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Sample records for mature european beech

  1. Fine root dynamics of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) as influenced by elevated ozone concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainiero, Raphael; Kazda, Marian; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Nikolova, Petia Simeonova; Matyssek, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    Fine root dynamics (diameter < 1 mm) in mature Fagus sylvatica, with the canopies exposed to ambient or twice-ambient ozone concentrations, were investigated throughout 2004. The focus was on the seasonal timing and extent of fine root dynamics (growth, mortality) in relation to the soil environment (water content, temperature). Under ambient ozone concentrations, a significant relationship was found between fine root turnover and soil environmental changes indicating accelerated fine root turnover under favourable soil conditions. In contrast, under elevated ozone, this relationship vanished as the result of an altered temporal pattern of fine root growth. Fine root survival and turnover rate did not differ significantly between the different ozone regimes, although a delay in current-year fine root shedding was found under the elevated ozone concentrations. The data indicate that increasing tropospheric ozone levels can alter the timing of fine root turnover in mature F. sylvatica but do not affect the turnover rate. - Doubling of ozone concentrations in mature European beech affected the seasonal timing of fine root turnover rather than the turnover rate.

  2. Carbon and Nitrogen Pools and Fluxes in Adjacent Mature Norway Spruce and European Beech Forests

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    Filip Oulehle

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We compared two adjacent mature forest ecosystem types (spruce vs. beech to unravel the fate of assimilated carbon (C and the cycling of organic and inorganic nitrogen (N without the risk of the confounding influences of climatic and site differences when comparing different sites. The stock of C in biomass was higher (258 t·ha−1 in the older (150 years beech stand compared to the younger (80 years planted spruce stand (192 t·ha−1, whereas N biomass pools were comparable (1450 kg·ha−1. Significantly higher C and N soil pools were measured in the beech stand, both in forest floor and mineral soil. Cumulative annual CO2 soil efflux was similar among stands, i.e., 9.87 t·ha−1·year−1 of C in the spruce stand and 9.01 t·ha−1·year−1 in the beech stand. Soil temperature explained 78% (Q10 = 3.7 and 72% (Q10 = 4.2 of variability in CO2 soil efflux in the spruce and beech stand, respectively. However, the rather tight N cycle in the spruce stand prevented inorganic N losses, whereas losses were higher in the beech stand and were dominated by nitrate in the mineral soil. Our results highlighted the long-term consequences of forest management on C and N cycling.

  3. Dead wood in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, M.; Hahn, K.; Mountford, E.P.; Ódor, P.; Standovár, T.; Rozenbergar, D.; Diaci, J.; Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Meyer, P.; Winter, S.; Vrska, T.

    2005-01-01

    Data were analysed on the volume of dead wood in 86 beech forest reserves, covering most of the range of European beech forests. The mean volume was 130 m3/ha and the variation among reserves was high, ranging from almost nil to 550 m3/ha. The volume depended significantly on forest type, age since

  4. Climate Change Impairs Nitrogen Cycling in European Beech Forests.

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    Michael Dannenmann

    Full Text Available European beech forests growing on marginal calcareous soils have been proposed to be vulnerable to decreased soil water availability. This could result in a large-scale loss of ecological services and economical value in a changing climate. In order to evaluate the potential consequences of this drought-sensitivity, we investigated potential species range shifts for European beech forests on calcareous soil in the 21st century by statistical species range distribution modelling for present day and projected future climate conditions. We found a dramatic decline by 78% until 2080. Still the physiological or biogeochemical mechanisms underlying the drought sensitivity of European beech are largely unknown. Drought sensitivity of beech is commonly attributed to plant physiological constraints. Furthermore, it has also been proposed that reduced soil water availability could promote nitrogen (N limitation of European beech due to impaired microbial N cycling in soil, but this hypothesis has not yet been tested. Hence we investigated the influence of simulated climate change (increased temperatures, reduced soil water availability on soil gross microbial N turnover and plant N uptake in the beech-soil interface of a typical mountainous beech forest stocking on calcareous soil in SW Germany. For this purpose, triple 15N isotope labelling of intact beech seedling-soil-microbe systems was combined with a space-for-time climate change experiment. We found that nitrate was the dominant N source for beech natural regeneration. Reduced soil water content caused a persistent decline of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and therefore, a massive attenuation of gross nitrification rates and nitrate availability in the soil. Consequently, nitrate and total N uptake of beech seedlings were strongly reduced so that impaired growth of beech seedlings was observed already after one year of exposure to simulated climatic change. We conclude that the N cycle in this

  5. Climate Change Impairs Nitrogen Cycling in European Beech Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenmann, Michael; Bimüller, Carolin; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Leberecht, Martin; Tejedor, Javier; Bilela, Silvija; Gasche, Rainer; Hanewinkel, Marc; Baltensweiler, Andri; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Polle, Andrea; Schloter, Michael; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    European beech forests growing on marginal calcareous soils have been proposed to be vulnerable to decreased soil water availability. This could result in a large-scale loss of ecological services and economical value in a changing climate. In order to evaluate the potential consequences of this drought-sensitivity, we investigated potential species range shifts for European beech forests on calcareous soil in the 21st century by statistical species range distribution modelling for present day and projected future climate conditions. We found a dramatic decline by 78% until 2080. Still the physiological or biogeochemical mechanisms underlying the drought sensitivity of European beech are largely unknown. Drought sensitivity of beech is commonly attributed to plant physiological constraints. Furthermore, it has also been proposed that reduced soil water availability could promote nitrogen (N) limitation of European beech due to impaired microbial N cycling in soil, but this hypothesis has not yet been tested. Hence we investigated the influence of simulated climate change (increased temperatures, reduced soil water availability) on soil gross microbial N turnover and plant N uptake in the beech-soil interface of a typical mountainous beech forest stocking on calcareous soil in SW Germany. For this purpose, triple 15N isotope labelling of intact beech seedling-soil-microbe systems was combined with a space-for-time climate change experiment. We found that nitrate was the dominant N source for beech natural regeneration. Reduced soil water content caused a persistent decline of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and therefore, a massive attenuation of gross nitrification rates and nitrate availability in the soil. Consequently, nitrate and total N uptake of beech seedlings were strongly reduced so that impaired growth of beech seedlings was observed already after one year of exposure to simulated climatic change. We conclude that the N cycle in this ecosystem and here

  6. SYNTAXOMOMICAL SURVEY O F EUROPEAN BEECH FORESTS: SOME GENERAL CONCLUSIONS

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    H. DIERSCHKE

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A short overwiev is given about the historical development of syntaxonomy of European beech forests. Different solutions of classification have been proposed, following more or less two main approaches: Division of alliances and suballiances by ecologically or geographically orientated species groups. A new classification of European beech forests is proposed with 8 (or more geographically orientated alliances, which can be further divided into suballiances by ecological species groups. For each alliance character and differential species, nomenclatural type and the area is mentioned, based on a (non puplished synthetic table, including 10.006 relevés from all parts of Europe. From this table also some overlapping species groups (a-n are given.

  7. Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition alters growth responses of European beech (Fagus sylvativa L.) to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Carsten; Niemeyer, Thomas; Fichtner, Andreas; Jansen, Kirstin; Kunz, Matthias; Maneke, Moritz; von Wehrden, Henrik; Quante, Markus; Walmsley, David; von Oheimb, Goddert; Härdtle, Werner

    2018-02-01

    Global change affects the functioning of forest ecosystems and the services they provide, but little is known about the interactive effects of co-occurring global change drivers on important functions such as tree growth and vitality. In the present study we quantified the interactive (i.e. synergistic or antagonistic) effects of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition and climatic variables (temperature, precipitation) on tree growth (in terms of tree-ring width, TRW), taking forest ecosystems with European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) as an example. We hypothesised that (i) N deposition and climatic variables can evoke non-additive responses of the radial increment of beech trees, and (ii) N loads have the potential to strengthen the trees' sensitivity to climate change. In young stands, we found a synergistic positive effect of N deposition and annual mean temperature on TRW, possibly linked to the alleviation of an N shortage in young stands. In mature stands, however, high N deposition significantly increased the trees' sensitivity to increasing annual mean temperatures (antagonistic effect on TRW), possibly due to increased fine root dieback, decreasing mycorrhizal colonization or shifts in biomass allocation patterns (aboveground vs. belowground). Accordingly, N deposition and climatic variables caused both synergistic and antagonistic effects on the radial increment of beech trees, depending on tree age and stand characteristics. Hence, the nature of interactions could mediate the long-term effects of global change drivers (including N deposition) on forest carbon sequestration. In conclusion, our findings illustrate that interaction processes between climatic variables and N deposition are complex and have the potential to impair growth and performance of European beech. This in turn emphasises the importance of multiple-factor studies to foster an integrated understanding and models aiming at improved projections of tree growth responses to co-occurring drivers

  8. Competition for nitrogen between European beech and sycamore maple shifts in favour of beech with decreasing light availability.

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    Simon, Judy; Li, Xiuyuan; Rennenberg, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    Plant species use different strategies for maximizing growth and fitness under changing environmental conditions. At the ecosystem level, seedlings in particular compete with other vegetation components for light and nitrogen (N), which often constitute growth-limiting resources. In this study, we investigated the effect of light availability on the competition for N between seedlings of European beech and sycamore maple and analysed the consequences of this competition for the composition of N metabolites in fine roots. Our results show different strategies in N acquisition between beech and sycamore maple. Both species responded to reduced light availability by adapting their morphological and physiological traits with a decrease in biomass and net assimilation rate and an increase in specific leaf area and leaf area ratio. For beech seedlings, competition with sycamore maple led to a reduction in organic N uptake capacity. Reduced light availability led to a decrease in ammonium, but an increase in glutamine-N uptake capacity in sycamore maple. However, this response was stronger compared with that of beech and was accompanied by reduced growth. Thus, our results suggest better adaptation of N acquisition to reduced light availability in beech compared with sycamore maple seedlings.

  9. Tree- and Stand-Level Thinning Effects on Growth of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. on a Northeast- and a Southwest-Facing Slope in Southwest Germany

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    Daniela Diaconu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anticipated changes in climate and research findings on the drought sensitivity of beech have triggered controversial discussions about the future of European beech. We investigated the growth response of beech on the tree- and stand-level in mature stands to three different thinning intensities (no thinning, strong thinning, very strong thinning on a northeast- and southwest-facing slope in Southwest Germany. Linear mixed-effects models were formulated to describe effects on growth parameters on the tree- and stand-level (diameter, height, basal area, volume. At the stand-level, the stand basal area increment and stand volume increment were lower on the thinned plots. At the tree-level, the basal area increment significantly increased with increasing thinning intensity. The growth of individual trees was also influenced by initial tree size, the size-related rank of the tree within a stand, and by the aspect of the site. Our data indicate that growth of European beech is impaired on the southwest-facing slope with a warmer and drier climate and that a very strong thinning regime applied at advanced age can accelerate growth of European beech trees even on the warmer and drier site. Our findings, therefore, imply that in a warmer climate intensive thinning may also represent an important adaptive forest management measure in European beech stands.

  10. A reference genome of the European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Bagdevi; Gupta, Deepak K; Pfenninger, Markus; Hickler, Thomas; Langer, Ewald; Nam, Bora; Paule, Juraj; Sharma, Rahul; Ulaszewski, Bartosz; Warmbier, Joanna; Burczyk, Jaroslaw; Thines, Marco

    2018-06-01

    The European beech is arguably the most important climax broad-leaved tree species in Central Europe, widely planted for its valuable wood. Here, we report the 542 Mb draft genome sequence of an up to 300-year-old individual (Bhaga) from an undisturbed stand in the Kellerwald-Edersee National Park in central Germany. Using a hybrid assembly approach, Illumina reads with short- and long-insert libraries, coupled with long Pacific Biosciences reads, we obtained an assembled genome size of 542 Mb, in line with flow cytometric genome size estimation. The largest scaffold was of 1.15 Mb, the N50 length was 145 kb, and the L50 count was 983. The assembly contained 0.12% of Ns. A Benchmarking with Universal Single-Copy Orthologs (BUSCO) analysis retrieved 94% complete BUSCO genes, well in the range of other high-quality draft genomes of trees. A total of 62,012 protein-coding genes were predicted, assisted by transcriptome sequencing. In addition, we are reporting an efficient method for extracting high-molecular-weight DNA from dormant buds, by which contamination by environmental bacteria and fungi was kept at a minimum. The assembled genome will be a valuable resource and reference for future population genomics studies on the evolution and past climate change adaptation of beech and will be helpful for identifying genes, e.g., involved in drought tolerance, in order to select and breed individuals to adapt forestry to climate change in Europe. A continuously updated genome browser and download page can be accessed from beechgenome.net, which will include future genome versions of the reference individual Bhaga, as new sequencing approaches develop.

  11. Climate threats on growth of rear-edge European beech peripheral populations in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorado-Liñán, I.; Akhmetzyanov, L.; Menzel, A.

    2017-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in the Iberian Peninsula are a clear example of a temperate forest tree species at the rear edge of its large distribution area in Europe. The expected drier and warmer climate may alter tree growth and species distribution. Consequently, the peripheral

  12. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Meeningen, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka

    2017-01-01

    and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light......, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances...... be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the discussion regarding light or temperature dependencies for individual compounds across species. Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic...

  13. Canopy transpiration of pure and mixed forest stands with variable abundance of European beech

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    Gebauer, Tobias; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph

    2012-06-01

    SummaryThe importance of tree species identity and diversity for biogeochemical cycles in forests is not well understood. In the past, forestry has widely converted mixed forests to pure stands while contemporary forest policy often prefers mixed stands again. However, the hydrological consequences of these changes remain unclear. We tested the hypotheses (i) that significant differences in water use per ground area exist among the tree species of temperate mixed forests and that these differences are more relevant for the amount of stand-level canopy transpiration (Ec) than putative complementarity effects of tree water use, and (ii) that the seasonal patterns of Ec in mixed stands are significantly influenced by the identity of the present tree species. We measured xylem sap flux during 2005 (average precipitation) and 2006 (relatively dry) synchronously in three nearby old-growth forest stands on similar soil differing in the abundance of European beech (pure beech stand, 3-species stand with 70% beech, 5-species stand with sapwood area basis, reflecting a considerable variation in hydraulic architecture and leaf conductance regulation among the co-existing species. Moreover, transpiration per crown projection area (ECA) also differed up to 5-fold among the different species in the mixed stands, probably reflecting contrasting sapwood/crown area ratios. We conclude that Ec is not principally higher in mixed forests than in pure beech stands. However, tree species-specific traits have an important influence on the height of Ec and affect its seasonal variation. Species with a relatively high ECA (notably Tilia) may exhaust soil water reserves early in summer, thereby increasing drought stress in dry years and possibly reducing ecosystem stability in mixed forests.

  14. Contributions to the phytocoenologic study in pure european beech stand forests in Codru-Moma Mountains (North-Western Romania

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    Călin-Gheorghe PĂŞCUŢ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we present a phytocoenologic study on the associations found in pure European beech stand forests in Codru-Moma Mountains namely: Festuco drymejae-Fagetum Morariu et al. 1968, Luzulo albidae-Fagetum sylvaticae Zólyomi 1955.Characterization of the associations we studied and presentation of the tables have been made considering the selection of the most representative relevées of pure European beech forests belonging to Codru-Moma Mountains.The phytocoenoses of pure forest stands of European beech forests belonging to the two associations were analyzed in terms of floristic composition, life forms spectrum, spectrum chart of the floral elements and ecological indices.

  15. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European...

  16. Resilient Leaf Physiological Response of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. to Summer Drought and Drought Release

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    Ellen E. Pflug

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major environmental constraint to trees, causing severe stress and thus adversely affecting their functional integrity. European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. is a key species in mesic forests that is commonly expected to suffer in a future climate with more intense and frequent droughts. Here, we assessed the seasonal response of leaf physiological characteristics of beech saplings to drought and drought release to investigate their potential to recover from the imposed stress and overcome previous limitations. Saplings were transplanted to model ecosystems and exposed to a simulated summer drought. Pre-dawn water potentials (ψpd, stomatal conductance (gS, intercellular CO2 concentration (ci, net-photosynthesis (AN, PSII chlorophyll fluorescence (PItot, non-structural carbohydrate concentrations (NSC; soluble sugars, starch and carbon isotope signatures were measured in leaves throughout the growing season. Pre-dawn water potentials (ψpd, gS, ci, AN, and PItot decreased as drought progressed, and the concentration of soluble sugars increased at the expense of starch. Carbon isotopes in soluble sugars (δ13CS showed a distinct increase under drought, suggesting, together with decreased ci, stomatal limitation of AN. Drought effects on ψpd, ci, and NSC disappeared shortly after re-watering, while full recovery of gS, AN, and PItot was delayed by 1 week. The fast recovery of NSC was reflected by a rapid decay of the drought signal in δ13C values, indicating a rapid turnover of assimilates and a reactivation of carbon metabolism. After recovery, the previously drought-exposed saplings showed a stimulation of AN and a trend toward elevated starch concentrations, which counteracted the previous drought limitations. Overall, our results suggest that the internal water relations of beech saplings and the physiological activity of leaves are restored rapidly after drought release. In the case of AN, stimulation after drought may partially

  17. Desiccation and Mortality Dynamics in Seedlings of Different European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Populations under Extreme Drought Conditions

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    Bolte, Andreas; Czajkowski, Tomasz; Cocozza, Claudia; Tognetti, Roberto; de Miguel, Marina; Pšidová, Eva; Ditmarová, Ĺubica; Dinca, Lucian; Delzon, Sylvain; Cochard, Hervè; Ræbild, Anders; de Luis, Martin; Cvjetkovic, Branislav; Heiri, Caroline; Müller, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    European beech (Fagus sylvatica L., hereafter beech), one of the major native tree species in Europe, is known to be drought sensitive. Thus, the identification of critical thresholds of drought impact intensity and duration are of high interest for assessing the adaptive potential of European beech to climate change in its native range. In a common garden experiment with one-year-old seedlings originating from central and marginal origins in six European countries (Denmark, Germany, France, Romania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Spain), we applied extreme drought stress and observed desiccation and mortality processes among the different populations and related them to plant water status (predawn water potential, ΨPD) and soil hydraulic traits. For the lethal drought assessment, we used a critical threshold of soil water availability that is reached when 50% mortality in seedling populations occurs (LD50SWA). We found significant population differences in LD50SWA (10.5–17.8%), and mortality dynamics that suggest a genetic difference in drought resistance between populations. The LD50SWA values correlate significantly with the mean growing season precipitation at population origins, but not with the geographic margins of beech range. Thus, beech range marginality may be more due to climatic conditions than to geographic range. The outcome of this study suggests the genetic variation has a major influence on the varying adaptive potential of the investigated populations. PMID:27379105

  18. De novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of differential gene expression in response to drought in European beech.

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    Markus Müller

    Full Text Available Despite the ecological and economic importance of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. genomic resources of this species are still limited. This hampers an understanding of the molecular basis of adaptation to stress. Since beech will most likely be threatened by the consequences of climate change, an understanding of adaptive processes to climate change-related drought stress is of major importance. Here, we used RNA-seq to provide the first drought stress-related transcriptome of beech. In a drought stress trial with beech saplings, 50 samples were taken for RNA extraction at five points in time during a soil desiccation experiment. De novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of differential gene expression revealed 44,335 contigs, and 662 differentially expressed genes between the stress and normally watered control group. Gene expression was specific to the different time points, and only five genes were significantly differentially expressed between the stress and control group on all five sampling days. GO term enrichment showed that mostly genes involved in lipid- and homeostasis-related processes were upregulated, whereas genes involved in oxidative stress response were downregulated in the stressed seedlings. This study gives first insights into the genomic drought stress response of European beech, and provides new genetic resources for adaptation research in this species.

  19. Crown plasticity and neighborhood interactions of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in an old-growth forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröter, M.; Härdtle, W.; Oheimb, von G.

    2012-01-01

    Competition for canopy space is a process of major importance in forest dynamics. Although virgin and old-growth European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in Europe have been studied for many years, there are to date no studies of individual-tree crown plasticity and the way this is influenced by

  20. Climate threats on growth of rear-edge European beech peripheral populations in Spain

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    Dorado-Liñán, I.; Akhmetzyanov, L.; Menzel, A.

    2017-12-01

    European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in the Iberian Peninsula are a clear example of a temperate forest tree species at the rear edge of its large distribution area in Europe. The expected drier and warmer climate may alter tree growth and species distribution. Consequently, the peripheral populations will most likely be the most threatened ones. Four peripheral beech forests in the Iberian Peninsula were studied in order to assess the climate factors influencing tree growth for the last six decades. The analyses included an individual tree approach in order to detect not only the changes in the sensitivity to climate but also the potential size-mediated sensitivity to climate. Our results revealed a dominant influence of previous and current year summer on tree growth during the last six decades, although the analysis in two equally long periods unveiled changes and shifts in tree sensitivity to climate. The individual tree approach showed that those changes in tree response to climate are not size dependent in most of the cases. We observed a reduced negative effect of warmer winter temperatures at some sites and a generalized increased influence of previous year climatic conditions on current year tree growth. These results highlight the crucial role played by carryover effects and stored carbohydrates for future tree growth and species persistence.

  1. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

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    Y. van Meeningen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions, but in natural conditions its impact is hard to separate from other influential factors such as temperature. We studied the light response of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur, European beech (Fagus sylvatica and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light intensity was increased in four steps (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 µmol m−2 s−1, whilst other chamber conditions such as temperature, humidity and CO2 levels were fixed. Whereas the emission rate differed between individuals of the same species, the relative contributions of compounds to the total isoprenoid emission remained similar. Whilst some compounds were species specific, the compounds α-pinene, camphene, 3-carene, limonene and eucalyptol were emitted by all of the measured tree species. Some compounds, like isoprene and sabinene, showed an increasing emission response with increasing light intensity, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances of Norway spruce, the compounds α-pinene, 3-carene and eucalyptol showed high light-dependent fractions for many of the measured trees. This study highlights differences between compound emissions in their response to a change in light and a possible light independence for certain compounds, which might be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the

  2. Isoprenoid emission response to changing light conditions of English oak, European beech and Norway spruce

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    van Meeningen, Ylva; Schurgers, Guy; Rinnan, Riikka; Holst, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Light is an important environmental factor controlling biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, but in natural conditions its impact is hard to separate from other influential factors such as temperature. We studied the light response of foliar BVOC emissions, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on three common European tree species, namely English oak (Quercus robur), European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and two provenances of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in Taastrup, Denmark. Leaf scale measurements were performed on the lowest positioned branches of the tree in July 2015. Light intensity was increased in four steps (0, 500, 1000 and 1500 µmol m-2 s-1), whilst other chamber conditions such as temperature, humidity and CO2 levels were fixed. Whereas the emission rate differed between individuals of the same species, the relative contributions of compounds to the total isoprenoid emission remained similar. Whilst some compounds were species specific, the compounds α-pinene, camphene, 3-carene, limonene and eucalyptol were emitted by all of the measured tree species. Some compounds, like isoprene and sabinene, showed an increasing emission response with increasing light intensity, whereas other compounds, like camphene, had no significant emission response to light for most of the measured trees. English oak and European beech showed high light-dependent emission fractions from isoprene and sabinene, but other emitted compounds were light independent. For the two provenances of Norway spruce, the compounds α-pinene, 3-carene and eucalyptol showed high light-dependent fractions for many of the measured trees. This study highlights differences between compound emissions in their response to a change in light and a possible light independence for certain compounds, which might be valid for a wider range of tree species. This information could be of importance when improving emission models and to further emphasize the discussion regarding light or

  3. The influence of seedling density in containers on morphological characteristics of European beech

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    Wrzesiński Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence on growth parameters, in particular the morphological features of the root system, of 1-year-old European beech seedlings cultivated in containers with two different densities. The experiment was conducted in the container nursery in Skierdy (Forest District of Jabłonna in spring 2011. After 10 months of cultivation in Hiko polyethylene containers, above- and below-ground parts of the seedlings were measured. The measurements of the root system were conducted with a scanner and the WinRHIZO software. No influence due to the seedling density on either shoot height or thickness was observed, but instead the research showed that different seedling densities affected the development of root systems. The mean root thickness and dry mass of the European beech seedlings were significantly higher at the lower density. The influence of seedling density on the development of root mass deserves special attention as it is the most important factor affecting future growth of the seedlings during cultivation. This tendency also suggests that the amount of nutrients allocated to shoot development may be higher in order to improve the efficiency of photosynthesis. At both densities, differences in biomass accumulation affected the root-toshoot ratio. In seedlings cultivated at the lower density, the increased dry root matter of the seedlings resulted in a significant increase in the root-to-shoot ratio. This may cause a potential growth advantage of these seedlings after they are planted and may thus result in a more productive cultivation.

  4. Factors impacting stemflow generation in a European beech forest: Individual tree versus neighborhood properties

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    Metzger, Johanna Clara; Germer, Sonja; Hildebrandt, Anke

    2017-04-01

    The redistribution of precipitation by canopies changes the water flow dynamics to the forest floor. The spatial pattern of throughfall has been researched in a number of studies in different ecosystems. Yet, also stemflow substantially influences water input patterns, constituting a mean of 12% of gross precipitation for European beech as one of the most abundant tree species in Central Europe. While the initiation of stemflow depends mostly on precipitation event properties, stemflow amounts are strongly shaped by canopy structure. Stemflow research has mainly addressed the impact of single tree morphological variables. In previous studies, the impact of forest structure on area-based stemflow was studied comparing plots with different properties using few exemplary stemflow measurements. In non-homogeneous stands, this approach might not be accurate, as the variation of stand properties like tree density could change tree individual stemflow fluxes. To investigate this, a total measurement of all trees per plot is required. We hypothesize, that in addition to individual tree metrics, tree neighborhood relations have a significant impact on stemflow generation in a heterogeneous beech forest. Our study site is located in the pristine forest of the National Park Hainich, central Germany. It is heterogeneous in respect to tree density, species composition and tree age. We measured stemflow in an areal approach, for all trees on 11 subplots (each 10 m x 10 m) spaced evenly throughout a 1 ha plot. This involved overall 65 trees, which is 11% of the plot's trees. 27 precipitation events were recorded in spring and early summer of 2015 and 2016. Stand properties were surveyed, including diameter at breast height, height, position and species of a tree. From this data, we calculated neighborhood properties for each tree, as number, basal area, and relative height of neighboring trees within a radius of the plot's mean tree distance. Using linear mixed effects models, we

  5. Transfer Analysis of Provenance Trials Reveals Macroclimatic Adaptedness of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RASZTOVITS, Ervin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse provenance tests of beech situated close to theSoutheastern-continental limits of the species, in order to develop a response model of adaptation andplasticity of populations on evolutionary-ecological basis, following sudden climatic changes as aresult of transplanting. Modelling of juvenile height was performed with the help of ecodistancevariables. The concept of transfer analysis and ecodistance is based on the hypothesis that phenotypicresponse to macroclimatic changes depends on the inherited adaptive potential of the population andon the magnitude and direction of experienced environmental change. In common garden experiments,the transfer to the planting site is interpreted as simulation of environmental change. The applicationof ecodistance of transfer for evaluating common garden experiments provides much neededquantitative information about response of tree populations to predicted climatic changes.The analysis of three field experiments of European beech in SE Europe invalidate earlier doubtsabout the existence of macroclimatic adaptation patterns in juvenile growth and justify restrictions ofuse of reproductive material on the basis of evolutionary ecology. The presented model illustrates thatresponse to climatic change is regionally divergent, depending on testing conditions and on hereditarytraits. In particular, climatic warming in the central-northern part of the range may lead to productionincrease. However, under the stressful and uncertain conditions at the lower (xeric limit of thespecies, growth depression and vitality loss are predicted. The deviating behaviour of higher elevationprovenances support their separate treatment.The results may be utilised in climate change adaptation and mitigation policy in forestry andnature conservation, to revise rules for use of reproductive material and also for validatingevolutionary and ecological hypotheses related to climate change effects.

  6. The neglected bee trees: European beech forests as a home for feral honey bee colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Laurenz Kohl

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available It is a common belief that feral honey bee colonies (Apis mellifera L. were eradicated in Europe through the loss of habitats, domestication by man and spread of pathogens and parasites. Interestingly, no scientific data are available, neither about the past nor the present status of naturally nesting honeybee colonies. We expected near-natural beech (Fagus sylvatica L. forests to provide enough suitable nest sites to be a home for feral honey bee colonies in Europe. Here, we made a first assessment of their occurrence and density in two German woodland areas based on two methods, the tracing of nest sites based on forager flight routes (beelining technique, and the direct inspection of potential cavity trees. Further, we established experimental swarms at forest edges and decoded dances for nest sites performed by scout bees in order to study how far swarms from beekeeper-managed hives would potentially move into a forest. We found that feral honey bee colonies regularly inhabit tree cavities in near-natural beech forests at densities of at least 0.11–0.14 colonies/km2. Colonies were not confined to the forest edges; they were also living deep inside the forests. We estimated a median distance of 2,600 m from the bee trees to the next apiaries, while scout bees in experimental swarms communicated nest sites in close distances (median: 470 m. We extrapolate that there are several thousand feral honey bee colonies in German woodlands. These have to be taken in account when assessing the role of forest areas in providing pollination services to the surrounding land, and their occurrence has implications for the species’ perception among researchers, beekeepers and conservationists. This study provides a starting point for investigating the life-histories and the ecological interactions of honey bees in temperate European forest environments.

  7. The neglected bee trees: European beech forests as a home for feral honey bee colonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Patrick Laurenz; Rutschmann, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    It is a common belief that feral honey bee colonies ( Apis mellifera L.) were eradicated in Europe through the loss of habitats, domestication by man and spread of pathogens and parasites. Interestingly, no scientific data are available, neither about the past nor the present status of naturally nesting honeybee colonies. We expected near-natural beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) forests to provide enough suitable nest sites to be a home for feral honey bee colonies in Europe. Here, we made a first assessment of their occurrence and density in two German woodland areas based on two methods, the tracing of nest sites based on forager flight routes (beelining technique), and the direct inspection of potential cavity trees. Further, we established experimental swarms at forest edges and decoded dances for nest sites performed by scout bees in order to study how far swarms from beekeeper-managed hives would potentially move into a forest. We found that feral honey bee colonies regularly inhabit tree cavities in near-natural beech forests at densities of at least 0.11-0.14 colonies/km 2 . Colonies were not confined to the forest edges; they were also living deep inside the forests. We estimated a median distance of 2,600 m from the bee trees to the next apiaries, while scout bees in experimental swarms communicated nest sites in close distances (median: 470 m). We extrapolate that there are several thousand feral honey bee colonies in German woodlands. These have to be taken in account when assessing the role of forest areas in providing pollination services to the surrounding land, and their occurrence has implications for the species' perception among researchers, beekeepers and conservationists. This study provides a starting point for investigating the life-histories and the ecological interactions of honey bees in temperate European forest environments.

  8. Transcriptional signatures in leaves of adult European beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) in an experimentally enhanced free air ozone setting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbrich, Maren, E-mail: maren.olbrich@helmholtz-muenchen.d [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Gerstner, Elke; Bahnweg, Guenther [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Ecophysiology of Plants, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Welzl, Gerhard [Institute of Developmental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Heller, Werner; Ernst, Dieter [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    Tropospheric ozone causes severe oxidative stress in plants. To investigate the transcriptional responsiveness of adult trees to ozone, fully-expanded sun and shade leaves of mature beech trees were harvested at four time points over the entire vegetation period in 2005 and 2006. Microarray analyses were conducted on leaves from trees grown in the field under ambient and twice-ambient ozone concentrations at Kranzberger Forst (Bavaria). Beech trees changed their transcript levels in response to ozone. In the years 2005 and 2006 different transcription patterns were observed; this may have been a result of different weather conditions and ozone uptake. Furthermore, we obtained differences in mRNA expression patterns between shade and sun leaves. In the ozone-treated sun leaves of 2005, slightly up- and down-regulated transcript levels were detected, particularly in the spring and autumn, whereas shade leaves clearly exhibited reduced mRNA levels, particularly at the end of the vegetation period. In 2006, this pattern could not be confirmed, and in the autumn, four other transcripts were slightly up-regulated in ozone-treated shade leaves. In addition, two other transcripts were found to be influenced in sun leaves in the spring/summer. While we detected changes in the levels of only a few transcripts, the observed effects were not identical in both years. In conclusion, elevated ozone exhibited very small influence on the transcription levels of genes of mature beech trees. - At the transcriptional level, leaves of mature beech trees barely react to double ambient ozone concentrations; differences are detected primarily between sun/shade leaves and between different growing seasons.

  9. Transcriptional signatures in leaves of adult European beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) in an experimentally enhanced free air ozone setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olbrich, Maren; Gerstner, Elke; Bahnweg, Guenther; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer; Welzl, Gerhard; Heller, Werner; Ernst, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone causes severe oxidative stress in plants. To investigate the transcriptional responsiveness of adult trees to ozone, fully-expanded sun and shade leaves of mature beech trees were harvested at four time points over the entire vegetation period in 2005 and 2006. Microarray analyses were conducted on leaves from trees grown in the field under ambient and twice-ambient ozone concentrations at Kranzberger Forst (Bavaria). Beech trees changed their transcript levels in response to ozone. In the years 2005 and 2006 different transcription patterns were observed; this may have been a result of different weather conditions and ozone uptake. Furthermore, we obtained differences in mRNA expression patterns between shade and sun leaves. In the ozone-treated sun leaves of 2005, slightly up- and down-regulated transcript levels were detected, particularly in the spring and autumn, whereas shade leaves clearly exhibited reduced mRNA levels, particularly at the end of the vegetation period. In 2006, this pattern could not be confirmed, and in the autumn, four other transcripts were slightly up-regulated in ozone-treated shade leaves. In addition, two other transcripts were found to be influenced in sun leaves in the spring/summer. While we detected changes in the levels of only a few transcripts, the observed effects were not identical in both years. In conclusion, elevated ozone exhibited very small influence on the transcription levels of genes of mature beech trees. - At the transcriptional level, leaves of mature beech trees barely react to double ambient ozone concentrations; differences are detected primarily between sun/shade leaves and between different growing seasons.

  10. Competition for nitrogen sources between European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J; Waldhecker, P; Brüggemann, N; Rennenberg, H

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the short-term consequences of direct competition between beech and sycamore maple on root N uptake and N composition, mycorrhizal seedlings of both tree species were incubated for 4 days (i.e. beech only, sycamore maple only or both together) in an artificial nutrient solution with low N availability. On the fourth day, N uptake experiments were conducted to study the effects of competition on inorganic and organic N uptake. For this purpose, multiple N sources were applied with a single label. Furthermore, fine roots were sampled and analysed for total amino acids, soluble protein, total nitrogen, nitrate and ammonium content. Our results clearly show that both tree species were able to use inorganic and organic N sources. Uptake of inorganic and organic N by beech roots was negatively affected in the presence of the competing tree species. In contrast, the presence of beech stimulated inorganic N uptake by sycamore maple roots. Both the negative effect of sycamore maple on N uptake of beech and the positive effect of beech on N uptake of sycamore maple led to an increase in root soluble protein in beech, despite an overall decrease in total N concentration. Thus, beech compensated for the negative effects of the tree competitor on N uptake by incorporating less N into structural N components, but otherwise exhibited the same strategy as the competitor, namely, enhancing soluble protein levels in roots when grown under competition. It is speculated that enhanced enzyme activities of so far unknown nature are required in beech as a defence response to inter-specific competition.

  11. Assessment of beech scale resistance in full- and half-sibling American beech families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason; C. Dana Nelson

    2010-01-01

    A beech bark disease infested American beech tree (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and two uninfested trees were selected in a mature natural stand in Michigan, USA, and mated to form two full-sib families for evaluating the inheritance of resistance to beech scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind.), the insect element of beech bark disease....

  12. The effects of habitat degradation on metacommunity structure of wood-inhabiting fungi in European beech forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Ódor, Péter; Christensen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Intensive forest management creates habitat degradation by reducing the variation of forest stands in general, and by removing old trees and dead wood in particular. Non-intervention forest reserves are commonly believed to be the most efficient tool to counteract the negative effects...... with different management histories. For this purpose, we used a large data set of wood-inhabiting fungi collected from dead beech trees in European beech-dominated forest reserves. The structure of fungal assemblages showed high beta diversity, while nestedness and similarity was low. During the decomposition...... extirpated specialized species from the local species pools in managed sites, and resulted in more homogeneous communities in managed sites. It is alarming that community structure is affected the most in the latest decay stages where the decay process turns the dead wood into litter, and which is thus...

  13. Species richness pattern along altitudinal gradient in Central European beech forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrivnák, R.; Gömöry, D.; Slezák, M.; Ujházy, K.; Hédl, Radim; Jarčuška, B.; Ujházyová, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2014), s. 425-441 ISSN 1211-9520 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : altitude * beech-dominated forest * species richness Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.778, year: 2014

  14. Similar net ecosystem exchange of beech stands located in France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granier, A.; Pilegaard, K.; Jensen, N.O.

    2002-01-01

    Net ecosystem exchange (NEE), as measured with eddy covariance was compared for two European beech stands for the years 1996-1999: a young beech forest (32 year-old) growing in east France, and a mature beech stand (80 year-old) located in Denmark. Those sites are included in the Carboeuroflux....../Carbodata European networks. Except for some short-term differences (1-5 days), the temporal variation of NEE followed similar patterns in both sites. This similarity followed from similar values of. (i) dates of bud break and of leaf fall; (ii) ecosystem respiration rates during winter; (iii) diurnal NEE during...

  15. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X.; Rennenberg, H.; Kozovits, A. R.; Grams, T. E.; Blaschke, H.; Matyssek, R.

    2004-01-01

    Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  16. Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruces and European beech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X.; Rennenberg, H. [University of Freiburg, Inst. of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Freiburg (Germany); Kozovits, A. R.; Grams, T. E.; Blaschke, H.; Matyssek, R. [Technische Universitat Munchen, Dept. of Ecology and Ecophysiology of Plants, Freising (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Potential interactions of carbon dioxide and ozone on carbohydrate concentrations and contents were studied in Norway spruce and European beech saplings to test the hypotheses that (1) prolonged exposure to elevated carbon dioxide does not compensate for the limiting effects of ozone on the accumulation of sugars and starches, or biomass partitioning to the root; and (2) growth of mixed-species planting will repress plant responses to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide. Norway spruce and European beech saplings were acclimated for one year to ambient and elevated carbon dioxide, followed by exposure to factorial combinations of ambient and elevated ozone and carbon dioxide during the next two years. In spruce trees, sugar and starch content was greater in saplings exposed to elevated carbon dioxide; in beech, the response was the opposite. The overall conclusion was that the results did not support Hypothesis One, because the adverse effects were counteracted by elevated carbon dioxide. Regarding Hypothesis Two, it was found to be supportive for beech but not for spruce. In beech, the reduction of sugars and starch by elevated ozone and stimulation by elevated carbon dioxide were repressed by competitive interaction with spruce, whereas in spruce saplings elevated concentrations of carbon dioxide resulted in higher concentrations of sugar and starch, but only in leaves and coarse roots and only when grown in combination with beech. Elevated ozone in spruce saplings produced no significant effect on sugar or starch content either in intra- or interspecific competition. 57 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  17. Patterns of late spring frost leaf damage and recovery in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stand in south-eastern Germany based on repeated digital photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Annette; Helm, Raimund; Zang, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Damage by late spring frost is a risk deciduous trees have to cope with in order to optimize the length of their growing season. The timing of spring phenological development plays a crucial role, not only at the species level, but also at the population and individual level, since fresh new leaves are especially vulnerable. For the pronounced late spring frost in May 2011 in Germany, we studied the individual leaf development of 35 deciduous trees (mainly European beech Fagus sylvatica L.) at a mountainous forest site in the Bayerischer Wald National Park using repeated digital photographs. Analyses of the time series of greenness by a novel Bayesian multiple change point approach mostly revealed five change points which almost perfectly matched the expected break points in leaf development: (i) start of the first greening between day of the year (DOY) 108-119 (mean 113), (ii) end of greening, and (iii) visible frost damage after the frost on the night of May 3rd/4th (DOY 123/124), (iv) re-sprouting 19-38 days after the frost, and (v) full maturity around DOY 178 (166-184) when all beech crowns had fully recovered. Since frost damage was nearly 100%, individual susceptibility did not depend on the timing of first spring leaf unfolding. However, we could identify significant patterns in fitness linked to an earlier start of leaf unfolding. Those individuals that had an earlier start of greening during the first flushing period had a shorter period of recovery and started the second greening earlier. Thus, phenological timing triggered the speed of recovery from such an extreme event. The maximum greenness achieved, however, did not vary with leaf unfolding dates. Two mountain ashes (Sorbus aucuparia L.) were not affected by the low temperatures of -5°C. Time series analysis of webcam pictures can thus improve process-based knowledge and provide valuable insights into the link between phenological variation, late spring frost damage, and recovery within one stand.

  18. Projected effects of climate change on the carbon stocks of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. forests in Zala County, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somogyi Zoltán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that climate change will lead to the local extinction of many tree species from large areas during this century, affecting the functioning and ecosystem services of many forests. This study reports on projected carbon losses due to the assumed local climate change-driven extinction of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Zala County, South-Western Hungary, where the species grows at the xeric limit of its distribution. The losses were calculated as a difference between carbon stocks in climate change scenarios assuming an exponentially increasing forest decline over time, and those in a baseline scenario assuming no climate change. In the climate change scenarios, three different sets of forest management adaptation measures were studied: (1 only harvesting damaged stands, (2 additionally salvaging dead trees that died due to climate change, and (3 replacing, at an increasing rate over time, beech with sessile oak (Quercus petraea Matt. Lieb. after final harvest. Projections were made using the open access carbon accounting model CASMOFOR based on modeling or assuming effects of climate change on mortality, tree growth, root-to-shoot ratio and decomposition rates. Results demonstrate that, if beech disappears from the region as projected by the end of the century, over 80% of above-ground biomass carbon, and over 60% of the carbon stocks of all pools (excluding soils of the forests will be lost by 2100. Such emission rates on large areas may have a discernible positive feedback on climate change, and can only partially be offset by the forest management adaptation measures.

  19. Adaptation of European beech (Fagus silvatica L.) to different ecological conditions: leaf size variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, M.

    2004-01-01

    In beech trees, both leaf morphology and leaf area show considerable adaptation capabilities to the local radiation climate. The plants adapting to shade conditions create large leaf area with high chlorophyll concentration and high water content in the living tissues. On the other hand, the leaves of plants exposed to radiation of higher intensity have smaller area, several layers of mesophyll, thick epidermis and cuticle, higher dry weight, higher energy potential of the dry mass and several other characteristic properties

  20. Assessment of a relaxed eddy accumulation for measurements of fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds: Study over arable crops and a mature beech forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallagher, M.W.; Clayborough, R.; Beswick, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    A relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) system, based on the design by Beverland et al. (Journal of Geophysics Research 101 (D17) 22, 807-22, 815), for the measurement of biogenic VOC species was evaluated by intercomparison with an eddy correlation CO2 flux system over a mature deciduous beech canopy...... (Fagus Sylvatica) during the FOREXNOX program. Measurements from a site where winter wheat and barley (Hordeum Vulgare ann Triticum Aestivum) were being harvested are also presented. The system was inter-compared with two different eddy correlation systems for measuring CO2 fluxes. Good results were...

  1. Modelling exploratio of the future of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) under climate change - Range, abundance, genetic diversity and adaptive response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.; Degen, B.; Buschbom, J.; Hickler, T.; Thuiller, W.; Sykes, M.T.; Winter, de W.P.

    2010-01-01

    We explored impacts of climate change on the geographic distribution of European beech by applying state of the art statistical and process-based models, and assessed possible climate change impacts on both adaptive capacity in the centre of its distribution and adaptive responses of functional

  2. Phenotypic Plasticity Explains Response Patterns of European Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. Saplings to Nitrogen Fertilization and Drought Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Dziedek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Climate and atmospheric changes affect forest ecosystems worldwide, but little is known about the interactive effects of global change drivers on tree growth. In the present study, we analyzed single and combined effects of nitrogen (N fertilization and drought events (D on the growth of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. saplings in a greenhouse experiment. We quantified morphological and physiological responses to treatments for one‐ and two‐year‐old plants. N fertilization increased the saplings’ aboveground biomass investments, making them more susceptible to D treatments. This was reflected by the highest tissue dieback in combined N and D treatments and a significant N × D interaction for leaf δ13C signatures. Thus, atmospheric N deposition can strengthen the drought sensitivity of beech saplings. One‐year‐old plants reacted more sensitively to D treatments than two‐year‐old plants (indicated by D‐induced shifts in leaf δ13C signatures of one‐year‐old and two‐year‐old plants by +0.5‰ and −0.2‰, respectively, attributable to their higher shoot:root‐ratios (1.8 and 1.2, respectively. In summary, the saplings’ treatment responses were determined by their phenotypic plasticity (shifts in shoot:root‐ratios, which in turn was a function of both the saplings’ age (effects of allometric growth trajectories = apparent plasticity and environmental impacts (effects of N fertilization = plastic allometry.

  3. Intraspecific Variation in Wood Anatomical, Hydraulic, and Foliar Traits in Ten European Beech Provenances Differing in Growth Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Peter; Kurjak, Daniel; von Wühlisch, Georg; Delzon, Sylvain; Schuldt, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    In angiosperms, many studies have described the inter-specific variability of hydraulic-related traits and little is known at the intra-specific level. This information is however mandatory to assess the adaptive capacities of tree populations in the context of increasing drought frequency and severity. Ten 20-year old European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) provenances representing the entire distribution range throughout Europe and differing significantly in aboveground biomass increment (ABI) by a factor of up to four were investigated for branch wood anatomical, hydraulic, and foliar traits in a provenance trial located in Northern Europe. We quantified to which extend xylem hydraulic and leaf traits are under genetic control and tested whether the xylem hydraulic properties (hydraulic efficiency and safety) trades off with yield and wood anatomical and leaf traits. Our results showed that only three out of 22 investigated ecophysiological traits showed significant genetic differentiations between provenances, namely vessel density (VD), the xylem pressure causing 88% loss of hydraulic conductance and mean leaf size. Depending of the ecophysiological traits measured, genetic differentiation between populations explained 0–14% of total phenotypic variation, while intra-population variability was higher than inter-population variability. Most wood anatomical traits and some foliar traits were additionally related to the climate of provenance origin. The lumen to sapwood area ratio, vessel diameter, theoretical specific conductivity and theoretical leaf-specific conductivity as well as the C:N-ratio increased with climatic aridity at the place of origin while the carbon isotope signature (δ13C) decreased. Contrary to our assumption, none of the wood anatomical traits were related to embolism resistance but were strong determinants of hydraulic efficiency. Although ABI was associated with both VD and δ13C, both hydraulic efficiency and embolism resistance were

  4. Effect of the density of transplants in reforestation on the morphological quality of the above-ground part of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. six years after planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Houšková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality of the above-ground part of European beech planted at different densities and spacing patterns for the purpose of artificial forest regeneration was monitored 3, 4 and 6 years after planting. The initial numbers of beech transplants were 5,000 pcs.ha−1, 10,000 pcs.ha−1, 15,000 pcs.ha−1 and 20,000 pcs.ha−1. The spacing pattern of transplants was either square or rectangular nearly in all variants: 1.4 × 1.4 m, 2 × 1 m, 1 × 1 m, 0.8 × 0.8 m, 1 ×0.65 m, 0.7 × 0.7 m and 1 × 0.5 m. Conclusions following out from the research are as follows: 1. neither the chosen density of transplants nor their spacing pattern had an essential influence on the after-planting loss or damage of trees; 2. through the planting of larger-diameter transplants it is possible to achieve canopy closure more rapidly as well as faster growth of the plantation; these beech plants keep the edge in growth and quality even 6 years after planting; 3. the higher is the beech plantation density, the less individuals occur in such a plantation with inappropriate stem form; 4. beech plants of the worst quality were found on plots with the lowest initial density of transplants (5,000 and 10,000 pcs.ha−1, yet the number of promising trees was sufficient even there. Thus, none of the experimental numbers of transplants per hectare or spacing arrangements of the European beech transplants can be claimed as inappropriate; however, further monitoring of the plots is necessary.

  5. Relationship between particular dendrobiometrical indicators of natural European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. dendrocenoses in Central Balkan Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferezliev Angel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In parallel studies, different regression models were tested to identify relationships between particular dendrobiometrical indicators on two sample plots representing forests dominated by the European beech in the Central Balkan Range (Bulgaria. The presence of incomplete multicollinearity was studied through correlation matrix for factor variables. To avoid multicollinear negative impact, step multiple regression was applied and adequate regression equations of the relationships under consideration were formulated. The results of statistical analysis confirmed that the link between the investigated indicators is strong and that the ’cloud‘ data show some ’sphericity‘ and distribution close to normal. In one of the sample plots, one major volume-forming factor – height does not participate in the obtained regression equation, so it is not possible to estimate its influence. By testing linear and several nonlinear regression dependencies and by mediating widely used statistical criterions for model selection, the optimal linear model of the considered link was chosen.

  6. Sap flux density and stomatal conductance of European beech and common oak trees in pure and mixed stands during the summer drought of 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonard, F.; André, F.; Ponette, Q.; Vincke, C.; Jonard, M.

    2011-10-01

    SummarySap flux density of European beech and common oak trees was determined from sap flow measurements in pure and mixed stands during the summer drought of 2003. Eight trees per species and per stand were equipped with sap flow sensors. Soil water content was monitored in each stand at different depths by using time-domain reflectometry (TDR). Leaf area index and vertical root distribution were also investigated during the growing season. From sap flux density ( SFD) data, mean stomatal conductance of individual trees ( G s) was calculated by inverting the Penman-Monteith equation. Linear mixed models were developed to analyse the effects of species and stand type (pure vs. mixed) on SFD and G s and on their sensitivity to environmental variables (vapour pressure deficit ( D), incoming solar radiation ( R G), and relative extractable water ( REW)). For reference environmental conditions, we did not find any tree species or stand type effects on SFD. The sensitivity of SFD to D was higher for oak than for beech in the pure stands ( P sapwood-to-leaf area ratio compared to oak. The sensitivity of G s to REW was higher for beech than for oak and was ascribed to a higher vulnerability of beech to air embolism and to a more sensitive stomatal regulation. The sensitivity of beech G s to REW was lower in the mixed than in the pure stand, which could be explained by a better sharing of the resources in the mixture, by facilitation processes (hydraulic lift), and by a rainfall partitioning in favour of beech.

  7. Use of sap flow measurements to validate stomatal functions for mature beech (Fagus sylvatica) in view of ozone uptake calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, Sabine; Schindler, Christian; Leuzinger, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    For a quantitative estimate of the ozone effect on vegetation reliable models for ozone uptake through the stomata are needed. Because of the analogy of ozone uptake and transpiration it is possible to utilize measurements of water loss such as sap flow for quantification of ozone uptake. This technique was applied in three beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands in Switzerland. A canopy conductance was calculated from sap flow velocity and normalized to values between 0 and 1. It represents mainly stomatal conductance as the boundary layer resistance in forests is usually small. Based on this relative conductance, stomatal functions to describe the dependence on light, temperature, vapour pressure deficit and soil moisture were derived using multivariate nonlinear regression. These functions were validated by comparison with conductance values directly estimated from sap flow. The results corroborate the current flux parameterization for beech used in the DO 3 SE model. - A method was developed to derive stomatal functions and ozone uptake calculation from sap flow.

  8. SOIL CO2 EFFLUX FROM ISOTOPICALLY LABELED BEECH AND SPRUCE IN SOUTHERN GERMANY

    Science.gov (United States)

    • Carbon acquisition and transport to roots in forest trees is difficult to quantify and is affected by a number of factors, including micrometeorology and anthropogenic stresses. The canopies of mature European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) were expose...

  9. Size-dependence of tree growth response to drought for Norway spruce and European beech individuals in monospecific and mixed-species stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, H; Pretzsch, H; Schütze, G; Rötzer, T

    2017-09-01

    Climate anomalies have resulted in changing forest productivity, increasing tree mortality in Central and Southern Europe. This has resulted in more severe and frequent ecological disturbances to forest stands. This study analysed the size-dependence of growth response to drought years based on 384 tree individuals of Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst.] and European beech [Fagus sylvatica ([L.)] in Bavaria, Germany. Samples were collected in both monospecific and mixed-species stands. To quantify the growth response to drought stress, indices for basal area increment, resistance, recovery and resilience were calculated from tree ring measurements of increment cores. Linear mixed models were developed to estimate the influence of drought periods. The results show that ageing-related growth decline is significant in drought years. Drought resilience and resistance decrease significantly with growth size among Norway spruce individuals. Evidence is also provided for robustness in the resilience capacity of European beech during drought stress. Spruce benefits from species mixing with deciduous beech, with over-yielding spruce in pure stands. The importance of the influence of size-dependence within tree growth studies during disturbances is highlighted and should be considered in future studies of disturbances, including drought. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Eddy-covariance methane flux measurements over a European beech forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentsch, Lydia; Siebicke, Lukas; Knohl, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The role of forests in global methane (CH4) turnover is currently not well constrained, partially because of the lack of spatially integrative forest-scale measurements of CH4 fluxes. Soil chamber measurements imply that temperate forests generally act as CH4 sinks. Upscaling of chamber observations to the forest scale is however problematic, if the upscaling is not constrained by concurrent 'top-down' measurements, such as of the eddy-covariance type, which provide sufficient integration of spatial variations and of further potential CH4 flux components within forest ecosystems. Ongoing development of laser absorption-based optical instruments, resulting in enhanced measurement stability, precision and sampling speed, has recently improved the prospects for meaningful eddy-covariance measurements at sites with presumably low CH4 fluxes, hence prone to reach the flux detection limit. At present, we are launching eddy-covariance CH4 measurements at a long-running ICOS flux tower site (Hainich National Park, Germany), located in a semi natural, unmanaged, beech dominated forest. Eddy-covariance measurements will be conducted with a laser spectrometer for parallel CH4, H2Ov and CO2 measurements (FGGA, Los Gatos Research, USA). Independent observations of the CO2 flux by the FGGA and a standard Infrared Gas Analyser (LI-7200, LI-COR, USA) will allow to evaluate data quality of measured CH4 fluxes. Here, we want to present first results with a focus on uncertainties of the calculated CH4 fluxes with regard to instrument precision, data processing and site conditions. In future, we plan to compare eddy-covariance flux estimates to side-by-side turbulent flux observations from a novel eddy accumulation system. Furthermore, soil CH4 fluxes will be measured with four automated chambers situated within the tower footprint. Based on a previous soil chamber study at the same site, we expect the Hainich forest site to act as a CH4 sink. However, we hypothesize that our

  11. Carbon and Nitrogen Pools and Fluxes in Adjacent Mature Norway Spruce and European Beech Forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oulehle, Filip; Růžek, M.; Tahovská, K.; Bárta, J.; Myška, O.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 11 (2016), č. článku 282. ISSN 1999-4907 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Fagus sylvatica * Picea abies * carbon * nitrogen * budget * respiration * productivity Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.951, year: 2016

  12. Comparison of leaf gas exchange and stable isotope signature of water-soluble compounds along canopy gradients of co-occurring Douglas-fir and European beech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bögelein, Rebekka; Hassdenteufel, Martin; Thomas, Frank M; Werner, Willy

    2012-07-01

    Combined δ(13) C and δ(18) O analyses of water-soluble leaf and twig phloem material were used to determine intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) and variability of stomatal conductance at different crown positions in adult European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) trees. Simultaneous gas exchange measurements allowed evaluation of the differences in calculating iWUE from leaf or phloem water-soluble compounds, and comparison with a semi-quantitative dual isotope model to infer variability of net photosynthesis (A(n) ) between the investigated crown positions. Estimates of iWUE from δ(13) C of leaf water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) outperformed the estimates from phloem compounds. In the beech crown, δ(13) C of leaf WSOM coincided clearly with gas exchange measurements. The relationship was not as reliable in the Douglas-fir. The differences in δ(18) O between leaf and phloem material were found to correlate with stomatal conductance. The semi-quantitative model approach was applicable for comparisons of daily average A(n) between different crown positions and trees. Intracanopy gradients were more pronounced in the beech than in the Douglas-fir, which reached higher values of iWUE at the respective positions, particularly under dry air conditions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Differences in the photosynthetic UV-B response between European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) saplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Šprtová, M.; Marek, M.V.; Urban, O.; Kalina, J.; Špunda, V.

