion exists to determine the optimum time to harvest mango. Some empirical relations are used to assess maturity, such as shoulder development. Moreover, as a result of the typical growing conditions in tropical climates, a huge variation in maturity and ripeness exists, seriously

  20. Decision-Making Style and Vocational Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan D.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the relationship between decision-making style, scholastic achievement, and vocational maturity for college students (N=64). Results did not support the hypothesized relationship between rationality and attitudinal and cognitive maturity. Scholastic achievement and lack of dependent decision style were found to be moderately predictive of…

  1. Correlation of Improved Version of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Indicator with Other Growth Maturity Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Tikku

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The correlation between middle phalanx of 3rd finger (MP3 and cervical vertebral maturation method (CVMI and CVMS was higher as compared to the correlation of either of the cervical vertebral maturation method or MP3 with dental maturation indicator.

  2. Assessing healthcare process maturity: challenges of using a business process maturity model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarhan, A.; Turetken, O.; van den Biggelaar, F.J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Doi: 10.4108/icst.pervasivehealth.2015.259105 The quality of healthcare services is influenced by the maturity of healthcare processes used to develop it. A maturity model is an instrument to assess and continually improve organizational processes. In the last decade, a number of maturity models

  3. Comparative study between the hand-wrist method and cervical vertebral maturation method for evaluation skeletal maturity in cleft patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosudprasit, Montian; Wangsrimongkol, Tasanee; Pisek, Poonsak; Chantaramungkorn, Melissa

    2013-09-01

    To test the measure of agreement between use of the Skeletal Maturation Index (SMI) method of Fishman using hand-wrist radiographs and the Cervical Vertebral Maturation Index (CVMI) method for assessing skeletal maturity of the cleft patients. Hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs of 60 cleft subjects (35 females and 25 males, age range: 7-16 years) were used. Skeletal age was assessed using an adjustment to the SMI method of Fishman to compare with the CVMI method of Hassel and Farman. Agreement between skeletal age assessed by both methods and the intra- and inter-examiner reliability of both methods were tested by weighted kappa analysis. There was good agreement between the two methods with a kappa value of 0.80 (95% CI = 0.66-0.88, p-value <0.001). Reliability of intra- and inter-examiner of both methods was very good with kappa value ranging from 0.91 to 0.99. The CVMI method can be used as an alternative to the SMI method in skeletal age assessment in cleft patients with the benefit of no need of an additional radiograph and avoiding extra-radiation exposure. Comparing the two methods, the present study found better agreement from peak of adolescence onwards.

  4. Skin diseases in companion guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus): a retrospective study of 293 cases seen at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California at Davis (1990-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen D; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2016-10-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are popular companion animals with reported skin diseases, but most reports are accessed from textbooks or review articles. To document skin diseases and their prevalence in companion guinea pigs in northern California, USA, and to investigate predilections for the most common conditions over a 25 year period. Two hundred and ninety three guinea pigs from the hospital population met inclusion criteria. A retrospective study was performed by searching computerized medical records seen at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (VMTH), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California from 1 January 1990 to 31 July 2015 using key words relevant to dermatology. Of the 580 guinea pigs seen at the VMTH, 50% (293) had skin disease. Of the 293 cases, 154 (52%) presented for nondermatological reasons. Guinea pigs with skin disease were significantly older than those without skin disease (P = 0.0002); females with skin disease were more likely to have cystic ovaries (P = 0.0203), although these were not always associated with alopecia. Pododermatitis and infestation with Trixacarus caviae or lice were the most common skin diseases. Ivermectin or selamectin was used for ectoparasite treatment. Abscesses unassociated with pododermatitis were the most common nodules. Benign follicular tumours were the most common neoplasm. Despite the frequent mention of dermatophytosis in the veterinary literature, only two cases of Trichophyton mentagrophytes were diagnosed. Cutaneous conditions in companion guinea pigs in the USA are common. Clinicians should include a dermatological examination when examining these rodents regardless of the reason for presentation. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  5. Characterization of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone precursor cDNA in the Old World mole-rat Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae: high degree of identity with the New World guinea pig sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamatianos, T; du Toit, L; Hrabovszky, E; Kalló, I; Marsh, P J; Bennett, N C; Coen, C W

    2005-05-01

    Regulation of pituitary gonadotrophins by the decapeptide gonadotrophin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH1) is crucial for the development and maintenance of reproductive functions. A common amino acid sequence for this decapeptide, designated as 'mammalian' GnRH, has been identified in all mammals thus far investigated with the exception of the guinea pig, in which there are two amino acid substitutions. Among hystricognath rodents, the members of the family Bathyergidae regulate reproduction in response to diverse cues. Thus, highveld mole-rats (Cryptomys hottentotus pretoriae) are social bathyergids in which breeding is restricted to a particular season in the dominant female, but continuously suppressed in subordinate colony members. Elucidation of reproductive control in these animals will be facilitated by characterization of their GnRH1 gene. A partial sequence of GnRH1 precursor cDNA was isolated and characterized. Comparative analysis revealed the highest degree of identity (86%) to guinea pig GnRH1 precursor mRNA. Nevertheless, the deduced amino acid sequence of the mole-rat decapeptide is identical to the 'mammalian' sequence rather than that of guinea pigs. Successful detection of GnRH1-synthesizing neurones using either a guinea pig GnRH1 riboprobe or an antibody against the 'mammalian' decapeptide is consistent with the guinea pig-like sequence for the precursor and the classic 'mammalian' form for the decapeptide. The high degree of identity in the GnRH1 precursor sequence between this Old World mole-rat and the New World guinea pig is consistent with the theory that caviomorphs and phiomorphs originated from a common ancestral line in the Palaeocene to mid Eocene, some 63-45 million years ago.

  6. Cameriere's third molar maturity index in assessing age of majority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galić, Ivan; Lauc, Tomislav; Brkić, Hrvoje; Vodanović, Marin; Galić, Elizabeta; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Brakus, Ivan; Badrov, Jozo; Cameriere, Roberto

    2015-07-01

    Estimation of chronological age of an individual is one of the main challenges in forensic science. Legally to be able to treat a person as a minor or an adult, it is necessary to determine whether their age of majority (if they are older or younger than 18, in most countries). Methods for estimating age are especially important when an individual in question lacks personal documents or other means of identification. As the dental age differs in various populations, the aim of this study was to evaluate applicability of third molar method for assessing age of majority in Croatia. Cameriere's third molar maturity index (I3M) value of 0.08, measured by the open apices of the teeth, was verified in sample of 1336 panoramic images aged between 14 and 23 years. Chronological age gradually decreased as I3M increased in both genders. Males showed statistically significant advanced maturation when I3M was between 0.0 and 0.3 value. The results indicate that the sensitivity of the test for 0.08 value was 84.3% (95%CI 80.6%, 87.5%) for females and 91.2% (95%CI 88.7%, 93.1) for males. Specificity was 95.4% (95%CI 92.5%, 97.5%) and 91.9% (95%CI 88.8%, 94.3%). The proportions of accurately classified males were 88.8% and that of females 91.5%. The estimated post-test probabilities, of individuals, in other word the probability that a Croatian individual with an I3Mthird molar maturity index should be used as a determinant of the age of majority in Croatia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Set-Theoretic Approach to Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan

    Despite being widely accepted and applied, maturity models in Information Systems (IS) have been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. This PhD thesis focuses on addressing...... these criticisms by incorporating recent developments in configuration theory, in particular application of set-theoretic approaches. The aim is to show the potential of employing a set-theoretic approach for maturity model research and empirically demonstrating equifinal paths to maturity. Specifically...... methodological guidelines consisting of detailed procedures to systematically apply set theoretic approaches for maturity model research and provides demonstrations of it application on three datasets. The thesis is a collection of six research papers that are written in a sequential manner. The first paper...

