WorldWideScience

Sample records for mature bottomland oak

  1. Leaf gas exchange of mature bottomland oak trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico M. Gazal; Mark E. Kubiske; Kristina F. Connor

    2009-01-01

    We determined how changes in environmental moisture affected leaf gas exchange in Nuttall (Quercus texana Buckley), overcup (Q. lyrata Walt.), and dominant and codominant swamp chestnut (Q. michauxii Nutt.) oak trees in Mississippi and Louisiana. We used canopy access towers to measure leaf level gas...

  2. Optimizing wildlife habitat quality and oak regeneration in bottomland hardwoods using midstory control and partial harvests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek K. Alkire; Andrew W. Ezell; Andrew B. Self

    2011-01-01

    Bottomland hardwoods can provide both wildlife habitat and timber. However, past high-grading practices limit future income potential and have resulted in undesirable species composition in many areas. Thus, prevalence of desirable oak species should be increased. Our study will attempt to determine the proper harvest level for bottomland hardwoods which will optimize...

  3. Twenty-year-old results from a bottomland oak species comparison trial in western Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall J. Rousseau

    2008-01-01

    A 20-year-old trial of five bottomland oak species (cherrybark, Nuttall, pin, water, and willow oaks) located in western Kentucky showed little difference in survival and growth but considerable difference in form characteristics. Mortality was highest between ages 1 and 3 years during plantation establishment until tree-to-tree competition began increasing between the...

  4. Flood tolerance of oak seedlings from bottomland and upland sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Walsh; Jerry Van Sambeek; Mark Coggeshall; David. Gwaze

    2009-01-01

    Artificial regeneration of oak species in floodplains presents numerous challenges because of the seasonal flooding associated with these areas. Utilizing not only flood-tolerant oak species, but also flood tolerant seed sources of the oak species, may serve to enhance seedling survival and growth rates. Despite the importance of these factors to hardwood forest...

  5. Foraging behavior of three passerines in mature bottomland hardwood forests during summer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffington, J., Matthew; Kilgo, John, C.; Sargent, Robert, A.; Miller, Karl, V.; Chapman, Brian, R.

    2001-08-01

    Attention has focused on forest management practices and the interactions between birds and their habitat, as a result of apparent declines in populations of many forest birds. Although avian diversity and abundance have been studied in various forest habitats, avian foraging behavior is less well known. Although there are published descriptions of avian foraging behaviors in the western United States descriptions from the southeastern United States are less common. This article reports on the foraging behavior of the White-eyed Vireo, Northern Parula, and Hooded Warbler in mature bottomland hardwood forests in South Carolina.

  6. Vegetative propagation of mature and juvenile northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Zaczek; K. C. Steiner; C. W., Jr. Heuser

    1993-01-01

    Rooting trials were established to evaluate rooting success of cuttings from mature and juvenile, grafted and ungrafted northern red oak (NRO). Buds from 4 mature NRO ortets and juvenile seedlings were grafted onto juvenile and mature rootstock. Cuttings were collected from the grafts and from juvenile and mature shoots developed in situ and...

  7. Facilitating Oak and Hickory Regeneration in Mature Central Hardwood Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. Holzmueller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Advanced oak and hickory regeneration is often absent in mature oak-hickory forests in the Central Hardwood Region of the United States. Prescribed fire and thinning, alone and combined, are commonly prescribed silvicultural treatments that are recommended to initiate the regeneration process. This study examined the regeneration response in three mature oak stands following four treatments: (1 thin, (2 burn, (3 thinning and burning, or (4 no treatment (control. Ten years after initial treatment, results indicate that oak and hickory seedlings had greater height and diameter in the thinning and burning treatment compared to the control and that this treatment may help facilitate desirable regeneration in mature oak-hickory forests.

  8. The role of large container seedlings in afforesting oaks in bottomlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; John M. Kabrick; Michael Gold

    2006-01-01

    We planted large container (RPM®) and 1-0 bareroot seedlings of pin oak (Quercus palustris Muenchh.) and swamp white oak (Q. bicolor Willd.) in crop fields in the Missouri River floodplain. We also evaluated the benefits of soil mounding and a grass (Agrostis gigantea Roth) cover crop. RPM®) oak seedlings had significantly greater...

  9. A Quantitative Assessment of the Structure and Functions of a Mature Bottomland Hardwood Community: The Iatt Creek Ecosystem Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin E. Meier; John A. Stanturf; Emile S. Gardiner; Paul B. Hamel; Melvin L. Warren

    1999-01-01

    We report our efforts, initiated in 1995, to quantify ecological processes and functions in a relatively undisturbed, mature hardwood forest. The 320-ha site is located in central Louisiana on the upper reaches of Iatt Creek, an anastomosing minor stream bottom. The forest is a mature sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.)-cherrybark oak (

  10. ALTERNATIVE OAK IN THE MATURATION OF WINES CABERNET SAUVIGNON

    OpenAIRE

    T. B. Hamm; R. A. G. Kohn; E. P. Pinto; L. Lucchetta; V. Manfroi; C. V. Rombaldi

    2014-01-01

    The wine maturation with classic oak is a practice used for a long time, but recently the alternative means (fragments) has been used for its lower cost and practicality. In this study, the alternative wooden barrel was evaluated sit tested two types of oak fragment (chip and cube) and two doses (1 and 2 g L-1). The variables analyzed were as physicochemical characteristics and sensory analysis. The wines showed positive characteristics in general quality, highlighting the conditions of body ...

  11. Changes in the Chemical Composition of Plum Distillate During Maturation with Oak Chips under Different Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerek, Maria; Pielech-Przybylska, Katarzyna; Dziekońska-Kubczak, Urszula; Patelski, Piotr; Strąk, Ewelina

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of ageing on the qualitative and quantitative composition of plum distillate in contact with oak wood chips. Maturation was performed with lightly toasted French oak ( Quercus sessiflora and Quercus robur ) chips or oak chips made from fragments of empty barrels that had been used for ageing cognac. The effects of oak chip dose, process temperature, ageing system (static or circulatory) and ultrasound treatment were assessed. Maturation of plum distillate samples with oak chips resulted in higher levels of extractable organics (including tannins) and colour changes, which were correlated with the type and dose of oak chips, and the conditions of maturation. The content of sugars such as glucose, xylose and arabinose also increased, depending on the conditions and type of oak chips. Degradation of lignin resulted in liberation of sinapaldehyde, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and vanillin, with intensities depending on the applied parameters. In terms of volatiles, decreases in the concentration of higher alcohols and aliphatic aldehydes were observed in the majority of maturation experiments, while concentrations of furanic aldehydes increased depending on the type and dose of oak chips, as well as on the conditions of maturation. The quantities of esters such as ethyl acetate decreased in the majority of experimental variants, whereas concentrations of ethyl caproate, ethyl caprylate and ethyl caprate increased gradually. Some phenols and lactones were detected in all matured samples, with the lowest levels found in the samples aged with oak chips made from cognac barrels.

  12. Changes in the Chemical Composition of Plum Distillate During Maturation with Oak Chips under Different Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Balcerek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the eff ect of ageing on the qualitative and quantitative composition of plum distillate in contact with oak wood chips. Maturation was performed with lightly toasted French oak (Quercus sessifl ora and Quercus robur chips or oak chips made from fragments of empty barrels that had been used for ageing cognac. The eff ects of oak chip dose, process temperature, ageing system (static or circulatory and ultrasound treatment were assessed. Maturation of plum distillate samples with oak chips resulted in higher levels of extractable organics (including tannins and colour changes, which were correlated with the type and dose of oak chips, and the conditions of maturation. The content of sugars such as glucose, xylose and arabinose also increased, depending on the conditions and type of oak chips. Degradation of lignin resulted in liberation of sinapaldehyde, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and vanillin, with intensities depending on the applied parameters. In terms of volatiles, decreases in the concentration of higher alcohols and aliphatic aldehydes were observed in the majority of maturation experiments, while concentrations of furanic aldehydes increased depending on the type and dose of oak chips, as well as on the conditions of maturation. The quantities of esters such as ethyl acetate decreased in the majority of experimental variants, whereas concentrations of ethyl caproate, ethyl caprylate and ethyl caprate increased gradually. Some phenols and lactones were detected in all matured samples, with the lowest levels found in the samples aged with oak chips made from cognac barrels.

  13. Silvicultural systems for southern bottomland hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Meadows; John A. Stanturf

    1997-01-01

    Silvicultural systems integrate both regeneration and intermediate operations in an orderly process for managing forest stands. The clearcutting method of regeneration favors the development of species that are moderately intolerant to intolerant of shade. In fact, clearcutting is the most proven and widely used method of successfully regenerating bottomland oak...

  14. Influence of oak maturation regimen on composition, sensory properties, quality, and consumer acceptability of cabernet sauvignon wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, Anna M; Johnson, Trent E; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Bastian, Susan E P

    2015-02-11

    Oak barrels have long been the preferred method for oak maturation of wine, but barrels contribute significantly to production costs, so alternate oak maturation regimens have been introduced, particularly for wines at lower price points. To date, few studies have investigated consumers' acceptance of wines made using non-traditional oak treatments. In this study, two Cabernet Sauvignon wines were aged using traditional (i.e., barrel) and/or alternative (i.e., stainless steel or plastic tanks and vats, with oak wood added) maturation regimens. Chemical and sensory analyses were subsequently performed to determine the influence on wine composition and sensory properties, that is, the presence of key oak-derived volatile compounds and perceptible oak aromas and flavor. The quality of a subset of wines was rated by a panel of 10 wine experts using a 20-point scoring system, with all wines considered technically sound. Consumer acceptance of wines was also determined. Hedonic ratings ranged from 5.7 to 5.9 (on a 9-point scale), indicating there was no significant difference in consumers' overall liking of each wine. However, segmentation based on individual liking scores identified three distinct clusters comprising consumers with considerably different wine preferences. These results justify wine producers' use of alternative oak maturation regimens to achieve wine styles that appeal to different segments of their target market.

  15. Springtime Leaf Development of Mature Sessile Oak Trees as Based on Multi-Seasonal Monitoring Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NYITRAI, Balázs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on a four year leaf growth data-set we modelled the thermal time-dependent leafontogeny in upper and lower canopy layers of mature sessile oak trees, in a Quercetum petraeae-cerrisforest stand (NE Hungary. Our regression models revealed no considerable differences between thetiming of leaf unfolding and leaf expansion of different canopy layers. On the other hand seasonalcourse in leaf mass-to-area ratio (LMA indicated that sun leaves needed considerably longer thermaltime to fully develop their anatomical structures compared to shade leaves. LMA of sun leaves washigher during the whole leaf maturation process suggesting that ‘sun’ and ‘shade’ characteristicsdevelop in very early stage of leaf ontogeny. Functioning of photosynthetic apparatus (Fv/Fo in shadeleaves have built up faster and performed better in all developmental stages which could be attributedto two main factors: 1 very early determination of leaf traits as a function of light environment and 2evolving shading effect of upper canopy layer eliminates photoinhibition in lower leaves.

  16. Spatial Structure Indices of Mature Pedunculate Oak Stands in NW Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunoslav Indir

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: In order to potentiate a valid comparison of forest stands, numerous indices were developed to express forest structure numerically. Each of those indices described a specific measured or calculated value. In the present study, three of the stand structure indicators, dependent on tree distance, were used: the aggregation index of Clark and Evans, the species mingling index and the diameter differentiation index. The objectives of this study were: to obtain further information about forest structure using the selected indices and to discover any limitations that the implemented indices might display. Materials and Methods: Mature pedunculate oak stands were selected as objects of the study, all located within the “Repaš – Gabajeva Greda” forest management unit, the Forest Administration of Koprivnica. The stands were aged 75 to 132 years. A systematic 500 m grid of 45 circle sample plots was established. The sample plot radius was 15, 25 or 30 meters, depending on the stand’s age. In 2001, the DBH (diameter at breast height and tree positions in regard to the centre of a plot were measured on each sample plot. The mutual distances between trees were calculated, as well as the values of the three selected stand structure indices. The two procedures of the aggregation index of Clark and Evans were calculated for all 45 sample plots. In the first case only the pedunculate oak trees were observed, and in the other all trees on the plot. The species mingling index and the diameter differentiation index were calculated for each tree in two procedures: in relatio to three and four nearest neighbouring trees. The plot/stand totals were managed as the average index of individual trees. Results: Values of the aggregation index of Clark and Evans after all trees have been observed were from 0.89 to 1.28, which indicated a random distribution of trees. In case of considering only pedunculate oak trees, the index of the plots

  17. Effects of winter flooding on mass and gross energy of bottomland hardwood acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan G. Leach; Jacob N. Straub; Richard M. Kaminski; Andrew W. Ezell; Tracy S. Hawkins; Theodor D. Leininger

    2012-01-01

    Decomposition of red oak acorns (Quercus spp.; Section Erythrobalanus) could decrease forage biomass and gross energy (GE) available to wintering ducks from acorns. We estimated changes in mass and GE for 3 species of red oak acorns in flooded and non-flooded bottomland hardwood forests in Mississippi during winter 2009–2010. Mass...

  18. Disking and mid- and understory removal following an above-average acorn crop in three mature oak forests in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald A. Rathfon; Nathanael I. Lichti; Robert K. Swihart

    2008-01-01

    We disked using small-scale equipment in the understory of three mature upland oak (Quercus) forests in southern Indiana immediately following acorn dispersal in an aboveaverage seed crop year as a means of improving oak seedling establishment. Three different mid- and understory removal treatments were also applied to create favorable light...

  19. Bottomland Hardwood Ecosystem Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Stanturf; Calvin E. Meier

    1994-01-01

    Federal agency approaches to land management are undergoing a shift from parcel-specific concerns toward a more holistic, ecosystem management approach. Southern bottomland hardwood ecosystems provide important environmental services and commodity goods (Wharton et al. 1982), yet much of our knowledge of these systems comes from anecdotal information. The Bottomland...

  20. Bottomland oak afforestation in the lower Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner; Brian Roy Lockhard

    2007-01-01

    The 11 million hectare Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV), which is the geologic floodplain of the lower Mississippi River, is a prominent physiographic region in the southern United States. Seven states (Arkansas, Louisiana, Missis- 1 sippi, Missouri, Kentucky, Illinois, and Tennessee) border the lower stretch of the II River, and have a portion of their land...

  1. Synergy of agroforestry and bottomland hardwood afforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Portwood, J.; Clason, Terry R.

    2003-01-01

    Afforestation of bottomland hardwood forests has historically emphasized planting heavy-seeded tree species such as oak (Quercus spp.) and pecan (Caryaillinoensis) with little or no silvicultural management during stand development. Slow growth of these tree species, herbivory, competing vegetation, and limited seed dispersal, often result in restored sites that are slow to develop vertical vegetation structure and have limited tree diversity. Where soils and hydrology permit, agroforestry can provide transitional management that mitigates these historical limitations on converting cropland to forests. Planting short-rotation woody crops and intercropping using wide alleyways are two agroforestry practices that are well suited for transitional management. Weed control associated with agroforestry systems benefits planted trees by reducing competition. The resultant decrease in herbaceous cover suppresses small mammal populations and associated herbivory of trees and seeds. As a result, rapid vertical growth is possible that can 'train' under-planted, slower-growing, species and provide favorable environmental conditions for naturally invading trees. Finally, annual cropping of alleyways or rotational pulpwood harvest of woody crops provides income more rapidly than reliance on future revenue from traditional silviculture. Because of increased forest diversity, enhanced growth and development, and improved economic returns, we believe that using agroforestry as a transitional management strategy during afforestation provides greater benefits to landowners and to the environment than does traditional bottomland hardwood afforestation.

  2. Effect of Group-Selection Opening Size on Breeding Bird Habitat Use in a Bottomland Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorman, C.E.; D.C. Guynn, Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Research on the effects of creating group-selection openings of various sizes on breeding birds habitat use in a bottomland hardwood forest of the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. Creation of 0.5-ha group selection openings in southern bottomland forests should provide breeding habitat for some field-edge species in gaps and habitat for forest-interior species and canopy-dwelling forest-edge species between gaps provided that enough mature forest is made available.

  3. Field test of foliar-spray herbicides to control mountain laurel in mature mixed-oak forests in western Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller; Patrick H. Brose; Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer; Kurt W. Gottschalk; John R. Denning

    2016-01-01

    Successful oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration requires the presence of competitive sources of oak reproduction before parent oaks are harvested. Mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) in the understory of many Appalachian forests prevents new oak seedlings from receiving adequate sunlight to survive and grow into competitive size classes. This study examined the efficacy of...

  4. Sensory-directed identification of taste-active ellagitannins in American (Quercus alba L.) and European oak wood (Quercus robur L.) and quantitative analysis in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

    2006-05-03

    Aimed at increasing our knowledge on the sensory-active nonvolatiles migrating from oak wood into alcoholic beverages upon cooperaging, an aqueous ethanolic extract prepared from oak wood chips (Quercus alba L.) was screened for its key taste compounds by application of the taste dilution analysis. Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impacts, followed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry as well as one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR experiments, revealed the ellagitannins vescalagin, castalagin, and grandinin, the roburins A-E, and 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin as the key molecules imparting an astringent oral sensation. To the best of our knowledge, 33-deoxy-33-carboxyvescalagin has as yet not been reported as a phytochemical in Q. alba L. In addition, the sensory activity of these ellagitannins was determined for the first time on the basis of their human threshold concentrations and dose/response functions. Furthermore, the ellagitannins have been quantitatively determined in extracts prepared from Q. alba L. and Quercus robur L., respectively, as well as in bourbon whiskey and oak-matured red wines, and the sensory contribution of the individual compounds has been evaluated for the first time on the basis of dose/activity considerations.

  5. Avian response to bottomland hardwood reforestation: the first 10 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Wilson, R.R.; Henne-Kerr, J.L.; Grosshuesch, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Bttomland hardwood forests were planted on agricultural fields in Mississippi and Louisiana using either predominantly Quercus species (oaks) or Populus deltoides (eastern cottonwood). We assessed avian colonization of these reforested sites between 2 and 10 years after planting. Rapid vertical growth of cottonwoods (circa 2 - 3 m / yr) resulted in sites with forest structure that supported greater species richness of breeding birds, increased Shannon diversity indices, and supported greater territory densities than on sites planted with slower-growing oak species. Grassland birds (Spiza americana [Dickcissel], and Sturnella magna [Eastern Meadowlark]) were indicative of species breeding on oak-dominated reforestation # 10 years old. Agelaius phoeniceus (Red-winged Blackbird) and Colinus virginianus (Northern Bobwhite) characterized cottonwood reforestation # 4 years old, whereas 14 species of shrub-scrub birds (e.g., Passerina cyanea [Indigo Bunting]) and early-successional forest birds (e.g., Vireo gilvus [Warbling Vireo]) typified cottonwood reforestation 5 to 9 years after planting. Rates of daily nest survival did not differ between reforestation strategies. Nest parasitism increased markedly in older cottonwood stands, but was overwhelmed by predation as a cause of nest failure. Based on Partners in Flight prioritization scores and territory densities, the value of cottonwood reforestation for avian conservation was significantly greater than that of oak reforestation during their first 10 years. Because of benefits conferred on breeding birds, we recommend reforestation of bottomland hardwoods include a high proportion of fast-growing, early successional species such as cottonwood.

  6. Response of Advance Cherrybark Oak Reproduction to Midstory Removal and Shoot Clipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian R. Lockhart; John D. Hodges; Emile S. Gardiner

    2000-01-01

    A Midstory competition control and shoot clipping have been proposed to increase the vigor and height of advance bottomland oak reproduction. Results from a study in east-central Mississippi showed that advance cherrybark oak (Quercus pagoda Raf) released from midstory competition had greater survival than nonreleased seedlings, 64% and 48%,...

  7. Bottomland Hardwood Planting: Example Contract Specifications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Humprey, Monica

    2002-01-01

    This technical note provides an example of contract specifications that can be used as a template by USACE biologists, engineers, or contracting officers for contracting the planting of bottomland hardwood (BLH) seedlings...

  8. In Situ Dark Adaptation Enhances the Efficiency of DNA Extraction from Mature Pin Oak (Quercus palustris Leaves, Facilitating the Identification of Partial Sequences of the 18S rRNA and Isoprene Synthase (IspS Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csengele E. Barta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mature oak (Quercus spp. leaves, although abundantly available during the plants’ developmental cycle, are rarely exploited as viable sources of genomic DNA. These leaves are rich in metabolites difficult to remove during standard DNA purification, interfering with downstream molecular genetics applications. The current work assessed whether in situ dark adaptation, to deplete sugar reserves and inhibit secondary metabolite synthesis could compensate for the difficulties encountered when isolating DNA from mature leaves rich in secondary metabolites. We optimized a rapid, commercial kit based method to extract genomic DNA from dark- and light-adapted leaves. We demonstrated that in situ dark adaptation increases the yield and quality of genomic DNA obtained from mature oak leaves, yielding templates of sufficiently high quality for direct downstream applications, such as PCR amplification and gene identification. The quality of templates isolated from dark-adapted pin oak leaves particularly improved the amplification of larger fragments in our experiments. From DNA extracts prepared with our optimized method, we identified for the first time partial segments of the genes encoding 18S rRNA and isoprene synthase (IspS from pin oak (Quercus palustris, whose full genome has not yet been sequenced.

  9. Guide to Regeneration of Bottomland Hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha R. McKevlin

    1992-01-01

    This guide will help landowners, consulting foresters, and public service foresters regenerate bottomland hardwoods. It discusses (1) interpretation of site characteristics, (2) selection of species, and (3) selection of regeneration methods. A dichotomous key for selection of appropriate regeneration methods under various conditions is presented.

  10. A Guide to Bottomland Hardwood Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    floristically Ecological Importance of Understory diverse undergrowth may serve to pollinate flowers, Plants including those of trees. Undergrowth vegetation...Herbaceous plants include bedstraw, Variants and associated vegetation. Sycamore- violet, wild carrot, wild lettuce , amsonia, mint, legumes, pecan...elements of bottomland hardwood restoration such as species selection, site preparation, direct seeding, planting of seedlings, and alternative

  11. Bottomland hardwood afforestation: State of the art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner; D. Ramsey Russell; Mark Oliver; Lamar C. Dorris

    2000-01-01

    Over the past decade, land managers have implemented large-scale afforestation operations across the Southern United States to rehabilitate agricultural land historically converted from bottomland hardwood forest cover types. These afforestation efforts were initially concentrated on public land managed by State or Federal Government agencies, but have later shifted...

  12. Environmental Factors that Influence Physiological Functioning of Eight Bottomland Hardwood Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassahun, Z.; Renninger, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    With increases in extreme precipitation, flooding, and prolonged drought events in the southeastern United States, bottomland hardwood forests are expected to experience a drastic shift in their productivity and composition. As environmental conditions shift, certain tree species may experience an increase in productivity or could be more negatively affected over more resilient species, leading to a shift in species composition, water use, and carbon uptake. The goals of this research were to use sap flow measurements, leaf phenology, and photosynthetic rates to study species-specific responses to environmental drivers. Sap flow of eight co-occurring hardwood species as well as soil moisture and vapor pressure deficit were measured continuously over the course of a calendar year that included drought conditions and extended saturated soil conditions. We found that cherrybark oak used the most water during the growing season, about 20% more water than the next highest consumer, swamp chestnut oak. Given low, ample or saturated soil moisture conditions, we found that sap flow of winged elm, American elm, cherrybark oak, and shagbark hickory exhibited varying relationships with vapor pressure deficit under the different soil moisture conditions. While the relationship between sap flow and vapor pressure deficit did not differ depending on soil moisture in willow oak, swamp chestnut oak, and green ash. This suggests that winged elm, American elm, cherrybark oak, and shagbark hickory may be more negatively affected by drought conditions while willow oak, swamp chestnut oak, and green ash are more drought tolerant. Regarding leaf phenology, willow oak, cherrybark oak, and shagbark hickory were the first to experience leaf abscission at the end of the growing season when extended drought conditions occurred. In terms of leaf gas exchange, green ash exhibited the highest photosynthesis and transpiration rates, resulting in the lowest water-use efficiency compared with

  13. Sapwood area as an estimator of leaf area and foliar weight in cherrybark oak and green ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Meadows; John D. Hodges

    2002-01-01

    The relationships between foliar weight/leaf area and four stem dimensions (d.b.h., total stem cross-sectional area, total sapwood area, and current sapwood area at breast height) were investigated in two important bottomland tree species of the Southern United States, cherrybark oak (Quercus falcata var. pagodifolia ...

  14. Regeneration in bottomland forest canopy gaps six years after variable retention harvests to enhance wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.; Guldin, James M.

    2013-01-01

    To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after prescribed harvests, we assessed regeneration in 41 canopy gaps and 4 large (>0.5-ha) patch cut openings that resulted from treatments and in 21 natural canopy gaps on 2 unharvested control stands. Mean gap area of anthropogenic gaps (582 m²) was greater than that of natural gaps (262 m²). Sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and red oaks (Quercus nigra, Q. nuttallii, and Q. phellos) were common in anthropogenic gaps, whereas elms (Ulmus spp.) and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) were numerous in natural gaps. We recommend harvest prescriptions include gaps with diameter >25 m, because the proportion of shade-intolerant regeneration increased with gap area up to 500 m². The proportion of shade-intolerant definitive gap fillers (individuals likely to occupy the canopy) increased with gap area: 35 percent in natural gaps, 54 percent in anthropogenic gaps, and 84 percent in patch cuts. Sweetgum, green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), and red oaks were common definitive gap fillers.

  15. Stand-level growth and yield component models for red oak-sweetgum forests on Mid-South minor stream bottoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily B. Schultz; J. Clint Iles; Thomas G. Matney; Andrew W. Ezell; James S. Meadows; Theodor D. Leininger; al. et.

    2010-01-01

    Greater emphasis is being placed on Southern bottomland hardwood management, but relatively few growth and yield prediction systems exist that are based on sufficient measurements. We present the aggregate stand-level expected yield and structural component equations for a red oak (Quercus section Lobatae)-sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) growth and yield model....

  16. New relationships among the sudden oak death pathogen, bark and ambrosia beetles, and fungi colonizing coast live oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Erbilgin; Brice A. McPherson; Pierluigi Bonello; David L. Wood; Andrew J. Nelson

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD) has had devastating effects on several oak species in many California coastal forests. Phytophthora ramorum has been identified as the primary causal agent of sudden oak death. While the pathogen may be capable of killing mature trees, it is likely that in nature opportunistic organisms play significant roles in the decline and...

  17. Propagation of Southern Red Oak and Water Oak by Rooted Cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horace J. Duncan; Fred R. Matthews

    1969-01-01

    Southern red oak and water oak, needed in studies of fusiform rust of southern pines, were propagated from cuttings of rooted stump sprouts and mature tree branches placed in outdoor propagation beds in June. Root strike and root development were increased when cuttings with basal wounds were treated with both the hormone IBA and the fungicide folpet. Cuttings from...

  18. Fire in upper Midwestern oak forest ecosystems: an oak forest restoration and management handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee E. Frelich; Peter B. Reich; David W. Peterson

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the literature to synthesize what is known about the use of fire to maintain and restore oak forests, woodlands, and savannas of the upper Midwestern United States, with emphasis on Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Included are (1) known physical and ecological effects of fire on oaks from acorn through seedling, established sapling, and mature stages of...

  19. The importance of hydrology in restoration of bottomland hardwood wetland functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R.G.; Faulkner, S.P.; Gibson, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood (BLH) forests have important biogeochemical functions and it is well known that certain structural components, including pulsed hydrology, hydric soils, and hydrophytic vegetation, enhance these functions. It is unclear, however, how functions of restored BLH wetlands compare to mature, undisturbed wetlands. We measured a suite of structural and functional attributes in replicated natural BLH wetlands (NAT), restored BLH wetlands with hydrology re-established (RWH), and restored BLH wetlands without hydrology re-established (RWOH) in this study. Trees were replanted in all restored wetlands at least four years prior to the study and those wetlands with hydrology re-established had flashboard risers placed in drainage ditches to allow seasonal surface flooding. Vegetation, soils, and selected biogeochemical functions were characterized at each site. There was a marked difference in woody vegetation among the wetlands that was due primarily to site age. There was also a difference in herbaceous vegetation among the restored sites that may have been related to differences in age or hydrology. Water table fluctuations of the RWH wetlands were comparable to those of the NAT wetlands. Thus, placing flashboard risers in existing drainage ditches, along with proper management, can produce a hydroperiod that is similar to that of a relatively undisturbed BLH. Average length of saturation within the upper 15 cm of soils was 37, 104, and 97 days for RWOH, RWH, and NAT, respectively. Soil moisture, denitrification potential, and soluble organic carbon concentrations differed among wetland sites, but soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations, heterotrophic microbial activity, and readily mineralizable carbon concentrations did not. Significant linear relationships were also found between soil moisture and heterotrophic microbial activity, readily mineralizable carbon, and soluble organic carbon. In addition, sedimentation rates were higher in NAT and RWH

  20. Tree Seedlings Establishment Across a Hydrologic Gradient in a Bottomland Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin; E.A. Nelson; W.H. Conner

    1998-01-01

    Seedling establishment and survival on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina is being monitored as part of the Pen Branch Bottomland Restoration Project. Bottomland tree species were planted from 1993-1995 across a hydrologic gradient which encompasses the drier upper floodplain corridor, the lower floodplain corridor and the continuously inundated delta. Twelve...

  1. Snag recruitment and mortality in a bottomland hardwood forest following partial harvesting: second-year results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Philip A. Tappe; David G. Peitz; Christopher A. Watt

    2010-01-01

    Snags are defined simply as standing dead trees. They function as an important component of wildlife habitat. Unfortunately, little information has been gathered regarding snags in bottomland forest ecosystems. We initiated a study to determine the effects of harvesting on the flora and fauna of a bottomland hardwood ecosystem adjacent the Mississippi River in...

  2. Status and trends of bottomland hardwood forests in the mid-Atlantic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita Rose; Steve Meadows

    2016-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forests cover approximately 2.9 million acres of the Coastal Plain and Piedmont region of Virginia and North Carolina. As of 2014, 59 percent of bottomland hardwood forests were in the large-diameter stand-size class. Between 2002 and 2014, area of large-diameter sized stands increased, while that of medium- and small-diameter stands decreased,...

  3. Bottomland hardwood establishment and avian colonization of reforested sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R.R.; Twedt, D.J.; Fredrickson, L.H.; King, S.L.; Kaminski, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Reforestation of bottomland hardwood sites in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley has markedly increased in recent years, primarily due to financial incentive programs such as the Wetland Reserve Program, Partners for Wildlife Program, and state and private conservation programs. An avian conservation plan for the Mississippi Alluvial Valley proposes returning a substantial area of cropland to forested wetlands. Understanding how birds colonize reforested sites is important to assess the effectiveness of avian conservation. We evaluated establishment of woody species and assessed bird colonization on 89 reforested sites. These reforested sites were primarily planted with heavy-seeded oaks (Quercus spp.) and pecans (Carya illinoensis). Natural invasion of light-seeded species was expected to diversify these forests for wildlife and sustainable timber harvest. Planted tree species averaged 397 + 36 stems/ha-1, whereas naturally invading trees averaged 1675 + 241 stems/ha. However, naturally invading trees were shorter than planted trees and most natural invasion occurred <100 m from an existing forested edge. Even so, planted trees were relatively slow to develop vertical structure, especially when compared with tree species planted and managed for pulpwood production. Slow development of vertical structure resulted in grassland bird species, particularly dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), being the dominant avian colonizers for the first 7 years post-planting. High priority bird species (as defined by Partners in Flight), such as prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) and wood thrush (Hylocichla mustelina), were not frequently detected until stands were 15 years old. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed tree height had the greatest influence on the bird communities colonizing reforested sites. Because colonization by forest birds is dependent on tree height, we recommend inclusion of at least one fast-growing tree

  4. Effect of acorn mass and size, and early shoot growth on one-year old container-grown RPM™ oak seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin C. Grossman; Michael A. Gold; Daniel C. Dey

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of seed source, acorn mass and size, and early shoot growth on morphological traits of 1-year-old oak seedlings. Forested bottomlands in the Midwest have been greatly reduced in the past 150 years as a result of conversion to agriculture and recent catastrophic floods. Due to a lack of available hard mast, intense...

  5. Carbon Storage of bottomland hardwood afforestation in the Lower Mississippi Valley, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David T. Shoch; Gary Kaster; Aaron Hohl; Ray Souter

    2009-01-01

    The emerging carbon market is an increasingly important source of finance for bottomland hardwood afforestation in the Lower Mississippi River Valley (LMV). Notwithstanding, there is a scarcity of empirical...

  6. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kilgo

    2005-04-20

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging near gaps would find more prey per unit time than those foraging in the surrounding forest. In fact, arthropod abundance was greater >100 m from a gap edge than at 0-30 m or 30-100 m from an edge, due to their abundance on switchcane (Arundinaria gigantea); arthropods did not differ in abundance among distances from gaps on oaks (Quercus spp.) or red maple (Acer rubrum). Similarly, Hooded Warbler foraging attack rates were not higher near gap edges: when foraging for fledglings, attack rate did not differ among distances from gaps, but when foraging for themselves, attack rates actually were lower 0-30 m from gap edges than 30-100 m or >100 m from a gap edge. Foraging attack rate was positively associated with arthropod abundance. Hooded Warblers apparently encountered fewer prey and presumably foraged less efficiently where arthropods were least abundant, i.e., near gaps. That attack rates among birds foraging for fledglings were not affected by distance from gap (and hence arthropod abundance) suggests that prey availability may not be limiting at any location across the forest, despite the depressing effects of gaps on arthropod abundance.

  7. Direct seeding woody species for restoration of bottomlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, D.J.; Connor, Kristina F

    2006-01-01

    I direct seeded (broadcast) seeds of 39 species of trees and shrubs using an ATV-mounted rotary spreader to initiate restoration of bottomland forest on retired agricultural sites. Four sites were planted during February, 2000, and 13 additional sites were planted during April and May, 2001. After two growing seasons, stem density of direct-seeded species varied greatly among study plots (range = 0 to 888 stems/ha) but averaged only 110 stems/ha. I recommend that future efforts at direct seeding focus on seven shrub species (Amorpha fruticosa L., Cephalanthus occidentalis L., Cornus spp., Crataegus spp., Ilex decidua Walt., Morus rubra L., and Prunus spp.) and seven tree species (Celtis laevigata Willd., Diospyros virginiana L., Fraxinus spp., Gleditsia triacanthos L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich, and Ulmus spp.) that successfully established in these trials.

  8. Tree regeneration by seed in bottomland hardwood forests: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroschel, Whitney A.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forests (BLH) are found in temperate, humid regions of the southeastern US, primarily on alluvial floodplains adjacent to rivers. Altered hydrology in rivers and floodplains has caused changes in stand development and species composition of BLHs. We hypothesize that the driving mechanisms behind these changes are related to the regeneration process because of the complexity of recruitment and the vulnerability of species at that age in development. Here we review the state of our understanding regarding BLH regeneration, and identify potential bottlenecks throughout the stages of seed production, seed dispersal, germination, establishment, and survival. Our process-level understanding of regeneration by seed in BLHs is rudimentary, thus limiting our ability to predict the effects of hydrologic alterations on species composition. By focusing future research on the appropriate stages of regeneration, we can better understand the sources of forest-community transitions across the diverse range of BLH systems.

  9. People and oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Starrs

    2015-01-01

    While technical knowledge of oaks, acorns, habitat, wildlife, and woodland environments is evolving and a sought-after field of study, there are profound linkages, at once humanistic and artistic, where it comes to people and oaks. Looking at six distinct facets of humans and oak woodlands, this essay suggests that the bonds of people to place can be mediated by the...

  10. Evaluation of Propiconazole Application Methods for Control of Oak Wilt in Texas Live Oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson; D.G. Lester

    1996-01-01

    Four fungicide application methods using the microencapsulated (blue) 14.3% EC formulation of propiconazole (Alamo), including a low-concentration high volume method, two high-concentration low volume microinjection methods, and a low-concentration intermediate volume soil drench method, were tested for effectiveness in controlling oak wilt in a mature natural stand of...

  11. Foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; King, Sammy L.; Kaller, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    In bottomland hardwood forests, partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife like Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and Neotropical migrants. Although partial cutting may be beneficial to some species, those that use dead wood may be negatively affected since large diameter and poor quality trees (deformed, moribund, or dead) are rare, but normally targeted for removal. On the other hand, partial cutting can create dead wood if logging slash is left on-site. We studied foraging behavior of pileated woodpeckers (Dryocopus pileatus) in one- and two-year-old partial cuts designed to benefit priority species and in uncut forest during winter, spring, and summer of 2006 and 2007 in Louisiana. Males and females did not differ in their use of tree species, dbh class, decay class, foraging height, use of foraging tactics or substrate types; however, males foraged on larger substrates than females. In both partial cut and uncut forest, standing live trees were most frequently used (83% compared to 14% for standing dead trees and 3% for coarse woody debris); however, dead trees were selected (i.e. used out of proportion to availability). Overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) and bitter pecan (Carya aquatica) were also selected and sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) avoided. Pileated woodpeckers selected trees >= 50 cm dbh and avoided trees in smaller dbh classes (10-20 cm). Density of selected foraging substrates was the same in partial cut and uncut forest. Of the foraging substrates, woodpeckers spent 54% of foraging time on live branches and boles, 37% on dead branches and boles, and 9% on vines. Of the foraging tactics, the highest proportion of foraging time was spent excavating (58%), followed by pecking (14%), gleaning (14%), scaling (7%), berry-eating (4%), and probing (3%). Woodpecker use of foraging tactics and substrates, and foraging height and substrate

  12. Operational restoration of the Pen Branch bottomland hardwood and swamp wetlands - the research setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020 Ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC. Historically the swamp consisted of approximately 50 percent bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40 percent mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10 percent shrub, marsh, and open water. Creek corridors were typical of Southeastern bottomland hardwood forests. The hydrology was controlled by flooding of the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950's. Water was pumped from the Savannah River, through secondary heat exchangers of the reactors, and discharged into three of the tributary streams that flow into the swamp. Flow in one of the tributaries, Pen Branch, was typically 0.3 m3 s-1 (10-20) cfs prior to reactor pumping and 11.0 m3 s-1 (400 cfs) during pumping. This continued from 1954 to 1988 at various levels. The sustained increases in water volume resulted in overflow of the original stream banks and the creation of additional floodplains. Accompanying this was considerable erosion of the original stream corridor and deposition of a deep silt layer on the newly formed delta. Heated water was discharged directly into Pen Branch and water temperature in the stream often exceeded 65 degrees C. The nearly continuous flooding of the swamp, the thermal load of the water, and the heavy silting resulted in complete mortality of the original vegetation in large areas of the floodplain. In the years since pumping was reduced, early succession has begun in some affected areas. Most of this has been herbs, grasses, and shrubs. Areas that have seedlings are generally willow

  13. Sediment retention in a bottomland hardwood wetland in Eastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiss, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    One of the often-stated functions of wetlands is their ability to remove sediments and other particulates from water, thus improving water quality in the adjacent aquatic system. However, actual rates of suspended sediment removal have rarely been measured in freshwater wetland systems. To address this issue, suspended sediment dynamics were measured in a 85-km2 bottomland hardwood (BLH) wetland adjacent to the highly turbid Cache River in eastern Arkansas during the 1988-1990 water years. A suspended sediment mass balance was calculated using depth-integrated, flow-weighted daily measurements at wetland inflow and outflow points. Over the three-year period, suspended sediment load decreased an average of 14% between upstream and downstream sampling points. To test the idea that the suspended sediments were retained by the adjacent wetland and to determine what portion of the BLH forest was most responsible for retaining the suspended sediments, concurrent measurements of sediment accretion were made at 30 sites in the wetland using feldspar clay marker horizons, sedimentation disks, the 137cesium method, and dendrogeomorphic techniques. Sedimentation rates exceeding 1 cm/yr were measured in frequently flooded areas dominated by Nyssa aquatica and Taxodium distichum. Maximum sedimentation rates did not occur on the natural levee, as would be predicted by classical fluvial geomorphology, but in the "first bottom," where retention time of the water reached a maximum. Multiple regression was used to relate sedimentation rates with several physical and biological factors. A combination of distance from the river, flood duration, and tree basal area accounted for nearly 90% of the variation in sedimentation rates.