    2008-01-01

    Cloned saplings of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karst.) and beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) (7 years old) were exposed to enhanced UV-B irradiation (+25%) continuously over three growing seasons (1999-2001). Selected parameters of variable chlorophyll alpha fluorescence and pigment composition were analysed in the late summer of the third growing season to evaluate the influence of long-term elevated UV-B irradiation on broadleaf and conifer tree species. To obtain information on the xanthophyll cycle, the de-epoxidation state (DEPS) was calculated. These tree species responded differentially to the long-term effects of enhanced UV-B radiation, Norway spruce was more sensitive compared to the European beech. The results show that in Norway spruce long-term exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation under field conditions caused negative changes at the level of primary photosynthetic reactions. Contrary to the beech, this had higher degree of UV-B protective responses. UV-B radiation is not effective stressor to its primary photosynthetic reaction

  14. Debt maturity and relationship lending: An analysis of European SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Canovas, G.; Koeter-Kant, J.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the association between bank debt maturity and relationship lending using a unique survey sample of 3366 SMEs from 19 European countries. The knowledge of how the institutional environment shapes relationship lending helps us to understand how current institutional changes,

  15. Climate change impairs processes of soil and plant N cycling in European beech forests on marginal soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, Javier; Gasche, Rainer; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Leberecht, Martin; Bimüller, Carolin; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Pole, Andrea; Schloter, Michael; Rennenberg, Heinz; Simon, Judy; Hanewinkel, Marc; Baltensweiler, Andri; Bilela, Silvija; Dannenmann, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Beech forests of Central Europe are covering large areas with marginal calcareous soils, but provide important ecological services and represent a significant economical value. The vulnerability of these ecosystems to projected climate conditions (higher temperatures, increase of extreme drought and precipitation events) is currently unclear. Here we present comprehensive data on the influence of climate change conditions on ecosystem performance, considering soil nitrogen biogeochemistry, soil microbiology, mycorrhiza ecology and plant physiology. We simultaneously quantified major plant and soil gross N turnover processes by homogenous triple 15N isotope labeling of intact beech natural regeneration-soil-microbe systems. This isotope approach was combined with a space for time climate change experiment, i.e. we transferred intact beech seedling-soil-microbe mesocosms from a slope with N-exposure (representing present day climate conditions) to a slope with S exposure (serving as a warmer and drier model climate for future conditions). Transfers within N slope served as controls. After an equilibration period of 1 year, three isotope labeling/harvest cycles were performed. Reduced soil water content resulted in a persistent decline of ammonia oxidizing bacteria in soil (AOB). Consequently, we found a massive five-fold reduction of gross nitrification in the climate change treatment and a subsequent strong decline in soil nitrate concentrations as well as nitrate uptake by microorganisms and beech. Because nitrate was the major nutrient for beech in this forest type with little importance of ammonium and amino acids, this resulted in a strongly reduced performance of beech natural regeneration with reduced N content, N metabolite concentrations and plant biomass. These findings provided an explanation for a large-scale decline of distribution of beech forests on calcareous soils in Europe by almost 80% until 2080 predicted by statistical modeling. Hence, we

  16. Use of microsatellite markers in an American beech (Fagus grandifolia) population and paternity testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Koch; Dave Carey; M.E. Mason

    2010-01-01

    Cross-species amplification of six microsatellite markers from European beech (Fagus sylvatica Linn) and nine markers from Japanese beech (Fagus crenata Blume) was tested in American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.). Three microsatellites from each species were successfully adapted for use in American beech...

  17. Temperature responses of growth and wood anatomy in European beech saplings grown in different carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overdieck, Dieter; Ziche, Daniel; Böttcher-Jungclaus, Kerstin

    2007-02-01

    Effects of temperature on growth and wood anatomy were studied in young European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) grown in 7-l pots for 2.5 years in field-phytotron chambers supplied with an ambient (approximately 400 micromol mol-1) or elevated (approximately 700 micromol mol-1) carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]). Temperatures in the chambers ranged in increments of 2 degrees C from -4 degrees C to +4 degrees C relative to the long-term mean monthly (day and night) air temperature in Berlin-Dahlem. Soil was not fertilized and soil water and air humidity were kept constant. Data were evaluated by regression analysis. At final harvest, stem diameter was significantly greater at increased temperature (Delta1 degrees C: 2.4%), stems were taller (Delta1 degrees C: 8.5%) and stem mass tree-1 (Delta1 degrees C: 10.9%) and leaf area tree-1(Delta1 degrees C: 6.5%) were greater. Allocation pattern was slightly influenced by temperature: leaf mass ratio and leaf area ratio decreased with increasing temperature (Delta1 degrees C: 2.3% and 2.2% respectively), whereas stem mass/total mass increased (Delta1 degrees C: 2.1%). Elevated [CO2] enhanced height growth by 8.8% and decreased coarse root mass/total mass by 10.3% and root/shoot ratio by 11.7%. Additional carbon was mainly invested in aboveground growth. At final harvest a synergistic interaction between elevated [CO2] and temperature yielded trees that were 3.2% taller at -4 degrees C and 12.7% taller at +4 degrees C than trees in ambient [CO2]. After 2.5 seasons, cross-sectional area of the oldest stem part was approximately 32% greater in the +4 degrees C treatment than in the -4 degrees C treatment, and in the last year approximately 67% more leaf area/unit tree ring area was produced in the highest temperature regime compared with the lowest. Elevated [CO2] decreased mean vessel area of the 120 largest vessels per mm2 by 5.8%, causing a decrease in water conducting capacity. There was a positive interaction between

  18. Assessment of spatial discordance of primary and effective seed dispersal of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) by ecological and genetic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millerón, M; López de Heredia, U; Lorenzo, Z; Alonso, J; Dounavi, A; Gil, L; Nanos, N

    2013-03-01

    Spatial discordance between primary and effective dispersal in plant populations indicates that postdispersal processes erase the seed rain signal in recruitment patterns. Five different models were used to test the spatial concordance of the primary and effective dispersal patterns in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica) population from central Spain. An ecological method was based on classical inverse modelling (SSS), using the number of seed/seedlings as input data. Genetic models were based on direct kernel fitting of mother-to-offspring distances estimated by a parentage analysis or were spatially explicit models based on the genotype frequencies of offspring (competing sources model and Moran-Clark's Model). A fully integrated mixed model was based on inverse modelling, but used the number of genotypes as input data (gene shadow model). The potential sources of error and limitations of each seed dispersal estimation method are discussed. The mean dispersal distances for seeds and saplings estimated with these five methods were higher than those obtained by previous estimations for European beech forests. All the methods show strong discordance between primary and effective dispersal kernel parameters, and for dispersal directionality. While seed rain was released mostly under the canopy, saplings were established far from mother trees. This discordant pattern may be the result of the action of secondary dispersal by animals or density-dependent effects; that is, the Janzen-Connell effect. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Belowground effects of enhanced tropospheric ozone and drought in a beech/spruce forest (Fagus sylvatica L./Picea abies [L.] Karst)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, Petia S.; Andersen, Christian P.; Blaschke, Helmut; Matyssek, Rainer; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz

    2010-01-01

    The effects of experimentally elevated O 3 on soil respiration rates, standing fine-root biomass, fine-root production and δ 13 C signature of newly produced fine roots were investigated in an adult European beech/Norway spruce forest in Germany during two subsequent years with contrasting rainfall patterns. During humid 2002, soil respiration rate was enhanced under elevated O 3 under beech and spruce, and was related to O 3 -stimulated fine-root production only in beech. During dry 2003, the stimulating effect of O 3 on soil respiration rate vanished under spruce, which was correlated with decreased fine-root production in spruce under drought, irrespective of the O 3 regime. δ 13 C signature of newly formed fine-roots was consistent with the differing g s of beech and spruce, and indicated stomatal limitation by O 3 in beech and by drought in spruce. Our study showed that drought can override the stimulating O 3 effects on fine-root dynamics and soil respiration in mature beech and spruce forests. - Drought has the capacity to override the stimulating ozone effect on soil respiration in adult European beech/Norway spruce forest.

  20. Utilization of beech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heckemann, H

    1980-01-01

    The paper reviews (for beech in W. Germany, and, in many cases for competitive hardwoods/softwoods): regional felling statistics/assortment structures; age class structures; profitability/prices; import/export trends; sales trends (for beech timber from Hesse State Forests); beech plywood production; ownership of forests, and specific uses of beech, including as an energy source, in sleepers, and in furniture.

  1. Transformation of even-aged European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) to uneven-aged management under changing growth conditions caused by climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Erik; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Transformation from even-aged to uneven-aged forest management is currently taking place throughout Europe. Climate change is, however, expected to change growth conditions—possibly quite radically. Using a deterministic approach, it was the objective of this study to investigate the influence...... of such changes on optimal transformation strategies for an even-aged stand of European Beech in Denmark. For a range of growth change scenarios, represented by changes in site index, optimal harvest policies were determined using a matrix modelling approach and a differential evolution algorithm. Transition...... probabilities were updated continuously based on stand level variables and the transition matrix was thus dynamic. With optimal transformation policies, stand development followed similar pathways during the transformation phase irrespective of climate change scenario. Optimal transformation policies were thus...

  2. Characteristics of organic matter fractions separated by wet-sieving and differences in density from five soils of different pedogenesis under mature beech forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vormstein, Svendja; Kaiser, Michael; Ludwig, Bernard

    2017-04-01

    Forest top- and subsoil account for approximately 70 % of the organic C (OC) globally stored in soil reasoning their large importance for terrestrial ecosystem services such as the mitigation of climate change. In contrast to forest topsoil, there is much less information about the decomposition and stabilization of organic matter (OM) in subsoil. Therefore, we sampled the pedogenetic horizons of five soils under mature beech forest developed on different parent material (i.e. Tertiary Sand, Loess, Basalt, Lime Stone, Red Sandstone) down to the bedrock. The bulk soil samples were characterized for texture, oxalate and dithionite soluble Fe and Al, pH, OC, microbial biomass C and basal respiration (cumulative CO2 emission after 7 and 14 days). Furthermore, we analyzed aggregate size fractions separated by wet-sieving (i.e. >1000 µm, 1000-250 µm, 250-53 µm, soil horizon specific samples. The OC of the topsoil (Ah horizon) on Lime Stone and Red Sandstone was predominately stored in the larger macro-aggregates (>1000 µm). In contrast, the major part of the topsoil OC on Basalt and Tertiary Sand was found in the smaller macro-aggregates (1000-250 µm). For the topsoil samples, we found that the basal respiration as well as the microbial biomass C were positively correlated (p ≤0.05) with the OC amounts associated with the free and occluded light fraction and with the macro-aggregates (1000-250 µm) and micro-aggregates (250-53 µm) suggesting these fractions to store the major part of the easily decomposable OM. The OC amount associated with the heavy fraction and the fraction stabilization in forest topsoil. In the subsoil (horizons below the Ah), the contribution of the OC associated with the aggregate size fractions 53 µm were positively correlated with basal respiration and the microbial biomass C. This suggests, in contrast to the topsoil, the easily decomposable OM to be distributed more homogeneously among fractions. Only the OC content of the soil mineral

  3. Beech Bark Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Houston; James T. O' Brien

    1983-01-01

    Beech bark disease causes significant mortality and defect in American beech, Fagus grandifolia (Ehrh.). The disease results when bark, attacked and altered by the beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga Lind., is invaded and killed by fungi, primarily Nectria coccinea var. faginata Lohman, Watson, and Ayers, and sometimes N. galligena Bres.

  4. Temperature responses of growth and wood anatomy in European beech saplings grown in different carbon dioxide concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overdieck, D.; Ziche, D.; Bottcher-Jungclaus, K.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between wood anatomical properties, growth, and mass allocation of well-watered beech saplings growing in different temperature and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) regimes. The study was conducted to test whether growth was enhanced by increasing temperature and CO 2 , as well as to determine whether the leaf area to stem cross-sectional area ratio, leaf mass ratio, and leaf area ratio declined with increasing temperature. The study also investigated the hypothesis that vessel member and size decreases with increasing temperature and CO 2 as well as the hypothesis that wood parenchyma content declines with increasing temperature and increases in response to elevated CO 2 . The beech saplings were grown in 7-1 pots for 2.5 years in field-phytotron chambers supplied with ambient or elevated CO 2 . Temperatures in the chambers ranged in increments of 2 degrees C. Soil was not fertilized and soil water and air humidity were kept constant. Data were evaluated by regression analysis. Results of the study showed that stem diameter was significantly larger at increased temperatures. In addition, stems were taller, and leaf area and stem mass were greater. The allocation pattern was influenced by temperature, as leaf mass ratio and leaf area ratio decreased with increasing temperature. Elevated CO 2 enhanced height growth by 8.8 per cent, and decreased coarse root mass and total mass by 10.3 per cent. The root/shoot ratio was decreased by 11.7 per cent. At final harvest, a synergistic interaction was observed between elevated CO 2 and temperature yielded trees that were 3.2 per cent taller at -4 degrees C, and 12.7 per cent taller at 4 degrees C than trees grown in ambient CO 2 . After 2.5 seasons, the cross-sectional area of the oldest stem part was approximately 32 per cent greater in the 4 degree C treatment than the -4 degree C treatment. In the final year, approximately 67 per cent more leaf area per unit tree ring area was produced in the

  5. European orchid cultivation – from seed to mature plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Ponert

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a method for growing orchids of the genera Dactylorhiza and Ophrys, two European members of the subfamily Orchidoideae, from seeds to mature plants using asymbiotic in vitro cultures and glasshouse pot cultures. Four media were used: two new media 1/4–2 and Mo2 and two modifications of Michl medium (Michl 1988. We also describe a highly efficient technique for seed disinfection using a syringe. We tested the effects of ethanol treatment on Anacmaptis morio (L R. M. Bateman, Pridgeon & M. W. seeds, sugar media composition on Dactylorhiza majalis (Rchb. P. F. Hunt & Summerh., Oeceoclades decaryana (H. Perrier ex Guillaumin & Manguin Garay & Taylor and Ophrys lojaconoi P. Delforge and the effect of kinetin on Dactylorhiza majalis protocorm growth. Sucrose was the best carbon source, while hexose resulted in the inhibition of protocorm development at early stages. The addition of kinetin at 10 mg/l resulted in the formation of the largest protocorms. Ethanol can have positive effect on seed germination when applied for a short time (2 min, while long-time ethanol exposure (60 min can kill the seeds.

  6. Identification of stress biomarkers for drought and increased soil temperature in seedlings of European beech ( Fagus sylvatica )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popović, Milica [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.; Laboratory for Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Nova Gorica, Glavni Trg 9 – SI-5261, Vipava, Slovenia.; Gregori, Marco [Laboratory for Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Nova Gorica, Glavni Trg 9 – SI-5261, Vipava, Slovenia.; Dipartimento di Scienze Mediche Chirurgiche e della Salute Trieste, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy.; Vodnik, Dominik [Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Agronomy, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.; Ferlan, Mitja [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.; Mrak, Tanja [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.; Štraus, Ines [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.; McDowell, Nathan G. [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354, USA.; Kraigher, Hojka [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Večna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia.; de Marco, Ario [Laboratory for Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Nova Gorica, Glavni Trg 9 – SI-5261, Vipava, Slovenia.

    2017-11-01

    Drought is an environmental stress that impacts plant productivity. Projections show both an increase in intense rain events and a reduction in the number of rain days, conditions that leads to increased risk of drought. Consequently, the identification of molecular biomarkers suitable for evaluating the impact of water deprivation conditions on forest plant seedlings is of significant value for monitoring purposes and forest management. In this study, we evaluated a biochemical methodology for the assessment of drought stress coupled with variable soil temperature in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seedlings by analyzing a set of metabolites and enzymes involved in free radical scavenging and cell wall synthesis. The results indicate that the specific activities and isoform profile of superoxide dismutases and glutathione peroxidases together with the variation of phenolic compounds enable discrimination between seedlings with different degrees of photosynthetic activity. This approach represents a promising platform for the assessment of drought stress in forest trees and could serve for enhancing selection and breeding practices, allowing for plants that are more tolerant of abiotic stress.

  7. Assessing the risk caused by ground level ozone to European forest trees: A case study in pine, beech and oak across different climate regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emberson, Lisa D.; Bueker, Patrick; Ashmore, Mike R.

    2007-01-01

    Two different indices have been proposed for estimation of the risk caused to forest trees across Europe by ground-level ozone, (i) the concentration based AOT40 index (Accumulated Over a Threshold of 40 ppb) and (ii) the recently developed flux based AFstY index (Accumulated stomatal Flux above a flux threshold Y). This paper compares the AOT40 and AFstY indices for three forest trees species at different locations in Europe. The AFstY index is estimated using the DO 3 SE (Deposition of Ozone and Stomatal Exchange) model parameterized for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), beech (Fagus sylvatica) and holm oak (Quercus ilex). The results show a large difference in the perceived O 3 risk when using AOT40 and AFstY indices both between species and regions. The AOT40 index shows a strong north-south gradient across Europe, whereas there is little difference between regions in the modelled values of AFstY. There are significant differences in modelled AFstY between species, which are predominantly determined by differences in the timing and length of the growing season, the periods during which soil moisture deficit limits stomatal conductance, and adaptation to soil moisture stress. This emphasizes the importance of defining species-specific flux response variables to obtain a more accurate quantification of O 3 risk. - A new flux-based model provides a revised assessment of risks of ozone impacts to European forests

  8. Environment vs. Plant Ontogeny: Arthropod Herbivory Patterns on European Beech Leaves along the Vertical Gradient of Temperate Forests in Central Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Stiegel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental and leaf trait effects on herbivory are supposed to vary among different feeding guilds. Herbivores also show variability in their preferences for plant ontogenetic stages. Along the vertical forest gradient, environmental conditions change, and trees represent juvenile and adult individuals in the understorey and canopy, respectively. This study was conducted in ten forests sites in Central Germany for the enrichment of canopy research in temperate forests. Arthropod herbivory of different feeding traces was surveyed on leaves of Fagus sylvatica Linnaeus (European beech; Fagaceae in three strata. Effects of microclimate, leaf traits, and plant ontogenetic stage were analyzed as determining parameters for herbivory. The highest herbivory was caused by exophagous feeding traces. Herbivore attack levels varied along the vertical forest gradient for most feeding traces with distinct patterns. If differences of herbivory levels were present, they only occurred between juvenile and adult F. sylvatica individuals, but not between the lower and upper canopy. In contrast, differences of microclimate and important leaf traits were present between the lower and upper canopy. In conclusion, the plant ontogenetic stage had a stronger effect on herbivory than microclimate or leaf traits along the vertical forest gradient.

  9. Temporal progression in migratory status and sexual maturation in European silver eels during downstream migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, A.P.; Guerrero, M.A.; Klein Breteler, J.G.P.; Thillart, G.E.E.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The onset of downstream migration of European eels is accompanied by a cessation of feeding and the start of sexual maturation which stresses the link between metabolism and sexual maturation, also suggesting an important role for exercise. Exercise has been tested with eels in swim tunnels and was

  10. Temporal changes in the climate sensitivity of Norway spruce andEuropean beech along an elevation gradient in Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Tomáš; Čermák, P.; Trnka, Miroslav; Žid, T.; Rybníček, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, č. 239 (2017), s. 24-33 ISSN 0168-1923 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-04291S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) EHP-CZ02-0V-1-066-01-2014 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : czech republic * drought * fagus sylvatica * picea abies * temperature * tree-ring width chronology Subject RIV: GK - Forestry OBOR OECD: Forestry Impact factor: 3.887, year: 2016

  11. Ozone fumigation (twice ambient) reduces leaf infestation following natural and artificial inoculation by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda of adult European beech trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olbrich, Maren; Knappe, Claudia; Wenig, Marion; Gerstner, Elke; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Matyssek, Rainer; Stich, Susanne; Leuchner, Michael; Werner, Herbert; Schlink, Katja; Mueller-Starck, Gerhard; Welzl, Gerhard; Scherb, Hagen; Ernst, Dieter; Heller, Werner; Bahnweg, Guenther

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, a controlled infection study was performed in the 'Kranzberger Forst' to address the following questions: (1) Will massive artificial inoculation with Apiognomonia errabunda override the previously observed inhibitory effect of chronic ozone? (2) Can biochemical or molecular markers be detected to account for the action of ozone? To this end six adult beech trees were chosen, three ozone fumigated (2x ozone) and three control trees (ambient = 1x ozone). Spore-sprayed branches of sun and shade crown positions of each of the trees, and uninoculated control branches, were enclosed in 100-L plastic bags for one night to facilitate infection initiation. Samples were taken within a five-week period after inoculation. A. errabunda infestation levels quantified by real-time PCR increased in leaves that were not fumigated with additional ozone. Cell wall components and ACC (ethylene precursor 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) increased upon ozone fumigation and may in part lead to the repression of fungal infection. - Chronic sublethal ozone exposure reduces both natural and artificial infestation of beech leaves by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda.

  12. Ozone fumigation (twice ambient) reduces leaf infestation following natural and artificial inoculation by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda of adult European beech trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olbrich, Maren; Knappe, Claudia; Wenig, Marion; Gerstner, Elke [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Matyssek, Rainer [Forest Botany, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Stich, Susanne [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Leuchner, Michael; Werner, Herbert [Bioclimatology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Schlink, Katja; Mueller-Starck, Gerhard [Section of Forest Genetics, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Welzl, Gerhard [Institute of Developmental Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Scherb, Hagen [Institute of Biomathematics and Biometry, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Ernst, Dieter; Heller, Werner [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Bahnweg, Guenther, E-mail: bahnweg@helmholtz-muenchen.d [Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, 85764 Neuherberg (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    In 2006, a controlled infection study was performed in the 'Kranzberger Forst' to address the following questions: (1) Will massive artificial inoculation with Apiognomonia errabunda override the previously observed inhibitory effect of chronic ozone? (2) Can biochemical or molecular markers be detected to account for the action of ozone? To this end six adult beech trees were chosen, three ozone fumigated (2x ozone) and three control trees (ambient = 1x ozone). Spore-sprayed branches of sun and shade crown positions of each of the trees, and uninoculated control branches, were enclosed in 100-L plastic bags for one night to facilitate infection initiation. Samples were taken within a five-week period after inoculation. A. errabunda infestation levels quantified by real-time PCR increased in leaves that were not fumigated with additional ozone. Cell wall components and ACC (ethylene precursor 1-amino cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) increased upon ozone fumigation and may in part lead to the repression of fungal infection. - Chronic sublethal ozone exposure reduces both natural and artificial infestation of beech leaves by the endophytic fungus Apiognomonia errabunda.

  13. Selective bark-stripping of beech, Fagus sylvatica, by free-ranging horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiters, A.T.; Sluijs, van der L.A.M.; Wytema, G.A.

    2006-01-01

    Incidence and intensity of bark-stripping by horses was surveyed in stands and tree lanes of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Veluwezoom National Park, by using transects. Damage was apparent on 38% of beech trees, and 11% were seriously damaged (score 3 or more). Susceptibility to

  14. Wood and bark anatomy of young beech in relation to Cryptococcus attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    David. Lonsdale

    1983-01-01

    Within a sample of European beech, partial resistance to attack by the beech scale, Cryptococcus fagisuga, was associated with a smooth bark which had a regular, vertical pattern in its surface 'growth lines'. Such bark contained relatively little lignified outer parenchyma, and the main stone cell layer was strongly developed. The '...

  15. Gonadal transcriptome analysis of wild contaminated female European eels during artificial gonad maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillon, Lucie; Oses, Jennifer; Pierron, Fabien; Bureau du Colombier, Sarah; Caron, Antoine; Normandeau, Eric; Lambert, Patrick; Couture, Patrice; Labadie, Pierre; Budzinski, Hélène; Dufour, Sylvie; Bernatchez, Louis; Baudrimont, Magalie

    2015-11-01

    Since the early 1980s, the population of European eels (Anguilla anguilla) has dramatically declined. Nowadays, the European eel is listed on the red list of threatened species (IUCN Red List) and is considered as critically endangered of extinction. Pollution is one of the putative causes for the collapse of this species. Among their possible effects, contaminants gradually accumulated in eels during their somatic growth phase (yellow eel stage) would be remobilized during their reproductive migration leading to potential toxic events in gonads. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of organic and inorganic contaminants on the gonad development of wild female silver eels. Female silver eels from two sites with differing contamination levels were artificially matured. Transcriptomic analyses by means of a 1000 candidate gene cDNA microarray were performed on gonads after 11weeks of maturation to get insight into the mechanisms of toxicity of contaminants. The transcription levels of several genes, that were associated to the gonadosomatic index (GSI), were involved in mitotic cell division but also in gametogenesis. Genes associated to contaminants were mainly involved in the mechanisms of protection against oxidative stress, in DNA repair, in the purinergic signaling pathway and in steroidogenesis, suggesting an impairment of gonad development in eels from the polluted site. This was in agreement with the fact that eels from the reference site showed a higher gonad growth in comparison to contaminated fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cultural treatments and woody debris: the study case of beech forests in Casentino (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calamini G

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the first results about quantity and quality of dead wood on the ground in beech forests of Foreste Casentinesi, Monte Falterona and Campigna National Park. The presence of dead wood depends on several factors such as forest productivity, natural disturbances and human activities. Data from some mature managed beech stands have been collected and compared with those from unmanaged beech forest (Sasso Fratino full-protected Reserve. Results do not show significant differences between managed and unmanaged forests. The dead wood varies between 5 and 8 Mg ha-1 (in terms of total dry weight mostly composed by fine woody debris.

  17. Estimation of beech tree transpiration in relation to their social status in forest stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Střelcová, K.; Matejka, F.; Minďáš, J.

    2002-01-01

    The results of sap flow continuous measurements by a tree-trunk heat balance method (THB) on beech model trees are analysed in this paper. Experimental research works were carried out in a mature mixed fir-spruce-beech stand in the research area Pol'ana - Hukavský Grúň (φ = 48°39', λ = 19°29', H = 850 m a.s.l.) in UNESCO Biosphere Reserve on two co-dominant and one sub-dominant beech trees. A mathematical model of daily transpiration dynamics was proposed for a quantitative analysis of the daily course of sap flow intensity. The model works on a one-tree level and enables to consider the influence of the tree social position in the stand on the sap flow intensity of model beech trees and to express the dependence of sap flow intensity on the tree height and crown projection

  18. Thermopower of beech wood biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, I. A.; Smirnov, B. I.; Orlova, T. S.; Sulkovski, Cz.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.; Muha, J.

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports on measurements of the thermopower S of high-porosity samples of beech wood biocarbon with micron-sized sap pores aligned with the tree growth direction. The measurements have been performed in the temperature range 5-300 K. The samples have been fabricated by pyrolysis of beech wood in an argon flow at different carbonization temperatures ( T carb). The thermopower S has been measured both along and across the sap pores, thus offering a possibility of assessing its anisotropy. The curves S( T carb) have revealed a noticeable increase of S for T carb biocarbons, which suggests that for T carb ˜ 1000°C they undergo a phase transition of the insulator-(at T carb 1000°C) type. The existence of this transition is attested also by the character of the temperature dependences S( T) of beech wood biocarbon samples prepared at T carb above and below 1000°C.

  19. Testing the applicability of BIOME-BGC to simulate beech gross primary production in Europe using a new continental weather dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Chiesi , Marta; Chirici , Gherardo; Marchetti , Marco; Hasenauer , Hubert; Moreno , Adam; Knohl , Alexander; Matteucci , Giorgio; Pilegaard , Kim; Granier , André; Longdoz , Bernard; Maselli , Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Key message A daily 1-km Pan-European weather dataset can drive the BIOME-BGC model for the estimation of current and future beech gross primary production (GPP). Annual beech GPP is affected primarily by spring temperature and more irregularly by summer water stress. [br/] Context The spread of beech forests in Europe enhances the importance of modelling and monitoring their growth in view of ongoing climate changes. [br/] Aims The current paper assesses the capability o...

  20. Swimming physiology of European silver eels (Anguilla anguilla L.): energetic costs and effects on sexual maturation and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstra, Arjan P; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M

    2010-09-01

    The European eel migrates 5,000-6,000 km to the Sargasso Sea to reproduce. Because they venture into the ocean in a pre-pubertal state and reproduce after swimming for months, a strong interaction between swimming and sexual maturation is expected. Many swimming trials have been performed in 22 swim tunnels to elucidate their performance and the impact on maturation. European eels are able to swim long distances at a cost of 10-12 mg fat/km which is 4-6 times more efficient than salmonids. The total energy costs of reproduction correspond to 67% of the fat stores. During long distance swimming, the body composition stays the same showing that energy consumption calculations cannot be based on fat alone but need to be compensated for protein oxidation. The optimal swimming speed is 0.61-0.67 m s(-1), which is approximately 60% higher than the generally assumed cruise speed of 0.4 m s(-1) and implies that female eels may reach the Sargasso Sea within 3.5 months instead of the assumed 6 months. Swimming trials showed lipid deposition and oocyte growth, which are the first steps of sexual maturation. To investigate effects of oceanic migration on maturation, we simulated group-wise migration in a large swim-gutter with seawater. These trials showed suppressed gonadotropin expression and vitellogenesis in females, while in contrast continued sexual maturation was observed in silver males. The induction of lipid deposition in the oocytes and the inhibition of vitellogenesis by swimming in females suggest a natural sequence of events quite different from artificial maturation protocols.

  1. Comparisons of protein profiles of beech bark disease resistant and susceptible American beech (Fagus grandifolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary E. Mason; Jennifer L. Koch; Marek Krasowski; Judy. Loo

    2013-01-01

    Beech bark disease is an insect-fungus complex that damages and often kills American beech trees and has major ecological and economic impacts on forests of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canadian forests. The disease begins when exotic beech scale insects feed on the bark of trees, and is followed by infection of damaged bark tissues by one of the...

  2. Joint Slovak-Ukraine-Germany Beech Ecosystems as the World Natural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vološčuk Ivan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The European beech Fagus sylvatica L. ssp. sylvatica L. is exclusively found in Europe. The beech survived the ice age in small refuges in the south and south-east Europe and went on to colonise large parts of the continent. The post-ice age colonisation of the landscape by the beech took place parallel to the settlement of land by humans and the formation of a more complex society. For centuries much of the Carpathian mountain forests remained untouched (Fig. 1. Virgin forests constitute a natural heritage of global significance. In 2007, 10 protected areas with the Primeval Beech Forests of Carpathians (Slovakia, Ukraine were added to UNESCO’s World Heritage List. On 25 June 2011, the UNESCO World Heritage Committee added five of Germany’s beech forest protected areas to the World Heritage List. This extended the transboundary world natural heritage site ‘Primeval Beech Forest of the Carpathians’, located in the Slovak Republic and Ukraine, to include a German forest protected areas, and renamed it ‘Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Ancient Beech Forests of Germany’. This paper is aimed at the presentation of the outstanding universal value of the ecological processes in the Joint World Heritage Sites, short description of protected areas and principles of their integrated management plan. This paper also deals with problems in management plan realisation in practice. Ultimate goal is to achieve that management and socio-economic sustainable development practices are in harmony with primary objectives of World Heritage Site protection, biodiversity conservation, ecosystem and landscape stability, rational use of natural resources, ecotourism development and with potential of the landscape in largest possible extend.

  3. Comparison of protein profiles of beech bark disease-resistant or beech bark disease-susceptible American beech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary E. Mason; Marek Krasowski; Judy Loo; Jennifer. Koch

    2011-01-01

    Proteomic analysis of beech bark proteins from trees resistant and susceptible to beech bark disease (BBD) was conducted. Sixteen trees from eight geographically isolated stands, 10 resistant (healthy) and 6 susceptible (diseased/infested) trees, were studied. The genetic complexity of the sample unit, the sampling across a wide geographic area, and the complexity of...

  4. Differential expression of gonadotropin and estrogen receptors and oocyte cytology during follicular maturation associated with egg viability in European eel (Anguilla anguilla)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva, Filipa F. G.; Tveiten, Helge; Maugars, Gersende

    2018-01-01

    In captivity, oogenesis and ovarian follicle maturation in European eel can be induced experimentally using hormonal therapy. The follicle's ability to respond effectively to the induction of maturation and ovulation, resulting in viable eggs, depends on the oocyte stage at the time of induction....

  5. The electoral feedback effects of welfare reform in mature European welfare states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The electoral hazard of welfare state reforms in mature welfare states has been a widely acknowledged feedback effect in the literature. However, the literature does typically no distinct between party families when it comes to the electoral consequences of welfare state reforms and treats...... electorates as unity. This paper analysis the feedback effects of social policy retrenchment under Third Way social democracy since 1994. The paper argues that Third Way reforms resulted in lasting electoral setback for social democracy since these reforms went against the social policy preferences of social....... The restructuring of mature Western welfare states thus accounts for changing patterns of political behaviour as a consequence of policy feedback....

  6. The influence of regeneration fellings on the development of artificially regenerated beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) plantations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bednář, Pavel; Černý, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 5 (2014), s. 859-867 ISSN 1211-8516 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : European beech * regeneration felling * artificial regeneration * height * DBH – the diameter at breast-height * quality * ISF – Indirect Site Factor Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  7. Methanol and other VOC fluxes from a Danish beech forest during late springtime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schade, Gunnar W.; Solomon, Sheena J.; Dellwik, Ebba

    2011-01-01

    In-canopy mixing ratio gradients and above-canopy fluxes of several volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured using a commercial proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) in a European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest in Denmark. Fluxes of methanol were bidirectional: Emission...

  8. ESTIMATING ROOT RESPIRATION IN SPRUCE AND BEECH: DECREASES IN SOIL RESPIRATION FOLLOWING GIRDLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was undertaken to follow seasonal fluxes of CO2 from soil and to estimate the contribution of autotrophic (root + mycorrhizal) to total soil respiration (SR) in a mixed stand of European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) near Freising, Germany. Matu...

  9. Diversity of dead wood inhabiting fungal and bryophytes in semi-natural beech forests in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ódor, P.; Heilmann-Clausen, J.; Christensen, M.; Aude, E.; Dort, van K.W.; Piltaver, A.; Siller, I.; Veerkamp, M.T.; Walleyn, R.; Standovár, T.; Hees, van A.F.M.; Kosec, J.; Matocec, N.; Kraigher, H.; Grebenc, T.

    2006-01-01

    Saproxylic organisms are among the most threatened species in Europe and constitute a major conservation problem because they depend on the most important forestry product - dead wood. Diversity of fungal and bryophyte communities occurring on dead beech trees was analyzed in five European countries

  10. Thinning in artificially regenerated young beech stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novák Jiří

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although beech stands are usually regenerated naturally, an area of up to 5,000 ha year−1 is artificially regenerated by beech in the Czech Republic annually. Unfortunately, these stands often showed insufficient stand density and, consequently, lower quality of stems. Therefore, thinning methods developed for naturally regenerated beech stands are applicable with difficulties. The paper evaluates the data from two thinning experiments established in young artificially regenerated beech stands located in different growing conditions. In both experiments, thinning resulted in the lower amount of salvage cut in following years. Positive effect of thinning on periodic stand basal area increment and on periodic diameter increment of dominant trees was found in the beech stand located at middle elevations. On the other hand, thinning effects in mountain conditions were negligible. Thinning focusing on future stand quality cannot be commonly applied in artificially regenerated beech stands because of their worse initial quality and lower density. However, these stands show good growth and response to thinning, hence their management can be focused on maximising beech wood production.

  11. Major Changes in Growth Rate and Growth Variability of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) Related to Soil Alteration and Climate Change in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Latte, Nicolas; Perin, Jérôme; Kint, Vincent; Lebourgeois, François; Claessens, Hugues

    2016-01-01

    Global change-particularly climate change, forest management, and atmospheric deposition-has significantly altered forest growing conditions in Europe. The influences of these changes on beech growth (Fagus sylvatica L.) were investigated for the past 80 years in Belgium, using non-linear mixed effects models on ring-width chronologies of 149 mature and dominant beech trees (87-186 years old). The effects of the developmental stage (i.e., increasing tree size) were filtered out in order to fo...

  12. Designing a retail store environment for the mature market: A European perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Petermans, Ann; Van Cleempoel, Koenraad

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses elderly consumers’ physical and social needs and wants in the marketplace, and presents case studies of two European food retail stores that were designed to meet these concerns. The authors review information on the elderly consumers’ segment and discuss literature on retail design and retail branding and question how designers should be more aware of multiple modes of interpreting brands, given generational differences and the existence of various types of retail sett...

  13. Nuclear energy maturity. A report on the European nuclear conference 1975 at Paris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, H H [Brown, Boveri und Cie A.G., Mannheim (F.R. Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Kraftwerke

    1975-09-01

    The papers presented at the plenary sessions of the first European Nuclear Conference are reviewed. Having discussed energy needs and resources, the role of different reactor types for the supply of natural uranium and the generation of electricity as well as gas in energy parks the issues between the social and technical aspects related to siting, environment and nuclear safety are investigated. In the evaluation of capital costs and operating costs of modern power stations with light water reactors and fossil fueled boilers the price increasing items safety, environmental protection and price escalation are mentioned too. The summary on the operating performance of natural uranium reactors, heavy water and light water reactors and high temperature gas cooled reactors includes informations of availability figures and typical occurrences. (orig.).

  14. Attitudes of ornamental trees and shrubs producers towards nursery production of ornamental beech cultivars in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonić Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. is, along with its significance as a forest species, renowned as an ornamental species, due to its numerous cultivars. Ornamental beech cultivars are planted in various green spaces, but a small number of such trees have ascertained in Serbia. For the time being, production of beech cultivars is represented in a very small number of nurseries, with a negligible share of those seedlings in their total assortment. The aim of this research is to study the attitudes of ornamental trees and shrubs producers towards the nursery production of ornamental beech cultivars, and possibilities of its improvements in Serbia. “Door to door” survey and in-depth interviews were used as research techniques. Surveys with the representatives of 65 nurseries in Serbia (in the selected statistical region Šumadija and Western Serbia were conducted in the first stage of data collection. In the second stage of data collection were interviewed the representatives of the 10 nurseries who, during the survey, pointed out that they produce ornamental beech cultivars. Nurserymen’s attitudes suggest that there is a possibility to improve the production of ornamental beech cultivars in Serbia, with the appropriate support measures and increased interest of customers on the market, i.e. with the provision of subsidies for the production of seedlings and greater use of cultivars by utility companies in the cities of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ТP 31041: Establishment of forest plantations to increase the afforested areas in Serbia

  15. Genome-wide association study identifies a major gene for beech bark disease resistance in American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irina Ćalić; Jennifer Koch; David Carey; Charles Addo-Quaye; John E. Carlson; David B. Neale

    2017-01-01

    Background: The American Beech tree (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.), native to eastern North America, is ecologically important and provides high quality wood products. This species is susceptible to beech bark disease (BBD) and is facing high rates of mortality in North America. The disease occurs from an interaction between the woolly beech scale...

  16. Hypoxylon species on beech and other broadleaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Tanja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi in the genus Hypoxylon cause wood decay and most of them are saprophytes on dead wood or parasites of weakness. The following species in this genus were identified in this study performed at several localities in Serbia and Montenegro: H. deustum, H. fragiforme, H. nummularium, H. multiforme, H. rubiginosum and H. fuscum. Among them the most significant species is H. deustum, the fungus causing root and butt rot of standing beech trees. It was recorded from all coppice and high forests of beech. This paper presents the morphological characteristics of the recorded fungi their range, plant hosts and significance.

  17. Climate change induces shifts in abundance and activity pattern of bacteria and archaea catalyzing major transformation steps in nitrogen turnover in a soil from a mid-European beech forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwendtner, Silvia; Tejedor, Javier; Bimüller, Carolin; Bimueller, Carolin; Dannenmann, Michael; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Knabner, Ingrid Kögel; Schloter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing climate change will lead to more extreme weather events, including severe drought periods and intense drying rewetting cycles. This will directly influence microbial nitrogen (N) turnover rates in soil by changing the water content and the oxygen partial pressure. Therefore, a space for time climate change experiment was conducted by transferring intact beech seedling-soil mesocosms from a northwest (NW) exposed site, representing today's climatic conditions, to a southwest (SW) exposed site, providing a model climate for future conditions with naturally occurring increased soil temperature (+0.8°C in average). In addition, severe drought and intense rainfall was simulated by a rainout shelter at SW and manual rewetting after 39 days drought, respectively. Soil samples were taken in June, at the end of the drought period (August), 24 and 72 hours after rewetting (August) and after a regeneration period of four weeks (September). To follow dynamics of bacterial and archaeal communities involved in N turnover, abundance and activity of nitrifiers, denitrifiers, N2-fixing microbes and N-mineralizers was analyzed based on marker genes and the related transcripts by qPCR from DNA and RNA directly extracted from soil. Abundance of the transcripts was reduced under climate change with most pronounced effects for denitrification. Our results revealed that already a transfer from NW to SW without further treatment resulted in decreased cnor and nosZ transcripts, encoding for nitric oxide reductase and nitrous oxide reductase, respectively, while nirK transcripts, encoding for nitrite reductase, remained unaffected. Severe drought additionally led to reduced nirK and cnor transcripts at SW. After rewetting, nirK transcripts increased rapidly at both sites, while cnor and nosZ transcripts increased only at NW. Our data indicate that the climate change influences activity pattern of microbial communities involved in denitrification processes to a different extend

  18. Testing the applicability of BIOME-BGC to simulate beech gross primary production in Europe using a new continental weather dataset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiesi, Marta; Chirici, Gherardo; Marchetti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A daily 1-km Pan-European weather dataset can drive the BIOME-BGC model for the estimation of current and future beech gross primary production (GPP). Annual beech GPP is affected primarily by spring temperature and more irregularly by summer water stress.The spread of beech forests in Europe...... forest ecosystems having different climatic conditions where the eddy covariance technique is used to measure water and carbon fluxes. The experiment is in three main steps. First, the accuracy of BIOME-BGC GPP simulations is assessed through comparison with flux observations. Second, the influence...... of two major meteorological drivers (spring minimum temperature and growing season dryness) on observed and simulated inter-annual GPP variations is analysed. Lastly, the impacts of two climate change scenarios on beech GPP are evaluated through statistical analyses of the ground data and model...

  19. Faunal diversity of Fagus sylvatica forests: A regional and European perspective based on three indicator groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Walentowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While the postglacial history of European beech (Fagus sylvatica and the plant species composition of beech forests in  Central Europe are fairly well understood, the faunal biodiversity has been less well investigated. We studied three groups of  mostly sedentary organisms in beech forest at regional and European scales by combining field studies with a compilation of existing literature and expert knowledge. Specifically, we examined the relationship between host tree genera and saproxylic  beetles, and the diversity and composition of forest ground-dwelling molluscs and ground beetles in relation to the abundance  of beech. At a west central European scale (Germany, where beech has a “young” ecological and biogeographical history,  we found 48 primeval forest relict species of saproxylic beetles associated with beech, 124 ground beetles and 91 molluscs  inhabiting beech forest, yet none exclusive of west central European beech forests. High levels of faunal similarity between beech and other woodland trees suggested that many of the beech forest dwelling species are euryoecious and likely to  originate from mid-Holocene mixed broadleaf forests. Beech forests of the mountain ranges in southern and east central  Europe, which are ecologically and biogeographically “old”, were found to harbour distinct species assemblages, including  beech forest specialists (such as 10 carabid species in the Carpathians and narrow-range endemics of broadleaf forest. The  observed biodiversity patterns suggest differentiated conservation priorities in “young” and “old” European beech forest  regions.

  20. Future of Beech in Southeast Europe from the Perspective of Evolutionary Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÁTYÁS, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to provide quantitative information on the effect of climaticchange on the growth and vitality of European beech: although the species is considered in itsoptimum highly plastic and adaptable, it becomes climate-sensitive closer to its xeric (lowerdistribution limits. The future of beech in Southeast Europe requires special attention because thisregion harbours significant populations living at or near their xeric distribution boundary. Even thoughthe low elevation occurrences are uniquely vulnerable to climatic shifts, observations and modellingstudies pertaining to this region are particularly scarce.Out of climatic factors determining the xeric distributional limits for beech, Ellenberg’s droughtindex (EQ appeared as the most influential. Growth response analyses in comparative tests haveconfirmed the existence of macroclimatic adaptation of beech and have proven that warming and morearid conditions lead to decline of growth and vitality, while no decline was observed if EQ changed inthe opposite direction. The response to weather extremes was investigated in field plots. Recurrentsummer droughts of 3 to 4 consecutive years, above mean EQ value 40-42 resulted in pest and diseaseattacks and mass mortality.The discussed approaches indicate consistently a high level of uncertainty regarding the future ofbeech at the xeric limit in Southeast Europe. According to field observations and bioclimatic data inHungary, a large part of low-elevation beech forests presently in the zone of EQ index 20 might bethreatened by the warming in the second half of the century, while higher-elevation occurrences mayremain stable.The interpretation of the results bears some stipulations, such as the consequence of ecologicaland human interactions in influencing present distribution patterns, the unclear role of persistence,natural selection and plasticity and uncertainties of climate projections. Grim projections mayprobably be partly

  1. Safeguarding saproxylic fungal biodiversity in Apennine beech forest priority habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Oriana; Lunghini, Dario; Pecoraro, Lorenzo; Sabatini, Francesco Maria; Persiani, Anna Maria

    2015-04-01

    The FAGUS LIFE Project (LIFE11/NAT/IT/135) targets two European priority habitats, i.e. Habitat 9210* Apennine beech forests with Taxus and Ilex, and Habitat 9220* Apennine beech forests with Abies alba, within two National Parks: Cilento, Vallo di Diano and Alburni; Gran Sasso and Monti della Laga. The current limited distribution of the target habitats is also due to the impact of human activities on forest systems, such as harvesting and grazing. The FAGUS project aims at developing and testing management strategies able to integrate the conservation of priority forest habitats (9210* and 9220*) and the sustainable use of forest resources. In order to assess the responses to different management treatments the BACI monitoring design (Before-After, Control-Intervention) has been applied on forest structure and diversity of focus taxa before and after experimental harvesting treatments. Conventional management of Apennine beech forests impacts a wealth of taxonomic groups, such as saproxylic beetles and fungi, which are threatened throughout Europe by the lack of deadwood and of senescing trees, and by the homogeneous structure of managed forests. Deadwood has been denoted as the most important manageable habitat for biodiversity in forests not only for supporting a wide diversity of organisms, but also for playing a prominent role in several ecological processes, creating the basis for the cycling of photosynthetic energy, carbon, and nutrients stored in woody material. Especially fungi can be regarded as key group for understanding and managing biodiversity associated with decaying wood. The before-intervention field sampling was carried out in Autumn 2013 in 33 monitoring plots across the two national Parks. The occurrence at plot level of both Ascomycota and Basidiomycota sporocarps was surveyed. All standing and downed deadwood with a minimum diameter of 10 cm was sampled for sporocarps larger than 1 mm, and information on decay class and fungal morphogroups

  2. Făgetele primare din România, o contribuţie la Patrimoniul Mondial UNESCO [Romania’s primary beech forests, a contribution to UNESCO World Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iovu Adrian Biriș

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The World Heritage List (WHL of UNESCO currently comprises 1007 properties in 161 States Parties. Most of these sites are cultural (779 and only 197 are natural sites whereas 31 are mixed sites with outstanding universal cultural and natural values. Romania has only 8 sites registered on WHL of UNESCO, 7 cultural sites and one natural site – The Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve - being underrepresented in relation with the real value of its natural patrimony. Beech is a deciduous species exclusively European and the beech forests constitute the potential natural vegetation for the temperate zone of Europe. Beech forests represent an outstanding and globally unparalleled example of the ongoing ecological processes of post-glacial expansion. This is a key factor for supporting the nomination of beech forests under WHL of UNESCO. Romania, the country with the larges area of beech forests and well preserved primary beech forests, has an important responsibility for the conservation of an adequate and representative network of beech forests. Considering these aspects, the Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change - Department for Waters, Forests and Fisheries, National Forest Administration – Romsilva, Forest Research and Management Institute, WWF Danube-Carpathian Programme Office and Greenpeace CEE Romania Foundation have signed a protocol for collaboration having as target the selection of certain beech forests to be included on the WHL of UNESCO. Keywords

  3. Identification of mega-environments in Europe and effect of allelic variation at maturity E loci on adaptation of European soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurasch, Alena K; Hahn, Volker; Leiser, Willmar L; Vollmann, Johann; Schori, Arnold; Bétrix, Claude-Alain; Mayr, Bernhard; Winkler, Johanna; Mechtler, Klemens; Aper, Jonas; Sudaric, Aleksandra; Pejic, Ivan; Sarcevic, Hrvoje; Jeanson, Patrice; Balko, Christiane; Signor, Marco; Miceli, Fabiano; Strijk, Peter; Rietman, Hendrik; Muresanu, Eugen; Djordjevic, Vuk; Pospišil, Ana; Barion, Giuseppe; Weigold, Peter; Streng, Stefan; Krön, Matthias; Würschum, Tobias

    2017-05-01

    Soybean cultivation holds great potential for a sustainable agriculture in Europe, but adaptation remains a central issue. In this large mega-environment (MEV) study, 75 European cultivars from five early maturity groups (MGs 000-II) were evaluated for maturity-related traits at 22 locations in 10 countries across Europe. Clustering of the locations based on phenotypic similarity revealed six MEVs in latitudinal direction and suggested several more. Analysis of maturity identified several groups of cultivars with phenotypic similarity that are optimally adapted to the different growing regions in Europe. We identified several haplotypes for the allelic variants at the E1, E2, E3 and E4 genes, with each E haplotype comprising cultivars from different MGs. Cultivars with the same E haplotype can exhibit different flowering and maturity characteristics, suggesting that the genetic control of these traits is more complex and that adaptation involves additional genetic pathways, for example temperature requirement. Taken together, our study allowed the first unified assessment of soybean-growing regions in Europe and illustrates the strong effect of photoperiod on soybean adaptation and MEV classification, as well as the effects of the E maturity loci for soybean adaptation in Europe. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. THE ROLE OF TREEFALL COMPLEXES IN REGENERATION OF TREE SPECIES AND IN MAINTAINING OF BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY OF NATURAL BEECH AND DARK CONIFEROUS-BEECH FORESTS OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Ripa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of maintaining biological diversity mechanisms is important for elaborating methods for the restoration of natural forests that most fully implement ecosystem functions. The objectives of work are: to identify intact beech and dark coniferous-beech forests of the Carpathians on the basis of analyzing history of nature management and field studies; to characterize the population structure of the main tree species in the intact forests of the Carpathians; to determine the renewal of various species of trees, shrubs, herbs and bryophytes to treefall microsites in the forest types studied. The objects of the research are monodominant beech forests and mixed (dark coniferous-beech forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians, in which beech (Fagus sylvatica, white fir (Abies alba and European spruce (Picea abies are the main dominant of tree sinusia. Monodominant beech forests (the age of stands 250–350 years were studied on 9 sample plots (from 1 to 1.05 ha laid in the Ugolsky forest range of the Carpathian Biosphere Reserve at an altitude of 600 to 1000 m above sea level, and also on the 2 sample plots (from 1 to 1.09 hectares laid in the Lower Volovets forestry at an altitude of 600–800 meters above sea level. Uneven-aged dark coniferous-beech forest (the age of forest stands is 250–300 years old was explored on one sample plot (1.2 ha laid in the Podlisnivsky forestry of the Carpathian National Park at an altitude of 750 m above sea level. Population analysis of the main tree and shrub species as well as geobotanical releves was made on the sample plots. Treefall microsite complexes were investigated to identify the peculiarities in the location of tree undergrowth, herb and moss species in beech and mixed forests. The following elements of treefall microsite complex were singled out: treefall pit, treefall mound and tree trunk. At each treefall microsite complex the research was carried out according to the following scheme: an

  5. Beech wood export and import trends in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranković Nenad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available By the establishment and analysis of the model of beech wood export and export trends in Serbia (by quantity and value, for the period 1988-2002 the regularities of the changes of their magnitude in time were defined. On this basis, the relations of import and export trends were analyzed. Based on the study elements, the potentials of beech sawlog and beech sawnwood export, as well as the potential economic effects, were pointed out.

  6. Edaphic potentials of beech forests on Brezovica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Milan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the soils in the montane beech forest (Fagetum moesiacae montanum Jov. 53 in the management units "Južni Kuèaj II" and "Bogovina I", on the mountain massif Brezovica. Soil genesis in the beech forests of Brezovica, along with vegetation and relief, was affected by the character of parent rock. The study soils occur over two types of bedrock: limestone and argilloschist The soil types and sub-types are defined based on the profile morphology, parent rock and pedogenetic processes Two types of soil were analysed on limestone: black earth (calcomelanosol and brown soil (calcocambisol. Two sub-types of black earth were defined: organomineral and brownised. There are two varieties of organomineral black earth: colluvial and lithic. Also two sub-types of brown soils were defined and: typical and illimerised. The soils on limestone are characterised by great spatial variability. Different combinations of soil formations occur on a small area. Soil combinations consist of two or three development phases, the most represented of which are the following: organomineral black earth - brownised black earth; organomineral black earth - brownised black earth - typical brown soil; typical brown soil - illimerised soil Typical brown soil is formed on argilloschists and it occurs in two forms: medium deep, medium skeletal acid brown soil and deep, poorly skeletal acid brown soil The most productive sites of the montane beech forest on Brezovica are deep acid brown soils and the soil combination: typical brown soil - illimerised soil on limestone.

  7. A European study of E-business maturity and ICT-benefits: is there a conditional relationship?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, R.; Constantiou, I.

    2009-01-01

    The present study explores the relationship between the e-business maturity and the perceived benefits from (Information and Communication Technologies) ICT at the firm level. We aim to debunk this relationship in terms of its strength and stability, and to explore the conditions which may influence

  8. Ecological species group—Environmental factors relationships in unharvested beech forests in the north of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Naghi Adel; Hassan Pourbabaei; Daniel C. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Beech forests are the richest forest community in Iran because they are both economically and environmentally valuable. The greatest forest volume occurs in Iran's beech forests. Forests dominated by oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipskey) cover about 565,000 ha and represent the total area of indigenous forests in Guilan Province. A system for classifying beech...