  8. Age prediction formulae from radiographic assessment of skeletal maturation at the knee in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Jean E

    2014-01-01

    Age estimation in living subjects is primarily achieved through assessment of a hand-wrist radiograph and comparison with a standard reference atlas. Recently, maturation of other regions of the skeleton has also been assessed in an attempt to refine the age estimates. The current study presents a method to predict bone age directly from the knee in a modern Irish sample. Ten maturity indicators (A-J) at the knee were examined from radiographs of 221 subjects (137 males; 84 females). Each indicator was assigned a maturity score. Scores for indicators A-G, H-J and A-J, respectively, were totalled to provide a cumulative maturity score for change in morphology of the epiphyses (AG), epiphyseal union (HJ) and the combination of both (AJ). Linear regression equations to predict age from the maturity scores (AG, HJ, AJ) were constructed for males and females. For males, equation-AJ demonstrated the greatest predictive capability (R(2)=0.775) while for females equation-HJ had the strongest capacity for prediction (R(2)=0.815). When equation-AJ for males and equation-HJ for females were applied to the current sample, the predicted age of 90% of subjects was within ±1.5 years of actual age for male subjects and within +2.0 to -1.9 years of actual age for female subjects. The regression formulae and associated charts represent the most contemporary method of age prediction currently available for an Irish population, and provide a further technique which can contribute to a multifactorial approach to age estimation in non-adults.

  9. Effects of lung exposure to carbon nanotubes on female fertility and pregnancy. A study in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S.; Jackson, Petra; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of preconceptional exposure to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs): mature, female C57BL/6J mice were intratracheally instilled with 67μg NM-400 MWCNT, and the following day co-housed with mature males, in breeding pairs. Time to delivery of the first litter, litter...

  10. Study on postpartum estrus of guinea pigs (Cavia cobaya using Anredera cordifolia leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wijayanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the postpartum estrus cycle of guinea pigs (Cavia cobaya using Anredera cordifolia leaf extract. Materials and Methods: Materials used were 8 males and 8 females of C. cobaya with body weight ranged 400-450 g. Mating ratio applied was 1:1. Treatments given were 0, 10, 50 and 90 mg of A. cordifolia leaf extract/head, designated as T0, T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Two females were subjected for each treatment. A. cordifolia leaf extract was administered orally from 10 days prepartum to 10 days postpartum. Observation of mating behavior, vulva morphology, and vaginal smear preparation was done in the afternoon for 10 days subsequence postpartum. Data were analyzed by univariate method and descriptively. Results: The results showed that the addition of A. cordifolia leaf extract 50 mg orally could accelerate the time of postpartum estrus based on the average frequency of mating behavior consisting of behavioral approach, allow the buck to sniffing her, mating positions, standing heat, lordosis position, and copulation. During estrus, vulva morphology was red color, had much mucus and no thin membrane covering vagina. There were a lot of superficial cells on vagina. Conclusion: The best treatment to accelerate occurring postpartum estrus was the addition of A. cordifolia leaf extract as many as 50 mg/head weight (T2 orally.

  11. Sexual Maturity and Life Stage Influences Toxic Metal Accumulation in Croatian Brown Bears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Maja; Sekovanić, Ankica; Orct, Tatjana; Reljić, Slaven; Jurasović, Jasna; Huber, Đuro

    2018-02-01

    The influence of reproductive and (early) life stages on toxic metal levels was investigated in the brown bear (Ursus arctos), the largest mammalian predator species in Croatia. The purpose was to examine critical clusters in a population that might be at a higher risk of adverse health effects caused by metals as environmental contaminants. Levels of cadmium, mercury and lead in muscle, liver and kidney cortex of 325 male and 139 female bears, quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, were analysed according to distinct bear life stages (young: cub, yearling, subadult; mature: adult). Metal levels did not differ among sexes in young animals (< 4 years), except for mercury in muscles (higher in females), and adult females had higher cadmium and mercury. A trend of renal cadmium accumulation with age in immature male animals disappeared once they reached maturity, whereas for females this trend has only slowly declined in mature compared to immature bears. In early life stage (< 1 year), bear cubs had lower cadmium, comparable mercury, and higher lead in the kidneys than the bears of the following age category (yearlings). Due to a higher proportion of renal lead transfer from the mother to the cub compared with cadmium, it may be that the high burden of cadmium found in kidneys of older females has lower toxicological concern for their cubs than the lead content. Sex, reproductive, and life stages of bears were confirmed as important in assessing toxic metal burden.

  12. Relative Skeletal Maturation and Population Ancestry in Nonobese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Shana E; Chesi, Alessandra; Mitchell, Jonathan A; Roy, Sani M; Cousminer, Diana L; Kalkwarf, Heidi J; Lappe, Joan M; Gilsanz, Vicente; Oberfield, Sharon E; Shepherd, John A; Mahboubi, Soroosh; Winer, Karen K; Kelly, Andrea; Grant, Struan Fa; Zemel, Babette S

    2017-01-01

    More rapid skeletal maturation in African-American (AA) children is recognized and generally attributed to an increased prevalence of obesity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of population ancestry on relative skeletal maturation in healthy, non-obese children and adolescents, accounting for body composition and sexual maturation. To do this, we leveraged a multiethnic, mixed-longitudinal study with annual assessments for up to 7 years (The Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study and its ancillary cohort) conducted at five US clinical centers. Participants included 1592 children, skeletally immature (45% females, 19% AA) who were aged 5 to 17 years at study entry. The primary outcome measure was relative skeletal maturation as assessed by hand-wrist radiograph. Additional covariates measured included anthropometrics, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and Tanner stage of sexual maturation. Using mixed effects longitudinal models, without covariates, advancement in relative skeletal maturation was noted in self-reported AA girls (∼0.33 years, p ancestry groups showed independent positive associations of height, lean mass, fat mass, and puberty with relative skeletal maturation. The effect of ancestry was attenuated but persistent after accounting for covariates: for girls, 0.19 years (ancestry by self-report, p = 0.02) or 0.29 years (ancestry by admixture, p = 0.004); and for boys, 0.20 years (ancestry by self-report, p = 0.004), or 0.29 years (ancestry by admixture, p = 0.004). In summary, we conclude that advancement in relative skeletal maturation was associated with AA ancestry in healthy, non-obese children, independent of growth, body composition, and puberty. Further research into the mechanisms underlying this observation may provide insights into the regulation of skeletal maturation. © 2016 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. © 2016 American Society for Bone and

  13. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Müller

    Full Text Available The relative age effect (RAE is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup. Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition. Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing.

