Sample records for mattress supports cushions

  1. Beds, mattresses and cushions for pressure sore prevention and treatment.

    Cullum, N; Deeks, J; Sheldon, T A; Song, F; Fletcher, A W


    To assess the effectiveness of pressure relieving beds, mattresses and cushions (support surfaces) in the prevention and treatment of pressure sores. Searches of 19 databases, hand searching of journals, conference proceedings, and bibliographies. Randomised controlled trials evaluating support surfaces for the prevention or treatment of pressure sores. There was no restriction on articles based on language or publication status. Data extraction and assessment of study quality was undertaken by two reviewers independently. Trials with similar patients, comparisons, and outcomes were pooled. Where pooling was inappropriate, trials are discussed in a narrative review. 29 RCTs of support surfaces for pressure sore prevention were identified. Some high specification foam mattresses were more effective than 'standard' hospital foam mattresses in moderate-high risk patients. Pressure relieving mattresses in the operating theatre reduced the incidence of pressure sores post-operatively. The relative merits of alternating and constant low pressure, and of the different alternating pressure devices are unclear. Seat cushions and simple, constant low-pressure devices have not been adequately evaluated. Limited evidence suggests that low air loss beds reduce the incidence of pressure sores in intensive care. 6 RCTs of support surfaces for pressure sore treatment were identified. There is good evidence that air-fluidised and low air loss beds improve healing rates. Seat cushions have not been adequately evaluated. 2 RCTs evaluated surfaces for both prevention and treatment in the same trial. PREVENTION - There is good evidence of the effectiveness of high specification foam over standard hospital foam, and pressure relief in the operating theatre. Treatment - There is good evidence of the effectiveness of air-fluidised and low air loss devices as treatments. Overall, however, it is impossible to determine the most effective surface for either prevention or treatment.

  2. 75 FR 67047 - Standard for the Flammability of Mattresses and Mattress Pads


    ... sleep products (for example, mattress pads, box springs, innerspring cushions, and air-flotation sleep... unconventional ] items such as futons, crib and juvenile mattresses, and sleep sofa inserts) shipped in the... variables. Using the baseline assumptions for new prototypes versus ticking substitutions, the 50...

  3. Mechanical Properties of Palm Fiber Mattress

    Li, Yu-Qian; Wu, Jia-Yu; Gu, Hao-Wei; Chen, Zong-Yong; Shi, Xiao-Bing; Liao, Ting-Mao; An, Cheng; Yuan, Hong; Liu, Ren-Huai


    Palm fiber mattress is increasingly accepted by many families. This study aims at evaluating the mechanical properties of palm fiber mattress. Two experiments were conduct to investigate the Young's modulus of palm fiber mattress in three directions. In addition, finite element models were established to characterize palm fiber mattress under uniform distributed pressure. Finally, results from finite element analysis are presented to illustrate that the thick mattress will stick with human body curve perfectly, which can support vertebral column effectively.

  4. Impact Responses of Composite Cushioning System considering Critical Component with Simply Supported Beam Type

    Fu-de Lu


    Full Text Available In some microelectronic products, one or several components can be idealized as simply supported beam type and viewed as vulnerable elements or critical component due to the fact that they are destroyed easily under impact loadings. The composite cushioning structure made of expanded polyethylene (EPE, and expanded polystyrene (EPS was utilized to protect the vulnerable elements against impact loadings during transportation. The vibration equations of composite cushioning system were deducted and virtual mass method was applied to predict impact behavior of critical component. Numerical results indicate that virtual mass method is appropriate for computing impact response of composite cushioning system with vulnerable element of simply supported beam type, which is affirmed by the fact that the impact responses of structure element in terms of velocity- and displacement-time curves are almost unchanged when virtual mass is smaller than a certain value. The results in this paper make it possible for installation of packaging optimization design.

  5. KCP Activities Supporting the W76LEP Stress Cushions and LK3626 RTV Replacement Material Development

    J. W. Schneider


    The S-5370 RTV blown foam previously produced by Dow Corning is no longer commercially available. The S-5370 material has been used on all of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) programs to manufacture Stress Cushions up through the W88. The Kansas City Plant (KCP) did not have a sufficient supply of S-5370 material to cover the schedule requirements for the Program. This report provides information on the numerous activities conducted at KCP involving the development of the Program Stress Cushion and replacement RTV material.

  6. Comparative study of a foam mattress and a water mattress

    Groen, H.W.; Groenier, K.H.; Schuling, J.


    In order to determine the effectiveness of high-quality foam replacement mattresses in the treatment of pressure ulcers, one such mattress (TheraRest) was compared with a water mattress (Secutex). One hundred and twenty nursing home patients with pressure ulcers were randomised into two groups and n

  7. Air cushion vehicles: A briefing

    Anderson, J. L.; Finnegan, P. M.