  9. Major Changes in Growth Rate and Growth Variability of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L. Related to Soil Alteration and Climate Change in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Latte

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Global change—particularly climate change, forest management, and atmospheric deposition—has significantly altered forest growing conditions in Europe. The influences of these changes on beech growth (Fagus sylvatica L. were investigated for the past 80 years in Belgium, using non-linear mixed effects models on ring-width chronologies of 149 mature and dominant beech trees (87–186 years old. The effects of the developmental stage (i.e., increasing tree size were filtered out in order to focus on time-dependent growth changes. Beech radial growth was divided into a low-frequency signal (=growth rate, mainly influenced by forest management and atmospheric deposition, and into a high-frequency variability (≈mean sensitivity, mainly influenced by climate change. Between 1930 and 2008, major long-term and time-dependent changes were highlighted. The beech growth rate has decreased by about 38% since the 1950–1960s, and growth variability has increased by about 45% since the 1970–1980s. Our results indicate that (1 before the 1980s, beech growth rate was not predominantly impacted by climate change but rather by soil alteration (i.e., soil compaction and/or nitrogen deposition; and (2 since the 1980s, climate change induced more frequent and intense yearly growth reductions that amplified the growth rate decrease. The highlighted changes were similar in the two ecoregions of Belgium, although more pronounced in the lowlands than in the uplands.

  10. Comparisons of protein profiles of beech bark disease resistant and susceptible American beech (Fagus grandifolia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Beech bark disease is an insect-fungus complex that damages and often kills American beech trees and has major ecological and economic impacts on forests of the northeastern United States and southeastern Canadian forests. The disease begins when exotic beech scale insects feed on the bark of trees, and is followed by infection of damaged bark tissues by one of the Neonectria species of fungi. Proteomic analysis was conducted of beech bark proteins from diseased trees and healthy trees in areas heavily infested with beech bark disease. All of the diseased trees had signs of Neonectria infection such as cankers or fruiting bodies. In previous tests reported elsewhere, all of the diseased trees were demonstrated to be susceptible to the scale insect and all of the healthy trees were demonstrated to be resistant to the scale insect. Sixteen trees were sampled from eight geographically isolated stands, the sample consisting of 10 healthy (scale-resistant) and 6 diseased/infested (scale-susceptible) trees. Results Proteins were extracted from each tree and analysed in triplicate by isoelectric focusing followed by denaturing gel electrophoresis. Gels were stained and protein spots identified and intensity quantified, then a statistical model was fit to identify significant differences between trees. A subset of BBD differential proteins were analysed by mass spectrometry and matched to known protein sequences for identification. Identified proteins had homology to stress, insect, and pathogen related proteins in other plant systems. Protein spots significantly different in diseased and healthy trees having no stand or disease-by-stand interaction effects were identified. Conclusions Further study of these proteins should help to understand processes critical to resistance to beech bark disease and to develop biomarkers for use in tree breeding programs and for the selection of resistant trees prior to or in early stages of BBD development in stands. Early

  11. 24.000 ha de păduri primare de fag, propunerea României pentru Patrimoniul Mondial UNESCO [24000 ha of primary beech forests, the Romanian proposal in UNESCO World Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biriș I.-A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Under the coordination of The Ministry of Environment, Waters and Forests, about 24000 ha of primeval beech forests located in 8 natural protected area from the Romanian Carpathians were included for inscription into the World Heritage List to extend the „Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and the Ancient Beech Forests of Germany” (1133bis. The extended World Heritage property is proposed to carry the joint new name: „Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe”. Supported by 13 European countries (Romania included, the nomination proposes to establish a transnational serial UNESCO property, with a surface of more that 95000 ha, that reunites the most representative and well preserved beech forests from the natural areal of this species in order to illustrate the ecological process of extension - that is in progress at present - of beech on the European continent. The process of choosing these canditate sites was thought for completing the existent sites and for providing arguments and reflecting better on the extension of species distribution at the level of Europe. At the end of January 2016, Austria, the coordinator country of the nomination process at the international level transmitted the common dossier for the nomination to the committee of evaluation of UNESCO World Heritage List.

  12. Improving the utilization of beech sawdust by sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenak, I.; Boda, K.; Jalc, D.; Lenart, J.; Kmet, V.; Havassy, I.; Kosta, K.

    1991-01-01

    Defibration following treatment with 1% H 2 SO 4 as an impregnation agent increased the in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility of beech sawdust to 59.5%. Digestibilities of barley straw, wheat straw, maize stover and bagasse were also increased through defibration without prior chemical treatment. Increased DM degradability was also reflected in better digestibility of fibre components and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. The inclusion of treated beech sawdust in the diet at levels of up to 20% had no negative effect on lamb performance. Studies with 15 N labelled urea did not show clear positive effect on nitrogen utilization when sheep were fed the treated beech sawdust. Immobilized cellulase and the addition of branched-chain VFA significantly increased the in vitro degradation of treated beech sawdust. Methanol extract of treated beech sawdust had an inhibitory effect on the growth of Streptococus bovis and Lactobacillus plantarum and reduced in vitro fermentation of rumen fluid. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 10 tabs

  13. Screening for resistance to beech bark disease: Improvements and results from seedlings and grafted field selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; Mary E. Mason; David W. Carey

    2012-01-01

    Beech bark disease (BBD) is an insect-disease complex that has been killing American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) trees since the accidental introduction of the beech scale insect (Cryptococcus fagisuga) to Canada around 1890. Insect infestation is followed by infection with Neonectria ditissima or

  14. Development of molecular tools for use in beech bark disease management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason; C. Dana Nelson; Abdelali Barakat; John E. Carlson; David. Neale

    2011-01-01

    Beech bark disease (BBD) has been killing American beech trees in eastern North America since the late 1890s. The disease is initiated by feeding of the beech scale insect, Cryptococcus fagisuga, which leads to the development of small fissures in the bark.

  15. Wood structural differences between northern and southern beech provenances growing at a moderate site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilmann, B; Sterck, F; Wegner, L; de Vries, S M G; von Arx, G; Mohren, G M J; den Ouden, J; Sass-Klaassen, U

    2014-08-01

    Planting provenances originating from southern to northern locations has been discussed as a strategy to speed up species migration and mitigate negative effects of climate change on forest stability and productivity. Especially for drought-susceptible species such as European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), the introduction of drought-tolerant provenances from the south could be an option. Yet, beech has been found to respond plastically to environmental conditions, suggesting that the climate on the plantation site might be more important for tree growth than the genetic predisposition of potentially drought-adapted provenances. In this study, we compared the radial growth, wood-anatomical traits and leaf phenology of four beech provenances originating from southern (Bulgaria, France) and northern locations (Sweden, the Netherlands) and planted in a provenance trial in the Netherlands. The distribution of precipitation largely differs between the sites of origin. The northern provenances experience a maximum and the southern provenances experience a minimum of rainfall in summer. We compared tree productivity and the anatomy of the water-conducting system for the period from 2000 to 2010, including the drought year 2003. In addition, tree mortality and the timing of leaf unfolding in spring were analysed for the years 2001, 2007 and 2012. Comparison of these traits in the four beech provenances indicates the influence of genetic predisposition and local environmental factors on the performance of these provenances under moderate site conditions. Variation in radial growth was controlled by environment, although the growth level slightly differed due to genetic background. The Bulgarian provenance had an efficient water-conducting system which was moreover unaffected by the drought in 2003, pointing to a high ability of this provenance to cope well with dry conditions. In addition, the Bulgarian provenance showed up as most productive in terms of height and radial

  16. Height-Diameter Models for Mixed-Species Forests Consisting of Spruce, Fir, and Beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petráš Rudolf

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Height-diameter models define the general relationship between the tree height and diameter at each growth stage of the forest stand. This paper presents generalized height-diameter models for mixed-species forest stands consisting of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst., Silver fir (Abies alba L., and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. from Slovakia. The models were derived using two growth functions from the exponential family: the two-parameter Michailoff and three-parameter Korf functions. Generalized height-diameter functions must normally be constrained to pass through the mean stand diameter and height, and then the final growth model has only one or two parameters to be estimated. These “free” parameters are then expressed over the quadratic mean diameter, height and stand age and the final mathematical form of the model is obtained. The study material included 50 long-term experimental plots located in the Western Carpathians. The plots were established 40-50 years ago and have been repeatedly measured at 5 to 10-year intervals. The dataset includes 7,950 height measurements of spruce, 21,661 of fir and 5,794 of beech. As many as 9 regression models were derived for each species. Although the “goodness of fit” of all models showed that they were generally well suited for the data, the best results were obtained for silver fir. The coefficient of determination ranged from 0.946 to 0.948, RMSE (m was in the interval 1.94-1.97 and the bias (m was -0.031 to 0.063. Although slightly imprecise parameter estimation was established for spruce, the estimations of the regression parameters obtained for beech were quite less precise. The coefficient of determination for beech was 0.854-0.860, RMSE (m 2.67-2.72, and the bias (m ranged from -0.144 to -0.056. The majority of models using Korf’s formula produced slightly better estimations than Michailoff’s, and it proved immaterial which estimated parameter was fixed and which parameters

  17. Plasticity in gas-exchange physiology of mature Scots pine and European larch drive short- and long-term adjustments to changes in water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Linda M; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Gessler, Arthur; Buchmann, Nina; Lévesque, Mathieu; Rigling, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Adjustment mechanisms of trees to changes in soil-water availability over long periods are poorly understood, but crucial to improve estimates of forest development in a changing climate. We compared mature trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and European larch (Larix decidua) growing along water-permeable channels (irrigated) and under natural conditions (control) at three sites in inner-Alpine dry valleys. At two sites, the irrigation had been stopped in the 1980s. We combined measurements of basal area increment (BAI), tree height and gas-exchange physiology (Δ 13 C) for the period 1970-2009. At one site, the Δ 13 C of irrigated pine trees was higher than that of the control in all years, while at the other sites, it differed in pine and larch only in years with dry climatic conditions. During the first decade after the sudden change in water availability, the BAI and Δ 13 C of originally irrigated pine and larch trees decreased instantly, but subsequently reached higher levels than those of the control by 2009 (15 years afterwards). We found a high plasticity in the gas-exchange physiology of pine and larch and site-specific responses to changes in water availability. Our study highlights the ability of trees to adjust to new conditions, thus showing high resilience. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Gap Dynamics and Structure of Two Old-Growth Beech Forest Remnants in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugani, Tihomir; Diaci, Jurij; Hladnik, David

    2013-01-01

    Context Due to a long history of intensive forest exploitation, few European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) old-growth forests have been preserved in Europe. Material and Methods We studied two beech forest reserves in southern Slovenia. We examined the structural characteristics of the two forest reserves based on data from sample plots and complete inventory obtained from four previous forest management plans. To gain a better understanding of disturbance dynamics, we used aerial imagery to study the characteristics of canopy gaps over an 11-year period in the Kopa forest reserve and a 20-year period in the Gorjanci forest reserve. Results The results suggest that these forests are structurally heterogeneous over small spatial scales. Gap size analysis showed that gaps smaller than 500 m2 are the dominant driving force of stand development. The percentage of forest area in canopy gaps ranged from 3.2 to 4.5% in the Kopa forest reserve and from 9.1 to 10.6% in the Gorjanci forest reserve. These forests exhibit relatively high annual rates of coverage by newly established (0.15 and 0.25%) and closed (0.08 and 0.16%) canopy gaps. New gap formation is dependant on senescent trees located throughout the reserve. Conclusion We conclude that these stands are not even-sized, but rather unevenly structured. This is due to the fact that the disturbance regime is characterized by low intensity, small-scale disturbances. PMID:23308115

  19. Beech forests of Azerbaijan: The modern condition, age structure and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.M. Hasanov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Azerbaijan is a country with low forest cover, only 11.8% of the territory is covered with forests. All forests perform important water-soil-protection functions. In forests, naturally grow 107 species of trees and 328 shrubs species. Despite the fact that there are many species in dendroflora, only 10 tree species have economic value for the forest sector of the country. Beech (31.68%, oak (27.40% and hornbeam (26.01% are growing in 85.09% of forested areas. Beech forests are spread on 327 thousand hectares from 989,5 of total forest lands of he Republic. Beech forests are a source of high-quality wood and beech nuts. All beech forests grow in mountains at heights of 600–800 and 1600–1800 m above the sea level and performing important ecological functions. Until recently there were no problems with natural renewal of the beech forests, but now the regeneration of beech forests is alarming. In recent years, the productivity and density of beech forests decreased substantially, the natural regeneration proceeds unsatisfactorily and, consequently, reduction of beech forests takes place. We have researched 33,8 thousand hectares of beech forests of the Lesser Caucasus, their natural regeneration and made analysis of age structure of forests. Keywords: Fagus orientalis, Beech forests, Silviculture, Natural regeneration, Age class

  20. Disintegration of beech wood char during thermal conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsgaul, Claus

    In the present work the processes occurring in the structures of slowly pyrolysed beech wood char during thermal gasification have been investigated. Emphasis was put on physical changes and gas transport properties during conversion. The highly anisotropic structure of wood was preserved in its ...

  1. Experimental Study on Dry Torrefaction of Beech Wood and Miscanthus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyerusalem M. Gucho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction is a thermochemical pre-treatment process for upgrading the properties of biomass to resemble those of fossil fuels such as coal. Biomass properties of particular interest are chemical composition, physical property and combustion characteristics. In this work, torrefaction of beech wood and miscanthus (sinensis was carried out to study the influence of torrefaction temperature (240–300 °C and residence time (15–150 min on the aforementioned properties of the biomass. Results of the study revealed that torrefaction temperature has a significant influence on mass and energy yields, whereas the influence of the residence time becomes more apparent for the higher torrefaction temperatures (>280 °C. Torrefied miscanthus resulted in higher energy densification compared to beech wood for a residence time of 30 min. A significant improvement in grindability of the torrefied beech wood was obtained even for lightly torrefied beech wood (at 280 °C and 15 min of residence time. Observation from the combustion study showed that the ignition temperature is slightly affected by the torrefaction temperature. As a whole, the torrefaction temperature determines the characteristics of the torrefied fuel compared to other process parameters like residence time. Furthermore, with optimal process conditions, torrefaction produces a solid fuel with combustion reactivity and porosity comparable to raw biomass, whereas grindability and heating value are comparable to low quality coal.

  2. Experimental Study on Dry Torrefaction of Beech Wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gucho, Eyerusalem Merin; Shahzad, K.; Bramer, Eduard A.; Akhtar, N.A.; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Torrefaction is a thermochemical pre-treatment process for upgrading the properties of biomass to resemble those of fossil fuels such as coal. Biomass properties of particular interest are chemical composition, physical property and combustion characteristics. In this work, torrefaction of beech

  3. Present state of beech bark disease in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus J. Lang

    1983-01-01

    Beech bark disease can be found at present time in young and old stands (20-150 years old) of Fagus sylvatica. The present state of the disease may be described as "normal" and apart from some cases, it is no threat to the existence of the stands.

  4. Hot callusing for propagation of American beech by grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Carey; Mary E. Mason; Paul Bloese; Jennifer L. Koch

    2013-01-01

    To increase grafting success rate, a hot callus grafting system was designed and implemented as part of a multiagency collaborative project to manage beech bark disease (BBD) through the establishment of regional BBD-resistant grafted seed orchards. Five years of data from over 2000 hot callus graft attempts were analyzed using a logistic regression model to determine...

  5. Soil base saturation combines with beech bark disease to influence composition and structure of sugar maple-beech forests in an acid rain-impacted region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory B. Lawrence; Todd C. McDonnell; Timothy J. Sullivan; Martin Dovciak; Scott W. Bailey; Michael R. Antidormi; Michael R. Zarfos

    2017-01-01

    Sugar maple, an abundant and highly valued tree species in eastern North America, has experienced decline from soil calcium (Ca) depletion by acidic deposition, while beech, which often coexists with sugar maple, has been afflicted with beech bark disease (BBD) over the same period. To investigate how variations in soil base saturation combine with effects of BBD in...

  6. Flux-profile relationships over a fetch limited beech forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Jensen, N.O.

    2005-01-01

    The influence of an internal boundary layer and a roughness sublayer on flux-profile relationships for momentum and sensible heat have been investigated for a closed beech forest canopy with limited fetch conditions. The influence was quantified by derivation of local scaling functions for sensible...... heat flux and momentum (phi(h) and phi(m)) and analysed as a function of atmospheric stability and fetch. For heat, the influences of the roughness sublayer and the internal boundary layer were in agreement with previous studies. For momentum, the strong vertical gradient of the flow just above...... the canopy top for some wind sectors led to an increase in phi(m), a feature that has not previously been observed. For a fetch of 500 m over the beech forest during neutral atmospheric conditions, there is no height range at the site where profiles can be expected to be logarithmic with respect to the local...

  7. China's Beech Forests in the Pre-Quaternary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu-Sheng

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Fagus in China is never dominant in Late Cretaceous and Tertiary floras although it might reach its highest diversity in the Miocene. The genus Fagus was more widely distributed during the Palaeogene than in the Neogene. Furthermore, the ecological requirements of Fagus in the Palaeogene seem much broader than those in the Neogene onwards. This is because the Palaeogene floras containing Fagus lived in various conditions from an arid and hot climate to a humid and warm habitat. Additionally, Fagus then coexisted with many kinds of hygrophilous, thermophilous and xerophilous plants. However, the wide distribution, broad ecological adaptation and species composition changed greatly in the Neogene. The Neogene Fagus-containing floras are slightly more similar to the modern beech forests than the Palaeogene ones, although a big difference remains. Chinese fossil data document the post-Tertiary development of the modern beech forests. doi:10.1002/mmng.19980010111

  8. Beech cupules as keystone structures for soil fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melguizo-Ruiz, Nereida; Jiménez-Navarro, Gerardo; Moya-Laraño, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Facilitative or positive interactions are ubiquitous in nature and play a fundamental role in the configuration of ecological communities. In particular, habitat modification and niche construction, in which one organism locally modifies abiotic conditions and favours other organisms by buffering the effects of adverse environmental factors, are among the most relevant facilitative interactions. In line with this, 'keystone structures', which provide resources, refuge, or advantageous services decisive for other species, may allow the coexistence of various species and thus considerably contribute to diversity maintenance. Beech cupules are woody husks harbouring beech fruits that remain in the forest soil for relatively long periods of time. In this study, we explored the potential role of these cupules in the distribution and maintenance of the soil fauna inhabiting the leaf litter layer. We experimentally manipulated cupule availability and soil moisture in the field to determine if such structures are limiting and can provide moist shelter to soil animals during drought periods, contributing to minimize desiccation risks. We measured invertebrate abundances inside relative to outside the cupules, total abundances in the leaf litter and animal body sizes, in both dry and wet experimental plots. We found that these structures are preferentially used by the most abundant groups of smaller soil animals-springtails, mites and enchytraeids-during droughts. Moreover, beech cupules can be limiting, as an increase in use was found with higher cupule densities, and are important resources for many small soil invertebrates, driving the spatial structure of the soil community and promoting higher densities in the leaf litter, probably through an increase in habitat heterogeneity. We propose that fruit woody structures should be considered 'keystone structures' that contribute to soil community maintenance. Therefore, beech trees may indirectly facilitate soil fauna

  9. THE QUALITY OF THE SURFACE AT THE BEECH WOODTURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela CHERCIU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There have been experiments made with outside cylindrical beech woodturning with low cutting speed, and feed successively changed. We study, qualitative rather than quantitative, the roughnesss of the surface achieved. It interprets the appearance of each surface based on the theory of cutting considerations. Resulted surface images are given, photographed with a camera and microscope. It appears that here are no propellers generated by the cutting tool nose on the cylindrical part, excepting the situation of using high feeds.

  10. How closely does stem growth of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) relate to net carbon gain under experimentally enhanced ozone stress?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Winkler, J. Barbro; Löw, Markus; Nunn, Angela J.; Kuptz, Daniel; Häberle, Karl-Heinz; Reiter, Ilja M.; Matyssek, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that O 3 -induced changes in leaf-level photosynthetic parameters have the capacity of limiting the seasonal photosynthetic carbon gain of adult beech trees. To this end, canopy-level photosynthetic carbon gain and respiratory carbon loss were assessed in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) by using a physiologically based model, integrating environmental and photosynthetic parameters. The latter were derived from leaves at various canopy positions under the ambient O 3 regime, as prevailing at the forest site (control), or under an experimental twice-ambient O 3 regime (elevated O 3 ), as released through a free-air canopy O 3 fumigation system. Gross carbon gain at the canopy-level declined by 1.7%, while respiratory carbon loss increased by 4.6% under elevated O 3 . As this outcome only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth, O 3 -induced changes in allocation are referred to and discussed as crucial in quantitatively linking carbon gain with stem growth. - Highlights: ► We model O 3 -induced changes in the photosynthetic carbon gain of adult beech trees. ► Elevated O 3 decreases gross carbon gain but increases respiratory carbon loss. ► Reduction in net carbon gain only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth. ► O 3 effects on the whole-tree allocation is crucial in addition to carbon gains. - Reduction in net carbon gain at the canopy level only partly accounts for the decline in stem growth under elevated ozone.

  11. Effect of stand edge on the natural regeneration of spruce, beech and Douglas-fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumír Dobrovolný

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our work aimed at studying the strategy of woody plants regeneration during the regeneration of a spruce stand with the admixture of beech and Douglas-fir by border cutting (NW-SE aspect on acidic sites of higher elevations in the Bohemian-Moravian Upland. Spruce is better adapted to bear shade than Douglas-fir. Nevertheless, in optimal light conditions up to a distance of ca. 35 m (about 16% DIFFSF from the stand edge, the Douglas-fir can put the spruce into danger as to height growth. By contrast to beech, the density of spruce is significantly higher within the distance of 45 m (about 15% DIFFSF from the stand edge but further on the situation would change to the benefit of beech. The density of Douglas-fir significantly dominates over beech within a distance of 35 m from the stand edge; from 55 m (less than 15% DIFFSF, the situation changes in favour of beech. Beech can survive in full shade deep in the stand core waiting for its opportunity to come. As compared to spruce and Douglas-fir, the height growth of beech was at all times significantly greater at a distance of 25 m from the stand edge. Converted to practical conditions, spruce and Douglas-fir with individually admixed beech seedlings showed good prosperity approximately up to a distance of one stand height from the edge. A mixture of spruce and beech did well at a greater distance but good prosperity at a distance of 2–3 stand heights was shown only by beech. Thus, border regeneration eliminates disadvantages of the climatic extremes of clear-cutting and specifics of shelterwood felling during which one – usually shade-tolerant tree species dominates in the natural regeneration (e.g. beech.

  12. Ecological species group—Environmental factors relationships in unharvested beech forests in the north of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Naghi Adel; Hassan Pourbabaei; Daniel C. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Beech forests are the richest forest community in Iran because they are both economically and environmentally valuable. The greatest forest volume occurs in Iran's beech forests. Forests dominated by oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipskey) cover about 565,000 ha and represent the total area of indigenous forests in Guilan Province. A system...

  13. Litter quality effects of beech and hornbeam on undergrowth species diversity in Luxembourg forests on limestone and decalcified marl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Question: Do beech and hornbeam differ in undergrowth species diversity, and could these differences be explained by mass of the organic layer, pH or soil moisture? Could species richness under beech and hornbeam be explained by differences in N dynamics? Location: Ancient forests dominated by beech

  14. The role of granivorous rodents in beech forest regeneration in the Beskydy Mts. (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heroldová, Marta; Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Homolka, Miloslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2008), s. 131-134 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : beech mast biomass * granivorous rodents * daily consumption rate * mountain beech forest * regeneration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  15. Timely salvage can reduce losses from beech scale-Nectria attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Crosby; J. C. Bjorkbom

    1958-01-01

    Beech is one of our more common hardwoods. It is an important component of the northern hardwood forest type, which occupies about 29 percent of the commercial forest land in the New England and Middle Atlantic States. In terms of total sawtimber volume, beech follows close on sugar maple, red oak, and yellow birch. It is used for a variety of products such as...

  16. Arthropod diversity in pristine vs. managed beech forests in Transcarpathia (Western Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasyl Chumak

    2015-01-01

    We conclude that biodiversity in pristine beech forests is not generally higher than in managed beech forests. However, the much higher amount of dead wood in pristine forests provides a source habitat for saproxylic species spreading into managed forest plots in the same region, but not to distant forests, far from virgin forests, such as in Western Europe.

  17. Space sequestration below ground in old-growth spruce-beech forests-signs for facilitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolte, Andreas; Kampf, Friederike; Hilbrig, Lutz

    2013-01-01

    Scientists are currently debating the effects of mixing tree species for the complementary resource acquisition in forest ecosystems. In four unmanaged old-growth spruce-beech forests in strict nature reserves in southern Sweden and northern Germany we assessed forest structure and fine rooting profiles and traits (≤2 mm) by fine root sampling and the analysis of fine root morphology and biomass. These studies were conducted in selected tree groups with four different interspecific competition perspectives: (1) spruce as a central tree, (2) spruce as competitor, (3) beech as a central tree, and (4) beech as competitor. Mean values of life fine root attributes like biomass (FRB), length (FRL), and root area index (RAI) were significantly lower for spruce than for beech in mixed stands. Vertical profiles of fine root attributes adjusted to one unit of basal area (BA) exhibited partial root system stratification when central beech is growing with spruce competitors. In this constellation, beech was able to raise its specific root length (SRL) and therefore soil exploration efficiency in the subsoil, while increasing root biomass partitioning into deeper soil layers. According to relative values of fine root attributes (rFRA), asymmetric below-ground competition was observed favoring beech over spruce, in particular when central beech trees are admixed with spruce competitors. We conclude that beech fine rooting is facilitated in the presence of spruce by lowering competitive pressure compared to intraspecific competition whereas the competitive pressure for spruce is increased by beech admixture. Our findings underline the need of spatially differentiated approaches to assess interspecific competition below ground. Single-tree approaches and simulations of below-ground competition are required to focus rather on microsites populated by tree specimens as the basic spatial study area.

  18. Space sequestration below ground in old-growth spruce-beech forests – signs for facilitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eBolte

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Scientists are currently debating the effects of mixing tree species for the complementary resource acquisition in forest ecosystems. In four unmanaged old-growth spruce-beech forests in strict nature reserves in southern Sweden and northern Germany we assessed forest structure and fine rooting profiles and traits (≤ 2 mm by fine root sampling and the analysis of fine root morphology and biomass. These studies were conducted in selected tree groups with four different interspecific competition perspectives: (1 spruce as a central tree, (2 spruce as competitor, (3 beech as a central tree, and (4 beech as competitor. Mean values of life fine root attributes like biomass (FRB, length (FRL, and root area index (RAI were significantly lower for spruce than for beech in mixed stands. Vertical profiles of fine root attributes adjusted to one unit of basal area (BA exhibited partial root system stratification when central beech is growing with spruce competitors. In this constellation, beech was able to raise its specific root length (SRL and therefore soil exploration efficiency in the subsoil, while increasing root biomass partitioning into deeper soil layers. According to relative values of fine root attributes (rFRA, asymmetric below-ground competition was observed favoring beech over spruce, in particular when central beech trees are admixed with spruce competitors. We conclude that beech fine rooting is facilitated in the presence of spruce by lowering competitive pressure compared to intraspecific competition whereas the competitive pressure for spruce is increased by beech admixture. Our findings underline the need of spatially differentiated approaches to assess interspecific competition below ground. Single-tree approaches and simulations of below-ground competition are required to focus rather on microsites populated by tree specimens as the basic spatial study area.

  19. Cryptogamic stem covers may contribute to nitrous oxide consumption by mature beech trees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháčová, Kateřina; Maier, M.; Svobodová, Kateřina; Lang, F.; Urban, Otmar

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, OCT (2017), č. článku 13243. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015061; GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-18112Y Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : nitrous oxide * N2O * field conditions * cryptogamic stem Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  20. Lignification in beech grown at elevated CO2 concentrations: interaction with nutrient availability and leaf maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaschke, L; Forstreuter, M.; Sheppard, L. J.; Leith, K.; Murray, M. B.; Polle, A.

    2002-01-01

    Results of a study undertaken to investigate contradictory observations reported in the literature to the effect that growth in elevated carbon dioxide affects ontogeny, are discussed. Results of this study showed that seedlings grown at elevated carbon dioxide had nitrogen concentrations of about 15 per cent lower than seedlings grown in ambient carbon dioxide. Elevated carbon dioxide caused increased growth and biomass production in trees with a medium to high nutrient supply, but had no effect on growth of trees with a low nutrient supply rate. Because elevated carbon dioxide enhanced seedling growth in the high nutrient supply treatments, the total amount of lignin produced per seedling was higher in these treatments. Overall, the results suggest that carbon dioxide availability does not directly affect lignin concentrations, but affects them indirectly through the effects on or an interaction with nitrogen supply and growth. In seedlings, elevated carbon dioxide reduced lignin concentration on a dry mass basis, indicating diminished wood quality in a carbon dioxide-enriched atmosphere. 51 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  1. Differentiating between hospitals according to the "maturity'' of quality improvement systems: a new classification scheme in a sample of European hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombarts, M. J. M. H.; Rupp, I.; Vallejo, P.; Klazinga, N. S.; Suñol, R.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: This study, part of the Methods of Assessing Response to Quality Improvement Strategies (MARQuIS) research project focusing on cross-border patients in Europe, investigated quality policies and improvement in healthcare systems across the European Union (EU). The aim was to develop a

  2. Mixed-Species Effects on Soil C and N Stocks, C/N Ratio and pH Using a Transboundary Approach in Adjacent Common Garden Douglas-Fir and Beech Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seid Muhie Dawud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mixed forest of Douglas-fir and beech has been suggested as one of the possible future forest types in Northwest Europe but the effects of this mixed forest on soil properties relative to monoculture stands are unknown. In a transboundary investigation of adjacent common garden Douglas-fir and beech stands, we determined the effects on topsoil properties. However, responses of C and N stocks, the C/N ratio and pH were site- and soil layer-specific and were mainly single-sided and without synergistic effects. Beech reduced the soil C and N stocks in Douglas-fir at the nutrient-poor site, caused an increase in the C/N ratio in the forest floor and mineral soil at both nutrient-poor and -rich sites, and reduced the acidifying effect of Douglas-fir at the nutrient-poor site. These results do not support the hypothesis that mixture effects would be consistent across sites and soil layers. The lack of synergistic effects may be attributed to the relatively similar litter quality or rooting depth that prevented any larger niche differentiation and complementarity. The results indicate that the transboundary approach within a mature common garden proved useful as a platform to test tree species interactions, and this approach could be explored in soil studies until dedicated mixed-species common gardens reach maturity.

  3. Intra-specific variations in expression of stress-related genes in beech progenies are stronger than drought-induced responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsjens, Caroline; Nguyen Ngoc, Quynh; Guzy, Jonas; Knutzen, Florian; Meier, Ina Christin; Müller, Markus; Finkeldey, Reiner; Leuschner, Christoph; Polle, Andrea

    2014-12-01

    Rapidly decreasing water availability as a consequence of climate change is likely to endanger the range of long-lived tree species. A pressing question is, therefore, whether adaptation to drought exists in important temperate tree species like European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), a wide-spread, dominant forest tree in Central Europe. Here, five beech stands were selected along a precipitation gradient from moist to dry conditions. Neutral genetic markers revealed strong variation within and little differentiation between the populations. Natural regeneration from these stands was transferred to a common garden and used to investigate the expression of genes for abscisic acid (ABA)-related drought signaling [9-cis-epoxy-dioxygenase (NCED), protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C), early responsive to dehydration (ERD)] and stress protection [ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), glutamine amidotransferase (GAT)] that are involved in drought acclimation. We hypothesized that progenies from dry sites exhibit constitutively higher expression levels of ABA- and stress-related genes and are less drought responsive than progenies from moist sites. Transcript levels and stress responses (leaf area loss, membrane integrity) of well-irrigated and drought-stressed plants were measured during the early, mid- and late growing season. Principal component (PC) analysis ordered the beech progenies according to the mean annual precipitation at tree origin by the transcript levels of SOD, ALDH, GAT and ERD as major loadings along PC1. PC2 separated moist and drought treatments with PP2C levels as important loading. These results suggest that phosphatase-mediated signaling is flexibly acclimated to the current requirements, whereas stress compensatory measures exhibited genotypic variation, apparently underlying climate selection. In contrast to expectation, the drought responses were less pronounced than the progeny-related differences and the

  4. Erasing a European biodiversity hot-spot: Open woodlands, veterantrees and mature forests succumb to forestry intensification,succession, and logging in a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Miklín, J.; Čížek, Lukáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 1 (2014), s. 35-41 ISSN 1617-1381 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/1952; GA TA ČR TA02021501 Grant - others:Universita Ostrava(CZ) SGS4/PřF/2012; European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : forest management * land use/land cover change * lower Morava UNESCO biosphere reserve Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1617138113000794

  5. Cascading effects of a highly specialized beech-aphid–fungus interaction on forest regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Cook-Patton

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Specialist herbivores are thought to often enhance or maintain plant diversity within ecosystems, because they prevent their host species from becoming competitively dominant. In contrast, specialist herbivores are not generally expected to have negative impacts on non-hosts. However, we describe a cascade of indirect interactions whereby a specialist sooty mold (Scorias spongiosa colonizes the honeydew from a specialist beech aphid (Grylloprociphilus imbricator, ultimately decreasing the survival of seedlings beneath American beech trees (Fagus grandifolia. A common garden experiment indicated that this mortality resulted from moldy honeydew impairing leaf function rather than from chemical or microbial changes to the soil. In addition, aphids consistently and repeatedly colonized the same large beech trees, suggesting that seedling-depauperate islands may form beneath these trees. Thus this highly specialized three-way beech-aphid–fungus interaction has the potential to negatively impact local forest regeneration via a cascade of indirect effects.

  6. Investigation of beech wood modified by radio-frequency discharge plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, I.; Popelka, A.; Špitalský, Z.; Mičušík, M.; Omastová, M.; Valentin, M.; Sedliačik, J.; Janigová, I.; Kleinová, A.; Šlouf, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 119, September (2015), s. 88-94 ISSN 0042-207X Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : radio-frequency plasma * beech wood * adhesive properties Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.558, year: 2015

  7. Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in set theory and readily available software have enabled social science researchers to bridge the variable-centered quantitative and case-based qualitative methodological paradigms in order to analyze multi-dimensional associations beyond the linearity assumptions, aggregate...... effects, unicausal reduction, and case specificity. Based on the developments in set theoretical thinking in social sciences and employing methods like Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA), and set visualization techniques, in this position paper, we propose...... and demonstrate a new approach to maturity models in the domain of Information Systems. This position paper describes the set-theoretical approach to maturity models, presents current results and outlines future research work....

  8. Partitioning of ecosystem respiration in a beech forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brændholt, Andreas; Ibrom, Andreas; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg

    2018-01-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem respiration (Reco) represents a major component of the global carbon cycle. It consists of many sub-components, such as aboveground plant respiration and belowground root and microbial respiration, each of which may respond differently to abiotic factors, and thus to global...... of Reco in a temperate beech forest at diel, seasonal and annual time scales. Reco was measured by eddy covariance while respiration rates from soil, tree stems and isolated coarse tree roots were measured bi-hourly by an automated closed-chamber system. Soil respiration (Rsoil) was measured in intact...... plots, and heterotrophic Rsoil was measured in trenched plots. Tree stem (Rstem) and coarse root (Rroot) respiration were measured by custom made closed-chambers. We found that the contribution of Rstem to total Reco varied across the year, by only accounting for 6% of Reco during winter and 16% during...

  9. Ash recycling to spruce and beech stands effects on nutrients, growth, nitrogen dynamics and carbon balance; Askaaterfoering till gran- och bokbestaand - effekter paa naering, tillvaext, kvaevedynamik och kolbalans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thelin, Gunnar

    2006-03-15

    Ash recycling is an important part in a modern, sustainable forestry, especially in whole-tree harvest systems. Nutrients lost at harvest are returned to the forest with the wood-ash. In the project the effects of ash treatment on needle and leaf chemistry, tree growth, soil chemistry, soil water chemistry, and carbon and nitrogen dynamics were studied on 23 Norway spruce sites in south-western Sweden and in ten European beech sites in Scania, southern Sweden. On some of the sites there were previously established ash recycling experiments, but on a majority of the sites ash recycling was performed without experimental lay-out and ash and control plots were established afterwards. The most common dose was two tons of self hardened crushed wood-ash and two tons of Mg-lime. On average seven to eight years after ash recycling the results were 1. increased exchangeable stores of base cations in the soil in the beech and the spruce stands 2. increased base saturation in the beech and the spruce stands and increased BC/Al in the spruce stands 3. increased concentrations and ratios to N of P, Ca, Zn, and S in the needles, the increased P-values are especially important since P is close to or below deficiency levels in a majority of the spruce stands 4. decreased K-concentration in the beech leaves 5. increased tree growth with on average 14 % in the ash treated spruce stands compared to the control plots 6. increased carbon and nitrogen amounts in the biomass in the spruce stands 7. tendencies towards increased amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the soil in the beech stands and no effect in the soil in the spruce stands 8. increased concentrations of Ca, Mg, and SO{sub 4} and no effect on ANC in the soil water 9. no effect on potential net mineralization but increased potential nitrification rates 10. decreased concentration of nitrate in the soil water in the beech stands and no effect in the spruce stands 11. lower system N losses in the beech stands and possibly in the

  10. Beyond maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessmer, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Industry has undergone to decades of evolution in experience, technology and business practices. Link-Miles Simulation Corporation (LMSC) has been contracted to build 68 Full Scope Nuclear Simulators during the 1970's and 1980's. Traditional approaches to design, development and testing have been used to satisfy specifications for initial customer requirements. However, the Industry has matured. All U.S. Nuclear Utilities own, or have under contract, at least one simulator. Other industrial nations have centralized training facilities to satisfy the simulator training needs. The customer of the future is knowledgeable and experienced in the development and service of nuclear simulators. The role of the simulator vendor is changing in order to alter the traditional approach for development. Covenants between the vendors and their customers solidify new complementary roles. This paper presents examples of current simulator project development with recommendations for future endeavors

  11. Comparison of ozone uptake and sensitivity between a phytotron study with young beech and a field experiment with adult beech (Fagus sylvatica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, Angela J.; Kozovits, A.R.; Reiter, I.M.; Heerdt, C.; Leuchner, M.; Luetz, C.; Liu, X.; Low, M.; Winkler, J.B.; Grams, T.E.E.; Haeberle, K.-H.; Werner, H.; Fabian, P.; Rennenberg, H.; Matyssek, R.

    2005-01-01

    Chamber experiments on juvenile trees have resulted in severe injury and accelerated loss of leaves along with reduced biomass production under chronically enhanced O 3 levels. In contrast, the few studies conducted on adult forest trees in the field have reported low O 3 sensitivity. In the present study, young beech in phytotrons was more sensitive to O 3 than adult beech in the field, although employed O 3 regimes were similar. The hypotheses tested were that: (1) differences in O 3 uptake were caused by the ontogenetically higher stomatal conductance of young compared to adult trees (2) the experimental settings in the phytotrons enhanced O 3 uptake compared to field conditions, and (3) a low detoxification capacity contributes to the higher O 3 sensitivity of the young trees. The higher O 3 sensitivity of juvenile beech in the phytotrons is demonstrated to relate to both the experimental conditions and the physiological responsiveness inherent to tree age. - Juvenile beech trees in phytotrons are more sensitive to ozone than adult forest trees due to lower defence capacity and growth conditions

  12. Soil base saturation combines with Beech Bark Disease to influence composition and structure of Sugar Maple-Beech forests in an acid rain-impacted region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gregory B.; McDonnell, Todd C.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Dovciak, Martin; Bailey, Scott W.; Antidormi, Michael; Zarfos, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    Sugar maple, an abundant and highly valued tree species in eastern North America, has experienced decline from soil calcium (Ca) depletion by acidic deposition, while beech, which often coexists with sugar maple, has been afflicted with beech bark disease (BBD) over the same period. To investigate how variations in soil base saturation combine with effects of BBD in influencing stand composition and structure, measurements of soils, canopy, subcanopy, and seedlings were taken in 21 watersheds in the Adirondack region of NY (USA), where sugar maple and beech were the predominant canopy species and base saturation of the upper B horizon ranged from 4.4 to 67%. The base saturation value corresponding to the threshold for Al mobilization (16.8%) helped to define the species composition of canopy trees and seedlings. Canopy vigor and diameter at breast height (DBH) were positively correlated (P soils, soil-Ca depletion and BBD may have created opportunities for gap-exploiting species such as red maple and black cherry, whereas in high-base saturation soils, sugar maple dominated the canopy. Where soils were beginning to recover from acidic deposition effects, sugar maple DBH and basal area increased progressively from 2000 to 2015, whereas for beech, average DBH did not change and basal area did not increase after 2010.

  13. Harvested wood products and carbon sink in a young beech high forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilli R

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol (KP, Italy has elected forest management as additional human-induced activity to attain the goal of reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The whole forest area not subjected to afforestation, reforestation or deforestation processes since 1990 will be considered as managed forest. In order to analyse different management strategies, the Carbon-Pro Project, involving 9 partners of the European CADSES area, considered a young beech high forest (ex-coppice, defined as "transitory silvicultural system" as a common case study for the Pre-alps region. Using data collected with forest plans during the period 1983 - 2005, aboveground and belowground forest carbon stock and sink of a specific forest compartment were estimated by the Carbon Stock Method proposed by the IPCC Guidelines. In order to apply this approach 41 trees were cut and a species-specific allometric equation was developed. Considering the aboveground tree biomass, the carbon sink amounts to 1.99 and 1.84 Mg C ha-1 y-1 for the period 1983 - 1994 and 1994 - 2005 respectively. Adding the belowground tree biomass, the estimated sink amounts to 2.59 and 2.39 Mg C ha-1 y-1 for each period. Taking the harvested wood products (firewood, the total carbon sequestration during the second period is 0.16 Mg C ha-1 y-1. The case study highlights the possible rules for the different management strategies. In effect, the utilisation of the entire increase in aboveground biomass as firewood gives an energy substitution effect but, according to the Marrakesh Accords, it cannot be accounted for the KP. On the other hand, an accumulation strategy gives the maximum possible carbon absorption and retention.

  14. Estimation of beech pyrolysis kinetic parameters by Shuffled Complex Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yanming; Wang, Changjian; Chaos, Marcos; Chen, Ruiyu; Lu, Shouxiang

    2016-01-01

    The pyrolysis kinetics of a typical biomass energy feedstock, beech, was investigated based on thermogravimetric analysis over a wide heating rate range from 5K/min to 80K/min. A three-component (corresponding to hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) parallel decomposition reaction scheme was applied to describe the experimental data. The resulting kinetic reaction model was coupled to an evolutionary optimization algorithm (Shuffled Complex Evolution, SCE) to obtain model parameters. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study in which SCE has been used in the context of thermogravimetry. The kinetic parameters were simultaneously optimized against data for 10, 20 and 60K/min heating rates, providing excellent fits to experimental data. Furthermore, it was shown that the optimized parameters were applicable to heating rates (5 and 80K/min) beyond those used to generate them. Finally, the predicted results based on optimized parameters were contrasted with those based on the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Beech Range Extension and Vegetation History: Pollen Stratigraphy of Two Wisconsin Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Sara L

    1987-12-01

    The pollen stratigraphy of two small lakes in eastern Wisconsin (Radtke Lake, Washington county, and Gass Lake, Manitowoc County) records the Holocene (past 10 000 yr) spread of beech (Fagus grandifolia: Fagaceae). Radiocarbon dates were obtained for the oldest stratigraphic levels at which beech pollen appeared consistently in amounts > 0.5% of terrestrial pollen. A spatially continuous pattern of beech expansion from the north was ruled out, because beech trees grew in Wisconsin by 6000 BP, 2000 yr before adjacent populations were established to the north. Alternative geographic patterns of speed (from the south or east) were spatially discontinuous, requiring seed dispersal distances of perhaps 25-130 km. That beechnuts could be dispersed across such distances suggests (1) the involvement of Blue Jays, Passenger Pigeons, or other vertebrates, and (2) a capacity for reaching climatically controlled range limits, given sufficient time despite such discontinuities in habitat. A lag 1000-2000 yr between the establishment of source populations in Michigan and Indiana and the appearance of beech in Wisconsin suggests that low-probability dispersal events were involved and that dispersal constraints limited the range of beech during this time, although climatic and edaphic explanations for the lag cannot be ruled out. Pollen data from the two sites reveal other features of vegetation history in eastern Wisconsin: an open Picea-Fraxinus woodland prior to 11 000 BP; sequence of Picea, Abies, Betula, and then Pinus forests between 11 000 and 7500 BP; the establishment of a coniferous/deciduous forest ecotone ("tension zone") ° 7000 BP in this region; and the presence of Quercus-dominanted deciduous forests from 7000 BP until 110 BP (time of Euro-American settlement), a period punctuated by a gradual decrease in Ulmus populations (° 4500 and 5700 BP at the two sites) and by an increase in mesophytic tree abundance at the expense of Quercus after 3500 BP. © 1987 by the

  16. Differential impacts of calcium and aluminum treatments on sugar maple and American beech growth dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua M. Halman; Paul G. Schaberg; Gary J. Hawley; Christopher F. Hansen; Timothy J. Fahey

    2015-01-01

    Acid deposition induced losses of calcium (Ca) from northeastern forests have had negative effects on forest health for decades, including the mobilization of potentially phytotoxic aluminum (Al) from soils. To evaluate the impact of changes in Ca and Al availability on sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and American beech (Fagus...

  17. Mapping beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest structure with airborne hyperspectral imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cho, Moses A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the utility of hyperspectral data in estimating and mapping forest structural parameters including mean diameter-at-breast-height (DBH), mean tree height and tree density of a closed canopy beech forest...

  18. Microbial Activity in Forest Soil Under Beech, Spruce, Douglas Fir and Fir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnal-Jafari Timea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the microbial activity in forest soil from different sites under deciduous and coniferous trees in Serbia. One site on Stara planina was under beech trees (Fagus sp. while another under mixture of spruce (Picea sp. and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga sp.. The site on Kopaonik was under mixture of beech (Fagus sp. and spruce (Picea sp. trees. The site on Tara was dominantly under fir (Abies sp., beech (Fagus sp. and spruce (Picea sp.. The total number of bacteria, the number of actinobacteria, fungi and microorganisms involved in N and C cycles were determined using standard method of agar plates. The activities of dehydrogenase and ß-glucosidase enzymes were measured by spectrophotometric methods. The microbial activity was affected by tree species and sampling time. The highest dehydrogenase activity, total number of bacteria, number of actinobacteria, aminoheterotrophs, amylolytic and cellulolytic microorganisms were determined in soil under beech trees. The highest total number of fungi and number of pectinolytic microorganisms were determined in soil under spruce and Douglas fir trees. The correlation analyses proved the existence of statistically significant interdependency among investigated parameters.

  19. Fertilization increases diameter growth of birch-beech-maple trees in New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. O. Safford

    1973-01-01

    In a 60-year-old northern hardwood stand treated with lime plus NPK fertilizer, the following increases in average basal area growth rate over untreated trees were observed: sugar maple 128 percent, paper birch 69 percent, yellow birch 51 percent, and beech 20 percent. Magnitude of response was inversely related to relative growth rate of the species. Growth rate...

  20. Nitrous oxide emissions from a beech forest floor measured by eddy covariance and soil enclosure techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihlatie, M.; Rinne, J.; Ambus, P.

    2005-01-01

    Spring time nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from an old beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forest were measured with eddy covariance (EC) and chamber techniques. The aim was to obtain information on the spatial and temporal variability in N2O emissions and link the emissions to soil environmental parameters...

  1. A contribution to the sessile oak site and beech site defining in central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Milun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in sessile oak forests and beech forests in the region central Serbia. The stands are classified as pure stands with the percentage of other species up to 10% per tree number, mixed forests of sessile oak with other species, and mixed forests of beech with other species, whose percentage does not exceed 50%. Altogether 257 stands were monitored - 202 beech stands and 55 sessile oak stands. By the applied method of defining the local heat potential (Lujić, 1960, modified by Ratknić et al. (2001 and Krstić (2004, 2008, which represents possibility of soil heating without vegetation, were determined. In this way, a scale of 162 possible combinations of local heat potential was obtained, which explains more precisely the dependence of beech stands and sessile oak stands on the topographic conditions. By applying the weighted values of the thermal co-ordinates of aspect and slope (E for each altitudinal belt of 100 m, it was concluded that pure stands have the widest ecological range. Pure beech stands occur at the sites with 34 combinations of thermal co-ordinates E.V=4.6 to 8.12. Pure sessile oak stands occur at the sites with 12 combinations of thermal co-ordinates E.V=5.10 to 8.11. The percentage of mixed beech stands with other broadleaf species is the highest at the sites with the co-ordinate V=10-11 (at the altitudes between 700 and 900 m is about 60 %. Mixed stands of sessile oak and beech are located on the terrains with combinations of thermal co-ordinates E.V=7.9 to 8.12. By using the local heat potential of a region, it can be identified which sites, i.e. which combinations of exposure, slope and altitude belong to the particular tree species. Consequently, a more reliable selection of tree species can be done for the bio-reclamation of barrens and other deforested terrains.

  2. Response of the leaf phenology and tree-ring width of European beech to climate variability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolář, Tomáš; Giagli, K.; Trnka, Miroslav; Bednářová, E.; Vavrčík, H.; Rybníček, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2016), č. článku 1520. ISSN 0037-5330 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GA13-04291S Grant - others:EHP(CZ) EHP-CZ02-OV-1-014-2014 Program:CZ02 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : dendroclimatology * Fagus sylvatica * temperature * radial increment * soil moisture Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.495, year: 2016

  3. Large beech (Fagus sylvatica) trees as ‘lifeboats’ for lichen diversity in central European forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofmeister, J.; Hošek, J.; Malíček, J.; Palice, Zdeněk; Syrovátková, L.; Steinová, J.; Černajová, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 6 (2016), s. 1073-1090 ISSN 0960-3115 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Fagus * forest management * Red-listed species Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.265, year: 2016

  4. Ecological indicators of Tuber aestivum habitats in temperate European beech forests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moser, B.; Büntgen, Ulf; Molinier, V.; Peter, M.; Sproll, L.; Stobbe, U.; Tegel, W.; Egli, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 29, oct (2017), s. 59-66 ISSN 1754-5048 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Burgundy truffle * Carpinus betulus forest * Ecological indicator values * Fagus sylvatica forest * Potential distribution of Tuber aestivum * Truffle ecology Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 3.219, year: 2016

  5. Comparison of the chemical properties of wheat straw and beech fibers following alkaline wet oxidation and laccase treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A. S.; Mallon, S.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2002-01-01

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum) and beech (Fagus sylvatica), were used to evaluate the effects of two pre-treatment processes (alkaline wet oxidation and enzyme treatment with laccase) on lignocellulosic materials for applications in particleboards and fiberboards. Wheat straw and beech fibers...... treatment gave a more reactive surface than alkaline wet oxidation for wheat straw, whereas the opposite was observed for beech. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy showed an almost complete loss of the ester carbonyl stretching signal and the corresponding C-C-O stretching in wet...

  6. Specific impacts of beech and Norway spruce on the structure and diversity of the rhizosphere and soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroz, S; Oger, P; Tisserand, E; Cébron, A; Turpault, M-P; Buée, M; De Boer, W; Leveau, J H J; Frey-Klett, P

    2016-06-15

    The impacts of plant species on the microbial communities and physico-chemical characteristics of soil are well documented for many herbs, grasses and legumes but much less so for tree species. Here, we investigate by rRNA and ITS amplicon sequencing the diversity of microorganisms from the three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukaryota:Fungi) in soil samples taken from the forest experimental site of Breuil-Chenue (France). We discovered significant differences in the abundance, composition and structure of the microbial communities associated with two phylogenetically distant tree species of the same age, deciduous European beech (Fagus sylvatica) and coniferous Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst), planted in the same soil. Our results suggest a significant effect of tree species on soil microbiota though in different ways for each of the three microbial groups. Fungal and archaeal community structures and compositions are mainly determined according to tree species, whereas bacterial communities differ to a great degree between rhizosphere and bulk soils, regardless of the tree species. These results were confirmed by quantitative PCR, which revealed significant enrichment of specific bacterial genera, such as Burkholderia and Collimonas, known for their ability to weather minerals within the tree root vicinity.

  7. Thirty-two years of change in an old-growth Ohio beech-maple forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, James R

    2013-05-01

    Old-growth forests dominated by understory-tolerant tree species are among forest types most likely to be in equilibrium. However, documentation of the degree to which they are in equilibrium over decades-long time periods is lacking. Changes in climate, pathogens, and land use all are likely to impact stand characteristics and species composition, even in these forests. Here, 32 years of vegetation changes in an old-growth beech (Fagus grandifolia)-sugar maple (Acer saccharum) forest in Hueston Woods, southwest Ohio, USA, are summarized. These changes involve canopy composition and structure, turnover in snags, and development of vegetation in treefall gaps. Stand basal area and canopy density have changed little in 32 years. However, beech has decreased in canopy importance (49% to 32%) while sugar maple has increased (32% to 47%). Annual mortality was about 1.3% throughout the study period. Mortality rates increased with stem size, but the fraction of larger stems increased due to ingrowth from smaller size classes. Beech was represented by more very large stems than small canopy stems: over time, death of those larger stems with inadequate replacement has caused the decrease in beech importance. Sugar maple was represented by more small canopy stems whose growth has increased its importance. The changes in beech and sugar maple relative importance are hypothesized to be due to forest fragmentation mostly from the early 1800s with some possible additional effects associated with the formation of the state park. Snag densities (12-16 snags/ha) and formation rates (1-3 snags.ha(-1).yr(-1)) remained consistent. The treefall gaps previously studied are closing, with a few, large stems remaining. Death of gap border trees occurs consistently enough to favor species able to combine growth in gaps and survival in the understory.