  14. Subacute Low Dose Nerve Agent Exposure Causes DNA Fragmentation in Guinea Pig Leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    1 SUBACUTE LOW DOSE NERVE AGENT EXPOSURE CAUSES DNA FRAGMENTATION IN GUINEA PIG LEUKOCYTES. Jitendra R. Dave1, John R. Moffett1, Sally M...DNA fragmentation in blood leukocytes from guinea pigs by ‘Comet’ assay after exposure to soman at doses ranging from 0.1LD50 to 0.4 LD50, once per...computer. Data obtained for exposure to soman demonstrated significant increases in DNA fragmentation in circulating leukocytes in CWNA treated guinea pigs as

  15. Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following Chronic Low-Level Exposure to Chemical Warfare Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense USAMRICD-TR-05-09 Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following Chronic Low...2005 2. REPORT TYPE Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2003 to April 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Immunohistopathology in the Guinea Pig Following...release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Guinea pigs exposed repeatedly to low levels of chemical warfare nerve agents

  16. Efficacy of the Tertiary Oxime Monoisonitrosoacetone (MINA) Against Lethal Sarin Intoxication in the Guinea Pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    Sarin 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Intoxication in the Guinea Pig 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Koplovitz, I and...efficacy of MINA as a treatment for lethal sarin (GB) intoxication in guinea pigs . Male animals were challenged subcutaneously (s.c.) with 2 LD50s...oximes that are readily able to enter the brain. 15. SUBJECT TERMS oximes, brain, sarin, reactivation, nerve agents, guinea pigs 16. SECURITY

  17. The Potential Neurotoxic Effects of Low-Dose Sarin Exposure in a Guinea Pig Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    1 THE POTENTIAL NEUROTOXIC EFFECTS OF LOW-DOSE SARIN EXPOSURE IN A GUINEA PIG MODEL Melinda R. Roberson, PhD, Michelle B. Schmidt...Proving Ground, MD 21010 USA ABSTRACT This study is assessing the effects in guinea pigs of repeated low-dose exposure to the nerve...COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Potential Neurotoxic Effects Of Low-Dose Sarin Exposure In A Guinea Pig Model 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  18. In Vitro Response of Guinea Pig Peritoneal Macrophages to Legionella pneumophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    In Vitro Responlse of Guinea Pig Peritoneal Macrophages to Legionella pneumophila It. A. KISIIIMi~O~’ .1. Ii.,W11ITE, F. G. SIREY, V. (U.1 Mc(GANN, R...Tlhe inter- act ion between L. lincumnophila andl( peritoneal macrophages front normial guinea pigs or front animials that had survived infection was...roagglujtiniat titer) guinea pig serum to The purp~ose of this study "as to investigate contain approximately 108 organisms per ml. the phagocytic and

  19. Guinea pig Ia antigens are not derivatised on trinitrophenyl-modified cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, L T; Thomas, D W; Kask, A M; Shevach, E M [National Inst. of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD (USA)

    1978-08-10

    In an effort to clarify the nature of the trinitrophenyl (TNP) specific immunogen recognised by hapten-reactive guinea pig T lymphocytes, the membrane proteins of TNP-modified guinea pig macrophages have been analysed by chemical methods using nitrobenzene sulphonic acid surface labelled with /sup 125/I. The experiments provided strong evidence that the TNP specific immunogen which T lymphocytes recognise on guinea pig macrophages does not consist of directly haptenated Ia antigens.

  20. Erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor expression in the guinea pig inner ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Wagner, Niels; Lidegaard Frederiksen, Birgitte

    2005-01-01

    , this study determines expression of EPO and EPOR in the inner ear of the guinea pig. Normal guinea pig inner ears were processed for immunohistochemistry, using poly-clonal antibodies against EPO and the EPO receptor. EPO expression was exclusively found in most, but not all spiral ganglion neurons...... expressed by several cell types within the guinea pig cochlea. We hypothesize on the existence of a local paracrine system and that EPO treatment may be feasible following inner ear damage....

  1. Does the sex ratio at sexual maturity affect men's later-life mortality risks? Evidence from historical China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Emma; Zheng, Hui

    2018-04-01

    This study examines the relationship between the male-to-female sex ratio (measured as the proportion male) at sexual maturity and later-life mortality risks in the context of pre-industrial northeast China, using registration data from the Qing Dynasty. We find that a higher male-to-female sex ratio at sexual maturity is associated with a higher later-life mortality risk among men. This association is likely due to the long-term adverse consequences of stress caused by low mate availability at sexual maturity. We further find that a high sex ratio at sexual maturity mitigates the health benefits of marriage and exacerbates the health disadvantages of holding an official position in Qing China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of platelet lysate on maturation, fertilization and embryo development of NMRI mouse oocytes at germinal vesicle stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazoki, Hassan; Eimani, Hussein; Farokhi, Farah; Shahverdi, Abdol-Hossein; Tahaei, Leila Sadat

    2016-04-01

    Improving in vitro maturation could increase the rate of pregnancy from oocytes matured in vitro. Consequently, patients will be prevented from using gonadotropin with its related side effects. In this study, the maturation medium was enriched by platelet lysate (PL), then maturation and subsequent developments were monitored. Oocytes at germinal vesicle stage with cumulus cells (cumulus-oocyte complex) and without cumulus cells (denuded oocytes) were obtained from mature female mice. The maturation medium was enriched by 5 and 10 % PL and 5 % PL + 5 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) as experimental groups; the control groups' media consisted of 5 and 10 % FBS. After 18 h, the matured oocytes were collected and, after fertilization, subsequent development was monitored. The rates of maturation, fertilization and 2-cell embryo development for the denuded oocyte groups in experimental media 5 % PL and 5 % PL + 5 % FBS were significantly higher than those of the control groups ( P platelet lysate could improve the maturation rate in the absence of granulosa cells compared to media with FBS. This extract also had positive effects on fertilization and embryo development.

  3. Reproductive performance of female Alaskan caribou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Layne G.; Dale, Bruce W.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the reproductive performance of female caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) in relation to age, physical condition, and reproductive experience for 9 consecutive years (1987-95) at Denali National Park, Alaska, during a period of wide variation in winter snowfall. Caribou in Denali differed from other cervid populations where reproductive performance has been investigated, because they occur at low densities (≥0.3/km2) and experience high losses of young to predation. Females first gave birth at 2-6 years old; 56% of these females were 3 years old. Average annual natality rates increased from 27% for 2-year-olds to 100% for 7-year-olds, remained high for 7-13-year-olds (98%), and then declined for females ≥14 years old. Females ≥2 years old that failed to reproduce were primarily sexually immature (76%). Reproductive pauses of sexually mature females occurred predominantly in young (3-6 yr old) and old (≥14 yr old) females. Natality increased with body mass for 10-month-old females weighed 6 months prior to the autumn breeding season (P = 0.007), and for females >1 year old and weighed during autumn (late Sep-early Nov; P = 0.003). Natality for 2-, 3-, 4-, and 6-year-olds declined with increasing late-winter snowfall (Feb-May; P ≤ 0.039) during the winter prior to breeding. In most years, a high percentage of sexually mature females reproduced, and lactation status at the time of breeding did not influence productivity the following year. However, following particularly high snowfall during February-September 1992, productivity was reduced in 1993 for cows successfully rearing calves to autumn the previous year. High losses of calves to predators in 1992 may have increased productivity in 1993. Losses of young-of-the-year to predation prior to the annual breeding season can be an important influence on subsequent productivity for ungulate populations where productivity varies with lactation status of females at the time of breeding.