  14. Bottomland Hardwoods of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley: Characteristics and Management of Natural Function, Structure, and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul B. Hamel; Thomas L. Foti; [Editors

    2001-01-01

    A symposium entitled "Bottomland hardwoods of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley: characteristics and management of natural function, structure, and composition" convened on October 28, 1995, as part of the Natural Areas Conference, October 25-28, 1995, In Fayetteville, AR. The symposium's goal was to provide informatibn that managers need to begin...

  15. Growth pf Chinese tallow in a bottomland forest in Southern Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nana Tian; Zhaofei Fan

    2015-01-01

    Chinese tallow tree [Triadica sebifera (L.) Small, formerly Sapium sebiferum (L.) Roxb.] is a monoecious and deciduous tree, native to central and southern China. As a nonnative invasive tree species, it has aggressively invaded forestlands in southeastern United States, particularly the low- and bottom-land forests along the coastal region of the Gulf of Mexico. This...

  16. Regeneration response to tornado and salvage harvesting in a bottomland forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John L. Nelson; John W. Groninger; Loretta L. Battaglia; Charles M. Ruffner

    2010-01-01

    A direct hit from an F4 tornado on May 2003, followed by a partial salvage logging operation at Mermet Lake State Conservation Area on the Ohio River bottoms of southern IL have provided a rare opportunity to assess the responses of a bottomland hardwood forest to severe wind and soil disturbances. The study area encompasses 700 acres and is representative of many...

  17. Snag Condition and Woodpecker Foraging Ecology in a Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard N. Conner; Stanley D. Jones; Gretchen D. Jones

    1994-01-01

    We studied woodpecker foraging behavior, snag quality, and surrounding habitat in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Stephen F. Austin Experimental Forest from December 1984 through November 1986. The amount and location of woodpecker foraging excavations indicated that woodpeckers excavated mainly at the well-decayed tops and bases of snags. Woodpeckers preferred to...

  18. Influences of Herbivory and Canopy Opening Size on Forest Regeneration in a Southern Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven B. Castleberry; W. Mark Ford; Carl V. Miller; Winston P. Smith

    2000-01-01

    We examined the effects of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) browsing and canopy opening size on relative abundance and diversity of woody and herbaceous regeneration in various sized forest openings in a southern, bottomland hardwood forest over three growing seasons (1995-1997). We created 36 canopy openings (gaps), ranging from 7 to 40m...

  19. Regeneration in bottomland forest canopy gaps 6 years after variable retention harvests to enhance wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Twedt; Scott G. Somershoe

    2013-01-01

    To promote desired forest conditions that enhance wildlife habitat in bottomland forests, managers prescribed and implemented variable-retention harvest, a.k.a. wildlife forestry, in four stands on Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, LA. These treatments created canopy openings (gaps) within which managers sought to regenerate shade-intolerant trees. Six years after...

  20. Quantifying flooding effects on hardwood seedling survival and growth for bottomland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; J.W. Van Sambeek; Mark V. Coggeshall; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    Growing interest worldwide in bottomland hardwood restoration necessitates improved ecological understanding of flooding effects on forest tree seedlings using methodology that accurately reflects field conditions. We examined hardwood seedling survival and growth in an outdoor laboratory where the timing, depth, duration, and flow rate of flood water can be carefully...

  1. Arthropod abundance and seasonal bird use of bottomland forest harvest gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher E. Moorman; Liessa T. Woen; John C. Kilgo; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Michael D. Ulyshen

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the influence of arthropod abundance and vegetation structure on shifts in avian use of canopy gap, gap edge, and surrounding forest understory in a bottomland hardwood forest in the Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina. We compared captures of foliage-gleaning birds among locations during four periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and...

  2. Effects of group-selection timber harvest in bottomland hardwoods on fall migrant birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Kilgo; Karl V. Miller; Winston P. Smith

    1999-01-01

    Due to projected demands for hardwood timber, development of silvicultural practices that provide for adequate regeneration in southeastern bottomland hardwoods without causing undue harm to wildlife resources is critical. Group-selection silviculture involves harvesting a small group of trees, which creates a canopy gap (usually

  3. Carbon sequestration resulting from bottomland hardwood afforestation in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand F. Nero; Richard P. Maiers; Janet C. Dewey; Andrew J. Londo

    2010-01-01

    Increasing abandonment of marginal agricultural lands in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) and rising global atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels create a need for better options of achieving rapid afforestation and enhancing both below and aboveground carbon sequestration. This study examines the responses of six mixtures of bottomland hardwood species...

  4. Reconstituted products from oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. C. Lewis; B. G. Heebink

    1971-01-01

    "Reconstituted" describes a family of panel products made from fractionated oak, bonded with either a synthetic resin or a natural lignin bond. Several current commercial fiber panel products from oak are described, and the status of research on experimental products and processes is presented. Recent technological developments are removing the stigma...

  5. Laurels for Laurel Oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Ray

    1976-01-01

    Describes a former Air Force base converted into a joint school district vocational school which includes among other things an up-to-date facility for the students, located at Laurel Oaks, one of the four campuses of the Great Oaks Joint Vocational School District. (HF)

  6. Methane emissions from bald cypress tree trunks in a bottomland forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schile, L. M.; Pitz, S.; Megonigal, P.

    2013-12-01

    Studies on natural methane emissions predominantly have occurred on wetland soils with herbaceous plant species. Less attention, however, has been placed on the role of woody wetland plant species in the methane cycle. Recent studies on methane emissions from tree trunks document that they are a significant source of emissions that previously has been not accounted for. In this study, we examine methane emissions from trunks of mature bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), which is a dominant tree species in bottomland hardwood forests of the Southeastern United States. To date, little is known about soil methane emissions in these systems, and published tree emissions have been limited to a single study conducted on bald cypress knees. In May 2013, we established a plot in a monospecific bald cypress stand planted approximately 70 years ago on the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland and are monitoring methane emissions on 12 tree trunks, soil chambers, and pore-water over the course of a year. Custom-made 30 cm tall open face rectangular tree chambers were constructed out of white acrylic sheets and secured on each tree at a midpoint of 45 cm above the soil surface. Chambers were lined with neoprene along the tree surface and sealed with an epoxy. On three trees that varied in trunk diameter, chambers were placed at average heights of 95, 145, 195, and 345 cm from the soil surface in order to calculate a decay curve of methane emissions. Once a month, chambers were sealed with lids and head-space samples were collected over the course of an hour. Methane flux was calculated and compared to emissions from soil chambers. Average cypress trunk methane fluxes ranged from 17.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May to 49.5 and 116.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in June and July, respectively. Soil fluxes averaged 28.5 μmole m-2 hr-1 in May and June, and decreased to 13.7 μmole m-2 hr-1 in July. Methane emissions decreased exponentially up the tree trunk, with fluxes of 2 μmole m-2 hr-1 and less calculated

  7. Tree species composition and structure in an old bottomland hardwood forest in south-central Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; James M. Guldin; Thomas Foti

    2010-01-01

    Tree species composition and structure was determined for an old bottomland hardwood forest located in the Moro Creek Bottoms Natural Area in south-central Arkansas. Diversity for this forest was high with species richness ranging from 33 for the overstory and sapling strata to 26 for the seedling stratum and Shannon-Weiner values of 2.54 to 1.02 for the overstory and...

  8. Spatial and temporal patterns of beetles associated with coarse woody debris in managed bottomland hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; John C. Kilgo; Christopher E. Moorman

    2004-01-01

    Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and 0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (~1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps...

  9. Forest structure of oak plantations after silvicultural treatment to enhance habitat for wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Phillip, Cherrie-Lee P.; Guilfoyle, Michael P.; Wilson, R. Randy; Schweitzer, Callie Jo; Clatterbuck, Wayne K.; Oswalt, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    During the past 30 years, thousands of hectares of oak-dominated bottomland hardwood plantations have been planted on agricultural fields in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. Many of these plantations now have closed canopies and sparse understories. Silvicultural treatments could create a more heterogeneous forest structure, with canopy gaps and increased understory vegetation for wildlife. Lack of volume sufficient for commercial harvest in hardwood plantations has impeded treatments, but demand for woody biomass for energy production may provide a viable means to introduce disturbance beneficial for wildlife. We assessed forest structure in response to prescribed pre-commercial perturbations in hardwood plantations resulting from silvicultural treatments: 1) row thinning by felling every fourth planted row; 2) multiple patch cuts with canopy gaps of gaps appear likely to be filled by regenerating saplings.

  10. Consumers’ knowledge of and attitudes toward the role of oak in winemaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crump AM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Anna M Crump,1 Trent E Johnson,1 Susan EP Bastian,1 Johan Bruwer,1,2 Kerry L Wilkinson1 1School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, The University of Adelaide, Glen Osmond, SA, Australia; 2Ehrenberg-Bass Institute, The University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia Abstract: Oak plays an important role in the production of some white wines and most red wines. Yet, consumers’ knowledge of the use of oak in winemaking and their preference for oak-related sensory attributes remains unclear. This study examined the knowledge and attitudes of 1,015 Australian wine consumers toward the use of oak in winemaking. Consumers who indicated a liking of oak-aged wines (n=847 were segmented according to their knowledge of the role of oak in wine production. Four distinct consumer clusters were identified, with significantly different preferences for wine sensory attributes and opinions regarding the use of oak alternatives for wine maturation. One segment comprised more knowledgeable consumers, who appreciate and value traditional oak maturation regimes, for which they are willing to pay a premium price. However, a segment comprising less knowledgeable wine consumers was accepting of the use of oak chips, provided wine quality was not compromised. Winemakers can therefore justify the use of oak alternatives to achieve oak-aged wines at lower price points. The outcomes of this study can be used by winemakers to better tailor their wines to the specific needs and expectations of consumers within different segments of the market. Keywords: maturation, segmentation, wine, wine consumers

  11. Tree-ring chronologies and stable carbon isotopic composition reveal impacts of hydro-climate change on bottomland hardwood forests of South-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, A. G.; Lafon, C. W.; Hyodo, A.; Boutton, T. W.; Moore, G. W.

    2017-12-01

    Over the last three decades, South-Central Texas has experienced an increase in frequency and intensity of hydro-climatic anomalies such as extreme droughts and floods. These extreme events can have negative impacts on forest health and can strongly alter a wide range of ecosystem processes. Tree increment growth in bottomland hardwood forests is influenced by droughts and floods, which affects the carbon isotope values (δ13C) in tree-ring cellulose. This study aims to assess the impacts of hydro-climate change on the growth and physiological response of bottomland hardwood forests by investigating variations in radial growth and tree-ring carbon isotopic composition. Annual ring-width chronologies for 41 years (1975-2016) were developed from 24 water oak (Quercus nigra) trees at 4 sites along a 25 km transect located in the San Bernard River watershed. The δ13C values in cellulose were measured from 4-year ring composites including years with anomalously high and low precipitation. Dendroclimatology analysis involved correlating ring-width index with precipitation records and Palmer Drought Sensitivity Index (PDSI). Radial growth was more closely associated with spring-summer (Feb-Aug) precipitation (R2 = 0.42, pstress, as indicated by narrower growth rings and increased cellulose δ13C. However, the inter-site variation in δ13C indicated large hydro-climatic variation between sites (2.79-4.24‰ for wet years and 0.53-1.50‰ for drought years). δ13C values showed an increase of 0.78‰ and 2.40‰ from the wettest (1991-1994) to the driest period (2008-2011) at two of our sites, possibly due to drought-induced moisture-deficit-stress. However, at the other two sites, the δ13C values of tree rings from the same periods decreased by 0.65‰ and 1.19‰, possibly emanating from flooding-induced stress caused by waterlogging. This study provides insights on how hydro-climatic variations affect riparian forest health in the region and acts as a baseline for

  12. Sudden oak death disease progression in oaks and tanoaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice A. McPherson; Sylvia R. Mori; David L. Wood; Andrew J. Storer; Pavel Svihra; N. Maggi Kelly; Richard B. Standiford

    2006-01-01

    In March 2000, we established twenty disease progression plots in Marin County to monitor the progress of sudden oak death symptoms in coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), California black oak (Q. kelloggii), and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) (McPherson and others 2005). Plots were located to encompass a...

  13. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000027.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Poison ivy, oak, and sumac are plants that commonly ...

  14. The historical significance of oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. V. Thirgood

    1971-01-01

    A brief history of the importance of oak in Europe, contrasting the methods used in France and Britain to propagate the species and manage the forests for continued productivity. The significance of oak as a strategic resource during the sailing-ship era is stressed, and mention is made of the early development of oak management in North America. The international...

  15. Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Recent advancements in set theory and readily available software have enabled social science researchers to bridge the variable-centered quantitative and case-based qualitative methodological paradigms in order to analyze multi-dimensional associations beyond the linearity assumptions, aggregate...... effects, unicausal reduction, and case specificity. Based on the developments in set theoretical thinking in social sciences and employing methods like Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA), Necessary Condition Analysis (NCA), and set visualization techniques, in this position paper, we propose...... and demonstrate a new approach to maturity models in the domain of Information Systems. This position paper describes the set-theoretical approach to maturity models, presents current results and outlines future research work....

  16. Why sustain oak forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Wm. Smith

    2006-01-01

    A brief overview and some personal thoughts are offered that deal with the implications of our social and political systems on the long-term sustainability of our forest resources. The connection of the most recent climatic events, in a geologic-time context, to the development of present day oak dominated forests of the Eastern United States is discussed. The impacts...

  17. Oak management in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb. Timothy R.; Philip M. McDonald

    1981-01-01

    Native oak species grow on 15 to 20 million acres (6 to 8 million ha) of California land, and have an estimated net volume of about 3 billion ft3 (85 million m3). This resource, valuable not only for traditional wood products, but also for wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and recreational-esthetic values, is not...

  18. Cork oak woodlands patchiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Augusta; Madeira, Manuel; Plieninger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The cork oak (Quercus suber L.) woodlands of the agroforestry landscapes of Southwestern Iberia are undergoing drastic change due to severe natural and anthropogenic disturbances. These may eventually result in woodland loss or deforestation, the final step of an ongoing process of woodland degra...

  19. Tree-rings mirror management legacy: dramatic response of standard oaks to past coppicing in Central Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Altman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coppicing was one of the most important forest management systems in Europe documented in prehistory as well as in the Middle Ages. However, coppicing was gradually abandoned by the mid-20(th century, which has altered the ecosystem structure, diversity and function of coppice woods. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our aim was to disentangle factors shaping the historical growth dynamics of oak standards (i.e. mature trees growing through several coppice cycles in a former coppice-with-standards in Central Europe. Specifically, we tried to detect historical coppicing events from tree-rings of oak standards, to link coppicing events with the recruitment of mature oaks, and to determine the effects of neighbouring trees on the stem increment of oak standards. Large peaks in radial growth found for the periods 1895-1899 and 1935-1939 matched with historical records of coppice harvests. After coppicing, the number of newly recruited oak standards markedly grew in comparison with the preceding or following periods. The last significant recruitment of oak standards was after the 1930s following the last regular coppicing event. The diameter increment of oak standards from 1953 to 2003 was negatively correlated with competition indices, suggesting that neighbouring trees (mainly resprouting coppiced Tilia platyphyllos partly suppressed the growth of oak standards. Our results showed that improved light conditions following historical coppicing events caused significant increase in pulses of radial growth and most probably maintained oak recruitment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our historical perspective carries important implications for oak management in Central Europe and elsewhere. Relatively intense cutting creating open canopy woodlands, either as in the coppicing system or in the form of selective cutting, is needed to achieve significant radial growth in mature oaks. It is also critical for the successful regeneration and long

  20. Foliar nutrients explain goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, adult feeding preference among four California oak species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Tom. W. Coleman; Michael. I. Jones; Mary. L. Flint; Steven. J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Adults of the invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), consumed foliar weight in no-choice feeding tests of, in descending order, California black oak Quercus kelloggii Newb., Engelmann oak, Quercus engelmannii Greene, coast live oak, Quercus...

  1. Soil properties and growth of swamp white oak and pin oak on bedded soils in the lower Missouri River floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; J. W. Van Sambeek; Michael Wallendorf; Michael A. Gold

    2005-01-01

    Restoring bottomland hardwood ecosystems is of great interest along the lower Missouri River and within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. However, bottomland hardwood plantings commonly have a high failure rate. Among reasons cited for failures are frequent flooding and poorly drained site conditions. Soil bedding is a commonly used site preparation method shown to...

  2. Beyond maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessmer, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Plant Simulator Industry has undergone to decades of evolution in experience, technology and business practices. Link-Miles Simulation Corporation (LMSC) has been contracted to build 68 Full Scope Nuclear Simulators during the 1970's and 1980's. Traditional approaches to design, development and testing have been used to satisfy specifications for initial customer requirements. However, the Industry has matured. All U.S. Nuclear Utilities own, or have under contract, at least one simulator. Other industrial nations have centralized training facilities to satisfy the simulator training needs. The customer of the future is knowledgeable and experienced in the development and service of nuclear simulators. The role of the simulator vendor is changing in order to alter the traditional approach for development. Covenants between the vendors and their customers solidify new complementary roles. This paper presents examples of current simulator project development with recommendations for future endeavors

  3. Oak mortality associated with crown dieback and oak borer attack in the Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline and related mortality have periodically plagued upland oak–hickory forests, particularly oak species in the red oak group, across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma since the late 1970s. Advanced tree age and periodic drought, as well as Armillaria root fungi and oak borer attack are believed to contribute to oak decline and mortality....

  4. Management of oak forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löf, Magnus; Brunet, Jörg; Filyushkina, Anna

    2016-01-01

    timber production, habitats for biodiversity and cultural services, and the study analyses associated trade-offs and synergies. The three regimes were: intensive oak timber production (A), combined management for both timber production and biodiversity (B) and biodiversity conservation without management...... of wood production and cultural services. In contrast, Regime B provided a balanced delivery of timber production, biodiversity conservation and cultural services. We identified several stand-management options which provide comparatively synergistic outcomes in ecosystem services delivery. The use...

  5. Nursery stock quality as an indicator of bottomland hardwood forest restoration success in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Rosa C. Goodman; Emile S. Gardiner; K Frances Salifu; Ronald P. Overton; George Hernandez

    2012-01-01

    Seedling morphological quality standards are lacking for bottomland hardwood restoration plantings in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA, which may contribute toward variable restoration success. We measured initial seedling morphology (shoot height, root collar diameter, number of first order lateral roots, fresh mass, and root volume), second year field...

  6. Effects of silvicultural operations in a Mississippi River bottomland hardwood forest on ground beetles in the genus Brachinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynne C. Thompson; Brian Roy Lockhart

    2006-01-01

    Little information is available on how insects are affected by anthropogenic influences in the bottomland forests of the West Gulf Coastal Plain. This study investigates one genus of ground beetles that lives in managed forested landscapes to discover which species are positively and negatively influenced by human disturbances. Ground beetles (Carabidae) were collected...

  7. Harvest-related edge effects on prey availability and foraging of hooded warblers in a bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    John C. Kilgo

    2005-01-01

    The effects of harvest-created canopy gaps in bottomland hardwood forests on arthropod abundance and, hence, the foraging ecology of birds are poorly understood. I predicted that arthropod abundance would be high near edges of group-selection harvest gaps and lower in the surrounding forest, and that male Hooded Warblers (Wilsonia citrina) foraging...

  8. Purple martins in oak woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian D. C. Williams

    2002-01-01

    Purple martins are cavity-nesting swallows that once nested fairly widely in California’s oak woodlands but are now rare in that habitat. The old oaks of the Tehachapi Range (southern Sierra Nevada) may now host the last martins that nest in oak woodlands, with approximately 100-200 pairs or about 15 percent of the California population. In summer of 2000, we found 57...

  9. Results of a workshop concerning assessment of the functions of bottomland hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelle, James E.; Auble, Gregor T.; Hamilton, David B.; Johnson, Richard L.; Segelquist, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is authorized under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1344) to participate in the regulation of the discharge of dredged or fill material into waters of the United States. This regulatory authority is exercised in partnership with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which has responsibility for permit issuance, and in consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service. Through amendments to the original statute, a series of legal actions and court decisions, and the development of operating guidance among the responsible agencies, Section 404 has evolved into the primary mechanism afforded Federal authorities for the protection of wetlands. EPA recognizes the importance of wetlands in achieving the goals of the Clean Water Act, which are to protect and maintain the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation’s waters. EPA Administrator Lee Thomas has identified wetlands protection as among the highest of Agency priorities. EPA recognizes that bottomland hardwood (BLH) wetlands have vital and unique attributes that, if lost, would severely impact the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. As part of a broad program to better protect the Nation's wetlands, EPA has therefore identified bottomland hardwood wetlands as a priority resource requiring special attention on a national basis.

  10. Relative abundance and species richness of cerambycid beetles in partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, P.; King, S.

    2009-01-01

    Partial cutting techniques are increasingly advocated and used to create habitat for priority wildlife. However, partial cutting may or may not benefit species dependent on deadwood; harvesting can supplement coarse woody debris in the form of logging slash, but standing dead trees may be targeted for removal. We sampled cerambycid beetles during the spring and summer of 2006 and 2007 with canopy malaise traps in 1- and 2-year-old partial cut and uncut bottomland hardwood forests of Louisiana. We captured a total of 4195 cerambycid beetles representing 65 species. Relative abundance was higher in recent partial cuts than in uncut controls and with more dead trees in a plot. Total species richness and species composition were not different between treatments. The results suggest partial cuts with logging slash left on site increase the abundance of cerambycid beetles in the first few years after partial cutting and that both partial cuts and uncut forest should be included in the bottomland hardwood forest landscape.

  11. Assessment of the role of bottomland hardwoods in sediment and erosion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinas, A.; Auble, Gregor T.; Segelquist, C.A.; Ischinger, Lee S.

    1988-01-01

    Drainage and clearing of bottomland hardwoods have long been recognized by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) as important impacts of Federal water projects in the lower Mississippi River Valley. More recently, the water quality impacts of such projects (e.g., increases in sediments, nutrients, and pesticides) have also become of concern. In 1984, in an effort to better define problems concerning wetland losses and water degradation, EPA initiated a cooperative project with the Western Energy and Land Use Team (now the National Ecology Research Center) of the Service. Three phases of the project were identified: 1. To collect existing literature and data; 2. To select, develop, and test the utility of methods to quantify the relationships between land use, cover types, soils, hydrology, and water quality (as represented by sediment); and 3. To apply selected methodologies to several sites within the Yazoo Basin of Mississippi to determine the, potential effectiveness of various management alternatives to reduce sediment yield, increase sediment deposition, and improve water quality. Methods development focused on linking a simulation of water and sediment movement to a computerized geographic information system. We had several objectives for the resulting model. We desired that it should: 1. Estimate the importance of bottomland and hardwoods as a cover type that performs the functions of erosion and sediment control, 2. Simulate effects of proportions of ' various cover types and their specific spatial configurations, 3. Be applicable to moderately large spatial areas with minimal site-specific calibration, 4. Simulate spatial patterns of sediment loss-gain over time, and 5. Represent both sediment detachment and transport. While it was recognized that impacts and management alternatives could be sorted roughly into landscape measures and channel measures, the decision was made to focus study efforts

  12. Point Counts of Birds in Bottomland Hardwood Forests of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley: Duration, Minimum Sample Size, and Points Versus Visits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston Paul Smith; Daniel J. Twedt; David A. Wiedenfeld; Paul B. Hamel; Robert P. Ford; Robert J. Cooper

    1993-01-01

    To compare efficacy of point count sampling in bottomland hardwood forests, duration of point count, number of point counts, number of visits to each point during a breeding season, and minimum sample size are examined.

  13. Establishing oaks in Big River floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Dey; John Kabrick; Michael Gold

    2003-01-01

    Successful tree establishment is fundamental to implementing agroforestry practices, reforesting bottomland cropfields or regenerating green-tree reservoirs. Planting trees can be problematic in floodplains and riparian areas because of intense competition from herbaceous and woody plants, animal herbivory and browsing, and flooding and saturated soils.

  14. Seeding and planting upland oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Oaks can be planted or seeded in uplands to: (1) afforest old fields, strip-mined areas, or other areas devoid of trees, and (2) supplement natural reproduction within existing forests. Planting is usually more successful than direct seeding. But even under good conditions survival and growth of planted oak has been considerably poorer than with conifers and other...

  15. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Scott; Hanula, James L.; Ulyshen, Michael D.; Kilgo, John C.

    2005-01-01

    Horn, Scott, James L. Hanula, Michael D. Ulyshen, and John C. Kilgo. 2005. Abundance of green tree frogs and insects in artificial canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest. Am. Midl. Nat. 153:321-326. Abstract: We found more green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) in canopy gaps than in closed canopy forest. Of the 331 green tree frogs observed, 88% were in canopy gaps. Likewise, higher numbers and biomasses of insects were captured in the open gap habitat. Flies were the most commonly collected insect group accounting for 54% of the total capture. These data suggest that one reason green tree frogs were more abundant in canopy gaps was the increased availability of prey and that small canopy gaps provide early successional habitats that are beneficial to green tree frog populations.

  16. Home range behavior among box turtles (Terrapene c. carolina) of a bottomland forest in Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1989-01-01

    Eastern box turtles (Terrapene c. carolina) in a Maryland bottomland forest were studied over a period of years (1944-1981). Home ranges of 51 males averaged 146 + SD 48 m long and 105 + SD 38 m wide; ranges of 52 females averaged 144 + SD 52 m long and 100 + SD 38 m wide. An approximation of average home range size, based on an ellipse, is 1.20 ha for males and 1.13 ha for females. Sizes of home ranges of individuals did not differ significantly between 1945 and the full term of their captures (0 =14 yr) (AOV; P > 0.05). Mean distance between capture sites, which provides an index to range size, was not significantly different among the years of 1945, 1955, 1965, and 1975 (AOV; P > 0.05). Geographic centers of ranges of 77 males in the bottomlands showed no significant (AOV; P > 0.05) change for 46, and change over relatively short distances (0 =57 + SD 23 m) for the others. Among 70 females, there was no significant change for 46 and change over short distances (0=61 + SD 24 m) for the others. Changes in location were more frequent between 1965 and 1975, a period of pronounced population decline, than between previous decades (significant only for females, x2 P < 0.025). Hibernation sites ordinarily (21 of 23 Individuals) were within the normal bottom]and range; hibernation sites of different years were near each other (all of 4 individuals). In contrast, nesting sites were far distant, extending the home range by 400-700 m, but those of different years were near each other (6 individuals). Mating partners occupied broadly overlapping or contiguous ranges (35 records). Interactions between males (18 records) were identical to courtship behavior, and are believed not to represent territorial aggression.

  17. The response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to selection cutting in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; John C. Kilgo; Christopher E. Moorman

    2005-01-01

    We compared the response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to the creation of canopy gaps of different size (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and age (1 and 7 years) in a bottomland hardwood forest (South Carolina, USA). Samples were collected four times in 2001 by malaise and pitfall traps placed at the center and edge of each gap, and 50 m into the surrounding forest...

  18. Hyperdiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on oak seedlings in mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Walker; Orson K. Miller; Jonathan L. Horton

    2005-01-01

    Diversity of ectotrophic mycobionts on outplanted seedlings of two oak species (Quercus rubra and Quercus prinus) was estimated at two sites in mature mixed forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains by sequencing nuclear 5.8S rRNA genes and the flanking internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS). The...

  19. Overstory density affects field performance of underplanted red oak (Quercus rubra L.) in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; William C. Parker

    1997-01-01

    Red oak seedlings were underplanted in a closed-canopy mature northern hardwood stand and an adjacent shelterwood in central Ontario. Overstory density effects on seedling survival and growth were assessed 2 yr after planting. After 2 yr, seedling survival was 90% in the uncut stand and over 99% in the shelterwood. Seedlings in the uncut stand experienced negligible or...

  20. Risk analysis and guidelines for harvest activities in wisconsin oak timberlands to minimize oak wilt threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Juzwik; Jane Cummings-Carlson; Kyoko Scanlon

    2010-01-01

    Oaks (Quercus spp.) are an important species group in the forests of Wisconsin. The State’s timberland typed as oak-hickory forest was estimated at 2.9 million acres in 1996. Growing stock volume for red oak was estimated at 2.4 billion cubic feet, whereas select white oak volume was estimated to be 927 million cubic feet. Oak wilt, the oak disease...

  1. Characterization of the cork oak transcriptome dynamics during acorn development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Andreia; de Vega-Bartol, José; Marum, Liliana; Chaves, Inês; Santo, Tatiana; Leitão, José; Varela, Maria Carolina; Miguel, Célia M

    2015-06-25

    Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) has a natural distribution across western Mediterranean regions and is a keystone forest tree species in these ecosystems. The fruiting phase is especially critical for its regeneration but the molecular mechanisms underlying the biochemical and physiological changes during cork oak acorn development are poorly understood. In this study, the transcriptome of the cork oak acorn, including the seed, was characterized in five stages of development, from early development to acorn maturation, to identify the dominant processes in each stage and reveal transcripts with important functions in gene expression regulation and response to water. A total of 80,357 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were de novo assembled from RNA-Seq libraries representative of the several acorn developmental stages. Approximately 7.6 % of the total number of transcripts present in Q. suber transcriptome was identified as acorn specific. The analysis of expression profiles during development returned 2,285 differentially expressed (DE) transcripts, which were clustered into six groups. The stage of development corresponding to the mature acorn exhibited an expression profile markedly different from other stages. Approximately 22 % of the DE transcripts putatively code for transcription factors (TF) or transcriptional regulators, and were found almost equally distributed among the several expression profile clusters, highlighting their major roles in controlling the whole developmental process. On the other hand, carbohydrate metabolism, the biological pathway most represented during acorn development, was especially prevalent in mid to late stages as evidenced by enrichment analysis. We further show that genes related to response to water, water deprivation and transport were mostly represented during the early (S2) and the last stage (S8) of acorn development, when tolerance to water desiccation is possibly critical for acorn viability. To our knowledge this work

  2. Logging damage to residual trees following commercial harvesting to different overstory retention levels in a mature hardwood stand in Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne K. Clatterbuck

    2006-01-01

    Partial cutting in mature hardwood stands often causes physical damage to residual stems through felling and skidding resulting in a decline in bole quality and subsequent loss of tree value. This study assessed the logging damage to residual trees following commercial harvesting in a fully stocked, mature oak-hickory stand cut to three overstory basal area retention...

  3. Landscape and vegetation effects on avian reproduction on bottomland forest restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Somershoe, Scott G.; Hazler, Kirsten R.; Cooper, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Forest restoration has been undertaken on >200,000 ha of agricultural land in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley, USA, during the past few decades. Decisions on where and how to restore bottomland forests are complex and dependent upon landowner objectives, but for conservation of silvicolous (forest-dwelling) birds, ecologists have espoused restoration through planting a diverse mix of densely spaced seedlings that includes fast-growing species. Application of this planting strategy on agricultural tracts that are adjacent to extant forest or within landscapes that are predominately forested has been advocated to increase forest area and enhance forested landscapes, thereby benefiting area-sensitive, silvicolous birds. We measured support for these hypothesized benefits through assessments of densities of breeding birds and reproductive success of 9 species on 36 bottomland forest restoration sites. Densities of thamnic (shrub-scrub dwelling) and silvicolous birds, such as yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens), indigo bunting (Passerina cyanea), and white-eyed vireo (Vireo griseus) were positively associated with 1) taller trees, 2) greater stem densities, and 3) a greater proportion of forest within the landscape, whereas densities of birds associated with grasslands, such as dickcissel (Spiza americana) and red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus), were negatively associated with these variables. Vegetation structure, habitat edge, and temporal effects had greater influence on nest success than did landscape effects. Taller trees, increased density of woody stems, greater vegetation density, and more forest within the landscape were often associated with greater nest success. Nest success of grassland birds was positively related to distance from forest edge but, for thamnic birds, success was greater near edges. Moreover, nest success and estimated fecundity of thamnic species suggested their populations are self-sustaining on forest restoration sites, whereas

  4. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Nesensohn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  5. Slab replacement maturity guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the use of maturity method to determine early age strength of concrete in slab : replacement application. Specific objectives were (1) to evaluate effects of various factors on the compressive : maturity-strength relationship ...

  6. How to identify and manage oak wilt in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.N. Appel; R.S. Cameron; A.D. Wilson; J.D. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    Transporting unseasoned firewood from diseased red oaks is a potential means of spreading the oak wilt fungus. Oak wilt cannot be transmitted by burning infected firewood, but fungal mats may form on firewood in storage. Presently, no vectors have been proven to transmit the fungus from live oaks to other oak trees, but diseased wood fromany oak species should never be...

  7. Contrasting responses to drought of forest floor CO2 efflux in a loblolly pine plantation and a nearby Oak-Hickory forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Palmroth; Chris A. Maier; Heather R. McCarthy; A. C. Oishi; H. S. Kim; Kurt H. Johnsen; Gabrial G. Katul; Ram Oren

    2005-01-01

    Forest floor C02 efflux (Fff) depends on vegetation type, climate, and soil physical properties. We assessed the effects of biological factors on Fff by comparing a maturing pine plantation (PP) and a nearby mature Oak-Hickory-type hardwood forest (HW). Fff was measured...

  8. Variation in flood tolerance of container-grown seedlings of swamp white oak, bur oak, and white oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Walsh; J.W. Van Sambeek; Mark V. Coggeshall

    2008-01-01

    How much variation in flood tolerance exists among seedlings within oak species, given the flood frequency of sites from which acorns are collected, has been largely unexplored. Our studies examined initial growth and flood tolerance for seedlings of swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor Willd.), bur oak (Q. macrocarpa L.), and white...

  9. Fire effects on Gambel oak in southwestern ponderosa pine-oak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott R. Abella; Peter Z. Fulé

    2008-01-01

    Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) is ecologically and aesthetically valuable in southwestern ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Fire effects on Gambel oak are important because fire may be used in pine-oak forests to manage oak directly or to accomplish other management objectives. We used published literature to: (1) ascertain...

  10. Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 2004 with the mission of standing up a supercomputer 100 times...

  11. Herbivorous insect response to group selection cutting in a southeastern bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael D. Ulyshen; James L. Hanula; Scott Horn; Christopher E. Moorman.

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT Malaise and pitfall traps were used to sample herbivorous insects in canopy gaps created by group-selection cutting in a bottomland hardwood forest in South Carolina. The traps were placed at the centers, edges, and in the forest adjacent to gaps of different sizes (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and ages (1 and 7 yr old) during four sampling periods in 2001. Overall, the abundance and species richness of insect herbivores were greater at the centers of young gaps than at the edge of young gaps or in the forest surrounding young gaps. There were no differences in abundance or species richness among old gap locations (i.e., centers, edges, and forest), and we collected significantly more insects in young gaps than old gaps. The insect communities in old gaps were more similar to the forests surrounding them than young gap communities were to their respective forest locations, but the insect communities in the two forests locations (surrounding young and old gaps) had the highest percent similarity of all. Although both abundance and richness increased in the centers of young gaps with increasing gap size, these differences were not significant.Weattribute the increased numbers of herbivorous insects to the greater abundance of herbaceous plants available in young gaps.

  12. Forest harvesting effects on soil temperature, moisture, and respiration in a bottomland hardwood forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londo, A.J.; Messina, M.G.; Schoenholtz, S.H.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of forest disturbance on C cycling has become an issue, given concerns about escalating atmospheric C content. The authors examined the effects of harvest intensity on in situ and laboratory mineral soil respiration in an East Texas bottomland hardwood forest between 6 and 22 mo after harvesting. Treatments included a clearcut, a partial cut wherein approximately 58% of the basal area was removed, and an unharvested control. The soda-lime absorption technique was used for in situ respiration (CO 2 efflux) and the wet alkali method (NaOH) was used for laboratory mineral soil respiration. Soil temperature and moisture content were also measured. Harvesting significantly increased in situ respiration during most sampling periods. This effect was attributed to an increase in live root and microflora activity associated with postharvesting revegetation. In situ respiration increased exponentially (Q 10 relationship) as treatment soil temperatures increased, but followed a parabolic-type pattern through the range of soil moisture measured (mean range 10.4--31.5%). Mean rates of laboratory mineral soil respiration measured during the study were unaffected by cutting treatment for most sampling sessions. Overall, the mean rate of CO 2 efflux in the clearcuts was significantly higher than that in the partial cuts, which in turn was significantly higher than that in the controls. Mass balance estimates indicate that these treatment differences will have little or no long-term effect on C sequestration of these managed forests

  13. Quercus kelloggii Newb., California black oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.M. McDonald

    1990-01-01

    California black oak (Quercus kelloggii) exceeds all other California oaks in volume, distribution, and altitudinal range. Yet this deciduous hardwood has had little sustained commercial use and almost no management, even though its wood closely resembles that of its valuable, managed, and heavily used counterpart-northern red oak (...