    Experience and characteristics; the powering, uses, and implications of large air cushion vehicles (ACV); and the conceptual design and operation of a nuclear powered ACV freighter and supporting facilities are described.

  8. Foam Cushioning


    One innovation developed by a contractor at Ames Research Center was an open cell polymeric foam material with unusual properties. Intended as padding for aircraft seats the material offered better impact protection against accidents, and also enhanced passenger comfort because it distributed body weight evenly over the entire contact area. Called a slow springback foam, it flows to match the contour of the body pressing against it, and returns to its original shape once the pressure is removed. It has many applications including aircraft cushions and padding, dental stools, and athletic equipment. Now it's used by Dynamic Systems, Inc. for medical applications such as wheel chairs for severely disabled people which allow them to sit for 3-8 hours where they used to be uncomfortable in 15-30 minutes.

  9. Nuclear air cushion vehicles.

    Anderson, J. L.


    This paper serves several functions. It identifies the 'state-of-the-art' of the still-conceptual nuclear air cushion vehicle, particularly the nuclear powerplant. Using mission studies and cost estimates, the report describes some of the advantages of nuclear power for large air cushion vehicles. The paper also summarizes the technology studies on mobile nuclear powerplants and conceptual ACV systems/missions studies that have been performed at NASA Lewis Research Center.

  10. Wheelchair cushions for persons with spinal cord injury: an update.

    Garber, S L; Dyerly, L R


    Occupational therapists frequently prescribe wheelchair cushions to reduce the risk of pressure sores in patients with spinal cord injury. In an earlier study (Garber, 1985b), Roho cushions were prescribed for the greatest number of subjects studied. The present study of 197 subjects updates these data and describes current prescription patterns, the use of cushions over time, satisfaction with prescribed cushions, and the occurrence of pressure sores with prescribed cushions. The study shows that the Jay cushion was prescribed most frequently for the current subjects, although it was not recommended for all persons with spinal cord injury. In the second phase of the present study, involving 30 subjects, 30% of the subjects discontinued use of the prescribed cushion. Skin breakdown and the discovery of alternative solutions were given as primary reasons. There was no significant difference in the incidence of pressure sores between subjects who continued to use their prescribed cushions and those who did not. This research supports the conclusion of earlier studies that no one wheelchair cushion is universally effective for all persons and that individual evaluation and routine reassessment are essential in reducing the occurrence of pressure sores.

  11. 21 CFR 880.5560 - Temperature regulated water mattress.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temperature regulated water mattress. 880.5560... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5560 Temperature regulated water mattress. (a) Identification. A temperature regulated water mattress is a device intended for medical purposes that consists of a mattress of suitable...

  12. Cushion plants as islands.

    Tepedino, V J; Stanton, N L


    The acarine fauna of two abundant species of cushion plant on the high, short-grass prairie of S.E. Wyoming were used to test The MacArthur-Wilson Theory of Island Biogeography. Multiple regression analysis using area, distance and percent moisture as independent variables and number of mite species and number of mite individuals were run for the two sampling dates. Results showed area alone to be consistently and highly correlated (r=0.84-0.94) with both species and individuals for one cushion species. The slopes of the species-area and individuals-area curves are among the highest recorded and were significantly higher on the second sampling date. Selective seasonal changes in the fauna were shown by increases both in numbers of species and individuals, mainly on larger cushions, for the later sampling period. It is hypothesized that seasonal changes are due to an increase in the number of predator species in response to an increase in the number of prey items. The slopes of the species-area curves are compared with those in the literature and it is argued that slope values are more dependent upon the taxonomic group being studied than on whether the island is insular or oceanic. Finally, we suggest that The MacArthur-Wilson Theory is not applicable to islands which 1) exhibit continuous growth, 2) lack a discrete species source, and 3) are relatively transitory.

  13. The constitutive sofa cushion

    Hanghøj, Sara


    , with the sitting room as a cultural and informal environment as its arena in 2006. The local and social network of the informant (born 1919) is traced through a detailed cultural analysis of the creation, usage and existence of the sofa cushion, including even the material interactions occurring between the human...... body, space and artefact, thereby revealing the materialization process. Based on results of the analysis, ANT (Actor-Network- Theory) is used in order to discuss how The Danish Folk High School's conception of simplicity as an aesthetic and gendered ideal in the formal education of female handcraft...