  4. The preparation of recombinant interleukin-6 and its protection for irradiated guinea-pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junfu; Zhang Jie; Zhang Jianhua; Feng Jinbo; Xu Jie; Wang Baohong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To purify recombinant human interleukin-6 from gene-engineered E. coli and study the effects of IL-6 on survival period and platelet count of irradiated guinea-pigs. Methods: Recombinant human IL-6 was expressed in gene-engineered E. coli and purified with reversed phase chromatography. Purified IL-6 was then administered to irradiated guinea-pig. Results: IL-6 could significantly prolong the survival period and increase the platelet count of irradiated guinea-pigs. Conclusion: IL-6 showed its effective protection for irradiated guinea-pigs

  5. Men's behavior surrounding use of contraceptives in Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldé, Mamadou Diouldé; Diallo, Boubacar Alpha; Compaoré, Rachidatou; Bah, Abdoul Karim; Ali, Moazzam; Kabra, Rita; Kouanda, Seni

    2016-11-01

    To analyze the sociocultural determinants that influence the attitude and practices of men toward contraceptive use in Guinea. A sequential, mixed methods, qualitative and quantitative study was carried out in two regions of Guinea with a low rate of contraceptive prevalence, and in the capital city of Conakry. A total of 1170 people (men and women) were interviewed. Findings showed a positive perception of family planning overall, but reluctance to use modern contraception. The reasons for non-use of contraceptive methods were primarily the hope of having many children and religious prohibition associated with customs. Making decisions on contraceptive use within a couple represents a major cause of misunderstanding between spouses. Communication within a couple on the use of contraception is quickly declined by men. The findings demonstrate the need to develop communication strategies within a couple to improve the use of contraceptives. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. An annotated checklist of the chondrichthyans of Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, William T; Ko'ou, Alfred

    2018-04-19

    An annotated checklist of the chondrichthyan fishes (sharks, rays, and chimaeras) of Papua New Guinean waters is herein presented. The checklist is the result of a large biodiversity study on the chondrichthyan fauna of Papua New Guinea between 2013 and 2017. The chondrichthyan fauna of Papua New Guinea has historically been very poorly known due to a lack of baseline information and limited deepwater exploration. A total of 131 species, comprising 36 families and 68 genera, were recorded. The most speciose families are the Carcharhinidae with 29 species and the Dasyatidae with 23 species. Verified voucher material from various biological collections around the world are provided, with a total of 687 lots recorded comprising 574 whole specimens, 128 sets of jaws and 21 sawfish rostra. This represents the first detailed, verified checklist of chondrichthyans from Papua New Guinean waters.

  7. Aetiology of ''slobbers'' (chronic fluorosis) in the guinea-pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hard, G C; Atkinson, F F.V.

    1967-01-01

    A natural outbreak of ''slobbers'' with high morbidity and high mortality in guinea-pig breeding units in New South Wales and Canberra has been shown to be due to chronic fluoride poisoning. A survey of the dietary regiment employed in laboratories and units demonstrated the association of disease incidence with the feeding of proprietary pellets and usually low levels of green-food supplementation. Fluorine concentration in the pellets used in affected colonies ranged from 130 to 400 ppm. Inquiry produced some evidence that Christmas Island (Indian Ocean) rock-phosphate of high fluoride content had been incorporated in the pellets in place of bone flour. Experimental reproduction of the spontaneous disease was accomplished in exact detail by the extended administration of calcium fluoride in a concentration ranging from 300 to 450 ppm. The fluorine content of skull and teeth samples of experimentally poisoned guinea-pigs was comparable to that in natural cases of slobbers.

  8. Game Maturity Model for Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan C; Adriani, Paul; van Houwelingen, Jan Willem; Geerts, A

    2016-04-01

    This article introduces the Game Maturity Model for the healthcare industry as an extension to the general Game Maturity Model and describes the usage by two case studies of applied health games. The Game Maturity Model for healthcare provides a practical and value-adding method to assess existing games and to determine strategic considerations for application of applied health games. Our forecast is that within 5 years the use and development of applied games will have a role in our daily lives and the way we organize health care that will be similar to the role social media has today.

  9. Service Quality and Process Maturity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serek Radomir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with service quality and the methods for its measurement and improvements to reach the so called service excellence. Besides older methods such as SERVQUAL and SERPERF, there are also shortly described capability maturity models based on which the own methodology is developed and used for process maturity assessment in organizations providing technical services. This method is equally described and accompanied by examples on pictures. The verification of method functionality is explored on finding a correlation between service employee satisfaction and average process maturity in a service organization. The results seem to be quite promising and open an arena for further studies.

  10. Maturity grids as tools for change management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John

    2011-01-01

    A maturity grid is a change management tool. Levels of maturity are assigned against aspects of an area under study, thus creating a grid. Text descriptions at the resulting intersections describe the typical behaviour exhibited by a firm for each area under study and from the basis...... for the assessment scale. It is a flexible assessment technique that is used by practitioners in industry, consultants and researchers in academia for diagnostic, reflective and improvement purposes. A large number of maturity grids have been proposed to assess a range of capabilities including quality management...

  11. Pharmacology of Bradykinin-Evoked Coughing in Guinea Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Hewitt, Matthew M.; Adams, Gregory; Mazzone, Stuart B.; Mori, Nanako; Yu, Li; Canning, Brendan J.

    2016-01-01

    Bradykinin has been implicated as a mediator of the acute pathophysiological and inflammatory consequences of respiratory tract infections and in exacerbations of chronic diseases such as asthma. Bradykinin may also be a trigger for the coughing associated with these and other conditions. We have thus set out to evaluate the pharmacology of bradykinin-evoked coughing in guinea pigs. When inhaled, bradykinin induced paroxysmal coughing that was abolished by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonis...

  12. Dermal Sensitization Potential of Diethyleneglycol Dinitrate (DEGDN) in Guinea Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    Woodard G, Calvery HO. Methods for the study of irritation and toxicity of substances applied topically to the skin and mucous membxanes. J Pharmacol...the attached data sheet, ARFPOM Forn 213R. The compound chromatographed as a single peak ( retention time 5.4 r!’n) by HPLC analysis under the...commonly encountered in guinea pigs. 3. The right eye of animal 85E0132 had a congenital dermoid cyst in the conjunctiva. The liver of animal 85E0112

  13. Management and utilization of forest resources in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.B.L. Srivastava

    1992-01-01

    Papua New Guinea, with an area of about 46.7 million ha and population of 3.7 million, is blessed with a large natural forest resource. Over 80 percent of the land is covered with forests of various types, ranging from swamp and lowland rain forests in coastal plains to alpine vegetation and moss forests in the highlands, most of which are owned by the people. About 15...

  14. Carriers, channels and chloroquine efficacy in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ursing, Johan; Rombo, Lars; Kofoed, Poul-Erik

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that chloroquine resistance is mediated by an energy-dependent saturable chloroquine efflux carrier. An alternative explanation is that resistance is mediated by a channel. In Guinea-Bissau high doses of chloroquine are effective, well-tolerated and commonly used....... This suggests that chloroquine resistance can be overcome by higher doses. Research on the mechanism of chloroquine resistance is of utmost importance and should include the effect of higher doses....

  15. Transfer of radiobismuth to the fetus in guinea-pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    A small animal study was carried out in guinea-pigs to measure uptake of radiobismuth ( 207 BiCl 3 ) in fetal organs after intravenous administration to the mother. In this study, little activity was found to cross the placental barrier with 214 Bi across the placenta, is considered to result in a negligible dose from radon short-lived daughters to fetal organs. (author)

  16. Beam-Beam Simulations with GUINEA-PIG

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    While the bunches in a linear collider cross only once, due to their small size they experience a strong beam-beam effect. GUINEA-PIG is a code to simulate the impact of this effect on luminosity and back ground. A short overview of the program is given with examples of its application to the back ground strudies for TESLA, the top quark threshold scan and a possible luminosity monitor, as well as some results for CLIC.

  17. The history of postcolonial kinglets in Guinea Bissau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Carvalho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to demonstrate that the role of traditional authorities in today’s Guinea Bissau is embedded in a long-term history that goes back to their pre-colonial and colonial history. Looking back to the situation of traditional authorities by the end of the colonial period (the early ‘70s, the paper discusses the different configurations of legitimacy of present-day authorities in relation to both local population and State authorities.