  14. The Hibernation of the oak Mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerling, L.C.P.

    1966-01-01

    The oak mildew invaded Western Europa in the years 1908 and 1909. Since then this parasite, Microsphaera alphitoides Griff. & Maubl. (syn. M. quercina (Schw.) Burr.) has occurred regularly in the Netherlands on oak seedlings and oak coppice, mainly Quercus pedunculata Ehr. (syn. Q. robur L. ). After

  15. Regenerating oaks with the shelterwood system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan L. Sander

    1979-01-01

    It is well known that a new reproduction stand that follows complete overstory removal will contain oaks in proportion to the numbers and size of advance oak reproduction present before the overstory was removed. Furthermore, the individual advance oaks must be relatively large with well-established root systems before they will compete successfully and be dominant in...

  16. Sudden Oak Death - Eastern (Pest Alert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph O' Brien; Manfred Mielke; Steve Oak; Bruce Moltzan

    2002-01-01

    A phenomenon known as Sudden Oak Death was first reported in 1995 in central coastal California. Since then, tens of thousands of tanoaks (Lithocarpus densiflorus), coast live oaks (Quercus agrifolia), and California black oaks (Quercus kelloggii) have been killed by a newly identified fungus, Phytophthora ramorum. On these hosts, the fungus causes a bleeding canker on...

  17. Contact allergy to oak moss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Guillaume; Gimenéz-Arnau, Elena; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra

    2003-01-01

    In addition to pure synthetic fragrance materials several natural extracts are still in use in the perfume industry. Among them oak moss absolute, prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Arch., is considered a major contact sensitizer and is therefore included in the fragrance mix used...... for diagnosing perfume allergy. The process of preparing oak moss absolute has changed during recent years and, even though several potential sensitizers have been identified from former benzene extracts, its present constituents and their allergenic status are not clear. In the study reported here, we applied...

  18. Extraction and formation dynamic of oak-related volatile compounds from different volume barrels to wine and their behavior during bottle storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Prieto, Luis J; López-Roca, Jose M; Martínez-Cutillas, Adrián; Pardo-Mínguez, Francisco; Gómez-Plaza, Encarna

    2003-08-27

    The extraction rate of furfuryl aldehydes, guaiacol, and 4-methylguaiacol, cis- and trans-oak lactone, and vanillin and the formation rate of furfuryl alcohol and the volatile phenols 4-ethylguaiacol and 4-ethylphenol have been studied in wines matured in different capacity oak barrels (220, 500, and 1000 L). Also, the behavior of these compounds during 1 year of wine bottle storage was followed. The lactones were extracted at a linear rate with large differences that depended on barrel volume. Those compounds related to oak toasting (guaiacol, 4-methylguaiacol, furfuryl aldehydes, and vanillin) seemed to be extracted faster during the first days of oak maturation except for vanillin, which required at least 3 months to accumulate in the wine. The volatile phenols, 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol, were formed in large quantities after the first 90 days of oak maturation, coinciding with the end of spring and beginning of summer. Wines matured in 1000-L oak barrels resulted in the lowest levels of volatile compound accumulation. During bottle storage, some compounds decreased in their concentration (5-methylfurfural, vanillin), others experienced increases in their levels (lactones, furfural, 4-ethylguaiacol, 4-ethylphenol), and the concentration of other compounds hardly changed (guaiacol, furfuryl alcohol).

  19. Genetic variation in California oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance I. Millar; Diane L. Delany; Lawrence A. Riggs

    1990-01-01

    In forestry the importance of genetic variation for successful reproduction, survival and growth has been widely documented for commercial conifers; until recently, little genetic work has been done on the California oaks. Even before the nature of genetic variation was scientifically investigated, its importance was suspected in operational forestry. Many failures of...

  20. Oak Ridge Geochemical Reconnaissance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, J.W.

    1977-03-01

    The Oak Ridge reconnaissance program is responsible for the geochemical survey in a 12-state area covering Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Iowa, Indiana, and Illinois as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. The program concept is outlined and the planning and organization of the program is discussed

  1. Oak woodlands as wildlife habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Tietje; K. Purcell; S. Drill

    2005-01-01

    This chapter provides local planners and policymakers with information on the diversity and abundance of oak woodland wildlife, wildlife habitat needs, and how local planning activities can influence wildlife abundance and diversity. Federal and state laws, particularly the federal and California Endangered Species Act and the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA...

  2. Spatial and temporal patterns of beetles associated with coarse woody debris in managed bottomland hardwood forests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, M., D.; Hanula, J., L.; Horn, S.; Kilgo, J., C.; Moorman, C., E.

    2004-05-13

    For. Ecol. and Mgt. 199:259-272. Malaise traps were used to sample beetles in artificial canopy gaps of different size (0.13 ha, 0.26 ha, and0.50 ha) and age in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest. Traps were placed at the center, edge, and in the surrounding forest of each gap. Young gaps (ý 1 year) had large amounts of coarse woody debris compared to the surrounding forest, while older gaps (ý 6 years) had virtually none. The total abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles (Buprestidae, Cerambycidae, Brentidae, Bostrichidae, and Curculionidae (Scolytinae and Platypodinae)) was higher in the center of young gaps than in the center of old gaps. The abundance was higher in the center of young gaps than in the surrounding forest, while the forest surrounding old gaps and the edge of old gaps had a higher abundance and diversity of wood-dwelling beetles than did the center of old gaps. There was no difference in wood-dwelling beetle abundance between gaps of different size, but diversity was lower in 0.13 ha old gaps than in 0.26 ha or 0.50 ha old gaps. We suspect that gap size has more of an effect on woodborer abundance than indicated here because malaise traps sample a limited area. The predaceous beetle family Cleridae showed a very similar trend to that of the woodborers. Coarse woody debris is an important resource for many organisms, and our results lend further support to forest management practices that preserve coarse woody debris created during timber removal.

  3. Avian response to microclimate in canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champlin, Tracey B.; Kilgo, John C.; Gumpertz, Marcia L.; Moorman, Christopher E.

    2009-04-01

    Abstract - Microclimate may infl uence use of early successional habitat by birds. We assessed the relationships between avian habitat use and microclimate (temperature, light intensity, and relative humidity) in experimentally created canopy gaps in a bottomland hardwood forest on the Savannah River Site, SC. Gaps were 2- to 3-year-old group-selection timber harvest openings of three sizes (0.13, 0.26, 0.50 ha). Our study was conducted from spring through fall, encompassing four bird-use periods (spring migration, breeding, post-breeding, and fall migration), in 2002 and 2003. We used mist netting and simultaneously recorded microclimate variables to determine the influence of microclimate on bird habitat use. Microclimate was strongly affected by net location within canopy gaps in both years. Temperature generally was higher on the west side of gaps, light intensity was greater in gap centers, and relative humidity was higher on the east side of gaps. However, we found few relationships between bird captures and the microclimate variables. Bird captures were inversely correlated with temperature during the breeding and postbreeding periods in 2002 and positively correlated with temperature during spring 2003. Captures were high where humidity was high during post-breeding 2002, and captures were low where humidity was high during spring 2003. We conclude that variations in the local microclimate had minor infl uence on avian habitat use within gaps. Instead, habitat selection in relatively mild regions like the southeastern US is based primarily on vegetation structure, while other factors, including microclimate, are less important.

  4. ORGANIZATIONAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Derenskaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present article is aimed at developing a set of recommendations for achieving a higher level of organizational project maturity at a given enterprise. Methodology. For the purposes of the current research, the available information sources on the components of project management system are analysed; the essence of “organizational maturity” and the existing models of organizational maturity are studied. The method of systemic and structural analysis, as well as the method of logical generalization, are employed in order to study the existing models of organizational maturity, to describe levels of organizational maturity, and finally to develop a set of methodological recommendations for achieving a higher level of organizational project maturity at a given enterprise. The results of the research showed that the core elements of project management system are methodological, organizational, programtechnical, and motivational components. Project management encompasses a wide range of issues connected with organizational structure, project team, communication management, project participants, etc. However, the fundamental basis for developing project management concept within a given enterprise starts with defining its level of organizational maturity. The present paper describes various models of organizational maturity (staged, continuous, petal-shaped and their common types (H. Кеrzner Organizational Maturity Model, Berkeley PM Maturity Model, Organizational Project Management Maturity Model, Portfolio, Program & Project Management Maturity Model. The analysis of available theoretic works showed that the notion “organizational project maturity” refers to the capability of an enterprise to select projects and manage them with the intention of achieving its strategic goals in the most effective way. Importantly, the level of maturity can be improved by means of formalizing the acquired knowledge, regulating project-related activities

  5. The Effect of Herbivory by White-Tailed Deer and Additionally Swamp Rabbits in an Old-Growth Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret S. Devall; Bernard R. Parresol; Winston P. Smith

    2001-01-01

    Forest openings create internal patchiness and offer different habitat qualities that attract wildlife, especially herbivores, that flourish along forest edges. But intense herbivory in these openings can reduce or eliminate herbaceous and woody species and thus influence local species composition and structure of the forest. This study in an old-growth bottomland...

  6. Root-collar diameter and third-year survival of three bottomland hardwoods planted on former agricultural fields in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner; Douglass F. Jacobs; Ronald P. Overton; George Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    Athough the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) has experienced substantial afforestation of former agricultural fields during the past 2 decades, seedling standards that support satisfactory outplanting performance of bottomland hardwood tree species are not available. A series of experimental plantations, established on three afforestation sites in the LMAV,...

  7. Oak management for wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger Barlow

    1971-01-01

    A method is presented for analyzing oak management alternatives through comparisons of the present value of the net cash flow produced. Even-aged management without age-class regulation returned $72.60 of present value over a 40-year period. In the next 40 years the only expenses reduce the present value to $72.43. To regulate this stand into a forest with an equal...

  8. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C.; Pearce, J.; Zucker, A. (eds.)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents brief descriptions of the following programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: The effects of pollution and climate change on forests; automation to improve the safety and efficiency of rearming battle tanks; new technologies for DNA sequencing; ORNL probes the human genome; ORNL as a supercomputer research center; paving the way to superconcrete made with polystyrene; a new look at supercritical water used in waste treatment; and small mammals as environmental monitors.

  9. Bud burst and flowering phenology in a mixed oak forest from Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Nicoleta Chesnoiu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Bud burst and flowering phenology have been observed in year 2008 in a natural white oak species complex situated in eastern Romania. A total of 300 mature individuals was mapped and identified based on leaf morphology. The community consists of four oak species: Quercus pedunculiflora, Q. robur, Q. pubescens and Q. petraea. A set of 28 individuals could not be unambiguously classified to one or another species. Data on bud burst showed a normal distribution and the differences among species were small. The "very late" flushing was recorded on 15th of April, three weeks later when compared to early flushing individuals. The time period between the bud burst and the complete development of leaves was nearly the same in all oak species, varying on average, between 18.4 and 20.6 days. The spatial distribution of phenological groups within the complex appears to be non-randomly, because in many parts of the study plot exist groups in which most of the trees belong to the same phenological category. Our results indicate an overlap in flowering time for all oak species which occur in the area. The data support the hypothesis that interspecific gene flow is possible between closely related oak species.

  10. Bud burst and flowering phenology in a mixed oak forest from Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Nicoleta Chesnoiu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Bud burst and flowering phenology have been observed in year 2008 ina natural white oak species complex situated in eastern Romania. A total of 300 mature individuals was mapped and identified based on leaf morphology. The community consists of four oak species: Quercus pedunculiflora, Q. robur, Q. pubescens and Q. petraea. A set of 28 individuals could not be unambiguously classified to one or another species. Data on bud burst showed a normal distribution and the differences among species were small. The "very late" flushing was recorded on 15th of April, three weeks later when compared to early flushing individuals. The time period between the bud burst and the complete development of leaves was nearly the same in all oak species, varying on average, between 18.4 and 20.6 days. The spatialdistribution of phenological groups within the complex appears to be non-randomly, because in many parts of the study plot exist groups in which most of the trees belong to the same phenological category. Our results indicate an overlap in flowering time for all oak species which occur in the area. The data support the hypothesis that interspecific gene flow is possible between closely related oak species.

  11. Dependence of Oak-Related Volatile Compounds on the Physicochemical Characteristics of Barrel-Aged Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rodríguez-Rodríguez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effect of some of the physicochemical characteristics of wines such as volatile acidity, titratable acidity, pH, free SO2 and alcohol content on the accumulation of oak-related volatile compounds in barrel-aged wines, in order to give more light on the contradictory results found by other authors in this respect. For this, three different single variety wines were aged for twelve months in barrels with the same characteristics (same cooperage, wood origin, toasting level and volume, repeating the experiment in two consecutive years. Our results show that the percentage of wine alcohol and its titratable acidity positively correlated with the final concentration of vanillin and guaiacyl compounds in the oak-matured wines and negatively with the cis- and trans-β-methyl-γ-octalactone concentration. Therefore, when studying the effect of oak barrel variables (oak origin and seasoning, size of the barrel, number of uses, etc. on the concentration of oak-related volatile compounds in wine, the effect of the physicochemical variables of the wine, especially titratable acidity and alcohol content, should also be taken into account since the final wine aroma composition will also depend on these characteristics.

  12. Assessing Methods to Protect Susceptible Oak and Tanoak Stands from Sudden Oak Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedmund Swiecki; Elizabeth Bernhardt

    2010-01-01

    Landowners and managers have been seeking ways to protect susceptible oak (Quercus) species and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) from sudden oak death (SOD) caused by Phytophthora ramorum. Because disease epidemiology differs between tanoaks and susceptible oaks, we are testing different control strategies...

  13. Oak Dispersal Syndromes: Do Red and White Oaks Exhibit Different Dispersal Srategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Steele; Peter Smallwood; William B. Terzaghi; John E. Carlson; Thomas conteras; Amy McEuen

    2004-01-01

    We provide an overview of the ecological and evolutionary interactions between oaks and several of their dispersal agents, and review a series of studies that demonstrate how various acorn characteristics affect feeding and caching decisions of these animals, which in turn may influence oak dispersal and establishment. We demonstrate that acorns of red oak species show...

  14. A guide for evaluating the adequacy of oak advance reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan L. Sander; Paul S. Johnson; Richard F. Watt

    1976-01-01

    Gives instructions for conducting an inventory of oak advance reproduction prior to final harvest cutting to evaluate the potential for successful oak reproduction in new stands. The potential for oak stump sprouting is also considered.

  15. Maturity of the PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.; Rapin, M.; Aboudarham, L.; Bitsch, D.

    1983-03-01

    Figures illustrating the predominant position of the PWR system are presented. The question is whether on the basis of these figures the PWR can be considered to have reached maturity. The following analysis, based on the French program experience, is an attempt to pinpoint those areas in which industrial maturity of the PWR has been attained, and in which areas a certain evolution can still be expected to take place

  16. Germination of Cherrybark and Nuttal Oak Acorns Following Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. B. Briscoe

    1961-01-01

    Frequency and duration of flooding is undoubtedly one of the most important environmental factors affecting species distribution in bottomland forests. In the life of a tree this influence is first exerted on the seed, and the capacity of seeds to retain viability after submergence by flood water may well be an important factor in determining the success of a species...

  17. Goldspotted oak borer: Field identification guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Hishinuma; T.W. Coleman; M.L. Flint; S.J. Seybold

    2011-01-01

    The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a flatheaded borer new to California that poses a significant threat to oak trees. The pest is native to southeastern Arizona, although a related species occurs in southern Mexico and northern Guatemala. GSOB was first collected and identified in California in 2004 in San Diego County...

  18. Oak regeneration potential increased by shelterwood treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Schlesinger; Ivan L. Sander; Kenneth R. Davidson

    1993-01-01

    In much of the Central Hardwood Forest Region, oak species are not regenerating well, even though large oak trees are common within the existing forests. The shelterwood method has been suggested as a potential tool for establishing and developing advanced regeneration where it is lacking. The 10-yr results from a study of several variants of the shelterwood method...

  19. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucke, P.C.

    1992-10-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1991 is the 21st in a series that began in 1971. The report documents the annual results of a comprehensive program to estimate the impact of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge operations upon human health and the environment. The report is organized into ten sections that address various aspects of effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, dose assessment, waste management, and quality assurance. A compliance summary gives a synopsis of the status of each facility relative to applicable state and federal regulations. Data are included for the following: Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant; Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and Oak Ridge K-25 Site. Effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs are intended to serve as effective indicators of contaminant releases and ambient contaminant concentrations that have the potential to result in adverse impacts to human health and the environment

  20. Mammals of the Oak forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otalora Ardila, Aida

    2003-01-01

    The high rate of deforestation over the Andean forests has generated a large proportion of fragmented landscapes in the country. The distribution of oak groves in the country was determined based on ecosystem maps. Charala and Encino oak groves patches are the largest ones found at the east Andes and like others, due to the unfair use of these resources, have suffered a fragmentation process. Fifty-five species of mammals included in 10 orders and 14 families were found in these forests. Chiroptera and Rodentia were the most representative groups. Anthropic processes had produced a 68.1% loss of the habitat and constitute the main threat for these forests. The sizes of the patches were evaluated for three mammal species categories. The patches' area are not favorable for large-size species, intermediately to favorable to medium-size species and are favorable for small-size species. It is suggested that patches' area effect over mammal species could relate to the decrease of species richness and of each fragment area. There are good connections between patches (only five isolated), allowing the presence of a greater species diversity. There is also a bleak plateau zone between connected patches increasing their connectivity and offering different habitats and resources for some mammal species

  1. Impacts of Flooding Regime Modification on Wildlife Habitats of Bottomland Hardwood Forests in the Lower Mississippi Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    Diospyros virginiana White ash Fraxinus americana Shingle oak Quercus imbricaria Pin oak 0 palustris (Continued) Able to survive deep, prolonged...Mississippi, and found little significant dif- ference in overall capture data. Natural stands almost exclusively sup- ported mice of the genus Peromyscus...frequent wetlands but are not restricted to them. k. Although the cottonmouth is common in wetlands, water snakes of the genus Nerodia are most important in

  2. Emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skipper, M.N.

    1990-03-01

    Emergency preparedness for industry was commonly believed to be an essential responsibility on the part of management. Therefore, this study was conducted to research and accumulate information and data on emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of this study was to conduct a thorough evaluation of emergency preparedness knowledge among employees to determine if they were properly informed or if they needed more training. Also, this study was conducted to provide insight to management as to what their responsibility was concerning this training. To assess employee emergency preparedness knowledge, a questionnaire was developed and administered to 100 employees at ORNL. The data was analyzed using frequencies and percentages of response and was displayed through the use of graphs within the report. 22 refs., 22 figs

  3. Emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skipper, M.N.

    1990-03-01

    Emergency preparedness for industry was commonly believed to be an essential responsibility on the part of management. Therefore, this study was conducted to research and accumulate information and data on emergency preparedness at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The objective of this study was to conduct a thorough evaluation of emergency preparedness knowledge among employees to determine if they were properly informed or if they needed more training. Also, this study was conducted to provide insight to management as to what their responsibility was concerning this training. To assess employee emergency preparedness knowledge, a questionnaire was developed and administered to 100 employees at ORNL. The data was analyzed using frequencies and percentages of response and was displayed through the use of graphs within the report. 22 refs., 22 figs.

  4. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found...... to be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support...... for the affine term structure model....

  5. The mighty oak faces challenges in the Pacific West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gail Wells

    2010-01-01

    In popular imagination, the oak tree stands for strength, endurance, and longevity. But in the coastal lowlands and central valleys of British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California, oaks face a battery of natural and human-induced threats. Sudden oak death, caused by a virulent pathogen identified in 2000, has killed millions of tanoaks, California black oaks,...

  6. A field guide to insects and diseases of California oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedmund J. Swiecki; Elizabeth A. Bernhardt

    2006-01-01

    California has more than twenty-five native species, natural hybrids, and varieties of oaks (Quercus species). The form of these oaks ranges from large trees, up to about 25 m tall, to shrubs no taller than about 1.5 m. California's native oaks include representatives of three oak subgroups or subgenera (Table 1). Hybridization only occurs...

  7. Oak moss extracts in the diagnosis of fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Heydorn, Siri; Menné, Torkil

    2002-01-01

    Oak moss absolute is one of the eight ingredients of the fragrance mix (FM) used for diagnosing perfume allergy. Oak moss absolute is an extract prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri growing on oak trees. It has been shown that the oak moss patch test material from one producer contained resin...

  8. Fragmentation patterns of evergreen oak woodlands in Southwestern Iberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, A.; Madeira, M.; Lima Santos, J.

    2014-01-01

    Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands (composed of Quercus suber L. and Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) are becoming increasingly fragmented in the human-modified landscapes of Southwestern Portugal and Spain. Previous studies have largely neglected to assess the spatial changes of oak woodlands...... patterns of oak recruitment and therefore, its study may be helpful in highlighting future baselines for the sustainable management of oak woodlands....

  9. Grammar Maturity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaytsev, V.; Pierantonio, A.; Schätz, B.; Tamzalit, D.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of a software language (whether modelled by a grammar or a schema or a metamodel) is not limited to development of new versions and dialects. An important dimension of a software language evolution is maturing in the sense of improving the quality of its definition. In this paper, we

  10. Maturing interorganisational information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313946809

    2012-01-01

    This thesis consists of nine chapters, divided over five parts. PART I is an introduction and the last part contains the conclusions. The remaining, intermediate parts are: PART II: Developing a maturity model for chain digitisation. This part contains two related studies concerning the development

  11. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  12. Evolutions of volatile sulfur compounds of Cabernet Sauvignon wines during aging in different oak barrels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Dong-Qing; Zheng, Xiao-Tian; Xu, Xiao-Qing; Wang, Yun-He; Duan, Chang-Qing; Liu, Yan-Lin

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in Cabernet Sauvignon wines from seven regions of China during maturation in oak barrels was investigated. The barrels were made of different wood grains (fine and medium) and toasting levels (light and medium). Twelve VSCs were quantified by GC/FPD, with dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and methionol exceeding their sensory thresholds. Most VSCs tended to decline during the aging, while DMS was found to increase. After one year aging, the levels of DMS, 2-methyltetrahy-drothiophen-3-one and sulfur-containing esters were lower in the wines aged in oak barrels than in stainless steel tanks. The wood grain and toasting level of oak barrels significantly influenced the concentration of S-methyl thioacetate and 2-methyltetrahy-drothiophen-3-one. This study reported the evolution of VSCs in wines during oak barrel aging for the first time and evaluated the influence of barrel types, which would provide wine-makers with references in making proposals about wine aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. GREEN OAK AS A SUSTAINABLE BUILDING MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technical documentation necessary for a project demonstrating the viability of green oak as a contemporary structural material. These will include material grading guidelines, mechanical testing, architectural construction documents and details, specifications, engineering cal...

  14. Accelerating oak air drying by presurfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. T. Simpson; R. C. Baltes

    1972-01-01

    A comparison was made between the air-drying rates of rough and presurfaced northern red oak and white oak. In both species, the presurfaced material was about 1/8 inch thinner than the rough material and dried faster than the rough material. The reduction in drying time depends on the method of analyzing the drying curves, but is slightly less than 10 percent.

  15. Perspectives on cultural values of California oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Starrs

    2002-01-01

    The status and prospects of oaks—those native to California and the many elsewhere—are insufficiently known, despite historical volumes of work done in the past and more ongoing today. That globally there is a blistering diversity of oaks in different environments, and put to distinct uses, is beyond dispute. Less agreed upon, though, is their complex history and the...

  16. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R.

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1

  17. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1.

  18. Amplification of North American Red Oak Microsatellite Markers in European White Oaks and Chinese Chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. R. Aldrich; M. Jagtap; C. H. Michler; J. Romero-Severson

    2003-01-01

    We examined the cross-species amplification success of thirty microsatellite markers developed from North American northern red oak (Quercus rubra) in other members of the family Fagaceae. Sixteen of these markers are newly developed and we report primer sequences and amplification conditions here. Twelve of the thirty (40.0%) red oak markers...

  19. Population genetics and biological control of goldspotted oak borer, an invasive pest of California oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanessa Lopez; Paul F. Rugman-Jones; Tom W. Coleman; Richard Stouthamer; Mark Hoddle

    2015-01-01

    California’s oak woodlands are threatened by the recent introduction of goldspotted oak borer (Agrilus auroguttatus). This invasive wood-borer is indigenous to mountain ranges in southern Arizona where its low population densities may be due to the presence of co-evolved, host-specific natural enemies. Reuniting A. auroguttatus...

  20. Forecasting the future of coast live oak forests in the face of sudden oak death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letty B. Brown; Barbara Allen-Diaz

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the potential short- and long-term impacts of sudden oak death (SOD) on forest structure and composition. This study began in 2002 to evaluate the effects of SOD on coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) - California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) forests over a gradient of Phytophthora ramorum...

  1. An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding area in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was conducted during the period March 30 to April 14,1992. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the terrestrial radiological environment of the Oak Ridge Reservation for use in environmental management programs and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 150 feet (46 meters) along a series of parallel lines 250 feet (76 meters) apart and included X-10 (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), K-25 (former Gaseous Diffusion Plant), Y-12 (Weapons Production Plant), the Freels Bend Area and Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, the East Fork Poplar Creek (100-year floodplain extending from K-25 to Y-12), Elza Gate (former uranium ore storage site located in the city of Oak Ridge), Parcel A, the Clinch River (river banks extending from Melton Hill Dam to the city of Kingston), and the CSX Railroad Tracks (extending from Y-12 to the city of Oak Ridge). The survey encompassed approximately 55 square miles (1 41 square kilometers) of the Oak Ridge Reservation and surrounding area

  2. People Capability Maturity Model. SM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    tailored so it consumes less time and resources than a traditional software process assessment or CMU/SEI-95-MM-02 People Capability Maturity Model...improved reputation or customer loyalty. CMU/SEI-95-MM-02 People Capability Maturity Model ■ L5-17 Coaching Level 5: Optimizing Activity 1...Maturity Model CMU/SEI-95-MM-62 Carnegie-Mellon University Software Engineering Institute DTIC ELECTE OCT 2 7 1995 People Capability Maturity

  3. Short-Term Effects of Understory and Overstory Management on Breeding Birds in Arkansas Oak-Hickory Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Rodewald; Kimberly G. Smith

    1998-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the effects of uneven-aged forest management practices on eastern forest birds, despite the fact that such methods are now commonly practiced. In 1993-94, we studied the short-term effects of uneven-aged forest management on bird communities in oak-hickory forests of north-western Arkansas. We estimated bird abundance in mature forests...

  4. Maturity effects in energy futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos (Calgary Univ., AB (CA). Dept. of Economics)

    1992-04-01

    This paper examines the effects of maturity on future price volatility and trading volume for 129 energy futures contracts recently traded in the NYMEX. The results provide support for the maturity effect hypothesis, that is, energy futures prices to become more volatile and trading volume increases as futures contracts approach maturity. (author).

  5. Efficacy of Systemic Insecticides for Control of the Invasive Goldspotted Oak Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Tom W; Smith, Sheri L; Jones, Michael I; Graves, Andrew D; Strom, Brian L

    2017-10-01

    From 2009 to 2013, we tested four systemic insecticide formulations and five application methods against the invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), in California. The insecticides were evaluated in three experiments: 1) 2009 remedial applications of emamectin benzoate (stem-injection) and imidacloprid (stem-injection and soil-injection); 2) 2009-2012 emamectin benzoate and imidacloprid initially applied at different times during the dormant season with varying injection technologies; and 3) 2013 dinotefuran applied to several tree diameter size classes. Adult leaf-feeding bioassays were used to assess the impact of systemic treatments against A. auroguttatus, whereas enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays determined the quantity of the active ingredient of insecticide residues in foliage. Imidacloprid (experiment 1) persisted at elevated levels in foliage of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, for 1.5 yr following stem injections. Stem injections of emamectin benzoate (experiment 2) sometimes significantly decreased survival in adults fed foliage from treated Q. agrifolia, and both the emamectin benzoate and imidacloprid treatments reduced adult feeding in some trials. Imidacloprid residues in Q. agrifolia and California black oak, Quercus kelloggii Newb., foliage remained at elevated levels (>10 µg/g) ∼2 yr postapplication. In 2013 (experiment 3), dinotefuran residues were highest in foliage collections 2 wk postapplication and greatest in smaller diameter oaks, but insecticide treatment had no effect on survival or frass production by adults fed foliage from treated trees. Systemic injections of emamectin benzoate and imidacloprid applied during the dormant season to uninfested or lightly infested oaks can reduce adult A. auroguttatus survival and maturation feeding. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee

  6. Oak Ridge rf Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, W.L.; Hoffman, D.J.; McCurdy, H.C.; McManamy, T.J.; Moeller, J.A.; Ryan, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    The rf Test Facility (RFTF) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a national facility for the testing and evaluation of steady-state, high-power (approx.1.0-MW) ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) systems and components. The facility consists of a vacuum vessel and two fully tested superconducting development magnets from the ELMO Bumpy Torus Proof-of-Principle (EBT-P) program. These are arranged as a simple mirror with a mirror ratio of 4.8. The axial centerline distance between magnet throat centers is 112 cm. The vacuum vessel cavity has a large port (74 by 163 cm) and a test volume adequate for testing prototypic launchers for Doublet III-D (DIII-D), Tore Supra, and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). Attached to the internal vessel walls are water-cooled panels for removing the injected rf power. The magnets are capable of generating a steady-state field of approx.3 T on axis in the magnet throats. Steady-state plasmas are generated in the facility by cyclotron resonance breakdown using a dedicated 200-kW, 28-GHz gyrotron. Available rf sources cover a frequency range of 2 to 200 MHz at 1.5 kW and 3 to 18 MHz at 200 kW, with several sources at intermediate parameters. Available in July 1986 will be a >1.0-MW, cw source spanning 40 to 80 MHz. 5 figs

  7. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    Yeast surface display is an effective tool for antibody affinity maturation because yeast can be used as an all-in-one workhorse to assemble, display and screen diversified antibody libraries. By employing the natural ability of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to efficiently recombine multiple DNA...... laboratory conditions. A particular emphasis was put on using molecular techniques in conjunction with microenvironmental measurements (O2, pH, irradiance), a combination that is rarely found but provides a much more detailed understanding of “cause and effect” in complex natural systems...

  8. Working and Learning Among California Oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietje, B.; Gingg, B.; Zingo, J.; Huntsinger, L.

    2009-04-01

    With tremendous support from collaborators and enthusiastic volunteers, "Learning Among the Oaks" at the historic Santa Margarita Ranch has become a favorite outdoor learning experience for hundreds of Santa Margarita School students, along with their teachers and families. Oaks are at the center of this unique and cost effective public education program. From getting to know local oaks to exploring conservation issues within the context of a historic working cattle ranch, students take pride in expanding their awareness and knowledge of the local oak woodland community. Santa Margarita School families representing the varied demographics of the community come together on the trail. For many, the program provides a first opportunity to get to know those who make a living on the land and to understand that this land around their school is more than a pretty view. "Learning Among the Oaks" also addresses the need for quality, hands-on science activities and opportunities to connect children with the outdoor world. Using a thematic approach and correlating lessons with State Science Standards, we've engaged students in a full-spectrum of exciting outdoor learning adventures. As students progress through the grades, they find new challenges within the oak trail environment. We've succeeded in establishing an internship program that brings highly qualified, enthusiastic university students out to practice their science teaching skills while working with elementary school students. In the future, these university student interns may assist with the development of interpretive displays, after-school nature activities and monitoring projects. We've benefited from proximity to Cal Poly State University and its "learn-by-doing" philosophy. We've also succeeded in building a dedicated network of volunteers and collaborators, each with a special interest satisfied through participation in the oak trail program. While "Learning Among the Oaks" has focused on educating school

  9. Internal doses in Oak Ridge. The Internet beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passchier, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the information, presented by the Radiation Internal Dose Information Center (RIDIC) of the Oak Ridge Associated Universities in Oak Ridge, TN, USA, via Internet (www.orau.gov/ehsd/ridic.htm)

  10. The epidemiology of sudden oak death in Oregon forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebba K. Peterson

    2011-01-01

    The phytopathogen Phytophthora ramorum (Werres, DeCock & Man in't Veld), causal agent of Sudden Oak Death (SOD) of oaks (Quercus spp.) and tanoaks (Notholithocarpus densiflorus syn. Lithocarpus densiflorus...

  11. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through WAG 2 before entering the Clinch River. Health and ecological risk screening analyses were conducted on contaminants in WAG 2 to determine which contaminants were of concern and would require immediate consideration for remedial action and which contaminants could be assigned a low priority or further study. For screening purposes, WAG 2 was divided into four geographic reaches: Reach 1, a portion of WOC; Reach 2, Melton Branch; Reach 3, White Oak Lake and the floodplain area to the weirs on WOC and Melton Branch; and Reach 4, the White Oak Creek Embayment, for which an independent screening analysis has been completed. Screening analyses were conducted using data bases compiled from existing data on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, which included organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Contaminants for which at least one ample had a concentration above the level of detection were placed in a detectable contaminants data base. Those contaminants for which all samples were below the level of detection were placed in a nondetectable contaminants data base

  12. Effect of hydrological conditions on nitrous oxide, methane, and carbon dioxide dynamics in a bottomland hardwood forest and its implication for soil carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; Faulkner, S.P.; Baldwin, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted at three locations in a bottomland hardwood forest with a distinct elevation and hydrological gradient: ridge (high, dry), transition, and swamp (low, wet). At each location, concentrations of soil greenhouse gases (N2O, CH4 , and CO2), their fluxes to the atmosphere, and soil redox potential (Eh) were measured bimonthly, while the water table was monitored every day. Results show that soil Eh was significantly (P transition > ridge location. The ratio CO2/CH4 production in soil is a critical factor for evaluating the overall benefit of soil C sequestration, which can be greatly offset by CH4 production and emission. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing.

  13. The supply and demand situation for oak timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth L. Quigley

    1971-01-01

    Twenty oak species in the eastern United States account for one-third of the hardwood sawtimber volume and almost 10 percent of both hardwood and softwood growing-stock volume. The oak-hickory and oak-pine forest types occupy about 38 percent of the forest land in the eastern United States. Oak timber volume is increasing. Annual growth exceeds annual removals by about...

  14. Comparative analysis of some bioecological characteristics of Hungarian oak and Turkey oak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukin Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an in-depth study of some bioecological characteristics of the Hungarian and Turkey oak, autochthonous oak species and edificators of climatogenic communities of central Serbia. Today, these forest complexes are mostly of coppice origin and as such, they require implementation of reclamation operations. In order to determine biological dominance, select the optimal reclamation operations and finally improve the state of these forests, we studied the environmental conditions, stand state, development and position of individual trees in a mixed coppice stand of Hungarian and Turkey oak in a suburban zone of the city of Belgrade.

  15. Correlation between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwei; Hu, Haikun; Guo, Jing; Liu, Zeping; Liu, Renkai; Li, Fan; Zou, Shujuan

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dental and skeletal maturity. Digital panoramic radiographs and lateral skull cephalograms of 302 patients (134 boys and 168 girls, ranging from 8 to 16 years of age) were examined. Dental maturity was assessed by calcification stages of the mandibular canines, first and second premolars, and second molars, whereas skeletal maturity was estimated by the cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stages. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient was used to measure the association between CVM stage and dental calcification stage of individual teeth. The mean chronologic age of girls was significantly lower than that of boys in each CVM stage. The Spearman rank-order correlation coefficients between dental maturity and cervical vertebral maturity ranged from 0.391 to 0.582 for girls and from 0.464 to 0.496 for boys (P cervical vertebral maturation stage. The development of the mandibular second molar in females and that of the mandibular canine in males had the strongest correlations with cervical vertebral maturity. Therefore, it is practical to consider the relationship between dental and skeletal maturity when planning orthodontic treatment. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Dendrochronological Analysis of Red Oak Borer Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose-Marie Muzika; Richard P. Guyette

    2004-01-01

    Unprecedented outbreaks of red oak borer (Enaphalodes rufulus Haldemann) have occurred in the lower Midwestern United States. Although generally not a mortality agent, red oak borer appears to contribute to general oak decline and mortality. The objective of this project was to explore dendrochronology as a means of determining the role of tree age,...

  17. Coarse woody debris metrics in a California oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    William D. Tietje; Michael A. Hardy; Christopher C. Yim

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on the metrics of coarse woody debris (CWD) in California oak woodland, most notably at the scale of the stand and woodland type. In a remote part of the National Guard Post, Camp Roberts, that has not burned in over a half century, we tallied 314 pieces of CWD in a blue oak (Quercus douglasii)-coast live oak (

  18. Managing an oak decline crisis in Oakville, Ontario: lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter A. Williams; John W. McNeil; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Robert A. Haack

    2013-01-01

    The town of Oakville, Ontario, is located along the north shore of Lake Ontario between Toronto and Hamilton. In the fall of 2002, significant oak (Quercus spp.) mortality was observed at Oakville's Iroquois Shoreline Woods Park, an environmentally significant forest remnant noted for its oak-dominated forests. Investigations suggested that oak...

  19. Oak woodland conservation management planning in southern CA - lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi Dagit

    2015-01-01

    The California Oak Woodlands Conservation Act (AB 242 2001) established requirements for the preservation and protection of oak woodlands and trees, and allocated funding managed by the Wildlife Conservation Board. In order to qualify to use these funds, counties and cities need to adopt an oak conservation management plan. Between 2008 and 2011, a team of concerned...

  20. Bird communities of gambel oak: a descriptive analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreas Leidolf; Michael L. Wolfe; Rosemary L. Pendleton

    2000-01-01

    Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii Nutt.) covers 3.75 million hectares (9.3 million acres) of the western United States. This report synthesizes current knowledge on the composition, structure, and habitat relationships of gambel oak avian communities. It lists life history attributes of 183 bird species documented from gambel oak habitats of the western...

  1. Reconstructing the competitive dynamics of mixed-oak neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric K. Zenner; Daniel J. Heggenstaller; Patrick H. Brose; JeriLynn E. Peck; Kim C. Steiner

    2012-01-01

    The disparity between the potential for latent oak dominance within a stand and their region-wide decline in importance value raises questions about the competitiveness of oaks in early stand dynamics. We reconstructed tree height growth dynamics in mixed-species neighborhoods to determine if currently dominant oaks were ever shorter than their competitors and at what...