  8. Some Indicators of Beech Forests Vitality in the Republic of Serbia in Period 2004-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Nevenić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Forests monitoring is one of the largest forest bio-monitoring systems that is carried out in order to record changes by using the most important environmental parameters. The National Focal Centre for forest monitoring in the Republic of Serbia, within the Institute of Forestry of the Republic of Serbia has been taking an active part in an international program of ICP Forest, with a view to improving its working activities and harmonizing them with other approaches to monitoring forests and forest ecosystems. Material and Methods: In order to determine forest ecosystem processes, it is necessary to carry out detailed research of ecological and socio-economic consequences of forest deterioration and to study the impacts of regional climate changes on forest communities. In the period from 2004 to 2009, observations were performed on 130 sample plots and data necessary for further analysis were collected. These plots are systematically arranged in either a 16x16 km or a 4 x 4 km grid system. The main parameters assessed on the sample plots are the degree of defoliation and discolouration as well as the extent of damage. A comparative analysis of the data obtained in this period will provide a better insight into the present state of beech forests in Serbia as well the effects of defoliation and discolouration trends. Results and Conclusion: Beech is the most common broadleaved tree species on the Level I sample plots. Its health state is the result of adverse effects of complex factors of abiotic and biotic origin (i.e. effects of both living organisms and complex natural processes within the beech forests habitats. This paper presents some indicators of beech forest vitality whose occurrence show certain regularity and which can be interpreted as a trend. The annual values of the health state elements and the fluctuations of these parameters from year to year present important indicators of vitality of beech forests in

  9. Effect of the silvicultural treatment on canopy properties, litter and seed production in beech coppices under conversion to high forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cutini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. is widely distributed in Italy where it covers 1035103 ha, mainly concentrated in the mountainous areas at altitudes above 900 m. The major part is represented by high forest often issued from the conversion of coppice woods, which in the past was the silvicultural system most widely applied mainly to provide fire wood. The social changes occurred in the second half of the last century –fire wood market crisis and the increasing importance of environmental issues- enhanced the conversion into high forest of large areas previously managed as coppice by means of different silvicultural treatments and practices. Nevertheless, the environmental benefits of this choice were not adequately investigated. Results of annual measurements (1992-2009 made in a beech coppice stand aged 65 are here reported. The study area is located on the Alpe di Catenaia, a pre-Apennine outcrop close to Arezzo (Central Italy. Variables strictly related to stand productivity and dynamics such as annual litter and seed production, leaf area index (LAI and transmittance (PAR were measured in the research area of Buca Zamponi to estimate the effects of two theses, natural evolution (TEST and conversion into high forest (DIR. Three thinnings were undertaken in the latter thesis in 1972, 1987 and 2002. Additional theses of natural evolution (CONTR and advance seed cutting (TS were added in 2002 in a nearby study area (Eremo della Casella. Results showed the high productivity of coppice stands, under conversion to high forest, with mean values of annual total litter, leaf litter and leaf area index of 5 Mg ha-1, 3 Mg ha-1 and 6 m2m-2, respectively. These findings confirm both the prompt response of beech to intensive thinning cycles and the reliability of undertaking coppice conversion into high forest. Furthermore, the positive trend observed in the ecological parameters and the high consistency of leaf fraction, highlight the still juvenile

  10. Leaf morphology and phenology of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) are linked to environmental conditions depending on the altitudinal origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capdevielle-Vargas, Renee; Schuster, Christina; Estrella, Nicole; Menzel, Annette

    2014-05-01

    One of the principal responses of temperate climate trees to climate warming, besides migration, will be in-situ adaptation/evolution. For both, germination and growth rates can have a strong impact on survival and long-term recruitment and establishment of a species. Leaf morphology traits, together with phenology, are relevant to the study of inherent capacities of plants to adapt to an ever changing climate, especially in alpine regions, where a rapid warming has been observed in the last decades. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in possible adaptive traits (e.g. leaf morphology and phenology) of Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and to asses a decisive component of the survival strategy of this important broadly distributed Central European tree species. We collected beech seeds at six sites along two transects of a south- (900, 1000 and 1100-1400 m.a.s.l.) and a north-facing slope (800, 900 and 1100 m.a.s.l.) in 2011 (mast year) near Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. All the seeds were stratified before sowing; 150 seeds were selected from each site and sowed (at the beginning of the spring) in square containers in a greenhouse under the same climatic conditions; seven phenological stages were defined following a modified beech germination key and the phenology of every seed was recorded three times a week. Harvesting took place 38/42 days after sowing and the specific leaf area (SLA), biomass, and leaf morphology (lamina length and width) were recorded for each seedling. Seeds from lower sites of the two transects presented a poorer germination rates (e.g. 30% for the south 900 m.a.s.l. site) and (75% for the north 800 m.a.s.l. site) when compared to seeds originating from higher elevations within the same transect. The highest germination percentages (98 and 85%) were observed in seeds originating from the highest elevations (e.g. 1100-1400 m.a.s.l. of the south site and 1100 m.a.s.l. of the north site, respectively). Although no significant

  11. Nitrogen deposition outweighs climatic variability in driving annual growth rate of canopy beech trees: Evidence from long-term growth reconstruction across a geographic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilesca, Tiziana; Rita, Angelo; Brunetti, Michele; Giammarchi, Francesco; Leonardi, Stefano; Magnani, Federico; van Noije, Twan; Tonon, Giustino; Borghetti, Marco

    2018-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of climatic variability and atmospheric nitrogen deposition in driving long-term tree growth in canopy beech trees along a geographic gradient in the montane belt of the Italian peninsula, from the Alps to the southern Apennines. We sampled dominant trees at different developmental stages (from young to mature tree cohorts, with tree ages spanning from 35 to 160 years) and used stem analysis to infer historic reconstruction of tree volume and dominant height. Annual growth volume (G V ) and height (G H ) variability were related to annual variability in model simulated atmospheric nitrogen deposition and site-specific climatic variables, (i.e. mean annual temperature, total annual precipitation, mean growing period temperature, total growing period precipitation, and standard precipitation evapotranspiration index) and atmospheric CO 2 concentration, including tree cambial age among growth predictors. Generalized additive models (GAM), linear mixed-effects models (LMM), and Bayesian regression models (BRM) were independently employed to assess explanatory variables. The main results from our study were as follows: (i) tree age was the main explanatory variable for long-term growth variability; (ii) GAM, LMM, and BRM results consistently indicated climatic variables and CO 2 effects on G V and G H were weak, therefore evidence of recent climatic variability influence on beech annual growth rates was limited in the montane belt of the Italian peninsula; (iii) instead, significant positive nitrogen deposition (N dep ) effects were repeatedly observed in G V and G H ; the positive effects of N dep on canopy height growth rates, which tended to level off at N dep values greater than approximately 1.0 g m -2  y -1 , were interpreted as positive impacts on forest stand above-ground net productivity at the selected study sites. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Diversity and primary productivity of hill beech forests from Doftana Valley (Romanian Subcarpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Paucã-Comãnescu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The hill beech forests cover most of the woody area in the Doftana Valley. The present study refers, for the first time, to two beech forests typical to this belt, which belong to the phytocoenological associations Epipactieto-Fagetum (Resmeritã,1972, in the Lunca Mare area, and Hieracio rotundati-Fagetum (Vida 1983, Täuber 1987 in the Sotrile area, from floristic, structural, biomass and necromassaccumulation point of view, within the framework of the vertical structure of biocoenosis.The limestone substratum, occasionally with small outcrops in the first beech forest, differs chiefly through the pH levels (6.34-5.67 from the siliceous substratum (pH 5.11-4.36 in the second beech forest. The layer of trees is dominated by Fagus sylvatica in both forests; this species is associated with Cerasus avium (4.5%,Acer pseudoplatanus (2% and Sorbus torminalis (2% in the first beech forest, and is monodominant in the second. Although the forest underwent selective cuts, more intense in the Lunca Mare area, the aboveground ligneous biomass reaches nowadays 222 t/ha in the Lunca Mare area compared to only 163 t/ha in the Sotrile area; theaverage height is 28.8±2.49 m and 23.7±1.12 m, respectively, and the diameter is 33.30±7.9 cm and 31.60±6.28 cm, respectively. The species of macrofungi, not very numerous during the study because of scarce precipitations (6 and 7 species, respectively,are predominant on the rhytidoma trees in the beech forest rooted on the limestone ground; in the Sotrile beech forest they are joined by mycorrhizal and parasite species. The layer of shrub is underdeveloped. The herbaceous layer is discontinuous, and includes, along herbs, small plants and saplings belonging to the ligneous species and to liana Hedera helix. The maximal value of the aboveground biomass of thelayer is 317 kg/ha DM in the Lunca Mare area and 235 kg /ha DM in the Sotrile area.Bryophyta is present in large quantities, especially in the ªotrile area

  13. The Results of Complex Selective Logging in Beech-Hornbeam Tree Stands of the Greater Caucasus in Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Yakhyaev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of complex selective logging conducted in beech-hornbeam tree stands on the northeastern slope of the Greater Caucasus are analyzed in the paper. Experiments were carried out in two forestry districts, involving beech stands, comprising 2–3 units, with 30° slopes, in beech forests with woodruff, fescue and forb forest types. It has been revealed that for recovering the main tree species, as well as for increasing productivity and sustainability of the beech-hornbeam tree stands, which was spread out in the northern exposures, 2–3 repetitions of complex selective logging are recommended. It is recommended that in order to increase the amount of beech in the tree stand composition to 6–8 units in young stands and to 4–6 units at the slopes of south exposures, to complete 3–4 thinning operations, with the increasing beech share to 4–5 units in the upper story and in the undergrowth.

  14. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Nesensohn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  15. Slab replacement maturity guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the use of maturity method to determine early age strength of concrete in slab : replacement application. Specific objectives were (1) to evaluate effects of various factors on the compressive : maturity-strength relationship ...

  16. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH CONCERNING THE OPTIMAL DIMENSIONS OF AN ELASTIC STRUCTURE OF BEECH WOOD PARQUET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia-Minerva ȚURCAȘ (DIACONU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the experimental research concerning the modulus of elasticity and the average value of the bending strength in case of beech (Fagus sylvatica L. wood. The investigations were performed according to SR EN 408-2004. The results of the research have been analysed in order to establish the variable parameters to be considered for the final experimental research focused on beech wood floor structures that meet the necessary requirements for the sports halls applications. The research presented in the paper is a part of the study theme of the Ph. D. thesis, which investigates the flooring structures able to support the requirements of sports halls activities, different from one sport to another.

  17. Proximate content and lipid profile of seeds from Rapanea melanophloeos (The Cape Beech) tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotier, N.; Chivandi, E.; Lembede, B.W.; Ibrahim, K.G.; Nyakudya, T.T.

    2017-01-01

    Rapanea melanophloeos(Cape beech)is a fruit-bearing tree indigenous to Southern Africa which produces edible fruit. Seed samples obtained from ripe fruit of the Cape beech trees had their proximate analysis and lipid profiling done. The dry matter and ash contributed 91.29 +- 0.00 %, 1.50 +- 0.01 % of the mass of the seed. Whilst the other proximate analytes namely crude fibre, crude protein and ether extract made up 5.71 +- 0.43 %, 10.50 +- 0.49 % and 4.75 +- 0.09 percentage of the mass of the seeds respectively. The fatty acid profile of the seed oil revealed Linoleic acid (50.43 +- 0.38 %) to be the most dominant. R. melanophloeos seeds are not a viable source of nutrients. (author)

  18. Enzymatic saccharification of hemicellulose obtained from hydrothermally pretreated sugar can bagasse and beech bark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walch, E; Zemann, A; Bonn, G; Bobleter, O [Innsbruck Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiochemie und Angewandte Physikalische Chemie; Schinner, F [Innsbruck Univ. (AT). Inst. for Microbiology

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of different xylanses and their use in the saccharification of sugar cane bagasse and beech bark were studied. Bagasse was pretreated by two different hydrothermolysis procedures, a recirculation and a direct flow-through process. The recirculation procedure resulted in a higher yield of dry matter in the hydrothermolysis solution and a higher saccharification effect after enzymatic hydrolysis. In the case of beech bark, the tannins have first to be removed at temperatures of 120-140{sup o}C. In a second hydrothermal step (at approximately 200{sup o}C), a hemicellulose solution is obtained which can be saccharified enzymatically with high yields. The inhibitory effect of the tannins is experimentally demonstrated. (author).

  19. Mass Mortality of Beech (Fagus sylvatica in South-West Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOLNÁR, M

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mass mortality of beech (Fagus sylvatica L. in Hungary, which started in 2003 andwent on through 2004, is the result of a typical damage chain. Mortality appeared first of all in beechforests close or outside of its native distribution area. The most significant reason was the droughtperiod from 2000 to 2004, which weakened the trees, and favoured the development of different pestsand pathogens. Characteristic symptoms were frequent at stand margins and in stands thinned forregeneration. The direct causes of the mortality were insects, the green jewel beetle (Agrilus viridisand the beech bark beetle (Taphrorychus bicolor as well as the fungus species Biscogniauxianummularia. With the improvement of weather conditions a continuous recovery of the stands hasbeen observed since 2005.

  20. H and Al ionic toxicity in seedlings of spruce and beech trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rost-Siebert, K.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of aluminium and hydrogen on seedlings of spruce and beech trees was tested. Parameters as root growth, state of health, minerals content and production of dry matter were measured. The results are discussed and show that ion concentrations of hydrogen and aluminium, average for todays forest soils, reduce root growth, damage roots and disturb the uptake of Ca/sup 2+/ and Mg/sup 2+/.

  1. Decomposition, nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization from beech leaf litter colonized with ectomycorrhizal or litter decomposing basidiomycetes

    OpenAIRE

    COLPAERT, Jan; VAN TICHELEN, Katia

    1996-01-01

    The decomposition and the nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization of fresh beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) leaf litter are described. Leaves were buried for up to 6 months in plant containers in which Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings were cultivated at a low rate of nutrient addition. The saprotrophic abilities of three ectomycorrhizal fungi, Thelephora terrestris Ehrh.: Fr., Suillus bovinus (L.: Fr.) O. Kuntze and Paxillus involutes (Batsch: Fr) Fr., were compared with the degradation ca...

  2. The role of extreme drought events in modelling the distribution of beech at its xeric limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasztovits, Ervin; Berki, Imre; Eredics, Attila; Móricz, Norbert

    2014-05-01

    Context: Projections of species distribution models (SDMs) for future climate conditions are based on long term mean climate data. For management and conservation issues SDMs have been extensively used, but it is not tested whether models that are successful in predicting current distributions are equally powerful in predicting distributions under future climates. Methods: Observations after 2003 confirms that extreme drought events played an important role in driving beech mortality at low-elevation xeric limits. The objective of this study was (1) to set up a simple extreme drought event based vitality model (EDM) using sanitary logging information as a proxy of vitality response of beech and (2) to compare the spatial pattern of the predicted vitality loss provided by the EDM with the distribution limits of the SDMs for three terms (2025, 2050 and 2100) in Hungary to assess model performance. Results: Prediction for vitality loss for 2025 obtained from the EDM was in agreement with those of the SDM, but for the end of the century the EDM predicted a more serious decline in almost all regions of Hungary. Conclusion: The result of the comparison suggests that the increasing frequency and severity of extremes might play a more important role in limiting the distribution of beech in the future near to the xeric limit than long-term means.

  3. Influence of steaming on drying quality and colour of beech timber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Goran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of influence of the “light” steaming process on conventional drying and colour of beech timber. A stack consisting of steamed and unsteamed boards was dried. Moisture content and moisture content profiles were recorded, and at the end of drying final moisture content, moisture content difference across thickness, case-hardening and colour were determinated. No statistically significant difference between steamed and unsteamed timber was established in any of the examined parameters (MC, ΔMC, gap. The results indicate that equal (or even better drying quality can be expected with steamed beech timber than with unsteamed timber, given the same drying schedule. Dry steamed timber was darker and more reddish than the unsteamed one. An imprecision of measurement by probes in the kiln was noticed in measuring steamed and unsteamed beech timber having a moisture content of between 7% and 15%, and a solution for overcoming this problem was given. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31041

  4. Extra-zonal beech forests in Tuscany: structure, diversity and synecologic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viciani D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the structural, synecological and floristic diversity features of beech-dominated forest communities in four major areas of the Antiapenninic Tyrrhenian system in Tuscany: Metalliferous hills, mountains to the south of Mt. Amiata, volcanic area of the upper Lente valley and Mt. Cetona. These are relict woodlands of Holo-Pleistocene origin with a special ecological and conservation value due to their extrazonal location in lowland submediterranean areas. Results show substantial among-area differences in structure, synecology and plant species composition, but in general a potential for coppices to reach the tall forest stage, as demonstrated by the old-growth stands of Pietraporciana and Sassoforte. Compared with montane Apenninic beechwoods, the relatively rich flora of the studied communities include thermophilous species with a southern Apennine-Balkan distribution, making their syntaxonomical position unclear. Closer affinities are found with the calcicolous Beech Forests of the association and with the silicicolous ones of the . Based on the Natura 2000 system, all the examined communities belong to the priority Habitat “Apennine beech forests with and ” (code: 9210*. Due their relict nature, these biotopes appear vulnerable to climate changes and to a production-oriented forest management. Criteria of naturalistic silviculture should instead promote the dynamic development of these communities towards tall forests and their natural regeneration.

  5. Beech Fructification and Bank Vole Population Dynamics--Combined Analyses of Promoters of Human Puumala Virus Infections in Germany.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Reil

    Full Text Available The transmission of wildlife zoonoses to humans depends, amongst others, on complex interactions of host population ecology and pathogen dynamics within host populations. In Europe, the Puumala virus (PUUV causes nephropathia epidemica in humans. In this study we investigated complex interrelations within the epidemic system of PUUV and its rodent host, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus. We suggest that beech fructification and bank vole abundance are both decisive factors affecting human PUUV infections. While rodent host dynamics are expected to be directly linked to human PUUV infections, beech fructification is a rather indirect predictor by serving as food source for PUUV rodent hosts. Furthermore, we examined the dependence of bank vole abundance on beech fructification. We analysed a 12-year (2001-2012 time series of the parameters: beech fructification (as food resource for the PUUV host, bank vole abundance and human incidences from 7 Federal States of Germany. For the first time, we could show the direct interrelation between these three parameters involved in human PUUV epidemics and we were able to demonstrate on a large scale that human PUUV infections are highly correlated with bank vole abundance in the present year, as well as beech fructification in the previous year. By using beech fructification and bank vole abundance as predictors in one model we significantly improved the degree of explanation of human PUUV incidence. Federal State was included as random factor because human PUUV incidence varies considerably among states. Surprisingly, the effect of rodent abundance on human PUUV infections is less strong compared to the indirect effect of beech fructification. Our findings are useful to facilitate the development of predictive models for host population dynamics and the related PUUV infection risk for humans and can be used for plant protection and human health protection purposes.

  6. Influence of sex, maturity and reproduction on PCB and p,p'DDE concentrations and repartitions in the European hake (Merluccius merluccius, L.) from the Gulf of Lions (N.W. Mediterranean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodiguel, Xavier; Loizeau, Véronique; Le Guellec, Anne-Marie; Roupsard, François; Philippon, Xavier; Mellon-Duval, Capucine

    2009-12-20

    The main objective of this work was to establish the influence of sex, maturity and reproduction on the contamination of the demersal fish Merluccius merluccius by organochlorine compounds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,p'DDE were quantified in muscle, liver and gonads of female and male hakes collected in the Gulf of Lions in 2004 and 2005. Observed levels appeared higher than the population of the Bay of Biscay and lower than the population of the Thyrrenian Sea. Contaminant fingerprints were roughly constant whatever the studied organ and the hake biological condition. Concentrations varied significantly according to the sex and maturity of hakes. Mature specimens were more contaminated than immature, and males presented higher levels than females. This sex effect can be linked to a lower growth rate of males, and a contaminant elimination during female spawning. Gonadal contamination depends on the importance of lipid content and increases with the maturation degree. Although the main organ of energy and PCB storage is the liver, muscle appears as the main contributor to the gonad contamination.

  7. Influence of xylem ray integrity and degree of polymerization on bending strength of beech wood decayed by Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan Bari; Reza Oladi; Olaf Schmidt; Carol A. Clausen; Katie Ohno; Darrel D. Nicholas; Mehrdad Ghodskhah Daryaei; Maryam Karim

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this research was to evaluate the influence of xylem ray (XR) and degree of polymerization (DP) of holocellulose in Oriental beech wood (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) on impact bending strength against two white-rot fungi. Beech wood specimens, exposed to Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor, were evaluated for...

  8. ORGANIZATIONAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Derenskaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article is aimed at developing a set of recommendations for achieving a higher level of organizational project maturity at a given enterprise. Methodology. For the purposes of the current research, the available information sources on the components of project management system are analysed; the essence of “organizational maturity” and the existing models of organizational maturity are studied. The method of systemic and structural analysis, as well as the method of logical generalization, are employed in order to study the existing models of organizational maturity, to describe levels of organizational maturity, and finally to develop a set of methodological recommendations for achieving a higher level of organizational project maturity at a given enterprise. The results of the research showed that the core elements of project management system are methodological, organizational, programtechnical, and motivational components. Project management encompasses a wide range of issues connected with organizational structure, project team, communication management, project participants, etc. However, the fundamental basis for developing project management concept within a given enterprise starts with defining its level of organizational maturity. The present paper describes various models of organizational maturity (staged, continuous, petal-shaped and their common types (H. Кеrzner Organizational Maturity Model, Berkeley PM Maturity Model, Organizational Project Management Maturity Model, Portfolio, Program & Project Management Maturity Model. The analysis of available theoretic works showed that the notion “organizational project maturity” refers to the capability of an enterprise to select projects and manage them with the intention of achieving its strategic goals in the most effective way. Importantly, the level of maturity can be improved by means of formalizing the acquired knowledge, regulating project-related activities

  9. Some clastic rocks as parent rocks in beech forests of Brezovica - Južni Kučaj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović Vesna

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available On the large forest areas, where the measures of soil quality improvement are absent or rarely undertaken, the rocks are the sources of a great number of elements in plant nutrition and one of the factors affecting the contents of some elements in plants. The aim of the study is to determine the differences in the contents of Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Fe, Cd, Co, Pb and Cr in the beech leaves developed in the same climate conditions, on morphologically similar terrains, composed of different types of sedimentary rocks. This paper presents the study results of the contents of the above elements in argillites, sandstones (grauwackes and microconglomerates occurring as the parent rocks in high beech forests in the region of GJ Bogovina (Brezovica Južni Kučaj and in the leaves of beech developed on these rocks.

  10. Effect of CO2 enhancement on beech (Fagus sylvatica L. seedling root rot due to Phytophthora plurivora and Phytophthora cactorum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkaczyk Miłosz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change is associated with higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2. The ongoing changes are likely to have significant, direct or indirect effects on plant diseases caused by many biotic agents such as phytopathogenic fungi. This study results showed that increased CO2 concentration did not stimulate the growth of 1-year-old beech Fagus sylvatica L seedlings but it activated pathogenic Phytophthora species (P. plurivora and P. cactorum which caused significant reduction in the total number of fine roots as well as their length and area. The results of the greenhouse experiment indicated that pathogens once introduced into soil survived in pot soil, became periodically active (in sufficient water conditions and were able to damage beech fine roots. However, the trees mortality was not observed during the first year of experiment. DNA analyses performed on soil and beech tissue proved persistence of introduced Phytophthora isolates.

  11. Social valuation of scenic beauty in Catalonian beech forests; Valoracion social de las propiedades esteticas de los hayedos en Cataluna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega-Garcia, C.; Burriel, M.; Alcazar, J.

    2011-07-01

    Methods tested in other countries are applied for scenic beauty valuation in several beech locations in Catalonia including significant differences in site, origin, age and stand structure. The study intends to measure stand scenic beauty as seen from inside the forest, as forest visitors see it (near-view). Assessments are obtained through panels of observers in slide sessions, which are transformed into scaled ratings and related through regression analysis to plot-based forest inventory data. The development of statistical models that describe social visual preferences allows the assessment of the contribution of different forestry-related physical variables to the aesthetic improvement of beech forests. It can also be useful as a guide to beech forest planning where recreational use is prevailing or very important. (Author) 37 refs.

  12. Diversity and primary productivity of hill beech forests from Doftana Valley (Romanian Subcarpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Paucã-Comãnescu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The hill beech forests cover most of the woody area in the Doftana Valley. The present study refers, for the first time, to two beech forests typical to this belt, which belong to the phytocoenological associations Epipactieto-Fagetum (Resmeriţă, 1972, in the Lunca Mare area, and Hieracio rotundati-Fagetum (Vida 1983, Täuber 1987 in the Sotrile area, from floristic, structural, biomass and necromass accumulation point of view, within the framework of the vertical structure of biocoenosis. The limestone substratum, occasionally with small outcrops in the first beech forest, differs chiefly through the pH levels (6.34-5.67 from the siliceous substratum (pH 5.11-4.36 in the second beech forest. The layer of trees is dominated by Fagus sylvatica in both forests; this species is associated with Cerasus avium (4.5%, Acer pseudoplatanus (2% and Sorbus torminalis (2% in the first beech forest, and is monodominant in the second. Although the forest underwent selective cuts, more intense in the Lunca Mare area, the aboveground ligneous biomass reaches nowadays 222 t/ha in the Lunca Mare area compared to only 163 t/ha in the Sotrile area; the average height is 28.8ą2.49 m and 23.7ą1.12 m, respectively, and the diameter is 33.30ą7.9 cm and 31.60ą6.28 cm, respectively. The species of macrofungi, not very numerous during the study because of scarce precipitations (6 and 7 species, respectively, are predominant on the rhytidoma trees in the beech forest rooted on the limestone ground; in the Sotrile beech forest they are joined by mycorrhizal and parasite species. The layer of shrub is underdeveloped. The herbaceous layer is discontinuous, and includes, along herbs, small plants and saplings belonging to the ligneous species and to liana Hedera helix. The maximal value of the aboveground biomass of the layer is 317 kg/ha DM in the Lunca Mare area and 235 kg /ha DM in the Sotrile area. Bryophyta is present in large quantities, especially in the Sotrile

  13. Leaf area index from litter collection: impact of specific leaf area variability within a beech stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouriaud, O. [Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique, Centre de Recherches Forestieres de Nancy, Champenoux (France); Soudani, K. [Univ. Paris-Sud XI, Dept. d' Ecophysiologie Vegetale, Lab. Ecologie Systematique et Evolution, Orsay Cedex (France); Breda, N. [Inst. National de la Recherche Agronomique, Centre de Recherches Forestieres de Nancy, Champenoux (France)

    2003-06-01

    Litter fall collection is a direct method widely used to estimate leaf area index (LAI) in broad-leaved forest stands. Indirect measurements using radiation transmittance and gap fraction theory are often compared and calibrated against litter fall, which is considered as a reference method, but few studies address the question of litter specific leaf area (SLA) measurement and variability. SLA (leaf area per unit of dry weight, m{sup 2}{center_dot}g{sup -1}) is used to convert dry leaf litter biomass (g .m{sup -}2) into leaf area per ground unit area (m{sup 2}{center_dot}m{sup -2}). We paid special attention to this parameter in two young beech stands (dense and thinned) in northeastern France. The variability of both canopy (closure, LAI) and site conditions (soil properties, vegetation) was investigated as potential contributing factors to beech SLA variability. A systematic description of soil and floristic composition was performed and three types of soil were identified. Ellenberg's indicator values were averaged for each plot to assess nitrogen soil content. SLA of beech litter was measured three times during the fall in 23 plots in the stands (40 ha). Litter was collected bimonthly in square-shaped traps (0.5 m{sup 2}) and dried. Before drying, 30 leaves per plot and for each date were sampled, and leaf length, width, and area were measured with the help of a LI-COR areameter. SLA was calculated as the ratio of cumulated leaf area to total dry weight of the 30 leaves. Leaves characteristics per plot were averaged for the three dates of litter collection. Plant area index (PAI), estimated using the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyser and considering only the upper three rings, ranged from 2.9 to 8.1. Specific leaf area of beech litter was also highly different from one plot to the other, ranging from 150 to 320 cm{sup 2}{center_dot}g{sup -1}. Nevertheless, no relationship was found between SLA and stand canopy closure or PAI On the contrary, a significant

  14. Beech and spruce under the influence of electromagnetic radiation by radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Götz, G.; Matyssek, R.; Käs, G.

    2001-01-01

    Throughout a three-year study period beech and spruce trees were examined for potential effects of electromagnetic radiation by radar on the morphological and physiological performance at the crown level. No effects of radar on photosynthesis, transpiration, stomatal regulation as well as twig and foliage differentiation were found in late summer after seasonal exposure to this kind of radiation, when comparing radar-exposed with shielded crown parts. Adverse effects caused by radar on forest trees appear to be unlikely on a short-term scale, given conditions similar to those of this case study [de

  15. Leaf area index from litter collection: impact of specific leaf area variability within a beech stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouriaud, O.; Soudani, K.; Breda, N.

    2003-01-01

    Litter fall collection is a direct method widely used to estimate leaf area index (LAI) in broad-leaved forest stands. Indirect measurements using radiation transmittance and gap fraction theory are often compared and calibrated against litter fall, which is considered as a reference method, but few studies address the question of litter specific leaf area (SLA) measurement and variability. SLA (leaf area per unit of dry weight, m 2 ·g -1 ) is used to convert dry leaf litter biomass (g .m - 2) into leaf area per ground unit area (m 2 ·m -2 ). We paid special attention to this parameter in two young beech stands (dense and thinned) in northeastern France. The variability of both canopy (closure, LAI) and site conditions (soil properties, vegetation) was investigated as potential contributing factors to beech SLA variability. A systematic description of soil and floristic composition was performed and three types of soil were identified. Ellenberg's indicator values were averaged for each plot to assess nitrogen soil content. SLA of beech litter was measured three times during the fall in 23 plots in the stands (40 ha). Litter was collected bimonthly in square-shaped traps (0.5 m 2 ) and dried. Before drying, 30 leaves per plot and for each date were sampled, and leaf length, width, and area were measured with the help of a LI-COR areameter. SLA was calculated as the ratio of cumulated leaf area to total dry weight of the 30 leaves. Leaves characteristics per plot were averaged for the three dates of litter collection. Plant area index (PAI), estimated using the LAI-2000 plant canopy analyser and considering only the upper three rings, ranged from 2.9 to 8.1. Specific leaf area of beech litter was also highly different from one plot to the other, ranging from 150 to 320 cm 2 ·g -1 . Nevertheless, no relationship was found between SLA and stand canopy closure or PAI On the contrary, a significant relationship between SLA and soil properties was observed. Both SLA

  16. Plant biodiversity of beech forests in central-northern Italy: a methodological approach for conservation purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcantonio M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Forests are reckoned essentials as biodiversity reservoirs and carbon sinks. Current threats to forest ecosystems (e.g., climate changes, habitat loss and fragmentation, management changes call for monitoring their biodiversity and preserving their ecological functions. In this study, we characterized plants diversity of five beech forests located in central and north Apennines mountain chain, using results by a probabilistic sampling. In order to achieve our goals, we have considered species richness and abundance, taxonomic distinctness and species composition, using both old and new analytical approaches. Results have shown how: (1 the forest type dominated by Fagus sylvatica is characterized by high complexity, with marked compositional, structural and biodiversity differences; (2 beech forests of Pigelleto di Piancastagnaio and Valle della Corte show the highest plants diversity values. The ecological characteristics of these areas, which sustain high diversity values, are unique and of great conservation interest; (3 the use of species richness as the only diversity measure have not allowed an efficient differentiation between studied areas. Indeed, the use of different indexes and analytical methods is required to detect multiple characteristics of biological diversity, as well as to carry out efficient biodiversity surveys aimed to develop optimal conservation strategies. In the future, we plan to apply the sampling methodology and the analytical approach used in this paper to characterize plants diversity of similar forest types.

  17. Impact of windstorm on a community of centipedes (Chilopoda) in a beech forest in Western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśniewska, Małgorzata; Skwierczyński, Filip

    2018-01-01

    The study was carried out in the years 2016-2017, five years after a windstorm which destroyed 1/3 of the protected beech forest area in the west of Poland. The community of centipedes in the area affected by the windstorm was depleted in terms of the species richness, diversity, and population density. The dominance structures were shortened and the species composition was rebuilt. The areas that proved to be the richest in terms of species richness and diversity among the sites affected by the windstorm were the one where windfallen trees were left and the other where beech trees had been planted by humans. In total, the quantitative and qualitative samples collected four times throughout a year featured 608 specimens from 11 species of two centipede orders - Lithobiomorpha and Geophilomorpha. Lithobius curtipes and L. forficatus were found in all of the investigated areas. L. pelidnus and L. piceus were captured at control sites exclusively. Only one species - L. erythrocephalus was found solely at the damaged site. The most numerous and most frequently found species in the community were L. curtipes , L. mutabilis , and Strigamia acuminata respectively. Although windstorms are natural phenomena their consequences may lead to significant changes in the community of the investigated soil animals. The importance of coarse woody debris, significantly contributing to the improvement and maintenance of species richness and diversity of Chilopoda, has once again been confirmed.

  18. Heat capacity and phonon mean free path in the biocarbon matrix of beech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Orlova, T. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Wlosewicz, D.; Jezowski, A.

    2011-08-01

    The heat capacity at constant pressure C p of the biocarbon matrix prepared at a beech wood carbonization temperature of 1000°C has been measured in the temperature range 80-300 K. It has been shown that, in the temperature range 90-180 K, the heat capacity is C ˜ T 0.8 and, at T = 190-300 K, it is C p ˜ T 1.2. The phonon mean free path l( T) in the biocarbon matrix has been calculated using the obtained dependences C p ( T), our previous results on the phonon thermal conductivity of the carbon framework of this biocarbon matrix, and data available in the literature on the sound velocity in the matrix. It has been demonstrated that, in the temperature range 200-300 K, the mean value of l is ˜ 15 Å, which is close to the sizes of nanocrystallites ("carbon fragments") of ˜ 12Å, obtained earlier from X-ray diffraction data for the carbon matrix under consideration. These nanocrystallites participate in the formation of the carbon framework of the beech wood biocarbon matrix.

  19. Elastic and Strength Properties of Heat-Treated Beech and Birch Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Borůvka

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of heat treatment on the elastic and strength properties of two diffuse porous hardwoods, namely Fagus sylvatica and Betula pendula. Two degrees of the heat treatment were used at temperatures of 165 °C and 210 °C. The dynamic and static elasticity modulus, bending strength, impact toughness, hardness, and density were tested. It is already known that an increase in treatment temperature decreases the mechanical properties and, on the other hand, leads to a better shape and dimensional stability. Higher temperatures of the heat treatment correlated with lower elastic and strength properties. In the case of higher temperature treatments, the decline of tested properties was noticeable as a result of serious changes in the chemical composition of wood. It was confirmed that at higher temperature stages of treatment, there was a more pronounced decrease in beech properties compared to those of the birch, which was the most evident in their bending strength and hardness. Our research confirmed that there is no reason to consider birch wood to be of a lesser quality, although it is regarded by foresters as an inferior tree species. After the heat treatment, the wood properties are almost the same as in the case of beech wood.

  20. Preservation of beech and spruce wood by allyl alcohol-based copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solpan, Dilek; Gueven, Olgun

    1999-01-01

    Allyl alcohol (AA), acrylonitrile (AN), methyl methacrylate (MMA), monomers and monomer mixtures AA+AN, AA+MMA were used to conserve and consolidate Beech and Spruce. After impregnation, copolymerisation and polymerisation were accomplished by gamma irradiation. The fine structure of wood+polymer(copolymer) composites was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It was observed that copolymer obtained from AA+MMA monomer mixture showed the optimum compatibility. The compressional strength and Brinell Hardness Numbers determined for untreated and treated wood samples indicated that the mechanical strength of wood+copolymer composites was increased. It was found that the mechanical strength of the wood samples containing the AA+MMA copolymer was higher than the others. In the presence of P(AA/MMA), at highest conversion, the compressive strength perpendicular to the fibres in Beech and Spruce increased approximately 100 times. The water uptake capacity of wood+copolymer composites was observed to decrease by more than 50% relative to the original samples, and biodegradation did not take place

  1. Phytotoxic substances in soils of polluted beech forest stands; Phytotoxische Stoffe in Boeden immissionsbelasteter Buchenwaelder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glavac, V.; Parlar, H.; Michalas, F.; Droefke, P.

    1992-12-31

    Extensive germination experiments and growth experiments were carried out under controlled laboratory conditions with garden cress (Lepidium sativum ssp. sativum). The experiments show that the germination capacity ability of the plants in soil areas under old beech trees which are influenced by the trunk runoff water is impaired considerably. The investigations with nutrient solutions permit the following conclusion: The absence or occurrence of germinating plant species in the tree foot area is not influenced by the minerals alone but above all by organic compounds. In this investigation, the growth-inhibiting effect of several phenolic acids occurring in beech forests is recognized. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die umfangreichen Keim- und Wachstumsversuche mit der Gartenkresse (Lepidium sativum ssp.sativum), die unter kontrollierten Laborbedingungen durchgefuehrt wurden, zeigen, dass die Keimfaehigkeit der Pflanzen in den vom Stammablaufwasser beeinflussten Bodenbereichen der Altbuchen deutlich gehemmt wird. Die Untersuchungen mit Naehrloesungen lassen die Schlussfolgerung zu, dass nicht die Mineralstoffe allein, sondern vor allem organische Verbindungen das Fehlen oder Vorkommen aufkeimender Pflanzenarten im Baumflussbereich weitgehend bedingen. In dieser Untersuchung wird die wachstumshemmende Wirkung von mehreren im Oekosystem Buchenwald vorkommenden phenolischen Saeuren nachgewiesen. (orig.)

  2. Maturity of the PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.; Rapin, M.; Aboudarham, L.; Bitsch, D.

    1983-03-01

    Figures illustrating the predominant position of the PWR system are presented. The question is whether on the basis of these figures the PWR can be considered to have reached maturity. The following analysis, based on the French program experience, is an attempt to pinpoint those areas in which industrial maturity of the PWR has been attained, and in which areas a certain evolution can still be expected to take place

  3. Mechanical properties and chemical composition of beech wood exposed for 30 and 120 days to white-rot fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan Bari; Hamid Reza Taghiyari; Behbood Mohebby; Carol A. Clausen; Olaf Schmidt; Mohammad Ali Tajick Ghanbary; Mohammad Javad Vaseghi

    2015-01-01

    The effects of exposing specimens of Oriental beech [Fagus sylvatica subsp. orientalis (Lipsky) Greuter and Burdet] to the white-rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.: Fr.) Kummer and Trametes versicolor (L.: Fr.) Pilát strain 325 have been studied concerning the mechanical properties and...

  4. 77 FR 31642 - Hawker Beech Craft Defense Company, LLC, Also Known As Hawker Beechcraft Corporation, Also Known...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,901] Hawker Beech Craft Defense Company, LLC, Also Known As Hawker Beechcraft Corporation, Also Known As Hawker Beechcraft International SVC, Also Known As Rapid Surplus Parts, Also Known As Hawker Beechcraft Svcs, Also Known As Travel...

  5. Removal of non benzidine direct red dye from aqueous solution by using natural sorbents: Beech and silver fir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Muntean, S.G.; Todea, A.; Bakardjieva, Snejana; Bologa, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 66, MAR (2017), s. 235-250 ISSN 1944-3994 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Adsorption * Beech * Direct red * Kinetics * Silver fir Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 1.631, year: 2016

  6. The formation of a ligno-suberised layer and necrophylactic periderm in beech bark (Fagus sylvatica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primoz Oven; Niko Torelli; Walter C. Shortle; Martin Zupancic

    1999-01-01

    Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) bark was wounded in early April of 1993 and tissue changes followed on days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, 84, 112, and 140. In 7 days, tissue at the wound surface became necrotic and discoloured. In 14 days the walls of the parenchyma cells immediately underneath the necrotic tissue became thickened and after 21 days...

  7. Temporal changes in vegetation of a virgin beech woodland remnant: stand-scale stability with intensive fine-scale dynamics governed by stand dynamic events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Standovár

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this resurvey study is to check if herbaceous vegetation on the forest floor exhibits overall stability at the stand-scale in spite of intensive dynamics at the scale of individual plots and stand dynamic events (driven by natural fine scale canopy gap dynamics. In 1996, we sampled a 1.5 ha patch using 0.25 m² plots placed along a 5 m × 5 m grid in the best remnant of central European montane beech woods in Hungary. All species in the herbaceous layer and their cover estimates were recorded. Five patches representing different stand developmental situations (SDS were selected for resurvey. In 2013, 306 plots were resurveyed by using blocks of four 0.25 m² plots to test the effects of imperfect relocation. We found very intensive fine-scale dynamics in the herbaceous layer with high species turnover and sharp changes in ground layer cover at the local-scale (< 1 m2. A decrease in species richness and herbaceous layer cover, as well as high species turnover, characterized the closing gaps. Colonization events and increasing species richness and herbaceous layer cover prevailed in the two newly created gaps. A pronounced decrease in the total cover, but low species turnover and survival of the majority of the closed forest specialists was detected by the resurvey at the stand-scale. The test aiming at assessing the effect of relocation showed a higher time effect than the effect of imprecise relocation. The very intensive fine-scale dynamics of the studied beech forest are profoundly determined by natural stand dynamics. Extinction and colonisation episodes even out at the stand-scale, implying an overall compositional stability of the herbaceous vegetation at the given spatial and temporal scale. We argue that fine-scale gap dynamics, driven by natural processes or applied as a management method, can warrant the survival of many closed forest specialist species in the long-run. Nomenclature: Flora Europaea (Tutin et al. 2010 for

  8. Increased carbon sequestration in a Danish beech forest during 1996-2016: Observations and hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilegaard, Kim; Ibrom, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    A study of the net exchange of CO2 (NEE) between the atmosphere and a beech forest near Sorø, Denmark, during 14 years (1996-2009) showed that the beech forest acted as an increasing sink of CO2 [1]. A significant increase in gross primary production (GPP) and a smaller and not significant increase in ecosystem respiration (RE) were also found. Thus, the increased NEE was mainly attributed to an increase in GPP. The length of the carbon uptake period (CUP) significantly increased, whereas there was a no increase in the leafed period (LP). This means that the leaves stayed active longer. The increase in the carbon uptake period explained about half of the increasing NEE. The remaining increase was believed to be due to an observed increased uptake capacity of the canopy and increased annual radiation efficiency[2]. The causes for this were hypothesized to be a combination of increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration, higher summer precipitation, and increased availability of N. A higher nitrogen content in the leaves was observed towards the end of the observation period. An updated analysis of the flux data, now including the years 1996-2016, confirms the increasing trend in carbon sequestration of the forest, an increasingly longer growing season, and a significant correlation of NEE and CUP, however, similarly to the first study, the increase in CUP only explains about half of the total increase. Here we investigate three hypotheses for the remaining reasons for the increase: H1: increased canopy nitrogen content H2: carbon dioxide fertilisation H3: increased water availability due to changing precipitation patterns. We describe the multiannual development of canopy photosynthesis capacity with regression analysis and perform sensitivity studies with the canopy model MAESTRA [3] to investigate the above hypotheses. The results will be presented, critically discussed and interpreted with respect to general effects of global climate change and site specific, local

  9. Natural radiation dose of small mammalians in beech forest of Rokkasho, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Iyogi, Takashi; Takaku, Yuichi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Protection of the environment itself from radiation hazards is recognized as important as that of humans. Actual data on the background natural radiation dose, which is necessary to evaluate the effect of radiation, are very few, especially in the terrestrial environment. Forests around the Japan's first large scale nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Rokkasho were selected as the research field for evaluating the background natural radiation to the environment. Data observed will be used in future for the comparison with the radiation dose from radionuclides released from the plant. Small mammalians, mouse (Apodeums argentus) and mole (Urotrichus talpoides), were selected as representative animals of the forests in this study, and it was planned to measure their radiation doses from natural sources; environmental γ-rays, Rn and internal radionuclides. The forests around the plant were classified into three types: beech, oak and coniferous. We have been measuring the natural radiation to the mammalians in each of those forests one by one and report the data for the beech forest here. The mammalians caught in traps in the beech forest during June-October, 2006 were analyzed for their natural radionuclides burdens ( 210 Pb, 210 Po, 40 K, 87 Rb, 226 Ra, 238 U and 232 Th) in 11 organs and carcass. Radiation dose rates from environmental γ-rays and atmospheric concentration of Rn in the forest were also measured during August-December, 2006. Mean internal dose rates of mouse and mole caught in June, 2006 were estimated to be 0.036 μGy h -1 and 0.28 μGy h -1 , respectively, from mean concentrations of the nuclides in a total body and internal dose conversion coefficients by FASSET. The difference of the dose between the two mammalian species was attributed to higher contribution of 210 Po in mole, in which dose reached 0.25 μGy h -1 in contrast to that in mouse of 0.016 μGy h -1 . The concentration of 210 Po in kidney of mole (0.37 Bq g -1 wet) was

  10. Sensory-directed identification of taste-active ellagitannins in American (Quercus alba L.) and European oak wood (Quercus robur L.) and quantitative analysis in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

    2006-05-03

    Aimed at increasing our knowledge on the sensory-active nonvolatiles migrating from oak wood into alcoholic beverages upon cooperaging, an aqueous ethanolic extract prepared from oak wood chips (Quercus alba L.) was screened for its key taste compounds by application of the taste dilution analysis. Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impacts, followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments, revealed the ellagitannins vescalagin, castalagin, and grandinin, the roburins A-E, and 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin as the key molecules imparting an astringent oral sensation. To the best of our knowledge, 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin has as yet not been reported as a phytochemical in Q. alba L. In addition, the sensory activity of these ellagitannins was determined for the first time on the basis of their human threshold concentrations and dose/response functions. Furthermore, the ellagitannins have been quantitatively determined in extracts prepared from Q. alba L. and Quercus robur L., respectively, as well as in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines, and the sensory contribution of the individual compounds has been evaluated for the first time on the basis of dose/activity considerations.

  11. A maturity model to assess organisational readiness for change

    OpenAIRE

    Zephir, Olivier; Minel, Stéphanie; Chapotot, Emilie

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The presented model which is developed in a European project allows project management teams to assess the organisational maturity to integrate new practices under structural or technological change. Maturity for change is defined here as workforce capability to operate effectively in transformed processes. This methodology is addressed to tackle organisational readiness to fulfil business objectives through technological and structural improvements. The tool integrate...

  12. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found...... to be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support...... for the affine term structure model....

  13. Characteristics of the soil in mountain beech communities on mountain Manjača

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremija Saša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented results of soil study, which will be used for defining the beech forest types of management unit 'Dubička Gora' on Mt. Manjača, are the basis for solving a series of current tasks of forestry profession. Relief and chemical nature of limestone are the main factors of the soil cover differentiation (Knežević, Košanin, 2004.. The results of physical and chemical soil properties are shown and its taxonomy is determined. Forest cover is represented by heterogeneous units-forest combinations. Four basic soil types are defined on the basis of detailed field and laboratory research: rendzina on dolomite, chernozem on limestone, brown soil on limestone, illimerised soil on limestone and dolomite.

  14. Black carbon surface oxidation and organic composition of beech-wood soot aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Corbin

    2015-10-01

    oxygenated carbonaceous ions (CO1-2+, potassium (K+, and water (H2O+ and related fragments. The C4+ : C3+ ratio, but not the C1+ : C3+ ratio, was consistent with the BC-structure trends of Corbin et al. (2015c. The CO1-2+ signals likely originated from BC surface groups: upon aging, both CO+ and CO2+ increased relative to C1-3+ while CO2+ simultaneously increased relative to CO+. Factor analysis (positive matrix factorization of SP-AMS and AMS data, using a modified error model to address peak-integration uncertainties, indicated that the surface composition of the BC was approximately constant across all stages of combustion for both fresh and aged samples. These results represent the first time-resolved measurements of in situ BC surface aging and suggest that the surface of beech-wood BC may be modelled as a single chemical species.

  15. Forty-two years of change in an old-growth and second-growth beech-maple forest of north central Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalie R. Pinheiro; P. Charles Goebel; David M. Hix

    2008-01-01

    Using data collected in 1964 and 2006, we examined changes in the composition and structure of a second-growth and old-growth beech-maple forest of Crall Woods, located in Ashland County of north central Ohio. Over the 42 years, the old-growth forest (estimated to be at least 250 years old) experienced a significant shift in species composition as American beech,...

  16. Grammar Maturity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaytsev, V.; Pierantonio, A.; Schätz, B.; Tamzalit, D.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of a software language (whether modelled by a grammar or a schema or a metamodel) is not limited to development of new versions and dialects. An important dimension of a software language evolution is maturing in the sense of improving the quality of its definition. In this paper, we

  17. Maturing interorganisational information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313946809

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of nine chapters, divided over five parts. PART I is an introduction and the last part contains the conclusions. The remaining, intermediate parts are: PART II: Developing a maturity model for chain digitisation. This part contains two related studies concerning the development

  18. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  19. Influence of litter diversity on dissolved organic matter release and soil carbon formation in a mixed beech forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibe, Andrea; Gleixner, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of leaf litter on below ground carbon export and soil carbon formation in order to understand how litter diversity affects carbon cycling in forest ecosystems. 13C labeled and unlabeled leaf litter of beech (Fagus sylvatica) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior), characterized by low and high decomposability, were used in a litter exchange experiment in the Hainich National Park (Thuringia, Germany). Litter was added in pure and mixed treatments with either beech or ash labeled with 13C. We collected soil water in 5 cm mineral soil depth below each treatment biweekly and determined dissolved organic carbon (DOC), δ13C values and anion contents. In addition, we measured carbon concentrations and δ13C values in the organic and mineral soil (collected in 1 cm increments) up to 5 cm soil depth at the end of the experiment. Litter-derived C contributes less than 1% to dissolved organic matter (DOM) collected in 5 cm mineral soil depth. Better decomposable ash litter released significantly more (0.50±0.17%) litter carbon than beech litter (0.17±0.07%). All soil layers held in total around 30% of litter-derived carbon, indicating the large retention potential of litter-derived C in the top soil. Interestingly, in mixed (ash and beech litter) treatments we did not find a higher contribution of better decomposable ash-derived carbon in DOM, O horizon or mineral soil. This suggest that the known selective decomposition of better decomposable litter by soil fauna has no or only minor effects on the release and formation of litter-derived DOM and soil organic matter. Overall our experiment showed that 1) litter-derived carbon is of low importance for dissolved organic carbon release and 2) litter of higher decomposability is faster decomposed, but litter diversity does not influence the carbon flow.

  20. Mixing Effects in Norway Spruce—European Beech Stands Are Modulated by Site Quality, Stand Age and Moisture Availability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Houpert

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although mixing tree species is considered an efficient risk-reduction strategy in the face of climate change, the conditions where mixtures are more productive than monocultures are under ongoing debate. Generalizations have been difficult because of the variety of methods used and due to contradictory findings regarding the effects of the species investigated, mixing proportions, and many site and stand conditions. Using data from 960 plots of the Swiss National Forest Inventory data, we assessed whether Picea abies (L. Karst–Fagus sylvatica L. mixed stands are more productive than pure stands, and whether the mixing effect depends on site- or stand-characteristics. The species proportions were estimated using species proportion by area, which depends on the maximum stand basal area of an unmanaged stand (BAmax. Four different alternatives were used to estimate BAmax and to investigate the effect of these differing alternatives on the estimated mixture effect. On average, the mixture had a negative effect on the growth of Picea abies. However, this effect decreased as moisture availability increased. Fagus sylvatica grew better in mixtures and this effect increased with site quality. A significant interaction between species proportions and quadratic mean diameter, a proxy for stand age, was found for both species: the older the stand, the better the growth of Fagus sylvatica and the lower the growth of Picea abies. Overyielding was predicted for 80% of the investigated sites. The alternative to estimate BAmax weakly modulated the estimated mixture effect, but it did not affect the way mixing effects changed with site characteristics.

  1. Attraction and antennal response of the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris (L.), to selected synthetic chemicals in New Zealand beech forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Manning, Lee-Anne; Unelius, C Rikard; Park, Kye Chung; Stringer, Lloyd D; White, Nicola; Bunn, Barry; Twidle, Andrew; Suckling, David M

    2009-09-01

    The common wasp, Vespula vulgaris (L.), and the German wasp, Vespula germanica (F.), are significant problems in New Zealand beech forests (Nothofagus spp.), adversely affecting native birds and invertebrate biodiversity. This work was undertaken to develop synthetic attractants for these species to enable more efficient monitoring and management. Seven known wasp attractants (acetic acid, butyl butyrate, isobutanol, heptyl butyrate, octyl butyrate and 2,4-hexadienyl butyrate) were field tested, and only heptyl butyrate and octyl butyrate attracted significantly higher numbers of wasps than a non-baited trap. Accordingly, a series of straight-chain esters from methyl to decyl butyrate were prepared and field tested for attraction of social wasps. Peak biological activity occurred with hexyl butyrate, heptyl butyrate, octyl butyrate and nonyl butyrate. Polyethylene bags emitting approximately 18.4-22.6 mg day(-1) of heptyl butyrate were more attractive than polyethylene bags emitting approximately 14.7-16.8 mg day(-1) of heptyl butyrate in the field. Electroantennogram (EAG) studies indicated that queens and workers of V. vulgaris had olfactory receptor neurons responding to various aliphatic butyrates. These results are the first to be reported on the EAG response and the attraction of social wasps to synthetic chemicals in New Zealand beech forests and will enable monitoring of social wasp activity in beech forests. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Structure, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity of beech wood biocarbon produced at carbonization temperatures below 1000°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Orlova, T. S.; Kartenko, N. F.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.; Muha, J.; Vera, M. C.

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports on measurements of the thermal conductivity κ and the electrical resistivity ρ in the temperature range 5-300 K, and, at 300 K, on X-ray diffraction studies of high-porosity (with a channel pore volume fraction of ˜47 vol %) of the beech wood biocarbon prepared by pyrolysis (carbonization) of tree wood in an argon flow at the carbonization temperature T carb = 800°C. It has been shown that the biocarbon template of the samples studied represents essentially a nanocomposite made up of amorphous carbon and nanocrystallites—"graphite fragments" and graphene layers. The sizes of the nanocrystallites forming these nanocomposites have been determined. The dependences ρ( T) and κ( T) have been measured for the samples cut along and perpendicular to the tree growth direction, thus permitting determination of the magnitude of the anisotropy of these parameters. The dependences ρ( T) and κ( T), which have been obtained for beech biocarbon samples prepared at T carb = 800°C, are compared with the data amassed by us earlier for samples fabricated at T carb = 1000 and 2400°C. The magnitude and temperature dependence of the phonon thermal conductivity of the nanocomposite making up the beech biocarbon template at T carb = 800°C have been found.

  3. Mature neurons dynamically restrict apoptosis via redundant premitochondrial brakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annis, Ryan P; Swahari, Vijay; Nakamura, Ayumi; Xie, Alison X; Hammond, Scott M; Deshmukh, Mohanish

    2016-12-01

    Apoptotic cell death is critical for the early development of the nervous system, but once the nervous system is established, the apoptotic pathway becomes highly restricted in mature neurons. However, the mechanisms underlying this increased resistance to apoptosis in these mature neurons are not completely understood. We have previously found that members of the miR-29 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are induced with neuronal maturation and that overexpression of miR-29 was sufficient to restrict apoptosis in neurons. To determine whether endogenous miR-29 alone was responsible for the inhibition of cytochrome c release in mature neurons, we examined the status of the apoptotic pathway in sympathetic neurons deficient for all three miR-29 family members. Unexpectedly, we found that the apoptotic pathway remained largely restricted in miR-29-deficient mature neurons. We therefore probed for additional mechanisms by which mature neurons resist apoptosis. We identify miR-24 as another miRNA that is upregulated in the maturing cerebellum and sympathetic neurons that can act redundantly with miR-29 by targeting a similar repertoire of prodeath BH3-only genes. Overall, our results reveal that mature neurons engage multiple redundant brakes to restrict the apoptotic pathway and ensure their long-term survival. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  4. People Capability Maturity Model. SM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    tailored so it consumes less time and resources than a traditional software process assessment or CMU/SEI-95-MM-02 People Capability Maturity Model...improved reputation or customer loyalty. CMU/SEI-95-MM-02 People Capability Maturity Model ■ L5-17 Coaching Level 5: Optimizing Activity 1...Maturity Model CMU/SEI-95-MM-62 Carnegie-Mellon University Software Engineering Institute DTIC ELECTE OCT 2 7 1995 People Capability Maturity

  5. Maturity effects in energy futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos (Calgary Univ., AB (CA). Dept. of Economics)

    1992-04-01

    This paper examines the effects of maturity on future price volatility and trading volume for 129 energy futures contracts recently traded in the NYMEX. The results provide support for the maturity effect hypothesis, that is, energy futures prices to become more volatile and trading volume increases as futures contracts approach maturity. (author).