  18. Guinea: Background and Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    multinational aluminum firm Alcoa, for instance, is a major shareholder in the Compagnie des Bauxites de Guinee, a bauxite mining and export partnership...world’s largest bauxite reserves, and joint-venture bauxite mining and alumina operations have historically provided about 80% of Guinea’s foreign...announced the approval of a $200 million loan to partly finance a $6.3 billion bauxite mining and alumina refinery project in Guinea. The project was

  19. Child health and mortality in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovsted, Jens Anders; Pörtner, Claus Christian; Tarp, Finn

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies factors that influence child health in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau. This environment is characterised by high infant mortality, but not by malnutrition. We show that although maternal education is important in determining child health and mortality this effect diminishes...... or disappears when health knowledge is introduced as an explanatory variable. It emerges that health knowledge has large and positive effects on both child mortality and health when instrumented for to capture endogeneity...

  20. Dentofacial transverse development in Koreans according to skeletal maturation: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Soonshin; Noh, Yoonjeong; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Chung, Chooryung; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Kyung-Ho

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the normative data of dentofacial transverse dimensions according to the skeletal maturation stage in Korean adolescents with good occlusion, assess gender differences and determine correlations between transverse variables. A total of 577 Korean subjects between ages 7 to 19 years and exhibiting skeletal Class I occlusion were categorized by skeletal maturation index (SMI) of Fishman using hand-wrist radiographs. Dentofacial transverse dimensions were assessed using posteroanterior cephalograms. Independent two-sample t -tests were used to analyze differences between genders. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the correlation between transverse measurements. Dentofacial transverse norms relevant to skeletal maturation stages were established. The average maxillomandibular width difference and ratio at growth completion was 22.16 mm and 77.01% for males; 23.70 mm and 74.06% for females, respectively. Males had greater facial, maxillary and mandibular widths compared to females at every SMI stage. The maxillary and mandibular intermolar widths showed the strongest correlation for both sexes (r = 0.826 for males, r = 0.725 for females). Dentofacial transverse norms of Korean adolescents were established according to developmental stage. All dentofacial widths were greater in males at growth completion. Maxillary and mandibular intermolar widths were strongly correlated. This study may serve as a guideline for the assessment of dentofacial transverse growth according to skeletal maturation stage in Korean adolescents with good occlusion.

  1. Studies of guinea pig immunoglobulin isotype, idiotype and antiidiotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirrell, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Immunization of Guinea pigs with diphtheria toxoid generated antibodies of the IgG class that were capable of neutralizing native toxin in vivo. Sera from these animals were used to affinity purify idiotypic antibodies (AB1). AB1 vaccines derived from the IgG1 class and from F(ab') 2 of IgG1 + IgG2 (IgG1/2) classes were effective in inducing a syngeneic anti-idiotype (AB2) response. Animals immunized with AB1 consisting of both IgG1/2 did not elicit a detectable AB2 response. Binding of homologous 125 I-F(ab') 2 (AB1) to the antiidiotype was inhibited 90% in the presence of DT.F(ab') 2 derived from preimmune serum or had no inhibitory effects on the idiotype-antiidiotype interactions. Two groups of outbred guinea pigs were vaccinated with alum absorbed F(ab') 2 of anti-idiotype IgG1/2 (AB2). Of the ten animals inoculated with AB2, three tested positive by RIA against 125 I-DT. Two of the RIA positive sera contained antibodies that neutralized diphtheria toxin in a rabbit intracutaneous assay. Purification of guinea pig IgG by protein A-Sepharose affinity chromatography resulted in the separation of three distinct IgG populations

  2. Guinea pigs as an animal model for sciatic nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abu Rafee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The overwhelming use of rat models in nerve regeneration studies is likely to induce skewness in treatment outcomes. To address the problem, this study was conducted in 8 adult guinea pigs of either sex to investigate the suitability of guinea pig as an alternative model for nerve regeneration studies. A crush injury was inflicted to the sciatic nerve of the left limb, which led to significant decrease in the pain perception and neurorecovery up to the 4th weak. Lengthening of foot print and shortening of toe spread were observed in the paw after nerve injury. A 3.49 ± 0.35 fold increase in expression of neuropilin 1 (NRP1 gene and 2.09 ± 0.51 fold increase in neuropilin 2 (NRP2 gene were recorded 1 week after nerve injury as compared to the normal nerve. Ratios of gastrocnemius muscle weight and volume of the experimental limb to control limb showed more than 50% decrease on the 30th day. Histopathologically, vacuolated appearance of the nerve was observed with presence of degenerated myelin debris in digestion chambers. Gastrocnemius muscle also showed degenerative changes. Scanning electron microscopy revealed loose and rough arrangement of connective tissue fibrils and presence of large spherical globules in crushed sciatic nerve. The findings suggest that guinea pigs could be used as an alternative animal model for nerve regeneration studies and might be preferred over rats due to their cooperative nature while recording different parameters.

  3. Vestibular morphology in the German Waltzing guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Sachie; Hultcrantz, Malou; Jin, Zhe; Ulfendahl, Mats; Suzuki, Mamoru

    2010-04-01

    The German waltzing guinea pig is a special strain of animal with a recessively inherited inner ear defect, resulting in deafness and a severe vestibular dysfunction. The hearing loss in the cochlea of the German strain is a result of a collapse of the Reissner membrane and the absence of scala media. The vestibular organ has not yet been described. German waltzing guinea pigs (homozygote and heterozygote) of different ages ranging from embryologic age 25 days to adulthood were investigated. The living animals were tested with four different vestibular tests, and the fetuses were controlled according to breeding. The morphology of the vestibular parts (ampulla, saccule, and utricle) was observed by using the light and transmission electron microscopy. Collapse of the membranous labyrinth was found already at embryologic age 50 days and progressed over time. Vestibular dysfunction was noted already from birth. Vestibular atelectasis has been shown to have the same morphology as the reported vestibular dysfunction in the German waltzing guinea pig. Owing to this similarity, this animal can be a good model for vestibular research.

  4. Genetic factors of Ebola virus virulence in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbotina, Ekaterina; Dadaeva, Alexandra; Kachko, Alla; Chepurnov, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) causes severe hemorrhagic fever in primates, whereas in guinea pigs it induces a nonlethal infection with a mild fever and subsequent recovery. We performed 7 selective passages in guinea pigs resulted in obtaining of guinea pig-adapted strain (GPA-P7) strain. By the 7th passage, the infection with EBOV induced a lethal disease in animals accompanied by the characteristic hematological changes: leukocytosis (primarily due to neutrophilia) as well as pronounced deficiencies in platelets, lymphocytes, monocytes and significant decrease of blood neutrophils phagocytic capacity. Increasing of virulence correlated with appearance of several nucleotide substitutions: in the genes NP, A2166G (N566S), VP24, U10784C (L147P), G10557A (M71I), G10805U (R154L), and L, G12286A (V236I). It has been theoretically calculated that the mutations associated with an increase in EBOV virulence can confer characteristic secondary structure on the proteins NP (C-terminal region) and full-sized VP24. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Role of a Relative Age Effect in the 7 International Children’s Winter Games 2016 and the Influence of Biological Maturity Status on Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Müller, Carolin Hildebrandt, Christian Raschner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse the role of a relative age effect (RAE and to investigate the influence of biological maturity status on the RAE at the 7th International Children`s Winter Games. The birth dates of all 572 participants (365 males, 207 females were analysed, and the biological maturity status of 384 athletes (243 males, 141 females was assessed by the age at peak height velocity (APHV method. A RAE was present in the total sample (χ2 = 67.81; p < 0.001, and among both male (χ2 = 49.02; p < 0.001 and female athletes (χ2 = 37.00; p < 0.001 as well as for strength- (χ2 = 56.46; p < 0.001, endurance- (χ2 = 20.48; p = 0.039 and technique-related types of sports (χ2 = 20.48; p = 0.041. No significant differences in biological maturity status were present between the male athletes of single relative age quarters. Among the female athletes a significant difference was present (F = 5.94, p < 0.001; relatively younger female athletes had significantly lower values in the APHV, which indicated that they were maturing earlier. However, when dividing the athletes into normal, early and late maturing athletes, it could be seen that among the relatively younger athletes, hardly any late maturing athletes were present. These findings revealed that relatively younger athletes seemed to only have a chance for selection if they were early maturing, whereas relatively older athletes had an increased likelihood for selection independent of their biological maturity status. In the future, the relative age and the biological maturity status should be considered in the talent development system for various types of winter sport, to contribute to more fairness and to not discriminate against relatively younger and less mature athletes.