  2. Mature Cystic Renal Teratoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, Alpaslan; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Akkaya, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Teratomas are rare germline tumors that originate from one or more embryonic germ cell layers. Teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and less than 30 cases of primary intrarenal teratomas have been published to date. We report the main radiologic features of an unusual case of mature cystic teratoma arising from the left kidney in a two-year-old boy. A left-sided abdominal mass was detected on physical examination and B-Mod Ultrasound (US) examination revealed a heterogeneous mass with central cystic component. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated a lobulated, heterogeneous, hypodense mass extending craniocaudally from the splenic hilum to the level of the left iliac fossa. Nephrectomy was performed and a large, fatty mass arising from the left kidney was excised. The final pathologic diagnosis was confirmed as cystic renal teratoma

  3. Effects of the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, on the health of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, in southern California before and after treatment with two systemic insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Mary L. Flint; Tom W. Coleman; Joseph J. Doccola; Donald M. Grosman; David L. Wood; Steven J. Seybold

    2015-01-01

    The invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is threatening the health and survival of oak trees in San Diego County, California (Flint and others 2013). The primary oak species colonized and killed in this area include coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia), California black oak (...

  4. ORLANDO - Oak Ridge Large Neutrino Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugg, W.; Cohn, H.; Efremenko, Yu.; Fazely, A.; Gabriel, T.; Kamyshkov, Yu.; Plasil, F.; Svoboda, R.

    1999-01-01

    We discuss a proposal for construction of an Oak Ridge LArge Neutrino DetectOr (ORLANDO) to search for neutrino oscillations at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). A 4 MW SNS is proposed to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory with the first stage to be operative around 2006. It will have two target stations, which makes it possible with a single detector to perform a neutrino oscillation search at two different distances. Initial plans for the placement of the detector and the discovery potential of such a detector are discussed

  5. Status of oak seedlings and saplings in the northern United States: implications for sustainability of oak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris W. Woodall; Randall S. Morin; Jim R. Steinman; Charles H. Perry

    2008-01-01

    Oak species are a substantial component of forest ecosystems in a 24-state region spanning the northern U.S. During recent decades, it has been documented that the health of oak forests has been experiencing large-scale decline. To further evaluate the sustainability of oak forests in nearly half the states of the U.S., the current status of oak seedlings and saplings...

  6. Developing maturity grids for assessing organisational capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John

    2009-01-01

    Keyword: Maturity Model,Maturity Grid,Maturity Matrix,Organisational Capabilities,Benchmarking,New Product Development,Perfirmance Assessment......Keyword: Maturity Model,Maturity Grid,Maturity Matrix,Organisational Capabilities,Benchmarking,New Product Development,Perfirmance Assessment...

  7. Modeling non-maturing liabilities

    OpenAIRE

    von Feilitzen, Helena

    2011-01-01

    Non‐maturing liabilities, such as savings accounts, lack both predetermined maturity and reset dates due to the fact that the depositor is free to withdraw funds at any time and that the depository institution is free to change the rate. These attributes complicate the risk management of such products and no standardized solution exists. The problem is important however since non‐maturing liabilities typically make up a considerable part of the funding of a bank. In this report different mode...

  8. Coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, susceptibility and response to goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, injury in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom W. Coleman; Nancy E. Grulke; Miles Daly; Cesar Godinez; Susan L. Schilling; Philip J. Riggan; Steven J. Seybold

    2011-01-01

    Oak mortality is often associated with a complex of decline factors. We describe the morphological and physiological responses of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, in California to an invasive insect, the goldspotted oak borer (GSOB), Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and evaluate drought as a...

  9. Development, succession, and stand dynamics of upland oak forests in the Wisconsin Driftless Area: Implications for oak regeneration and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megan L. Buchanan; Kurt F. Kipfmueller; Anthony W. D' Amato

    2017-01-01

    Throughout the deciduous forests of the eastern United States, oak (Quercus) regeneration has declined in stands historically dominated by oak species. In the Wisconsin Driftless Area, the level of decline in oak regeneration is variable and influenced by stand structural development, historical disturbance regime, abiotic site characteristics, and...

  10. An ecologically based approach to oak silviculture: a synthesis of 50 years of oak ecosystem research in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Alejandro A. Royo; Patrick H. Brose; Todd F. Hutchinson; Martin A. Spetich; Scott H. Stoleson

    2010-01-01

    Oak (Quercus L.) is an abundant and widely distributed genus in eastern North America. A history of periodic fire, grazing, canopy disturbance and timber harvesting has favored oak's dominance. But, changes in this regime toward much less fire or complete fire suppression, and selective cutting are causing the successional replacement of oak....

  11. A meta-analysis of the fire-oak hypothesis: Does prescribed burning promote oak reproduction in eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose; Daniel C. Dey; Ross J. Phillips; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2013-01-01

    The fire-oak hypothesis asserts that the current lack of fire is a reason behind the widespread oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration difficulties of eastern North America, and use of prescribed burning can help solve this problem. We performed a meta-analysis on the data from 32 prescribed fire studies conducted in mixed-oak forests to test whether they...

  12. Triterpenoid Components from Oak Heartwood (Quercus robur) and Their Potential Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Andy J; Pecio, Łukasz; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Kontek, Renata; Gajek, Gabriela; Stopinsek, Lidija; Mirt, Ivan; Oleszek, Wiesław; Stochmal, Anna

    2017-06-14

    For centuries oak wood (Quercus robur) has been used in aging of wines and spirits, which is based on pleasant flavors given to beverages by phenolics transferred to the liquid during the maturation process. Other metabolites, such as triterpenoids, can also be released. Searching for extractable triterpenoids in oak heartwood, 12 new, 1-12, and five known, 13-17, oleanane types were isolated and characterized. Their cytotoxicities were tested against cancer cells (PC3 and MCF-7) and lymphocytes. Breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were the most affected by triterpenoids, with roburgenic acid, 4, being the most active compound (IC 50 = 19.7 μM). Selectivity was observed for compounds 1-3, 8, 9, and 16, exhibiting an IC 50 > 200 μM against lymphocytes, while active against cancer cells. A galloyl unit attached to the triterpenoid moiety was established as the key feature for such effect. These results highlight the occurrence of triterpenoids in oak heartwood and their relevance for chemoprevention of breast cancer.

  13. Utilizing NASA EOS to Assist in Determining Suitable Planting Locations for Bottomland Hardwood Trees in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reahard, R. R.; Arguelles, M.; Ewing, M.; Kelly, C.; Strong, E.

    2012-12-01

    St. Bernard Parish, located in southeast Louisiana, is rapidly losing coastal forests and wetlands due to a variety of natural and anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. subsidence, saltwater intrusion, low sedimentation, nutrient deficiency, herbivory, canal dredging, levee construction, spread of invasive species, etc.). After Hurricane Katrina severely impacted the area in 2005, multiple Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have focused not only on rebuilding destroyed dwellings, but on rebuilding the ecosystems that once protected the citizens of St. Bernard Parish. Volunteer groups, NGOs, and government entities often work separately and independently of each other and use different sets of information to choose the best planting sites for restoring coastal forests. Using NASA Earth Observing Systems (EOS), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) soil surveys, and ancillary road and canal data in conjunction with ground truthing, the team created maps of optimal planting sites for several species of bottomland hardwood trees to aid in unifying these organizations, who share a common goal, under one plan. The methodology for this project created a comprehensive Geographic Information System (GIS) to help identify suitable planting sites in St. Bernard Parish. This included supplementing existing elevation data using Digital Elevation Models derived from LIDAR data, and determining existing land cover in the study area from classified Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) imagery. Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data from a single low-altitude swath was used to assess the health of vegetation over an area near the Mississippi River Gulf Outlet Canal (MRGO) and Bayou La Loutre. Historic extent of coastal forests was also mapped using aerial photos collected between 1952 and 1956. The final products demonstrated yet another application of NASA EOS in the rebuilding and monitoring of coastal ecosystems in

  14. The response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to selection cutting in a South Carolina bottomland hardwood forest.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulyshen, Michael, D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Kilgo, John, C.; Moorman, Christopher, E.

    2005-04-01

    We compared the response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to the creation of canopy gaps of different size (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and age (1 and 7 years) in a bottomland hardwood forest (South Carolina, USA). Samples were collected four times in 2001 by malaise and pitfall traps placed at the center and edge of each gap, and 50 m into the surrounding forest. Species richness was higher at the center of young gaps than in old gaps or in the forest, but there was no statistical difference in species richness between old gaps and the forests surrounding them. Carabid abundance followed the same trend, but only with the exclusion of Semiardistomis viridis (Say), a very abundant species that differed in its response to gap age compared to most other species. The carabid assemblage at the gap edge was very similar to that of the forest, and there appeared to be no distinct edge community. Species known to occur in open or disturbed habitats were more abundant at the center of young gaps than at any other location. Generalist species were relatively unaffected by the disturbance, but one species (Dicaelus dilatatus Say) was significantly less abundant at the centers of young gaps. Forest inhabiting species were less abundant at the centers of old gaps than in the forest, but not in the centers of young gaps. Comparison of community similarity at various trapping locations showed that communities at the centers of old and young gaps had the lowest similarity (46.5%). The community similarity between young gap centers and nearby forest (49.1%) and old gap centers and nearby forest (50.0%) was similarly low. These results show that while the abundance and richness of carabids in old gaps was similar to that of the surrounding forest, the species composition between the two sites differed greatly.

  15. Design assessment for the Bethel Valley FFA Upgrades at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the proposed upgrades to Building 3025 and the Evaporator Area at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Design assessments, specifications and drawings are provided. Building 3025 is a general purpose research facility utilized by the Materials and Ceramics Division to conduct research on irradiated materials. The Evaporator Area, building 2531, serves as the collection point for all low-level liquid wastes generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  16. Nuttall Oak Volume and Weight Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce E. Schlaegel; Regan B. Willson

    1983-01-01

    Volume and weight tables were constructed from a 62-tree sample of Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer) taken in the Mississippi Delta. The tables present volume, green weight, and dry weight of bole wood, bole wood plus bark, and total tree above a one-foot stump as predicted from the nonlinear model Y = 0Db

  17. Physical distribution of oak strip flooring 1969

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Miller; William C. Miller

    1971-01-01

    As an aid to the marketing of oak strip flooring, a study was made of the distribution process for this product, from manufacture to consumer-where the flooring came from, where it went, how much was shipped, and who handled it.

  18. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year

  19. Profitability of Precommericially Thinning Oak Stump Sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Dwyer; Daniel C. Dey; William B. Kurtz

    1993-01-01

    Thinning oak stump sprouts to a single stem at an early age will increase diameter growth of the released stem. However, percommercial thinning represents a substantial investment which must be carried for many years before any returns are realized. We estimated the incremental gains in yield and the present net worth for five crop-tree release treatments of 5-yr-old...

  20. Profitability of precommercially thinning oak stump sprouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    John P. Dwyer; Daniel C. Dey; William B. Kurtz

    1993-01-01

    Thinning oak stump sprouts to a single stem at an early age will increase diameter growth of the released stem. However, precommercial thinning represents a substantial investment which must be carried for many years before any returns are realized. We estimated the incremental gains in yield and the present net worth for five crop-tree release treatments of 5-year-old...

  1. Sowing pregerminated northern red oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard M. Godman; Gilbert A. Mattson

    1992-01-01

    Northern red oak is extremely difficult to regenerate, although it has produced good acorn crops nearly half of the last 32 years in northern Wisconsin. Field trials have shown that for successful seeding, you must protect acorns from predation by wildlife and sow them when temperatures are most favorable for germination.

  2. Oak restoration trials: Santa Catalina Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Stratton

    2002-01-01

    Two restoration trials involving four oak species have been implemented as part of a larger restoration program for Catalina Island. In 1997 the Catalina Island Conservancy began an active program of restoration after 50 years of ranching and farming activities on the island. The restoration program includes removing feral goats and pigs island-wide and converting 80...

  3. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.W. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year.

  4. 25 MV tandem accelerator at Oak Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    A new heavy-ion accelerator facility is under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A brief description of the scope and status of this project is presented with emphasis on the first operational experience with the 25 MV tandem accelerator

  5. Oak Regeneration Guidelines for the Central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley; Peter J. Gould; Songlin Fei; Marc McDill

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the first explicit guidelines for regenerating oaks in the central Appalachians. The objectives of this paper are (1) to describe the research foundation on which the guidelines are based and (2) to provide users with the instructions, data collection forms, supplementary tables, and decision charts needed to apply the guidelines in the field. The...

  6. Oak Ridge reservation land-use plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibb, W. R.; Hardin, T. H.; Hawkins, C. C.; Johnson, W. A.; Peitzsch, F. C.; Scott, T. H.; Theisen, M. R.; Tuck, S. C.

    1980-03-01

    This study establishes a basis for long-range land-use planning to accommodate both present and projected DOE program requirements in Oak Ridge. In addition to technological requirements, this land-use plan incorporates in-depth ecological concepts that recognize multiple uses of land as a viable option. Neither environmental research nor technological operations need to be mutually exclusive in all instances. Unique biological areas, as well as rare and endangered species, need to be protected, and human and environmental health and safety must be maintained. The plan is based on the concept that the primary use of DOE land resources must be to implement the overall DOE mission in Oak Ridge. This document, along with the base map and overlay maps, provides a reasonably detailed description of the DOE Oak Ridge land resources and of the current and potential uses of the land. A description of the land characteristics, including geomorphology, agricultural productivity and soils, water courses, vegetation, and terrestrial and aquatic animal habitats, is presented to serve as a resource document. Essentially all DOE land in the Oak Ridge area is being fully used for ongoing DOE programs or has been set aside as protected areas.

  7. Growth of Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Gould; Constance A. Harrington; Warren D. Devine

    2011-01-01

    Many land managers are interested in maintaining or restoring plant communities that contain Oregon white oak (OWO, Quercus garryana), yet there is relatively little information available about the species' growth rates and survival to guide management decisions. We used two studies to characterize growth (over multi-year periods and within...

  8. Whose Maturity is it Anyway?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results from an ongoing empirical study that seeks to understand the influence of different quantitative methods on the design and assessment of maturity models. Although there have been many academic publications on maturity models, there exists a significant lack of understa...

  9. Does the increase in ambient CO2 concentration elevate allergy risks posed by oak pollen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyu Rang; Oh, Jae-Won; Woo, Su-Young; Seo, Yun Am; Choi, Young-Jin; Kim, Hyun Seok; Lee, Wi Young; Kim, Baek-Jo

    2018-05-01

    Oak pollen is a major respiratory allergen in Korea, and the distribution of oak trees is expected to increase by ecological succession and climate change. One of the drivers of climate change is increasing CO2, which is also known to amplify the allergy risk of weed pollen by inducing elevated allergenic protein content. However, the impact of CO2 concentration on tree pollen is not clearly understood due to the experimental difficulties in carrying out extended CO2 treatment. To study the response of pollen production of sawtooth oak trees (Quercus acutissima) to elevated levels of ambient CO2, three open-top chambers at the National Institute of Forest Science in Suwon, Korea were utilized with daytime (8 am-6 pm) CO2 concentrations of ambient (× 1.0, 400 ppm), × 1.4 ( 560 ppm), and × 1.8 ( 720 ppm) treatments. Each chamber had three sawtooth oak trees planted in September 2009. One or two trees per chamber matured to bloom in 2016. Five to six catkins were selected per tree and polyethylene bags were attached to collect pollen grains. The total number of catkins per tree was counted and the number and weight of pollen grains per catkin were measured. Oak allergen—Que a 1 (Allergon Co., Uppsala, Sweden)—was extracted and purified to make an ELISA kit by which the antigen levels in the pollen samples were quantified. Total pollen counts per tree of the × 1.4 and × 1.8 treatments showed significant increase of 353 and 1299%, respectively, from the × 1.0 treatment (p < 0.001). Allergenic protein contents at the × 1.4 and × 1.8 treatments also showed significant increase of 12 and 11%, respectively (p = 0.011). The × 1.8 treatment induced significant difference from the × 1.0 treatment in terms of pollen production and allergenic protein content, whereas the × 1.4 treatment showed mixed significance. In summary, the oak trees under the elevated CO2 levels, which are expected in the changing climate, produced significantly higher amount of pollen and

  10. White Oak Creek watershed: Melton Valley area Remedial Investigation report, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 2, Appendixes A and B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This document contains Appendixes A ''Source Inventory Information for the Subbasins Evaluated for the White Oak Creek Watershed'' and B ''Human Health Risk Assessment for White Oak Creek / Melton Valley Area'' for the remedial investigation report for the White Oak Creek Watershed and Melton Valley Area. Appendix A identifies the waste types and contaminants for each subbasin in addition to the disposal methods. Appendix B identifies potential human health risks and hazards that may result from contaminants present in the different media within Oak Ridge National Laboratory sites

  11. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles.

  12. Sampling and Analysis Plan for White Oak Creek Watershed Remedial Investigation supplemental sampling, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This Sampling and Analysis (SAP) presents the project requirements for proposed soil sampling to support the White Oak Creek Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. During the Data Quality Objectives process for the project, it was determined that limited surface soils sampling is need to supplement the historical environmental characterization database. The primary driver for the additional sampling is the need to identify potential human health and ecological risks at various sites that have not yet proceeded through a remedial investigation. These sites include Waste Area Grouping (WAG)3, WAG 4, WAG 7, and WAG 9. WAG 4 efforts are limited to nonradiological characterization since recent seep characterization activities at the WAG have defined the radiological problem there

  13. Relationships between biotic and abiotic factors and regeneration of chestnut oak, white oak, and northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songlin Fei; Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley; Marc E. McDill

    2003-01-01

    A series of substantial field surveys of 38 mixed-oak stands in central Pennsylvania were carried out during 1996-2000. All the stands were surveyed 1 year prior to harvest, and 16 stands have been surveyed 1 year after harvest. Three abiotic factors at stand scale, four abiotic factors at plot scale, and two biotic factors and one abiotic factor at subplot scale was...

  14. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1990--December 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes for the 15-month period of October 1990-- December 1991 the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, along with information collected on the surface flow systems that affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to: (1) characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow systems; (2) assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities; and, (3) provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance. Characterization of the hydrology of the WOC watershed is critical for understanding the processes that drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data activities that contribute to the Site Investigations component of the ERP. (White Oak Creek is also referred to as ''Whiteoak'' Creek)

  15. Population diversity and evidence of introgression among the black oaks of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard S. Dodd; Nasser Kashani; Zara Afzal-Rafii

    2002-01-01

    The black oaks of California include 4 tree species (California black oak, coast live oak, Shreve oak, interior live oak) that are known to hybridize. Complex patterns of population variation within each species are likely to result from these hybrid combinations and from subsequent introgressions. We have been studying population variation using biochemical and...

  16. A Review of Polyphenolics in Oak Woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenolics, which are ubiquitous in plants, currently are among the most studied phytochemicals because of their perceptible chemical properties and antioxidant activity. Oak barrels and their alternatives, which are widely used in winemaking nowadays, contribute polyphenolics to wines and are thought to play crucial roles in the development of wines during aging. This study summarizes the detailed information of polyphenolics in oak woods and their products by examining their structures and discussing their chemical reactions during wine aging. This paper evaluates the most recent developments in polyphenolic chemistry by summarizing their extraction, separation, and their identification by the use of chromatographic and spectral techniques. In addition, this paper also introduces polyphenol bioactive ingredients in other plant foods.

  17. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented

  18. Quality Characteristics of Appalachian Red Oak Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K Wiedenbeck; Charles J. Gatchell; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1995-01-01

    Red oak lumber defect information derived from a well-constructed board data bank was analyzed. The potential utility of No. 1 Common and No. 2A Common lumber is indicated by the finding that 23 percent of the No. 1 Common boards and 35 percent of the No. 2A Common boards in the data bank contain clear-face cutting percentages that meet the minimum requirement for the...

  19. 1992 Data Bank for Red Oak Lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles J. Gatchell; Janice K. Wiedenbeck; Elizabeth S. Walker; Elizabeth S. Walker

    1992-01-01

    The 1992 Data Bank for Red Oak Lumber is a collection of fully described FAS, Selects, No. 1 Common, and No. 2A Common boards (a total of 1,578 at present). The data bank has two unique features to aid in sample selection. The first feature is the double grading of FAS, No. 1 Common, and No. 2A Common boards to reflect the surface area in grading cuttings when grading...

  20. Monomeric Ellagitannins in Oaks and Sweetgum

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Zhentian

    2002-01-01

    Ellagitannins are plant phenolics characterized by biaryl-coupled gallic acid moieties esterified to a D-glucose core. They are widely distributed through higher plants. In the case of oaks, ellagitannin concentrations in heartwood can reach up to 10% (dry wt. basis). These secondary metabolites are not only important physiologically but also influence the economic value and quality of wood products that contain them. Efforts were made to develop and validate the methods used to quantify ...

  1. ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) 89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.D.; Appleton, B.R.; Jefferson, J.W.; Merriman, J.R.; Mynatt, F.R.; Richmond, C.R.; Rosenthal, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    This is the inaugural issues of an annual publication about the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here you will find a brief overview of ORNL, a sampling of our recent research achievements, and a glimpse of the directions we want to take over the next 15 years. A major purpose of ornl 89 is to provide the staff with a sketch of the character and dynamics of the Laboratory.

  2. ORNL [Oak Ridge National Laboratory] 89

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.D.; Appleton, B.R.; Jefferson, J.W.; Merriman, J.R.; Mynatt, F.R.; Richmond, C.R.; Rosenthal, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    This is the inaugural issues of an annual publication about the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here you will find a brief overview of ORNL, a sampling of our recent research achievements, and a glimpse of the directions we want to take over the next 15 years. A major purpose of ornl 89 is to provide the staff with a sketch of the character and dynamics of the Laboratory

  3. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented.

  4. Slab replacement maturity guidelines : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Concrete sets in hours at moderate temperatures, : but the bonds that make concrete strong continue : to mature over days to years. However, for : replacement concrete slabs on highways, it is : crucial that concrete develop enough strength : within ...

  5. SOUL System Maturation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest...

  6. SOUL System Maturation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to advance the maturity of an innovative Spacecraft on Umbilical Line (SOUL) System suitable for a wide variety of applications of interest...

  7. Naturally Engineered Maturation of Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano J. Scuderi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic heart disease remains one of the most prominent causes of mortalities worldwide with heart transplantation being the gold-standard treatment option. However, due to the major limitations associated with heart transplants, such as an inadequate supply and heart rejection, there remains a significant clinical need for a viable cardiac regenerative therapy to restore native myocardial function. Over the course of the previous several decades, researchers have made prominent advances in the field of cardiac regeneration with the creation of in vitro human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte tissue engineered constructs. However, these engineered constructs exhibit a functionally immature, disorganized, fetal-like phenotype that is not equivalent physiologically to native adult cardiac tissue. Due to this major limitation, many recent studies have investigated approaches to improve pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocyte maturation to close this large functionality gap between engineered and native cardiac tissue. This review integrates the natural developmental mechanisms of cardiomyocyte structural and functional maturation. The variety of ways researchers have attempted to improve cardiomyocyte maturation in vitro by mimicking natural development, known as natural engineering, is readily discussed. The main focus of this review involves the synergistic role of electrical and mechanical stimulation, extracellular matrix interactions, and non-cardiomyocyte interactions in facilitating cardiomyocyte maturation. Overall, even with these current natural engineering approaches, pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes within three-dimensional engineered heart tissue still remain mostly within the early to late fetal stages of cardiomyocyte maturity. Therefore, although the end goal is to achieve adult phenotypic maturity, more emphasis must be placed on elucidating how the in vivo fetal microenvironment drives cardiomyocyte

  8. Maturation of sugar maple seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton M., Jr. Carl; Albert G., Jr. Snow; Albert G. Snow

    1971-01-01

    The seeds of a sugar maple tree (Acer saccharum Marsh.) do not mature at the same time every year. And different trees mature their seeds at different times. So time of year is not a reliable measure of when seeds are ripe. Better criteria are needed. In recent studies we have found that moisture content and color are the best criteria for judging when sugar maple...

  9. An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation and surrounding area, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, R.J.

    1989-09-01

    An aerial radiological survey of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding area in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, was conducted from September 12--29, 1989. The purpose of the survey was to measure and document the site's terrestrial radiological environment for use in effective environmental management and emergency response planning. The aerial survey was flown at an altitude of 91 meters (300 feet) along a series of parallel lines 152 meters (500 feet) apart. The survey encompassed an area of 440 square kilometers (170 square miles) as defined by the Tennessee Valley Authority Map S-16A of the entire Oak Ridge Reservation and adjacent area. The results of the aerial survey are reported as inferred exposure rates at 1 meter above ground level (AGL) in the form of a radiation contour map. Typical background exposure rates were found to vary from 5 to 14 microroentgens per hour (μR/h). The man-made radionuclides, cobalt-60, cesium-137, and protactinium-234m (a radioisotope indicative of depleted uranium), were detected at several facilities on the site. In support of the aerial survey, ground-based exposure rate and soil sample measurements were obtained at several locations within the survey boundary. In addition to the large scale aerial survey, two special flyovers were requested by the Department of Energy. The first request was to conduct a survey of a 1-mile x 2-mile area in south Knoxville, Tennessee. The area had been used previously to store contaminated scrap metals from operations at the Oak Ridge site. The second request was to fly several passes over a 5-mile length of railroad tracks leading from the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, north through the city of Oak Ridge. The railroad tracks had been previously used in the transport of cesium-137

  10. Defense pattern of Chinese cork oak across latitudinal gradients: influences of ontogeny, herbivory, climate and soil nutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Jian-Feng; Gao, Wen-Qiang; Deng, Yun-Peng; Ni, Yan-Yan; Xiao, Yi-Hua; Kang, Feng-Feng; Wang, Qi; Lei, Jing-Pin; Jiang, Ze-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of latitudinal patterns in plant defense and herbivory is crucial for understanding the mechanisms that govern ecosystem functioning and for predicting their responses to climate change. Using a widely distributed species in East Asia, Quercus variabilis, we aim to reveal defense patterns of trees with respect to ontogeny along latitudinal gradients. Six leaf chemical (total phenolics and total condensed tannin concentrations) and physical (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and dry mass concentration) defensive traits as well as leaf herbivory (% leaf area loss) were investigated in natural Chinese cork oak (Q. variabilis) forests across two ontogenetic stages (juvenile and mature trees) along a ~14°-latitudinal gradient. Our results showed that juveniles had higher herbivory values and a higher concentration of leaf chemical defense substances compared with mature trees across the latitudinal gradient. In addition, chemical defense and herbivory in both ontogenetic stages decreased with increasing latitude, which supports the latitudinal herbivory-defense hypothesis and optimal defense theory. The identified trade-offs between chemical and physical defense were primarily determined by environmental variation associated with the latitudinal gradient, with the climatic factors (annual precipitation, minimum temperature of the coldest month) largely contributing to the latitudinal defense pattern in both juvenile and mature oak trees.

  11. Is deciduousness a key to climate resilience among iconic California savanna oak species? Relating phenological habits to seasonal indicators of tree physiological and water stress across field, hyperspectral, drone (UAS)-based multispectral and thermal image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, M. T.; Caylor, K. K.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Greenberger, R. N.; Estes, L. D.

    2017-12-01

    In California (CA) savannas, oak trees (genus Quercus) play keystone roles in water and nutrient cycling, support biodiversity and many land-use activities. Declines in oak basal area of up to 25% from the 1930s-2000s, which have occurred alongside climate trends such as increasing variability of rainfall and prevalence of hotter droughts, threaten the services and ecological functions these trees provide. It is particularly unclear how climate relates to productivity and stress across oak species. Past work has found that seedling recruitment has varied inversely with "deciduousness." That is, evergreen oaks (e.g. Quercus agrifola. Coast Live Oak) are reproducing more successfully than drought-deciduous (e.g. Quercus douglassi, Blue Oak), which in turn are more successful than fully deciduous species (e.g. Quercus lobata, Valley Oak). However, there is poor understanding of how these ecological trends by species, corresponding with phenological habit, relate to physiological and ecohydrological processes such as carbon assimilation, water or nutrient use efficiency in mature tree stands. This limits predictive capability for which species will be most resilient to harsher future growing conditions, and, how to monitor stress and productivity in long-lived mature oak communities across landscapes via tools including remotely sensed data. This project explores how ecophysiological variables (e.g. stomatal conductance) relate to phenological habits across three oak species (Coast Live, Blue and Valley) over a seasonal dry-down period in Santa Barbara County, CA. Our goal is to probe if deciduousness is a key to resilience in productivity and water stress across iconic oak species. We test relationships between leaf and canopy-level field data, and indicators from multiple new sources of remotely sensed data, including ground hyperspectral, drone (UAS)-based multi-spectral and thermal image data, as means of monitoring tree physiological and water stress from scales

  12. US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Environmental Management Public Involvement Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This document was prepared in accordance with CERCLA requirements for writing community relations plans. It includes information on how the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office prepares and executes Environmental Management Community relations activities. It is divided into three sections: the public involvement plan, public involvement in Oak Ridge, and public involvement in 1995. Four appendices are also included: environmental management in Oak Ridge; community and regional overview; key laws, agreements, and policy; and principal contacts

  13. Sustaining Exploration in Mature Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayo, A.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration is a business like any other business driven by opportunity, resources and expectation of profit. Therefore, exploration will thrive anywhere the opportunities are significant, the resources are available and the outlook for profit (or value creation) is good. To sustain exploration activities anywhere, irrespective of the environment, there must be good understanding of the drivers of these key investment criteria. This paper will examine these investment criteria as they relate to exploration business and address the peculiarity of exploration in mature basin. Mature basins are unique environment that lends themselves a mix of fears, paradigms and realities, particularly with respect to the perception of value. To sustain exploration activities in a mature basin, we need to understand these perceptions relative to the true drivers of profitability. Exploration in the mature basins can be as profitable as exploration in emerging basins if the dynamics of value definition-strategic and fiscal values are understood by operators, regulators and co ventures alike. Some suggestions are made in this presentation on what needs to be done in addressing these dynamic investment parameters and sustaining exploration activities in mature basins

  14. Ninth workshop on seedling physiology and growth problems in oak plantings (abstracts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.R. Weigel; J.W. Van Sambeek; C.H., eds. Michler

    2005-01-01

    Research results and ongoing research activities in field performance of oak plantings, seedling propagation, genetics, acorn germination, and natural regeneration of oaks are described in 26 abstracts.

  15. Tenth workshop on seedling physiology and growth problems in oak plantings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; Emile S. Gardiner; Daniel C. Dey

    2008-01-01

    Research results and ongoing research activities in field performance of oak plantings, seedling propagation, genetics, acorn germination, and natural regeneration of oaks are described in 15 abstracts.

  16. Sporulation capacity of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branches from six 2 to 3-year old northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with ca. 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum isolate Pr-6 and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia produ...

  17. Infectivity and sporulation of Phytophthora ramorum on northern red oak and chestnut oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branches from northern red and chestnut oak seedlings were dip-inoculated with 5,000 sporangia per milliliter of Phytophthora ramorum and incubated at 100 percent relative humidity in dew chambers for 6 days. Three plants were then used to assess sporangia production, while the other three plants w...

  18. Removal action report on the Building 3001 canal at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a federal facility managed by Lockheed Martin C, Energy Research, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ORNL on the Oak Ridge Reservation in East Tennessee at the Anderson and Roane County lines, approximately 38 km (24 miles) west of Knoxville, Tennessee, and 18 km (11 miles) southwest of downtown Oak Ridge. The Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor and its storage and transfer canal are located in Bldg. 3001 in the approximate center of Waste Area Grouping I in the ORNL main complex. 4:1 The Bldg. 3001 Storage Canal is an L-shaped, underground, reinforced-concrete structure running from the back and below the Graphite Reactor in Bldg. 3001 to a location beneath a hot cell in the adjacent Bldg. 3019. The Graphite Reactor was built in 1943 to produce small quantities of plutonium and was subsequently used to produce other isotopes for medical research before it was finally shut down in 1963. The associated canal was used to transport, under water, spent fuel slugs and other isotopes from the back of the reactor to the adjacent Bldg. 31319 hot cell for further processing. During its operation and years subsequent to operation, the canal's concrete walls and floor became contaminated with radioisotopes from the water.This report documents the activities involved with replacing the canal water with a solid, controlled, low-strength material (CLSM) in response to a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act non-time-critical removal action

  19. Comprehensive integrated planning: A process for the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    The Oak Ridge Comprehensive Integrated Plan is intended to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor personnel in implementing a comprehensive integrated planning process consistent with DOE Order 430.1, Life Cycle Asset Management and Oak Ridge Operations Order 430. DOE contractors are charged with developing and producing the Comprehensive Integrated Plan, which serves as a summary document, providing information from other planning efforts regarding vision statements, missions, contextual conditions, resources and facilities, decision processes, and stakeholder involvement. The Comprehensive Integrated Plan is a planning reference that identifies primary issues regarding major changes in land and facility use and serves all programs and functions on-site as well as the Oak Ridge Operations Office and DOE Headquarters. The Oak Ridge Reservation is a valuable national resource and is managed on the basis of the principles of ecosystem management and sustainable development and how mission, economic, ecological, social, and cultural factors are used to guide land- and facility-use decisions. The long-term goals of the comprehensive integrated planning process, in priority order, are to support DOE critical missions and to stimulate the economy while maintaining a quality environment

  20. Sudden Oak Death, Phytophthora ramorum: A Persistent Threat to Oaks and Other Tree Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.J. Frankel; K.M. Palmieri

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the status and management of sudden oak death and “sudden larch death” in the urban and wildland forests of California, Oregon, and the UK. The causal pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, was discovered in all three locations over a decade ago; however, efforts to contain and eliminate infestations have been unsuccessful. These less...

  1. Comprehensive integrated planning: A process for the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Oak Ridge Comprehensive Integrated Plan is intended to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor personnel in implementing a comprehensive integrated planning process consistent with DOE Order 430.1, Life Cycle Asset Management and Oak Ridge Operations Order 430. DOE contractors are charged with developing and producing the Comprehensive Integrated Plan, which serves as a summary document, providing information from other planning efforts regarding vision statements, missions, contextual conditions, resources and facilities, decision processes, and stakeholder involvement. The Comprehensive Integrated Plan is a planning reference that identifies primary issues regarding major changes in land and facility use and serves all programs and functions on-site as well as the Oak Ridge Operations Office and DOE Headquarters. The Oak Ridge Reservation is a valuable national resource and is managed on the basis of the principles of ecosystem management and sustainable development and how mission, economic, ecological, social, and cultural factors are used to guide land- and facility-use decisions. The long-term goals of the comprehensive integrated planning process, in priority order, are to support DOE critical missions and to stimulate the economy while maintaining a quality environment.

  2. Public Sector IS Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony

    2011-01-01

    Online applications and processing of tax forms, driver licenses, and construction permits are examples of where policy attention and research have been united in efforts aiming to categorize the maturity level of e-services. Less attention has been attributed to policy areas with continuous online...... citizenpublic interaction, such as in public education. In this paper we use a revised version of the Public Sector Process Rebuilding (PPR) maturity model for mapping 200 websites of public primary schools in Denmark. Findings reveal a much less favorable picture of the digitization of the Danish public sector...... compared to the high ranking it has received in the international benchmark studies. This paper aims at closing the gap between the predominant scope of maturity models and the frequency of citizen-public sector interaction, and calls for increased attention to the activities of government where the scale...

  3. Bicarbonate Transport During Enamel Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Kaifeng; Paine, Michael L

    2017-11-01

    Amelogenesis (tooth enamel formation) is a biomineralization process consisting primarily of two stages (secretory stage and maturation stage) with unique features. During the secretory stage, the inner epithelium of the enamel organ (i.e., the ameloblast cells) synthesizes and secretes enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) into the enamel space. The protein-rich enamel matrix forms a highly organized architecture in a pH-neutral microenvironment. As amelogenesis transitions to maturation stage, EMPs are degraded and internalized by ameloblasts through endosomal-lysosomal pathways. Enamel crystallite formation is initiated early in the secretory stage, however, during maturation stage the more rapid deposition of calcium and phosphate into the enamel space results in a rapid expansion of crystallite length and mineral volume. During maturation-stage amelogenesis, the pH value of enamel varies considerably from slightly above neutral to acidic. Extracellular acid-base balance during enamel maturation is tightly controlled by ameloblast-mediated regulatory networks, which include significant synthesis and movement of bicarbonate ions from both the enamel papillary layer cells and ameloblasts. In this review we summarize the carbonic anhydrases and the carbonate transporters/exchangers involved in pH regulation in maturation-stage amelogenesis. Proteins that have been shown to be instrumental in this process include CA2, CA6, CFTR, AE2, NBCe1, SLC26A1/SAT1, SLC26A3/DRA, SLC26A4/PDS, SLC26A6/PAT1, and SLC26A7/SUT2. In addition, we discuss the association of miRNA regulation with bicarbonate transport in tooth enamel formation.

  4. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucke, P.C.

    1992-10-01

    The first two volumes of this report present data and supporting narratives regarding the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on its surrounding environs and the public during 1991. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1991 data for the ORR. This volume, Volume 2, includes the detailed data formats that ensure all the environmental data are represented. Narratives are not included. The information in Vol. 2 is addressed and analyzed in Vol. 1

  5. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncinski, W.S.

    1993-09-01

    The two volumes of this report present data and supporting narratives regarding the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on its environs and the public during 1992. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1992 data for the ORR. This volume (volume 2) includes the detailed data in formats that ensure all the environmental data are presented. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2

  6. Oak Ridge TNS Program: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.

    1978-01-01

    The Oak Ridge TNS activities have been directed at characterizing the design space between TFTR and EPR with a fundamental emphasis on higher beta plasma systems than previously projected, i.e., anti β approximately 5 to 10% as compared to 1 to 3%. Based on the results of the FY 1977 System Studies, our activities this year are directed toward preconceptual design with particular emphasis placed on reducing the technological requirements through innovations in plasma engineering. Examples of the new innovations include microwave assisted start up to reduce power requirements and a reduced TF ripple constraint by more refined ripple loss calculations, to increase engineering feasibility through simpler, more maintainable designs

  7. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncinski, W.S.