  6. Variations of Mercury Concentrations in American Beech Foliage over a Growing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, I.; Tsui, M. T. K.; Chow, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    Accumulation of atmospheric gaseous mercury (Hg) in foliage is well known, however, a small fraction of Hg always exists as highly bioavailable methylmercury (MeHg) in foliage but the source of MeHg in foliage is unknown. Recent studies suggested in-vivo Hg methylation in foliage while others suggested external inputs (e.g., precipitation) as sources of MeHg in foliage. This study assesses the accumulation of total Hg and MeHg within the foliage of a small sample set of American Beech trees, one of the common tree species in the east coast and the study site is located within the campus of University of North Carolina - Greensboro, over the growing season in 2017 (spring, summer, and fall). In addition, this study evaluates the Hg concentrations in foliage as related to other physiological parameters (e.g., stomatal density, leaf area, chlorophyll, and carbon/nitrogen content) and the changes in environmental characteristics (e.g., sunlight) over the growing season. For this investigation, five American Beech trees with varying characteristics (height, age, and location) were selected. On a biweekly basis, starting late April 2017, foliage samples were collected and composited from different positions on each tree. For the samples processed to date, our results indicate that total Hg accumulation is occurring for all five trees with an initial mean value of 5.79 ng/g, increasing to a mean value of 13.9 ng/g over a ten-week period. Coincidentally, there has been a similar increase in chlorophyll (a+b) concentrations for the foliage, and there is a strong, positive relationship between chlorophyll and total-Hg concentrations. However, we found no relationships between total Hg concentrations and stomatal density of foliage or carbon/nitrogen content. This study is still ongoing and will continue through the end of the growing season in 2017. Additionally, from the same sample sets, besides total Hg analysis and other ancillary parameters in foliage, MeHg analysis

  7. Chemical Elements in Mulch and Litterfall of Beech Ecosystems and Their Total Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariyana I. Lyubenovа

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The beech communities on the territory of Bulgaria had been objects of regional, local as well as large scale national investigations aiming their classification, determination of their ecological characteristics, conservation status, habitats etc. They are included as objects of the intensive monitoring of forest ecosystems in Bulgaria also. The investigations of chemical content of the litter – fall in these forests were conducted until now. The novelty of the present research is investigation of these elements in the mulch and the ratio between the established quantities calculation. The main goal is the biological turnover special features characterization of the investigated elements which give us a chance to define the investigated ecosystems state and functioning. The indexes as litter – mulch and acropetal coefficients were used for this aim. The content of macroelements as N, Ca and K and microelements as Pb, Zn, Mn and Fe in soils, mulch and in different litter fall fractions have been calculated. The investigation was carried out on three sample plots. During the investigation was established that the soils are characterized with acid reaction, high content of Fe, N and Mn and low content of Ca and K. The concentration of Zn and Pb are high also. The calculated average store of investigated elements in litter – fall is 81.312 kg.ha1 and in the mulch 314 kg.ha1. According to the acropetal coefficient N is accumulated mainly in the acorns, K – in the annual phytomass fractions and Ca – in the perennial fractions. The leaves and the acorns fraction accumulate Mn, and cupolas Fe. The litter – mulch coefficient vary from 1,6 (Mn to 4,2 (Pb. The tendencies of Zn and Ca turnovers acceleration are discovered, while the turnover of more investigated elements is inhibited. The litter – mulch coefficient for Zn and Ca is 0,8 and 1,4 accordingly, i.е. corresponding to the intensive type of turnovers which is not typical for the

  8. Production dynamics of fine roots in beech forests: possible mechanism of resource allocation between above- and below-ground production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahata, R.; Osawa, A.; Naramoto, M.; Mizunaga, H.; Sato, M.

    2017-12-01

    The masting phenomenon that seed production has large annual variation with spatial synchrony appears generally in beeches. Therefore, net primary production and carbon allocation mechanism in beech forests may differ among several years in relation to annual variation of seed production. On the other hand, fine roots play key roles in carbon dynamics and nutrient and water acquisition of an ecosystem. Evaluation of fine root dynamics is essential to understand long-term dynamics of production in forest ecosystems. Moreover, the influence of mast seeding on resource allocation should be clarified in such beech forests. The aim of this study is to clarify possible relationships between the patterns of above- and below-ground production in relation to the masting events using observation data of litter fall and fine root dynamics. We applied the litter trap method and a minirhizotron method in a cool-temperate natural forest dominated by beech (Fagus crenata Blume). Ten litter traps were set from 2008 to 2016, then annual leaf and seed production were estimated. Four minirhizotron tubes were buried in Aug. 2008 and soil profiles were scanned monthly until Nov. 2016 during the periods of no snow covering. The scanned soil profiles were analyzed for calculating fine root production using the WinRHIZO Tron software. In the present study site, rich production of mast seeding occurred biennially and fine root production showed various seasonal patterns. There was no significant correlation between seed production and annual fine root production in the same year. However, seed production had a positive correlation with fine root production in autumn in the previous year and indicated a negative correlation with that in autumn in the current year. These results indicate that higher fine root production has led to increased nutrient acquisition, which resulted in rich seed production in the next year. It is also suppressed after the masting events due to shortage in

  9. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    Yeast surface display is an effective tool for antibody affinity maturation because yeast can be used as an all-in-one workhorse to assemble, display and screen diversified antibody libraries. By employing the natural ability of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently recombine multiple DNA...... laboratory conditions. A particular emphasis was put on using molecular techniques in conjunction with microenvironmental measurements (O2, pH, irradiance), a combination that is rarely found but provides a much more detailed understanding of “cause and effect” in complex natural systems...

  10. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  11. Molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood using an electrostatic precipitator for oil collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi S. Nygård

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A tubular electrostatic precipitator (ESP was designed and tested for collection of pyrolysis oil in molten salt pyrolysis of milled beech wood (0.5-2 mm. The voltage-current (V-I characteristics were studied, showing most stable performance of the ESP when N2 was utilized as inert gas. The pyrolysis experiments were carried out in FLiNaK and (LiNaK2CO3 over the temperature range of 450-600 ℃. The highest yields of pyrolysis oil were achieved in FLiNaK, with a maximum of 34.2 wt% at 500 ℃, followed by a decrease with increasing reactor temperature. The temperature had nearly no effect on the oil yield for pyrolysis in (LiNaK2CO3 (19.0-22.5 wt%. Possible hydration reactions and formation of HF gas during FLiNaK pyrolysis were investigated by simulations (HSC Chemistry software and measurements of the outlet gas (FTIR, but no significant amounts of HF were detected.

  12. Thermal conductivity at the amorphous-nanocrystalline phase transition in beech wood biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Orlova, T. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.; Ramirez-Rico, J.

    2014-05-01

    High-porosity samples of beech wood biocarbon (BE-C) were prepared by pyrolysis at carbonization temperatures T carb = 650, 1300, and 1600°C, and their resistivity ρ and thermal conductivity κ were studied in the 5-300 and 80-300 K temperature intervals. The experimental results obtained were evaluated by invoking X-ray diffraction data and information on the temperature dependences ρ( T) and κ( T) for BE-C samples prepared at T carb = 800, 1000, and 2400°C, which were collected by the authors earlier. An analysis of the κ( T carb) behavior led to the conclusion that the samples under study undergo an amorphous-nanocrystalline phase transition in the interval 800°C < T carb < 1000°C. Evaluation of the electronic component of the thermal conductivity revealed that the Lorentz number of the sample prepared at T carb = 2400°C exceeds by far the classical Sommerfeld value, which is characteristic of metals and highly degenerate semiconductors.

  13. Thermal conductivity of the amorphous and nanocrystalline phases of the beech wood biocarbon nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartenko, N. F.; Orlova, T. S.; Parfen'eva, L. S.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.

    2014-11-01

    Natural composites (biocarbons) obtained by carbonization of beech wood at different carbonization temperatures T carb in the range of 800-2400°C have been studied using X-ray diffraction. The composites consist of an amorphous matrix and nanocrystallites of graphite and graphene. The volume fractions of the amorphous and nanocrystalline phases as functions of T carb have been determined. Temperature dependences of the phonon thermal conductivity κ( T) of the biocarbons with different temperatures T carb (1000 and 2400°C) have been analyzed in the range of 5-300 K. It has been shown that the behavior of κ( T) of the biocarbon with T carb = 1000°C is controlled by the amorphous phase in the range of 5-50 K and by the nanocrystalline phase in the range of 100-300 K. The character of κ( T) of the biocarbon with T carb = 2400°C is determined by the heat transfer (scattering) in the nanocrystalline phase over the entire temperature range of 5-300 K.

  14. Specific features of the electrical properties in partially graphitized porous biocarbons of beech wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V. V.; Orlova, T. S.; Gutierrez-Pardo, A.; Ramirez-Rico, J.

    2015-09-01

    The electrical and galvanomagnetic properties of partially graphitized highly porous bioC(Ni) biocarbon matrices produced by pyrolysis (carbonization) of beech wood at temperatures T carb = 850-1600°C in the presence of a Ni-containing catalyst have been studied in comparison with their microstructural features. The temperature dependences of the resistivity, the magnetoresistance, and the Hall coefficient have been measured in the temperature range of 4.2-300 K in magnetic fields to 28 kOe. It has been shown that an additional graphite phase introduction into samples with T carb ≥ 1000°C results in an increase in the carrier mobility by a factor of 2-3, whereas the carrier (hole) concentration remains within ~1020 cm-3, as in biocarbons obtained without catalyst. An analysis of experimental data has demonstrated that the features of the conductivity and magnetoresistance of these samples are described by quantum corrections related to their structural features, i.e., the formation of a globular graphite phase of nano- and submicrometer sizes in the amorphous matrix. The quantum corrections to the conductivity decrease with increasing carbonization temperature, which indicates an increase in the degree of structure ordering and is in good agreement with microstructural data.

  15. Thermal conductivity of high-porosity biocarbon preforms of beech wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfen'eva, L. S.; Orlova, T. S.; Kartenko, N. F.; Sharenkova, N. V.; Smirnov, B. I.; Smirnov, I. A.; Misiorek, H.; Jezowski, A.; Wilkes, T. E.; Faber, K. T.

    2010-06-01

    This paper reports on measurements performed in the temperature range 5-300 K for the thermal conductivity κ and electrical resistivity ρ of high-porosity (cellular pores) biocarbon preforms prepared by pyrolysis (carbonization) of beech wood in an argon flow at carbonization temperatures of 1000 and 2400°C. X-ray structure analysis of the samples has been performed at 300 K. The samples have revealed the presence of nanocrystallites making up the carbon matrices of these biocarbon preforms. Their size has been determined. For samples prepared at T carb = 1000 and 2400°C, the nanocrystallite sizes are found to be in the ranges 12-25 and 28-60 κ( T) are determined for the samples cut along and across the tree growth direction. The thermal conductivity κ increases with increasing carbonization temperature and nanocrystallite size in the carbon matrix of the sample. Thermal conductivity measurements conducted on samples of both types have revealed an unusual temperature dependence of the phonon thermal conductivity for amorphous materials. As the temperature increases from 5 to 300 K, it first increases in proportion to T, to transfer subsequently to ˜ T 1.5 scaling. The results obtained are analyzed.

  16. Dispersal of Airborne Pollen in Chatienshan Nature Reserve, Northern Taiwan, with Emphasis on Taiwan Beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Ku

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this first study on the pollen rain in natural forest in Taiwan using pollen traps, the dispersal patterns of airborne pollen were determined, with emphasis on Fagus hayatae and some major plant species, and the relationship between pollen assemblages and vegetation was elucidated. Seventeen pollen traps were installed on the western slope of Mt. Takai, northern Taiwan, from March 21 to May 10, 2008. Pollen and spores belonging to 37 families and 43 genera were identified. The results of correspondence analysis suggested differentiation of three vertical zones of pollen assemblages that corresponded to three vegetation types. Three patterns of occurrence were identified for the major pollen taxa, namely ubiquitous occurrence, local occurrence, and peak occurrence. The pollen influx of F. hayatae, a taxon characterized by local occurrence, was remarkably lower at a distance of over 200 m away from the pure stands. This suggests that pollen-mediated gene flow between the beech populations in Taiwan is unlikely. Besides providing basic data on the pollen dispersal of some important taxa in the middle altitudes of Taiwan, the present study also points out that caution should be taken in interpreting pollen percentage data from sediments.

  17. The influence of fire retardants on the properties of beech and poplar veneers and plywood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković Jovan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising demands for fire resistance properties of wood construction and elements matching new standards have been an important part of building codes during the last decade. On the other side, lack of more detailed research on interaction between wood species and selected fire retardant chemicals even with basically one is evident. This is particularly truth with domestic wood species. In this research, beech and poplar veneers were immersed in 25% solutions of monoammonium phosphate (MP and sodium acetate (SA and impregnated for different periods of time. To determine the preliminary level of fire retardancy achieved in veneers before manufacturing of finished plywood, thermo gravimetric (TG and derivative thermo gravimetric (DTG methods were used. TG and DTG analyses of treated and untreated wood, as well as of fire retardants alone, were performed. The next properties of impregnated and no impregnated veneers and plywood were determined: absorption of imp regnant solution (A, weight percent gain (WPG of imp regnant, equilibrium moisture content (EMC, pH values, and in the case of plywood, strength and fire resistance. Fire resistance of plywood was tested in accordance with standard test for resistance to the effects of fire and the most efficient fire retardant, monoammonium phosphate, had the same result as TG/DTG analyses, which pointed out the validity of TG methods in predicting fire resistance of future products.

  18. Natural and anthropogenic stress in spruce and beech ecosystems in the Solling project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murach, D.

    1989-01-01

    The investigations show that low Ca/Al-ratios in mineral soil horizons cause a shallow root system with spruce. But obviously other soil conditions expect acidification can also be responsible for a shallow root system. Additional investigations and field experiments have to find out the driving forces. A new phenomenon in fine root investigations are the low fine root concentrations in the uppermost mineral soil horizons. It is to be observed with spruce as well as with beech in stands with strong acidification of the top soil. Further experiments are needed to evaluate what are the main chemical variables (pH, heavy metals etc.) In this way soil acidification can cause reductions of fine root biomasses in subsoils as well as in uppermost soil horizons. These reductions can influence the response of trees to water stress. Relations to the symptoms of needle losses with spruce are likely. The close correlations between the chemistry of the soil, the roots and the needles indicate, that the yellowing symptoms of spruce trees, which were related to Mg-deficiency, are caused by Mg-deficiency in the soil. It is to be emphazised that it is not a pure Mg-deficiency. Ion antagonism to Al and especially to H in connection with fine root distribution are of main importance. (orig.)

  19. Effects of wood ash on soil solution and chemistry of leaves in a beech stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tothova, Slavka

    2005-01-01

    The short-term effects of wood ash fertilization on chemistry of soil solution and leaves were investigated in 4-year-old beech stand (Fagus sylvatica L.) on dystric cambisol in Central Spis. Four plots - the control plot and three plots with different ash treatments (different dose, date and method of application) were established. Plate lysimeters were installed under the upper layer of soil in depth 2 cm and 20 cm on the control plot and plot P1 with addition of wood ash 5 t/ha on the whole surface. Soil solution was collected in May - October 2002 every two weeks. Composite samples, which represent a one - month period, were analysed for pH, K, Ca, Mg, and NO 3 - . The leaves were collected 4 or 10 months after the treatment and analysed on Ca, K, Mg, P, S, N and heavy metals Cd, Pb, Cr and Hg. In the ash treatment the content of macronutrient increased (mainly K, Ca). Addition of ash did not increase of the content heavy metal in leaves

  20. Correlation between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwei; Hu, Haikun; Guo, Jing; Liu, Zeping; Liu, Renkai; Li, Fan; Zou, Shujuan

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dental and skeletal maturity. Digital panoramic radiographs and lateral skull cephalograms of 302 patients (134 boys and 168 girls, ranging from 8 to 16 years of age) were examined. Dental maturity was assessed by calcification stages of the mandibular canines, first and second premolars, and second molars, whereas skeletal maturity was estimated by the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient was used to measure the association between CVM stage and dental calcification stage of individual teeth. The mean chronologic age of girls was significantly lower than that of boys in each CVM stage. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity ranged from 0.391 to 0.582 for girls and from 0.464 to 0.496 for boys (P cervical vertebral maturation stage. The development of the mandibular second molar in females and that of the mandibular canine in males had the strongest correlations with cervical vertebral maturity. Therefore, it is practical to consider the relationship between dental and skeletal maturity when planning orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mature Cystic Renal Teratoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, Alpaslan; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Akkaya, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Teratomas are rare germline tumors that originate from one or more embryonic germ cell layers. Teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and less than 30 cases of primary intrarenal teratomas have been published to date. We report the main radiologic features of an unusual case of mature cystic teratoma arising from the left kidney in a two-year-old boy. A left-sided abdominal mass was detected on physical examination and B-Mod Ultrasound (US) examination revealed a heterogeneous mass with central cystic component. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a lobulated, heterogeneous, hypodense mass extending craniocaudally from the splenic hilum to the level of the left iliac fossa. Nephrectomy was performed and a large, fatty mass arising from the left kidney was excised. The final pathologic diagnosis was confirmed as cystic renal teratoma

  2. Developing maturity grids for assessing organisational capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John

    2009-01-01

    Keyword: Maturity Model,Maturity Grid,Maturity Matrix,Organisational Capabilities,Benchmarking,New Product Development,Perfirmance Assessment......Keyword: Maturity Model,Maturity Grid,Maturity Matrix,Organisational Capabilities,Benchmarking,New Product Development,Perfirmance Assessment...

  3. Modeling non-maturing liabilities

    OpenAIRE

    von Feilitzen, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Non‐maturing liabilities, such as savings accounts, lack both predetermined maturity and reset dates due to the fact that the depositor is free to withdraw funds at any time and that the depository institution is free to change the rate. These attributes complicate the risk management of such products and no standardized solution exists. The problem is important however since non‐maturing liabilities typically make up a considerable part of the funding of a bank. In this report different mode...

  4. Immunoglobulin E-mediated sensitization to pine and beech dust in relation to wood dust exposure levels and respiratory symptoms in the furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Kespohl, Sabine; Jacobsen, Gitte; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Schaumburg, Inger; Sigsgaard, Torben

    2011-03-01

    Wood dust exposure may cause Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic diseases. Our objectives were to estimate pine and beech dust sensitization rates among woodworkers and a reference group, explore the association between exposure and sensitization and between sensitization and respiratory symptoms, and finally investigate the impact of proteinogenic specific IgE (sIgE) epitopes on respiratory symptoms. In a Danish study among 52 furniture factories and 2 reference factories, we evaluated the workers' asthma and rhinitis status using questionnaires and blood samples collected from 1506 woodworkers and 195 references. Workers with asthma symptoms (N=298), a random study sample (N=399) and a random rhinitis sample (N=100) were evaluated for IgE-mediated sensitization to pine and beech dust. The prevalence of pine and beech sensitization among current woodworkers was 1.7 and 3.1%, respectively. No differences in sensitization rates were found between woodworkers and references, but the prevalence of wood dust sensitization was dose-dependently associated with the current level of wood dust exposure. No relation was observed between wood dust sensitization per se and respiratory symptoms. Only symptomatic subjects had proteinogenic IgE epitopes to pine. Increased odds ratios for sIgE based on proteinogenic epitopes to beech and respiratory symptoms were found, although they were not statistically significant. Sensitization rates to pine and beech were the same for woodworkers and references but dependent on the current wood dust exposure level. The importance of beech and pine wood sensitization is limited, but may be of clinical significance for a few workers if the IgE epitopes are proteinogenic.

  5. Environmental change impacts on the C- and N-cycle of European forests: a model comparison study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Cameron

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forests are important components of the greenhouse gas balance of Europe. There is considerable uncertainty about how predicted changes to climate and nitrogen deposition will perturb the carbon and nitrogen cycles of European forests and thereby alter forest growth, carbon sequestration and N2O emission. The present study aimed to quantify the carbon and nitrogen balance, including the exchange of greenhouse gases, of European forests over the period 2010–2030, with a particular emphasis on the spatial variability of change. The analysis was carried out for two tree species: European beech and Scots pine. For this purpose, four different dynamic models were used: BASFOR, DailyDayCent, INTEGRATOR and Landscape-DNDC. These models span a range from semi-empirical to complex mechanistic. Comparison of these models allowed assessment of the extent to which model predictions depended on differences in model inputs and structure. We found a European average carbon sink of 0.160 ± 0.020 kgC m−2 yr−1 (pine and 0.138 ± 0.062 kgC m−2 yr−1 (beech and N2O source of 0.285 ± 0.125 kgN ha−1 yr−1 (pine and 0.575 ± 0.105 kgN ha−1 yr−1 (beech. The European average greenhouse gas potential of the carbon sink was 18 (pine and 8 (beech times that of the N2O source. Carbon sequestration was larger in the trees than in the soil. Carbon sequestration and forest growth were largest in central Europe and lowest in northern Sweden and Finland, N. Poland and S. Spain. No single driver was found to dominate change across Europe. Forests were found to be most sensitive to change in environmental drivers where the drivers were limiting growth, where changes were particularly large or where changes acted in concert. The models disagreed as to which environmental changes were most significant for the geographical variation in forest growth and as to which tree species showed the largest rate of carbon sequestration. Pine and beech forests were found to

  6. Treefall gap disturbance in an old-growth beech forest in southwestern Japan by a catastrophic typhoon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Hideyuki

    2000-01-01

    In 1991, the catastrophic Typhoon 9119 created many treefall gaps in an old-growth beech (Fagus crenata) forest on Mt. Garyu, southwestern Japan. In a 3.3-ha plot, the density and basal area of fatally damaged trunks (DBH ≥ 20 cm) were 29.1 trunks/ha (16.9% of all pre-typhoon trunks) and 9.1 m 2 /ha. (24.4% of total pre-typhoon basal area), respectively. Many of the dominant beech were lost and larger trunks were damaged. The pre- and post-typhoon DBH distribution both had an inverse J-shape. Spatial distribution of living trunks was not random but clustered irrespective of typhoon damage or DBH size, suggesting that the stand structure of the study plot would be an unusual one as compared with the previous study stands in Japanese beech forests. The death of pre-typhoon trunks, seemed to die standing or to be killed by snap-off, occurred singly; however, the typhoon fatally damaged many clustered trunks at the same time. Uprooting was the most frequent cause of gaps created by the typhoon. The intermediate DBH size class (40 - 70 cm) would be more likely to be uprooted than snapped-off. The DBH distribution of snap-off may reflect the total pre-typhoon trunk distribution. Branch-fall had a flat DBH distribution. Uprooting might have a clustered distribution, while snap-off and branch-fall both had random distributions. The smaller trunks of snap-off and branch-fall seemed to result from injuries caused by the fall of larger trunks

  7. The Decline of Vitality Caused by Increasing Drought in a Beech Provenance Trial Predicted by Juvenile Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó Horváth

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Due to rapidly changing environmental conditions, locally adapted tree populations are likely to experience climate conditions to which they are not well adapted. Common garden experiments provide a powerful tool for studying adaptive responses in changing climates. Out of the 1998 series of international beech provenance trials, one experiment was established in Bucsuta, SW Hungary. Because of its peripheral location, this is probably the most apposite site in the experimental series to study and predict responses of populations to sudden climatic changes, simulated by transfer. Material and Methods: 15-year diameter data of 28 beech populations from different regions of Europe were used to mimic responses to climate change by transplantation to the test site. The effect of 17 climate variables and five derived climate indices on growth have been compared, while Ellenberg drought index (EQ was selected for calculating a linear regression (transfer function to project a growth trend for future climate change. Results: Out of the bioclimatic variables, Ellenberg drought index at the location of the origin of provenances has shown the best correlation with 15-year diameter. The regression of growth vs. the ecodistance of transfer (difference between data of the trial site and of the site of origin, expressed in EQ, explained 25% of the total variation between provenances and indicated a clear trend of declining performance with the increasing change of climate the populations were adapted to. Conclusion: Negative effect of rapid climate change on beech populations cannot be denied, and the results draw attention to the importance of using appropriate planting stock matching with future climate conditions at the planting site.

  8. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal and spatial variations in foliar nitrogen (N parameters were investigated in three European forests with different tree species, viz. beech (Fagus sylvatica L., Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. Franco and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in Denmark, the Netherlands and Finland, respectively. The objectives were to investigate the distribution of N pools within the canopies of the different forests and to relate this distribution to factors and plant strategies controlling leaf development throughout the seasonal course of a vegetation period. Leaf N pools generally showed much higher seasonal and vertical variability in beech than in the coniferous canopies. However, also the two coniferous tree species behaved very differently with respect to peak summer canopy N content and N re-translocation efficiency, showing that generalisations on tree internal vs. ecosystem internal N cycling cannot be made on the basis of the leaf duration alone. During phases of intensive N turnover in spring and autumn, the NH4+ concentration in beech leaves rose considerably, while fully developed green beech leaves had relatively low tissue NH4+, similar to the steadily low levels in Douglas fir and, particularly, in Scots pine. The ratio between bulk foliar concentrations of NH4+ and H+, which is an indicator of the NH3 emission potential, reflected differences in foliage N concentration, with beech having the highest values followed by Douglas fir and Scots pine. Irrespectively of the leaf habit, i.e. deciduous versus evergreen, the majority of the canopy foliage N was retained within the trees. This was accomplished through an effective N re-translocation (beech, higher foliage longevity (fir or both (boreal pine forest. In combination with data from a literature review, a general relationship of decreasing N re

  9. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  10. Certified reference materials - beech leaves and spruce needles - for the quality control in monitoring damage in forests by acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, E A; Griepink, B [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Community Bureau of Reference; Muntau, H [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre

    1989-12-01

    The chemical determination of various elements in leaves or needles allows to establish the damage caused by acid deposition. To control the quality of such determinations the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) produced two Certified Reference Materials: Beech leaves (CRM No. 100) and Spruce needles (CRM No. 101). After a careful preparation procedure, a homogeneity study and a long term stability study, the materials were certified for: Cl, N, P and S in CRM No. 100, Al, Ca, Cl, Mg, Mn, N, P, S and Zn in CRM No. 101. Indicative values on the content of 19 majors and trace elements are also reported. (orig.).

  11. Major characteristics of mixed fir and beech virgin forests in the National park Biogradska Gora in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čurović Milić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to manage forest ecosystems at a sufficiently high biodiversity level it is necessary to study the ecological, structural and production characteristics of virgin forests. The research was directed towards identifying the characteristics of mixed fir and beech forests (Abieti-Fagetum s. lat. in the area of the strict reserve of the National Park Biogradska Gora in Montenegro. Basic characteristics of these forests were researched in the process of definition of forest types. In this manner, it is for the first time that a realistic base for typological management of forests and forest ecosystems with similar ecological and structural characteristics was provided for the specific sites.

  12. Determination of the suitability of chips from selected hardwoods for the production of furfural and charcoal. [Birches, beeches, oaks, alders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piotrowski, Z

    1979-01-01

    Debarked, cut beech, birch, alder, and oak residues from forestry and woodworking operations contain 16.56-19.73% pentosans and as such can be used for hydrolysis to furfural (I). The hydrolytic residue (mostly lignocellulose) can be carbonized at 400 degrees to charcoal. The hydrolysis is carried out continuously with steam at 250-300 degrees and 1.18 MPa. The residue chips are first soaked in water at 90 degrees for 4 hours and then fed into the hydrolyzer countercurrently to the steam. The yields of I are 5-6% and the yields of charcoal are approximately 20% on the chip weight.

  13. Changes in phenology and the influence on the carbon sequestration in a Danish beech forest over 20 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kim; Ibrom, Andreas

    Observations of carbon sequestration in a Danish beech forest over the last 20 years have shown a steady increase in NEE. Earlier studies (Pile- gaard et al. 2011) have shown, that about half of the increase can be attributed to an increase in the growing season length. The growing sea- son has...... 6 years using the R package Phenopix (Filippa et al. 2016). The new data is compared with CUP and LP to give more detailed information on the phenology. The information is used to examine the evolution of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) over the 20 year period....

  14. Two years of continuous CO2 eddy-flux measurements over a Danish beech forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, K.; Hummelshøj, P.; Jensen, N.O.

    2001-01-01

    As part of the EUROFLUX network a long-term monitoring station for fluxes of CO2 and water vapour has been established in an 80-year old beech forest in Denmark. The station has been in continuous operation since June 1996 and will be so at least to the end of 2002. A primary goal of EUROFLUX...... summer of 1997 and an average soil and air temperature, respectively, 1.2 and 1.6 degreesC higher than the first year. The ecosystem photosynthetic assimilation was slightly higher during the second year, mainly caused by increased incoming radiation. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All nights reserved....

  15. Specific features of electrical properties of porous biocarbons prepared from beech wood and wood artificial fiberboards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V. V.; Orlova, T. S.; Magarino, E. Enrique; Bautista, M. A.; Martínez-Fernández, J.

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports on comparative investigations of the structural and electrical properties of biomorphic carbons prepared from natural beech wood, as well as medium-density and high-density fiberboards, by means of carbonization at different temperatures T carb in the range 650-1000°C. It has been demonstrated using X-ray diffraction analysis that biocarbons prepared from medium-density and high-density fiberboards at all temperatures T carb contain a nanocrystalline graphite component, namely, three-dimensional crystallites 11-14 Å in size. An increase in the carbonization temperature T carb to 1000°C leads to the appearance of a noticeable fraction of two-dimensional graphene particles with the same sizes. The temperature dependences of the electrical resistivity ρ of the biomorphic carbons have been measured and analyzed in the temperature range 1.8-300 K. For all types of carbons under investigation, an increase in the carbonization temperature T carb from 600 to 900°C leads to a change in the electrical resistivity at T = 300 K by five or six orders of magnitude. The dependences ρ( T) for these materials are adequately described by the Mott law for the variable-range hopping conduction. It has been revealed that the temperature dependence of the electrical resistivity exhibits a hysteresis, which has been attributed to thermomechanical stresses in an inhomogeneous structure of the biocarbon prepared at a low carbonization temperature T carb. The crossover to the conductivity characteristic of disordered metal systems is observed at T carb ≳ 1000°C.

  16. Stoichiometric controls of nitrogen and phosphorus cycling in decomposing beech leaf litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooshammer, Maria; Wanek, Wolfgang; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Leitner, Sonja; Hofhansl, Florian; Blöchl, Andreas; Hämmerle, Ieda; Frank, Alexander H; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Keiblinger, Katharina M; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Resource stoichiometry (C:N:P) is an important determinant of litter decomposition. However, the effect of elemental stoichiometry on the gross rates of microbial N and P cycling processes during litter decomposition is unknown. In a mesocosm experiment, beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) litter with natural differences in elemental stoichiometry (C:N:P) was incubated under constant environmental conditions. After three and six months, we measured various aspects of nitrogen and phosphorus cycling. We found that gross protein depolymerization, N mineralization (ammonification), and nitrification rates were negatively related to litter C:N. Rates of P mineralization were negatively correlated with litter C:P. The negative correlations with litter C:N were stronger for inorganic N cycling processes than for gross protein depolymerization, indicating that the effect of resource stoichiometry on intracellular processes was stronger than on processes catalyzed by extracellular enzymes. Consistent with this, extracellular protein depolymerization was mainly limited by substrate availability and less so by the amount of protease. Strong positive correlations between the interconnected N and P pools and the respective production and consumption processes pointed to feed-forward control of microbial litter N and P cycling. A negative relationship between litter C:N and phosphatase activity (and between litter C:P and protease activity) demonstrated that microbes tended to allocate carbon and nutrients in ample supply into the production of extracellular enzymes to mine for the nutrient that is more limiting. Overall, the study demonstrated a strong effect of litter stoichiometry (C:N:P) on gross processes of microbial N and P cycling in decomposing litter; mineralization of N and P were tightly coupled to assist in maintaining cellular homeostasis of litter microbial communities.

  17. VOC emissions from residential combustion of Southern and mid-European woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtyugina, Margarita; Alves, Célia; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Tarelho, Luís; Duarte, Márcio; Prozil, Sónia O.; Evtuguin, Dmitry V.; Pio, Casimiro

    2014-02-01

    Emissions of trace gases (carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC)), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from combustion of European beech, Pyrenean oak and black poplar in a domestic woodstove and fireplace were studied. These woods are widely used as biofuel in residential combustion in Southern and mid-European countries. VOCs in the flue gases were collected in Tedlar bags, concentrated in sorbent tubes and analysed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (GC-FID). CO2 emissions ranged from 1415 ± 136 to 1879 ± 29 g kg-1 (dry basis). The highest emission factors for CO and THC, 115.8 ± 11.7 and 95.6 24.7 ± 6.3 g kg-1 (dry basis), respectively, were obtained during the combustion of black poplar in the fireplace. European beech presented the lowest CO and THC emission factors for both burning appliances. Significant differences in emissions of VOCs were observed among wood species burnt and combustion devices. In general the highest emission factors were obtained from the combustion of Pyrenean oak in the woodstove. Among the VOCs identified, benzene and related compounds were always the most abundant group, followed by oxygenated compounds and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The amount and the composition of emitted VOCs were strongly affected by the wood composition, the type of burning device and operating conditions. Emission data obtained in this work are useful for modelling the impact of residential wood combustion on air quality and tropospheric ozone formation.

  18. Whose Maturity is it Anyway?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results from an ongoing empirical study that seeks to understand the influence of different quantitative methods on the design and assessment of maturity models. Although there have been many academic publications on maturity models, there exists a significant lack of understa...

  19. Role of six European tree species and land-use legacy for nitrogen and water budgets in forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis Christiansen, Jesper; Vesterdal, Lars; Callesen, Ingeborg

    2010-01-01

    -year-old common garden design with stands of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior), European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur), small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata Mill.), sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) and Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) replicated at two sites...... in Denmark, Mattrup and Vallø during 2 years. Mean annual percolation below the root zone (mm yr−1±SE, n=4) ranked in the following order: maple (351±38)>lime (284±32), oak (271±25), beech (257±30), ash (307±69)≫ spruce (75±24). There were few significant tree species effects on N fluxes. However, the annual...... mean N throughfall flux (kg N ha−1 yr−1±SE, n=4) for spruce (28±2) was significantly larger than for maple (12±1), beech (11±1) and oak (9±1) stands but not different from that of lime (15±3). Ash had a low mean annual inorganic N throughfall deposition of 9.1 kg ha−1, but was only present at Mattrup...

  20. Effect of a long-term afforestation of pine in a beech domain in NE-Spain revealed by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; Tomás Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; González-Pérez, José Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The replacement of native beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) afforestation may exert changes in soil properties, particularly in soil organic matter (SOM) [1]. It is known that the products generated by Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) pyrolysis of organic matter are related to their origin [2 and references therein]. Therefore this technique can be used to investigate said changes. In this work, Py-GC/MS is used to study changes in SOM quality surrogated to the effect of the centennial replacement of beech by Scots pine. The soils studied were two acid soil profiles developed on quartzites under a humid climate at an altitude of 1400-1500 masl from Moncayo (Iberian range, NE-Spain). For each soil profile three organic layers (litter: OL, fragmented litter OF and humified litter OH) and the mineral soil horizons (Ah, E, Bhs and C) were sampled. After 100 years since the pine afforestation, differences in the relative abundance of lipids released by pyrolysis were observed in the O-layers ranging from 3.82-7.20% in pine soils and 0.98-1.25% in beech soils. No differences were observed in mineral horizons with depth except for the C horizons where beech lipid content was much higher (21.25%) than in that under pine (1.07%). Both pine and beech soils show similar nitrogen compounds relative contents along the soil profile, increasing from OL to Ah (3.49-9.11% and 2.75-11.73% in beech and pine respectively) with a conspicuous reduction in the E horizon. It is remarkable the absence of nitrogen compounds in beech Bhs and C horizons. The relative content of aromatic compounds in O-layers show opposite trends for beech and pine; an enrichment in aromatic compounds is observed in beech OL layer (12.39%) decreasing to 4.11% in OH layer in contrast, whereas for pine O-layers the aromatic compounds relative abundance was higher in the OH (5.83%) than in the OL layer (2.8%). Mineral Ah and E horizons show similar values in

  1. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  2. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...

  3. Determinants of loan maturity in small business lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiqur Rahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of loan maturity of small and medium enterprises (SMEs in the context of Visegrad countries: Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Poland, and Hungary. The data of instead of for this paper was obtained from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS, which is a joint project of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the World Bank. By using a binary logistic model, we have found that loan maturity is shorter for older and mature firms, firms owned by female and firms experiencing a shortage of liquidity. At the same time, we have also found that firms having concentrated ownership structure and more tangible assets can borrow for a longer period. In addition to that, we have found evidence that loan maturity is longer for the firms located closer to a bank branch. We also provide empirical support for the assumption that bank low competition is associated with longer maturity. From the obtained results, we may recommend SMEs to borrow from banks that are within their vicinity since this may increase the maturity of loans. Policy makers are recommended to implement policies so that to alleviate gender-related discrimination and take initiatives to moderate the level of competition at this market.

  4. Evaluating the Organizational Interoperability Maturity Level in ICT Research Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Haghighinasab

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Interoperability refers to the ability to provide services and to accept services from other systems or devices. Collaborative enterprises face additional challenges to interoperate seamlessly within a networked organization. The major task here is to assess the maturity level of interoperating organizations. For this purpose the maturity models for enterprise were reviewed based on vendors’ reliability and advantages versus disadvantages. Interoperability maturity model was deduced from ATHENA project as European Integrated Project in 2005, this model named as EIMM was examined in Iran information and Communication Institute as a leading Telecommunication organization. 115 questionnaires were distributed between staff of 4 departments: Information Technology, Communication Technology, Security and Strategic studies regarding six areas of concern: Enterprise Modeling, Business Strategy Process, Organization and Competences, Products and Services, Systems and Technology, Legal Environment, Security and Trust at five maturity levels: Performed, Modeled , Integrated, Interoperable and Optimizing maturity. The findings showed different levels of maturity in this Institute. To achieve Interoperability level, appropriate practices are proposed for promotion to the higher levels.

  5. Some properties of LVL composed of poplar and beech veneer and possibilities of their application for window frames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Vladislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper was a research of physical and mechanical properties of LVL composed of peeled poplar veneers in core layers and only outer layers of beech peeled veneers, so as the examination of window frame glue joint strength produced of this material. LVL boards have been hot pressed in industrial conditions, using appropriate phenol formaldehyde (PP adhesive. Samples for corner window frame glue joint strength testing were glued with PVAc D4 class adhesive. Statistical analysis showed that there were significant differences both in moisture content and density of LVL boards regarding their thickness, while in the case of hardness this difference did not exist. Examinations of LVL glue line shear strength showed that both phenol formaldehyde (PP and PVAc D4 class adhesives fulfilled standard requirements. The results of corner window frame double tenon glue joint strength produced from combined poplar-beech veneer LVL indicated that such material could be used to produce window frame corner joint, strong enough to withstand the additional load, without an increase of the cross section.

  6. Carbon flux to woody tissues in a beech/spruce forest during summer and in response to chronic O3 exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study compares the dynamics in carbon (C) allocation of adult deciduous beech (Fagus sylvatica) and evergreen spruce (Picea abies) during summer and in response to seven-year-long exposure with twice-ambient ozone (O3) concentrations (2 × O3). Focus was on the respira...

  7. Beech-mast crop evaluation in Kněhyně forest complex (Beskydy Mts. Czech Republic) as a food supply for granivorous rodents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heroldová, Marta; Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Čepelka, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2013), s. 27-32 ISSN 1803-2451 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : beech mountain forests * biomass of beechnuts harvest * diet supply for granivorous species Subject RIV: GF - Plant Pathology, Vermin, Weed, Plant Protection

  8. Lignin properties in topsoils of a beech/oak forest after 8 years of manipulated litter fall: relevance of altered input and oxidation of lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klotzbücher, T.; Strohmeier, S.; Kaiser, K.; Bowden, R.D.; Lajtha, K.; Ohm, H.; Kalbitz, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims We studied the response of lignin oxidation in soils of a beech/oak forest to changes in litter fall. Additionally we considered possible factors in lignin oxidation, including altered (i) input of fresh organic matter and (ii) fungi-to-bacteria ratios. Methods The field-based

  9. A new approach in the monitoring of the phytosanitary conditions of forests: the case of oak and beech stands in the Sicilian Regional Parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Rizza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the health conditions of oak and beech stands in the three Regional Parks of Sicily (Etna, Madonie and Nebrodi. A total of 81 sampling areas were investigated, 54 in oak stands and 27 in beech stands. The phytosanitary conditions of each tree within the respective sampling area was expressed with a synthetic index namely phytosanitary class (PC. Oak stands showed severe symptoms of decline, with 85% of the sampling areas including symptomatic trees. In general, beech stands were in better condition, with the exception of Nebrodi Park, where trees showed severe symptoms of decline. On oak trees, infections of fungal pathogens were also observed, including Biscogniauxia mediterranea, Polyporus sp., Fistulina hepatica, Mycrosphaera alphitoides and Armillaria sp. By contrast, on beech trees Biscogniauxia nummularia, Fomes fomentarius and Neonectria radicicola were recognized. Furthermore, twenty-two permanent sampling areas were delimited with the aim of monitoring regularly the health conditions of forests in these three parks.

  10. Effects of litter quality and parent material on organic matter characteristics and N-dynamics in Luxembourg beech and hornbeam forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, A.M.; Martinez-Hernandez, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    To test effects of litter quality and soil conditions on N-dynamics, we selected seven forests in Luxembourg dominated by beech (Fagus sylvatica, L.) and hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.), and located on acid loam, decalcified marl or limestone, and measured organic matter characteristics, microbial C

  11. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    and rules. The article examines the reasons for both resistance and selectiveness to Europeanization of the Danish minority policy through a “path dependency” perspective accentuating decision makers’ reluctance to deviate from existing institutional commitments, even in subsequently significantly altered...... political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  12. European industry outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, G.

    1991-01-01

    Europe's offshore oil and gas industry is estimated to spend around Pound 14bn per year out of a world total of some Pound 43bn, showing that despite its maturity the North West European Continental Shelf remains a dominant segment of the world's offshore business. Especially in the U.K. sector, expenditure is booming and 1991 is expected to be a record year. This activity level is likely to continue into 1992, but there are factors which could limit activity later in the 1990s. This volume lists some 225 undeveloped discoveries and fields under development in the U.K. sector, 80 each in Norway and the Netherlands, and 17 in Denmark. New technologies, particularly subsea separation and multiphase flow will be prominent factors in ensuring that the numerous small oilfields within this inventory of discoveries will eventually achieve commercial development. The effects of likely European Community legislation continue to concern many in the industry, with a more open and regulated purchasing regime for major contracts becoming more certain. A major step has been taken towards open access rights, and if this policy is pursued it could open the European gas industry to a new era of free competition, especially if a U.K.-Continental transmission link were to be realised. The long term implications of the increased share of natural gas in the total energy mix to virtually all companies engaged in offshore activities (and many not so engaged) are likely to be fundamental and far-reaching. (author)

  13. Slab replacement maturity guidelines : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Concrete sets in hours at moderate temperatures, : but the bonds that make concrete strong continue : to mature over days to years. However, for : replacement concrete slabs on highways, it is : crucial that concrete develop enough strength : within ...

  14. SOUL System Maturation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest...

  15. SOUL System Maturation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest...

  16. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  17. Naturally Engineered Maturation of Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano J. Scuderi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease remains one of the most prominent causes of mortalities worldwide with heart transplantation being the gold-standard treatment option. However, due to the major limitations associated with heart transplants, such as an inadequate supply and heart rejection, there remains a significant clinical need for a viable cardiac regenerative therapy to restore native myocardial function. Over the course of the previous several decades, researchers have made prominent advances in the field of cardiac regeneration with the creation of in vitro human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte tissue engineered constructs. However, these engineered constructs exhibit a functionally immature, disorganized, fetal-like phenotype that is not equivalent physiologically to native adult cardiac tissue. Due to this major limitation, many recent studies have investigated approaches to improve pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte maturation to close this large functionality gap between engineered and native cardiac tissue. This review integrates the natural developmental mechanisms of cardiomyocyte structural and functional maturation. The variety of ways researchers have attempted to improve cardiomyocyte maturation in vitro by mimicking natural development, known as natural engineering, is readily discussed. The main focus of this review involves the synergistic role of electrical and mechanical stimulation, extracellular matrix interactions, and non-cardiomyocyte interactions in facilitating cardiomyocyte maturation. Overall, even with these current natural engineering approaches, pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes within three-dimensional engineered heart tissue still remain mostly within the early to late fetal stages of cardiomyocyte maturity. Therefore, although the end goal is to achieve adult phenotypic maturity, more emphasis must be placed on elucidating how the in vivo fetal microenvironment drives cardiomyocyte

  18. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  19. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  20. Trade-Offs of Flowering and Maturity Synchronisation for Pineapple Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Nicodème Fassinou Hotegni

    Full Text Available In the pineapple sector of Benin, poor fruit quality prevents pineapple producers to enter the European market. We investigated effects of common cultural practices, flowering and maturity synchronisation, (1 to quantify the trade-offs of flowering and maturity synchronisation for pineapple quality and the proportion of fruits exportable to European markets, and (2 to determine the effect of harvesting practice on quality attributes. Four on-farm experiments were conducted during three years using cultivars Sugarloaf and Smooth Cayenne. A split-split plot design was used in each experiment, with flowering induction practice as main factor (artificial or natural flowering induction, maturity induction practice as split factor (artificial or natural maturity induction and harvesting practice as the split-split factor (farmers' harvest practice or individual fruit harvesting at optimum maturity. Artificial flowering induction gave fruits with lower infructescence weight, higher ratio crown: infructescence length, and a lower proportion of fruits exportable to European markets than natural flowering induction. The costs of the improvements by natural flowering induction were huge: the longer durations from planting to flowering induction and harvesting, the higher number of harvestings of the fruits increasing the labour cost and the lower proportion of plants producing fruits compared with crops from artificially flowering-induced plants. Artificial maturity induction decreased the total soluble solids concentration in the fruits compared with natural maturity induction thus decreasing the proportion of fruits exportable to European markets, at a benefit of only a slightly shorter time from flowering induction to harvesting. Harvesting individual fruits at optimum maturity gave fruits with higher total soluble solids in naturally maturity induced fruits compared with the farmers' harvest practice. Given the huge costs of natural flowering induction

  1. Blood pressure and sexual maturity in adolescents: the Heartfelt Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S D; Mueller, W H; Meininger, J C; Liehr, P; Chan, W

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates sexual maturity as a predictor of resting blood pressures independent of other known predictors, in 179 boys and 204 girls 11-16 years of age from the Heartfelt Study. The sample included youth of African (n = 140), Mexican (n = 117), and European and "other" (n = 126) backgrounds. Sexual maturity was assessed during clinical examination of three standard indicators for each sex. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in children of maturity stages IV and V, compared to stages I-III, in each gender/ethnic group (P maturity for their age group, had significantly higher systolic blood pressures (but not diastolic) than the less advanced in linear models that included height, body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, and age as co-predictors. Diastolic blood pressures were predicted by height in boys and by age and the BMI in girls. This analysis, using a very conservative approach, suggests that sexual maturity provides important and independent information on systolic blood pressure in adolescents. Further investigation of its role in 24-hr blood pressures and in blood pressures taken during physical and emotional stress, is recommended.

  2. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  3. Operations Charioteer, Musketeer, Touchstone, Cornerstone, Aqueduct, Sculpin and Julin. Tests Mill Yard, Diamond Beech, Mighty Oak, Middle Note Mission Ghost, Mission Cyber, Misty Echo, Disko Elm, Mineral Quarry, Distant Zenith, Diamond Fortune, and Hunters Trophy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schoengold, Carole

    1999-01-01

    ...; Tests MILL YARD, DIAMOND BEECH, MIGHTY OAK, MIDDLE NOTE, MISSION GHOST, MISSION CYBER, MISTY ECHO, DISKO ELM, MINERAL QUARRY, DISTANT ZENITH, DIAMOND FORTUNE, and HUNTERS TROPHY, 9 October 1985 to 18 September 1992...

  4. The Investigation on Feasibility of Oriented Strand Boards to Parquet Production from Mixed Residual Veneer Popular and Beech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Kamrani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate of feasibility of using residual veneer (popular and beechto manufacture oriented strand board (OSB parquet. Percentage of mixed residual veneer popular to beech was 40%to 60% respectly. In this study press time (6, 8 and 10 min and press temperature (170º, 180ºwere selected as variables, other factors being kept constant. Results indicated that increase of press temperature had no significant effect on modules of rupture, modules of elasticity and hardness but had significant effect on internal bonding, water absorption and thickness swelling. However results indicated that increase of press time had significant effect on total physical and mechanical properties of boards.

  5. European hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The European Hadron Facility (EHF) is a project for particle and nuclear physics in the 1990s which would consist of a fast cycling high intensity proton synchrotron of about 30 GeV primary energy and providing a varied spectrum of intense high quality secondary beams (polarized protons, pions, muons, kaons, antiprotons, neutrinos). The physics case of this project has been studied over the last two years by a European group of particle and nuclear physicists (EHF Study Group), whilst the conceptual design for the accelerator complex was worked out (and is still being worked on) by an international group of machine experts (EHF Design Study Group). Both aspects have been discussed in recent years in a series of working parties, topical seminars, and workshops held in Freiburg, Trieste, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Les Rasses and Villigen. This long series of meetings culminated in the International Conference on a European Hadron Facility held in Mainz from 10-14 March

  6. Sustaining Exploration in Mature Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayo, A.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration is a business like any other business driven by opportunity, resources and expectation of profit. Therefore, exploration will thrive anywhere the opportunities are significant, the resources are available and the outlook for profit (or value creation) is good. To sustain exploration activities anywhere, irrespective of the environment, there must be good understanding of the drivers of these key investment criteria. This paper will examine these investment criteria as they relate to exploration business and address the peculiarity of exploration in mature basin. Mature basins are unique environment that lends themselves a mix of fears, paradigms and realities, particularly with respect to the perception of value. To sustain exploration activities in a mature basin, we need to understand these perceptions relative to the true drivers of profitability. Exploration in the mature basins can be as profitable as exploration in emerging basins if the dynamics of value definition-strategic and fiscal values are understood by operators, regulators and co ventures alike. Some suggestions are made in this presentation on what needs to be done in addressing these dynamic investment parameters and sustaining exploration activities in mature basins

  7. Distribution model of understory vegetation in beech forests from Central Apennines (Italy in relation to edaphic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Nicola C

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The first results of a study of monitoring species and habitats in the framework of the Life 04NAT/IT/000190 "Tutela dei siti Natura 2000 gestiti dal Corpo Forestale dello Stato" are presented. This study was carried out by the Department of Plant Biology of the University of Rome (La Sapienza and the National Forest Service. We focused the investigation on the relationships between herbaceous species and pedological parameters (humus and soil in Central-Apennine beech forests. Data have been collected through 40 phytosociological relevés, 15 soil profiles and 40 humus profiles in 40 forest plots, between March 2005 and September 2006. In this paper we presented data elaborated on a subset of 15 plots where soil profiles were available. The species of undergrowth showed different ecological requirements to some edaphic and humus parameters (pH, sand, loam, clay, organic matter, nitrogen, carbon/nitrogen ratio, Ca++, K+;thickness and carbon content of the organic layers: significant correlations have been found using Pearson correlation test. The multiple regression analysis allowed to identify the factors more influencing the species distribution: thickness of the organic layers, carbon content (% C and carbon/nitrogen ratio (C/N. Basing on the thickness of humus horizons (OL, OF, OH, and on carbon content, two species groups with different ecology have been recognized: (a nemoral species typical of shady beech stands on oligomull/dysmull/thin amphimull (0 < 1cm.; 5.7 < %C < 9.9; (b heliophilous species of more xeric stands on thick amphimull (1.25 < 11.5 cm.; 9.9 < %C < 13.7. The relationships among species and soil parameters and humus forms allow to recognize small differences within a homogeneous habitat and therefore they can provide management indications also at micro-scale level.

  8. Public Sector IS Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony

    2011-01-01

    Online applications and processing of tax forms, driver licenses, and construction permits are examples of where policy attention and research have been united in efforts aiming to categorize the maturity level of e-services. Less attention has been attributed to policy areas with continuous online...... citizenpublic interaction, such as in public education. In this paper we use a revised version of the Public Sector Process Rebuilding (PPR) maturity model for mapping 200 websites of public primary schools in Denmark. Findings reveal a much less favorable picture of the digitization of the Danish public sector...... compared to the high ranking it has received in the international benchmark studies. This paper aims at closing the gap between the predominant scope of maturity models and the frequency of citizen-public sector interaction, and calls for increased attention to the activities of government where the scale...

  9. Bicarbonate Transport During Enamel Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kaifeng; Paine, Michael L

    2017-11-01

    Amelogenesis (tooth enamel formation) is a biomineralization process consisting primarily of two stages (secretory stage and maturation stage) with unique features. During the secretory stage, the inner epithelium of the enamel organ (i.e., the ameloblast cells) synthesizes and secretes enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) into the enamel space. The protein-rich enamel matrix forms a highly organized architecture in a pH-neutral microenvironment. As amelogenesis transitions to maturation stage, EMPs are degraded and internalized by ameloblasts through endosomal-lysosomal pathways. Enamel crystallite formation is initiated early in the secretory stage, however, during maturation stage the more rapid deposition of calcium and phosphate into the enamel space results in a rapid expansion of crystallite length and mineral volume. During maturation-stage amelogenesis, the pH value of enamel varies considerably from slightly above neutral to acidic. Extracellular acid-base balance during enamel maturation is tightly controlled by ameloblast-mediated regulatory networks, which include significant synthesis and movement of bicarbonate ions from both the enamel papillary layer cells and ameloblasts. In this review we summarize the carbonic anhydrases and the carbonate transporters/exchangers involved in pH regulation in maturation-stage amelogenesis. Proteins that have been shown to be instrumental in this process include CA2, CA6, CFTR, AE2, NBCe1, SLC26A1/SAT1, SLC26A3/DRA, SLC26A4/PDS, SLC26A6/PAT1, and SLC26A7/SUT2. In addition, we discuss the association of miRNA regulation with bicarbonate transport in tooth enamel formation.

  10. An important day for European science

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Today is an important day for the future of European science. It is the day on which CERN’s relationship with the European Union reaches maturity. Ever since the early 1950s, CERN and the European project have grown together. CERN was a child of the European movement: the first discussions at Denis de Rougemont’s European Cultural Conference in Lausanne in 1949 led directly to the foundation of CERN in 1954. More recently, the European Union has become an Observer at the CERN Council, links between CERN and the EU have strengthened as Europe has pursued the goal of creating a European Research Area, and CERN has benefited from European support for projects as varied as Grid computing and future accelerator R&D, not forgetting, of course, the numerous Marie Curie fellows whose careers have received a boost thanks to European funds. Today, that collaboration goes one step further with the signature of a Memorandum of Understanding between CERN and the European C...

  11. Ossification score is a better indicator of maturity related changes in eating quality than animal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, S P F; Pethick, D W; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Hocquette, J-F; Gardner, G E

    2016-04-01

    Ossification score and animal age are both used as proxies for maturity-related collagen crosslinking and consequently decreases in beef tenderness. Ossification score is strongly influenced by the hormonal status of the animal and may therefore better reflect physiological maturity and consequently eating quality. As part of a broader cross-European study, local consumers scored 18 different muscle types cooked in three ways from 482 carcasses with ages ranging from 590 to 6135 days and ossification scores ranging from 110 to 590. The data were studied across three different maturity ranges; the complete range of maturities, a lesser range and a more mature range. The lesser maturity group consisted of carcasses having either an ossification score of 200 or less or an age of 987 days or less with the remainder in the greater maturity group. The three different maturity ranges were analysed separately with a linear mixed effects model. Across all the data, and for the greater maturity group, animal age had a greater magnitude of effect on eating quality than ossification score. This is likely due to a loss of sensitivity in mature carcasses where ossification approached and even reached the maximum value. In contrast, age had no relationship with eating quality for the lesser maturity group, leaving ossification score as the more appropriate measure. Therefore ossification score is more appropriate for most commercial beef carcasses, however it is inadequate for carcasses with greater maturity such as cull cows. Both measures may therefore be required in models to predict eating quality over populations with a wide range in maturity.