  6. 7 CFR 1710.115 - Final maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Basic Policies § 1710.115 Final maturity. (a) RUS is authorized to make loans and loan guarantees with a... due, in part, to obsolescence. Operating loans to finance working capital required for the initial...

  7. Geospatial Information System Capability Maturity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    To explore how State departments of transportation (DOTs) evaluate geospatial tool applications and services within their own agencies, particularly their experiences using capability maturity models (CMMs) such as the Urban and Regional Information ...

  8. Pristipomoides filamentosus Size at Maturity Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains information used to help determine median size at 50% maturity for the bottomfish species, Pristipomoides filamentosus in the Main Hawaiian...

  9. Maturity and Fecundity of Spiny Dogfish (Squalus acanthias L., 1758) in the Eastern Black Sea

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRHAN, Sefa Ayhan; SEYHAN, Kadir

    2014-01-01

    The maturity and fecundity of Squalus acanthias spiny dogfish sampled from the south-eastern Black Sea were studied. Age and length at 50% maturity were 10.49 years and 87.57 cm for males, and 11.99 years and 102.97 cm for females, respectively. Mean biennial fecundity was 19.4 eggs and 12.9 pups. A linear relationship between fecundities and length was found: Fe = 0.09 x TLp + 2.12 (r = 0.5) for pups and Fo = 0.27 x TLp - 21.59 (r = 0.7) for eggs.

  10. Interstitial cells of Cajal and Auerbach's plexus. A scanning electron microscopical study of guinea-pig small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Harry; Thuneberg, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy......Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy...

  11. Optimization of Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein Immunoreactivity in Formalin-fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Guinea Pig Brain Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-09-01

    fixed, paraffin-embedded guinea pig brain sections using a variety of commercially available GFAP antibody clones. Of the 7 clones tested for cross...determining neuropathological consequences in the guinea pig following exposure to chemical warfare nerve agent.

  12. Effect of varying dietary concentrations of lysine on growth performance of the Pearl Grey guinea fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhogoju, S; Nahashon, S N; Donkor, J; Kimathi, B; Johnson, D; Khwatenge, C; Bowden-Taylor, T

    2017-05-01

    Lysine is the second limiting essential amino acid in poultry nutrition after methionine. Understanding the lysine requirement of poultry is necessary in guiding formulation of least cost diets that effectively meet the nutritional needs of individual birds. The lysine requirement of the Pearl Grey guinea fowl (PGGF) is not known. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the appropriate lysine levels required for optimal growth attributes of the PGGF. In a 12-week study, 512 one-day-old Pearl Grey guinea keets were weighed individually and randomly assigned to electrically heated battery brooders. Each battery contained 12 compartments housing 15 birds each. Eight diets fed to the experimental birds consisted of corn-soybean meal and contained 0.80 to 1.22 digestible lysine in 0.06% increments. Feed and water were provided at free choice and the diets were replicated twice. Experimental diets contained 3,100 Kcal metabolizable energy (ME)/kg diet and 23% crude protein (CP), 3,150 ME Kcal ME/kg diet and 21% CP, and 3,100 ME/kg and 17% CP, at zero to 4, 5 to 10, and 11 to 12 weeks of age (WOA), respectively. Birds were provided water ad libitum and a 23:1 and 8:16-hr (light:dark) regimen at zero to 8 and 9 to 12 WOA, respectively. Birds were weighed weekly, and body weight gain, feed consumption, and feed conversions were determined. Data were analyzed using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedures of SAS (2002) with dietary lysine as treatment effect. Females responded better to diets containing 1.04 and 0.8% lysine from hatch to 4 and 5 to 12 WOA, respectively. Males responded better to diets containing 1.10 and 0.8% lysine at hatch to 4 WOA and 5 to 12 WOA, respectively. Therefore, we recommend that PGGF females and males be fed diets containing 1.04 and 1.10%, respectively, at hatch to 4 WOA and 0.80% lysine at 5 to 12 WOA. The diets should be supplied in phases. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosaki, Y.; Tanaka, Y.O.; Itai, Y. [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305 (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The vast majority of germ cell tumors in the thorax arise at or near the thymus. We report a case of a 41-year-old man with mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum. He was asymptomatic and was incidentally found to have a posterior mediastinal mass. Computed tomography was helpful in suggesting a diagnosis of mature teratoma by demonstrating the presence of fat and calcification. The differential diagnosis included neurogenic tumors, liposarcoma, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. (orig.) With 2 figs., 18 refs.

  14. Mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Y.; Tanaka, Y.O.; Itai, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The vast majority of germ cell tumors in the thorax arise at or near the thymus. We report a case of a 41-year-old man with mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum. He was asymptomatic and was incidentally found to have a posterior mediastinal mass. Computed tomography was helpful in suggesting a diagnosis of mature teratoma by demonstrating the presence of fat and calcification. The differential diagnosis included neurogenic tumors, liposarcoma, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. (orig.)

  15. Radiation induced early maturing mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Chauhan, S.V.S.; Sharma, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    In M 2 generation, two early maturing plants were screened from a single spike progeny of a plant obtained from 20 kR of gamma-ray irradiation of a six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Jyoti). Their true breeding nature was confirmed in M 3 generation. These mutants flower and mature 38 and 22 days earlier than those of control. (auth.)

  16. Intra-follicular interactions affecting mammalian oocyte maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, H.T.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313871817

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear oocyte maturation is defined as reinitiation and progression of the first meiotic division and subsequently formation of the methaphase II (MII) plate. Concomitantly with nuclear maturation, cytoplasmic maturation which is essential for proper fertilization and early embryo development is

  17. Mature students' perspectives of studying radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.; Decker, S.

    2009-01-01

    The study set out to explore the experiences of all final year mature students on a diagnostic radiography course, in one United Kingdom University. The aims were to identify any difficulties they may have had and to make recommendations to improve mature students' learning experiences with the hope of lowering attrition rates in this group. A qualitative study involving one-to-one audio recorded interviews was utilised. Analysis of the transcripts of interviews suggested that the group believed that their maturity and previous experiences helped them in the clinical environment and put them in a good position, when asked, to counsel younger students. However for some of the mature students these experiential skills did not extend fully into seeking appropriate support for themselves. The mature students were found to be highly motivated but there was a conflict between balancing clinical and academic aspects of studying as well as balancing studying with home life. The group was found to be unprepared for the volume of academic work and its detrimental effect on family life as they sacrificed other aspects of their lives in order to complete the course. It is recommended that forewarning and forearming prospective mature students be considered by radiography education providers. Setting up and utilising an on-line forum providing a 24/7 peer support environment would aid in coping with academic, clinical or personal problems

  18. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  19. Breeding of cocksfoot cultivars with different maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important criteria in breeding process of perennial grasses is maturity. Cultivars with different maturity play a very important role in utilization of perennial grasses, by providing the ability to create a mixture of different aspects utilization and time. The first grass species in Serbia whose breeding program involved this criterion was cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.. In general cocksfoot is early to medium-early in maturity in comparison with other grasses and legumes, and that is mayor problem since in the optimum phase for cutting, cocksfoot is often earlier then other species in mixtures. As a result of this work, in the previous period, two cultivars of different maturity were released, Kruševačka 24 (K-24 and Kruševačka 25 (K-25. K-24 is medium and K-25 is late in maturity. New material is adapted to local agro-ecological conditions and productive in the same time. In breeding process of both cultivars initial material originated from autochthonous populations collected in eastern and central Serbia. Material from the wild flora is selected based on medium and late maturity which is already adapted and has good productivity. We applied the standard method of phenotypic recurrent selection with the creation of synthetic varieties by polycross.