    1993-09-01

    The two volumes of this report present data and supporting narratives regarding the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on its environs and the public during 1992. This Volume (Volume 1) includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1992 data for the ORR. Volume 2 includes the detailed data in formats that ensure all the environmental data are represented. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2

  8. Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility Position Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL; Thach, Kevin G [ORNL; Podhorszki, Norbert [ORNL; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Rogers, James H [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the business, administration, reliability, and usability aspects of storage systems at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The OLCF has developed key competencies in architecting and administration of large-scale Lustre deployments as well as HPSS archival systems. Additionally as these systems are architected, deployed, and expanded over time reliability and availability factors are a primary driver. This paper focuses on the implementation of the Spider parallel Lustre file system as well as the implementation of the HPSS archive at the OLCF.

  9. Oak Wilt: People and Trees, A Community Approach to Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Juzwik; S. Cook; L. Haugen; J. Elwell

    2004-01-01

    Version 1.3. This self-paced short course on CD-ROM was designed as a learning tool for urban and community foresters, city administrators, tree inspectors, parks and recreation staff, and others involved in oak wilt management.Click the "View or print this publication" link below to request your Oak Wilt: People and...

  10. Regeneration of native California oaks in the forest zone [Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.M. McDonald

    1999-01-01

    The two native California oaks in the forest zone of California are California black oak (Quercus kelloggii Newb.) and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus [Hook. and Arn.] Rehd.). Both are ancient species with many adaptations to withstand California's Mediterranean climate, but some weaknesses as well. Both sprout vigorously...

  11. Chemical ecology of sudden oak death/ambrosia beetle interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances S. Ockels; Pierluigi Bonello; Brice McPherson; David L. Wood

    2006-01-01

    Coast live oaks, Quercus agrifolia, infected with Phytophthora ramorum in California produce a characteristic sequence of symptoms and signs. Ambrosia beetles consistently tunnel into the bark of bleeding cankers in naturally infected trees. In field monitoring conducted since 2000, every bleeding coast live oak that subsequently...

  12. Consequences of Phytophthora ramorum infection in coast live oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice McPherson; David L. Wood; Sylvia R. Mori; Pavel Svihra; Richard B. Standiford; N. Maggi. Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death, caused by Phytophthora ramorum, has infected and killed large numbers of oaks (Quercus spp.) and tanoaks (Lithocarpus densiflorus) in California since the mid 1990s. Since March 2000 we have been investigating the interactions between patterns of disease progression and...

  13. Optimizing Emory oak woodlands for multiple resource benefits [Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlow Shipek; Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried; Leonard F. DeBano

    2005-01-01

    The Emory oak woodlands in the southwestern United States present a diverse range of resources. People utilize these woodlands for wood products, cattle grazing, and recreational purposes. The woodlands provide a diversity of wildlife habitats for resident and migratory species. Occupying predominantly upland regions, the oak woodlands protect watersheds from excessive...

  14. Some natural factors that govern the management of oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidney Weitzman; G. R., Jr. Trimble

    1957-01-01

    The oaks are the most important species group in the Appalachian hardwood forests. In West Virginia, oaks provide more than half of the lumber produced in the State. In addition, they provide a large portion of the mine timbers and specialty products.

  15. Economic incentives for oak woodland preservation and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi Dagit; Cy Carlberg; Christy Cuba; Thomas Scott

    2015-01-01

    Numerous ordinances and laws recognize the value of oak trees and woodlands, and dictate serious and expensive consequences for removing or harming them. Unfortunately, the methods used to calculate these values are equally numerous and often inconsistent. More important, these ordinances typically lack economic incentives to avoid impacts to oak woodland values...

  16. Molecular diversity among Turkish oaks ( QUERCUS ) using random ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Turkey is one of the most important region of the world according to oak species number and variation. In this study, species belonging to evergreen oaks in Turkey were investigated to solve taxonomic problems and to design the limit of taxa by using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) data. Here, three species of ...

  17. Predicting oak density with ecological, physical, and soil indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callie Jo Schweitzer; Adrian A. Lesak; Yong Wang

    2006-01-01

    We predicted density of oak species in the mid-Cumberland Plateau region of northeastern Alabama on the basis of basal area of tree associations based on light tolerances, physical site characteristics, and soil type. Tree basal area was determined for four species groups: oaks (Quercus spp.), hickories (Carya spp.), yellow-poplar...

  18. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site environmental report summary for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document presents a summary of the information collected for the Oak Ridge Reservation 1994 site environmental report. Topics discussed include: Oak Ridge Reservation mission; ecology; environmental laws; community participation; environmental restoration; waste management; radiation effects; chemical effects; risk to public; environmental monitoring; and radionuclide migration

  19. Distributional record of oak gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this survey, oak gall wasp species were collected from the oak forests of Pardanan, Mirabad, Nalas, Sardasht, Hamran and Dar-ghabr in West-Azerbaijan province. The galls occurring on 50 cm sampled branches from four cardinal directions on each tree were counted multiple times throughout the season. Species ...

  20. Effects of fire and browsing on regeneration of blue oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bartolome; Mitchel P. McClaran; Barbara H. Allen-Diaz; Jim Dunne; Lawrence D. Ford; Richard B. Standiford; Neil K. McDougald; Larry C. Forero

    2002-01-01

    Blue oaks (Quercus douglasii) are not regenerating well over much of California. The roles of fire and browsing in regeneration are probably significant, but poorly understood. We burned two foothill blue oak woodland sites which contained significant numbers of small trees between 40 and 70 cm tall, then compared height growth over 14 years among 48...

  1. How to assess oak regeneration potential in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan L. Sander

    1989-01-01

    The values in tables 1 and 2 apply specifically to oak stands in the Missouri Ozarks and may or may not apply outside this area. Unfortunately, similar values for oak do not exist for other geographic areas. Use the procedures and values cautiously in other areas. Consider them as approximations and compare them to values based on local experience and guidelines.

  2. Pathways for resilience in Mediterranean cork oak land use systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acácio, V.C.; Holmgren, M.

    2014-01-01

    Context Loss of woodlands and degradation of vegetation and soil have been described for all Mediterranean-type ecosystems worldwide. In the Western Iberian Peninsula, overexploitation of evergreen cork oak land use systems has led to soil erosion, failures in oak recruitment, and loss of forests.

  3. A review of fire and oak regeneration and overstory recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Zhaofei Fan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has played a prominent role in the history of oak in eastern North America, and it is useful today for promoting oak regeneration where competition with other woody vegetation is a problem and for managing savannas and woodlands. We spent the last century extinguishing wildfire from forests for good reason, but now we must spend some time relearning how to use...

  4. Blue Oak Canopy Effect on Seasonal Forage Production and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Frost; Neil K. McDougald; Montague W. Demment

    1991-01-01

    Forage production and forage quality were measured seasonally beneath the canopy of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) and in open grassland at the San Joaquin Experimental Range. At the March and peak standing crop sampling dates forage production was significantly greater (p=.05) beneath blue oak compared to open grassland. At most sampling dates, the...

  5. Pretreatment Characteristics of Waste Oak Wood by Ammonia Percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Seok; Kim, Hyunjoon; Lee, Jin-Suk; Lee, Joon-Pyo; Park, Soon-Chul

    A log of waste oak wood collected from a Korean mushroom farm has been tested for ammonia percolation pretreatment. The waste log has different physical characteristics from that of virgin oak wood. The density of the waste wood was 30% lower than that of virgin oak wood. However, there is little difference in the chemical compositions between the woods. Due to the difference in physical characteristics, the optimal pretreatment conditions were also quite different. While for waste oak the optimum temperature was determined to be 130°C, for virgin oak wood the optimum pretreatment was only achieved at 170°C. Presoaking for 12 h with ammonia solution before pretreatment was helpful to increase the delignification efficiency.

  6. Motivational Maturity and Helping Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, Michael; Green, Logan

    1977-01-01

    Maturity in conative development (type of motivation included in Maslow's needs hierarchy) was found to be predictive of helping behavior in middle class white male college students. The effects of safety and esteem needs were compared, and the acceptance of responsibility was also investigated. (GDC)

  7. Regulators of growth plate maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Joyce Adriana Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Estrogen is known to play an important role in longitudinal bone growth and growth plate maturation, but the mechanism by which estrogens exert their effect is not fully understood. In this thesis this role is further explored. Chapter 1 contains a general introduction to longitudinal bone growth

  8. Phytophthora ramorum infection in coast live oaks and Shreve's oaks treated with insecticide to prevent beetle colonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice A. McPherson; David L. Wood; David M. Rizzo; Pavel Svihra; Steve Tjosvold; Andrew J. Storer; Richard B. Standiford

    2006-01-01

    As the name implies, sudden oak death, caused by Phytophthora ramorum, kills many, if not most of the coast live oaks, Quercus agrifolia, that become infected (McPherson and others, 2005). Several genera of ambrosia and bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) colonize bleeding (infected) trees and are suspected to hasten tree death....

  9. Long-term trends in coast live oak and tanoak stands affected by Phytophthora ramorum canker (Sudden Oak Death)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedmund J. Swiecki; Elizabeth Bernhardt

    2010-01-01

    Permanent plots were established in 2000 to examine how tree and site factors affect risk of Phytophthora ramorum stem canker (sudden oak death [SOD]) and determine how affected stands change over time due to disease. P. ramorum canker was prevalent in the sampled coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) or...

  10. Evaluation of spectral light management on growth of container-grown willow oak, nuttall oak and summer red maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant response to blue, red, gray or black shade cloth was evaluated with willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer, Nuttall) and Summer Red maple (Acer rubrum L. ‘Summer Red’) liners. Light transmitted through the colored shade cloth had no influence on germination of ...

  11. Forest stand dynamics and sudden oak death: Mortality in mixed-evergreen forests dominated by coast live oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.B. Brown; B. Allen-Diaz

    2009-01-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD), caused by the recently discovered non-native invasive pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, has already killed tens of thousands of native coast live oak and tanoak trees in California. Little is known of potential short and long term impacts of this novel plant–pathogen interaction on forest structure and composition. Coast live...

  12. Elemental concentrations in foliage of red maple, red oak, and white oak in relation to atmospheric deposition in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. D. Davis; J. M. Skelly; B. L. Nash

    1995-01-01

    Foliage was sampled in June and late August-early September in 1988 and 1989 from the outer crowns of codominant red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), and white oak (Q. alba L.) trees in forest stands along an atmospheric deposition gradient in north-central Pennsylvania. Leaf samples...

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The goal of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Management Program is the protection of workers, the public, and the environment. A vital aspect of this goal is to comply with all applicable state, federal, and DOE requirements. Waste management requirements for DOE radioactive wastes are detailed in DOE Order 5820.2A, and the ORNL Waste Management Program encompasses all elements of this order. The requirements of this DOE order and other appropriate DOE orders, along with applicable Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules and regulations, provide the principal source of regulatory guidance for waste management operations at ORNL. The objective of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Waste Management Plan is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management is to compile and to consolidate information annually on how the ORNL Waste Management Program is conducted, which waste management facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, what activities are planned for the forthcoming fiscal year (FY), and how all of the activities are documented

  14. How does vegetation structure influence woodpeckers and secondary cavity nesting birds in African cork oak forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Amalia

    2017-08-01

    The Great Spotted Woodpecker provides important information about the status of a forest in terms of structure and age. As a primary cavity creator, it provides small-medium size cavities for passerines. However, despite its interest as an ecosystem engineer, studies of this species in Africa are scarce. Here, spatially explicit predictive models were used to investigate how forest structural variables are related to both the Great Spotted Woodpecker and secondary cavity nesting birds in Maamora cork oak forest (northwest Morocco). A positive association between Great Spotted Woodpecker and both dead-tree density and large mature trees (>60 cm dbh) was found. This study area, Maamora, has an old-growth forest structure incorporating a broad range of size and condition of live and dead trees, favouring Great Spotted Woodpecker by providing high availability of foraging and excavating sites. Secondary cavity nesting birds, represented by Great Tit, African Blue Tit, and Hoopoe, were predicted by Great Spotted Woodpecker detections. The findings suggest that the conservation of the Maamora cork oak forest could be key to maintaining these hole-nesting birds. However, this forest is threatened by forestry practises and livestock overgrazing and the challenge is therefore to find sustainable management strategies that ensure conservation while allowing its exploitation.

  15. An aerial radiological survey of the White Oak Creek Floodplain, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Date of survey: September-October 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.E.

    1987-06-01

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over the White Oak Creek Floodplain of the Oak Ridge Reservation during the period 30 September through 3 October 1986. The survey was performed at the request of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Oak Ridge Operations Office, by EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM), a contractor of the DOE. The survey results will be utilized in support of the Remedial Action Program being conducted at the site by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., operator of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A flight line spacing of 37 meters (120 feet) and a survey altitude of 46 meters (150 feet) yielded the maximum data density and sensitivity achievable by the aerial system, which was greater than that achieved from prior surveys of the entire Oak Ridge Reservation. Isopleth maps of Cs-137, Co-60, Ti-208 implied concentrations, and exposure rates provided an estimate of the location and magnitude of the man-made activity. These maps, overlaid on a current photograph of the area, combine to yield a view of the radiological condition of the White Oak Creek Floodplain. 5 refs., 40 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Assessment of skeletal maturation using mandibular second molar maturation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S; Goyal, S; Gugnani, N

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between cervical vertebrae maturation and mandibular second molar calcification stages. The study was designed as a retrospective, descriptive and crosssectional research project. Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms and panoramic radiographs of 99 males and 110 females in the age range of 7 to 18 years 7 months were evaluated with Demirjian Index (DI) and cervical vertebrae maturation indicators (CVMI) of Hassel and Farman. A null hypothesis was proposed that there is no relation between CVMI and DI. A highly significant association (Pearson's contingency coefficient 0.713 for males and 0.863 for females) was found between DI and CVMI. In males, the DI stage E corresponded to stage 2 of CVMI (pre-peak of pubertal growth spurt) and DI stages F and G corresponded to stages 3 and 4 of CVMI (peak of pubertal growth spurt). DI stage H was associated with stages 5 and 6 of CVMI (end of pubertal growth spurt). In females, the DI stages C, D corresponded to CVMI stages 1, 2; DI stages E, F with CVMI stages 3, 4; DI stages G, H with CVMI stages 5, 6. Mandibular second molar calcification stages can be used as indicators for assessment of skeletal maturity.

  17. Cervical vertebral maturation as a biologic indicator of skeletal maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Rodrigo César; de Miranda Costa, Luiz Felipe; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Bolognese, Ana Maria; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2012-11-01

    To identify and review the literature regarding the reliability of cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) staging to predict the pubertal spurt. The selection criteria included cross-sectional and longitudinal descriptive studies in humans that evaluated qualitatively or quantitatively the accuracy and reproducibility of the CVM method on lateral cephalometric radiographs, as well as the correlation with a standard method established by hand-wrist radiographs. The searches retrieved 343 unique citations. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Six articles had moderate to high scores, while 17 of 23 had low scores. Analysis also showed a moderate to high statistically significant correlation between CVM and hand-wrist maturation methods. There was a moderate to high reproducibility of the CVM method, and only one specific study investigated the accuracy of the CVM index in detecting peak pubertal growth. This systematic review has shown that the studies on CVM method for radiographic assessment of skeletal maturation stages suffer from serious methodological failures. Better-designed studies with adequate accuracy, reproducibility, and correlation analysis, including studies with appropriate sensitivity-specificity analysis, should be performed.

  18. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail

  19. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

  20. Ecology and management of oak woodlands and savannas in the southwestern Borderlands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott

    2013-01-01

    Management of the Madrean oak woodlands and the less dense and ecologically different oak savannas must be based on sound ecological information. However, relatively little is known about the Madrean oak ecosystems in spite of the fact that they cover about 80,000 km2 in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Emory oak (Quercus emoryi), the dominant tree...

  1. Sustaining oak forests in eastern North America: regeneration and recruitment, the pillars of sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey

    2014-01-01

    Oak cover types comprise half of the forestlands in the eastern United States. There is a great desire to sustain these highly valued forests. Unfortunately, reports of the successional replacement of oak are all too common, as they are throughout the world. Sustaining the oak resource requires the ability to both regenerate and recruit oak into the overstory as...

  2. Diagnosis and Management of Phytophthora ramorum canker in canyon live oak, an atypical bole canker host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedmund J. Swiecki; Elizabeth Bernhardt; Kamyar Aram; David Rizzo

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of sudden oak death (SOD) in tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus (Hook. & Arn.) Manos, Cannon & S.H. Oh) and susceptible red/black oak species (coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née; Shreve oak, Q. parvula Greene var. shrevei (C.H. Mull.) Nixon; California...

  3. White Oak Creek embayment sediment retention structure: The Oak Ridge model in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Kimmel, B.L.; Page, D.G.; Hudson, G.R.; Wilkerson, R.B.; Zocolla, M.

    1992-01-01

    White Oak Creek is the major surface-water drainage through the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Samples taken from the lower portion of the creek revealed high levels of Cesium-137, and lower levels of Cobalt-60 in near-surface sediment. Other contaminants present in the sediment included: lead, mercury, chromium, and PCBS. In October 1990, DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) agreed to initiate a time-critical removal action in accordance with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) to prevent transport of the contaminated sediments into the Clinch River system. This paper discusses the environmental, regulatory, design, and construction issues that were encountered in conducting the remediation work

  4. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities

  5. Source document for waste area groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, P.L.; Kuhaida, A.J., Jr.

    1996-09-01

    This document serves as a source document for Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and other types of documents developed for and pertaining to Environmental Restoration (ER) Program activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It contains descriptions of the (1) regulatory requirements for the ORR ER Program, (2) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) ER Program, (3) ORNL site history and characterization, and (4) history and characterization of Waste Area Groupings (WAGS) 1-20. This document was created to save time, effort, and money for persons and organizations drafting documents for the ER Program and to improve consistency in the documents prepared for the program. By eliminating the repetitious use of selected information about the program, this document will help reduce the time and costs associated with producing program documents. By serving as a benchmark for selected information about the ER Program, this reference will help ensure that information presented in future documents is accurate and complete

  6. Oak Ridge Health Studies phase 1 report, Volume 1: Oak Ridge Phase 1 overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbrough, M.I.; Van Cleave, M.L.; Turri, P.; Daniel, J.

    1993-09-01

    In July 1991, the State of Tennessee initiated the Health Studies Agreement with the United States Department of Energy to carry out independent studies of possible adverse health effects in people living in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Reservation. The health studies focus on those effects that could have resulted or could result from exposures to chemicals and radioactivity released at the Reservation since 1942. The major focus of the first phase was to complete a Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. This study was designed to find out if enough data exist about chemical and radionuclide releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation to conduct a second phase. The second phase will lead to estimates of the actual amounts or the ``doses`` of various contaminants received by people as a result of off-site releases. Once the doses of various contaminants have been estimated, scientists and physicians will be better able to evaluate whether adverse health effects could have resulted from the releases.

  7. Oak Ridge Health Studies phase 1 report, Volume 1: Oak Ridge Phase 1 overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbrough, M.I.; Van Cleave, M.L.; Turri, P.; Daniel, J.

    1993-09-01

    In July 1991, the State of Tennessee initiated the Health Studies Agreement with the United States Department of Energy to carry out independent studies of possible adverse health effects in people living in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Reservation. The health studies focus on those effects that could have resulted or could result from exposures to chemicals and radioactivity released at the Reservation since 1942. The major focus of the first phase was to complete a Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. This study was designed to find out if enough data exist about chemical and radionuclide releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation to conduct a second phase. The second phase will lead to estimates of the actual amounts or the ''doses'' of various contaminants received by people as a result of off-site releases. Once the doses of various contaminants have been estimated, scientists and physicians will be better able to evaluate whether adverse health effects could have resulted from the releases

  8. Phenolic Acids, Phenolic Aldehydes and Furanic Derivatives in Oak Chips: American vs. French Oaks

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrita, M.J.; Barrocas Dias, C.; Costa Freitas, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Phenolic acids (gallic, vanillic, syringic and ellagic acids), phenolic aldehydes (vanillin, syringaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde) and furanic derivatives (furfural, 5-methylfurfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural) were quantified in commercial American and French oak chips. Chips with different sizes and toast degrees were used. Compounds were extracted directly from the wood samples in order to determine possible differences among woods as well as toast degree. Likewise, the compo...

  9. Tiger team assessment of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1990-02-01

    This document contains findings identified during the Tiger Team Compliance Assessment of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Y-12 Plant Tiger Team Compliance Assessment is comprehensive in scope. It covers the Environmental, Safety, and Health (including Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) compliance), and Management areas and determines the plant's compliance with applicable federal (including DOE), state, and local regulations and requirements. 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhaida, A.J. Jr.; Parker, A.F.

    1997-02-01

    This report provides summary information on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) sites as listed in the Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), dated January 1, 1992, Appendix C. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory was built in 1943 as part of the World War II Manhattan Project. The original mission of ORNL was to produce and chemically separate the first gram-quantities of plutonium as part of the national effort to produce the atomic bomb. The current mission of ORNL is to provide applied research and development in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in nuclear fusion and fission, energy conservation, fossil fuels, and other energy technologies and to perform basic scientific research in selected areas of the physical, life, and environmental sciences. ER is also tasked with clean up or mitigation of environmental impacts resulting from past waste management practices on portions of the approximately 37,000 acres within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Other installations located within the ORR are the Gaseous Diffusion Plant (K-25) and the Y-12 plant. The remedial action strategy currently integrates state and federal regulations for efficient compliance and approaches for both investigations and remediation efforts on a Waste Area Grouping (WAG) basis. As defined in the ORR FFA Quarterly Report July - September 1995, a WAG is a grouping of potentially contaminated sites based on drainage area and similar waste characteristics. These contaminated sites are further divided into four categories based on existing information concerning whether the data are generated for scoping or remedial investigation (RI) purposes. These areas are as follows: (1) Operable Units (OU); (2) Characterization Areas (CA); (3) Remedial Site Evaluation (RSE) Areas; and (4) Removal Site Evaluation (RmSE) Areas.

  11. Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, P.L.; Legeay, A.J.; Pesce, D.S.; Stanley, A.M.

    1995-11-01

    This report, Site Descriptions of Environmental Restoration Units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is being prepared to assimilate information on sites included in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program of the K-25 Site, one of three major installations on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) built during World War III as part of the Manhattan Project. The information included in this report will be used to establish program priorities so that resources allotted to the K-25 ER Program can be best used to decrease any risk to humans or the environment, and to determine the sequence in which any remedial activities should be conducted. This document will be updated periodically in both paper and Internet versions. Units within this report are described in individual data sheets arranged alphanumerically. Each data sheet includes entries on project status, unit location, dimensions and capacity, dates operated, present function, lifecycle operation, waste characteristics, site status, media of concern, comments, and references. Each data sheet is accompanied by a photograph of the unit, and each unit is located on one of 13 area maps. These areas, along with the sub-area, unit, and sub-unit breakdowns within them, are outlined in Appendix A. Appendix B is a summary of information on remote aerial sensing and its applicability to the ER program

  12. Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, P.L.; Legeay, A.J.; Pesce, D.S.; Stanley, A.M.

    1995-11-01

    This report, Site Descriptions of Environmental Restoration Units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is being prepared to assimilate information on sites included in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program of the K-25 Site, one of three major installations on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) built during World War III as part of the Manhattan Project. The information included in this report will be used to establish program priorities so that resources allotted to the K-25 ER Program can be best used to decrease any risk to humans or the environment, and to determine the sequence in which any remedial activities should be conducted. This document will be updated periodically in both paper and Internet versions. Units within this report are described in individual data sheets arranged alphanumerically. Each data sheet includes entries on project status, unit location, dimensions and capacity, dates operated, present function, lifecycle operation, waste characteristics, site status, media of concern, comments, and references. Each data sheet is accompanied by a photograph of the unit, and each unit is located on one of 13 area maps. These areas, along with the sub-area, unit, and sub-unit breakdowns within them, are outlined in Appendix A. Appendix B is a summary of information on remote aerial sensing and its applicability to the ER program.

  13. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also

  14. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, N.L.

    1989-05-01

    The first two volumes of this report are devoted to a presentation of environmental data and supporting narratives for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding environs during 1988. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a ''stand-alone'' report for the ORR for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1988 data. Volume 2 includes the detailed data summarized in a format to ensure that all environmental data are represented in the tables. Narratives are not included in Volume 2. The tables in Volume 2 are addressed in Volume 1. For this reason, Vol. 2 cannot be considered a stand-alone report but is intended to be used in conjunction with Volume 1

  15. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1, Technology Evaluation; Vol. 2, Technology Logic Diagram and Vol. 3, Technology EvaLuation Data Sheets. Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on the D ampersand D of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TM, an explanation of the problems facing the volume-specific program, a review of identified technologies, and rankings of technologies applicable to the site. Volume 2 (Pts. A. B. and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A. B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. This volume provides the technology evaluation data sheets (TEDS) for ER/WM activities (D ampersand D, RA and WM) that are referenced by a TEDS code number in Vol. 2 of the TLD. Each of these sheets represents a single logic trace across the TLD. These sheets contain more detail than is given for the technologies in Vol. 2

  16. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D), remedial action (RA), and WM activities. The TLD consists of three fundamentally separate volumes: Vol. 1 (Technology Evaluation), Vol. 2 (Technology Logic Diagram), and Vol. 3 (Technology Evaluation Data Sheets). Part A of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on D ampersand D. Part B of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on RA of contaminated facilities. Part C of Vols. 1 and 2 focuses on WM. Each part of Vol. 1 contains an overview of the TLD, an explanation of the program-specific responsibilities, a review of identified technologies, and the ranking os remedial technologies. Volume 2 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the logic linkages among EM goals, environmental problems, and the various technologies that have the potential to solve these problems. Volume 3 (Pts. A, B, and C) contains the TLD data sheets. The focus of Vol. 1, Pt. B, is RA, and it has been divided into six chapters. The first chapter is an introduction, which defines problems specific to the ER Program for ORNL. Chapter 2 provides a general overview of the TLD. Chapters 3 through 5 are organized into necessary subelement categories: RA, characterization, and robotics and automation. The final chapter contains regulatory compliance information concerning RA

  17. Matrix-calibrated LC-MS/MS quantitation and sensory evaluation of oak Ellagitannins and their transformation products in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Timo; Wollmann, Nadine; Wenker, Kerstin; Lösch, Sofie; Glabasnia, Arne; Hofmann, Thomas

    2010-05-26

    Aimed at investigating the concentrations and taste contribution of the oak-derived ellagitannins castalagin and vescalagin as well as their transformation products acutissimin A/B, epiacutissimin A/B, and beta-1-O-ethylvescalagin in red wine, a highly sensitive and accurate quantification method was developed on the basis of LC-MS/MS-MRM analysis with matrix calibration. Method validation showed good recovery rates ranging from 102.4 +/- 5.9% (vescalagin) to 113.7 +/- 15.2% (epiacutissimin A). In oak-matured wines, castalagin was found as the predominant ellagitannin, followed by beta-1-O-ethylvescalagin, whereas the flavano-C-ellagitannins (epi)acutissimin A/B were present in significantly lower amounts. In contrast to the high threshold concentration levels (600-1000 micromol/L) and the puckering astringent orosensation induced by flavan-3-ols, all of the ellagitannin derivatives were found to induce a smooth and velvety astringent oral sensation at rather low threshold concentrations ranging from 0.9 to 2.8 micromol/L. Dose/activity considerations demonstrated that, among all the ellagitannins investigated, castalagin exclusively exceeded its threshold concentration in various oak-matured wine samples.

  18. Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction Project Summary Report; Reports of the Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction, Vol. 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas E. Widner; et. al.

    1999-07-01

    In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel of individuals appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. The panel requested that the principal investigator for the project prepare the following report, ''Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction Project Summary Report,'' to serve the following purposes: (1) summarize in a single, less technical report, the methods and results of the various investigations that comprised the Phase II of the dose reconstruction; (2) describe the systematic searching of classified and unclassified historical records that was a vital component of the project; and (3) summarize the less detailed, screening-level assessments that were performed to evaluate the potential health significance of a number of materials, such a uranium, whose priority did not require a complete dose reconstruction effort. This report describes each major step of the dose reconstruction study: (1) the review of thousands of historical records to obtain information relating to past operations at each facility; (2) estimation of the quantity and timing of releases of radioiodines from X-10, of mercury from Y-12, of PCB's from all facilities, and of cesium-137 and other radionuclides from White Oak Creek; (3) evaluation of the routes taken by these contaminants through the environment to nearby populations; and (4) estimation of doses and health risks to exposed groups. Calculations found the highest excess cancer risks for a female born in 1952 who drank goat milk; the highest non-cancer health risk was for children in a farm family exposed to PCBs in and near

  19. Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction Project Summary Report; Reports of the Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction, Vol. 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widner, Thomas E.; email = twidner@jajoneses.com

    1999-01-01

    In the early 1990s, concern about the Oak Ridge Reservation's past releases of contaminants to the environment prompted Tennessee's public health officials to pursue an in-depth study of potential off-site health effects at Oak Ridge. This study, the Oak Ridge dose reconstruction, was supported by an agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Tennessee, and was overseen by a 12-member panel of individuals appointed by Tennessee's Commissioner of Health. The panel requested that the principal investigator for the project prepare the following report, ''Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction Project Summary Report,'' to serve the following purposes: (1) summarize in a single, less technical report, the methods and results of the various investigations that comprised the Phase II of the dose reconstruction; (2) describe the systematic searching of classified and unclassified historical records that was a vital component of the project; and (3) summarize the less detailed, screening-level assessments that were performed to evaluate the potential health significance of a number of materials, such a uranium, whose priority did not require a complete dose reconstruction effort. This report describes each major step of the dose reconstruction study: (1) the review of thousands of historical records to obtain information relating to past operations at each facility; (2) estimation of the quantity and timing of releases of radioiodines from X-10, of mercury from Y-12, of PCB's from all facilities, and of cesium-137 and other radionuclides from White Oak Creek; (3) evaluation of the routes taken by these contaminants through the environment to nearby populations; and (4) estimation of doses and health risks to exposed groups. Calculations found the highest excess cancer risks for a female born in 1952 who drank goat milk; the highest non-cancer health risk was for children in a farm family exposed to PCBs in and near East Fork Poplar Creek. More detailed

  20. Natural Areas Analysis and Evaluation: Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranski, Micahel J [self

    2009-11-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Oak Ridge Reservation, encompassing 33,639 acres in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of East Tennessee, has long been known for its unfragmented forests and high biodiversity. Many areas on the Reservation have been recognized as important natural areas, but no comprehensive treatment has been performed to evaluate the relative significance and importance of these areas compared to each other. The present study was conducted to develop a set of guidelines for evaluating the natural value of specific areas, to evaluate all the terrestrial areas that are currently delineated, and to rank all areas according to their relative biodiversity importance. All available data, reports and site-specific information relevant to Reservation lands, including Tennessee Division of Natural Areas database information, were evaluated and field work was conducted. Methodologies and criteria for assessment and evaluation of areas were developed; categories of criteria were devised; and a ranking system for evaluation of natural areas was produced. There were 70 areas evaluated during the study. The system is flexible, dynamic and easily revised to reflect updated and new information and interpretations. Eight categories of evaluation factors were established and used to characterize each site. These were the following: size of area, number or status taxa present, number of Endangered and Threatened taxa present, rarity of the Endangered and Threatened taxa on the Reservation, community diversity, site integrity and quality, disturbance and threat levels, and other significant features and factors. Each category generally consisted of a 5-point ranking scale from 0-4, allowing for a possible composite score of 32, with higher ranked, more important, sites attaining higher scores. Highly ranked sites are representative of regional natural diversity; contain outstanding natural features, communities or geology and/or very rare taxa or other elements; are

  1. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity classification. 51.1904 Section 51.1904... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1904 Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red when ripe, but are not overripe or soft...

  2. 60 years of great science [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-01-01

    This issue highlights Oak Ridge National Laboratory's contributions in more than 30 areas of research and related activities during the past 60 years and provides glimpses of current activities that are carrying on this heritage.

  3. Technical Evaluation of Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kriskovich, J R

    2002-01-01

    Two evaluations of the Oak Ridge Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Facility (FTF) were performed on December 11 and 12, 2001, and consisted of a quality assurance and a technical evaluation. This report documents results of the technical evaluation.

  4. Establishing Mixtures of Redcedar In Poor Oak-Hickory Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon S. Minckler

    1966-01-01

    Oak-history forests on the poorest sites in the Upper Mississippi Valley have both low productivity and little esthetic appeal. A mixture of the native evergreen redcedar would add bearty and increase wildlife values.

  5. Oak Ridge low-level waste disposal facility designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, S.D.; Jones, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    The strategic planning process that culuminates in the identification, selection, construction, and ultimate operation of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities for all types of low-level waste (LLW) generated on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted under the Low-Level Waste Disposal Development and Demonstration (LLWDDD) Program. This program considered management of various concentrations of short half-life radionuclides generated principally at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and long half-life radionuclides (principally uranium) generated at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant. The LLWDDD Program is still ongoing and involves four phases: (1) alternative identification and evaluation, (2) technology demonstration, (3) limited operational implementation, and (4) full operational implementation. This document provides a discussion of these phases

  6. Research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postma, H.

    1980-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is a large (5300 people), US-government-funded laboratory, which performs research in many disciplines and in many technological areas. Programs and organization of ORNL are described for the People's Republic of China

  7. Technical specifications for the Oak Ridge Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    Information is presented concerning the Oak Ridge Research Reactor in the areas of: safety limits and limiting safety system settings; limiting conditions for operation; surveillance requirements; design features; administrative controls; and monitoring of effluents

  8. Shiitake mushroom production on small diameter oak logs in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.M. Bratkovich

    1991-01-01

    Yields of different strains of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were evaluated when produced on small diameter oak logs in Ohio. Logs averaging between 3-4 inches in diameter were inoculated with four spawn strains in 1985.

  9. Red oak borers become sterile when reared under continuous light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy R. Galford

    1975-01-01

    Red oak borers, Enaphalodes rufulus (Haldeman), reared under continuous light for 12 weeks became sterile. Sterility is thought to have been caused by light destroying vitamins essential for fertility

  10. Evaluation of extractive content in Albanian white oak ( Quercus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , have an important impact on wood properties and its utilization. The study was carried on extractives content of white oak (Quercus petraea Liebl). Eighteen sawdust samples were taken from cuts in six different heights of three trees.

  11. Anti nutritional evaluation of the flour of the nipples of holm oak (quercus ilex) and oak cork (quercus suber) Raw and pressure-sealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Mahi, F. Z.

    2009-01-01

    The present study contributes to the development of the food potential of the nipples of oak like new resources likely to be exploited on an industrial scale for their use in animal feeds. Our work relates to two species S of nipples of oak, edible, the holm oak and the other fodder one, the oak cork known for their spontaneousness and their vey significant geographical distribution. (Author)

  12. Development of tree hollows in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur)

    OpenAIRE

    Ranius, Thomas; Niklasson, Mats; Berg, Niclas

    2009-01-01

    Many invertebrates, birds and mammals are dependent on hollow trees. For landscape planning that aims at persistence of species inhabiting hollow trees it is crucial to understand the development of such trees. In this study we constructed an individual-based simulation model to predict diameter distribution and formation of hollows in oak tree populations. Based on tree-ring data from individual trees, we estimated the ages when hollow formation commences for pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) ...

  13. Holifield Heavy-Ion Research Facility at Oak Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.M.

    1977-01-01

    A new heavy-ion accelerator facility is now under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A brief description of the scope and schedule of this project is given, and the new large tandem accelerator, which will be a major element of the facility is discussed in some detail. Several studies which have been made or are in progress in Oak Ridge in preparation for operation of the tandem accelerator are briefly described

  14. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report Summary, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-02-28

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report is prepared and published each year to inform the public of the environmental activities that take place on the reservation and in the surrounding areas. It is written to comply with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. This document has been prepared to present the highlights of the Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report 2007 in an easy-to-read, summary format.

  15. The emergence densities of annual cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) increase with sapling density and are greater near edges in a bottomland hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavacci, Scott J; Bednarz, James C; McKay, Tanja

    2014-08-01

    The emergence densities of cicadas tend to be patchy at multiple spatial scales. While studies have identified habitat conditions related to these patchy distributions, their interpretation has been based primarily on periodical cicada species; habitat factors associated with densities of nonperiodical (i.e., annual) cicadas have remained under studied. This is despite their widespread distribution, diversity, and role as an important trophic resource for many other organisms, particularly within riparian areas. We studied habitat factors associated with the emergence densities of Tibicen spp. in a bottomland hardwood forest in east-central Arkansas. We found emergence densities were greatest in areas of high sapling densities and increased toward forest edges, although sapling density was a much stronger predictor of emergence density. Emergence densities also differed among sample areas within our study system. The habitat features predicting nymph densities were likely driven by a combination of factors affecting female selection of oviposition sites and the effects of habitat conditions on nymph survival. The differences in nymph densities between areas of our system were likely a result of the differential effects of flooding in these areas. Interestingly, our findings were similar to observations of periodical species, suggesting that both types of cicadas select similar habitat characteristics for ovipositing or are under comparable selective pressures during development. Our findings also imply that changes in habitat characteristics because of anthropogenically altered disturbance regimes (e.g., flooding) have the potential to negatively impact both periodical and annual species, which could have dramatic consequences for organisms at numerous trophic levels.

  16. Do chestnut, northern red, and white oak germinant seedlings respond similary to light treatments? II. Gas exchange and chlorophyll responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne Rebbeck; Amy Scherzer; Kurt. Gottschalk

    2012-01-01

    Understanding differences in physiological and growth strategies in low-light environments among upland oak species may help managers address the challenges of oaks' poor regeneration. Gas exchange and chlorophyll content were measured for northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), and white oak (...

  17. Responses of oaks and tanoaks to the sudden oak death pathogen after 8 y of monitoring in two coastal California forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice A. McPherson; Sylvia R. Mori; David L. Wood; Maggi Kelly; Andrew J. Storer; Pavel Svihra; Richard B. Standiford

    2010-01-01

    Sudden oak death, caused by Phytophthora ramorum, is widely established in mesic forests of coastal central and northern California. In 2000, we placed 18 plots in two Marin County sites to monitor disease progression in coast live oaks (Quercus agrifolia), California black oaks (Q. kelloggii), and tanoaks (Lithocarpus densiflorus), the species that are most...