  14. Support surfaces for pressure ulcer prevention.

    McInnes, Elizabeth; Jammali-Blasi, Asmara; Bell-Syer, Sally E M; Dumville, Jo C; Middleton, Victoria; Cullum, Nicky


    Pressure ulcers (i.e. bedsores, pressure sores, pressure injuries, decubitus ulcers) are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue. They are common in the elderly and immobile, and costly in financial and human terms. Pressure-relieving support surfaces (i.e. beds, mattresses, seat cushions etc) are used to help prevent ulcer development. This systematic review seeks to establish:(1) the extent to which pressure-relieving support surfaces reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers compared with standard support surfaces, and,(2) their comparative effectiveness in ulcer prevention. In April 2015, for this fourth update we searched The Cochrane Wounds Group Specialised Register (searched 15 April 2015) which includes the results of regular searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 3). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-randomised trials, published or unpublished, that assessed the effects of any support surface for prevention of pressure ulcers, in any patient group or setting which measured pressure ulcer incidence. Trials reporting only proxy outcomes (e.g. interface pressure) were excluded. Two review authors independently selected trials. Data were extracted by one review author and checked by another. Where appropriate, estimates from similar trials were pooled for meta-analysis. For this fourth update six new trials were included, bringing the total of included trials to 59.Foam alternatives to standard hospital foam mattresses reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers in people at risk (RR 0.40 95% CI 0.21 to 0.74). The relative merits of alternating- and constant low-pressure devices are unclear. One high-quality trial suggested that alternating-pressure mattresses may be more cost effective than alternating-pressure overlays in a UK context.Pressure-relieving overlays on the operating table reduce postoperative pressure ulcer incidence

  15. Arctic hiking mattress from processed reindeer pelt

    E. Mäntysalo


    Full Text Available Quality of clothing and equipment has always been the most important matter when hiking in extreme, arctic conditions. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus hides were processed with the aid of irreversible tannage and careful hydrophobic treatment. As a result, a processed reindeer-pelt hiking mattress was obtained, superior to the best hiking mattresses on the market made of plastic materials. Its physical properties are: weight 1.7 kg, width 60 cm and length 190 cm. The reindeer pelt has a low initial isothermal compressibility, 0.71 Pa-1, a low thermal conductivity, 0.070 Wm-1°C-1, and an R-value of 0.35 m2°CW-1. The heat-flow experimenrs have been carried our at a pressure of 810 Pa. In addition, the reindeer pelt stays dry in use because of its good ventilation. In these respects the reindeer pelr is superior to plastic mattresses.

  16. A 6 month evaluation of a non-powered hybrid mattress replacement system.

    Newton, Heather


    In 2013, the Royal Cornwall Hospitals NHS Trust undertook a 6-week evaluation of the AtmosAir 4000 non-powered reactive pressure redistribution mattress replacement system to determine its suitability in supporting the prevention of pressure ulcers in high-risk patients (phase one). The results demonstrated that the AtmosAir 4000 mattress system, together with skin assessment and repositioning regimes, met the pressure ulcer preventative needs of patients at high and very high risk of developing pressure ulcers. It also resulted in a notable reduction in the use of dynamic air mattresses. Consequently, 50 AtmosAir 4000 mattresses were purchased for two acute medical wards in the evaluation site, where the majority of patients are elderly with an acute medical condition. This article discusses the second phase where an audit compares the number of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers reported over a 6-month period with the equivalent time period in 2014. Results show that the number of pressure ulcers reduced by 65% and 50% in the two wards. The number of dynamic mattresses used on the two wards reduced significantly from 28 to 7, which represents a 75% reduction in usage.

  17. Flame retardant cotton barrier nonwovens for mattresses

    According to regulation CPSC 16 CFR 1633, every new residential mattress sold in the United States since July 2007 must resist ignition by open flame. An environmentally benign “green”, inexpensive way to meet this regulation is to use a low-cost flame retardant (FR) barrier fabric. In this study, a...

  18. The structure of the cushions in the feet of African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Weissengruber, G E; Egger, G F; Hutchinson, J R; Groenewald, H B; Elsässer, L; Famini, D; Forstenpointner, G


    The uniquely designed limbs of the African elephant, Loxodonta africana, support the weight of the largest terrestrial animal. Besides other morphological peculiarities, the feet are equipped with large subcutaneous cushions which play an important role in distributing forces during weight bearing and in storing or absorbing mechanical forces. Although the cushions have been discussed in the literature and captive elephants, in particular, are frequently affected by foot disorders, precise morphological data are sparse. The cushions in the feet of African elephants were examined by means of standard anatomical and histological techniques, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In both the forelimb and the hindlimb a 6th ray, the prepollex or prehallux, is present. These cartilaginous rods support the metacarpal or metatarsal compartment of the cushions. None of the rays touches the ground directly. The cushions consist of sheets or strands of fibrous connective tissue forming larger metacarpal/metatarsal and digital compartments and smaller chambers which were filled with adipose tissue. The compartments are situated between tarsal, metatarsal, metacarpal bones, proximal phalanges or other structures of the locomotor apparatus covering the bones palmarly/plantarly and the thick sole skin. Within the cushions, collagen, reticulin and elastic fibres are found. In the main parts, vascular supply is good and numerous nerves course within the entire cushion. Vater-Pacinian corpuscles are embedded within the collagenous tissue of the cushions and within the dermis. Meissner corpuscles are found in the dermal papillae of the foot skin. The micromorphology of elephant feet cushions resembles that of digital cushions in cattle or of the foot pads in humans but not that of digital cushions in horses. Besides their important mechanical properties, foot cushions in elephants seem to be very sensitive structures.