  20. Assessment of cortical maturation with prenatal MRI. Part I: normal cortical maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogliarini, Celine; Chaumoitre, Katia; Chapon, Frederique; Levrier, Olivier; Girard, Nadine; Fernandez, Carla; Figarella-Branger, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Cortical maturation, especially gyral formation, follows a temporospatial schedule and is a good marker of fetal maturation. Although ultrasonography is still the imaging method of choice to evaluate fetal anatomy, MRI has an increasingly important role in the detection of brain abnormalities, especially of cortical development. Knowledge of MRI techniques in utero with the advantages and disadvantages of some sequences is necessary, in order to try to optimize the different magnetic resonance sequences to be able to make an early diagnosis. The different steps of cortical maturation known from histology represent the background necessary for the understanding of maturation in order to be then able to evaluate brain maturation through neuroimaging. Illustrations of the normal cortical maturation are given for each step accessible to MRI for both the cerebral hemispheres and the posterior fossa. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of cortical maturation with prenatal MRI. Part I: normal cortical maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogliarini, Celine [Faculte Timone, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, Marseille (France); Chaumoitre, Katia [Hopital Nord, Department of Radiology, Marseille (France); Chapon, Frederique; Levrier, Olivier; Girard, Nadine [Hopital Timone, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Fernandez, Carla; Figarella-Branger, Dominique [Hopital Timone, Department of Pathology, Marseille (France)

    2005-08-01

    Cortical maturation, especially gyral formation, follows a temporospatial schedule and is a good marker of fetal maturation. Although ultrasonography is still the imaging method of choice to evaluate fetal anatomy, MRI has an increasingly important role in the detection of brain abnormalities, especially of cortical development. Knowledge of MRI techniques in utero with the advantages and disadvantages of some sequences is necessary, in order to try to optimize the different magnetic resonance sequences to be able to make an early diagnosis. The different steps of cortical maturation known from histology represent the background necessary for the understanding of maturation in order to be then able to evaluate brain maturation through neuroimaging. Illustrations of the normal cortical maturation are given for each step accessible to MRI for both the cerebral hemispheres and the posterior fossa. (orig.)

  2. Self catheterization - female

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... female Images Bladder catheterization, female References Davis JE, Silverman MA. Urologic procedures. In: Roberts JR, ed. Roberts ... provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

  3. In vitro evolution and affinity-maturation with Coliphage qβ display.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Skamel

    Full Text Available The Escherichia coli bacteriophage, Qβ (Coliphage Qβ, offers a favorable alternative to M13 for in vitro evolution of displayed peptides and proteins due to high mutagenesis rates in Qβ RNA replication that better simulate the affinity maturation processes of the immune response. We describe a benchtop in vitro evolution system using Qβ display of the VP1 G-H loop peptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV. DNA encoding the G-H loop was fused to the A1 minor coat protein of Qβ resulting in a replication-competent hybrid phage that efficiently displayed the FMDV peptide. The surface-localized FMDV VP1 G-H loop cross-reacted with the anti-FMDV monoclonal antibody (mAb SD6 and was found to decorate the corners of the Qβ icosahedral shell by electron microscopy. Evolution of Qβ-displayed peptides, starting from fully degenerate coding sequences corresponding to the immunodominant region of VP1, allowed rapid in vitro affinity maturation to SD6 mAb. Qβ selected under evolutionary pressure revealed a non-canonical, but essential epitope for mAb SD6 recognition consisting of an Arg-Gly tandem pair. Finally, the selected hybrid phages induced polyclonal antibodies in guinea pigs with good affinity to both FMDV and hybrid Qβ-G-H loop, validating the requirement of the tandem pair epitope. Qβ-display emerges as a novel framework for rapid in vitro evolution with affinity-maturation to molecular targets.

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF SEX AND MATURATION ON LANDING BIOMECHANICS: IMPLICATIONS FOR ACL INJURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigward, S. M.; Pollard, C. D.; Powers, C. M.

    2010-01-01

    During landing and cutting, females exhibit greater frontal plane moments at the knee (internal knee adductor moments or external knee abduction moments) and favor use of the knee extensors over the hip extensors to attenuate impact forces when compared to males. However, it is not known when this biomechanical profile emerges. The purpose of this study was to compare landing biomechanics between sexes across maturation levels. One hundred and nineteen male and female soccer players (9–22 years) participated. Subjects were grouped based on maturational development. Lower extremity kinematics and kinetics were obtained during a drop-land task. Dependent variables included the average internal knee adductor moment and sagittal plane knee/hip moment and energy absorption ratios during the deceleration phase of landing. When averaged across maturation levels, females demonstrated greater internal knee adductor moments (0.06±0.03 vs. 0.01±0.02 Nm/kg*m; Pbiomechanical pattern that increases ACL loading. This biomechanical strategy already was established in pre-pubertal female athletes. PMID:21210853

  5. [Ovarian development and analysis of mating effects on ovary maturation of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossi, Fábio C A; Cônsoli, Fernando L

    2010-01-01

    As many other insects with a restricted diet, the citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, which vector the causing agent of the Huanglongbing, the bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter spp., is intimately associated with symbiotic microorganisms. These mutualist symbionts play a key role on their host nutritional ecology, and are vertically transmitted to the progeny. However, despite the role symbionts play on host development and reproduction, and the growing opportunities of exploitation of the association insect-symbiont to control insect vectored-pathogens, there are very few studies on the host reproductive biology and on the symbiont transovarial transmission. Therefore, we aimed at analyzing the ovary development during D. citri adulthood, and at verifying for the mating requirement as a trigger to initiate ovary development. Newly-emerged D. citri females were grouped as virgin or mated and ovary development was observed during adulthood. Newly-emerged females have immature ovaries, and ovaries remain without any mature eggs until females mate. Once female mates, the vitellogenesis synthesis and uptake are estimulated, and oocytes are quickly developed. Oocytes maturation in ovarioles is metachronic, with only one oocyte developing at a time in each oogenic cycle. Morphological observations of the reproductive system including the ovaries and spermatheca, after the first cluster of eggs is laid, indicated D. citri is polyandrous, and may require multiple mating to develop additional oogenic maturation cycles.

  6. The Anticomplementary Activity of ’Fusobacterium polymorphum’ in Normal and C-4 Deficient Sources of Guinea Pig Complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-12

    A complement consumption assay was used to show that the anticomplementary activity of a cell wall preparation from F. polymorphum in guinea pig complement...tests with C𔃾-deficient guinea pig sera confirmed that F. polymorphum cell walls were capable of generating alternate complement pathway activity in guinea pig sera.