  18. Impact of the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, on the health of coast live oak before and after treatment with two systemic insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigen Chen; Mary L. Flint; Tom W. Coleman; Joseph J. Doccola; Donald M. Grosman; David L. Wood; Steven J. Seybold

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The invasive goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus, is threatening the health and survival of oak trees in San Diego County, California. From two sites in the core area of the infestation, we report a 2.5 year investigation of the impact of A. auroguttatus on coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, before and after treatment with two systemic...

  19. Academic Achievement of High School Students in Relation to Their Anxiety, Emotional Maturity and Social Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puar, Surjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the non-cognitive variables like anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity and their relationship with academic achievement and also to see the locale-wise differences on the basis of their anxiety, emotional maturity and social maturity. The study was conducted over a sample of 400 (200…

  20. Assemblages of saproxylic beetles on large downed trunks of oak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milberg, Per; Bergman, Karl-Olof; Sancak, Kerem; Jansson, Nicklas

    2016-03-01

    Old living oaks (Quercus robur) are known as a very species-rich habitat for saproxylic beetles, but it is less clear to what extent such veteran trees differ from an even rarer feature: downed trunks of large oaks. In this study, we set out to sample this habitat, using window traps, with two aims: (1) to describe the variation of assemblages among downed trunks of different type and (2) to compare beetles on downed oaks with data from veteran standing trees. The results showed that trunk volume and sun exposure better explained assemblages as well as species numbers on downed trunks than did decay stage. Furthermore, species classified as facultative saproxylic species showed weak or no differentiation among downed trunks. Species with different feeding habits showed no apparent differentiation among downed trunks. Furthermore, species composition on dead, downed oak trunks differed sharply from that of living, veteran oaks. Wood or bark feeders were more common on veterans than downed trunks, but there was no difference for those species feeding on fungi or those feeding on insects and their remains. In conclusion, for a successful conservation of the saproxylic beetle fauna it is important to keep downed oak trunks, and particularly large ones, in forest and pastures as they constitute a saproxylic habitat that differs from that of living trees.

  1. Maturity models in supply chain sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Correia, Elisabete; Carvalho, Helena; Azevedo, Susana G.

    2017-01-01

    A systematic literature review of supply chain maturity models with sustainability concerns is presented. The objective is to give insights into methodological issues related to maturity models, namely the research objectives; the research methods used to develop, validate and test them; the scope...... of maturity levels. The comprehensive review, analysis, and synthesis of the maturity model literature represent an important contribution to the organization of this research area, making possible to clarify some confusion that exists about concepts, approaches and components of maturity models...

  2. Relationship between resistance to Phytophthora ramorum and constitutive phenolic chemistry in coast live oaks and northern red oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annemarie M. Nagle; Matteo Garbelotto; Brice McPherson; David L. Wood; Pierluigi. Bonello

    2010-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum causes lethal canker diseases and extensive mortality in coast live oak (CLO) (Quercus agrifolia) and tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus). No practical controls are available for this disease in non-urban environments. Therefore, characterization of natural resistance is highly...

  3. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    This report presents data and information related to remedial investigation studies for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Information is included on a soil gas survey, surface radiological investigations of waste areas, and well installation for ground water monitoring

  4. Maturity Models Development in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2015-01-01

    Maturity models are widespread in IS research and in particular, IT practitioner communities. However, theoretically sound, methodologically rigorous and empirically validated maturity models are quite rare. This literature review paper focuses on the challenges faced during the development...... literature reveals that researchers have primarily focused on developing new maturity models pertaining to domain-specific problems and/or new enterprise technologies. We find rampant re-use of the design structure of widely adopted models such as Nolan’s Stage of Growth Model, Crosby’s Grid, and Capability...... Maturity Model (CMM). Only recently have there been some research efforts to standardize maturity model development. We also identify three dominant views of maturity models and provide guidelines for various approaches of constructing maturity models with a standard vocabulary. We finally propose using...

  5. Decomposition of oak leaf litter and millipede faecal pellets in soil under temperate mixed oak forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajovský, Karel; Šimek, Miloslav; Háněl, Ladislav; Šantrůčková, Hana; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The millipedes Glomeris hexasticha (Diplopoda, Glomerida) were maintained under laboratory conditions and fed on oak leaf litter collected from a mixed oak forest (Abieto-Quercetum) in South Bohemia, Czech Republic. Every fourth day litter was changed and produced faecal pellets were separated and afterwards analysed. Content of organic carbon and C:N ratio lowered in faecal pellets as compared with consumed litter. Changes in content of chemical elements (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na) were recognised as those characteristic for the first stage of degradation of plant material. Samples of faecal pellets and oak leaf litter were then exposed in mesh bags between the F and H layers of forest soil for up to one year, subsequently harvested and analysed. A higher rate of decomposition of exposed litter than that of faecal pellets was found during the first two weeks. After 1-year exposure, the weight of litter was reduced to 51%, while that of pellets to 58% only, although the observed activity of present biotic components (algae, protozoans, nematodes; CO2 production, nitrogenase activity) in faecal pellets was higher as compared with litter. Different micro-morphological changes were observed in exposed litter and in pellets although these materials originated from the same initial sources. Comparing to intact leaf litter, another structural and functional processes occurred in pellets due to the fragmentation of plant material by millipedes. Both laboratory and field experiments showed that the millipede faecal pellets are not only a focal point of biodegradation activity in upper soil layers, but also confirmed that millipede feces undergo a slower decomposition than original leaf litter.

  6. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, January--December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borders, D.M.; Watts, J.A.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Gregory, S.M.; Moore, T.D.

    1993-06-01

    This report summarizes, for the 12-month period (January through December 1992), the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily, on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed along with information collected on the surface flow systems which affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to: characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow system; assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities; and provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance

  7. Geophysical Surveys of a Known Karst Feature, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, W.E.; Nyquist, J.E.; Carpenter, P.J.; Kaufmann, R.D.; Carr, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    Geophysical data were acquired at a site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee to determine the characteristics of a mud-filled void and to evaluate the effectiveness of a suite of geophysical methods at the site. Methods that were used included microgravity, electrical resistivity, and seismic refraction. Both microgravity and resistivity were able to detect the void as well as overlying structural features. The seismic data provide bedrock depth control for the other two methods, and show other effects that are caused by the void

  8. Data Sharing Report Characterization of Isotope Row Facilities Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Phyllis C. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support using funds provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested ORAU to plan and implement a survey approach, focused on characterizing the Isotope Row Facilities located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for future determination of an appropriate disposition pathway for building debris and systems, should the buildings be demolished. The characterization effort was designed to identify and quantify radiological and chemical contamination associated with building structures and process systems. The Isotope Row Facilities discussed in this report include Bldgs. 3030, 3031, 3032, 3033, 3033A, 3034, 3036, 3093, and 3118, and are located in the northeast quadrant of the main ORNL campus area, between Hillside and Central Avenues. Construction of the isotope production facilities was initiated in the late 1940s, with the exception of Bldgs. 3033A and 3118, which were enclosed in the early 1960s. The Isotope Row facilities were intended for the purpose of light industrial use for the processing, assemblage, and storage of radionuclides used for a variety of applications (ORNL 1952 and ORAU 2013). The Isotope Row Facilities provided laboratory and support services as part of the Isotopes Production and Distribution Program until 1989 when DOE mandated their shutdown (ORNL 1990). These facilities performed diverse research and developmental experiments in support of isotopes production. As a result of the many years of operations, various projects, and final cessation of operations, production was followed by inclusion into the surveillance and maintenance (S&M) project for eventual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The

  9. Project plan for the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Background Soil characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents

  10. Project plan for the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The Background Soil characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents.

  11. Oak Ridge 24URC tandem accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meigs, M.J.; Haynes, D.L.; Juras, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report discusses the operation of the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) which was dedicated on December 12, 1996, with a formal ceremony followed by a reception and tour. This dedication marked the culmination of the reconfiguration, started in the middle of 1992, and the beginning of full-time operation as an international user facility. Although construction and commissioning are finished, development continues on ion sources and better methods to produce new and more intense radioactive ion beams (RIBs). The first RIB experiment, Coulomb excitation of 69 As, was completed on June 6, 1997. During the time period from June 1-6, 69 As and 67 Ga were provided for seventy-six hours with a maximum of 1.5 x 10 6 particles/sec at the experimental station. Four μA of primary beam, 42 MeV protons from the Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron (ORIC), was on the 70 Ge target to produce this maximum beam. The experimenter was not set up to use this much beam, so most of the run was done at reduced levels. A second RIB experiment, again using 69 As beam, was attempted on 9/9/97. Although a beam of about 10 5 particles/second was successfully tuned to the Recoil Mass Spectrometer, the intensity produced by the RIB injector source was inadequate to complete the experiment

  12. Crush Testing at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic crush test is required in the certification testing of some small Type B transportation packages. International Atomic Energy Agency regulations state that the test article must be 'subjected to a dynamic crush test by positioning the specimen on the target so as to suffer maximum damage.' Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Transportation Technologies Group performs testing of Type B transportation packages, including the crush test, at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, Tennessee (United States). This paper documents ORNL's experiences performing crush tests on several different Type B packages. ORNL has crush tested five different drum-type package designs, continuing its 60 year history of RAM package testing. A total of 26 crush tests have been performed in a wide variety of package orientations and crush plate CG alignments. In all cases, the deformation of the outer drum created by the crush test was significantly greater than the deformation damage caused by the 9 m drop test. The crush test is a highly effective means for testing structural soundness of smaller nondense Type B shipping package designs. Further regulatory guidance could alleviate the need to perform the crush test in a wide range of orientations and crush plate CG alignments.

  13. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's isotope enrichment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    The Isotope Enrichment Program (IEP) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is responsible for the production and distribution of ∼225 enriched stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. In addition, ORNL distributes enriched actinide isotopes and provides extensive physical- and chemical-form processing of enriched isotopes to meet customer requirements. For more than 50 yr, ORNL has been a major provider of enriched isotopes and isotope-related services to research, medical, and industrial institutions throughout the world. Consolidation of the Isotope Distribution Office (IDO), the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML), and the stable isotope inventories in the Isotope Enrichment Facility (IEF) have improved operational efficiencies and customer services. Recent changes in the IEP have included adopting policies for long-term contracts, which offer program stability and pricing advantages for the customer, and prorated service charges, which greatly improve pricing to the small research users. The former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Loan Program has been converted to a lease program, which makes large-quantity or very expensive isotopes available for nondestructive research at a nominal cost. Current efforts are being pursued to improve and expand the isotope separation capabilities as well as the extensive chemical- and physical-form processing that now exists. The IEF's quality management system is ISO 9002 registered and accredited in the United States, Canada, and Europe

  14. The most significant fungi: Agents of wood decay in oak forests of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milijašević Tanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most widely distributed oak species in Serbia are Q. petrea (sessile oak, Q. cerris (Turkey oak and Q. frainetto (Hungarian oak and Quercus robur (common oak, and lignicolous fungi are the major agents of wood decay in natural and coppice oak forests. In this research, 33 species of fungi were identified. Eleven species were described, among which the most significant are: Armillaria mellea, Fomes fomentarius, Hypoxylon deustum Laetiporus sulphureus, Lenzites quercina and Phellinus robustus. This paper presents the morphological characteristics of the most significant identified fungi, their distribution, host plants and significance.

  15. Maturity group classification and maturity locus genotyping of early-maturing soybean varieties from high-latitude cold regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hongchang; Jiang, Bingjun; Wu, Cunxiang; Lu, Wencheng; Hou, Wensheng; Sun, Shi; Yan, Hongrui; Han, Tianfu

    2014-01-01

    With the migration of human beings, advances of agricultural sciences, evolution of planting patterns and global warming, soybeans have expanded to both tropical and high-latitude cold regions (HCRs). Unlike other regions, HCRs have much more significant and diverse photoperiods and temperature conditions over seasons or across latitudes, and HCR soybeans released there show rich diversity in maturity traits. However, HCR soybeans have not been as well classified into maturity groups (MGs) as other places. Therefore, it is necessary to identify MGs in HCRs and to genotype the maturity loci. Local varieties were collected from the northern part of Northeast China and the far-eastern region of Russia. Maturity group reference (MGR) soybeans of MGs MG000, MG00, and MG0 were used as references during field experiments. Both local varieties and MGR soybeans were planted for two years (2010-2011) in Heihe (N 50°15', E 127°27', H 168.5 m), China. The days to VE (emergence), R1 (beginning bloom) and R7 (beginning maturity) were recorded and statistically analyzed. Furthermore, some varieties were further genotyped at four molecularly-identified maturity loci E1, E2, E3 and E4. The HCR varieties were classified into MG0 or even more early-maturing. In Heihe, some varieties matured much earlier than MG000, which is the most early-maturing known MG, and clustered into a separate group. We designated the group as MG0000, following the convention of MGs. HCR soybeans had relatively stable days to beginning bloom from emergence. The HCR varieties diversified into genotypes of E1, E2, E3 and E4. These loci had different effects on maturity. HCRs diversify early-maturing MGs of soybean. MG0000, a new MG that matures much earlier than known MGs, was developed. HCR soybean breeding should focus more on shortening post-flowering reproductive growth. E1, E2, E3, and E4 function differentially.

  16. Characterization plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Area-Wide Groundwater Program, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This characterization plan has been developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) investigation of the Groundwater Operable Unit (GWOU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first iteration of the characterization plan is intended to serve as a strategy document to guide subsequent GWOU remedial investigations. The plan provides a rationale and organization for groundwater data acquisition, monitoring, and remedial actions to be performed during implementation of environmental restoration activities associated with the ORNL GWOU. It is important to note that the characterization plan for the ORNL GWOU is not a prototypical work plan. As such, remedial investigations will be conducted using annual work plans to manage the work activities, and task reports will be used to document the results of the investigations. Sampling and analysis results will be compiled and reported annually with a review of data relative to risk (screening level risk assessment review) for groundwater. This characterization plan outlines the overall strategy for the remedial investigations and defines tasks that are to be conducted during the initial phase of investigation. This plan is presented with the understanding that more specific addenda to the plan will follow.

  17. Microgravity survey of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, R.D.

    1996-05-01

    Karst features are known to exist within the carbonate bedrock of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site and may play an important role in groundwater flow and contaminant migration. This report discusses the results of a microgravity survey of the Oak Ridge K-25 Site. The main objective of the survey is to identify areas containing bedrock cavities. Secondary objectives included correlating the observed gravity to the geology and to variations in overburden thickness. The analysis includes 11 profile lines that are oriented perpendicular to the geologic strike and major structures throughout the K-25 Site. The profile lines are modeled in an effort to relate gravity anomalies to karst features such as concentrations of mud-filled cavities. Regolith thickness and density data provided by boreholes constrain the models. Areally distributed points are added to the profile lines to produce a gravity contour map of the site. In addition, data from the K-901 area are combined with data from previous surveys to produce a high resolution map of that site. The K-25 Site is located in an area of folded and faulted sedimentary rocks within the Appalachian Valley and Ridge physiographic province. Paleozoic age rocks of the Rome Formation, Knox Group, and Chickamauga Supergroup underlie the K-25 Site and contain structures that include the Whiteoak Mountain Fault, the K-25 Fault, a syncline, and an anticline. The mapped locations of the rock units and complex structures are currently derived from outcrop and well log analysis

  18. Characterization plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Area-Wide Groundwater Program, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This characterization plan has been developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) investigation of the Groundwater Operable Unit (GWOU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first iteration of the characterization plan is intended to serve as a strategy document to guide subsequent GWOU remedial investigations. The plan provides a rationale and organization for groundwater data acquisition, monitoring, and remedial actions to be performed during implementation of environmental restoration activities associated with the ORNL GWOU. It is important to note that the characterization plan for the ORNL GWOU is not a prototypical work plan. As such, remedial investigations will be conducted using annual work plans to manage the work activities, and task reports will be used to document the results of the investigations. Sampling and analysis results will be compiled and reported annually with a review of data relative to risk (screening level risk assessment review) for groundwater. This characterization plan outlines the overall strategy for the remedial investigations and defines tasks that are to be conducted during the initial phase of investigation. This plan is presented with the understanding that more specific addenda to the plan will follow

  19. Inactive tanks remediation program strategy and plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This report presents plans and strategies for remediation of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service (also known as inactive tanks) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These plans and strategies will be carried out by the Environmental Restoration Program's Inactive LLLW Tank Program at ORNL. These tanks are defined as Category D tanks because they are existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. The approach to remediation of each tank or tank farm must be adapted in response to the specific circumstances of individual tank sites. The approach will be tailored to accommodate feedback on lessons learned from previous tank remediation activities and will not be a rigid step-by-step approach that must be conducted identically for every tank system. However, the approach will follow a multistep decision process. The overall objective of the Inactive Tank Program is to remediate all LLLW tanks that have been removed from service to the extent practicable in accordance with the FFA requirements. The Inactive Tank Program will focus on the remediation of the tank residues (i.e., contents after tank has been emptied) and tank shell. This strategy is discussed in detail in this report

  20. Inactive tanks remediation program strategy and plans for Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents plans and strategies for remediation of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) tanks that have been removed from service (also known as inactive tanks) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. These plans and strategies will be carried out by the Environmental Restoration Program's Inactive LLLW Tank Program at ORNL. The approach to remediation of each tank or tank farm must be adapted in response to the specific circumstances of individual tank sites. The approach will be tailored to accommodate feedback on lessons learned from previous tank remediation activities and will not be a rigid step-by-step approach that must be conducted identically for every tank system. However, the approach will follow a multistep decision process. The overall objective of the Inactive Tank Program is to remediate all LLLW tanks that have been removed from service to the extent practicable in accordance with the FFA requirements. The Inactive Tank Program will focus on the remediation of the tank residues and tank shell. This strategy is discussed in detail in this report

  1. Quality assurance plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) is concerned with design and construction (Sect. 2) and characterization and monitoring (Sect. 3). The basis for Sect. 2 is the Quality Assurance Plan for the Design and Construction of Waste Area Grouping 6 Closure at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and the basis for Sect. 3 is the Environmental Restoration Quality Program Plan. Combining the two areas into one plan gives a single, overall document that explains the requirements and from which the individual QAPs and quality assurance project plans can be written. The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 QAP establishes the procedures and requirements to be implemented for control of quality-related activities for the WAG 6 project. Quality Assurance (QA) activities are subject to requirements detailed in the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), QA Program and the Environmental Restoration (ER) QA Program, as well as to other quality requirements. These activities may be performed by Energy Systems organizations, subcontractors to Energy Systems, and architect-engineer (A-E) under prime contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), or a construction manager under prime contract to DOE. This plan specifies the overall Energy Systems quality requirements for the project. The WAG 6 QAP will be supplemented by subproject QAPs that will identify additional requirements pertaining to each subproject

  2. The maturity of Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Favini, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    The ever-increasing use of atomic energy since 1950 has generated a set of rules called for practical reasons Nuclear Law. This branch of law covers a wide scope of related activities and, specialized studies have apparently foreseen all conceivable hypotheses. The international character of Nuclear Law explains the basic harmony of international legislation. The methods of comparative Law and International Private Law as well as the joint, indepth work of scientists and jurists will bring about steady progress towards legislative unity and prompt solution to conflicts. The expectable revitalization of nuclear-electric programs early in the 21st. century will give rise to a Nuclear juridical community which can already be perceived through the maturity Nuclear Law has reached. (Author) [es

  3. Effects of declining oak vitality on ecosystem functions: Lessons from a Spanish oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, Aida; Bareth, Georg; Bolten, Andreas; Linstädter, Anja

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean oak woodlands have a great ecological and socio-economic importance. Today, these fragile ecosystems are facing unprecedented degradation threats from Novel Oak Diseases (NODs). Among NOD drivers, maladapted land management practices and climate change are most important. Although it is generally believed that NOD-related declines in tree vitality will have detrimental effects on ecosystem functions, little is known on the magnitude of change, and whether different functions are affected in a similar way. Here we analyzed effects of tree vitality on various ecosystem functions, comparing subcanopy and intercanopy habitats across two oak species (Quercus ilex and Q. suber) in a Spanish oak woodland. We asked how functions - including aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), taxonomic diversity, and litter decomposition rates - were affected by oak trees' size and vitality. We also combined measurements in the ecosystem function habitat index (MEFHI), a proxy of ecosystem multifunctionality. Field research was carried out in 2016 on a dehesa in southern Spain. We used a stratified random sampling to contrast trees of different species affiliation, size and vitality. Tree vitality was estimated as crown density (assessed via hemispherical photography), and as tree vigor, which combines the grade of canopy defoliation with proxies for tree size (dbh, height, crown height and crown radius). For each tree (n = 34), two plots (50 x 50 cm) were located; one in the subcanopy habitat, and the other in the intercanopy area beyond the tree crown's influence. On all 68 plots, moveable cages were placed during the main growth period (March to May) to estimate ANPP under grazed conditions. Litter decomposition rates were assessed via the tea bag index. ANPP and the biomass of grasses, forbs and legumes were recorded via destructive sampling. To take plots' highly variable environmental conditions into account, we recorded a suite of abiotic and biotic

  4. White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 3 Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This report provides details on the baseline ecological risk assessment conducted in support of the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for the Melton Valley areas of the White Oak Creek watershed (WOCW). The RI presents an analysis meant to enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. The ecological risk assessment builds off of the WOCW screening ecological risk assessment. All information available for contaminated sites under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy`s Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Federal Facilities Agreement within the White Oak Creek (WOC) RI area has been used to identify areas of potential concern with respect to the presence of contamination posing a potential risk to ecological receptors within the Melton Valley area of the White Oak Creek watershed. The risk assessment report evaluates the potential risks to receptors within each subbasin of the watershed as well as at a watershed-wide scale. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminant releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent waste area groupings.

  5. White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 3 Appendix C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This report provides details on the baseline ecological risk assessment conducted in support of the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for the Melton Valley areas of the White Oak Creek watershed (WOCW). The RI presents an analysis meant to enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. The ecological risk assessment builds off of the WOCW screening ecological risk assessment. All information available for contaminated sites under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy's Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Federal Facilities Agreement within the White Oak Creek (WOC) RI area has been used to identify areas of potential concern with respect to the presence of contamination posing a potential risk to ecological receptors within the Melton Valley area of the White Oak Creek watershed. The risk assessment report evaluates the potential risks to receptors within each subbasin of the watershed as well as at a watershed-wide scale. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminant releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent waste area groupings

  6. Health and safety plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety (H&S) concerns and requirements for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be collected from effluent following treatment tests of extraction columns, algal mats, and mature wetlands supplied by surface water locations and existing groundwater monitoring well locations. The project Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. It is the responsibility of the project managers, field manager, and site health and safety officer (SHSO) to determine that the requirements of this HASP are sufficiently protective. If it is determined that the requirements of this HASP are not sufficiently protective, a field change order(s) (FCO) will be prepared. FCOs will include a completed job hazard analysis or similar worksheet to ensure complete hazard assessment. FCOs must be approved by the Environmental Management and Enrichment Facilities (EMEF) project manager, EMEF H&S manager, subcontractor project or field manager, and subcontractor H&S representative. As a minimum, FCOs will be prepared if additional tasks will be performed or if contaminant exposure is anticipated.

  7. Health and safety plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety (H ampersand S) concerns and requirements for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be collected from effluent following treatment tests of extraction columns, algal mats, and mature wetlands supplied by surface water locations and existing groundwater monitoring well locations. The project Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. It is the responsibility of the project managers, field manager, and site health and safety officer (SHSO) to determine that the requirements of this HASP are sufficiently protective. If it is determined that the requirements of this HASP are not sufficiently protective, a field change order(s) (FCO) will be prepared. FCOs will include a completed job hazard analysis or similar worksheet to ensure complete hazard assessment. FCOs must be approved by the Environmental Management and Enrichment Facilities (EMEF) project manager, EMEF H ampersand S manager, subcontractor project or field manager, and subcontractor H ampersand S representative. As a minimum, FCOs will be prepared if additional tasks will be performed or if contaminant exposure is anticipated

  8. A maturity model for blockchain adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huaiqing; Chen, Kun; Xu, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    Background: The rapid development of the blockchain technology and its various applications has rendered it important to understand the guidelines for adopting it. Methods: The comparative analysis method is used to analyze different dimensions of the maturity model, which is mainly based on the commonly used capability maturity model. Results: The blockchain maturity model and its adoption process have been discussed and presented. Conclusions: This study serves as a guide to institutions to...

  9. Oak kombucha protects against oxidative stress and inflammatory processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Cabral, B D; Larrosa-Pérez, M; Gallegos-Infante, J A; Moreno-Jiménez, M R; González-Laredo, R F; Rutiaga-Quiñones, J G; Gamboa-Gómez, C I; Rocha-Guzmán, N E

    2017-06-25

    Black tea infusion is the common substrate for preparing kombucha; however other sources such as oak leaves infusions can be used for the same purpose. Almost any white oak species have been used for medicinal applications by some ethnic groups in Mexico and could be also suitable for preparing kombucha analogues from oak (KAO). The objective of this research was to investigate the antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effects of KAO by examining its modulation ability on macrophage-derived TNF-alpha and IL-6. Herbal infusions from oak and black tea were fermented by kombucha consortium during seven days at 28 °C. Chemical composition was determined by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity of samples against oxidative damage caused by H 2 O 2 in monocytes activated (macrophages) was explored. Additionally, it was determined the anti-inflammatory activity using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated macrophages; in particular, the nitric oxide (NO), TNF-alpha, and IL-6 production was assessed. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha were significantly reduced by the sample treatment. Likewise, NO production was lower in treatment with kombucha and KAO compared with LPS-stimulated macrophages. Fermented beverages of oak effectively down-regulated the production of NO, while pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) in macrophages were stimulated with LPS. Additionally, phytochemical compounds present in KAO decrease oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Interspecific gene flow and maintenance of species integrity in oaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Gailing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oak species show a wide variation in morphological and physiological characters, and species boundaries between closely related species are often not clear-cut. Still, despite frequent interspecific gene flow, oaks maintain distinct morphological and physiological adaptations. In sympatric stands, spatial distribution of species with different ecological requirements is not random but constrained by soil and other microenvironmental factors. Pre-zygotic isolation (e.g. cross incompatibilities, asynchrony in flowering, pollen competition and post-zygotic isolation (divergent selection contribute to the maintenance of species integrity in sympatric oak stands. The antagonistic effects of interspecific gene flow and divergent selection are reflected in the low genetic differentiation between hybridizing oak species at most genomic regions interspersed by regions with signatures of divergent selection (outlier regions. In the near future, the availability of high-density genetic linkage maps anchored to scaffolds of a sequenced Q. robur genome will allow to characterize the underlying genes in these outlier regions and their putative role in reproductive isolation between species. Reciprocal transplant experiments of seedlings between parental environments can be used to characterize selection on outlier genes. High transferability of gene-based markers will enable comparative outlier screens in different oak species.

  11. Red oak and black walnut growth increased with minesoil ripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    Red oak, black walnut, and black walnut with autumn olive, a 'nitrogen-fixing' shrub, were planted on graded, compacted cast overburden (topsoil substitute) coal mining minesoil with a dense ground cover consisting chiefly of all fescue grass. Compaction was mitigated by ripping on half the plots. Year 1 establishment of all species was equal or lower on the graded versus graded/ripped plots. After 12 years red oak survival was 9% where unripped versus 61% where ripped. Black walnut survival was respectively 41% and 74%. Red oak 12-year heights were 2.2 m on the graded and 4.5 m on the graded/ripped plots. Black walnut heights averaged 2.6 m and 5.5 m respectively. Diameter breast height similarly was greater with ripping for the oak and walnut. Deer damage was substantially greater on the red oak than on the black walnut trees. Black walnut was interplanted a year later with autumn olive on unripped and ripped graded minesoils. After 12 years survival of black walnut interplanted with autumn olive was 42% where unripped and 85% in two ripped plots. Corresponding heights averaged 3.8 m where graded and 5.7 to 6.4 m where graded/ripped. 16 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  12. A Set Theoretical Approach to Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2016-01-01

    characterized by equifinality, multiple conjunctural causation, and case diversity. We prescribe methodological guidelines consisting of a six-step procedure to systematically apply set theoretic methods to conceptualize, develop, and empirically derive maturity models and provide a demonstration......Maturity Model research in IS has been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. To address these criticisms, this paper proposes a novel set-theoretical approach to maturity models...

  13. TESTING BAYESIAN ALGORITHMS TO DETECT GENETIC STRUCTURE IN TWO CLOSELY RELATED OAK TAXA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Mihai Enescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the Bayesian algorithm implemented in the software STRUCTURE in order to detect the number of clusters, by using microsatellite data from four oak species. Several assignment models, with or without a priori grouping of individuals to species, were proposed. Better results were obtained by using the sampling location information and when only two taxa were analyzed. Particularly, pedunculate oak and sessile oak formed distinct clusters whatever the assignment model we use. By contrast, no separation between the two oaks from series Lanuginosae was observed. This can be explained, on one hand, by the small sampling size for Italian oak, or by the genetic similarities of the two pubescent oaks, namely Quercus pubescens and Q. virgiliana, on the other hand. Our findings support the hypothesis according which Italian oak is an intraspecific taxonomic unit of pubescent oak.

  14. First-year growth for two oak species and three planting stocks planted on areas disturbed by Hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Dowdy; Andrew W. Ezell; Emily B. Schultz; John D. Hodges; Andrew B. Self

    2014-01-01

    Bottomland hardwood forests were damaged by Hurricane Katrina in 2005 when it made landfall along the Gulf Coast. Regenerating these areas, which can be difficult without planning and artificial regeneration, has often been problematic when using 1-0 bare-root seedlings because of inconsistencies with the seedling quality. Some growers have begun producing...

  15. Microevolution of European temperate oaks in response to environmental changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    This review reconstructs microevolutionary processes that allowed long-lived species as temperate oaks (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) to cope with climate change since the last glacial maximum, by assembling insights from complementary synchronic and allochronic approaches. Paleobotanical and genetic investigations show that oaks migrated at larger velocities than expected, thanks to long-distance rare events and most likely human interferences. Hybridization was a key mechanism accelerating migration and enhancing species succession. Common garden experiments and genome wide association studies demonstrated that diversifying selection across large environmental gradients contributed to rapid local adaptation. Finally the review explores how lessons taken from past evolutionary scenarios may help to predict future responses of oaks to ongoing climate change. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  16. Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction annual report for calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Calendar year 1997 was the third full year of work on the Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction. Activities are summarized on the following individual project tasks: Task 1 -- Investigation of radioiodine releases from X-10 radioactive lanthanum processing; Task 2 -- Investigation of mercury releases from Y-12 lithium enrichment; Task 3 -- Investigation of PCBs in the environment near Oak Ridge; Task 4 -- Investigation of radionuclides released from White Oak Creek to the Clinch River; Task 5 -- Systematic searching of records repositories; Task 6 -- Evaluation of the quality of uranium monitoring data and a screening evaluation of potential off-site health risks; and Task 7 -- Performance of screening for additional materials not evaluated in the feasibility study.

  17. Antioxidant Characterization of Oak Extracts Combining Spectrophotometric Assays and Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris M. Popović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant characteristics of leaves, twigs, and acorns from two Serbian oak species Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea L. from Vojvodina province (northern Serbia were investigated. 80% ethanol (in water extracts were used for antiradical power (ARP determinations against DPPH•, NO•, and O2∙- radicals, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, total phenol, tannin, flavonoid, and proanthocyanidin contents. Permanganate reducing antioxidant capacity (PRAC was determined using water extracts. Beside, mentioned parameters, soluble proteins, lipid peroxidation (LP, pigments and proline contents were also determined. The data of different procedures were compared and analyzed by multivariate techniques (correlation matrix calculation and principal component analysis (PCA. PCA found that investigated organs of two different oak tree species possess similar antioxidant characteristics. The superior antioxidant characteristics showed oak leaves over twigs and acorns and seem to be promising source of antioxidants with possible use in industry and pharmacy.

  18. Contaminated scrap metal management on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, H.W.; Stephenson, M.J.; Bailey, J.K.; Weir, J.R.; Gilbert, W.C.

    1993-01-01

    Large quantities of scrap metal are accumulating at the various Department of Energy (DOE) installations across the country as a result of ongoing DOE programs and missions in concert with present day waste management practices. DOE Oak Ridge alone is presently storing around 500,000 tons of scrap metal. The local generation rate, currently estimated at 1,400 tons/yr, is expected to increase sharply over the next couple of years as numerous environmental restoration and decommissioning programs gain momentum. Projections show that 775,000 tons of scrap metal could be generated at the K-25 Site over the next ten years. The Y-12 Plant and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have similar potentials. The history of scrap metal management at Oak Ridge and future challenges and opportunities are discussed

  19. Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction annual report for calendar year 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Calendar year 1997 was the third full year of work on the Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction. Activities are summarized on the following individual project tasks: Task 1 -- Investigation of radioiodine releases from X-10 radioactive lanthanum processing; Task 2 -- Investigation of mercury releases from Y-12 lithium enrichment; Task 3 -- Investigation of PCBs in the environment near Oak Ridge; Task 4 -- Investigation of radionuclides released from White Oak Creek to the Clinch River; Task 5 -- Systematic searching of records repositories; Task 6 -- Evaluation of the quality of uranium monitoring data and a screening evaluation of potential off-site health risks; and Task 7 -- Performance of screening for additional materials not evaluated in the feasibility study

  20. Water quality monitoring report for the White Oak Creek Embayment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, C.J.; Wefer, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    Water quality monitoring activities that focused on the detection of resuspended sediments in the Clinch River were conducted in conjunction with the White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE) time-critical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) removal action to construct a sediment-retention structure at the mouth of White Oak Creek (WOC). Samples were collected by use of a 24-h composite sampler and through real-time water grab sampling of sediment plumes generated by the construction activities. Sampling stations were established both at the WOC mouth, immediately adjacent to the construction site, and at K-1513, the Oak Ridge K-25 Site drinking water intake approximately 9.6 km downstream in the Clinch River. Results are described

  1. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Joan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thompson, Sharon [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Page, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2008-09-30

    The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) consists of three major government-owned, contractor-operated facilities: the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and East Tennessee Technology Park. The ORR was established in the early 1940s as part of the Manhattan Project, a secret undertaking that produced materials for the first atomic bombs. The reservation’s role has evolved over the years, and it continues to adapt to meet the changing defense, energy, and research needs of the United States. Both the work carried out for the war effort and subsequent research, development, and production activities have involved, and continue to involve, the use of radiological and hazardous materials. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report and supporting data are available at Http://www.ornl.gov/sci/env_rpt or from the project director.

  2. Leaf elemental analysis in mycorrhizal post oak seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boling, B.C. [Department of Biology, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 305220, Denton, TX 76203-5220 (United States); Naab, F.U. [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 311427, Denton, TX 76203-1427 (United States)]. E-mail: fun001@unt.edu; Smith, D. [Department of Biology, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 305220, Denton, TX 76203-5220 (United States); Duggan, J.L. [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 311427, Denton, TX 76203-1427 (United States); McDaniel, F.D. [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 311427, Denton, TX 76203-1427 (United States)

    2006-09-15

    Growth and element assimilation was investigated in the leaves of post oak seedlings exposed to four different treatment combinations of fertilization and ectomycorrhizal inoculation. Element concentration was analyzed via particle-induced X-ray emission spectrometry (PIXE). PIXE detected 10 of the 13 essential macro and micronutrients: P, S, Mg, Ca, K, Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe and Cl. Mean growth and dry weight was significantly different across the treatment groups as well as the mean concentration of Mg, Al, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn. The data suggest that fertilization rather than mycorrhizal inoculation had a stronger influence on nutrient uptake. This study is the first to analyze element concentration in post oak and to investigate the potential benefits of mycorrhizal symbiosis in post oak seedlings in terms of nutrient uptake.

  3. The maturing of microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas M

    2006-09-01

    A.J. Kluyver and C.B. van Niel introduced many scientists to the exceptional metabolic capacity of microbes and their remarkable ability to adapt to changing environments in The Microbe's Contribution to Biology. Beyond providing an overview of the physiology and adaptability of microbes, the book outlined many of the basic principles for the emerging discipline of microbial ecology. While the study of pure cultures was highlighted, provided a unifying framework for understanding the vast metabolic potential of microbes and their roles in the global cycling of elements, extrapolation from pure cultures to natural environments has often been overshadowed by microbiologists inability to culture many of the microbes seen in natural environments. A combination of genomic approaches is now providing a culture-independent view of the microbial world, revealing a more diverse and dynamic community of microbes than originally anticipated. As methods for determining the diversity of microbial communities become increasingly accessible, a major challenge to microbial ecologists is to link the structure of natural microbial communities with their functions. This article presents several examples from studies of aquatic and terrestrial microbial communities in which culture and culture-independent methods are providing an enhanced appreciation for the microbe's contribution to the evolution and maintenance of life on Earth, and offers some thoughts about the graduate-level educational programs needed to enhance the maturing field of microbial ecology.

  4. Motivational maturity and helping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, M; Green, L

    1977-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the independent influences of conative development (the Maslow needs hierarchy) upon behavioral aspects of prosocial orientations. It provides a behavioral demonstration of conative effects in a helping paradigm, among college-age men. A comparison of the conative data across the ages of 15-22 provided a cross-sectional view of conative development itself. Conative maturity was found to be predictive of greater helping among college-age men. Situational demands were demonstrated which tended to mask, but not override, these predispositional influences on helping. The cross-sectional data on conative development point to probable movement to early esteem concerns among high school men who have reached the conative level of love and belonging. On the other hand, the stability across the years of 15-22 of proportion of safety concerns suggests fixation of such concerns in those exhibiting them in high school. Results are discussed in terms of conative growth for development of prosocial orientations.

  5. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Levinson, Alex; Mater, J.; Drummond, R.

    2010-04-28

    The integration of automation associated with electricity resources (including transmission and distribution automation and demand-side resources operated by end-users) is key to supporting greater efficiencies and incorporating variable renewable resources and electric vehicles into the power system. The integration problems faced by this community are analogous to those faced in the health industry, emergency services, and other complex communities with many stakeholders. To highlight this issue and encourage communication and the development of a smart grid interoperability community, the GridWise Architecture Council (GWAC) created an Interoperability Context-Setting Framework. This "conceptual model" has been helpful to explain the importance of organizational alignment in addition to technical and informational interface specifications for "smart grid" devices and systems. As a next step to building a community sensitive to interoperability, the GWAC is investigating an interoperability maturity model (IMM) based on work done by others to address similar circumstances. The objective is to create a tool or set of tools that encourages a culture of interoperability in this emerging community. The tools would measure status and progress, analyze gaps, and prioritize efforts to improve the situation.