  12. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  13. Interactions between leaf nitrogen status and longevity in relation to N cycling in three contrasting European forest canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Ibrom, A.; Korhonen, J. F. J.; Arnoud Frumau, K. F.; Wu, J.; Pihlatie, M.; Schjoerring, J. K.

    2012-07-01

    Seasonal and spatial variations in foliar nitrogen (N) parameters were investigated in three European forests with different tree species, viz. beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, Mirb., Franco) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Denmark, The Netherlands and Finland, respectively. This was done in order to obtain information about functional acclimation, tree internal N conservation and its relevance for both ecosystem internal N cycling and foliar N exchange with the atmosphere. Leaf N pools generally showed much higher seasonal variability in beech trees than in the coniferous canopies. The concentrations of N and chlorophyll in the beech leaves were synchronized with the seasonal course of solar radiation implying close physiological acclimation, which was not observed in the coniferous needles. During phases of intensive N metabolism in the beech leaves, the NH4+ concentration rose considerably. This was compensated for by a strong pH decrease resulting in relatively low Γ values (ratio between tissue NH4+ and H+). The Γ values in the coniferous were even smaller than in beech, indicating low probability of NH3 emissions from the foliage to the atmosphere as an N conserving mechanism. The reduction in foliage N content during senescence was interpreted as N re-translocation from the senescing leaves into the rest of the trees. The N re-translocation efficiency (ηr) ranged from 37 to 70% and decreased with the time necessary for full renewal of the canopy foliage. Comparison with literature data from in total 23 tree species showed a general tendency for ηr to on average be reduced by 8% per year the canopy stays longer, i.e. with each additional year it takes for canopy renewal. The boreal pine site returned the lowest amount of N via foliage litter to the soil, while the temperate Douglas fir stand which had the largest peak canopy N content and the lowestηr returned the highest amount of N to the soil. These results

  14. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

    1977-01-01

    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  15. Regulators of growth plate maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Joyce Adriana Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is known to play an important role in longitudinal bone growth and growth plate maturation, but the mechanism by which estrogens exert their effect is not fully understood. In this thesis this role is further explored. Chapter 1 contains a general introduction to longitudinal bone growth

  16. Predicting recovery from acid rain using the micro-spatial heterogeneity of soil columns downhill the infiltration zone of beech stemflow: introduction of a hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Torsten W; Muras, Alexander

    Release of stored sulfur may delay the recovery of soil pH from Acid Rain. It is hypothesized that analyzing the micro-spatial heterogeneity of soil columns downhill of a beech stem enables predictions of soil recovery as a function of historic acid loads and time. We demonstrated in a very simplified approach, how these two different factors may be untangled from each other using synthetic data. Thereafter, we evaluated the stated hypothesis based upon chemical soil data with increasing distance from the stem of beech trees. It is predicted that the top soil will recover from acid deposition, as already recorded in the infiltration zone of stemflow near the base of the stem. However, in the between trees areas and especially in deeper soil horizons recovery may be highly delayed.

  17. Beech forests in the Ruhr and in the Westphalian Bight. A comparative study. Buchenwaelder im Ruhrgebiet und in der Westfaelischen Bucht. Eine vergleichende Untersuchung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittig, R. (Frankfurt Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 16 - Biologie); Werner, W. (Trier Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 3 - Geographie/Geowissenschaften, Geschichte, Politikwissenschaft, Klassische Archaeologie, Aegyptologie, Kunstgeschichte, Papyrologie)

    1989-01-01

    The Ruhr district, one of the most industrialized and most densely populated regions of Germany, is part of the Westphalian Bight. The potential natural vegetation of the Ruhrgebiet are loess beech forests (Milio-Fagetum), which are also common in other parts of the Westphalian Bight. However, a comparison of the beech forests of the Ruhrgebiet with the Milio-Fagetum stands of other areas of the Westphalian Bight shows distinct differences in floristic composition of the herb layer as well as in C/N ratio and heavy metal contents of the upper 4 cm of the mineral soil. The differences can only be explained by the former long lasting immission load of the Ruhrdistrict. (orig.).

  18. Declining atmospheric deposition of heavy metals over the last three decades is reflected in soil and foliage of 97 beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands in the Vienna Woods☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türtscher, Selina; Berger, Pétra; Lindebner, Leopold; Berger, Torsten W.

    2017-01-01

    Rigorous studies on long-term changes of heavy metal distribution in forest soils since the implementation of emission controls are rare. Hence, we resampled 97 old-growth beech stands in the Vienna Woods. This study exploits an extensive data set of soil (infiltration zone of stemflow and between trees area) and foliar chemistry from three decades ago. It was hypothesized that declining deposition of heavy metals is reflected in soil and foliar total contents of Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn and Fe. Mean soil contents of Pb in the stemflow area declined at the highest rate from 223 to 50 mg kg−1 within the last three decades. Soil contents of Pb and Ni decreased significantly both in the stemflow area and the between trees area down to 80–90 cm soil depth from 1984 to 2012. Top soil (0–5 cm) accumulation and simultaneous loss in the lower soil over time for the plant micro nutrients Cu and Zn are suggested to be caused by plant uptake from deep horizons. Reduced soil leaching, due to a mean soil pH (H2O) increase from 4.3 to 4.9, and increased plant cycling are put forward to explain the significant increase of total Mn contents in the infiltration zone of beech stemflow. Top soil Pb contents in the stemflow area presently exceed the critical value at which toxicity symptoms may occur at numerous sites. Mean foliar contents of all six studied heavy metals decreased within the last three decades, but plant supply with the micro nutrients Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe is still in the optimum range for beech trees. It is concluded that heavy metal pollution is not critical for the studied beech stands any longer. PMID:28709055

  19. Declining atmospheric deposition of heavy metals over the last three decades is reflected in soil and foliage of 97 beech (Fagus sylvatica) stands in the Vienna Woods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türtscher, Selina; Berger, Pétra; Lindebner, Leopold; Berger, Torsten W

    2017-11-01

    Rigorous studies on long-term changes of heavy metal distribution in forest soils since the implementation of emission controls are rare. Hence, we resampled 97 old-growth beech stands in the Vienna Woods. This study exploits an extensive data set of soil (infiltration zone of stemflow and between trees area) and foliar chemistry from three decades ago. It was hypothesized that declining deposition of heavy metals is reflected in soil and foliar total contents of Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn and Fe. Mean soil contents of Pb in the stemflow area declined at the highest rate from 223 to 50 mg kg -1 within the last three decades. Soil contents of Pb and Ni decreased significantly both in the stemflow area and the between trees area down to 80-90 cm soil depth from 1984 to 2012. Top soil (0-5 cm) accumulation and simultaneous loss in the lower soil over time for the plant micro nutrients Cu and Zn are suggested to be caused by plant uptake from deep horizons. Reduced soil leaching, due to a mean soil pH (H 2 O) increase from 4.3 to 4.9, and increased plant cycling are put forward to explain the significant increase of total Mn contents in the infiltration zone of beech stemflow. Top soil Pb contents in the stemflow area presently exceed the critical value at which toxicity symptoms may occur at numerous sites. Mean foliar contents of all six studied heavy metals decreased within the last three decades, but plant supply with the micro nutrients Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe is still in the optimum range for beech trees. It is concluded that heavy metal pollution is not critical for the studied beech stands any longer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Validation of PROBA-V GEOV1 and MODIS C5 & C6 fAPAR Products in a Deciduous Beech Forest Site in Italy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nestola, E.; Sanchez-Zapero, J.; Latorre, C.; Mazzenga, F.; Matteucci, G.; Calfapietra, Carlo; Camacho, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 126. ISSN 2072-4292 Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : fAPAR * validation * PROBA-V GEOV1 * MODIS C5 * MODIS C6 * beech forest * up-scaling * GCOS requirements * in-situ comparison and evaluation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 3.244, year: 2016

  1. Effects of chronic elevated ozone exposure on gas exchange responses of adult beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) as related to the within-canopy light gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitao, Mitsutoshi; Loew, Markus; Heerdt, Christian; Grams, Thorsten E.E.; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    The effects of elevated O 3 on photosynthetic properties in adult beech trees (Fagus sylvatica) were investigated in relation to leaf mass per area as a measure of the gradually changing, within-canopy light availability. Leaves under elevated O 3 showed decreased stomatal conductance at unchanged carboxylation capacity of Rubisco, which was consistent with enhanced δ 13 C of leaf organic matter, regardless of the light environment during growth. In parallel, increased energy demand for O 3 detoxification and repair was suggested under elevated O 3 owing to enhanced dark respiration. Only in shade-grown leaves, light-limited photosynthesis was reduced under elevated O 3 , this effect being accompanied by lowered F v /F m . These results suggest that chronic O 3 exposure primarily caused stomatal closure to adult beech trees in the field regardless of the within-canopy light gradient. However, light limitation apparently raised the O 3 sensitivity of photosynthesis and accelerated senescence in shade leaves. - Across leaf differentiation in adult beech crowns, elevated ozone acted through stomatal closure on gas exchange although enhancing photosynthetic sensitivity of shaded leaves

  2. Changes in susceptibility of beech (Fagus sylvatica) seedlings towards Phytophthora citricola under the influence of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} and nitrogen fertilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischmann, F., E-mail: fleischmann@wzw.tum.d [Phytopathology of Woody Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Raidl, S. [Department Biology I and GeoBioCenterLMU, Systematic Mycology, Ludwig Maximilians Universitaet Muenchen, Menzinger Strasse 67, 80638 Muenchen (Germany); Osswald, W.F. [Phytopathology of Woody Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH) predicts changes in susceptibility of plants against herbivores with changing resource availability. In the presented study we tested the validity of the GDBH for trees infected with a root pathogen. For this purpose Fagus sylvatica seedlings grown under different atmospheric CO{sub 2}- and soil nitrogen regimes were infected with the root pathogen Phytophthora citricola. High nitrogen supply increased total biomass of beech regardless of the CO{sub 2}-treatment, whereas elevated CO{sub 2} enhanced biomass only in the high nitrogen treatment. The responses of beech under the different growing regimes to the Phytophthora root infection were not in line with the predictions of the GDBH. Enhanced susceptibility of beech against P. citricola was found in seedlings grown under elevated CO{sub 2} and low nitrogen supply. Fifteen months after inoculation these plants were characterized by enhanced water use efficiency, by altered root-shoot ratios, and by enhanced specific root tip densities. - Susceptibility of Fagus sylvatica to the root pathogen Phytophthora citricola increased under elevated CO{sub 2}

  3. Changes in susceptibility of beech (Fagus sylvatica) seedlings towards Phytophthora citricola under the influence of elevated atmospheric CO2 and nitrogen fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, F.; Raidl, S.; Osswald, W.F.

    2010-01-01

    The growth-differentiation balance hypothesis (GDBH) predicts changes in susceptibility of plants against herbivores with changing resource availability. In the presented study we tested the validity of the GDBH for trees infected with a root pathogen. For this purpose Fagus sylvatica seedlings grown under different atmospheric CO 2 - and soil nitrogen regimes were infected with the root pathogen Phytophthora citricola. High nitrogen supply increased total biomass of beech regardless of the CO 2 -treatment, whereas elevated CO 2 enhanced biomass only in the high nitrogen treatment. The responses of beech under the different growing regimes to the Phytophthora root infection were not in line with the predictions of the GDBH. Enhanced susceptibility of beech against P. citricola was found in seedlings grown under elevated CO 2 and low nitrogen supply. Fifteen months after inoculation these plants were characterized by enhanced water use efficiency, by altered root-shoot ratios, and by enhanced specific root tip densities. - Susceptibility of Fagus sylvatica to the root pathogen Phytophthora citricola increased under elevated CO 2

  4. Assessment of skeletal maturation using mandibular second molar maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S; Goyal, S; Gugnani, N

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between cervical vertebrae maturation and mandibular second molar calcification stages. The study was designed as a retrospective, descriptive and crosssectional research project. Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms and panoramic radiographs of 99 males and 110 females in the age range of 7 to 18 years 7 months were evaluated with Demirjian Index (DI) and cervical vertebrae maturation indicators (CVMI) of Hassel and Farman. A null hypothesis was proposed that there is no relation between CVMI and DI. A highly significant association (Pearson's contingency coefficient 0.713 for males and 0.863 for females) was found between DI and CVMI. In males, the DI stage E corresponded to stage 2 of CVMI (pre-peak of pubertal growth spurt) and DI stages F and G corresponded to stages 3 and 4 of CVMI (peak of pubertal growth spurt). DI stage H was associated with stages 5 and 6 of CVMI (end of pubertal growth spurt). In females, the DI stages C, D corresponded to CVMI stages 1, 2; DI stages E, F with CVMI stages 3, 4; DI stages G, H with CVMI stages 5, 6. Mandibular second molar calcification stages can be used as indicators for assessment of skeletal maturity.

  5. Cervical vertebral maturation as a biologic indicator of skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rodrigo César; de Miranda Costa, Luiz Felipe; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Bolognese, Ana Maria; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2012-11-01

    To identify and review the literature regarding the reliability of cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) staging to predict the pubertal spurt. The selection criteria included cross-sectional and longitudinal descriptive studies in humans that evaluated qualitatively or quantitatively the accuracy and reproducibility of the CVM method on lateral cephalometric radiographs, as well as the correlation with a standard method established by hand-wrist radiographs. The searches retrieved 343 unique citations. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Six articles had moderate to high scores, while 17 of 23 had low scores. Analysis also showed a moderate to high statistically significant correlation between CVM and hand-wrist maturation methods. There was a moderate to high reproducibility of the CVM method, and only one specific study investigated the accuracy of the CVM index in detecting peak pubertal growth. This systematic review has shown that the studies on CVM method for radiographic assessment of skeletal maturation stages suffer from serious methodological failures. Better-designed studies with adequate accuracy, reproducibility, and correlation analysis, including studies with appropriate sensitivity-specificity analysis, should be performed.

  6. Market efficiency in the European carbon markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, Amélie; Darné, Olivier; Fouilloux, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study the relationship between futures and spot prices in the European carbon markets from the cost-of-carry hypothesis. The aim is to investigate the extent of efficiency market. The three main European markets (BlueNext, EEX and ECX) are analyzed during Phase II, covering the period from March 13, 2009 to January, 17, 2012. Futures contracts are found to be cointegrated with spot prices and interest rates for several maturities in the three CO 2 markets. Results are similar when structural breaks are taken into account. According to individual and joint tests, the cost-of-carry model is rejected for all maturities and CO 2 markets, implying that neither contract is priced according to the cost-of-carry model. The absence of the cost-of-carry relationship can be interpreted as an indicator of market inefficiency and may bring arbitrage opportunities in the CO 2 market. - Highlights: • We study the cost-of-carry hypothesis in the European carbon markets during Phase 2. • We apply cointegration tests with and without structural breaks on several maturities. • We find that futures contracts are cointegrated with spot prices and interest rates. • The cost-of-carry model is rejected for all maturities and carbon markets

  7. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also

  8. Beech tree analyses in the Bohemian/Austrian/Bavarian frontier region; Fallstudie Buche im Dreilaendereck Boehmen/Oberoesterreich/Bayern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchner, M. [GSF - Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie; Baumgarten, M.; Matyssek, R. [Muenchen Univ., Freising (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Forstbotanik] [and others

    2000-08-01

    The condition of beech trees was investigated in six forest stands in the Bayerischer Wald and Boehmerwald mountains between 1995 and 1997 in order to establish the interdependence between tree conditions, the prevailing natural and anthropogenic site factors, and air pollution especially with groundlevel ozone. Details of the investigations are presented. Although a potential long-term effect of ozone cannot be excluded, the damage observed in beech trees in this region since the eighties is assumed to be caused not by a single factor but by complex interaction patterns between several anthropogenic and natural factors. [German] Es erfolgte im Untersuchungsgebiet Bayerischer Wald/Boehmerwald im Zeitraum 1995 bis 1997 eine detaillierte Zustandscharakterisierung von Altbuchen an sechs Standorten. Im Rahmen der Gesamtuntersuchung sollte geklaert werden, ob Zusammenhaenge zwischen dem Baumzustand und den herrschenden natuerlichen und anthropogenen Standortfaktoren und Luftbelastungen mit Schwerpunkt des bodennahen Ozons bestehen. An Hand kontinuierlicher Ozonmessungen konnte bestaetigt werden, dass die Konzentration des bodennahen Ozons im wesentlichen eine Funktion der Meereshoehe ist; somit ist an Hochlagenstandorten von hoeheren Immissionen auszugehen. Bei den moeglicherweise besser an photooxidativen Stress akklimatisierten Hochlagenbuchen waren die Schaeden bei erhoehter Ozonbelastung geringer ausgepraegt als bei Tieflagenbuchen. Fuer die Hypothese, wonach man eine staerkere Schaedigung der Hochlagenbestaende zu erwarten hat, wurde keine Bestaetigung gefunden. Inositol wird seit einiger Zeit als sensitiver Indikator diskutiert, der auf veraenderte Umweltbedingungen reagiert. Die Inositolkonzentration in Sonnenblaettern von Altbuchen im Bayerischen Wald war in 1995 um ca. 50% geringer als in 1996. Bei den Jungbuchen im Phytotronenexperiment kam es bei anhaltendem Ozonstress und zunehmender Schaedigung zu einer starken Reduktion der Inositolkonzentration in

  9. Potential impact of global warming on the range of Spruce, Fir, Beech and sessile Oak in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedallu, Christian; Perez, Vincent; Gegout, Jean-Claude; Lebourgeois, Francois; Bertrand, Romain

    2009-01-01

    There have been many studies all over the world that forecast the impact of global warming on vegetation but there is little information currently available to assess its consequences on French forests. The authors studied the range of four common species - spruce, fir, beech and sessile oak - so as to determine their ecology as accurately as possible and assess their sensitivity to global warming. Their range over the period from 1961-1990 was modelled and mapped for the whole of France using ecological variables that characterize climate, water supply, and soil nutrition. The models constructed predict effects from temperature, the water resource, water-logging and the trophic level of soils that are consistent with empirical knowledge about these species. Changes in the probabilities of presence during the 21. century investigated by simulating the A2 and B2 scenarios of the HadCM3 climate model. Changes in climate as predicted by this model would lead to a decrease of the probabilities of presence for all four species initially in the first part of the 21. century at the outer limits of their ranges and then a very significant drop in most plains and medium altitude upland areas, even according to the most optimistic forecasts under scenario B2. The reduction in the forest surface areas that are favourable to the species investigated for the period 2070-2100 is estimated, depending on the scenario, to be between 92% and 99% for spruce, 80% and 93% for beech, 63% and 83% for fir and 43% and 83% for sessile oak. These forecasted changes are very significant in comparison with the current conditions that are favourable to the presence of these species for which edaphic variables act as a local filter within the overall climate envelope. The authors conclude by underscoring the value of these tools for identifying and mapping the most vulnerable areas so as to be in a position to track the behaviour of these species in these areas and determine the appropriate

  10. Immission-load-related dynamics of S-SO42− in precipitation and in lysimetric solutions penetrating through beech ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukla Ján

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a 23-year study of sulphate sulphur dynamics in beech ecosystems exposed to different immission loads. The amounts of S-SO42− in precipitation water entering the ecosystems were: the Kremnické vrchy Mts, a clear-cut area 519 kg ha−1 (24.7 kg ha−1 per year, a beech forest 476 kg ha−1 (22.7 kg ha−1 per year; the Štiavnické vrchy Mts an open place 401 kg ha−1 (24.6 kg ha−1 per year, a beech forest 324 kg ha−1 (19.1 kg ha−1 per year. The average SO42− concentrations in lysimetric solutions penetrating through surface humus to a depth of Cambisol 10 and 25 cm were increased as follows: in the Kremnické vrchy Mts from 12.71 to 16.17 mg l−1 and in the Štiavnické vrchy Mts from 18.73 to 28.80 mg l−1. The S-SO4−2 amounts penetrating the individual soil layers in the Kremnické vrchy Mts were as follows: in case of surface humus on clear-cut area 459 kg ha−1 (20.9 kg ha−1 per year, in beech forest 433 kg ha−1 (19.7 kg ha−1 per year; below 10 cm organo-mineral layer of the mentioned plots penetrated 169–171 kg ha−1 (7.7–7.8 kg ha−1 per year, and below 25 cm mineral layer 155–255 kg ha−1 (7.1−11.6 kg ha−1 per year – a higher amount was found on clear-cut area with an episodic lateral flow of soil solutions. In beech forest of the Štiavnické vrchy Mts penetrated below surface humus 424 kg ha−1 S-SO42− (18.9 kg ha−1 per year, below 10 cm mineral layer 458 kg ha−1 S-SO42− (19.9 kg ha−1 per year, and below 25 cm mineral layer as much as 599 kg ha−1 S-SO42− (26.0 kg ha−1 per year. This fact was caused by frequent lateral flow of soil solutions. The results indicate that the assumption about lower immission load of the beech ecosystem in the Kremnické vrchy Mts is wrong, at least in the case of S-SO42−. The testing has revealed that the studied beech ecosystems differ very significantly in sulphur amounts penetrating under 0.10 m and 0.25 m. The

  11. European Utility Requirements: European nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komsi, M.; Patrakka, E.

    1997-01-01

    The work procedure and the content of the European Utility Requirements (EUR) concerning the future LWRs is described in the article. European Utility Requirements, produced by utilities in a number of European countries, is a document specifying the details relating to engineered safety, operating performance, reliability and economics of the reactors to be built by manufacturers for the European market

  12. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity classification. 51.1904 Section 51.1904... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1904 Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red when ripe, but are not overripe or soft...

  13. SME Financing in Europe: Cross-Country Determinant of Bank Loan Maturity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeter-Kant, J.; Hernandez-Canovas, G.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the influence of cross-country differences on bank loan maturity for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), using a sample of 3366 SMEs from 19 European countries. It analyses a country's legal and institutional environment while controlling for banking structure, economic

  14. SME Financing in Europe: Cross-Country Determinants of Debt Maturity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeter-Kant, Johanna; Hernandez-Canovas, Gines

    2006-01-01

    We examine the influence of cross country differences on debt maturity for small and medium size enterprises (SMEs) using a sample of 3366 SMEs from 19 European countries. We analyze a country's legal environment, institutional environment, banking structure and economic situation while controlling

  15. Effect of tin oxide nano particles and heat treatment on decay resistance and physical properties of beech wood (Fagus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghorbani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to investigate the effect of Tin oxide nanoparticles and heat treatment on decay resistance and physical properties of beech wood. Biological and physical test samples were prepared according to EN-113 and ASTM-D4446-05 standards respectively. Samples were classified into 4 groups: control, impregnation with Tin oxide nanoparticles, heat treatment and nano-heat treatment. Impregnation with Tin oxide nano at 5000ppm concentration was carried out in the cylinder according to Bethell method. Then, samples were heated at 140, 160 and 185˚C for 2 and 4 hours. According to results, decay resistance improved with increasing time and temperature of heat treatment. Least weight loss showed 46.39% reduction in nano-heat samples treated at 180˚C for 4 hours in comparison with control at highest weight loss. Nano-heat treated samples demonstrated the maximum amount of water absorption without significant difference with control and nanoparticles treated samples. Increase in heat treatment temperature reduced water absorption so that it is revealed 47.8% reduction in heat treated samples at 180°C for 4h after 24h immersion in water. In nano-heat treated samples at 180˚C for 2h was measured least volume swelling. Volume swelling in nano-treated samples decreased 8.7 and 22.76% after 2 and 24 h immersion in comparison with the control samples respectively.

  16. Effect of activation on the porous structure and the strain and strength properties of beech wood biocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpeizman, V. V.; Orlova, T. S.; Spitsyn, A. A.; Ponomarev, D. A.; Bogdanovich, N. I.; Martinez-Fernández, J.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of activation on the size, specific volume, and surface area of pores in a monolithic biomorphic material obtained by carbonization of beech wood is studied. It is shown that under optimal activation mode with a steam heated to 970°C, the total pore volume and surface, determined by adsorption curves, increased by 20 and 18 times, respectively. With the use of high-precision interferometric procedure, strain curves are obtained under uniaxial compression with a stepwise loading, and the strain rate is measured with a step of moving of 325 nm for activated and nonactivated samples. Despite an increase in porosity, the strength and maximum deformation of the samples do not decrease. The behavior of the strain rate jumps is analyzed in the micro- and nanometer range. It is shown that the maximum size of the micrometer jumps (4 μm) correlates well with the average size of the possible strain area in the samples (the average distance between the pores of small size), and the minimum dimensions of the strain jumps are close to the size of mesopores. Assessment of the strain change and its rate upon activation indicates that the effect of activation on the strain and strength characteristics is defined by nanometer defects, the most likely of which are microand mesopores.

  17. Effect of heat-treatment with raw cotton seed oil on decay resistance and dimensional stability of Beech (Fagus orientalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مریم قربانی

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the effect of heat-treatment with raw cotton seed oil on decay resistance and dimensional stability of beech according to EN113 and ASTM-D1037 standards respectively. The heat treatment with raw cotton seed oil was carried out in the cylinder at the temperatures of 130 and 170oC for 30 and 60 minutes. Oil uptake, density, volumetric swelling, water absorption and weight loss exposed to decay were measured. Oil uptake at 30 and 60 min were determined 10.5 and 13.3 Kg/cm3 respectively. Oil-heat treated samples at 30min and 130°C indicated the maximum density with 87.7% increase. According to results, oil-heat treatment improved water repellency and dimensional stability. Water absorption in 130°C and 60 minutes decreased 76% in comparison with control. Decay resistance of oil soaked samples for 60minutes was 80.2% more than control samples. Oil-heat treatment compared with oil treatment improved decay resistance, this effect was significant at 30 min. The temperature rise of oil–heat treatment at 30 minutes improved decay resistance, but the improvement under same level of temperature with increase time was not significant.

  18. The effect of temperature and heating rate on char properties obtained from solar pyrolysis of beech wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Kuo; Minh, Doan Pham; Gauthier, Daniel; Weiss-Hortala, Elsa; Nzihou, Ange; Flamant, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    Char samples were produced from pyrolysis in a lab-scale solar reactor. The pyrolysis of beech wood was carried out at temperatures ranging from 600 to 2000°C, with heating rates from 5 to 450°C/s. CHNS, scanning electron microscopy analysis, X-ray diffractometry, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller adsorption were employed to investigate the effect of temperature and heating rate on char composition and structure. The results indicated that char structure was more and more ordered with temperature increase and heating rate decrease (higher than 50°C/s). The surface area and pore volume firstly increased with temperature and reached maximum at 1200°C then reduced significantly at 2000°C. Besides, they firstly increased with heating rate and then decreased slightly at heating rate of 450°C/s when final temperature was no lower than 1200°C. Char reactivity measured by TGA analysis was found to correlate with the evolution of char surface area and pore volume with temperature and heating rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Increasing net CO2 uptake by a Danish beech forest during the period from 1996 to 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kim; Ibrom, Andreas; Courtney, Michael

    2011-01-01

    and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The net CO2 exchange (NEE) was measured by the eddy covariance method. Ecosystem respiration (RE) was estimated from nighttime values and gross ecosystem exchange (GEE) was calculated as the sum of RE and NEE. Over the years the beech forest acted as a sink of on average of 157...... g C m−2 yr−1. In one of the years only, the forest acted as a small source. During 1996–2009 a significant increase in annual NEE was observed. A significant increase in GEE and a smaller and not significant increase in RE was also found. Thus the increased NEE was mainly attributed to an increase...... in GEE. The overall trend in NEE was significant with an average increase in uptake of 23 g C m−2 yr−2. The carbon uptake period (i.e. the period with daily net CO2 gain) increased by 1.9 days per year, whereas there was a non significant tendency of increase of the leafed period. This means...

  20. Fluorescence and electron microscopic investigations of the phloem of beeches, spruces and firs showing different degrees of damage symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, A.; Behnke, H.-D.; Horsch, F.; Filby, G.; Fund, N.; Gross, S.; Hanisch, B.; Kilz, E.; Seidel, A. (comps.)

    1986-04-01

    The phloem of beeches, spruces and firs showing different degrees of damage symptoms (standard damage classification 0-3) was investigated with microscopic methods to examine their possible infections with mycoplasma-like-organisms (MLO), rickettsia-like-bacteria (RLB), and viruses. During the growing seasons of the years 1984 and 1985 root-, stem- and branch parts of up to 39 trees growing in three different areas were removed at monthly intervals and subsequently screened. Prerequisite to these investigations is a knowledge of the composition of the secondary phloem in these trees and of cytological changes which occur during the differentiation of the different phloem cells. None of the many samples contained MLO, RLB or viruses, and the rare occurrence of single structures which could be misinterpreted as MLO is discussed. Judged by this negative result of an in-situ-localization in the phloem of damaged trees, MLO, RLB and viruses are excluded as a primary factor of the new forest damage - for which a systemic spread would be prerequisite-, while a predisposing role of viruses was not likely to be shown with the methods applied.

  1. Height increment of beech and maple depending on the amount of incident light in the Badin primeval forest; Vyskovy prirastok buka a javora v zavislosti od mnozstva dopadajuceho svetla v pralese Badin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havasova, M [Univerzita Komenskeho v Bratislave, Prirodovedecka fakulta, Katedra regionalnej geografie, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    Processed study is devoted to a dependency of height increase of natural regeneration of beech and maple in Badin primeval forest . In selected site discontinuities there were chosen 2 tran-sects 1 m in width and oriented towards East - West and North - South, passing through the centre of the discontinuity. Heights of beech and maple individuals, as well as the rate of their annual increase (for 2010) were measured there. These data were then transformed to the values of reduced elevation gain. The amount of incident radiation was measured by hemispherical photographs, and we set the values of direct (DSF) and indirect sunlight (ISF). Globally, a negative effect of direct sunlight on the height growth of beech was shown. For height growth of maple no significant effect of different values of ISF or DFS was demonstrated, Justas well as no tran-sect orientation. Beech reached higher gains than maple. Overall bigger gains of the ground wood were achieved on the north side of the discontinuity. Height increment of beech and maple depending on the amount of incident light in the Badin primeval forest. (author)

  2. Academic Achievement of High School Students in Relation to Their Anxiety, Emotional Maturity and Social Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puar, Surjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the non-cognitive variables like anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity and their relationship with academic achievement and also to see the locale-wise differences on the basis of their anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity. The study was conducted over a sample of 400 (200…

  3. Maturity models in supply chain sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Correia, Elisabete; Carvalho, Helena; Azevedo, Susana G.

    2017-01-01

    A systematic literature review of supply chain maturity models with sustainability concerns is presented. The objective is to give insights into methodological issues related to maturity models, namely the research objectives; the research methods used to develop, validate and test them; the scope...... of maturity levels. The comprehensive review, analysis, and synthesis of the maturity model literature represent an important contribution to the organization of this research area, making possible to clarify some confusion that exists about concepts, approaches and components of maturity models...

  4. Maturity Models Development in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2015-01-01

    Maturity models are widespread in IS research and in particular, IT practitioner communities. However, theoretically sound, methodologically rigorous and empirically validated maturity models are quite rare. This literature review paper focuses on the challenges faced during the development...... literature reveals that researchers have primarily focused on developing new maturity models pertaining to domain-specific problems and/or new enterprise technologies. We find rampant re-use of the design structure of widely adopted models such as Nolan’s Stage of Growth Model, Crosby’s Grid, and Capability...... Maturity Model (CMM). Only recently have there been some research efforts to standardize maturity model development. We also identify three dominant views of maturity models and provide guidelines for various approaches of constructing maturity models with a standard vocabulary. We finally propose using...

  5. West European magnetic confinement fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M.; Hogan, J.T.; Porkolab, M.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995

  6. Maturity group classification and maturity locus genotyping of early-maturing soybean varieties from high-latitude cold regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongchang; Jiang, Bingjun; Wu, Cunxiang; Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu

    2014-01-01

    With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15', E 127°27', H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially.

  7. Ozone exposure, defoliation of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and visible foliar symptoms on native plants in selected plots of South-Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferretti, Marco; Calderisi, Marco; Bussotti, Filippo

    2007-01-01

    The relationships between crown defoliation of beech, visible foliar symptoms on native vegetation and ozone exposure were investigated on permanent monitoring sites in South-Western Europe in the years 2000-2002. Relationships between defoliation of beech and O 3 (seasonal mean, 2-week maximum, AOT40) were investigated by means of multiple regression models (11 plots, 1-3 years of data each) and a model based on temporal autocorrelation of defoliation data (14 plots, 1-3 years of data each). Different multiple regression techniques were used. The four models generated (R 2 = 0.71-0.85, explained variance in cross-validation 61-78%) identified several significant predictors of defoliation, with AOT40 (p = 0.008) and foliar content of phosphorous (p = 0.0002-0.0004) being common to all models. The autocorrelation model (R 2 = 0.55; p 35,000 ppbh). O 3 -like visible foliar symptoms were recorded on 65 species at 47% of the common monitoring sites in 2001 and 38% in 2002. No relationship was found between O 3 exposure, frequency of symptomatic sites and frequency of species with symptoms (R 2 = 0.11; p > 0.05). A number of questions related to the ecological and methodological basis of the survey were identified. Inherent sampling and non-sampling errors and multicollinearity of the data suggest great caution when examining results obtained from mensurational, correlative studies. - Ozone AOT40 was identified as a significant predictor of defoliation of beech, but a limited relationship was found between ozone exposure and visible symptoms on native vegetation

  8. The maturity of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Favini, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The ever-increasing use of atomic energy since 1950 has generated a set of rules called for practical reasons Nuclear Law. This branch of law covers a wide scope of related activities and, specialized studies have apparently foreseen all conceivable hypotheses. The international character of Nuclear Law explains the basic harmony of international legislation. The methods of comparative Law and International Private Law as well as the joint, indepth work of scientists and jurists will bring about steady progress towards legislative unity and prompt solution to conflicts. The expectable revitalization of nuclear-electric programs early in the 21st. century will give rise to a Nuclear juridical community which can already be perceived through the maturity Nuclear Law has reached. (Author) [es

  9. Patterns of mast fruiting of common beech, sessile and common oak, Norway spruce and Scots pine in Central and Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nussbaumer, Anita; Waldner, Peter; Etzold, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Occurrence of mast years, i.e. the synchronous production of vast amounts of fruits or seeds, has an important impact on forest ecosystems, their functioning and their services. We investigated the mast patterns of the forest tree species common beech, common and sessile oak, Norway spruce...... and Scots pine in Central and Northern Europe over the last two to three decades. We analysed data from the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests) and additional Danish, German, Flemish and Swiss datasets.Within-plot synchrony...

  10. Can decision rules simulate carbon allocation for years with contrasting and extreme weather conditions? A case study for three temperate beech forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campioli, Matteo; Verbeeck, Hans; Van den Bossche, Joris

    2013-01-01

    The allocation of carbohydrates to different tree processes and organs is crucial to understand the overall carbon (C) cycling rate in forest ecosystems. Decision rules (DR) (e.g. functional balances and source-sink relationships) are widely used to model C allocation in forests. However, standard...... allocation and wood growth at beech stands with contrasting climate and standing stock. However, the allocation model required high quality GPP input and errors (even modest) in GPP resulted in large errors in the growth of the tree organs lowest in the modelled sink hierarchy (woody organs). The ability...

  11. Native lignin for bonding fiber boards - evaluation of bonding mechanisms in boards made from laccase-treated fibers of beech (Fagus sylvatica)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus; Thygesen, Lisbeth Garbrecht; Sanadi, Anand

    2004-01-01

    indicate that lignin extractives are precipitated on the fiber surfaces. The improved bonding may be related to several factors, linked to a more lignin rich fiber surface, such as surface molecular entanglements and covalent bonding between fibers through cross-linking of radicals. (C) 2004 Published......The auto-adhesion of beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) fibers can be enhanced by a pretreatment of the fibers with a phenol oxidase enzyme. The mechanism of enzymatic catalyzed bonding is linked to the generation of stable radicals in lignin by oxidation. Fiberboards made from laccase-treated fibers...

  12. Changes in the enchytraeid fauna of a moder soil beech stand after liming. Veraenderungen der Enchytraeidenfauna in einem Sauerhumus-Buchenwald nach Bestandeskalkung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoch-Boesken, J. (Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). 2. Zoologisches Inst.); Greven, H. (Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). 2. Zoologisches Inst.)

    1989-01-01

    A survey of the enchytraeid fauna before and two years after liming of a beech forest and comparison with an untreated area (Luzulo-Fagetum) reveal changes in the number of individuals/m[sup 2], number of species. Shannon-Weaver-Index and Evenness, particularly when individual soil horizons are considered. These changes obviously are related to the elevated pH of the soil after liming. pH-preferences of enchytraeids, whose dominances are strongly affected by liming, are shown. (orig.)

  13. Effect on a long-term afforestation of pine in a beech domain in NE-Spain as reflected in soil C and N isotopic signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; González-Pérez, José Antonio; Tomás Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Martí-Dalmau, Clara

    2015-04-01

    The replacement of native beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) afforestation may exert changes in soil properties, particularly in soil organic matter (SOM) (Carceller and Vallejo, 1996). Stable isotopic signatures of light elements (d13C, d15N) in soils and plants are valuable proxies for the identification of biogeochemical processes and their rates in the pedosphere (Andreeva et al., 2013 and refs therein). In this work the C and N stable isotopic analysis is used as a proxy to detect changes in SOM surrogated to the effect of centennial replacement of beech by the Scots pinewood. Two acid soil profiles, developed on quartzites under a humid climate at an altitude of 1400-1500 masl, have been sampled in Moncayo (Iberian range, NE-Spain). For each soil profile three O-layers (litter: OL, fragmented litter OF and humified litter OH) and mineral soil horizons (Ah, E, Bhs and C) were sampled. Content and bulk isotopic signature of light elements (C and N) were analysed in a Flash 2000 elemental micro-analyser coupled via a ConFlo IV interface to a Delta V Advantage isotope ratio mass spectrometer (IRMS) (Thermo Scientific, Bremen, Germany). Isotopic ratios are reported as parts per thousand deviations from appropriate standards. The standard deviations of d13C and d15N were typically less than ± 0.05 per thousand, ± 0.2 per thousand, respectively. After 100 years since the pine afforestation, no differences on C content were observed in the O-layers, ranging from 30-47% in pine soils and 37-47 % in beech soils. Similarly, no differences on N content were observed in the O-layers, ranging from 1.24-1.86 % in pine soils and 1.70-1.71 % in beech soils. C and N contents decrease progressively in depth with the exception of E-horizons where the lowest C and N content values were found. C/N ratio is higher in pine soil (20.7-38.1) than in beech O soil horizons (21.8-27.5), showing similar behavior with soil depth. Pine biomass was slightly

  14. Local-scale topoclimate effects on treeline elevations: a country-wide investigation of New Zealand's southern beech treelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Bradley S; Buckley, Hannah L

    2015-01-01

    Although treeline elevations are limited globally by growing season temperature, at regional scales treelines frequently deviate below their climatic limit. The cause of these deviations relate to a host of climatic, disturbance, and geomorphic factors that operate at multiple scales. The ability to disentangle the relative effects of these factors is currently hampered by the lack of reliable topoclimatic data, which describe how regional climatic characteristics are modified by topographic effects in mountain areas. In this study we present an analysis of the combined effects of local- and regional-scale factors on southern beech treeline elevation variability at 28 study areas across New Zealand. We apply a mesoscale atmospheric model to generate local-scale (200 m) meteorological data at these treelines and, from these data, we derive a set of topoclimatic indices that reflect possible detrimental and ameliorative influences on tree physiological functioning. Principal components analysis of meteorological data revealed geographic structure in how study areas were situated in multivariate space along gradients of topoclimate. Random forest and conditional inference tree modelling enabled us to tease apart the relative effects of 17 explanatory factors on local-scale treeline elevation variability. Overall, modelling explained about 50% of the variation in treeline elevation variability across the 28 study areas, with local landform and topoclimatic effects generally outweighing those from regional-scale factors across the 28 study areas. Further, the nature of the relationships between treeline elevation variability and the explanatory variables were complex, frequently non-linear, and consistent with the treeline literature. To our knowledge, this is the first study where model-generated meteorological data, and derived topoclimatic indices, have been developed and applied to explain treeline variation. Our results demonstrate the potential of such an approach

  15. Particulate emissions from the combustion of birch, beech, and spruce logs cause different cytotoxic responses in A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasurinen, Stefanie; Jalava, Pasi I; Happo, Mikko S; Sippula, Olli; Uski, Oskari; Koponen, Hanna; Orasche, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2017-05-01

    According to the World Health Organization particulate emissions from the combustion of solid fuels caused more than 110,000 premature deaths worldwide in 2010. Log wood combustion is the most prevalent form of residential biomass heating in developed countries, but it is unknown how the type of wood logs used in furnaces influences the chemical composition of the particulate emissions and their toxicological potential. We burned logs of birch, beech and spruce, which are used commonly as firewood in Central and Northern Europe in a modern masonry heater, and compared them to the particulate emissions from an automated pellet boiler fired with softwood pellets. We determined the chemical composition (elements, ions, and carbonaceous compounds) of the particulate emissions with a diameter of less than 1 µm and tested their cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, inflammatory potential, and ability to induce oxidative stress in a human lung epithelial cell line. The chemical composition of the samples differed significantly, especially with regard to the carbonaceous and metal contents. Also the toxic effects in our tested endpoints varied considerably between each of the three log wood combustion samples, as well as between the log wood combustion samples and the pellet combustion sample. The difference in the toxicological potential of the samples in the various endpoints indicates the involvement of different pathways of toxicity depending on the chemical composition. All three emission samples from the log wood combustions were considerably more toxic in all endpoints than the emissions from the pellet combustion. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 1487-1499, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Cytotoxic and genotoxic responses of human lung cells to combustion smoke particles of Miscanthus straw, softwood and beech wood chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Ali Talib; Maschowski, Christoph; Garra, Patxi; Garcia-Käufer, Manuel; Petithory, Tatiana; Trouvé, Gwenaëlle; Dieterlen, Alain; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker; Khanaqa, Polla; Nazarenko, Irina; Gminski, Richard; Gieré, Reto

    2017-08-01

    Inhalation of particulate matter (PM) from residential biomass combustion is epidemiologically associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. This study investigates PM0.4-1 emissions from combustion of commercial Miscanthus straw (MS), softwood chips (SWC) and beech wood chips (BWC) in a domestic-scale boiler (40 kW). The PM0.4-1 emitted during combustion of the MS, SWC and BWC were characterized by ICP-MS/OES, XRD, SEM, TEM, and DLS. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human alveolar epithelial A549 and human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were assessed by the WST-1 assay and the DNA-Alkaline Unwinding Assay (DAUA). PM0.4-1 uptake/translocation in cells was investigated with a new method developed using a confocal reflection microscope. SWC and BWC had a inherently higher residual water content than MS. The PM0.4-1 emitted during combustion of SWC and BWC exhibited higher levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), a greater variety of mineral species and a higher heavy metal content than PM0.4-1 from MS combustion. Exposure to PM0.4-1 from combustion of SWC and BWC induced cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in human alveolar and bronchial cells, whereby the strongest effect was observed for BWC and was comparable to that caused by diesel PM (SRM 2 975), In contrast, PM0.4-1 from MS combustion did not induce cellular responses in the studied lung cells. A high PAH content in PM emissions seems to be a reliable chemical marker of both combustion efficiency and particle toxicity. Residual biomass water content strongly affects particulate emissions and their toxic potential. Therefore, to minimize the harmful effects of fine PM on health, improvement of combustion efficiency (aiming to reduce the presence of incomplete combustion products bound to PM) and application of fly ash capture technology, as well as use of novel biomass fuels like Miscanthus straw is recommended.

  17. Tests for attraction to prey and predator avoidance by chemical cues in spiders of the beech forest floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wetter, Melissa B.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Spiders leave draglines, faeces and other secretions behind when traveling through their microhabitat. The presence of these secretions may unintentionally inform other animals, prey as well as predators, about a recent and possible current predation risk or food availability. For a wolf spider, other spiders including smaller conspecifics, form a substantial part of their prey, and larger wolf spiders, again including conspecifics, are potential predators. We tested two hypotheses: that large wolf spiders may locate patches of potential spider prey through the presence of silk threads and/or other secretions; and that prey spiders may use secretions from large wolf spiders to avoid patches with high predation risk. We used large (subadult or adult Pardosa saltans to provide predator cues and mixed dwarf spiders or small (juvenile P. saltans to provide prey cues. Subadult wolf spiders were significantly attracted to litter contaminated by dwarf spiders or small conspecifics after 6 hours but no longer after 24 hours. In contrast, neither dwarf spiders nor small P. saltans showed significant avoidance of substrate contaminated by adult P. saltans. However, small P. saltans showed different activity patterns on the two substrates. The results indicate that wolf spiders are able to increase the efficiency of foraging by searching preferentially in patches with the presence of intraguild prey. The lack of a clear patch selection response of the prey in spite of a modified activity pattern may possibly be associated with the vertical stratification of the beech litter habitat: the reduced volume of spaces in the deeper layers could make downward rather than horizontal movement a fast and safe tactic against a large predator that cannot enter these spaces.

  18. The impact of forest roads on understory plant diversity in temperate hornbeam-beech forests of Northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deljouei, Azade; Abdi, Ehsan; Marcantonio, Matteo; Majnounian, Baris; Amici, Valerio; Sohrabi, Hormoz

    2017-08-01

    Forest roads alter the biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems, modifying temperature, humidity, wind speed, and light availability that, in turn, cause changes in plant community composition and diversity. We aim at investigating and comparing the diversity of herbaceous species along main and secondary forest roads in a temperate-managed hornbeam-beech forest, north of Iran. Sixteen transects along main and secondary forest roads were established (eight transects along main roads and eight along secondary roads). To eliminate the effect of forest type, all transects were located in Carpinetum-Fagetum forests, the dominant forest type in the study area. The total length of each transect was 200 m (100 m toward up slope and 100 m toward down slope), and plots were established along it at different distances from road edge. The diversity of herbaceous plant species was calculated in each plot using Shannon-Wiener index, species richness, and Pielou's index. The results showed that diversity index decreased when distance from road edge increases. This decreasing trend continued up to 60 m from forest road margin, and after this threshold, the index slightly increased. Depending on the type of road (main or secondary) as well as cut or fill slopes, the area showing a statistical different plant composition and diversity measured through Shannon-Wiener, species richness, and Pielou's index is up to 10 m. The length depth of the road edge effect found in main and secondary forest roads was small, but it could have cumulative effects on forest microclimate and forest-associated biota at the island scale. Forest managers should account for the effect of road buildings on plant communities.

  19. Nonstructural carbohydrate-balance response to long-term elevated CO2 exposure in European beech and Norway spruce mixed cultures: biochemical and ultrastructural responses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašková, P.; Radochová, Barbora; Lhotáková, Z.; Michálek, Jan; Lipavská, H.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 11 (2017), s. 1498-1494 ISSN 0045-5067 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/10/0340 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : chloroplast ultrastructure * CO2 enrichment * forest trees * soluble carbohydrates * starch Subject RIV: GK - Forestry OBOR OECD: Forestry Impact factor: 1.827, year: 2016

  20. Growth and yield of mixed versus pure stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) analysed along a productivity gradient through Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pretzsch, H.; Ammer, C.; Barbeito, I.; Mohren, G.M.J.; Ouden, den J.; Verheyen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Mixing of complementary tree species may increase stand productivity, mitigate the effects of drought and other risks, and pave the way to forest production systems which may be more resource-use efficient and stable in the face of climate change. However, systematic empirical studies on mixing

  1. Pollen season of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and temperature trends at two German monitoring sites over a more than 30-year period

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Simoleit, A.; Wachter, R.; Gauger, U.; Werchan, M.; Werchan, Barbora; Zuberbier, T.; Bergmann, K.-C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2016), s. 489-497 ISSN 0393-5965 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : annual pollen index * mast year * climate change Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.202, year: 2016

  2. Microbial interference with hatch and survival of European eel larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sune Riis; Lauesen; Tomkiewicz, Jonna

    Recent research has significantly improved our knowledge and capabilities in the field of in vitro production of yolk sac larvae from European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Female broodstock European eels are matured by weekly administration of pituitary extract and male eels with hCG (human chorionic...... larviculture should not only focus on optimizing physical incubation conditions, but certainly also on the control over microbial interference....

  3. A maturity model for blockchain adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huaiqing; Chen, Kun; Xu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rapid development of the blockchain technology and its various applications has rendered it important to understand the guidelines for adopting it. Methods: The comparative analysis method is used to analyze different dimensions of the maturity model, which is mainly based on the commonly used capability maturity model. Results: The blockchain maturity model and its adoption process have been discussed and presented. Conclusions: This study serves as a guide to institutions to...

  4. A Set Theoretical Approach to Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2016-01-01

    characterized by equifinality, multiple conjunctural causation, and case diversity. We prescribe methodological guidelines consisting of a six-step procedure to systematically apply set theoretic methods to conceptualize, develop, and empirically derive maturity models and provide a demonstration......Maturity Model research in IS has been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. To address these criticisms, this paper proposes a novel set-theoretical approach to maturity models...

  5. Assessment of CH4 and N2O fluxes in a Danish Beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest and an adjacent N-fertilised barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambus, P.; Jensen, J.M.; Prieme, A.

    2001-01-01

    Fluxes of CH4 and N2O were measured regularly in an agricultural field treated with 280 g m(-2) of sewage sludge. In a nearby beech forest N2O and CH4 fluxes were measured in a well-drained (dry) area and in a wet area adjacent to a drainage canal. We observed brief increases of both CH4 and N2O...... and independent of drainage status. Methane oxidation was observed all-year round in the forest cumulating to -225 mg C m(-2) and -84 mg C m(-2) in dry and wet areas. In a model experiment with incubated soil cores, nitrogen amendment (NH4Cl) and perturbation significantly reduced CH4 oxidation in the forest soil...... sludge, respectively. Four months after the sludge applications a significant effect on CO2 and NO emissions was still obvious in the field, the latter perhaps due to elevated nitrification. Nitrous oxide emission in the beech forest was about six times smaller (45 mg N m(-2)) than in the field...

  6. The influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARZIEH BEGYOM-FAGHIR

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pourbabaei H, Haddadi-Moghaddam H, Begyom-Faghir M, Abedi T. 2013. The influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran Province, North of Iran. Biodiversitas 14: 89-94.This study was conducted to investigate the influence of gap size on plant species diversity and composition in beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky. forests, Ramsar, Mazandaran province. Fifteen gaps in small, medium, and large sizes were randomly selected. Abundance of tree saplings, shrubs and herbaceous species were counted on 4 m2 micro-plots within the gaps. Diversity indices including Shannon-Wiener, Simpson, Mc Arthur's N1, Hill's N2, species richness and Smith-Wilson’s evenness index were computed. The results revealed that there was significant difference among three gap categories in terms of diversity. The highest diversity values of tree and herbaceous species were obtained in the large gaps, while the highest diversity value of shrub species was in the medium gaps. Species composition of small gaps (28 species: 7 trees and 21 herbaceous, medium gaps (37 species: 7 trees, 5 shrubs and 25 herbaceous and large gaps (40 species: 7 trees, 4 shrubs and 29 herbaceous were recognized. Therefore, based on the results of this study, it is recommended that in order to maintain plant diversity and composition up to 400 m2 gap size cloud be used in this forests.

  7. Impacts of a water stress followed by an early frost event on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) susceptibility to Scolytine ambrosia beetles - Research strategy and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Spina, Sylvie; de Cannière, Charles; Molenberg, Jean-Marc; Vincke, Caroline; Deman, Déborah; Grégoire, Jean-Claude

    2010-05-01

    Climate change tends to induce more frequent abiotic and biotic extreme events, having large impacts on tree vitality. Weakened trees are then more susceptible to secondary insect outbreaks, as it happened in Belgium in the early 2000s: after an early frost event, secondary Scolytine ambrosia beetles attacks were observed on beech trees. In this study, we test if a combination of stress, i.e. a soil water deficit preceding an early frost, could render trees more attractive to beetles. An experimental study was set in autumn 2008. Two parcels of a beech forest were covered with plastic tents to induce a water stress by rain interception. The parcels were surrounded by 2-meters depth trenches to avoid water supply by streaming. Soil water content and different indicators of tree water use (sap flow, predawn leaf water potential, tree radial growth) were followed. In autumn 2010, artificial frost injuries will be inflicted to trees using dry ice. Trees attractivity for Scolytine insects, and the success of insect colonization will then be studied. The poster will focus on experiment setting and first results (impacts of soil water deficit on trees).

  8. The maturing of microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas M

    2006-09-01

    A.J. Kluyver and C.B. van Niel introduced many scientists to the exceptional metabolic capacity of microbes and their remarkable ability to adapt to changing environments in The Microbe's Contribution to Biology. Beyond providing an overview of the physiology and adaptability of microbes, the book outlined many of the basic principles for the emerging discipline of microbial ecology. While the study of pure cultures was highlighted, provided a unifying framework for understanding the vast metabolic potential of microbes and their roles in the global cycling of elements, extrapolation from pure cultures to natural environments has often been overshadowed by microbiologists inability to culture many of the microbes seen in natural environments. A combination of genomic approaches is now providing a culture-independent view of the microbial world, revealing a more diverse and dynamic community of microbes than originally anticipated. As methods for determining the diversity of microbial communities become increasingly accessible, a major challenge to microbial ecologists is to link the structure of natural microbial communities with their functions. This article presents several examples from studies of aquatic and terrestrial microbial communities in which culture and culture-independent methods are providing an enhanced appreciation for the microbe's contribution to the evolution and maintenance of life on Earth, and offers some thoughts about the graduate-level educational programs needed to enhance the maturing field of microbial ecology.

  9. Motivational maturity and helping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, M; Green, L

    1977-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the independent influences of conative development (the Maslow needs hierarchy) upon behavioral aspects of prosocial orientations. It provides a behavioral demonstration of conative effects in a helping paradigm, among college-age men. A comparison of the conative data across the ages of 15-22 provided a cross-sectional view of conative development itself. Conative maturity was found to be predictive of greater helping among college-age men. Situational demands were demonstrated which tended to mask, but not override, these predispositional influences on helping. The cross-sectional data on conative development point to probable movement to early esteem concerns among high school men who have reached the conative level of love and belonging. On the other hand, the stability across the years of 15-22 of proportion of safety concerns suggests fixation of such concerns in those exhibiting them in high school. Results are discussed in terms of conative growth for development of prosocial orientations.

  10. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Levinson, Alex; Mater, J.; Drummond, R.