  7. Female reproductive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crain, D Andrew; Janssen, Sarah J; Edwards, Thea M

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the possible role of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) on female reproductive disorders emphasizing developmental plasticity and the complexity of endocrine-dependent ontogeny of reproductive organs. Declining conception rates and the high incidence of female reproductive...... disruptions warrant evaluation of the impact of EDCs on female reproductive health....

  8. Factors Influencing Attitude, Safety Behavior, and Knowledge regarding Household Waste Management in Guinea: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Mamady

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste indiscriminate disposal is recognized as an important cause of environmental pollution and is associated with health problems. Safe management and disposal of household waste are an important problem to the capital city of Guinea (Conakry. The objective of this study was to identify socioeconomic and demographic factors associated with practice, knowledge, and safety behavior of family members regarding household waste management and to produce a remedial action plan. I found that no education background, income, and female individuals were independently associated with indiscriminate waste disposal. Unplanned residential area was an additional factor associated with indiscriminate waste disposal. I also found that the community residents had poor knowledge and unsafe behavior in relation to waste management. The promotion of environmental information and public education and implementation of community action programs on disease prevention and health promotion will enhance environmental friendliness and safety of the community.

  9. Review: Joschka Philipps, Ambivalent Rage: Youth Gangs and Urban Protest in Conakry, Guinea (2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Ineke van Kessel; Afrika-Studiecentrum Leiden

    2014-01-01

    Review of the Monograph:Joschka Philipps, Ambivalent Rage: Youth Gangs and Urban Protest in Conakry, Guinea, Paris: L’Harmattan, 2013, ISBN 978-2-343-01577-4, 238 pp. Besprechung der Monographie:Joschka Philipps, Ambivalent Rage: Youth Gangs and Urban Protest in Conakry, Guinea, Paris: L’Harmattan, 2013, ISBN 978-2-343-01577-4, 238 Seiten

  10. The innate immunity of guinea pigs against highly pathogenic avian influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Xu, Wei Wei; Zhang, Zhaowei; Liu, Jing; Li, Jing; Sun, Lijuan; Sun, Weiyang; Jiao, Peirong; Sang, Xiaoyu; Ren, Zhiguang; Yu, Zhijun; Li, Yuanguo; Feng, Na; Wang, Tiecheng; Wang, Hualei; Yang, Songtao; Zhao, Yongkun; Zhang, Xuemei; Wilker, Peter R; Liu, WenJun; Liao, Ming; Chen, Hualan; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2017-05-02

    H5N1 avian influenza viruses are a major pandemic concern. In contrast to the highly virulent phenotype of H5N1 in humans and many animal models, guinea pigs do not typically display signs of severe disease in response to H5N1 virus infection. Here, proteomic and transcriptional profiling were applied to identify host factors that account for the observed attenuation of A/Tiger/Harbin/01/2002 (H5N1) virulence in guinea pigs. RIG-I and numerous interferon stimulated genes were among host proteins with altered expression in guinea pig lungs during H5N1 infection. Overexpression of RIG-I or the RIG-I adaptor protein MAVS in guinea pig cell lines inhibited H5N1 replication. Endogenous GBP-1 expression was required for RIG-I mediated inhibition of viral replication upstream of the activity of MAVS. Furthermore, we show that guinea pig complement is involved in viral clearance, the regulation of inflammation, and cellular apoptosis during influenza virus infection of guinea pigs. This work uncovers features of the guinea pig innate immune response to influenza that may render guinea pigs resistant to highly pathogenic influenza viruses.

  11. The guinea pig maximization test--with a multiple dose design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Vølund, A; Frankild, S

    1995-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) is usually performed with one moderately irritant induction dose of the allergen and gives a qualitative assessment-hazard identification-of the allergenicity of the chemical. We refined the GPMT by applying a multiple dose design and used 30 guinea pigs in...

  12. Location of bladder and urethral sphincter motoneurons in the male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, R; Izhar, Z; Gerrits, PO; Miner, W; Holstege, G; Gerrits, Peter O.

    2004-01-01

    Although the guinea pig is used widely in experimental medical research, including in studies on micturition control, the spinal origin of preganglionic parasympathetic bladder and somatic external urethral sphincter motoneurons is not known. In the male, guinea pig using wheat germ

  13. Review: Mohamed Saliou Camara, Political History of Guinea since World War Two (2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Carole Ammann; University of Basel

    2015-01-01

    Review of the monograph:Mohamed Saliou Camara, Political History of Guinea since World War Two, New York: Peter Lang, 2014, ISBN 9781433122439, 531 pp. Besprechung der Monographie:Mohamed Saliou Camara, Political History of Guinea since World War Two, New York: Peter Lang, 2014, ISBN 9781433122439, 531 Seiten

  14. Caridean shrimps (Crustacea, Decapoda) from seagrass habitats in Hansa Bay, Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grave, de Sammy

    1999-01-01

    Five species of caridean shrimps collected from seagrass habitats at Hansa Bay, on the northern coastline of Papua New Guinea are reported. Four species are new to the fauna of Papua New Guinea. Morphological details of Nikoides danae, Latreutes pymoeus and L. porcinus are discussed and compared to

  15. First record of Mugil capurrii (Mugilidae, Perciformes) in the Gulf of Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trape, S; Durand, J-D

    2011-03-01

    Leaping African mullet Mugil capurrii was caught along the Togolese coast in the Gulf of Guinea. This is the first record of this species which usually occurs from Morocco to Guinea Bissau and the southernmost point of its known distribution. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. The genus Baeturia Stål as represented in New Guinea (Homoptera, Cicadidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blöte, H.C.

    1960-01-01

    Until now only three species of the genus Baeturia have been recorded from New Guinea, viz., B. bicolorata Distant, B. viridicata Distant, and B. nana Jacobi. As I had the opportunity to study a fairly large collection of this group from different sources, collected in New Guinea, it appeared to me

  17. Interrelationships of Non-Formal Mother Tongue Education and Citizenship in Guinea and Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Andrea; Yerende, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Guinea and Senegal are multilingual countries that use French as a language of instruction in the formal educational sector with some significant exceptions. As in many other African countries, such exceptions in Guinea and Senegal, use local African languages primarily in the non-formal sector for a variety of purposes, such as adult literacy and…

  18. Mosses of d’Entrecasteaux group & Louisiade Archipelago, Papua, New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartram, Edwin B.

    1960-01-01

    The moss collections made by L. J. Brass in connection with the 5th, Archbold Expedition to New Guinea to New Guinea in 1956 to the islands off the eastern tip of Papua comprise 166 numbers representing 87 species as outlined in the following list. Three species are described as new and 22 preceeded

  19. Epizootic guinea pig herpes-like virus infection in a breeding colony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, B L; Keller, G L; Myers, M G

    1987-01-01

    A breeding colony of strain-2 guinea pigs which had been relatively free of indigenous caviid herpesviruses experienced an explosive outbreak of guinea pig herpes-like virus apparently as a consequence of intermixing groups and contamination of the water supply. A new breeding colony has been established and has been maintained apparently free of recognized caviid herpesviruses.

  20. Behavioral responses of deafened guinea pigs to intracochlear electrical stimulation: a new rapid psychophysical procedure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agterberg, M.J.H.; Versnel, H.

    2014-01-01

    In auditory research the guinea pig is often preferred above rats and mice because of the easily accessible cochlea and because the frequency range of its hearing is more comparable to that of humans. Studies of the guinea-pig auditory system primarily apply histological and electrophysiological