  6. Antenatal assessment of fetal maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstner, G.; Reinold, E.; Wolf, G.

    1979-01-01

    334 ultrasound-cephalometries and 231 X-ray fetographies were performed for antenatal assessment of fetal maturity as well as for exact estimation of gestational age in women with unknown date of confinement. The accuracy of the predictions was compared. Ultrasound-cephalometry gave best results when performed until the 20th week of gestation. A correct prediction was obtained in 80.4% of cases. After the 20th week of gestation, the accuracy of prediction decreased. Radiology on the contrary gave optimal results at the end of pregnancy. A correct prediction of the date of confinement was obtained in 73.8% of cases, when the X-ray fetography was performed between the 37th and 40th week of gestation. At the end of gestation radiography should be performed, if there is a discrepancy between ultrasound and clinical estimation or if ultrasound-cephalometry was not carried out in early pregnancy - especially if induction of labour is necessary. (author)

  7. Management of spent nuclear fuel on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    On June 1, 1995, DOE issued a Record of Decision [60 Federal Register 28680] for the Department-wide management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF); regionalized storage of SNF by fuel type was selected as the preferred alternative. The proposed action evaluated in this environmental assessment is the management of SNF on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) to implement this preferred alternative of regional storage. SNF would be retrieved from storage, transferred to a hot cell if segregation by fuel type and/or repackaging is required, loaded into casks, and shipped to off-site storage. The proposed action would also include construction and operation of a dry cask SNF storage facility on ORR, in case of inadequate SNF storage. Action is needed to enable DOE to continue operation of the High Flux Isotope Reactor, which generates SNF. This report addresses environmental impacts

  8. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. This volume contains the data from the Background Soil Characterization Project. When available, the following validation qualifiers are used in the appendixes. When validation qualifiers are not available, the corresponding contract laboratory data qualifiers appearing on the next page are used

  9. Design demonstrations for category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tanks. These are: Category A -- New or replacement tank systems with secondary containment; Category B -- Existing tank systems with secondary containment; Category C -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment; Category D -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 11 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. The design demonstration for each tank is presented.

  10. Resource Management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 28, Wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pounds, Larry [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-01

    A survey of wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted in 1990. Wetlands occurring on ORR were identified using National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) maps and field surveys. More than 120 sites were visited and 90 wetlands were identified. Wetland types on ORR included emergent communities in shallow embayments on reservoirs, emergent and aquatic communities in ponds, forested wetland on low ground along major creeks, and wet meadows and marshes associated with streams and seeps. Vascular plant species occurring on sites visited were inventoried, and 57 species were added to the checklist of vascular plants on ORR. Three species listed as rare in Tennessee were discovered on ORR during the wetlands survey. The survey provided an intensive ground truth of the wetlands identified by NWI and offered an indication of wetlands that the NWI remote sensing techniques did not detect.

  11. Level 3 Baseline Risk Assessment for Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollert, D.A.; Cretella, F.M.; Golden, K.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    The baseline risk assessment for the Fission Product Pilot Plant (Building 3515) at the Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) provides the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program at ORNL and Building 3515 project managers with information concerning the results of the Level 3 baseline risk assessment performed for this building. The document was prepared under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.6.2.01 (Activity Data Sheet 3701, Facilities D&D) and includes information on the potential long-term impacts to human health and the environment if no action is taken to remediate Building 3515. Information provided in this document forms the basis for the development of remedial alternatives and the no-action risk portion of the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis report.

  12. Level 3 Baseline Risk Assessment for Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollert, D.A.; Cretella, F.M.; Golden, K.M.

    1995-08-01

    The baseline risk assessment for the Fission Product Pilot Plant (Building 3515) at the Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) provides the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program at ORNL and Building 3515 project managers with information concerning the results of the Level 3 baseline risk assessment performed for this building. The document was prepared under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.6.2.01 (Activity Data Sheet 3701, Facilities D ampersand D) and includes information on the potential long-term impacts to human health and the environment if no action is taken to remediate Building 3515. Information provided in this document forms the basis for the development of remedial alternatives and the no-action risk portion of the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis report

  13. Design demonstrations for category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tanks. These are: Category A -- New or replacement tank systems with secondary containment; Category B -- Existing tank systems with secondary containment; Category C -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment; Category D -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 11 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. The design demonstration for each tank is presented

  14. Impacts of Potential Oak Forest Change on Breeding Birds in Northwestern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas A. James

    2004-01-01

    Birds found on existing census routes in the Ozark region of northwestern Arkansas were used to predict avifaunal changes that could occur in the area due to oak-hickory forest degradation caused by red oak borer beetle infestations. The two census routes used passed through high elevation forests where red oaks thrive the best. Analysis showed that 21 bird species...

  15. Sudden oak death: disease trends in Marin county plots after one year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brice A. McPherson; David L. Wood; Andrew J. Storer; Nina Maggi Kelly; Richard B. Standiford

    2002-01-01

    Sudden oak death has emerged as a major threat to the oak forests of California. In oaks and tanoak, this disease complex consists of a previously unreported fungus-like pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, insects (bark and ambrosia beetles), and a secondary fungus, Hypoxylon thouarsianum. Species monitored in this study were coast...

  16. Goldspotted oak borer in California: Invasion history, biology, impact, management, and implications for Mediterranean forests worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Coleman; Steven Seybold

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, the goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was fi rst linked to elevated levels of oak mortality in southern California (CA), but it appears to have impacted oak woodlands and mixed conifer forests across all land ownerships in this region for nearly two decades. This unexpectedly damaging...

  17. Outreach and education efforts to counter the spread and impact of goldspotted oak borer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janis G. Gonzales; Thomas A. Scott; Kevin W. Turner; Lorin L. Lima

    2015-01-01

    The goldspotted oak borer (GSOB) Agrilus auroguttatus (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has killed over 80,000 oaks across all land ownerships, costing over $8 million in public and private funds for mitigation and response. Linked to oak mortality in San Diego County in 2008, this exotic beetle likely arrived in California through infested firewood from...

  18. Site factors influencing oak decline in the interior highlands of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward A. Poole; Eric Heitzman; James M. Guldin

    2006-01-01

    Oak decline is affecting the forests in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. In 2002 and 2003, field plots were established throughout the region to evaluate the influence of topographic position and aspect on oak decline. Density and basal area of dead and dying oaks did not significantly differ by either topographic position or aspect. Lack of...

  19. Regeneration of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) using shelterwood systems: Ecophysiology, silviculture and management recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; William C. parker

    1996-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing relaible methods for regenerating red oak (Quercus rubra) in Ontario. Traditional silviculture methods have not been successful in maintaining the curent levels of oak growing stock. In this paper, we review the ecology, physiology and reproductive biology of red oak. This discussion stresses the...

  20. Dendrochronological analysis of white oak growth patterns across a topographic moisture gradient in southern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander K. Anning; Darrin L. Rubino; Elaine K. Sutherland; Brian C. McCarthy

    2013-01-01

    Moisture availability is a key factor that influences white oak (Quercus alba L.) growth and wood production. In unglaciated eastern North America, available soil moisture varies greatly along topographic and edaphic gradients. This study was aimed at determining the effects of soil moisture variability and macroclimate on white oak growth in mixed-oak forests of...

  1. The state of mixed shortleaf pine-upland oak management in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth M. Blizzard; David R. Larsen; Daniel C. Dey; John M. Kabrick; David Gwaze

    2007-01-01

    Mixed shortleaf pine-upland oak stands allow flexibility in type and timing of regeneration, release, and harvesting treatments for managers; provide unique wildlife and herbaceous community niches; and increase visual diversity. Most of the research to date focused on growing pure pine or oak stands, with little research on today's need to grow pine-oak mixtures...

  2. Abundance of birds in the oak savannas of the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendy D. Jones; Carlton M. Jones; Peter F. Ffolliott; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2005-01-01

    Oak ecosystems of the Southwestern United States are important habitats for a variety of wildlife species. Information is available on the abundance and habitat preferences of some species inhabiting the more densely structured oak woodlands, but little information is available on these topics for the comparatively open oak savannas. Studies are underway to alleviate...

  3. Evidence of the dynamic response of housing values to a sudden oak death infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent F. Kovacs; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey E. Englin; Janice. Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD), caused by the non-indigenous forest pathogen Phytophthora ramorum, causes substantial mortality in coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) and several other oak species on the Pacific Coast of the United States. Quasi-experimental hedonic models examine the effect of SOD on property...

  4. Effect of firewood harvesting on birds in a California oak-pine woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul A. Aigner; William M. Block; Michael L. Morrison

    1998-01-01

    Despite a history of oak clearing and thinning in California, little is known about the effects of firewood harvesting on wildlife in oak woodlands. We studied the effect of firewood harvesting on population trends of birds during the breeding season in an oak-pine woodland in the foothills of the northern Sierra Nevada, California. During fall-winter of 1993-94, total...

  5. The role of environmental factors in oak decline and mortality in the Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; Randy G. Jensen; Michael Wallendorf

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline is a chronic problem in Missouri Ozark forests. Red oak group species are most susceptible and decline is reportedly more severe on droughty, nutrient-poor sites. However, it was not clear whether greater decline severity was caused by poor site conditions or is simply due to the greater abundance of red oak group species found on poorer sites. We conducted...

  6. Comparison of three sampling methods in the characterization of cork oak stands for management purpose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, M.J.; Tomé, M.; Otten, A.; Stein, A.

    2005-01-01

    The cork oak (Quercus suber L.) is an evergreen oak that has the ability to produce a continuous layer of cork tissue which regenerates after being removed. Cork oak stands can be diverse in structure. Young stands are often regularly spaced, whereas older stands usually show clustering and can be

  7. Likeliness to pay for oak woodlands by the residents of San Luis Obispo county

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah P. Cross

    2002-01-01

    The golden hillsides with scattered oaks, known throughout California, are decreasing each day. Some oak woodlands are being developed into residential and commercial communities while other woodlands are being converted into intensive agriculture, such as wine grape production. This continued decrease in oak woodlands has led some lawmakers to create preservation...

  8. The Influence of Epiphytic Lichens on the Nutrient Cycling of a Blue Oak Woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes M. Knops; Thomas H. H. Nash III; William H. Schlesinger

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the importance of epiphytic lichens in the nutrient cycling of a blue oak (Quercus douglasii) woodland in California. Each oak tree contained an average of 3.8 kg lichen biomass, totaling 590 kg per ha. For comparison, oak leaf biomass was 958 kg per ha. We compared tree growth, volume and composition of throughfall (rainfall falling...

  9. Short-term response of small mammals following oak regeneration silviculture treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy L. Raybuck; Christopher E. Moorman; Christopher S. DePerno; Kevin Gross; Dean M. Simon; Gordon S. Warburton

    2012-01-01

    Upland, mixed-oak forests in the eastern United States have experienced widespread oak regeneration failure, largely due to cessation of anthropogenic disturbance. Silvicultural practices used to promote advance oak regeneration may affect ground-dwelling mammals. From May to August 2008 (pre-treatment), 2010 (first year post-treatment), and 2011 (second year post-...

  10. Genetic hitch-hiking extends the range of coast live oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard S. Dodd; Zara Afzal-Rafii; Wasima Mayer

    2006-01-01

    The northernmost range of coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) is reported from the Ukiah Valley (Mendocino County, California). Here, field observations suggest that hybridization with interior live oak (Q. wislizeni) is important. Elsewhere in northern California, morphology of coast live oak can be highly variable (particularly...

  11. Process data in safeguards at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinger, M.H.

    1988-01-01

    The desire to improve timeliness and sensitivity of material control and accounting capabilities is the basis for evaluation and upgrade of regulatory requirements throughout the nuclear industry. Improvements invariably require better measurement capabilities and more frequent measurements. Operating plants typically include a broad range of measurements and equipment devoted to process control. How can these measurements be used to benefit safeguards? A part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has focused on the use of process data for safeguards. This report discusses recent safeguards demonstrations and current activities in a test facility at Oak Ridge

  12. Survey of protected vascular plants on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awl, D.J.; Pounds, L.R.; Rosensteel, B.A.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A.

    1996-06-01

    Vascular plant surveys were initiated during fiscal year 1992 by the environmentally sensitive areas program to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered (T&E) vascular plant species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). T&E species receive protection under federal and state regulations. In addition, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that federally-funded projects avoid or mitigate impacts to listed species. T&E plant species found on or near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are identified. Twenty-eight species identified on the ORR are listed by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation as either endangered, threatened, or of special concern. Four of these have been under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for possible listing (listed in the formerly-used C2 candidate category). Additional species listed by the state occur near and may be present on the ORR. A range of habitats support the rare taxa on the ORR: river bluffs, sinkholes, calcareous barrens, wetlands, utility corridors, and forests. The list of T&E plant species and their locations on the ORR should be considered provisional because the entire ORR has not been surveyed, and state and federal status of all species continues to be updated. The purpose of this document is to present information on the listed T&E plant species currently known to occur on the ORR as well as listed species potentially occurring on the ORR based on geographic range and habitat availability. For the purpose of this report, {open_quotes}T&E species{close_quotes} include all federal- and state-listed species, including candidates for listing, and species of special concern. Consideration of T&E plant habitats is an important component of resource management and land-use planning; protection of rare species in their natural habitat is the best method of ensuring their long-term survival.

  13. Survey of protected vascular plants on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awl, D.J.; Pounds, L.R.; Rosensteel, B.A.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A.

    1996-06-01

    Vascular plant surveys were initiated during fiscal year 1992 by the environmentally sensitive areas program to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered (T ampersand E) vascular plant species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). T ampersand E species receive protection under federal and state regulations. In addition, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that federally-funded projects avoid or mitigate impacts to listed species. T ampersand E plant species found on or near the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are identified. Twenty-eight species identified on the ORR are listed by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation as either endangered, threatened, or of special concern. Four of these have been under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for possible listing (listed in the formerly-used C2 candidate category). Additional species listed by the state occur near and may be present on the ORR. A range of habitats support the rare taxa on the ORR: river bluffs, sinkholes, calcareous barrens, wetlands, utility corridors, and forests. The list of T ampersand E plant species and their locations on the ORR should be considered provisional because the entire ORR has not been surveyed, and state and federal status of all species continues to be updated. The purpose of this document is to present information on the listed T ampersand E plant species currently known to occur on the ORR as well as listed species potentially occurring on the ORR based on geographic range and habitat availability. For the purpose of this report, open-quotes T ampersand E speciesclose quotes include all federal- and state-listed species, including candidates for listing, and species of special concern. Consideration of T ampersand E plant habitats is an important component of resource management and land-use planning; protection of rare species in their natural habitat is the best method of ensuring their

  14. Digital Maturity of the Firm's Business Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groskovs, Sergejs; Vemula, Sreekanth

    We propose a digital maturity assessment model as an instrument for researchers and a strategic tool for managers. Existing literature lacks a conceptually clear way to measure the construct of digital maturity at the level of the firms business model. Our proposed instrument thus opens avenues f...

  15. A maturity model for industrial supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hameri, A.P.; McKay, K.N.; Wiers, V.C.S.

    2013-01-01

    This article takes an evolutionary view of supply chains to suggest a series of distinct, contextual phases for supply chain execution and what maturity might mean at each phase. For example, what is best practice in a mature industry might not be best practice in a pioneering situation.Three

  16. 7 CFR 1421.101 - Maturity dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... filed and disbursed except, for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral. The maturity date for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral will be the maturity date applicable to the original loan... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING...

  17. Cone and Seed Maturation of Southern Pines

    Science.gov (United States)

    James P. Barnett

    1976-01-01

    If slightly reduced yields and viability are acceptable, loblolly and slash cone collections can begin 2 to 3 weeks before maturity if the cones are stored before processing. Longleaf(P. palestris Mill.) pine cones should be collected only when mature, as storage decreased germination of seeds from immature cones. Biochemical analyses to determine reducing sugar...

  18. POSTTREATMENT NEUROBLASTOMA MATURATION TO GANGLIONIC CELL TUMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Ryzhova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor cells can differentiate into more mature forms in undifferentiated or poorly differentiated tumors, such as medulloblastomas with increased nodularity, as well as neuroblastomas. The authors describe 2 cases of neuroblastoma maturation into ganglioneuroblastoma 5 months after chemotherapy in a 2-year-old girl and 3 years after radiotherapy in a 16-year-old girl.

  19. Moving towards maturity in business model definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Lund, Morten; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    The field of business models has, as is the case with all emerging fields of practice, slowly matured through the development of frameworks, models, concepts and ideas over the last 15 years. New concepts, theories and models typically transcend a series of maturity phases. For the concept of Bus...

  20. Assessing the Harvest Maturity of Brazilian Mangoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, T.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Vanoli, M.; Rizzolo, A.; Eccher Zerbini, P.C.; Torricelli, A.; Filgueiras, H.; Spinelli, L.

    2010-01-01

    No clear criterion exists to determine the optimum time to harvest mango. Some empirical relations are used to assess maturity, such as shoulder development. Moreover, as a result of the typical growing conditions in tropical climates, a huge variation in maturity and ripeness exists, seriously

  1. Decision-Making Style and Vocational Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan D.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the relationship between decision-making style, scholastic achievement, and vocational maturity for college students (N=64). Results did not support the hypothesized relationship between rationality and attitudinal and cognitive maturity. Scholastic achievement and lack of dependent decision style were found to be moderately predictive of…

  2. Correlation of Improved Version of Cervical Vertebral Maturation Indicator with Other Growth Maturity Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripti Tikku

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: The correlation between middle phalanx of 3rd finger (MP3 and cervical vertebral maturation method (CVMI and CVMS was higher as compared to the correlation of either of the cervical vertebral maturation method or MP3 with dental maturation indicator.

  3. Assessing healthcare process maturity: challenges of using a business process maturity model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarhan, A.; Turetken, O.; van den Biggelaar, F.J.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Doi: 10.4108/icst.pervasivehealth.2015.259105 The quality of healthcare services is influenced by the maturity of healthcare processes used to develop it. A maturity model is an instrument to assess and continually improve organizational processes. In the last decade, a number of maturity models

  4. Surface radiological investigation of Trench 5 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, D.D.

    1991-08-01

    A surface radiological investigation of areas encompassing Trench 5 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted from May 1990 through November 1990. This survey was led by the author, assisted by various members of the Measurement Applications and Development (MAD) group of the Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the presence, nature, and extent of surface radiological contamination at Trench 5, the Homogeneous Reactor Experiment fuel wells, and surrounding areas. Based on the data obtained in the field, interim corrective measures were recommended to limit human exposure to radioactivity and to minimize insult to the environment. It should be stressed that this project was not intended to be a complete site characterization but rather to be a preliminary investigation into the potential contamination problem that might exist as a result of past operations at Trench 5

  5. Set-Theoretic Approach to Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan

    Despite being widely accepted and applied, maturity models in Information Systems (IS) have been criticized for the lack of theoretical grounding, methodological rigor, empirical validations, and ignorance of multiple and non-linear paths to maturity. This PhD thesis focuses on addressing...... these criticisms by incorporating recent developments in configuration theory, in particular application of set-theoretic approaches. The aim is to show the potential of employing a set-theoretic approach for maturity model research and empirically demonstrating equifinal paths to maturity. Specifically...... methodological guidelines consisting of detailed procedures to systematically apply set theoretic approaches for maturity model research and provides demonstrations of it application on three datasets. The thesis is a collection of six research papers that are written in a sequential manner. The first paper...

  6. Species and structural diversity affect growth of oak, but not pine, in uneven-aged mature forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanhellemont, Margot; Bijlsma, Rienk Jan; Keersmaeker, De Luc; Vandekerkhove, Kris; Verheyen, Kris

    2018-01-01

    The effects of mixing tree species on tree growth and stand production have been abundantly studied, mostly looking at tree species diversity effects while controlling for stand density and structure. Regarding the shift towards managing forests as complex adaptive systems, we also need insight into

  7. Instrument development continues in Oak Ridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekkebus, Allen E.

    2012-01-01

    Peer review panels composed of 80 external scientists recently visited Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to review almost 700 proposals for experiments on 23 instruments at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). These were proposed for the time period from January-June 2012. About 40% of the proposals were approved for beam time and 20% were placed on an alternate list if time becomes available. The Hybrid Spectrometer HYSPEC at SNS began its commissioning in September 2011. HYSPEC is otpimized for studying low energy dynamics in single-crystal samples using a broad variety of sample environments, and is equipped with a polarization analysis capability. It is expected to be available for users on a limited basis in the second half of 2012. The detector tank of CORELLI has been installed on beamline 9 at SNS. Now that the tank is in place, banks of neutron detectors and boron carbide shielding will be installed around the interior. CORELLI is optimized to probe complex disorder in crystalline materials through diffuse scattering from single-crystal samples. It will begin commissioning in 2014. CORELLI is one of four instruments being developed under the SING II (SNS Instruments Next Generation II) project. The others are the Macromolecular Neutron Diffractometer (MANDI), the Vibrational Spectrometer (VISION, scheduled to begin commissioning in 2012), and the Time of Flight Ultra Small Angle Neutron Scattering Instrument (TOF-USANS). The single crystal neutron diffractometer IMAGINE, was deliverd to HFIR in October 2011. Preliminary testing has been carried out. IMAGINE will provide atomic resolution information on chemical, organic, metallo-organic and protein single crystals that will enable their chemical, physical and biological structure and function to be understood. This instrument will benefit scientists with interests in pharmaceuticals, minerals and other inorganic crystals, small molecules, molecular organo

  8. Soil moisture in sessile oak forest gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagyvainé Kiss, Katalin Anita; Vastag, Viktor; Gribovszki, Zoltán; Kalicz, Péter

    2015-04-01

    By social demands are being promoted the aspects of the natural forest management. In forestry the concept of continuous forest has been an accepted principle also in Hungary since the last decades. The first step from even-aged stand to continuous forest can be the forest regeneration based on gap cutting, so small openings are formed in a forest due to forestry interventions. This new stand structure modifies the hydrological conditions for the regrowth. Without canopy and due to the decreasing amounts of forest litter the interception is less significant so higher amount of precipitation reaching the soil. This research focuses on soil moisture patterns caused by gaps. The spatio-temporal variability of soil water content is measured in gaps and in surrounding sessile oak (Quercus petraea) forest stand. Soil moisture was determined with manual soil moisture meter which use Time-Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technology. The three different sizes gaps (G1: 10m, G2: 20m, G3: 30m) was opened next to Sopron on the Dalos Hill in Hungary. First, it was determined that there is difference in soil moisture between forest stand and gaps. Second, it was defined that how the gap size influences the soil moisture content. To explore the short term variability of soil moisture, two 24-hour (in growing season) and a 48-hour (in dormant season) field campaign were also performed in case of the medium-sized G2 gap along two/four transects. Subdaily changes of soil moisture were performed. The measured soil moisture pattern was compared with the radiation pattern. It was found that the non-illuminated areas were wetter and in the dormant season the subdaily changes cease. According to our measurements, in the gap there is more available water than under the forest stand due to the less evaporation and interception loss. Acknowledgements: The research was supported by TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV-2012-0004 and AGRARKLIMA.2 VKSZ_12-1-2013-0034.

  9. Proposed plan for the United Nuclear Corporation Disposal Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with Section 117(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, is releasing the proposed plan for remedial action at the United Nuclear Corporation (UNC) Disposal Site located at the DOE Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of this document is to present and solicit for comment to the public and all interested parties the ''preferred plan'' to remediate the UNC Disposal Site. However, comments on all alternatives are invited

  10. Bear Creek Valley Floodplain Hot Spot Removal Action Project Plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Bear Creek Valley Floodplain Hot Spot Removal Action Project Plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Y/ER-301) was prepared (1) to safely, cost-effectively, and efficiently evaluate the environmental impact of solid material in the two debris areas in the context of industrial land uses (as defined in the Bear Creek Valley Feasibility Study) to support the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Assessment and (2) to evaluate, define, and implement the actions to mitigate these impacts. This work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.x.01.20.01.08

  11. Surface radiological investigations along State Highway 95, Lagoon Road, and Melton Valley Drive, Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiner, P.F.; Uziel, M.S.; Rice, D.E.; Williams, J.K.

    1995-08-01

    The surface radiological investigation along State Highway 95, Lagoon Road, and Melton Valley Drive at the Oak Ridge Reservation was conducted as part of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program Surveillance and Maintenance activities. This report was prepared to document results of the investigation and subsequent remedial actions. The report details surface gamma radiation levels including gamma anomalies; surface beta radiation levels including beta anomalies; results of analysis of soil, water, and vegetation samples and smear samples collected from paved surfaces; remediation activities conducted as a result of the survey; and recommendations for further corrective measures

  12. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, January--December 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borders, D.M.; Ziegler, K.S.; Reece, D.K.; Watts, J.A.; Frederick, B.J.; McCalla, W.L.; Pridmore, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes, for the 12-month period January through December 1994, the available dynamic hydrologic data collected on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed as well as information collected on surface flow systems in the surrounding vicinity that may affect the quality or quantity of surface water in the watershed. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to characterize the quantity and quality of water in the surface flow system, assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities, provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance of these data, and support long-term measures of contaminant fluxes at a spatial scale to provide a comprehensive picture of watershed performance that is commensurate with future remedial actions

  13. Anti nutritional evaluation of the flour of the nipples of holm oak (quercus ilex) and oak cork (quercus suber) Raw and pressure-sealed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Mahi, F. Z.

    2009-07-01

    The present study contributes to the development of the food potential of the nipples of oak like new resources likely to be exploited on an industrial scale for their use in animal feeds. Our work relates to two species S of nipples of oak, edible, the homl oak and the other fodder one, the oal cork known for their spontaneousness and their vey significant geographical distribution. (Author)

  14. Data base dictionary for the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study Groundwater Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B.K.

    1993-04-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study (ORRHAGS) Groundwater Data Base has been compiled to consolidate groundwater data from the three US Department of Energy facilities located on the Oak Ridge Reservation: the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Each of these facilities maintains its own groundwater and well construction data bases. Data were extracted from the existing data bases, converted to a consistent format, and integrated into the ORRHAGS Groundwater Data Base structures. This data base dictionary describes the data contained in the ORRHAGS Groundwater Data Base and contains information on data base structure, conventions, contents, and use.

  15. Direct Seeding Scarlet Oak in the North Carolina Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl R. Sluder

    1965-01-01

    Seedling establishment rates varied from 0 to 50 percent in a direct seeding study with scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea Muenchh.) on the Bent Creek Experimental Forest near Asheville, North Carolina. Acorns planted 2 inches deep in the spring with screen protection produced the most seedlings; those surface sown without screens in the spring or fall...

  16. Sessile oak (Quercus petraea agg. Ehrendorfer 1967) rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sessile oak ( Quercus petraea agg. Ehrendorfer 1967) genetic variability in Serbia was estimated applying cpDNA universal primer pairs. Five different haplotypes were detected in the analyzed sample material from populations in Serbia. The areas in West and Southwest Serbia, with all their specificities, represent an ...

  17. Statistical sampling and modelling for cork oak and eucalyptus stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the use of modern statistical methods to solve problems on sampling, optimal cutting time and agricultural modelling in Portuguese cork oak and eucalyptus stands. The results are contained in five chapters that have been submitted for publication

  18. Chemistry of coast live oak response to Phytophthora ramorum infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances S. Ockels; Alieta Eyles; Brice A. McPherson; David L. Wood; Pierluigi Bonello

    2008-01-01

    Since the mid 1990s, Phytophthora ramorum has been responsible for the widespread mortality of tanoaks, as well as several oak species throughout California and Oregon forests. However, not all trees die, even in areas with high disease pressure, suggesting that some trees may be resistant to the pathogen. The apparent resistance to P....

  19. Preliminary work in developing sawbolt grading systems for white oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everette D. Rast; Everette D. Rast

    1971-01-01

    This paper is principally a description of one technique used in the development of white oak (Quercus alba L.) sawbolt grades--not a final sawbolt grading system for the species over its range. This technique can be used by anyone in developing other bolt-grade specifications or in refining the system presented in this paper.

  20. Predicting logging residues: an interim equation for Appalachian oak sawtimber

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin

    1975-01-01

    An equation, using dbh, dbh², bole length, and sawlog height to predict the cubic-foot volume of logging residue per tree, was developed from data collected on 36 mixed oaks in southwestern Virginia. The equation produced reliable results for small sawtimber trees, but additional research is needed for other species, sites, and utilization practices.

  1. Decay fungi of oaks and associated hardwoods for western arborists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie A. Glaeser; Kevin T. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Examination of trees for the presence and extent of decay should be part of any hazard tree assessment. Identification of the fungi responsible for the decay improves prediction of tree performance and the quality of management decisions, including tree pruning or removal. Scouting for Sudden Oak Death (SOD) in the West has drawn attention to hardwood tree species,...

  2. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site environmental report for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncinski, W.S.

    1995-10-01

    This report presents the details of the environmental monitoring and management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Topics include: site and operations overview; environmental compliance strategies; environmental management program; effluent monitoring; environmental surveillance; radiation doses; chemical doses; ground water; and quality assurance

  3. Hydrology of southwestern encinal oak ecosystems: A review and more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott; Daniel G. Neary

    2007-01-01

    Information about the hydrology of oak ecosystems of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico is lacking (Lopes and Ffolliott 1992, Baker et al. 1995) even though the woodlands and savannas cover more than 31,000 square miles. These ecosystems generally are found between 4,000 and 7,300 feet in elevation. Precipitation occurs in the winter and summer and...

  4. In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Vengadesan; Paula M. Pijut

    2009-01-01

    In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) shoots was successful from cotyledonary node explants excised from 8-wk-old in vitro grown seedlings. Initially, four shoots per explant were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.45 ...

  5. Survival of northern red oak acorns after fall burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.R. Auchmoody; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1993-01-01

    Survival of recently fallen northern red oak acorns after exposure to a cool fall burn was evaluated in northwestern Pennsylvania. Although no acorns were consumed by the fire, some were charred. Between 40 and 49 percent of the acorns in the litter were destroyed. The fire was not hot enough to kill Curculio larvae within the acorns. Burned acorns infested with...

  6. Oak regeneration and overstory density in the Missouri Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Larsen; Monte A. Metzger

    1997-01-01

    Reducing overstory density is a commonly recommended method of increasing the regeneration potential of oak (Quercus) forests. However, recommendations seldom specify the probable increase in density or the size of reproduction associated with a given residual overstory density. This paper presents logistic regression models that describe this...

  7. Oak sprouts grow better than seedlings under drought stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pietras, Justyna; Stojanović, Marko; Knott, R.; Pokorný, Radek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2016), s. 529-535 ISSN 1971-7458 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0267 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : drought stress * sap flow * transpiration * biomass Production * sessile Oak * sprout * seedling Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.623, year: 2016

  8. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site environmental report for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koncinski, W.S. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report presents the details of the environmental monitoring and management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Topics include: site and operations overview; environmental compliance strategies; environmental management program; effluent monitoring; environmental surveillance; radiation doses; chemical doses; ground water; and quality assurance.

  9. Oak Ridge Reservation, annual site environmental report for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The US DOE currently oversees activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation, a government-owned, contractor-operated facility. Three sites compose the reservation; Y-12, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and K-25. This document contains a summary of environmental monitoring activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and its surroundings. The results summarized in this report are based on the data collected during calendar year (CY) 1993 and compiled in; Environmental Monitoring in the Oak Ridge Reservation: CY 1993 Results. Annual environmental monitoring on the ORR consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is the collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid, gaseous, or airborne effluents for the purpose of characterizing and quantifying contaminants and process stream characteristics, assessing radiation and chemical exposures to members of the public, and demonstrating compliance with applicable standards. Environmental surveillance is the collection and analysis of samples of air, water, soil, foodstuffs, biota, and other media from DOE sites and their environs and the measurement of external radiation for purposes of demonstrating compliance with applicable standards, assessing radiation and chemical exposures to members of the public, and assessing effects, if any, on the local environment.

  10. Sudden oak death effects on the dynamics of dead wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Cobb; Jo& atilde; o Filipe A.N.; Margaret R. Metz; Ross K. Meentemeyer; David M. Rizzo

    2013-01-01

    Sudden oak death has impacted forests notable for high-fire risk and contiguous host communities in California and Oregon coastal forest ecosystems. The disease continues to emerge in stands and landscapes with a large biomass of tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus (Hook.&Arn.) Manos, Cannon & S.H.Oh), and we show that woody debris also...

  11. Evaluating rapid response to a goldspotted oak borer diaspora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Scott; Kevin Turner

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the goldspotted oak borer (Agrilus auroguttatus, GSOB) was discovered in the mountain community of Idyllwild, 56.3 km north of its known area of infestation. This was the third time that a point of outbreak was discovered >32.2 km from the GSOB infestation area, suggesting that human transport of GSOB has substantially expanded the...

  12. Timing fire to minimize damage in managing oak ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Callie Jo Schweitzer

    2015-01-01

    The long history of fire in North America spans millennia and is recognized as an important driver in the widespread and long-term dominance of oak species. Early European settlers intensified the occurrence of fire from about 1850 to 1950, with dates varying by region. This resulted in much forest damage and gained fire a negative reputation. The lack of fire for the...

  13. Vegetation Change in Blue Oak Woodlands in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara A. Holzman; Barbara H. Allen-Diaz

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary report of a statewide project investigating vegetation change in blue oak (Quercus douglasii) woodlands in California is presented. Vegetation plots taken in the 1930s, as part of a statewide vegetation mapping project, were relocated and surveyed. Species composition, cover and tree stand structure data from the earlier study were...

  14. Temporal epidemiology of sudden oak death in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebba K. Peterson; Everett M. Hansen; Alan Kanaskie

    2015-01-01

    An effort to eradicate Phytophthora ramorum, causal agent of sudden oak death, has been underway since its discovery in Oregon forests. Using an information-theoretical approach, we sought to model yearly variation in the size of newly infested areas and dispersal distance. Maximum dispersal distances were best modeled by spring and winter...

  15. The origin of Ceratocystis fagacearum, the oak wilt fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Juzwik; Thomas C. Harrington; William L. MacDonald; David N. Appel

    2008-01-01

    The oak wilt pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum, may be another example of a damaging, exotic species in forest ecosystems in the United States. Though C. fagacearum has received much research attention, the origin of the fungus is unknown. The pathogen may have been endemic at a low incidence until increased disturbances, changes...

  16. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Institutional Plan, FY 1995--FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This report discusses the institutional plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the next five years (1995-2000). Included in this report are the: laboratory director`s statement; laboratory mission, vision, and core competencies; laboratory plan; major laboratory initiatives; scientific and technical programs; critical success factors; summaries of other plans; and resource projections.

  17. Collaboratively managing sudden oak death using tangible geospatial modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross K. Meentemeyer; Francesco Tonini; Douglas Shoemaker; Richard C. Cobb; Brendan A. Harmon; Vaclav Petras; Anna Petrasova; Helena Mitasova

    2017-01-01

    Failure to build consensus amongst stakeholders has been a primary obstacle barring progress in developing and implementing strategies to manage sudden oak death (SOD). Consensus as to the goals of in situ management of SOD has rarely been reached, because stakeholders’ visions of success vary widely and often compete with each other...

  18. Department of Energy Environmental Management Plan for Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Environmental Program Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Complex was prepared in response to recommendations made at the Congressional hearing held in Oak Ridge on July 11, 1983, to discuss the extent and impact of mercury and other pollutants from DOE's Oak Ridge facilities. While this is a planning document and not a commitment of funds, this effort will help to focus DOE resources toward resolving environmental problems at Oak Ridge in a timely and cost-effective manner. The plan includes: (1) an environmental planning basis; (2) a brief description of the problems and proposed resolutions for each plant; (3) research and development requirements and funding schedules; (4) funding schedule summaries; and (5) continuing analyses and unresolved issues. The planning basis provides the foundation for identifying the environmental problems and their potential resolutions. While applicable environmental standards must be met, there is considerable latitude for interpretation of existing regulations and projection of future requirements. This latitude can have a significant impact on funding and scheduling. 11 figures, 8 tables

  19. Economic evaluation of intermediate operations in oak stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry H. Webster; John C., Jr. Meadows

    1971-01-01

    Economic evaluation of forest-management opportunities is a vital ingredient of effective forestry programs. Choices among management opportunities are necessary because opportunities inevitably exceed funds available, and they are important because opportunities commonly range from highly productive to decidedly unproductive. Economic evaluation in oak stands shows a...

  20. Flavan and procyanidin glycosides from the bark of blackjack oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Soo Bae; Johann F.W. Burger; Jan P. Steynberg; Daniel Ferreira; Richard W. Hemingway

    1994-01-01

    The bark of blackjack oak contains (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-3-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-catechin, catechin-(4α→8}-catechin, epicatechin-(4β→8}-catechin as well as the novel 3-0-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-catechin-(4α→8)-catechin and 3-0...

  1. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres.

  2. Oak Ridge Research reactor shutdown maintenance and surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, G.H.; Laughlin, D.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Department of Energy ordered the Oak Ridge Research Reactor to be placed in permanent shutdown on July 14, 1987. The paper outlines routine maintenance activities and surveillance tests performed April through September, 1990, on the reactor instrumentation and controls, process system, and the gaseous waste filter system. Preparations are being made to transfer the facility to the Remedial Action Program. 6 tabs

  3. Stocking equations for regeneration in mixed oak stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songlin Fei; Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley

    2007-01-01

    Regeneration stocking equations for mixed-oak stands were developed based on data collected from nearly 14,000 plots in the central Appalachians. Maximum stand density was identified by plotting aggregate height against number of seedlings per plot, and was used as the reference level of the average maximum stand density (100 percent stocking or A-level stocking)....

  4. Environmental Compliance and Protection Program Description Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2009-02-26

    The objective of the Environmental Compliance and Protection (EC and P) Program Description (PD) is to establish minimum environmental compliance requirements and natural resources protection goals for the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Oak Ridge Environmental Management Cleanup Contract (EMCC) Contract Number DE-AC05-98OR22700-M198. This PD establishes the work practices necessary to ensure protection of the environment during the performance of EMCC work activities on the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, by BJC employees and subcontractor personnel. Both BJC and subcontractor personnel are required to implement this PD. A majority of the decontamination and demolition (D and D) activities and media (e.g., soil and groundwater) remediation response actions at DOE sites on the ORR are conducted under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). CERCLA activities are governed by individual CERCLA decision documents (e.g., Record of Decision [ROD] or Action Memorandum) and according to requirements stated in the Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE 1992). Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for the selected remedy are the requirements for environmental remediation responses (e.g., removal actions and remedial actions) conducted under CERCLA.