    2010-04-28

    The integration of automation associated with electricity resources (including transmission and distribution automation and demand-side resources operated by end-users) is key to supporting greater efficiencies and incorporating variable renewable resources and electric vehicles into the power system. The integration problems faced by this community are analogous to those faced in the health industry, emergency services, and other complex communities with many stakeholders. To highlight this issue and encourage communication and the development of a smart grid interoperability community, the GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) created an Interoperability Context-Setting Framework. This "conceptual model" has been helpful to explain the importance of organizational alignment in addition to technical and informational interface specifications for "smart grid" devices and systems. As a next step to building a community sensitive to interoperability, the GWAC is investigating an interoperability maturity model (IMM) based on work done by others to address similar circumstances. The objective is to create a tool or set of tools that encourages a culture of interoperability in this emerging community. The tools would measure status and progress, analyze gaps, and prioritize efforts to improve the situation.

  11. Antenatal assessment of fetal maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstner, G.; Reinold, E.; Wolf, G.

    1979-01-01

    334 ultrasound-cephalometries and 231 X-ray fetographies were performed for antenatal assessment of fetal maturity as well as for exact estimation of gestational age in women with unknown date of confinement. The accuracy of the predictions was compared. Ultrasound-cephalometry gave best results when performed until the 20th week of gestation. A correct prediction was obtained in 80.4% of cases. After the 20th week of gestation, the accuracy of prediction decreased. Radiology on the contrary gave optimal results at the end of pregnancy. A correct prediction of the date of confinement was obtained in 73.8% of cases, when the X-ray fetography was performed between the 37th and 40th week of gestation. At the end of gestation radiography should be performed, if there is a discrepancy between ultrasound and clinical estimation or if ultrasound-cephalometry was not carried out in early pregnancy - especially if induction of labour is necessary. (author)

  12. Digital Maturity of the Firm's Business Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groskovs, Sergejs; Vemula, Sreekanth

    We propose a digital maturity assessment model as an instrument for researchers and a strategic tool for managers. Existing literature lacks a conceptually clear way to measure the construct of digital maturity at the level of the firms business model. Our proposed instrument thus opens avenues f...

  13. A maturity model for industrial supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameri, A.P.; McKay, K.N.; Wiers, V.C.S.

    2013-01-01

    This article takes an evolutionary view of supply chains to suggest a series of distinct, contextual phases for supply chain execution and what maturity might mean at each phase. For example, what is best practice in a mature industry might not be best practice in a pioneering situation.Three

  14. 7 CFR 1421.101 - Maturity dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... filed and disbursed except, for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral. The maturity date for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral will be the maturity date applicable to the original loan... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING...

  15. Cone and Seed Maturation of Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett

    1976-01-01

    If slightly reduced yields and viability are acceptable, loblolly and slash cone collections can begin 2 to 3 weeks before maturity if the cones are stored before processing. Longleaf(P. palestris Mill.) pine cones should be collected only when mature, as storage decreased germination of seeds from immature cones. Biochemical analyses to determine reducing sugar...

  16. POSTTREATMENT NEUROBLASTOMA MATURATION TO GANGLIONIC CELL TUMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Ryzhova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cells can differentiate into more mature forms in undifferentiated or poorly differentiated tumors, such as medulloblastomas with increased nodularity, as well as neuroblastomas. The authors describe 2 cases of neuroblastoma maturation into ganglioneuroblastoma 5 months after chemotherapy in a 2-year-old girl and 3 years after radiotherapy in a 16-year-old girl.

  17. Moving towards maturity in business model definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Lund, Morten; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    The field of business models has, as is the case with all emerging fields of practice, slowly matured through the development of frameworks, models, concepts and ideas over the last 15 years. New concepts, theories and models typically transcend a series of maturity phases. For the concept of Bus...

  18. Assessing the Harvest Maturity of Brazilian Mangoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, T.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Vanoli, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Eccher Zerbini, P.C.; Torricelli, A.; Filgueiras, H.; Spinelli, L.

    2010-01-01

    No clear criterion exists to determine the optimum time to harvest mango. Some empirical relations are used to assess maturity, such as shoulder development. Moreover, as a result of the typical growing conditions in tropical climates, a huge variation in maturity and ripeness exists, seriously

  19. Decision-Making Style and Vocational Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan D.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the relationship between decision-making style, scholastic achievement, and vocational maturity for college students (N=64). Results did not support the hypothesized relationship between rationality and attitudinal and cognitive maturity. Scholastic achievement and lack of dependent decision style were found to be moderately predictive of…

  20. Correlation of Improved Version of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Indicator with Other Growth Maturity Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Tikku

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The correlation between middle phalanx of 3rd finger (MP3 and cervical vertebral maturation method (CVMI and CVMS was higher as compared to the correlation of either of the cervical vertebral maturation method or MP3 with dental maturation indicator.

  1. Assessing healthcare process maturity: challenges of using a business process maturity model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarhan, A.; Turetken, O.; van den Biggelaar, F.J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Doi: 10.4108/icst.pervasivehealth.2015.259105 The quality of healthcare services is influenced by the maturity of healthcare processes used to develop it. A maturity model is an instrument to assess and continually improve organizational processes. In the last decade, a number of maturity models

  2. Set-Theoretic Approach to Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan

    Despite being widely accepted and applied, maturity models in Information Systems (IS) have been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. This PhD thesis focuses on addressing...... these criticisms by incorporating recent developments in configuration theory, in particular application of set-theoretic approaches. The aim is to show the potential of employing a set-theoretic approach for maturity model research and empirically demonstrating equifinal paths to maturity. Specifically...... methodological guidelines consisting of detailed procedures to systematically apply set theoretic approaches for maturity model research and provides demonstrations of it application on three datasets. The thesis is a collection of six research papers that are written in a sequential manner. The first paper...

  3. 76 FR 52543 - European Larch Canker; Expansion of Regulated Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ...-2011-0029, Regulatory Analysis and Development, PPD, APHIS, Station 3A-03.8, 4700 River Road Unit 118... Road Unit 26, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 734-0917. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background European larch... kill mature and immature species of the genus Larix (larch) and Pseudolarix (Golden larch). In parts of...

  4. A Catskill Flora and Economic Botany, III: Apetalae. Including the Poplars, Willows, Hickories, Birches, Beeches, Oaks, Elms, Nettles, Sorrels, Docks, and Smartweeds. Bulletin No. 443, New York State Museum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Karl L.

    This compendium deals with the ecology and economic importance of the poplars, willows, hickories, birches, beeches, oaks, elms, nettles, sorrels, docks, and smartweeds growing in New York's Catskills. Provided are keys for identifying each plant to species by flowers, foliage, or winter buds. A line drawing accompanies a summary of basic data…

  5. Multi-scale processes of beech wood disintegration and pretreatment with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate/water mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viell, Jörn; Inouye, Hideyo; Szekely, Noemi K; Frielinghaus, Henrich; Marks, Caroline; Wang, Yumei; Anders, Nico; Spiess, Antje C; Makowski, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The valorization of biomass for chemicals and fuels requires efficient pretreatment. One effective strategy involves the pretreatment with ionic liquids which enables enzymatic saccharification of wood within a few hours under mild conditions. This pretreatment strategy is, however, limited by water and the ionic liquids are rather expensive. The scarce understanding of the involved effects, however, challenges the design of alternative pretreatment concepts. This work investigates the multi length-scale effects of pretreatment of wood in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc) in mixtures with water using spectroscopy, X-ray and neutron scattering. The structure of beech wood is disintegrated in EMIMAc/water mixtures with a water content up to 8.6 wt%. Above 10.7 wt%, the pretreated wood is not disintegrated, but still much better digested enzymatically compared to native wood. In both regimes, component analysis of the solid after pretreatment shows an extraction of few percent of lignin and hemicellulose. In concentrated EMIMAc, xylan is extracted more efficiently and lignin is defunctionalized. Corresponding to the disintegration at macroscopic scale, SANS and XRD show isotropy and a loss of crystallinity in the pretreated wood, but without distinct reflections of type II cellulose. Hence, the microfibril assembly is decrystallized into rather amorphous cellulose within the cell wall. The molecular and structural changes elucidate the processes of wood pretreatment in EMIMAc/water mixtures. In the aqueous regime with >10.7 wt% water in EMIMAc, xyloglucan and lignin moieties are extracted, which leads to coalescence of fibrillary cellulose structures. Dilute EMIMAc/water mixtures thus resemble established aqueous pretreatment concepts. In concentrated EMIMAc, the swelling due to decrystallinization of cellulose, dissolution of cross-linking xylan, and defunctionalization of lignin releases the mechanical stress to result in macroscopic disintegration of

  6. Temporal variability of the NPP-GPP ratio at seasonal and interannual time scales in a temperate beech forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Campioli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of carbon (C taken up by the tree canopy for respiration and production of tree organs with different construction and maintenance costs, life span and decomposition rate, crucially affects the residence time of C in forests and their C cycling rate. The carbon-use efficiency, or ratio between net primary production (NPP and gross primary production (GPP, represents a convenient way to analyse the C allocation at the stand level. In this study, we extend the current knowledge on the NPP-GPP ratio in forests by assessing the temporal variability of the NPP-GPP ratio at interannual (for 8 years and seasonal (for 1 year scales for a young temperate beech stand, reporting dynamics for both leaves and woody organs, in particular stems. NPP was determined with biometric methods/litter traps, whereas the GPP was estimated via the eddy covariance micrometeorological technique.

    The interannual variability of the proportion of C allocated to leaf NPP, wood NPP and leaf plus wood NPP (on average 11% yr−1, 29% yr−1 and 39% yr−1, respectively was significant among years with up to 12% yr−1 variation in NPP-GPP ratio. Studies focusing on the comparison of NPP-GPP ratio among forests and models using fixed allocation schemes should take into account the possibility of such relevant interannual variability. Multiple linear regressions indicated that the NPP-GPP ratio of leaves and wood significantly correlated with environmental conditions. Previous year drought and air temperature explained about half of the NPP-GPP variability of leaves and wood, respectively, whereas the NPP-GPP ratio was not decreased by severe drought, with large NPP-GPP ratio on 2003 due mainly to low GPP. During the period between early May and mid June, the majority of GPP was allocated to leaf and stem NPP, whereas these sinks were of little importance later on. Improved estimation of seasonal GPP and of the

  7. Game Maturity Model for Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan C; Adriani, Paul; van Houwelingen, Jan Willem; Geerts, A

    2016-04-01

    This article introduces the Game Maturity Model for the healthcare industry as an extension to the general Game Maturity Model and describes the usage by two case studies of applied health games. The Game Maturity Model for healthcare provides a practical and value-adding method to assess existing games and to determine strategic considerations for application of applied health games. Our forecast is that within 5 years the use and development of applied games will have a role in our daily lives and the way we organize health care that will be similar to the role social media has today.

  8. Service Quality and Process Maturity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serek Radomir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with service quality and the methods for its measurement and improvements to reach the so called service excellence. Besides older methods such as SERVQUAL and SERPERF, there are also shortly described capability maturity models based on which the own methodology is developed and used for process maturity assessment in organizations providing technical services. This method is equally described and accompanied by examples on pictures. The verification of method functionality is explored on finding a correlation between service employee satisfaction and average process maturity in a service organization. The results seem to be quite promising and open an arena for further studies.

  9. Maturity grids as tools for change management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John

    2011-01-01

    A maturity grid is a change management tool. Levels of maturity are assigned against aspects of an area under study, thus creating a grid. Text descriptions at the resulting intersections describe the typical behaviour exhibited by a firm for each area under study and from the basis...... for the assessment scale. It is a flexible assessment technique that is used by practitioners in industry, consultants and researchers in academia for diagnostic, reflective and improvement purposes. A large number of maturity grids have been proposed to assess a range of capabilities including quality management...

  10. Ozone exposure, defoliation of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and visible foliar symptoms on native plants in selected plots of South-Western Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferretti, Marco [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: m.ferretti@linnaea.it; Calderisi, Marco [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: calderisi@chemiometria.it; Bussotti, Filippo [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Piazzale Cascine 28, I-50144 Florence (Italy)]. E-mail: filippo.bussotti@unifi.it

    2007-02-15

    The relationships between crown defoliation of beech, visible foliar symptoms on native vegetation and ozone exposure were investigated on permanent monitoring sites in South-Western Europe in the years 2000-2002. Relationships between defoliation of beech and O{sub 3} (seasonal mean, 2-week maximum, AOT40) were investigated by means of multiple regression models (11 plots, 1-3 years of data each) and a model based on temporal autocorrelation of defoliation data (14 plots, 1-3 years of data each). Different multiple regression techniques were used. The four models generated (R {sup 2} = 0.71-0.85, explained variance in cross-validation 61-78%) identified several significant predictors of defoliation, with AOT40 (p = 0.008) and foliar content of phosphorous (p = 0.0002-0.0004) being common to all models. The autocorrelation model (R {sup 2} = 0.55; p < 0.0001) was used to calculate expected defoliation on the basis of the previous year's defoliation, and model predictions were used as an estimate of expected defoliation under constant site and environmental condition. Residuals (predicted-measured) plotted against current AOT40 shows that a possible effect of ozone occurs only at very high AOT40 (>35,000 ppbh). O{sub 3}-like visible foliar symptoms were recorded on 65 species at 47% of the common monitoring sites in 2001 and 38% in 2002. No relationship was found between O{sub 3} exposure, frequency of symptomatic sites and frequency of species with symptoms (R {sup 2} = 0.11; p > 0.05). A number of questions related to the ecological and methodological basis of the survey were identified. Inherent sampling and non-sampling errors and multicollinearity of the data suggest great caution when examining results obtained from mensurational, correlative studies. - Ozone AOT40 was identified as a significant predictor of defoliation of beech, but a limited relationship was found between ozone exposure and visible symptoms on native vegetation.

  11. 7 CFR 1710.115 - Final maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Basic Policies § 1710.115 Final maturity. (a) RUS is authorized to make loans and loan guarantees with a... due, in part, to obsolescence. Operating loans to finance working capital required for the initial...

  12. Geospatial Information System Capability Maturity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    To explore how State departments of transportation (DOTs) evaluate geospatial tool applications and services within their own agencies, particularly their experiences using capability maturity models (CMMs) such as the Urban and Regional Information ...

  13. Pristipomoides filamentosus Size at Maturity Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains information used to help determine median size at 50% maturity for the bottomfish species, Pristipomoides filamentosus in the Main Hawaiian...

  14. Mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosaki, Y.; Tanaka, Y.O.; Itai, Y. [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305 (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The vast majority of germ cell tumors in the thorax arise at or near the thymus. We report a case of a 41-year-old man with mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum. He was asymptomatic and was incidentally found to have a posterior mediastinal mass. Computed tomography was helpful in suggesting a diagnosis of mature teratoma by demonstrating the presence of fat and calcification. The differential diagnosis included neurogenic tumors, liposarcoma, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. (orig.) With 2 figs., 18 refs.

  15. Mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Y.; Tanaka, Y.O.; Itai, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The vast majority of germ cell tumors in the thorax arise at or near the thymus. We report a case of a 41-year-old man with mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum. He was asymptomatic and was incidentally found to have a posterior mediastinal mass. Computed tomography was helpful in suggesting a diagnosis of mature teratoma by demonstrating the presence of fat and calcification. The differential diagnosis included neurogenic tumors, liposarcoma, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. (orig.)

  16. Radiation induced early maturing mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Chauhan, S.V.S.; Sharma, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    In M 2 generation, two early maturing plants were screened from a single spike progeny of a plant obtained from 20 kR of gamma-ray irradiation of a six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Jyoti). Their true breeding nature was confirmed in M 3 generation. These mutants flower and mature 38 and 22 days earlier than those of control. (auth.)

  17. Intra-follicular interactions affecting mammalian oocyte maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, H.T.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313871817

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear oocyte maturation is defined as reinitiation and progression of the first meiotic division and subsequently formation of the methaphase II (MII) plate. Concomitantly with nuclear maturation, cytoplasmic maturation which is essential for proper fertilization and early embryo development is

  18. Mature students' perspectives of studying radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.; Decker, S.

    2009-01-01

    The study set out to explore the experiences of all final year mature students on a diagnostic radiography course, in one United Kingdom University. The aims were to identify any difficulties they may have had and to make recommendations to improve mature students' learning experiences with the hope of lowering attrition rates in this group. A qualitative study involving one-to-one audio recorded interviews was utilised. Analysis of the transcripts of interviews suggested that the group believed that their maturity and previous experiences helped them in the clinical environment and put them in a good position, when asked, to counsel younger students. However for some of the mature students these experiential skills did not extend fully into seeking appropriate support for themselves. The mature students were found to be highly motivated but there was a conflict between balancing clinical and academic aspects of studying as well as balancing studying with home life. The group was found to be unprepared for the volume of academic work and its detrimental effect on family life as they sacrificed other aspects of their lives in order to complete the course. It is recommended that forewarning and forearming prospective mature students be considered by radiography education providers. Setting up and utilising an on-line forum providing a 24/7 peer support environment would aid in coping with academic, clinical or personal problems

  19. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  20. Breeding of cocksfoot cultivars with different maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important criteria in breeding process of perennial grasses is maturity. Cultivars with different maturity play a very important role in utilization of perennial grasses, by providing the ability to create a mixture of different aspects utilization and time. The first grass species in Serbia whose breeding program involved this criterion was cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.. In general cocksfoot is early to medium-early in maturity in comparison with other grasses and legumes, and that is mayor problem since in the optimum phase for cutting, cocksfoot is often earlier then other species in mixtures. As a result of this work, in the previous period, two cultivars of different maturity were released, Kruševačka 24 (K-24 and Kruševačka 25 (K-25. K-24 is medium and K-25 is late in maturity. New material is adapted to local agro-ecological conditions and productive in the same time. In breeding process of both cultivars initial material originated from autochthonous populations collected in eastern and central Serbia. Material from the wild flora is selected based on medium and late maturity which is already adapted and has good productivity. We applied the standard method of phenotypic recurrent selection with the creation of synthetic varieties by polycross.

  1. European Vegetation Archive (EVA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytrý, Milan; Hennekens, S.M.; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Schaminée, J.H.J.; Haveman, Rense; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and

  2. Assessment of cortical maturation with prenatal MRI. Part I: normal cortical maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogliarini, Celine; Chaumoitre, Katia; Chapon, Frederique; Levrier, Olivier; Girard, Nadine; Fernandez, Carla; Figarella-Branger, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Cortical maturation, especially gyral formation, follows a temporospatial schedule and is a good marker of fetal maturation. Although ultrasonography is still the imaging method of choice to evaluate fetal anatomy, MRI has an increasingly important role in the detection of brain abnormalities, especially of cortical development. Knowledge of MRI techniques in utero with the advantages and disadvantages of some sequences is necessary, in order to try to optimize the different magnetic resonance sequences to be able to make an early diagnosis. The different steps of cortical maturation known from histology represent the background necessary for the understanding of maturation in order to be then able to evaluate brain maturation through neuroimaging. Illustrations of the normal cortical maturation are given for each step accessible to MRI for both the cerebral hemispheres and the posterior fossa. (orig.)

  3. Assessment of cortical maturation with prenatal MRI. Part I: normal cortical maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogliarini, Celine [Faculte Timone, Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale, Marseille (France); Chaumoitre, Katia [Hopital Nord, Department of Radiology, Marseille (France); Chapon, Frederique; Levrier, Olivier; Girard, Nadine [Hopital Timone, Department of Neuroradiology, Marseille Cedex 5 (France); Fernandez, Carla; Figarella-Branger, Dominique [Hopital Timone, Department of Pathology, Marseille (France)

    2005-08-01

    Cortical maturation, especially gyral formation, follows a temporospatial schedule and is a good marker of fetal maturation. Although ultrasonography is still the imaging method of choice to evaluate fetal anatomy, MRI has an increasingly important role in the detection of brain abnormalities, especially of cortical development. Knowledge of MRI techniques in utero with the advantages and disadvantages of some sequences is necessary, in order to try to optimize the different magnetic resonance sequences to be able to make an early diagnosis. The different steps of cortical maturation known from histology represent the background necessary for the understanding of maturation in order to be then able to evaluate brain maturation through neuroimaging. Illustrations of the normal cortical maturation are given for each step accessible to MRI for both the cerebral hemispheres and the posterior fossa. (orig.)

  4. Investigation on the Scratch Strength of Clear Paints Used in Furniture Industries on the Wood Species Beech, Elm, Alder and Spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghofrani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In This research, the scratch strength (Cross-Cut Test of clear paints (nitrocellulose lacquers and acid catalyst lacquers of wood species Beech, Elm, Alder and spruce were studied as a function of moisture content (MC of the samples. For this purpose, lumbers (550×110×12 mm were cut from sapwood in tangential surfaces and were air dried for one month according to wood drying procedures. Then, for pre-conditioning of moisture content, at the levels of 8%, 12% and 15%, the samples were placed in three clima rooms. Then, finish applied and strength tests were performed. The results revealed that for acid catalyst lacquers the highest scratch strength (10.4% belongs to Elm wood with 8% moisture content, and the lowest scratch strength (53.6% belongs to Spruce wood with nitrocellulose lacquers having 15% moisture content.

  5. Seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of growth, non-structural carbohydrates and C stable isotopes in a Mediterranean beech forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scartazza, Andrea; Moscatello, Stefano; Matteucci, Giorgio; Battistelli, Alberto; Brugnoli, Enrico

    2013-07-01

    Seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of growth, non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) of NSC were studied in a beech forest of Central Italy over a 2-year period characterized by different environmental conditions. The net C assimilated by forest trees was mainly used to sustain growth early in the season and to accumulate storage carbohydrates in trunk and root wood in the later part of the season, before leaf shedding. Growth and NSC concentration dynamics were only slightly affected by the reduced soil water content (SWC) during the drier year. Conversely, the carbon isotope analysis on NSC revealed seasonal and inter-annual variations of photosynthetic and post-carboxylation fractionation processes, with a significant increase in δ(13)C of wood and leaf soluble sugars in the drier summer year than in the wetter one. The highly significant correlation between δ(13)C of leaf soluble sugars and SWC suggests a decrease of the canopy C isotope discrimination and, hence, an increased water-use efficiency with decreasing soil water availability. This may be a relevant trait for maintaining an acceptable plant water status and a relatively high C sink capacity during dry seasonal periods. Our results suggest a short- to medium-term homeostatic response of the Collelongo beech stand to variations in water availability and solar radiation, indicating that this Mediterranean forest was able to adjust carbon-water balance in order to prevent C depletion and to sustain plant growth and reserve accumulation during relatively dry seasons.

  6. Decomposition performance of animals as an indicator of stress acting on beech-forest ecosystems - microcosmos experiments with carbon-14-labelled litter components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, M.; Wolters, V.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of acid rain and heavy metals on the biotic interactions in the soil of beech forest with mull, must, and limed must was investigated with the aid of close-to-nature microcosmos systems. Parameters made use of were the decomposition of carbon-14-labelled litter components and the turnover of the microflora in C, N, and P. As the results show, increased proton uptake will bear on rearly every stage of the decomposition process in mull soils. As a result, there may be litter accumulation on the ground and first signs of humus disintegration in the mineral soil of mull soils. A direct relation between the acidity of the environment and the extent of decomposition inhibition does not exist. Despite wide-ranging impairment of edaphic animals, the activity of the ground fauna still is to be considered as the most important buffer system of soils rich in bases. Acidic condition of the beech forest soils with the humus form 'must' led to drastic inhibition of litter decomposition, to a change of the effect of edaphic animals, and to an increase in N mineralization. The grazing animals frequently aggravate the decomposition inhibition resulting from acid precipitation. The comparision of the decomposition process in a soil containing must as compared to one containing mull showed acidic soils to be on a lower biological buffer level than soils rich in bases. The main buffer capacity of acidic soils lies in the microflora, which is adapted to sudden increases in acidity and which recovers quickly. In the opinion of the authors, simple liming is not enough to increase the long-term biogenic stability of a forest ecosystem. A stabilizing effect of the fauna, for instance on nitrogen storage, is possible only if forest care measuries are carried out, for instance careful loosening of the mineral soil, which will attract earthworm species penetrating deeply into the soil. (orig./MG) With 12 refs., 6 figs [de

  7. Ectomycorrhizal Communities on the Roots of Two Beech (Fagus sylvatica) Populations from Contrasting Climates Differ in Nitrogen Acquisition in a Common Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leberecht, Martin; Dannenmann, Michael; Gschwendtner, Silvia; Bilela, Silvija; Meier, Rudolf; Simon, Judy; Rennenberg, Heinz; Schloter, Michael; Polle, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Beech (Fagus sylvatica), a dominant forest species in Central Europe, competes for nitrogen with soil microbes and suffers from N limitation under dry conditions. We hypothesized that ectomycorrhizal communities and the free-living rhizosphere microbes from beech trees from sites with two contrasting climatic conditions exhibit differences in N acquisition that contribute to differences in host N uptake and are related to differences in host belowground carbon allocation. To test these hypotheses, young trees from the natural regeneration of two genetically similar populations, one from dryer conditions (located in an area with a southwest exposure [SW trees]) and the other from a cooler, moist climate (located in an area with a northeast exposure [NE trees]), were transplanted into a homogeneous substrate in the same environment and labeled with (13)CO2 and (15)NH4 (+). Free-living rhizosphere microbes were characterized by marker genes for the N cycle, but no differences between the rhizospheres of SW or NE trees were found. Lower (15)N enrichment was found in the ectomycorrhizal communities of the NE tree communities than the SW tree communities, whereas no significant differences in (15)N enrichment were observed for nonmycorrhizal root tips of SW and NE trees. Neither the ectomycorrhizal communities nor the nonmycorrhizal root tips originating from NE and SW trees showed differences in (13)C signatures. Because the level of (15)N accumulation in fine roots and the amount transferred to leaves were lower in NE trees than SW trees, our data support the suggestion that the ectomycorrhizal community influences N transfer to its host and demonstrate that the fungal community from the dry condition was more efficient in N acquisition when environmental constraints were relieved. These findings highlight the importance of adapted ectomycorrhizal communities for forest nutrition in a changing climate. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights

  8. Overexpression of a Protein Phosphatase 2C from Beech Seeds in Arabidopsis Shows Phenotypes Related to Abscisic Acid Responses and Gibberellin Biosynthesis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, David; Rodríguez, Dolores; González-García, Mary Paz; Lorenzo, Oscar; Nicolás, Gregorio; García-Martínez, José Luis; Nicolás, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    A functional abscisic acid (ABA)-induced protein phosphatase type 2C (PP2C) was previously isolated from beech (Fagus sylvatica) seeds (FsPP2C2). Because transgenic work is not possible in beech, in this study we overexpressed this gene in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) to provide genetic evidence on FsPP2C2 function in seed dormancy and other plant responses. In contrast with other PP2Cs described so far, constitutive expression of FsPP2C2 in Arabidopsis, under the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, produced enhanced sensitivity to ABA and abiotic stress in seeds and vegetative tissues, dwarf phenotype, and delayed flowering, and all these effects were reversed by gibberellic acid application. The levels of active gibberellins (GAs) were reduced in 35S:FsPP2C2 plants, although transcript levels of AtGA20ox1 and AtGA3ox1 increased, probably as a result of negative feedback regulation, whereas the expression of GASA1 was induced by GAs. Additionally, FsPP2C2-overexpressing plants showed a strong induction of the Responsive to ABA 18 (RAB18) gene. Interestingly, FsPP2C2 contains two nuclear targeting sequences, and transient expression assays revealed that ABA directed this protein to the nucleus. Whereas other plant PP2Cs have been shown to act as negative regulators, our results support the hypothesis that FsPP2C2 is a positive regulator of ABA. Moreover, our results indicate the existence of potential cross-talk between ABA signaling and GA biosynthesis. PMID:16815952

  9. A European Research Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article is a summary of the presentation of the European Commissioner, Philippe Busquen, to the European Parliament (beginning of year 2000) with the proposal and method for a revival of the Research and Development in this wider sense in the European Union. The starting point of his thesis is that Europe performs less, and more disorderly, activities in this field that her main competitors. USA and Japan. His basic proposal is a larger coordination among the european research projects, with a previous phase of informatics intoxicator among the european research centres and the cross-linked participation, real of virtual in the experiments and projects. (Author)

  10. Maturity Model for Advancing Smart Grid Interoperability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, Mark; Widergren, Steven E.; Mater, J.; Montgomery, Austin

    2013-10-28

    Abstract—Interoperability is about the properties of devices and systems to connect and work properly. Advancing interoperability eases integration and maintenance of the resulting interconnection. This leads to faster integration, lower labor and component costs, predictability of projects and the resulting performance, and evolutionary paths for upgrade. When specifications are shared and standardized, competition and novel solutions can bring new value streams to the community of stakeholders involved. Advancing interoperability involves reaching agreement for how things join at their interfaces. The quality of the agreements and the alignment of parties involved in the agreement present challenges that are best met with process improvement techniques. The GridWise® Architecture Council (GWAC) sponsored by the United States Department of Energy is supporting an effort to use concepts from capability maturity models used in the software industry to advance interoperability of smart grid technology. An interoperability maturity model has been drafted and experience is being gained through trials on various types of projects and community efforts. This paper describes the value and objectives of maturity models, the nature of the interoperability maturity model and how it compares with other maturity models, and experiences gained with its use.

  11. Do farmers rapidly adapt to past growing conditions by sowing different proportions of early and late maturing cereals and cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the short growing season of the northernmost European growing conditions, farmers are increasingly interested in expanding cultivation of later maturing crops at the expense of early maturing ones with lower yields. In this study we aimed to assess how the switching between spring cereals that differ in earliness was associated with different external factors. This was tested using unique datasets for regional cropping areas and cultivar use for the last 15 years. Early maturing barley was favored at the expense of later maturing wheat when a high number of days to crop maturity was required in the preceding year. In contrast, farmers reduced the barley area when a high number of cumulated degree days was required for a crop to mature in the previous year. A shift was recorded from early to late maturing cultivars. This study indicated that despite limited opportunities for farmers to alter land use, they readily responded to past conditions and used the knowledge gained for decision-making to reduce risk. This is a valuable operative model for studying adaptation to opportunities and constraints induced by climate change.

  12. Maturity acceleration of Italian dried sausage by Staphylococcus carnosus - Relationship between maturity and flavor compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Louise Heller; Holck, A.; Jensen, Anni

    2002-01-01

    . Sausages with S. carnosus 833 matured more than 2 wk faster than control sausages. Maturity correlated significantly with higher amounts of branched-chain aldehydes and alcohols and both branched- and straight-chain methyl ketones-compounds arising from the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine...

  13. IT Governance Maturity: Developing a Maturity Model Using the Delphi Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Daniël; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2015-01-01

    To advance in maturity, organizations should pay attention to both the hard and soft sides of IT governance (ITG). The hard side is related to processes and structure, the soft side to social aspects like behavior and organizational culture. This paper describes a study to develop an ITG maturity

  14. [Maturation diagnosis in full term hypotrophic fetuses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharnke, H D; Gartzke, J; Fleischer, G; Isbruch, E

    1977-01-01

    Foam-Test by Clements is a valuable method for determining the foetus maturity of lungs. We introduce this test along with other parameters for the maturity-diagnosis since one year. In 15% result, the Foam-Test was not applicable because of blood, or meconic amniotic fluid, other wise wrong negative and in 0% wrong positive results. By unmatured child, there was doubtable results with Foam-Test. Since it is important to determine the early delivery of unmatured children, particularly the case of foetus maturity of lungs must be exact, we therefore decided to use the Lecithin/Sphingomyelinquotients in some cases. The results of Lecithin/Sphingomyelinquotient in unmatured children are almost with the approximated date under two. From this, one must deduce from these children, that the intrauterine unmatured lungs lately took place.

  15. Capability maturity models for offshore organisational management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutt, J E; Sharp, J V; Terry, E; Miles, R

    2006-12-01

    The goal setting regime imposed by the UK safety regulator has important implications for an organisation's ability to manage health and safety related risks. Existing approaches to safety assurance based on risk analysis and formal safety assessments are increasingly considered unlikely to create the step change improvement in safety to which the offshore industry aspires and alternative approaches are being considered. One approach, which addresses the important issue of organisational behaviour and which can be applied at a very early stage of design, is the capability maturity model (CMM). The paper describes the development of a design safety capability maturity model, outlining the key processes considered necessary to safety achievement, definition of maturity levels and scoring methods. The paper discusses how CMM is related to regulatory mechanisms and risk based decision making together with the potential of CMM to environmental risk management.

  16. Mature Oocyte Cryopreservation for Fertility Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tina; Motan, Tarek

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, advances in cancer treatment have led to a dramatic improvement in long term survival. This has led to an increasing focus on quality of life after surviving cancer treatment, with fertility being an important aspect. Given the known reproductive risks of cancer therapies, there has been a growing interest in the field of fertility preservation (also referred to as oncofertility). Mature oocyte cryopreservation is no longer considered experimental and has become a realistic option for reproductive aged women prior to undergoing cancer treatment. Additionally, as cryopreservation techniques improve, mature oocyte cryopreservation is increasing being marketed to healthy women without cancer wishing to delay child bearing, also termed "social egg freezing". This chapter provides a review of the current technology, use, and outcomes of mature oocyte cryopreservation. It also outlines the ethical debate surrounding social egg freezing and directions for future research in female fertility preservation.

  17. Genetic transformation of mature citrus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, Magdalena; Juárez, José; Navarro, Luis; Peña, Leandro

    2005-01-01

    Most woody fruit species have long juvenile periods that drastically prolong the time required to analyze mature traits. Evaluation of characteristics related to fruits is a requisite to release any new variety into the market. Because of a decline in regenerative and transformation potential, genetic transformation procedures usually employ juvenile material as the source of plant tissue, therefore resulting in the production of juvenile plants. Direct transformation of mature material could ensure the production of adult transgenic plants, bypassing in this way the juvenile phase. Invigoration of the source adult material, establishment of adequate transformation and regeneration conditions, and acceleration of plant development through grafting allowed us to produce transgenic mature sweet orange trees flowering and bearing fruits in a short time period.

  18. Vegetative propagation of mature and juvenile northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Zaczek; K. C. Steiner; C. W., Jr. Heuser

    1993-01-01

    Rooting trials were established to evaluate rooting success of cuttings from mature and juvenile, grafted and ungrafted northern red oak (NRO). Buds from 4 mature NRO ortets and juvenile seedlings were grafted onto juvenile and mature rootstock. Cuttings were collected from the grafts and from juvenile and mature shoots developed in situ and...

  19. Adult maturational processes and the facilitating environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acklin, M W

    1986-09-01

    The psychoanalytic theory of religion has been seriously limited in its development, largely owing to Freud's emphasis on religion's neurotic elements and an overemphasis on the infantile origins of religious development. This paper offers a conceptual framework and advances the thesis, based on contemporary psychoanalytic, developmental theory, that 1) Erikson's concept of epigenesis has applicability across the life span; 2) that beyond-the-self identity is constituent to human maturation and self-completion; 3) that successful adult maturation requires a mirroring-facilitating environment; and 4) that religious values, meanings, images, and communities play an essential role-as-elements of the facilitating environment of later life.

  20. Digital Maturity of the Firm's Business Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groskovs, Sergejs; Vemula, Sreekanth

    We propose a digital maturity assessment model as an instrument for researchers and a strategic tool for managers. Existing literature lacks a conceptually clear way to measure the construct of digital maturity at the level of the firms business model. Our proposed instrument thus opens avenues...... for research into questions related to antecedents, process, and performance outcomes of the digitalization of business activities. The assessment follows the logic of first decomposing the business model into the underlying value creation activities and then evaluating the levels of automation...

  1. Posttesticular sperm maturation, infertility, and hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Whitfield

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a key molecule in the mammalian physiology of especial particular importance for the reproductive system as it is the common precursor for steroid hormone synthesis. Cholesterol is also a recognized modulator of sperm functions, not only at the level of gametogenesis. Cholesterol homeostasis regulation is crucial for posttesticular sperm maturation, and imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect these posttesticular events. Metabolic lipid disorders (dyslipidemia affect male fertility but are most of the time studied from the angle of endocrine/testicular consequences. This review will focus on the deleterious effects of a particular dyslipidemia, i.e., hypercholesterolemia, on posttesticular maturation of mammalian spermatozoa.

  2. European nuclear education network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.; Moons, F.; Safieh, J.

    2005-01-01

    In most countries within the European Union that rely to a significant extent on nuclear power, neither undergraduate nor PhD education is producing a sufficient number of engineers and doctors to fill the needs of the industry. As a result of an EU-supported project, a new education organisation, European Nuclear Education Network (ENEN), has recently been established, with the aim to establish a European master's degree of nuclear engineering. Recently, a new EU project, Nuclear European Platform of Training and University Organisations (NEPTUNO), has been launched, aiming at the practical implementation of ENEN and harmonisation of training activities. (author)

  3. European mobility cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick

    2016-01-01

    More targeted European policies promoting green travel patterns require better knowledge on differing mobility cultures across European regions. As a basis for this, we clustered the EU population into eight mobility styles based on Eurobarometer data. The mobility styles - including, for example...... positions on the path towards sustainable mobility and therefore different requirements towards European platforms and support measures, e.g. for 'Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans'. The country clusters can provide a starting point for future communication and targeting of European efforts in sustainable...

  4. Elevated Social Anxiety among Early Maturing Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Babson, Kimberly A.; Gahr, Jessica L.; Trainor, Casey D.; Frala, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a key period in terms of the development of anxiety psychopathology. An emerging literature suggests that early pubertal maturation is associated with enhanced vulnerability for anxiety symptomatology, although few studies have examined this association with regard to social anxiety. Accordingly, the current study was designed to…

  5. Mature cystic teratomas: Relationship between histopathological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... tumor size, symptoms related to MCT and laterality of the tumor did not differ among the patients according to the MCT contents. Conclusions: Our findings suggest no relationship between the clinical features and histopathological contents of MCTs. Key words: Histopathological contents, mature cystic teratoma, ovarian, ...

  6. Intraovarian markers of follicular and oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicer, A; Diamond, M P; DeCherney, A H; Naftolin, F

    1987-08-01

    The use of ovulation induction for multiple follicular growth in in vitro fertilization (IVF) has introduced the problem of follicular asynchrony. As a consequence of the asynchrony, the parameters most commonly used by IVF groups to assess follicular and oocyte quality within those follicles are not sufficiently sensitive or specific. Thus, each follicle must be considered separately, and specific markers of follicular and/or oocyte maturation must be sought from within the follicle. In this review we analyze previous reports of potential markers of follicular and oocyte maturation. In regards to the follicular fluid constituents, the level of estradiol in follicular fluid correlates with fertilization and pregnancy in stimulated cycles. Other steroids are only helpful when specific stimulation protocols are used. The level of some follicular proteins such as alpha-1-antitrypsin and fibrinogen also correlates with fertilization and pregnancy outcome. Cyclic AMP levels in follicular fluid are significantly reduced in follicles leading to conception. Regulators of oocyte maturation, such as the Oocyte Maturation Inhibitor (OMI) or the Meiosis Inducing Substance (MIS) have also been correlated with IVF outcome, but their exact structure remains still unknown. In addition, other sophisticated parameters, such as chemotactic activity of human leukocytes, or simple methods, such as the presence of intrafollicular echoes, have also been used as successful markers in predicting IVF outcome.

  7. Teaching Copywriting Students about the Mature Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniany, Bonnie

    Advertising educators have a responsibility to make students aware of the importance of the mature market (older people) and to teach them methods to reach this group. An assignment in a copywriting class asked students to write and design ads to promote blue jeans to adults over 50. The assignment accomplished three things: (1) helped students…

  8. Plant regeneration in wheat mature embryo culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil Haliloğlu

    2011-11-09

    Nov 9, 2011 ... Success in genetic engineering of cereals depends on the callus formation and efficient plant regeneration system. Callus formation and plant regeneration of wheat mature embryos ... compiled by modification of methods previously mentioned in ..... of more and readily available nutrition than artificial cul-.

  9. GROWTH PATTERNS AND MATURATION OF CHILDREN WITH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GROWTH PATTERNS AND MATURATION OF CHILDREN WITH SICKLE CELL DISEASE IN RELATION TO PLASMA ZINC STATUS. Dr. Salwa R. El Batrawy, Dr. Mervat Tawfik M. Tantawi. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  10. 7 CFR 51.2841 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... considered mature when harvested in accordance with good commercial practice at a stage which will not result...

  11. The influence of biological maturation on anthropometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine whether biological maturation would significantly influence the anthropometric determinants of talent identification among U-14 provincial girl tennis players. Twenty-six of the top thirty-two provincial female players (mean age = 13.21± 0.72 years) from the Northern Gauteng and the ...

  12. 7 CFR 51.1823 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Industry, Part 1, Chapter 20-13 Market Classification, Maturity Standards and Processing or Packing... Independence Ave., Washington, DC 20250 or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov...

  13. 7 CFR 51.767 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Florida Citrus Industry, Part 1, Chapter 20-13 Market Classification, Maturity Standards and Processing or... 2065-S, 14th and Independence Ave., Washington, DC 20250 or at the National Archives and Records...: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. ...

  14. 7 CFR 51.1158 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Citrus Industry, Part 1, Chapter 20-13 Market Classification, Maturity Standards and Processing or... 2065-S, 14th and Independence Ave., Washington, DC 20250 or at the National Archives and Records...: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. ...

  15. Analyzing Project Management Maturity Level in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot Simangunsong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Project management has been generally known and increasingly used by many organizations to gain competitive advantage. In this context, many studies have proposed maturity models to evaluate how project management knowledge has been deployed effectively and efficiently in or- ganization. As a developing country, Indonesia needs many development projects managed by government and private companies in different industries. Here, a study to assess project manage- ment maturity level in Indonesian businesses may bring insight about current business practices, which is important to speed up country development and business sustainability. Adapting the Project Management Maturity Model (ProMMM, a survey instrument has been developed and ap- plied to professionals from Jakarta and surrounding area. The result of analysis shows that con- struction and primary industry have a higher maturity level compare to manufacturing and servic- es. It is to be noted, however, that the level of project management understanding is low across in- dustries. This indicates that more quality project management training or certification is required to improve overall project management knowledge in Indonesia.

  16. Maturation of human oocytes in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Čižek-Sajko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immature oocyte retrieval followed by in vitro maturation is a promising infertility treatment option. In patients with morphologically normal ovaries and regular menstrual cycles and in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS we attempted to assess the success of oocyte in vitro maturation in in vitro fertilization (IVF procedures.Methods: Retrospectively we analyzed 87 IVF procedures with in vitro maturation of oocytes carried out in 73 infertile couples treated at the Maribor Teaching Hospital. We compared the success following three different hormone priming protocols: regular cycling patients with normal ovaries and without hormone priming (Group A, n = 27; patients with PCOS and hormone priming with follitropin (follicle stimulating hormone, FSH (Group B, n = 22; patients with PCOS and hormone priming with human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG (Group C, n = 38. Success of the procedure was evaluated on the basis of the ability of oocytes to mature, fertilize and develop into embryos, and on the basis of the quality of embryos and their ability to implant in the uterus.Results: In regular cycling patients with normal ovaries (n = 27 we obtained a significantly lower number of immature oocytes (3.2 ± 2.5 compared with patients with PCOS and FSH priming (11.7 ± 7.2 or those with PCOS and hCG priming (10.4 ± 7.2. The oocyte maturation rate, the fertilization rate and the embryo cleavage rate were as follows: in Group A 57.7 %, 63.2 % and 91.7 %, in Group B 57.6 %, 66.2 % and 90.0 %, and in Group C 58.0 %, 66.2 % and 91.0 % (the differences between groups were not statistically significant. Six pregnancies were recorded only in patients with PCOS. The pregnancy rate per embryo transfer was 1/20 (5.0 % in patients with FSH priming, and 5/33 (15.2 % in patients with hCG priming.Conclusions: Oocyte in vitro maturation is successful in patients with normal ovaries and regular menstrual cycle as well as in those with polycystic

  17. Effects of Drought and Rewetting on Growth and Gas Exchange of Minor European Broadleaved Tree Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Kunz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Widespread and economically important European tree species such as Norway spruce, Scots pine, and European beech are projected to be negatively affected by the increasing intensity and frequency of dry and hot conditions in a future climate. Hence, there is an increasing need to investigate the suitability of presumably more drought tolerant species to ensure future ecological stability, biodiversity, and productivity of forests. Based on their distribution patterns and climatic envelopes, the rare, minor broadleaved tree species Sorbus torminalis ((L. CRANTZ, S. domestica (L., Acer campestre (L., and A. platanoides (L. are assumed to be drought tolerant, however, there is only limited experimental basis to support that notion. This study aimed at quantifying growth and gas exchange of seedlings of these species during drought conditions, and their capacity to recover following drought. For that purpose, they were compared to the common companion species Quercus petraea ((MATTUSCHKA LIEBL. and Fagus sylvatica (L.. Here, potted seedlings of these species were exposed to water limitation followed by rewetting cycles in a greenhouse experiment. Photosynthesis and transpiration rates, stomatal conductance as well as root and shoot growth rates indicated a high drought resistance of A. campestre and A. platanoides. Sorbus domestica showed a marked ability to recover after drought stress. Therefore, we conclude that these minor tree species have the potential to enrich forests on drought-prone sites. Results from this pot experiment need to be complemented by field studies, in which the drought response of the species is not influenced by restrictions to root development.

  18. A Drosophila Model to Image Phagosome Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A. Brooks

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Phagocytosis involves the internalization of extracellular material by invagination of the plasma membrane to form intracellular vesicles called phagosomes, which have functions that include pathogen degradation. The degradative properties of phagosomes are thought to be conferred by sequential fusion with endosomes and lysosomes; however, this maturation process has not been studied in vivo. We employed Drosophila hemocytes, which are similar to mammalian professional macrophages, to establish a model of phagosome maturation. Adult Drosophila females, carrying transgenic Rab7-GFP endosome and Lamp1-GFP lysosome markers, were injected with E. coli DH5α and the hemocytes were collected at 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after infection. In wild-type females, E. coli were detected within enlarged Rab7-GFP positive phagosomes at 15 to 45 minutes after infection; and were also observed in enlarged Lamp1-GFP positive phagolysosomes at 45 minutes. Two-photon imaging of hemocytes in vivo confirmed this vesicle morphology, including enlargement of Rab7-GFP and Lamp1-GFP structures that often appeared to protrude from hemocytes. The interaction of endosomes and lysosomes with E. coli phagosomes observed in Drosophila hemocytes was consistent with that previously described for phagosome maturation in human ex vivo macrophages. We also tested our model as a tool for genetic analysis using 14-3-3e mutants, and demonstrated altered phagosome maturation with delayed E. coli internalization, trafficking and/or degradation. These findings demonstrate that Drosophila hemocytes provide an appropriate, genetically amenable, model for analyzing phagosome maturation ex vivo and in vivo.

  19. ATLAS OF EUROPEAN VALUES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M Ed Uwe Krause

    2008-01-01

    Uwe Krause: Atlas of Eurpean Values De Atlas of European Values is een samenwerkingsproject met bijbehorende website van de Universiteit van Tilburg en Fontys Lerarenopleiding in Tilburg, waarbij de wetenschappelijke data van de European Values Study (EVS) voor het onderwijs toegankelijk worden

  20. European media law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castendyk, O.; Dommering, E.; Scheuer, A.

    2008-01-01

    European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual

  1. European Industry, 1700 - 1870

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broadberry, Stephen; Fremdling, Rainer; Solar, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the development of European industry between 1700 and 1870, drawing in particular on the recent literature that has emerged following the formation of the European Historical Economics Society in 1991. The approach thus makes use of economic analysis and quantitative

  2. European Stars and Stripes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hendricks, Nancy

    1994-01-01

    The European Stars and Stripes (ES&S) organization publishes a daily newspaper, The Stars and Stripes, for DoD personnel stationed in Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, and other DoD activities in the U.S. European Command...

  3. Introduction: European climate leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wurzel, R.K.W.; Liefferink, J.D.; Connelly, J.; Wurzel, R.K.W.; Connelly, J.; Liefferink, D.

    2017-01-01

    There is no shortage of would-be leaders in EU climate change politics. The EU institutions (e.g. European Council, Council of the EU, Commission and the European Parliament (EP)), member states and societal actors have all, though to varying degrees and at different time periods, tried to offer

  4. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  5. European Home Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.

    2009-01-01

    An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes......An important aim of the european energy performance of buildings directive is to improve the overall energy efficiency of new homes...

  6. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...

  7. European Analytical Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlberg, B.; Grasserbauer, M.; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2009-01-01

    for European analytical chemistry. During the period 2002–07, Professor Grasserbauer was Director of the Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. There is no doubt that many challenges exist at the present time for all of us representing...

  8. The potential of beech seedlings to adapt to low P availability in soil - plant versus microbial effects on P mobilising potential in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Sonia; Frey, Beat; Frossard, Emmanuel; Spohn, Marie; Schack-Kirchner, Helmer; Luster, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The objective of our work was to investigate to what extent tree seedlings (Fagus sylvatica) are able to adapt the process of P mobilisation in the rhizosphere according to P speciation in the soil. Such mobilisation activity can include root exudation of P mobilising compounds or stimulation of specific P mobilising soil microbes. We hypothesized that Fagus sylvatica seedlings can adapt their own activity based on their P nutritional status and genetic memory of how to react under a given nutritional situation. To test the hypothesis, we set up a cross-growth experiment with beech of different provenances growing in soil from their own provenance site and in soil differing in P availability. Experiments were performed as a greenhouse experiment, with temperature control and natural light, during one vegetation period in rhizoboxes . We used two acidic forest soils, contrasting in P availability, collected at field sites of the German research priority program "Ecosystem Nutrition". Juvenile trees were collected along with the soils at the sites and planted respectively. The occurrence of P mobilising compounds and available P in the rhizosphere and in bulk soil were measured during the active growth season of the plants. In particular, we assessed phosphatase activity, (measured with zymography and plate enzymatic assay at pH 4,6.5, and 11) carboxylates and phosphate (measured by application of ion exchange membranes to specific soil micro zones, and by microdialysis), and pH (mapping with optodes). Plant P nutrition status was assessed by total P, N/P, phosphatase activity, and metabolic (TCA extractable) P in the leaves. The P-nutritional status of the beech provenances differed markedly independent from the P status of the soil where they were actually grown during experiment. In particular, the juvenile trees from the site rich in mineral P were sufficient in P, while those from the P-poor site with mostly organic P, were deficient. Enzymatic activity at the

  9. Calcium biogeochemical cycle at the beech tree-soil solution interface from the Strengbach CZO (NE France): insights from stable Ca and radiogenic Sr isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Anne-Désirée; Gangloff, Sophie; Labolle, François; Chabaux, François; Stille, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Calcium (Ca) is the fourth most abundant element in mineral nutrition and plays key physiological and structural roles in plant metabolism. At the soil-water-plant scale, stable Ca isotopes are a powerful tool for the identification of plant-mineral interactions and recycling via vegetation. Radiogenic Sr isotopes are often used as tracers of Ca sources and mixtures of different reservoirs. In this study, stable Ca and radiogenic Sr are combined and analysed in several organs from two beech trees that were collected in June and September in the Strengbach critical zone observatory (CZO) (NE France) and in corresponding soil solutions. At the beech-tree scale, this study confirms the field Ca adsorption (i.e., physico-chemical mechanism and not vital effects) on carboxyl acid groups of pectin in the apoplasm of small roots. The analysis of the xylem sap and corresponding organs shows that although the Strengbach CZO is nutrient-poor, Ca seems to be non-limiting for tree-growth. Different viscosities of xylem sap between the stemwood and branches or leaves can explain δ44/40Ca values in different tree-organs. The bark and phloem 40Ca-enrichments could be due to Ca-oxalate precipitation in the bark tissues and in the phloem. The results from this study regarding the combination of these two isotopic systems show that the isotopic signatures of the roots are dominated by Ca fractionation mechanisms and Sr, and thus Ca, source variations. In contrast, translocation mechanisms are only governed by Ca fractionation processes. This study showed that at the root-soil solution interface, litter degradation was not the main source of Ca and Sr and that the soil solutions are not the complement of uptake by roots for samples from the 2011/2013 period. The opposite is observed for older samples. These observations indicate the decreasing contribution of low radiogenic Sr fluxes, such as recycling, alimenting the soil solutions. Such reduced importance of nutrient uptake and

  10. European Union and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe Alexandre

    2004-01-01

    In a context of oil price increase, problems about a Russian oil company (Loukos), and uncertainties in the Middle-East, the possibility of a new oil shock is a threat for Europe, and raises the issue of a true European energy policy which would encompass, not only grid development, environmental issues or market regulation issues, but also strategic issues related to energy supply security. This article proposes an overview of the European policy: first steps for a future European energy and oil policy in the green paper of the European Commission published in November 2000, issues of pollution and safety for hydrocarbon maritime transport. The article then examines the possibility of a third oil shock due to a crisis in the Middle East, and discusses whether European must have strategic stocks to face an outage of oil supplies

  11. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  12. Transcriptional Programs Controlling Perinatal Lung Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Yanhua; Besnard, Valérie; Ikegami, Machiko; Wert, Susan E.; Heffner, Caleb; Murray, Stephen A.; Donahue, Leah Rae; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    The timing of lung maturation is controlled precisely by complex genetic and cellular programs. Lung immaturity following preterm birth frequently results in Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS) and Broncho-Pulmonary Dysplasia (BPD), which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Mechanisms synchronizing gestational length and lung maturation remain to be elucidated. In this study, we designed a genome-wide mRNA expression time-course study from E15.5 to Postnatal Day 0 (PN0) using lung RNAs from C57BL/6J (B6) and A/J mice that differ in gestational length by ∼30 hr (B6controlling lung maturation. We identified both temporal and strain dependent gene expression patterns during lung maturation. For time dependent changes, cell adhesion, vasculature development, and lipid metabolism/transport were major bioprocesses induced during the saccular stage of lung development at E16.5–E17.5. CEBPA, PPARG, VEGFA, CAV1 and CDH1 were found to be key signaling and transcriptional regulators of these processes. Innate defense/immune responses were induced at later gestational ages (E18.5–20.5), STAT1, AP1, and EGFR being important regulators of these responses. Expression of RNAs associated with the cell cycle and chromatin assembly was repressed during prenatal lung maturation and was regulated by FOXM1, PLK1, chromobox, and high mobility group families of transcription factors. Strain dependent lung mRNA expression differences peaked at E18.5. At this time, mRNAs regulating surfactant and innate immunity were more abundantly expressed in lungs of B6 (short gestation) than in A/J (long gestation) mice, while expression of genes involved in chromatin assembly and histone modification were expressed at lower levels in B6 than in A/J mice. The present study systemically mapped key regulators, bioprocesses, and transcriptional networks controlling lung maturation, providing the basis for new therapeutic strategies to enhance lung function in preterm

  13. Diagnostic assessment of skeletal maturity through dental maturation in Hispanic growing individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Cisternas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to explore dental maturation as a diagnostic test for skeletal maturation. Materials and Methods: Six hundred and fifty-seven growing individuals were classified according to their cervical vertebral maturity and dental maturity, both determined in lateral cephalograms and panoramic radiographs, respectively. The correlation between cervical and dental stages was established for each gender. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was made, and sensitivity and specificity values were established. Results: Correlation was found between cervical and dental maturation for females (r = 0.73; P<0.001 and males (r = 0.60; P<0.001. Sensitivity for dental Stage F, as an indicator of a postmaturation peak stage, was 87.21% for females and 97.1% for males, whereas specificity for the same stage was 82.92% and 72.3% for females and males, respectively. Conclusions: Dental maturation evaluation could contribute determining whether a patient is in a pre- or post-growth spurt stage.