  5. Evergreen oak leaves as natural monitor in environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capannesi, G.; Rosada, A.; Caroli, S.

    1988-01-01

    Evergreen oak was chosen as a possible biological monitor of environmental pollution. It was shown that there was a direct relationship between the concentration of elements in leaves and the presence of pollution sources, i.e. the density of vehicular traffic. (author) 12 figs.; 3 tabs

  6. Management and long term storage of cork-oak acorns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.; Tesnier, K.

    2002-01-01

    Cork-oak trees can have unpredictable reproduction patterns, with some trees producing seeds only one every 2 to 5 years. The problem of the irregularity of mast-years is complicated by dormancy-related heterogeneity in germination of freshly harvested acorns. The long time taking by acorn to

  7. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres

  8. Linking sudden oak death with spatial economic value transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Holmes; Bill Smith

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death (caused by Phytophthora ramorum) is currently having a dramatic impact on the flow of ecosystem services provided by trees and forests in California. Timber species in California are not thought to be at risk of mortality from this pathogen and, consequently, economic impacts accrue to non-market values of trees such as aesthetics,...

  9. Microsatellite Primer Development for Post Oak, Quercus stellata (Fagaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren B. Chatwin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: The American Cross Timbers forest ecosystem runs from southeastern Kansas to Central Texas and is primarily composed of post oak (Quercus stellata. This old-growth forest currently occupies only about 2% of its ancestral range. To facilitate genetic research on this species, we developed microsatellite primers specific to post oak from reduced genomic libraries. Methods and Results: Two Q. stellata individuals, sampled from the northern and southern range of the post oak forest, were subject to genomic reduction and 454 pyrosequencing. Bioinformatic analysis identified putative microsatellites from which 12 polymorphic primer sets were screened on three populations. The number of alleles observed ranged from five to 20 across all populations, while observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.05 to 0.833 and 0.236 to 0.893, respectively, within individual populations. Conclusions: We report the development of microsatellite markers, specific to post oak, to aid the study of genetic diversity and population structure of extant forest remnants.

  10. Procedures manual for the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    The Procedures Manual for the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator contains specific information pertaining to operation and safety of the facility. Items such as the interlock system, radiation monitoring, emergency procedures, night shift and weekend operation, and maintenance are discussed in detail

  11. Oak Ridge Reservation. Physical Characteristics and National Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, Patricia Dreyer [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joan, F. Hughes [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2006-10-09

    The topology, geology, hydrology, vegetation, and wildlife of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) provide a complex and intricate array of resources that directly impact land stewardship and use decisions. The purpose of this document is to consolidate general information regarding the natural resources and physical characteristics of the ORR.

  12. Repair of white oak glued-laminated beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence A. Soltis; Robert J. Ross

    1999-01-01

    Connections between steel side plates and white oak glued-laminated beams subjected to tension perpendicular-to-grain stresses were tested to failure. The beams were then repaired with five different configurations using two sizes of lag screws, with and without steel reinforcing plates. The repaired beams were re-tested to failure. Results indicate that in all...

  13. Oak Ridge Reservation, annual site environmental report for 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    The US DOE currently oversees activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation, a government-owned, contractor-operated facility. Three sites compose the reservation; Y-12, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and K-25. This document contains a summary of environmental monitoring activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and its surroundings. The results summarized in this report are based on the data collected during calendar year (CY) 1993 and compiled in; Environmental Monitoring in the Oak Ridge Reservation: CY 1993 Results. Annual environmental monitoring on the ORR consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is the collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid, gaseous, or airborne effluents for the purpose of characterizing and quantifying contaminants and process stream characteristics, assessing radiation and chemical exposures to members of the public, and demonstrating compliance with applicable standards. Environmental surveillance is the collection and analysis of samples of air, water, soil, foodstuffs, biota, and other media from DOE sites and their environs and the measurement of external radiation for purposes of demonstrating compliance with applicable standards, assessing radiation and chemical exposures to members of the public, and assessing effects, if any, on the local environment

  14. Single-tree harvesting reduces survival and growth of oak stump sprouts in the Missouri Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Randy G. Jensen; Michael J. Wallendorf

    2008-01-01

    Regeneration and recruitment into the overstory is critical to the success of using uneven-aged systems to sustain oak forests. We evaluated survival and growth of white oak (Quercus alba L.), black oak (Q. velutina Lam.), and scarlet oak (Q. coccinea Muenchh.) stump sprouts 10 years after harvesting Ozark...

  15. Risk factors of oak decline and regional mortality patterns in the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Zhaofei Fan; Xiuli Fan; Hong He; Stephen R. Shifley; W. Keith Moser

    2011-01-01

    Since the late 1970s, oak decline and mortality have plagued Midwestern-upland oak-hickory forests, particularly species in the red oak group (Quercus Section Lobatae) across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas, and Oklahoma (Dwyer and others 1995). Drought is a common inciting factor in oak decline, while advanced tree age is considered a...

  16. Making sense out of confusion: a review of fire-oak papers published in the past 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2014-01-01

    The existing fire-oak literature is contradictory on whether fire helps or hinders the oak regeneration process. This confusion occurs because the fire-oak studies have been conducted under a wide variety of conditions. In this paper, we review the fire-oak literature by stand age class, season of burn, and number of burns to identify commonalities and trends. Overall...

  17. The dynamic response of housing values to a forst invasive disease: evidence from a sudden oak death infestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent Kovacs; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey E. Englin; Janice Alexander

    2011-01-01

    "Sudden Oak Death" (Phytophthora ramorum) is a non-indigenous forest pathogen which causes substantialmortality of coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) and several other oak tree species on the Pacific Coast of the United States. We estimated the time path of residential property values subject to oak mortality using a...

  18. Lighting intensity of the soilsurface and restocking of oak groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepykh, Victor; Zubko, Anna; Povolotckaia, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Oak groves of Caucasian Mineral Vody region (CMVR) possess a high ecological and balneological potential which defines the significance of their preservation and reproduction [1]. The role assessment of lighting intensity on renewal of oak groves was carried out on four trial squares (ts) in natural sixty-seven years old forest stand with prevalence of English oak (Quercus robur L.) with unimodal sity (type of the habitat - C1). The illumination was measured at the grass level by the universal measuring instrument of meteoparameters ATT-9508 with an illumination sensor of ATA-1591. The assessment of reforestation was carried out according to the established standards [2]. In the winter of 2005 there was conducted a selecting cutting cabin of the forest stand according to a local method on ts2 with intensity 30%, on ts4 - 50% after which the illumination on the soil surface in relation to illumination of an open place in the summer of 2005 increased from 4.9% to 33.9% on ts2, and from 5.9% to 24.4% on ts4. But by 2014 the illumination decreased till 3.0% on ts2, till 5.4% on ts4 because of an intensive soil grassing down. The control was carried out by ts1 and ts3 on which from 2005 to 2014 the illumination of the soil surface decreased from 4 to 2% as a result of the development of all storeys. As a result due to an intensive soil grassing-down, the total quantity of young oak trees decreased from 2005 to 2014 from 25.6 thousand pcs/ha to 5.9 thousand pcs/ha on ts2; on from 17.3 thousand pcs/ha to 4.0 thousand pcs/ha on ts4. At the same time the total quantity of young oak trees on control squares increased respectively for 1.4% (from 18.8 thousand pcs/ha to 19.1 thousand pcs/ha) on ts1, for 38.7% (from 25.2 thousand pcs/ha to 41.1 thousand pcs/ha). The experiment showed that small young oak trees perishes in the first years of their life from a lack of light and competition from grasland vegetation without providing successful reforestation. Conclusion. So it is

  19. Game Maturity Model for Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan C; Adriani, Paul; van Houwelingen, Jan Willem; Geerts, A

    2016-04-01

    This article introduces the Game Maturity Model for the healthcare industry as an extension to the general Game Maturity Model and describes the usage by two case studies of applied health games. The Game Maturity Model for healthcare provides a practical and value-adding method to assess existing games and to determine strategic considerations for application of applied health games. Our forecast is that within 5 years the use and development of applied games will have a role in our daily lives and the way we organize health care that will be similar to the role social media has today.

  20. Service Quality and Process Maturity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serek Radomir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with service quality and the methods for its measurement and improvements to reach the so called service excellence. Besides older methods such as SERVQUAL and SERPERF, there are also shortly described capability maturity models based on which the own methodology is developed and used for process maturity assessment in organizations providing technical services. This method is equally described and accompanied by examples on pictures. The verification of method functionality is explored on finding a correlation between service employee satisfaction and average process maturity in a service organization. The results seem to be quite promising and open an arena for further studies.

  1. Maturity grids as tools for change management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John

    2011-01-01

    A maturity grid is a change management tool. Levels of maturity are assigned against aspects of an area under study, thus creating a grid. Text descriptions at the resulting intersections describe the typical behaviour exhibited by a firm for each area under study and from the basis...... for the assessment scale. It is a flexible assessment technique that is used by practitioners in industry, consultants and researchers in academia for diagnostic, reflective and improvement purposes. A large number of maturity grids have been proposed to assess a range of capabilities including quality management...

  2. Soil Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-03-02

    This Soil Management Plan applies to all activities conducted under the auspices of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that involve soil disturbance and potential management of waste soil. The plan was prepared under the direction of the Y-12 Environmental Compliance Department of the Environment, Safety, and Health Division. Soil disturbances related to maintenance activities, utility and building construction projects, or demolition projects fall within the purview of the plan. This Soil Management Plan represents an integrated, visually oriented, planning and information resource tool for decision making involving excavation or disturbance of soil at Y-12. This Soil Management Plan addresses three primary elements. (1) Regulatory and programmatic requirements for management of soil based on the location of a soil disturbance project and/or the regulatory classification of any contaminants that may be present (Chap. 2). Five general regulatory or programmatic classifications of soil are recognized to be potentially present at Y-12; soil may fall under one or more these classifications: (a) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) pursuant to the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facilities Agreement; (b) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); (c) RCRA 3004(u) solid waste managements units pursuant to the RCRA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments Act of 1984 permit for the ORR; (d) Toxic Substances and Control Act-regulated soil containing polychlorinated biphenyls; and (e) Radiologically contaminated soil regulated under the Atomic Energy Act review process. (2) Information for project planners on current and future planned remedial actions (RAs), as prescribed by CERCLA decision documents (including the scope of the actions and remedial goals), land use controls implemented to support or maintain RAs, RCRA post-closure regulatory requirements for

  3. Top-down control of herbivory by birds and bats in the canopy of temperate broad-leaved oaks (Quercus robur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan M Böhm

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The intensive foraging of insectivorous birds and bats is well known to reduce the density of arboreal herbivorous arthropods but quantification of collateral leaf damage remains limited for temperate forest canopies. We conducted exclusion experiments with nets in the crowns of young and mature oaks, Quercus robur, in south and central Germany to investigate the extent to which aerial vertebrates reduce herbivory through predation. We repeatedly estimated leaf damage throughout the vegetation period. Exclusion of birds and bats led to a distinct increase in arthropod herbivory, emphasizing the prominent role of vertebrate predators in controlling arthropods. Leaf damage (e.g., number of holes differed strongly between sites and was 59% higher in south Germany, where species richness of vertebrate predators and relative oak density were lower compared with our other study site in central Germany. The effects of bird and bat exclusion on herbivory were 19% greater on young than on mature trees in south Germany. Our results support previous studies that have demonstrated clear effects of insectivorous vertebrates on leaf damage through the control of herbivorous arthropods. Moreover, our comparative approach on quantification of leaf damage highlights the importance of local attributes such as tree age, forest composition and species richness of vertebrate predators for control of arthropod herbivory.

  4. Site characterization plan for groundwater in Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.R.; Curtis, A.H.; Houlberg, L.M.; Purucker, S.T.; Singer, M.L.; Tardiff, M.F.; Wolf, D.A.

    1994-07-01

    The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is undergoing a site characterization to identify environmental contamination that may be present. This document, Site Characterization Report for Groundwater in Waste Area Grouping I at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identifies areas of concern with respect to WAG 1 groundwater and presents the rationale, justification, and objectives for conducting this continuing site characterization. This report summarizes the operations that have taken place at each of the areas of concern in WAG 1, summarizes previous characterization studies that have been performed, presents interpretations of previously collected data and information, identifies contaminants of concern, and presents an action plan for further site investigations and early actions that will lead to identification of contaminant sources, their major groundwater pathways, and reduced off-site migration of contaminated groundwater to surface water. Site characterization Activities performed to date at WAG I have indicated that groundwater contamination, principally radiological contamination, is widespread. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to an unknown extent. The general absence of radiological contamination in surface water at the perimeter of WAG 1 is attributed to the presence of pipelines and underground waste storage tank sumps and dry wells distributed throughout WAG 1 which remove more than about 40 million gal of contaminated groundwater per year.

  5. FY 1995 Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, D.R.; Herbes, S.E.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide key information needed by decision makers to expedite the process of environmental restoration and to provide the data base required by the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). WAG 2 is the major drainage system downgradient of other WAGs that contain significant sources of contamination at ORNL. Field activities to support the remedial investigation for the RI portion include characterization of the nature and extent of contamination in WAG 2 [consisting of White Oak Creek (WOC) and associated tributaries and floodplain, White Oak Lake (WOL), and White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE)], specifically to support risk-based remediation decisions. The project consists of three phases: Phase 1, initial scoping characterization to determine the need for early action; Phase 2, interim activities during remediation of upslope WAGs to evaluate potential changes in the contamination status of WAG 2 that would necessitate revaluation of the need for early action; and Phase 3, completion of the RI process following remediation of upslope WAGs. Overall RI objectives, consistent with ORNL Environmental Restoration (ER) Program strategic objectives to reduce risks and comply with environmental regulations, are discussed in the WAG 2 Remedial Investigation Plan

  6. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Site characterization plan for groundwater in Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.R.; Curtis, A.H.; Houlberg, L.M.; Purucker, S.T.; Singer, M.L.; Tardiff, M.F.; Wolf, D.A.

    1994-07-01

    The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is undergoing a site characterization to identify environmental contamination that may be present. This document, Site Characterization Report for Groundwater in Waste Area Grouping I at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identifies areas of concern with respect to WAG 1 groundwater and presents the rationale, justification, and objectives for conducting this continuing site characterization. This report summarizes the operations that have taken place at each of the areas of concern in WAG 1, summarizes previous characterization studies that have been performed, presents interpretations of previously collected data and information, identifies contaminants of concern, and presents an action plan for further site investigations and early actions that will lead to identification of contaminant sources, their major groundwater pathways, and reduced off-site migration of contaminated groundwater to surface water. Site characterization Activities performed to date at WAG I have indicated that groundwater contamination, principally radiological contamination, is widespread. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to an unknown extent. The general absence of radiological contamination in surface water at the perimeter of WAG 1 is attributed to the presence of pipelines and underground waste storage tank sumps and dry wells distributed throughout WAG 1 which remove more than about 40 million gal of contaminated groundwater per year

  8. Sanitation options for managing oak wood infested with the invasive goldspotted oak borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael I. Jones; Tom W. Coleman; Andrew D. Graves; Mary Louise. Flint; Steven J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Movement of invasive wood-boring insects in wood products presents a threat to forest health and a management challenge for public and private land managers. The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a new pest in San Diego and Riverside Cos., CA, believed to have been introduced on firewood. This beetle...

  9. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs

  10. The Oak Woodland Bird Conservation Plan: A Strategy for Protecting and Managing Oak Woodland Habitats and Associated Birds in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Zack; Mary K. Chase; Geoffrey R. Geupel; Diana Stralberg

    2005-01-01

    Over 330 species of birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians depend on oak woodlands in California (fig. 1) at some stage in their life cycle (Barrett 1980; Verner 1980; Block and Morrison 1998). These woodlands are able to sustain such abundant wildlife primarily because they produce acorns, a high quality and frequently copious food supply. The birds of California?s...

  11. Seasonal changes in within-canopy allocation of 14C-photosynthate by white oak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, S.B.; McConathy, R.K.; Beste, B.

    1979-01-01

    Seasonal changes in photosynthate translocation and allocation of two mature, codominant white oak trees were studied by following rates of movement of 14 C-photosynthate from foliage labeled with 14 CO 2 . Loss rates were determined by sampling foliage at 5 min and 1, 4, and 7 days after labeling on each of five dates (April 22 to October 4). Incorporation of 14 C-photosynthate into 1-, 3-, and 5-year-old branches was determined 7 days after tagging. Losses of 14 C from leaves were rapid by day 1 (less than or equal to 80 percent), greatly reduced by day 4, and ranged fom 63 to 91 percent by day 7. Maximum retention of initial activity levels occurred in April for leaves (44 percent) and in October for branches (15 percent). Approximately equal apportionment of activity between leaves and branches did not occur until August. Highest total retention of photosynthate in the canopy occurred in April (due to high incorporation in leaves) and June (due to high retention in both leaves and branches). Based on measured retention and estimated respiration losses, translocation of the original 14 C-photosynthate from the canopy was calculated to be approximately 0 percent in April, 30 percent in June, and 60 percent in October. These results indicate that canopy growth and maintenance impose a significant drain on availability of photosynthate throughout the growing season

  12. 7 CFR 1710.115 - Final maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Basic Policies § 1710.115 Final maturity. (a) RUS is authorized to make loans and loan guarantees with a... due, in part, to obsolescence. Operating loans to finance working capital required for the initial...

  13. Geospatial Information System Capability Maturity Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    To explore how State departments of transportation (DOTs) evaluate geospatial tool applications and services within their own agencies, particularly their experiences using capability maturity models (CMMs) such as the Urban and Regional Information ...

  14. Pristipomoides filamentosus Size at Maturity Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains information used to help determine median size at 50% maturity for the bottomfish species, Pristipomoides filamentosus in the Main Hawaiian...

  15. Mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurosaki, Y.; Tanaka, Y.O.; Itai, Y. [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken 305 (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    The vast majority of germ cell tumors in the thorax arise at or near the thymus. We report a case of a 41-year-old man with mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum. He was asymptomatic and was incidentally found to have a posterior mediastinal mass. Computed tomography was helpful in suggesting a diagnosis of mature teratoma by demonstrating the presence of fat and calcification. The differential diagnosis included neurogenic tumors, liposarcoma, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. (orig.) With 2 figs., 18 refs.

  16. Mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Y.; Tanaka, Y.O.; Itai, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The vast majority of germ cell tumors in the thorax arise at or near the thymus. We report a case of a 41-year-old man with mature teratoma of the posterior mediastinum. He was asymptomatic and was incidentally found to have a posterior mediastinal mass. Computed tomography was helpful in suggesting a diagnosis of mature teratoma by demonstrating the presence of fat and calcification. The differential diagnosis included neurogenic tumors, liposarcoma, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. (orig.)

  17. Radiation induced early maturing mutants in barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, R.; Chauhan, S.V.S.; Sharma, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    In M 2 generation, two early maturing plants were screened from a single spike progeny of a plant obtained from 20 kR of gamma-ray irradiation of a six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Jyoti). Their true breeding nature was confirmed in M 3 generation. These mutants flower and mature 38 and 22 days earlier than those of control. (auth.)

  18. Phase I remedial investigation report of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.E.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents the activities and findings of the first phase of a three-phase remedial investigation (RI) of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and updates the scope and strategy for WAG-2-related efforts. WAG 2 contains White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, White Oak Creek Embayment on the Clinch River, and the associated floodplain and subsurface environment. Water, sediment, soil, and biota in WAG 2 are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from upgradient WAGs. This report includes field activities completed through October 1992. The remediation of WAG 2 is scheduled to follow the cessation of contaminant input from hydrologically upgradient WAGs. While upgradient areas are being remediated, the strategy for WAG 2 is to conduct a long-term monitoring and investigation program that takes full advantage of WAG 2's role as an integrator of contaminant fluxes from other ORNL WAGs and focuses on four key goals: (1) Implement, in concert with other programs, long-term, multimedia environmental monitoring and tracking of contaminants leaving other WAGs, entering WAG 2, and being transported off-site. (2) Provide a conceptual framework to integrate and develop information at the watershed-level for pathways and processes that are key to contaminant movement, and so support remedial efforts at ORNL. (3) Provide periodic updates of estimates of potential risk (both human health and ecological) associated with contaminants accumulating in and moving through WAG 2 to off-site areas. (4) Support the ORNL Environmental Restoration Program efforts to prioritize, remediate, and verify remedial effectiveness for contaminated sites at ORNL, through long-term monitoring and continually updated risk assessments

  19. Environmental data for the White Oak Creek/White Oak Lake watershed: Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 2779

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, C.B.; Loar, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, which drains approximately 16.8 km 2 (6.5 mile 2 ). The waters of WOC are impounded by White Oak Dam at WOC's intersection with White Wing Road (State Route 95), 1.0 km (0.6 mile) upstream from the Clinch River. The resulting White Oak Lake (WOL) is a small, shallow impoundment, whose water level is controlled by a vertical sluice gate that remains in a fixed position during normal operations. White Oak Creek has been utilized for the discharge of treated and untreated wastes from routine operations since the Laboratory's inception. In addition, most of the more recent (1954 to date) liquid and solid low-level-waste disposal operations have been located in the drainage area of WOC. As a federally owned facility, ORNL is required to comply with all existing federal, state, and local environmental regulations regarding waste management. On July 15, 1985, the US Environmental Protection Agency published final rules to incorporate changes in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 that resulted from the passage of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984. As a part of the rule changes, a new Sect. 3004(u) was added. The new section requires that any facility permit issued after November 8, 1984, include planned corrective actions for all continuing releases of hazardous waste or constituents from any disposal unit at the facility, regardless of when the waste was placed at the disposal unit. This report was prepared to compile existing information on the content and quantity of hazardous substances (both radioactive and nonradioactive) in the WOC/WOL watershed and to provide background information on the geology, hydrology, and ecology of the site for use in planning future remedial actions. 109 refs., 45 figs., 33 tabs

  20. Environmental data for the White Oak Creek/White Oak Lake watershed: Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 2779

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, C.B.; Loar, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, which drains approximately 16.8 km/sup 2/ (6.5 mile/sup 2/). The waters of WOC are impounded by White Oak Dam at WOC's intersection with White Wing Road (State Route 95), 1.0 km (0.6 mile) upstream from the Clinch River. The resulting White Oak Lake (WOL) is a small, shallow impoundment, whose water level is controlled by a vertical sluice gate that remains in a fixed position during normal operations. White Oak Creek has been utilized for the discharge of treated and untreated wastes from routine operations since the Laboratory's inception. In addition, most of the more recent (1954 to date) liquid and solid low-level-waste disposal operations have been located in the drainage area of WOC. As a federally owned facility, ORNL is required to comply with all existing federal, state, and local environmental regulations regarding waste management. On July 15, 1985, the US Environmental Protection Agency published final rules to incorporate changes in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 that resulted from the passage of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984. As a part of the rule changes, a new Sect. 3004(u) was added. The new section requires that any facility permit issued after November 8, 1984, include planned corrective actions for all continuing releases of hazardous waste or constituents from any disposal unit at the facility, regardless of when the waste was placed at the disposal unit. This report was prepared to compile existing information on the content and quantity of hazardous substances (both radioactive and nonradioactive) in the WOC/WOL watershed and to provide background information on the geology, hydrology, and ecology of the site for use in planning future remedial actions. 109 refs., 45 figs., 33 tabs.

  1. Intra-follicular interactions affecting mammalian oocyte maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, H.T.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313871817

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear oocyte maturation is defined as reinitiation and progression of the first meiotic division and subsequently formation of the methaphase II (MII) plate. Concomitantly with nuclear maturation, cytoplasmic maturation which is essential for proper fertilization and early embryo development is

  2. Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This document presents the Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Based on the results of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) and on subsequent discussions with regulators, a decision was made to defer implementing source control remedial measures at the WAG. The alternative selected to address the risks associated with WAG 6 involves maintenance of site access controls prevent public exposure to on-site contaminants, continued monitoring of contaminant releases determine if source control measures are required, and development of technologies that could support the final remediation of WAG 6. Although active source control measures are not being implemented at WAG 6, environmental monitoring is necessary to ensure that any potential changes in contaminant release from the WAG are identified early enough to take appropriate action. Two types of environmental monitoring will be conducted: baseline monitoring and annual routine monitoring. The baseline monitoring will be conducted to establish the baseline contaminant release conditions at the WAG, confirm the site-related chemicals of concern (COCs), and gather data to confirm the site hydrologic model. The baseline monitoring is expected to begin in 1994 and last for 12--18 months. The annual routine monitoring will consist of continued sampling and analyses of COCs to determine off-WAG contaminant flux and risk, identify mills in releases, and confirm the primary contributors to risk. The annual routine monitoring will continue for ∼ 4 years after completion of the baseline monitoring

  3. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) conducted March 14 through 25, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental risk associated with ORGDP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at ORGDP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during is on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). When completed, the results will be incorporated into the ORGDP Survey findings for in inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 120 refs., 41 figs., 74 tabs.

  4. Environmental monitoring plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    This document presents an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG 6) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This document updates a draft monitoring plan developed in 1993. The draft plan was never finalized awaiting resolution of the mechanisms for addressing RCRA concerns at a site where the CERCLA process resulted in a decision to defer action, i.e., postpone closure indefinitely. Over the past two years the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC), US Department of Energy (DOE), and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region IV, have agreed that RCRA authority at the site will be maintained through a post- closure permit; ''closure'' in this case referring to deferred action. Both a Revised Closure Plan (DOE 1995a) and a Post-Closure Permit Application (DOE 1995b) have been developed to document this agreement; relevant portions of the EMP will be included in the RCRA Post-Closure Permit Application. As the RCRA issues were being negotiated, DOE initiated monitoring at WAG 6. The purpose of the monitoring activities was to (1) continue to comply with RCRA groundwater quality assessment requirements, (2) install new monitoring equipment, and (3) establish the baseline conditions at WAG 6 against which changes in contaminant releases could be measured. Baseline monitoring is scheduled to end September 30, 1995. Activities that have taken place over the past two years are summarized in this document

  5. Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This document presents the Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Based on the results of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) and on subsequent discussions with regulators, a decision was made to defer implementing source control remedial measures at the WAG. The alternative selected to address the risks associated with WAG 6 involves maintenance of site access controls prevent public exposure to on-site contaminants, continued monitoring of contaminant releases determine if source control measures are required, and development of technologies that could support the final remediation of WAG 6. Although active source control measures are not being implemented at WAG 6, environmental monitoring is necessary to ensure that any potential changes in contaminant release from the WAG are identified early enough to take appropriate action. Two types of environmental monitoring will be conducted: baseline monitoring and annual routine monitoring. The baseline monitoring will be conducted to establish the baseline contaminant release conditions at the WAG, confirm the site-related chemicals of concern (COCs), and gather data to confirm the site hydrologic model. The baseline monitoring is expected to begin in 1994 and last for 12--18 months. The annual routine monitoring will consist of continued sampling and analyses of COCs to determine off-WAG contaminant flux and risk, identify mills in releases, and confirm the primary contributors to risk. The annual routine monitoring will continue for {approximately} 4 years after completion of the baseline monitoring.

  6. Site characterization report for the Old Hydrofracture Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Several Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) structures (i.e., Building 7852, the bulk storage bins, the pump house, water tank T-5, and pump P-3) are surplus facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) slated for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). OHF was constructed in 1963 to allow experimentation and operations with an integrated solids storage, handling, mixing, and grout injection facility. It was shut down in 1980 and transferred to ORNL's Surveillance and Maintenance Program. The hydrofracture process was a unique disposal method that involved injecting waste materials mixed with grout and additives under pumping pressures of 2,000 psi or greater into a deep, low-permeability shale formation. The injected slurry spread along fractures and bedding planes for hundreds of feet from the injection points, forming thin grout sheets (often less than 1/8 in. thick). The grout ostensibly immobilized and solidified the liquid wastes. Site characterization activities were conducted in the winter and spring of 1994 to collect information necessary to plan the D and D of OHF structures. This site characterization report documents the results of the investigation of OHF D and D structures, presenting data from the field investigation and laboratory analyses in the form of a site description, as-built drawings, summary tables of radiological and chemical contaminant concentrations, and a waste volume estimate. 25 refs., 54 figs., 17 tabs

  7. Removal site evaluation report on Building 7602 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This removal site evaluation report for Building 7602 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was prepared to provide the Environmental Restoration Program with information necessary to evaluate whether hazardous and/or radiological contaminants in and around the facility pose a substantial risk to human health or the environment (i.e., a high probability of adverse effects) and whether remedial site evaluations or removal actions are, therefore, required. The scope of the project included (1) a search for, and review of, readily available historical records regarding operations and use of the facility (including hazardous substance usage and existing contamination); (2) interviews with facility personnel concerning current and past practices; and (3) a brief walk-through to visually inspect the facility and identify existing hazard areas requiring maintenance actions, removal actions, or remedial evaluation. The results of the removal site evaluation indicate that areas associated with Building 7602 pose no imminent hazards requiring maintenance actions. Adequate engineering and administrative controls are in place and enforced within the facility to ensure worker and environmental protection. Current actions that are being taken to prevent further release of contamination and ensure worker safety within Building 7602 are considered adequate until decontamination and decommissioning activities begin. Given the current status and condition of Building 7602, this removal site evaluation is considered complete and terminated

  8. Underground storage tank management plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems at the facility and to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks. UST systems have been removed or upgraded in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance. With the closure of a significant portion of the USTs, the continuing mission of the UST Management Program is to manage the remaining active UST systems and continue corrective actions in a safe regulatory compliant manner. This Program outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Program provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. The plan is divided into three major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) active UST sites, and (3) out-of-service UST sites. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Program, and the procedures and guidance for compliance.

  9. 3001 canal radiological characterization and waste removal report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, M.G.

    1996-12-01

    An underground steel reinforced concrete transfer and storage canal was built in 1943 and operated as an integral part of the Oak Ridge Graphite Reactor Building (3001) until 1963 when the reactor was shutdown. During operation, the canal was used for under water transfer of irradiated materials and other metals from the reactor in Building 3001 to the Building 3019 hot cell for further processing. After shutdown of the reactor, the canal was used for storage of irradiated materials and fission products until 1990 when the larger materials were removed and stored in the Department of Energy (DOE) approved solid waste management storage facilities. At that time it was discovered that a considerable amount of sludge had accumulated over the intervening years and subsequent analysis showed that the sludge contained Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) materials that violated quantities allowed by the RCRA regulations. It was also recognized in 1990 that the canal was losing water to evaporation and the ground at the rate of approximately 400 gallons per day. To maintain water quality; i.e., radionuclide content at or near DOE derived concentration guidelines (DCG), the water in the canal is constantly demineralized using a demineralizer in the Building 3001 and demineralized make up water is supplied from the Building 3004 demineralizer. This report summarizes the 301 Canal Cleanup Task and the solid waste removed from the 3001 Canal in 1996

  10. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) conducted March 14 through 25, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental risk associated with ORGDP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at ORGDP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during is on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). When completed, the results will be incorporated into the ORGDP Survey findings for in inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 120 refs., 41 figs., 74 tabs

  11. Removal site evaluation report for the Isotope Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This removal site evaluation (RmSE) report of the Isotope Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was prepared to provide the Environmental Restoration Program with information necessary to evaluate whether hazardous and/or radiological contaminants in and around the Isotopes Facility pose a substantial risk to human health or the environment and if remedial site evaluations (RSEs) or removal actions are required. The scope of the project included: (1) a review of historical evidence regarding operations and use of the facility; (2) interviews with facility personnel concerning current and past operating practices; (3) a site inspection; and (4) identification of hazard areas requiring maintenance, removal, or remedial actions. The results of RmSE indicate that no substantial risks exist from contaminants present in the Isotope Facilities because adequate controls and practices exist to protect human health and the environment. The recommended correction from the RmSE are being conducted as maintenance actions; accordingly, this RmSE is considered complete and terminated.

  12. Final report on the Background Soil Characterization Project at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatmaker, T.L.; Hook, L.A.; Jackson, B.L.

    1993-10-01

    The Background Soil Characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents. ORR background soil characterization data will be used for two purposes. The first application will be in differentiating between naturally occurring constituents and site-related contamination. This is a very important step in a risk assessment because if sufficient background data are not available, no constituent known to be a contaminant can be eliminated from the assessment even if the sampled concentration is measured at a minimum level. The second use of the background data will be in calculating baseline risks against which site-specific contamination risks can be compared

  13. Underground storage tank management plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems at the facility and to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks. UST systems have been removed or upgraded in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance. With the closure of a significant portion of the USTs, the continuing mission of the UST Management Program is to manage the remaining active UST systems and continue corrective actions in a safe regulatory compliant manner. This Program outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Program provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. The plan is divided into three major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) active UST sites, and (3) out-of-service UST sites. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Program, and the procedures and guidance for compliance

  14. Removal site evaluation report for the Isotope Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This removal site evaluation (RmSE) report of the Isotope Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was prepared to provide the Environmental Restoration Program with information necessary to evaluate whether hazardous and/or radiological contaminants in and around the Isotopes Facility pose a substantial risk to human health or the environment and if remedial site evaluations (RSEs) or removal actions are required. The scope of the project included: (1) a review of historical evidence regarding operations and use of the facility; (2) interviews with facility personnel concerning current and past operating practices; (3) a site inspection; and (4) identification of hazard areas requiring maintenance, removal, or remedial actions. The results of RmSE indicate that no substantial risks exist from contaminants present in the Isotope Facilities because adequate controls and practices exist to protect human health and the environment. The recommended correction from the RmSE are being conducted as maintenance actions; accordingly, this RmSE is considered complete and terminated

  15. Removal site evaluation report on Building 3019B at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This removal site evaluation report on Building 3019B at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was prepared to provide the environmental Restoration Program with information necessary to evaluate whether hazardous and/or radiological contaminants in and around the facility pose a substantial risk to human health or the environment and whether remedial site evaluations or removal actions are, therefore, required. The scope of the project included (1) a search for, and review of, readily available historical records regarding operations and use of the facility (including hazardous substance usage and existing contamination); (2) interviews with facility personnel concerning current and past practices; and (3) a brief walk-through to visually inspect the facility nd identify existing hazard areas requiring maintenance actions or remedial evaluation. The results of the removal site evaluation indicate that areas inside Building 3019B pose no imminent hazard because adequate engineering and administrative controls are in place and enforced within the facility to ensure worker and environmental protection. A maintenance action, however, is being undertaken or proposed. Deteriorated and peeling exterior paint in areas on the west and south walls on the exterior of the building has an uninhibited pathway to the storm water drainage system and can potentially impact the local surface water during periods of storm water runoff. The paint is assumed to be lead based, thus posing a potential problem. In addition, the subsurface of all of the exterior walls may be radiologically contaminated. A maintenance action will be necessary to prevent further deterioration and dislodging of the paint

  16. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (X-10), Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), X-10 site, conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team specialists are outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with ORNL. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at ORNL, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE National Laboratory or a support contractor. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Environmental Survey Interim Report for ORNL. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the ORNL Survey. 120 refs., 68 figs., 71 tabs.

  17. Mature students' perspectives of studying radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, M.; Decker, S.

    2009-01-01

    The study set out to explore the experiences of all final year mature students on a diagnostic radiography course, in one United Kingdom University. The aims were to identify any difficulties they may have had and to make recommendations to improve mature students' learning experiences with the hope of lowering attrition rates in this group. A qualitative study involving one-to-one audio recorded interviews was utilised. Analysis of the transcripts of interviews suggested that the group believed that their maturity and previous experiences helped them in the clinical environment and put them in a good position, when asked, to counsel younger students. However for some of the mature students these experiential skills did not extend fully into seeking appropriate support for themselves. The mature students were found to be highly motivated but there was a conflict between balancing clinical and academic aspects of studying as well as balancing studying with home life. The group was found to be unprepared for the volume of academic work and its detrimental effect on family life as they sacrificed other aspects of their lives in order to complete the course. It is recommended that forewarning and forearming prospective mature students be considered by radiography education providers. Setting up and utilising an on-line forum providing a 24/7 peer support environment would aid in coping with academic, clinical or personal problems

  18. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  19. Breeding of cocksfoot cultivars with different maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important criteria in breeding process of perennial grasses is maturity. Cultivars with different maturity play a very important role in utilization of perennial grasses, by providing the ability to create a mixture of different aspects utilization and time. The first grass species in Serbia whose breeding program involved this criterion was cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.. In general cocksfoot is early to medium-early in maturity in comparison with other grasses and legumes, and that is mayor problem since in the optimum phase for cutting, cocksfoot is often earlier then other species in mixtures. As a result of this work, in the previous period, two cultivars of different maturity were released, Kruševačka 24 (K-24 and Kruševačka 25 (K-25. K-24 is medium and K-25 is late in maturity. New material is adapted to local agro-ecological conditions and productive in the same time. In breeding process of both cultivars initial material originated from autochthonous populations collected in eastern and central Serbia. Material from the wild flora is selected based on medium and late maturity which is already adapted and has good productivity. We applied the standard method of phenotypic recurrent selection with the creation of synthetic varieties by polycross.

  20. Assessment of cortical maturation with prenatal MRI. Part I: normal cortical maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogliarini, Celine; Chaumoitre, Katia; Chapon, Frederique; Levrier, Olivier; Girard, Nadine; Fernandez, Carla; Figarella-Branger, Dominique

    2005-01-01

    Cortical maturation, especially gyral formation, follows a temporospatial schedule and is a good marker of fetal maturation. Although ultrasonography is still the imaging method of choice to evaluate fetal anatomy, MRI has an increasingly important role in the detection of brain abnormalities, especially of cortical development. Knowledge of MRI techniques in utero with the advantages and disadvantages of some sequences is necessary, in order to try to optimize the different magnetic resonance sequences to be able to make an early diagnosis. The different steps of cortical maturation known from histology represent the background necessary for the understanding of maturation in order to be then able to evaluate brain maturation through neuroimaging. Illustrations of the normal cortical maturation are given for each step accessible to MRI for both the cerebral hemispheres and the posterior fossa. (orig.)