  14. Growth goals, maturity, and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jack J; McAdams, Dan P

    2004-01-01

    In 2 studies (125 college students and 51 adults), 2 forms of growth goals (exploratory and intrinsic) were compared with 2 forms of personality development (social-cognitive maturity and social-emotional well-being). Participants whose narratives of major life goals emphasized conceptual exploration were especially likely to have high levels of maturity (measured as ego development; J. Loevinger, 1976), whereas those whose goals emphasized intrinsic interests (K. M. Sheldon & T. Kasser, 1995) were especially likely to have high levels of well-being. Participants who had coherent hierarchies of growth goals on the levels of major life goals and everyday goals were especially likely to have high levels of personality development. Finally, growth goals accounted for some relationships between age and personality development. Growth goals are discussed in terms of intentional self-development and specific developmental paths. (c) 2003 APA

  15. DNA damage response during mouse oocyte maturation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, Alexandra; Baran, Vladimír; Sakakibara, Y.; Brzáková, Adéla; Ferencová, Ivana; Motlík, Jan; Kitajima, T.; Schultz, R. M.; Šolc, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2016), s. 546-558 ISSN 1538-4101 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12057; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : double strand DNA breaks * DNA damage * MRE11 * meiotic maturation * mouse oocytes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.530, year: 2016

  16. Regulation of oocyte maturation in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Yoshitaka; Yamashita, Masakane

    2008-06-01

    A period of oocyte growth is followed by a process called oocyte maturation (the resumption of meiosis) which occurs prior to ovulation and is a prerequisite for successful fertilization. Our studies using fish models have revealed that oocyte maturation is a three-step induction process involving gonadotropin (LH), maturation-inducing hormone (MIH), and maturation-promoting factor (MPF). LH acts on the ovarian follicle layer to produce MIH (17alpha, 20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, 17alpha, 20beta-DP, in most fishes). The interaction of ovarian thecal and granulosa cell layers (two-cell type model), is required for the synthesis of 17alpha,20beta-DP. The dramatic increase in the capacity of postvitellogenic follicles to produce 17alpha,20beta-DP in response to LH is correlated with decreases in P450c17 (P450c17-I) and P450 aromatase (oP450arom) mRNA and increases in the novel form of P450c17 (P450c17-II) and 20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20beta-HSD) mRNA. Transcription factors such as Ad4BP/SF-1, Foxl2, and CREB may be involved in the regulation of expression of these steroidogenic enzymes. A distinct family of G-protein-coupled membrane-bound MIH receptors has been shown to mediate non-genomic actions of 17alpha, 20beta-DP. The MIH signal induces the de novo synthesis of cyclin B from the stored mRNA, which activates a preexisting 35 kDa cdc2 kinase via phosphorylation of its threonine 161 by cyclin-dependent kinase activating kinase, thus producing the 34 kDa active cdc2 (active MPF). Upon egg activation, MPF is inactivated by degradation of cyclin B. This process is initiated by the 26S proteasome through the first cut in its NH(2) terminus at lysine 57.

  17. Measuring interoperability maturity in government networks.

    OpenAIRE

    Huijsman, K.L.L.G.; Plomp, M.G.A.; Batenburg, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to create a model that describes the development of interorganisational collaboration in government networks that apply eGovernment. Contrary to several models that describe eGovernment from a government-to-citizen perspective, and primarily emphasise on the front office of eGovernment services, this paper focuses on the collaboration that takes place in the back office to enable successful eGovernment services. A maturity model was developed to describe and asses...

  18. An Instrument to Measure Maturity of Integrated Care: A First Validation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liset Grooten

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lessons captured from interviews with 12 European regions are represented in a new instrument, the B3-Maturity Model (B3-MM. B3-MM aims to assess maturity along 12 dimensions reflecting the various aspects that need to be managed in order to deliver integrated care. The objective of the study was to test the content validity of B3-MM as part of SCIROCCO (Scaling Integrated Care into Context, a European Union funded project. Methods: A literature review was conducted to compare B3-MM’s 12 dimensions and their measurement scales with existing measures and instruments that focus on assessing the development of integrated care. Subsequently, a three-round survey conducted through a Delphi study with international experts in the field of integrated care was performed to test the relevance of: 1 the dimensions, 2 the maturity indicators and 3 the assessment scale used in B3-MM. Results: The 11 articles included in the literature review confirmed all the dimensions described in the original version of B3-MM. The Delphi study rounds resulted in various phrasing amendments of indicators and assessment scale. Full agreement among the experts on the relevance of the 12 B3-MM dimensions, their indicators, and assessment scale was reached after the third Delphi round. Conclusion and discussion: The B3-MM dimensions, maturity indicators and assessment scale showed satisfactory content validity. While the B3-MM is a unique instrument based on existing knowledge and experiences of regions in integrated care, further testing is needed to explore other measurement properties of B3-MM.

  19. An Instrument to Measure Maturity of Integrated Care: A First Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Lessons captured from interviews with 12 European regions are represented in a new instrument, the B3-Maturity Model (B3-MM). B3-MM aims to assess maturity along 12 dimensions reflecting the various aspects that need to be managed in order to deliver integrated care. The objective of the study was to test the content validity of B3-MM as part of SCIROCCO (Scaling Integrated Care into Context), a European Union funded project. Methods: A literature review was conducted to compare B3-MM’s 12 dimensions and their measurement scales with existing measures and instruments that focus on assessing the development of integrated care. Subsequently, a three-round survey conducted through a Delphi study with international experts in the field of integrated care was performed to test the relevance of: 1) the dimensions, 2) the maturity indicators and 3) the assessment scale used in B3-MM. Results: The 11 articles included in the literature review confirmed all the dimensions described in the original version of B3-MM. The Delphi study rounds resulted in various phrasing amendments of indicators and assessment scale. Full agreement among the experts on the relevance of the 12 B3-MM dimensions, their indicators, and assessment scale was reached after the third Delphi round. Conclusion and discussion: The B3-MM dimensions, maturity indicators and assessment scale showed satisfactory content validity. While the B3-MM is a unique instrument based on existing knowledge and experiences of regions in integrated care, further testing is needed to explore other measurement properties of B3-MM. PMID:29588644

  20. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw......, the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  1. Transnational European Television Drama

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup; Helles, Rasmus

    This book deals with the role of television drama in Europe as enabler of transnational, cultural encounters for audiences and the creative community. It demonstrates that the diversity of national cultures is a challenge for European TV drama but also a potential richness and source of creative...... variation. Based on data on the production, distribution and reception of recent TV drama from several European countries, the book presents a new picture of the transnational European television culture. The authors analyse main tendencies in television policy and challenges for national broadcasters...

  2. European [Security] Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    The past 20 years, since the 1992 Treaty on European Union, have seen the gradual creation of both an “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice” and a “Common Foreign and Security Policy”. More recent is the development of a “European Neighbourhood Policy” over the past 10 years. All three...... of these policies involved the navigation and negotiation of security, borders and governance in and by the European Union (EU). This article analyses these practices of bordering and governance through a five-fold security framework. The article argues that a richer understanding of EU security discourses can...

  3. Democratic Citizenship: European referents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María PUIG GUTIÉRREZ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Let’s sense beforehand in this article a tour concerning the educational European policies that favors the development of a democratic citizenship. The aim that we chase is to understand the way in which nowadays it is being interpreted and stimulated the Citizenship education from European Union. for it we offer a conceptual delimiting of «Citizenship education» and later, we show an analysis of the principal documents and materials elaborated principally by the Council of Europe that mark the way followed by European Union as for education for Democratic Citizenship (EDC.

  4. Symbolism in European Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Ernst Haas observed over fifty years ago that ‘United Europe' is a resilient, adaptable, unifying, and yet unspecified symbol'. It is precisely this adaptability and ambiguity that has ensures the continuing importance of European studies as a means of understanding ‘the remarkable social...... of social transformation involved' (Calhoun 2003: 18). This article will consider the role of symbolism in European integration as part of answering Craig Calhoun's call for a means of transcending specific regimes of analysis in order to advance European studies....

  5. Study on the Effect of Heat Treatment on Physical Properties of Poplar and Beech Woods Impregnated with Nano-Copper and Nano-Silver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Siahposht

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Present study conducted to review effects of heat treatment on weight loss, water adsorption, and thickness swelling of poplar (Populus nigra and beech (Fagus oreintalis woods impregnated with nano-copper and nano-silver. Specimens werepressur (2.5 bar impregnated with 400 PPM water-based solution of nano-copper and nano-silver particles in a pressure vessel. For heat treatment, nano-cupper,  nano-silver impregnated and control specimens, were heat treated at 145°C temperature for 24 hours. Water absorption and thickness swelling decreased in heat treated and nano-heat treated specimens and this decrease in specimens impregnated with nano-copper and nano-silver was more obvious than in heat treated control specimens. The reasons were the degradation in crystal sections of celluloses chains and the ink variation of wood polymers. On the other hand, a comparison between heat treated and nano- heat treated specimens has shown weight loss further in nano-heat treated specimens. This shows that retent nano-copper and nano-silver by impregnation facilitates heat transfer in wood; and it may increase the process of degradation and pyrolysis of wood structures in inner parts of specimens.

  6. Beech wood Fagus sylvatica dilute-acid hydrolysate as a feedstock to support Chlorella sorokiniana biomass, fatty acid and pigment production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miazek, Krystian; Remacle, Claire; Richel, Aurore; Goffin, Dorothee

    2017-04-01

    This work evaluates the possibility of using beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) dilute-acid (H 2 SO 4 ) hydrolysate as a feedstock for Chlorella sorokiniana growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Neutralized wood acid hydrolysate, containing organic and mineral compounds, was tested on Chlorella growth at different concentrations and compared to growth under phototrophic conditions. Chlorella growth was improved at lower loadings and inhibited at higher loadings. Based on these results, a 12% neutralized wood acid hydrolysate (Hyd12%) loading was selected to investigate its impact on Chlorella growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Hyd12% improved microalgal biomass, fatty acid and pigment productivities both in light and in dark, when compared to photoautotrophic control. Light intensity had substantial influence on fatty acid and pigment composition in Chlorella culture during Hyd12%-based growth. Moreover, heterotrophic Chlorella cultivation with Hyd12% also showed that wood hydrolysate can constitute an attractive feedstock for microalgae cultivation in case of lack of light. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ca biogeochemical cycle at the beech tree - soil solution interface from the Strengbach CZO (NE France): a clue from stable Ca and radiogenic Sr isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Anne-Désirée; Gangloff, Sophie; Labolle, François; Chabaux, François; Stille, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Stable calcium and radiogenic Sr are analysed in several organs from two beech trees that were collected in June and September in the Strengbach CZO (NE France) and in corresponding soil solutions. The combination of these two isotopic systems shows that the isotopic signatures of roots are dominated by Ca fractionation mechanisms and Sr, and thus Ca, source variations. In contrast, translocation mechanisms are only governed by Ca fractionation processes. This study also confirms in the field that the Ca uptake mechanisms from nutritive solutions are controlled by adsorption processes in small roots because of physico-chemical mechanisms. Similarly, a study of surface soil solutions suggests that recent soil waters are less affected by vegetation uptake than in the past, probably because of a decline in the growth of the vegetation that is linked to climate warming, which causes drought episodes. Thus, soil solutions reflect the role of soil components in addition to nutrient uptake by vegetation. This isotopic Ca-Sr study also helps to identify one-time events that are caused by snow cover melting and/or dry episodes that release cations.

  8. First insight into dead wood protistan diversity: a molecular sampling of bright-spored Myxomycetes (Amoebozoa, slime-moulds) in decaying beech logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clissmann, Fionn; Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Hoppe, Björn; Krüger, Dirk; Kahl, Tiemo; Unterseher, Martin; Schnittler, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Decaying wood hosts a large diversity of seldom investigated protists. Environmental sequencing offers novel insights into communities, but has rarely been applied to saproxylic protists. We investigated the diversity of bright-spored wood-inhabiting Myxomycetes by environmental sequencing. Myxomycetes have a complex life cycle culminating in the formation of mainly macroscopic fruiting bodies, highly variable in shape and colour that are often found on decaying logs. Our hypothesis was that diversity of bright-spored Myxomycetes would increase with decay. DNA was extracted from wood chips collected from 17 beech logs of varying decay stages from the Hainich-Dün region in Central Germany. We obtained 260 partial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of bright-spored Myxomycetes that were assembled into 29 OTUs, of which 65% were less than 98% similar to those in the existing database. The OTU richness revealed by molecular analysis surpassed that of a parallel inventory of fruiting bodies. We tested several environmental variables and identified pH, rather than decay stage, as the main structuring factor of myxomycete distribution. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. MatureBayes: a probabilistic algorithm for identifying the mature miRNA within novel precursors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Gkirtzou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, single stranded RNAs with a key role in post-transcriptional regulation of thousands of genes across numerous species. While several computational methods are currently available for identifying miRNA genes, accurate prediction of the mature miRNA remains a challenge. Existing approaches fall short in predicting the location of mature miRNAs but also in finding the functional strand(s of miRNA precursors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we present a computational tool that incorporates a Naive Bayes classifier to identify mature miRNA candidates based on sequence and secondary structure information of their miRNA precursors. We take into account both positive (true mature miRNAs and negative (same-size non-mature miRNA sequences examples to optimize sensitivity as well as specificity. Our method can accurately predict the start position of experimentally verified mature miRNAs for both human and mouse, achieving a significantly larger (often double performance accuracy compared with two existing methods. Moreover, the method exhibits a very high generalization performance on miRNAs from two other organisms. More importantly, our method provides direct evidence about the features of miRNA precursors which may determine the location of the mature miRNA. We find that the triplet of positions 7, 8 and 9 from the mature miRNA end towards the closest hairpin have the largest discriminatory power, are relatively conserved in terms of sequence composition (mostly contain a Uracil and are located within or in very close proximity to the hairpin loop, suggesting the existence of a possible recognition site for Dicer and associated proteins. CONCLUSIONS: This work describes a novel algorithm for identifying the start position of mature miRNA(s produced by miRNA precursors. Our tool has significantly better (often double performance than two existing approaches and provides new insights about the potential use

  10. Mature consumers’ relationship with their perfume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey DRYLIE-CAREY

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Glamorous and stylish, perfume is an evocative product that provokes a stimulus of the senses. It is suggested that the basis for consumer choice for this product should be based on olfactory preference, however the process related decision-making has been shown to be more complex. The mature consumer purchase decision making in this product category is often associated with long standing, established, luxury fragrance brands. In addition, at the frontline of the perfume sales process are fragrance consultants, who possess invaluable information on consumer involvement with perfume products and brands. Hence, this paper investigates CBR (consumer brand relationship and the subsequent perfume purchase behaviour of mature female consumers from a dual (industry and consumer perspective. Results indicate that important perceptual differences related to brand relationships with perfume exist between fragrance consultants and experts on one hand and consumers on the other. This research promotes a deeper understanding of current consumer approach and issues surrounding female mature purchasing behaviour for this unique category of product, and complements the growing body of literature related to luxury brands.

  11. The AGU Data Management Maturity Model Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    In September 2014, the AGU Board of Directors approved two initiatives to help the Earth and space sciences community address the growing challenges accompanying the increasing size and complexity of data. These initiatives are: 1) Data Science Credentialing: development of a continuing education and professional certification program to help scientists in their careers and to meet growing responsibilities and requirements around data science; and 2) Data Management Maturity (DMM) Model: development and implementation of a data management maturity model to assess process maturity against best practices, and to identify opportunities in organizational data management processes. Each of these has been organized within AGU as an Editorial Board and both Boards have held kick off meetings. The DMM model Editorial Board will recommend strategies for adapting and deploying a DMM model to the Earth and space sciences create guidance documents to assist in its implementation, and provide input on a pilot appraisal process. This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the DMM model Editorial Board and plans for work to be done over the upcoming year.

  12. Towards an energy management maturity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, Pedro; Carreira, Paulo; Mira da Silva, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Energy management is becoming a priority as organizations strive to reduce energy costs, conform to regulatory requirements, and improve their corporate image. Despite the upsurge of interest in energy management standards, a gap persists between energy management literature and current implementation practices. This gap can be traced to the lack of an incremental improvement roadmap. In this paper we propose an Energy Management Maturity Model that can be used to guide organizations in their energy management implementation efforts to incrementally achieve compliance with energy management standards such as ISO 50001. The proposed maturity model is inspired on the Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle approach for continual improvement, and covers well-understood fundamental energy management activities common across energy management texts. The completeness of our proposal is then evaluated by establishing an ontology mapping against ISO 50001. - Highlights: • Real-world energy management activities are not aligned with the literature. • An Energy Management Maturity Model is proposed to overcome this alignment gap. • The completeness and relevance of proposed model are validated

  13. Correlation between Cervical Vertebral Maturation Stages and Dental Maturation in a Saudi Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayef H Felemban

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to compare the cervical vertebra maturation stages method and dental maturity using tooth calcification stages. Methods: The current study comprised of 405 subjects selected from orthodontic patients of Saudi origin coming to clinics of the specialized dental centers in western region of Saudi Arabia. Dental age was assessed according to the developmental stages of upper and lower third molars and skeletal maturation according to the cervical vertebrae maturation stage method. Statistical analysis was done using Kruskal-Wallis H, Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-Square test; t-test and Spearman correlation coefficient for inter group comparison. Results: The females were younger than males in all cervical stages. The CS1-CS2 show the period before the peak of growth, during CS3-CS5 it’s the pubertal growth spurt and CS6 is the period after the peak of the growth. The mean age and standard deviation for cervical stages of CS2, CS3 and CS4 were 12.09 ±1.72 years, 13.19 ±1.62 and 14.88 ±1.52 respectively. The Spearman correlation coefficients between cervical vertebrae and dental maturation were between 0.166 and 0.612, 0.243 and 0.832 for both sexes for upper and lower third molars. The significance levels for all coefficients were equal at 0.01 and 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the skeletal maturity increased with the increase in dental ages for both genders. An early rate of skeletal maturation stage was observed in females. This study needs further analysis using a larger sample covering the entire dentition.

  14. Correlation between chronological age, cervical vertebral maturation and Fishman's skeletal maturity indicators in southern Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhal, Hessa Abdulla; Wong, Ricky W K; Rabie, A Bakr M

    2008-07-01

    To investigate the correlation between chronological age, cervical vertebral maturation (CVM), and Fishman's hand-wrist skeletal maturity indicators in southern Chinese. Four hundred contemporary hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs of southern Chinese subjects were randomly selected and analyzed. The female subjects were between 10 and 15 years of age, and the male subjects were between 12 and 17 years of age; all subjects were within the circumpubertal period. The CVM was assessed using the method developed by Baccetti and coworkers, but the hand-wrist maturation was assessed using the method developed by Fishman. These two methods and the chronological age were correlated using the Spearman rank correlation analysis. The CVM was significantly correlated with the hand-wrist skeletal age (Spearman r male = 0.9206, female = 0.9363). All patients in the cervical maturation stage (CS3) of CVM were discovered to be in the skeletal maturational indicator (SMI2 or SMI3) stages of hand-wrist maturation (HWM), which was around the peak of the growth spurt. Low correlations were found between the CVM and chronological age (male r = 0.7577; female r = 0.7877) and between the HWM and chronological age (male r = 0.7492; female r = 0.7758). CVM is a valid indicator of skeletal growth during the circumpubertal and has a high correlation with the HWM for the southern Chinese population. However, the low correlations found between the chronological age and both CVM and HWM showed that the chronological age was not suitable to measure skeletal maturity.

  15. Best practices show the way to information security maturity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lessing, MM

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A Security Maturity Model (SMM) provides an organisation with a distinct Information Security framework. Organisations that conform to these models are likely to pursue satisfactory Information Security. Additionally, the use of Security Maturity...

  16. European Southern Observatory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1970-01-01

    Professor A. Blaauw, Director general of the European Southern Observatory, with George Hampton on his right, signs the Agreement covering collaboration with CERN in the construction of the large telescope to be installed at the ESO Observatory in Chile.

  17. Causality in Europeanization Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet

    2012-01-01

    to develop discursive institutional analytical frameworks and something that comes close to the formulation of hypothesis on the effects of European Union (EU) policies and institutions on domestic change. Even if these efforts so far do not necessarily amount to substantive theories or claims of causality......Discourse analysis as a methodology is perhaps not readily associated with substantive causality claims. At the same time the study of discourses is very much the study of conceptions of causal relations among a set, or sets, of agents. Within Europeanization research we have seen endeavours......, it suggests that discourse analysis and the study of causality are by no means opposites. The study of Europeanization discourses may even be seen as an essential step in the move towards claims of causality in Europeanization research. This chapter deals with the question of how we may move from the study...

  18. European Molecular Biology Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    On 10 May an Agreement was signed at CERN setting up a new European Laboratory. It will be concerned with research in molecularbiology and will be located at Heidelberg in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  19. European 'Stabilisation through Association'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodt, Annemarie Peen

    In 2012 the Nobel Committee awarded the European Union (EU) its Peace Prize. It commemorated the building and sustaining of peace between Europeans, a process in which the Nobel Committee proposed that the EU and its predecessors had played an important part. It explicitly commen-ded the Union......’s success in repeatedly reconciling a divided continent and complemented its efforts to build peace beyond its borders. But does the EU (continue to) deserve such praise? This contribution examines European peacebuilding from the early inte-gration of post-World War Two economies, through the uniting...... of Europe after the Cold War to contemporary conflict management efforts in the Western Balkans and the Eastern neighbourhood. The purpose of this endeavour is to examine whether lessons from the European experience can be observed that may facilitate future regional stabilisation processes – within...

  20. CERN welcomes European science

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    On 3 and 4 October CERN will host a special workshop for Marie Curie fellows. This programme is a key plank in the EU's strategy for creating a European research area.     With thousands of scientists from all over the continent working together, CERN is already an exemplary European science showcase. On 3 and 4 October, the Laboratory will contribute further to unifying all European science by hosting a special workshop for EU-funded Marie Curie fellows. This scheme gives young researchers from around the continent the mobility to go to wherever Europe's best facilities in their chosen field happen to be. The event that will take place at CERN, entitled 'Special workshop of Marie Curie Fellows on research and training in physics and technology', organised together with the European Commission, is a continuation of a series of workshops with the aim, among others, of promoting young researchers, supporting their training and mobility, and facilitating the interdisciplinary dissemination of knowledge. Dur...

  1. European Economic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, James A.

    1971-01-01

    Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)

  2. Ethics and European security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskins, B.

    1986-01-01

    The alliance between the United States and her NATO partners has been strained severely in the last few years. American perceptions of European disloyalty and European impressions of American assertiveness and lack of judgment have played a large part in generating tensions between the allies and emphasising the new peace movements. This book is an attempt to develop a broader understanding of the problem of European security based on Christian ethics. There are disagreements and differences of emphasis among the contributors but they have in common the view that an exclusive preoccupation with the military dimension is damagingly one-sided. Instead the contributors argue that moral and theological concerns are a vital part of the politics and mechanics of European security and must be incorporated in any effort to devise new policies for security in Europe and the West.

  3. Towards a Sustainable Design for Maturity Measurement Marketplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester; Vatrapu, Ravi; Kærsgaard, Henrik Bjerre

    2016-01-01

    In this research-in-progress paper, we propose a solution in form of an IT artefact to address both theoretical and practical challenges faced by maturity model designers. We identify and list out the existing challenges & criticisms of maturity models research through an extensive literature...... review, followed by semi-structured interviews with four maturity model designers. We also explore different motivations of building a maturity model, and using them further scope the boundaries of our solution....

  4. The European XFEL project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floettmann, K.

    2005-01-01

    The European XFEL project is a 4th generation synchrotron radiation facility based on the SASE FEL concept and the superconducting TESLA technology for a linear accelerator. In February 2003 the German government decided that the XFEL should be realized as a European project and be located at DESY in Hamburg. The paper will give an overview of the overall layout and parameters of the facility, with emphasis on the accelerator design, technology and physics. (author)

  5. European Union Energy Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdalbero, D.R.; Schmitz, B.; Raldow, W.; Poireau, M.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an extensive state of the art of the energy research conducted at European Union level between 1984 and 2006, i.e. from the first to the sixth European Community Framework Programmes (FP1-FP6) for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration (RTD and D). The FP is the main legal tool and financial instrument of EU RTD and D policy. It sets the objectives, priorities and budgets for a period of several years. It has been complemented over time with a number of policy oriented initiatives and notably with the launch of the European Research Area. FP7 will cover the period 2007-2013 and will have a total budget of more than euros 50 billion. Energy has been a main research area in Europe since the founding Treaties (European Coal and Steel Community, European Atomic Energy Community-Euratom and European Economic Community), and energy RTD and D has always been a substantial part of common EU research. Nevertheless, when inflation and successive European enlargements are taken into account, over time the RTD and D effort in the field of energy has decreased significantly in relative terms. In nominal terms it has remained relatively stable at about euros 500 million per year. For the next years (FP7), it is expected that energy will still represent about 10 % of total EU research effort but with an annual budget of more than euros 800 million per year. This article presents a detailed review of the thematic areas and budget in both European nuclear energy research (fusion and fission) and non-nuclear energy research (energy efficiency/rational use of energy, fossil fuels, CO 2 capture and storage, fuel cells and hydrogen, renewable energy sources, strategic energy research/socio-economy). (authors)

  6. ELSY. European LFR activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alemberti, Alessandro; Carlsson, Johan; Malambu, Edouard; Orden, Alfredo; Cinotti, Luciano; Struwe, Dankward; Agostini, Pietro; Monti, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    The European Lead Fast Reactor has been developed in the frame of the European lead system (ELSY) project funded by the Sixth Framework Programme of EURATOM. The project, coordinated by Ansaldo Nucleare, involved a wide consortium of European organizations. The ELSY reference design is a 600 MWe pool-type reactor cooled by pure lead. The project demonstrates the possibility of designing a competitive and safe fast critical reactor using simple engineered technical features, whilst fully complying with the Generation IV goals. The paper focuses on the main aspects of the proposed design for the European lead fast reactor highlighting the innovation of this reactor concept and overall objectives. Special attention has been dedicated to safety starting from the first step of the design development taking into account other important aspects, such as the investment protection, the compactness of the primary system as well as sustainability. The main safety features of the proposed innovative decay heat removal (DHR) systems are presented. From the beginning of 2010, and for a duration of three years, the European Commission (EC) is financing the new project Lead European Advanced Demonstration Reactor (LEADER) as part of the 7th Framework Program. This paper highlights the main objectives of the LEADER project. (author)

  7. MD3M: The Master Data Management Maturity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, Marco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/297391879; Pietzka, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to assess the master data maturity of an organization. It is based on thorough literature study to derive the main concepts and best practices in master data maturity assessment. A maturity matrix relating 13 focus areas and 65 capabilities was designed and validated. Furthermore,

  8. Induction and inhibition of oocyte maturation by EDCs in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokumoto Mika

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte maturation in lower vertebrates is triggered by maturation-inducing hormone (MIH, which acts on unidentified receptors on the oocyte surface and induces the activation of maturation-promoting factor (MPF in the oocyte cytoplasm. We previously described the induction of oocyte maturation in fish by an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC, diethylstilbestrol (DES, a nonsteroidal estrogen. Methods In this study, stimulatory and inhibitory effects of EDCs and natural steroids on oocyte maturation were examined in zebrafish. For effective agents, some details about the mechanism in induction or inhibition of maturation were examined. Possible groups of DES interacting with the MIH receptor are discussed based on relative potency of steroids to induce maturation. Results Among agents tested, tamoxifen (TAM and its metabolite 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT showed stimulatory activity similar to DES. The time courses of the change in germinal vesicle breakdown and an intracellular molecular event (the synthesis of cyclin B induced by TAM were indistinguishable from those induced by MIH. In contrast, pentachlorophenol (PCP had a potent inhibitory effect on MIH-induced oocyte maturation. PCP inhibited not only MIH-induced maturation but also DES- and TAM-induced maturation. Methoxychlor also inhibited maturation when oocytes were pre-treated with this agent. Conclusion These results suggest that EDCs act as agonists or antagonists in the induction of oocyte maturation in fish.

  9. Detection of optimum maturity of maize using image processing and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A CCD camera for image acquisition of the different green colorations of the maize leaves at maturity was used. Different color features were extracted from the image processing system (MATLAB) and used as inputs to the artificial neural network that classify different levels of maturity. Keywords: Maize, Maturity, CCD ...

  10. Effect of melatonin on maturation capacity and fertilization of Nili ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the effect of melatonin supplementation of in vitro maturation media on in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) rate of buffalo oocytes. Cumulus oocytes complexes (COCs) were aspirated from follicles of 2-8 mm diameter. In experiment I, COCs were matured in IVM medium supplemented ...

  11. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427.174 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION... Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31 following...

  12. Correlation between cervical vertebral and dental maturity in Iranian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heravi, Farzin; Imanimoghaddam, Mahrokh; Rahimi, Hoda

    2011-12-01

    Determination of the skeletal maturation is extremely important in clinical orthodontics. Cervical vertebral maturation is an effective diagnostic tool for determining the adolescent growth spurt. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between the stages of calcification of teeth and the cervical vertebral maturity stages.

  13. Effect of Maize Hybrid Maturity and Grain Hardness on Fumonisin and Zearalenone Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo Reyneri

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The level of resistance in commercial hybrids for Fusarium ear rot is still not in general adequate to prevent unacceptable toxin concentrations in field. The purpose of this experiment was to verify the behaviour of commercial dent maize hybrids for fumonisin and zearalenone contamination and to identify the variety traits that influence the production of these toxins. Field experiments were carried out in 2000, 2001 and 2002 to evaluate the effect of maize hybrid maturity and endosperm hardness on European Corn Borer (ECB incidence, fungal ear rot incidence and severity and on fumonisin B1 and zearalenone contents. Nineteen yellow soft commercial hybrids, from the 500, 600 and 700 FAO maturity groups, were compared in 4 sites in NW Italy. Hybrid were grouped in 3 endosperm hardness categories (hard, intermediate, soft in function of Hard/Soft (H/S endosperm ratio. No effect due to endosperm hardness or hybrid maturity on the ECB infestation or fungal ear rot incidence and severity was observed. Grain hardness significant influenced fumonisin B1 content: hard endosperm hybrids showed 50% lower contamination than soft hybrids. The presence of fumonisin B1 in the grain of different maturity hybrids only resulted to be significantly different in 2001 experiment, with a mean concentration 2 times higher in the later hybrids (FAO rating 700 compared to the medium and medium-late hybrids. The zearalenone content never resulted to be significantly different in function of the endosperm hardness, while, late maturing hybrids, in which grain moisture content decreases slowly below 30%, are more susceptible to zearalenone contamination. This research has highlighted the presence of variety traits that can influence mycotoxin contamination. An accurate choice of hybrid, considering the territorial and cultivation context, could contribute to achieve products, that contain mycotoxins, which do not exceed the maximum international and UE regulation levels.

  14. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  15. Transcriptional maturation of the mouse auditory forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Troy A; Guo, Yan; Clause, Amanda; Hackett, Nicholas J; Garbett, Krassimira; Zhang, Pan; Polley, Daniel B; Mirnics, Karoly

    2015-08-14

    The maturation of the brain involves the coordinated expression of thousands of genes, proteins and regulatory elements over time. In sensory pathways, gene expression profiles are modified by age and sensory experience in a manner that differs between brain regions and cell types. In the auditory system of altricial animals, neuronal activity increases markedly after the opening of the ear canals, initiating events that culminate in the maturation of auditory circuitry in the brain. This window provides a unique opportunity to study how gene expression patterns are modified by the onset of sensory experience through maturity. As a tool for capturing these features, next-generation sequencing of total RNA (RNAseq) has tremendous utility, because the entire transcriptome can be screened to index expression of any gene. To date, whole transcriptome profiles have not been generated for any central auditory structure in any species at any age. In the present study, RNAseq was used to profile two regions of the mouse auditory forebrain (A1, primary auditory cortex; MG, medial geniculate) at key stages of postnatal development (P7, P14, P21, adult) before and after the onset of hearing (~P12). Hierarchical clustering, differential expression, and functional geneset enrichment analyses (GSEA) were used to profile the expression patterns of all genes. Selected genesets related to neurotransmission, developmental plasticity, critical periods and brain structure were highlighted. An accessible repository of the entire dataset was also constructed that permits extraction and screening of all data from the global through single-gene levels. To our knowledge, this is the first whole transcriptome sequencing study of the forebrain of any mammalian sensory system. Although the data are most relevant for the auditory system, they are generally applicable to forebrain structures in the visual and somatosensory systems, as well. The main findings were: (1) Global gene expression

  16. Effects of posttreatment skeletal maturity measured with the cervical vertebral maturation method on incisor alignment relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudalej, Piotr; Rothe, Laura E; Bollen, Anne-Marie

    2008-08-01

    Our aim was to test the hypothesis that relapse of incisor alignment is associated with skeletal maturity at the end of treatment, as assessed with the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method. This was a case-control study with information from the postretention database at the University of Washington. Mandibular incisor irregularity (II) at least 10 years out of retention (T3) was used to define the subjects (II >6 mm, relapse group) and the controls (II 0.05). Pretreatment II and postretention time were found to be correlated with long-term incisor stability (P = 0.007 and 0.034, respectively). Sex was not related to relapse (P = 0.33). Maturity of craniofacial structures at the end of treatment evaluated with the CVM method is not associated with long-term stability of incisor alignment.

  17. The Development of Marital Maturity Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed YILDIZ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, validity, reliability and item analysis studies of the Marital Maturity Scale prepared to test whether individuals are ready for marriage have been done. Studies of the development of the scale were made on 623 individuals, consisting of single adults. In the validity studies of the scale, explanatory and confirmatory factor analyses and criterion related validity studies were performed. Factor analysis revealed that the scale had four dimensions. The four factors in the measurement account for 60.91% of the total variance. The factor loadings of the items in the scale range from 0.42 to 0.86. Inonu Marriage Attitude Scale was used in the criterion related validity studies. Correlation value of the two scales r=0.72 (p=0.000 was found significant. It was determined that the subscales of the scale had a significant correlation with the total scale. The cronbach alpha value of the first dimension of the scale was 0.85, the cronbach alpha value of the second dimension of the scale was 0.68, the cronbach alpha value of the third dimension of the scale was 0.80, the cronbach alpha value of the fourth dimension of the scale was 0.91 and the cronbach alpha value of the total scale was 0.90. Test retest results r=0.70, (p=0.000 were found significant. In the item analysis studies, it was revealed that in the lower 27% group, the individuals in the upper 27% group were significantly different in all items (p=0.000. The item total correlation value of the items in the scale was between 0.40 and 0.63. As a result of the assessments, it was concluded that the Marital Maturity Scale was a reliable and valid instrument to measure marital maturity of single adults

  18. [Maturation of cerebral somatosensory evoked potentials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, J; Zhu, Y; Georgesco, M; Echenne, B; Rodiere, M

    1985-07-01

    Cerebral somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were elicited by stimulation of the median nerve and/or posterior tibial nerve in 117 children of 1 day to 16 years old. A major negative wave (N) was consistently recorded from the parietal region of the scalp when the arm was stimulated. The peak latency, the onset latency, the rising time and the duration of H wave are closely correlated with age and body length. The latencies are shortest in the subjects of 1-3 years old. SEPs to lower extremity stimulation were inconstant in the infants before the age of one. The major positive wave (P) has a variable topographic distribution along the middle line, over the scalp. The latencies are also very variable in the different subjects of the same age as well as in the same subject with different locations of active electrode. Among the parameters studied as for N wave, only the rising time of P wave is significantly correlated with age. The latencies of P wave have the shortest value in the subjects of 1-3 years old. The comparison of SEPs to upper and to lower limb stimulations shows that there is no relationship between them in respect to their morphology and amplitude. The minimum value of the latencies of N and P waves was observed at the same age but the difference between the peak latencies of P and N waves in the same subject increases considerably after 2 years of age and reaches the adult value after 5 years of age. These resultats indicate that the maturation of the peripheral somatosensory pathways proceeds at a higher rate than that of the central somatosensory pathways, that the maturation of the somatosensory pathways of the upper limb precedes that of the lower limb, and that the rising time of N or P waves is a good index of cortical maturation. The clinical utility of these SEPs in pediatrics is discussed.

  19. Maturing Technologies for Stirling Space Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Nowlin, Brentley C.; Dobbs, Michael W.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Huth, James

    2016-01-01

    Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being developed as an option to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, flyby, land or rove. A Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) could offer space missions a more efficient power system that uses one fourth of the nuclear fuel and decreases the thermal footprint of the current state of the art. The RPS Program Office, working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), manages projects to develop thermoelectric and dynamic power systems, including Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs). The Stirling Cycle Technology Development (SCTD) Project, located at Glenn Research Center (GRC), is developing Stirling-based subsystems, including convertors and controllers. The SCTD Project also performs research that focuses on a wide variety of objectives, including increasing convertor temperature capability to enable new environments, improving system reliability or fault tolerance, reducing mass or size, and developing advanced concepts that are mission enabling. Research activity includes maturing subsystems, assemblies, and components to prepare them for infusion into future convertor and generator designs. The status of several technology development efforts are described here. As part of the maturation process, technologies are assessed for readiness in higher-level subsystems. To assess the readiness level of the Dual Convertor Controller (DCC), a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) was performed and the process and results are shown. Stirling technology research is being performed by the SCTD Project for NASA's RPS Program Office, where tasks focus on maturation of Stirling-based systems and subsystems for future space science missions.

  20. A PACS maturity model: a systematic meta-analytic review on maturation and evolvability of PACS in the hospital enterprise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetering, R. van de; Batenburg, R.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: With PACS and medical imaging technology maturing, the importance of organizational maturity and effective deployment of PACS in the hospital enterprise are becoming significant. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is twofold. Firstly, PACS literature on maturity and evolvability in

  1. Digital Marketing Maturity Models: Overview and Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Elina Bakhtieva

    2017-01-01

    The variety of available digital tools, strategies and activities might confuse and disorient even an experienced marketer. This applies in particular to B2B companies, which are usually less flexible in uptaking of digital technology than B2C companies. B2B companies are lacking a framework that corresponds to the specifics of the B2B business, and which helps to evaluate a company’s capabilities and to choose an appropriate path. A B2B digital marketing maturity model helps to fill this gap...

  2. The Homo Energeticus: maturity, inheritance, identity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, modern society’s intimate bond to the convenience and reliability of delivered energy services results in a form of identification I call the Homo Energeticus. The Homo Energeticus relies upon a mature system of services for achieving an equivalency of status and prestige that is historically similar to the morality of a noble class. I describe the uniqueness of this identity by its imperative for acquiring experience through an invisibility of energy expenditures. In this way, the Homo Energeticus cultivates a highly individualized life whose ambience of perfection, while created personally, is only successful insofar as it conceals energy expenditures in labor and supply. (letter)

  3. Analyzing Project Management Maturity Level in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot Simangunsong

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Project management has been generally known and increasingly used by many organizations to gain competitive advantage. In this context, many studies have proposed maturity models to evaluate how project management knowledge has been deployed effectively and efficiently in organization. As a developing country, Indonesia needs many development projects managed by government and private companies in different industries. Here, a study to assess project management maturity level in Indonesian businesses may bring insight about current business practices, which is important to speed up country development and business sustainability.  Adapting the Project Management Maturity Model (ProMMM, a survey instrument has been developed and applied to professionals from Jakarta and surrounding area.  The result of analysis shows that construction and primary industry have a higher maturity level compare to manufacturing and services.  It is to be noted, however, that the level of project management understanding is low across industries.  This indicates that more quality project management training or certification is required to improve overall project management knowledge in Indonesia. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  4. Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratoma Containing Multiple Mobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyun Sun; Yoon, Seong Eon; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Hye Won; Yoon, Kwon Ha [Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Hoon [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    A 48-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a palpable mass in her lower abdomen. A left ovarian, cystic mass containing multiple mobile globules was seen on CT and MR images. The outer portion of the globules showed fat components on CT and fat-saturated T1-weighted MR images. Ultrasonography showed multiple echogenic, mobile globules with some sound attenuation and hyper echoic lines and dots within the cystic mass, which corresponded with the presence of lipid globules and hair shafts of ovarian mature cystic teratoma, respectively

  5. Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratoma Containing Multiple Mobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyun Sun; Yoon, Seong Eon; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Hye Won; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Park, Seong Hoon

    2006-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a palpable mass in her lower abdomen. A left ovarian, cystic mass containing multiple mobile globules was seen on CT and MR images. The outer portion of the globules showed fat components on CT and fat-saturated T1-weighted MR images. Ultrasonography showed multiple echogenic, mobile globules with some sound attenuation and hyper echoic lines and dots within the cystic mass, which corresponded with the presence of lipid globules and hair shafts of ovarian mature cystic teratoma, respectively

  6. Asset Stripping in a Mature Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Møller, Ulrik Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to document a Danish fraud scheme, in which a large number of limited companies were stripped of their assets leaving them with nothing but tax debt, eventually causing the Danish Tax and Customs Administration to lose large sums. Furthermore, the purpose...... indicates that asset stripping may take place in mature market economies to the extent that perpetrators are able to circumvent the corporate governance system by giving lawyers, public accountants and banks incentives to act less critically towards dubious business transactions. Research limitations...

  7. Effects of forest management practices in temperate beech forests on bacterial and fungal communities involved in leaf litter degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purahong, Witoon; Kapturska, Danuta; Pecyna, Marek J; Jariyavidyanont, Katalee; Kaunzner, Jennifer; Juncheed, Kantida; Uengwetwanit, Tanaporn; Rudloff, Renate; Schulz, Elke; Hofrichter, Martin; Schloter, Michael; Krüger, Dirk; Buscot, François

    2015-05-01

    Forest management practices (FMPs) significantly influence important ecological processes and services in Central European forests, such as leaf litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. Changes in leaf litter diversity, and thus, its quality as well as microbial community structure and function induced by different FMPs were hypothesized to be the main drivers causing shifts in decomposition rates and nutrient release in managed forests. In a litterbag experiment lasting 473 days, we aimed to investigate the effects of FMPs (even-aged timber management, selective logging and unmanaged) on bacterial and fungal communities involved in leaf litter degradation over time. Our results showed that microbial communities in leaf litter were strongly influenced by both FMPs and sampling date. The results from nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) ordination revealed distinct patterns of bacterial and fungal successions over time in leaf litter. We demonstrated that FMPs and sampling dates can influence a range of factors, including leaf litter quality, microbial macronutrients, and pH, which significantly correlate with microbial community successions.

  8. A Comparison of Skeletal Maturation assessed from MP3 and Its Correlation with Dental Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Vardhan Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the various ossification stages of middle phalanges of third finger (MP3 and developmental stages of 2nd mandibular molar during the entire process of pubertal growth spurt. Evaluate the feasibility of recording MP3 stages using standard dental X-ray film. The mandibular 2nd molar exhibited highly significant correlation for both the males and females. This study showed a good correlation between the MP3 and dental maturity indicators. Therefore, 2nd molar tooth could be used as maturity indicator for the entire period of pubertal growth spurt. It can be used as an adjunct to the hand and wrist radiograph.

  9. Regeneration of Mature Norway Spruce Stands: Early Effects of Selective Cutting and Clear Cutting on Seepage Water Quality and Soil Fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendelin Weis

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The cutting of trees influences element turnover in the forest ecosystem. The reduction of plant uptake, as well as an increased mineralization and nitrification due to higher soil temperature and soil moisture, can lead to considerable losses of nutrients from the main rooting zone. This may result in a reduced soil fertility and a decrease in drinking water quality due to high nitrate concentrations in the seepage water. In Bavaria (Germany selective cutting is preferred to clear cutting when initiating the regeneration of Norway spruce stands with European beech. This paper summarizes the early effects of both forest management practices on soil fertility and seepage water quality for three different sites. Shown are the concentrations of nitrogen and base cations in the seepage water as well as the water and ion fluxes during the first year after tree cut. Nutrient inputs decreased on thinned plots and even more at clear-cuts. Nitrate concentrations in the seepage water are hardly affected by moderate thinning; however, on clear-cuts, the nitrate concentration increases significantly, and base cations are lost from the upper mineral soil. This effect is less obvious at sites where a dense ground vegetation, which is able to take up excess nitrogen, exists.

  10. A slight recovery of soils from Acid Rain over the last three decades is not reflected in the macro nutrition of beech (Fagus sylvatica) at 97 forest stands of the Vienna Woods✰

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Pétra; Lindebner, Leopold

    2016-01-01

    Rigorous studies of recovery from soil acidification are rare. Hence, we resampled 97 old-growth beech stands in the Vienna Woods. This study exploits an extensive data set of soil (infiltration zone of stemflow and between trees area at different soil depths) and foliar chemistry from three decades ago. It was hypothesized that declining acidic deposition is reflected in soil and foliar chemistry. Top soil pH within the stemflow area increased significantly by 0.6 units in both H2O and KCl extracts from 1984 to 2012. Exchangeable Ca and Mg increased markedly in the stemflow area and to a lower extent in the top soil of the between trees area. Trends of declining base cations in the lower top soil were probably caused by mobilization of organic S and associated leaching with high amounts of sulfate. Contents of C, N and S decreased markedly in the stemflow area from 1984 to 2012, suggesting that mineralization rates of organic matter increased due to more favorable soil conditions. It is concluded that the top soil will continue to recover from acidic deposition. However, in the between trees areas and especially in deeper soil horizons recovery may be highly delayed. The beech trees of the Vienna Woods showed no sign of recovery from acidification although S deposition levels decreased. Release of historic S even increased foliar S contents. Base cation levels in the foliage declined but are still adequate for beech trees. Increasing N/nutrient ratios over time were considered not the result of marginally higher N foliar contents in 2012 but of diminishing nutrient uptake due to the decrease in ion concentration in soil solution. The mean foliar N/P ratio already increased to the alarming value of 31. Further nutritional imbalances will predispose trees to vitality loss. PMID:27344089

  11. European Synchrotron Radiation Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buras, B.

    1985-01-01

    How a European Synchrotron Radiation Facility has developed into a detailed proposal recently accepted as the basis for construction of the facility at Grenoble is discussed. In November 1977, the General Assembly of the European Science Foundation (ESF) approved the report of the ESF working party on synchrotron radiation entitled Synchrotron Radiation - a Perspective View for Europe. This report contained as one of its principal recommendations that work should commence on a feasibility study for a European synchrotron radiation laboratory having a dedicated hard X-ray storage ring and appropriate advanced instrumentation. In order to prepare a feasibility study the European Science Foundation set up the Ad-hoc Committee on Synchrotron Radiation, which in turn formed two working groups: one for the machine and another for instrumentation. This feasibility study was completed in 1979 with the publication of the Blue Book describing in detail the so called 1979 European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The heart of the facility was a 5 GeV electron storage ring and it was assumed that mainly the radiation from bending magnets will be used. The facility is described

  12. Maturation arrest of human oocytes at germinal vesicle stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Qin Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Maturation arrest of human oocytes may occur at various stages of the cell cycle. A total failure of human oocytes to complete meiosis is rarely observed during assisted conception cycles. We describe here a case of infertile couples for whom all oocytes repeatedly failed to mature at germinal vesicle (GV stage during in vitro fertilization/Intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI. The patient underwent controlled ovarian stimulation followed by oocyte retrieval and IVF/ICSI. The oocytes were stripped off cumulus cells prior to the ICSI procedure and their maturity status was defined. The oocyte maturation was repeatedly arrested at the GV. Oocyte maturation arrest may be the cause of infertility in this couple. The recognition of oocyte maturation arrest as a specific medical condition may contribute to the characterization of the currently known as "oocyte factor." The cellular and genetic mechanisms causing oocyte maturation arrest should be the subject for further investigation.

  13. Seasonal Sex Ratio Trend in the European Kestrel : An Evolutionarily Stable Strategy Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, I.R.; Weissing, F.J.; Daan, S.

    We present an evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) model to analyze selection on seasonal variation in the brood sex ratio, as observed in several species of raptorial birds. The model is specifically tailored to the life history of the European kestrel, and it reflects the maturation time

  14. Assisted reproductive technology in Europe, 2004: results generated from European registers by ESHRE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goossens, V.; Ferraretti, A.P.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2008-01-01

    ,672), ICSI (167,192), frozen embryo replacement (FER, 71,997), egg donation (ED, 10 334), preimplantation genetic diagnosis/screening (PGD/PGS, 2701) and in vitro maturation (IVM, 170). Overall, this represents only a marginal increase since 2003, due to a huge reduction in treatments in Germany. European...

  15. Mediastinal Mature Teratoma Revealed by Empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Raoufi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas are germ cell tumors, manifested with a great variety of clinical features; the most common extragonadal site is the anterior mediastinum. In this case, we report the patient with a large mature mediastinal teratoma with several components of ectodermal and endothermal epithelium. A 24-year-old female patient presented with history of persistent chest pain and progressively aggravating dyspnea for the previous 3 months. A chest X-ray showed a large opacity of the entire left hemithorax. Transcutaneous needle aspiration revealed a purulent fluid. The tube thoracostomy was introduced and the effusion was evacuated. Some weeks later, patient was seen in emergency for persistent cough and lateral chest pain. CT scan revealed a mass of the left hemithorax. The mass showed heterogeneous density, without compressing mediastinum great vessels and left hilar structures. Lipase value was elevated in needle aspiration. The patient underwent a total resection of the mediastinum mass via a left posterolateral thoracotomy. Microscopy revealed a mature teratoma with cystic structures. The patient subsequently made a full recovery. This case provide benign mediastinal teratoma with total atelectasis of left lung and elevated lipase value in needle transcutaneous aspiration; this event is explained by pancreatic component in the cystic tumor. Total removal of the tumor is adequate treatment for this type of teratoma and the prognosis is excellent.

  16. Pitch perception prior to cortical maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Bonnie K.

    Pitch perception plays an important role in many complex auditory tasks including speech perception, music perception, and sound source segregation. Because of the protracted and extensive development of the human auditory cortex, pitch perception might be expected to mature, at least over the first few months of life. This dissertation investigates complex pitch perception in 3-month-olds, 7-month-olds and adults -- time points when the organization of the auditory pathway is distinctly different. Using an observer-based psychophysical procedure, a series of four studies were conducted to determine whether infants (1) discriminate the pitch of harmonic complex tones, (2) discriminate the pitch of unresolved harmonics, (3) discriminate the pitch of missing fundamental melodies, and (4) have comparable sensitivity to pitch and spectral changes as adult listeners. The stimuli used in these studies were harmonic complex tones, with energy missing at the fundamental frequency. Infants at both three and seven months of age discriminated the pitch of missing fundamental complexes composed of resolved and unresolved harmonics as well as missing fundamental melodies, demonstrating perception of complex pitch by three months of age. More surprisingly, infants in both age groups had lower pitch and spectral discrimination thresholds than adult listeners. Furthermore, no differences in performance on any of the tasks presented were observed between infants at three and seven months of age. These results suggest that subcortical processing is not only sufficient to support pitch perception prior to cortical maturation, but provides adult-like sensitivity to pitch by three months.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A MATURITY MODEL FOR TELEMEDICINE#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Van Dyk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: For more than a decade, the South African National Department of Health (DoH has recognised the potential benefit of information and communication technology (ICT in the delivery of health care to rural areas. Despite generous funding and proven technology, not many telemedicine systems have proved sustainable after the pilot phase. The purpose of this paper is to develop a maturity model that can be implemented to measure and manage the capability of a health system, for use in the delivery of sustainable health care after the pilot phase of a telemedicine project. The validity of the telemedicine maturity model (TMMM is tested within the context of the South African public health sector.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die Suid Afrikaanse Nasionale Departement van Gesondheid het reeds meer as ’n dekade gelede die voordeel besef wat inligtings- en kommunikasietegnologie kan bied ten opsigte van die lewering van gesondheidsorg in afgeleë gebiede. Ten spyte van ruim befondsing en bewese tegnologie, is daar egter min volgehoue telegeneeskundedienste in die publieke gesondheidstelsel van Suid Afrika. Die doel van hierdie artikel is om ’n volwassenheids-model te ontwikkel wat gebruik kan word om die vermoë van ’n gesondheidstelsel te bepaal en bestuur, ten einde telegeneeskunde loodsprojekte vol te hou. Die geldigheid van hierdie telegeneeskunde volwassenheidsmodel (TMMM is getoets binne konteks van die publieke gesondheidsektor van Suid Afrika.

  18. Developmental Plasticity in Child Growth and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze'ev eHochberg

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of a given genotype to produce different phenotypes in response to different environments is termed "plasticity", and is part of the organism's "adaptability" to environmental cues. The expressions of suites of genes, particularly during development or life-history transitions, probably underlie the fundamental plasticity of an organism. Plasticity in developmental programming has evolved in order to provide the best chances of survival and reproductive success to organisms under changing environments. Environmental conditions that are experienced in early life can profoundly influence human biology, child growth and maturation, and long-term health and longevity. Developmental origins of health and disease and life history transitions are purported to use placental, nutritional, and endocrine cues for setting long-term biological, mental, and behavioral strategies for child growth and maturation in response to local ecological and/or social conditions. The window of developmental plasticity extends from conception to early childhood, and even beyond to the transition from juvenility to adoelscence, and could be transmitted transgenerationally. It involves epigenetic responses to environmental changes, which exert their effects during life history phase-transitions.

  19. A 3-year continuous record of nitrogen trace gas fluxes from untreated and limed soil of a N-saturated spruce and beech forest ecosystem in Germany: 1. N2O emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papen, Hans; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    1999-08-01

    For 3 years we followed the complete annual cycles of N2O emission rates with 2-hour resolution in spruce and beech plantations of the Höglwald Forest, Bavaria, Germany, in order to gain detailed information about seasonal and interannual variations of N2O emissions. In addition, microbiological process studies were performed for identification of differences in N turnover rates in the soil of a spruce and a beech site and for estimation of the contribution of nitrification and denitrification to the actual N2O emission. Both pronounced seasonal and extreme interannual variations of N2O emissions were identified. During long-term frost periods, while the soil was frozen, and during soil thawing, extremely high N2O emissions occurred, contributing up to 73% to the total annual N2O loss. The enormous N2O releases during the long-term frost period were due to high microbial N turnover rates (tight coupling of ammonification, nitrification, denitrification) in small unfrozen water films of the frozen soil at high concentrations of easily degradable substrates derived from the enormous pool of dead microbial biomass produced during the long-term frost period. Liming of a spruce site resulted in a significant increase in ammonification, nitrification, and N2O emissions as compared with an untreated spruce control site. The beech control site exhibited 4-5 times higher N2O emissions than the spruce control site, indicating that forest type itself is an important modulator of N2O release from soil. At all sites, nitrification contributed ˜70% to the N2O flux, whereas denitrification contributed markedly less (˜30%). There was a significant positive correlation between amount of in situ N input by wet deposition and magnitude of in situ N2O emissions. At the beech site, 10% of the actual N input was released from the soil in form of N2O, whereas at the spruce site the fraction was 0.5%. N2O emission rates were positively correlated with net nitrification rates. The

  20. A European experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willson, D.

    1981-01-01

    The Joint European Torus (JET) is an experiment in nuclear fusion research which was planned as a joint effort between national research laboratories and Euratom. Before approval was given for it to be built it became a political football in the European Communities. This book describes the background against which JET was conceived, designed and planned. It gives a chronological account of the political imbroglio which followed between 1975 and 1978 and indicates how close the project came to collapse at one point. In addition to the two years' delay caused by Ministerial conflicts over its siting, the project suffered many compromises in its financing, its staffing and its organisation. An account is given of the unique structure of the European Communities and its procedures, which shows how idealism constantly faces reality. The role of Euratom is discussed, taking into account the difference between its approach to applications of nuclear fission as opposed to those of nuclear fusion. (author)