  19. The contribution made by an armchair with integral pressure-reducing cushion in the prevention of pressure sore incidence in the elderly, acutely ill patient.

    Collins, F


    The paper describes a clinical controlled trial of an armchair with integral pressure-reducing cushion, which took place on two elderly acute medical wards in a district general hospital. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the armchair would have an impact on reducing the occurrence of pressure sores. All patients were provided with a mattress or overlay in accordance with the hospital policy on mattress provision following a Waterlow risk assessment. Patients on ward A were provided with an armchair with integral pressure-reducing cushion, whilst patients on ward B continued to use their existing bedside armchair. Nominal data were collected on all pressure sores in patients who were not bedridden. Ward A had a significantly lower incidence of hospital-acquired pressure sores compared to ward B, and non-hospital-acquired pressure sores on this ward showed more improvement than those on ward B.

  20. Wheelchair cushions: a historical review.

    Garber, S L


    An important objective of occupational therapy practice is to maximise functional potential in patients who have physical disabilities. Pressure sores are a major complication in the medical course of these individuals. Therefore, prevention, or at least the proper management, of these sores becomes an important focus for occupational therapists who treat the physically disabled patient. Occupational therapists often prescribe wheelchair cushions to relieve pressure and reduce the risk of ulceration. Unfortunately, occupational therapy literature offers few articles dealing with this significant problem. This paper presents a historical review of wheelchair cushions and details some of the physiological and clinical research efforts that are the basis of prescription practice today.

  1. 16 CFR Figures 14 and 15 to Part 1633 - Label for Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and...


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Label for Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With Foundation 14 Figures 14 and 15 to Part 1633... Domestic Mattress Alone and with Foundation and Label for Imported Mattress Alone and With...

  2. An overview of polyurethane foams in higher specification foam mattresses.

    Soppi, Esa; Lehtiö, Juha; Saarinen, Hannu


    Soft polyurethane foams exist in thousands of grades and constitute essential components of hospital mattresses. For pressure ulcer prevention, the ability of foams to control the immersion and envelopment of patients is essential. Higher specification foam mattresses (i.e., foam mattresses that relieve pressure via optimum patient immersion and envelopment while enabling patient position changes) are claimed to be more effective for preventing pressure ulcers than standard mattresses. Foam grade evaluations should include resiliency, density, hardness, indentation force/load deflection, progressive hardness, tensile strength, and elongation along with essential criteria for higher specification foam mattresses. Patient-specific requirements may include optimal control of patient immersion and envelopment. Mattress cover characteristics should include breathability, impermeability to fluids, and fire safety and not affect mattress function. Additional determinations such as hardness are assessed according to the guidelines of the American Society for Testing and Materials and the International Organization for Standardization. At this time, no single foam grade provides an optimal combination of the above key requirements, but the literature suggests a combination of at least 2 foams may create an optimal higher specification foam mattress for pressure ulcer prevention. Future research and the development of product specification accuracy standards are needed to help clinicians make evidence-based decisions about mattress use.

  3. A model to assess the comfort of automotive seat cushions.

    Jiaxing, Zhan; Fard, Mohammad; Jazar, Reza


    A large number of independent and interacting factors affect seating comfort such as seat shape, stability, lumbar support and seat height. Although many subjective comfort studies have been conducted, few of them considered seating comfort from its subassembly level. This paper analyzed the automotive seat cushion designed with geared four-bar linkage for the seat height adjustment. The operation torque and lift distance of this mechanism was investigated as 2 major comfort factors. Ten cushions with this kind of design in the market were compared and assessed.

  4. 21 CFR 880.5550 - Alternating pressure air flotation mattress.


    ... body pressure. The device is used to prevent and treat decubitus ulcers (bed sores). (b) Classification... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. 880... Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5550 Alternating pressure air flotation mattress. (a) Identification...

  5. A method of comparing effectiveness of mattresses for pressure management for pediatric patients.

    Milbrath, Christine D; Linroth, Ronna; Wilhelmy, Jennifer; Pate, April


    A systematic review of the pressure management performance of support surfaces (beds, mattresses, overlays, and the utilization of linens), using a standardized testing methodology, provided qualitative and quantitative information needed to support cost-effective purchasing decisions and resulted in the reduction of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers. In the 30 months since implementation of the new surfaces, use guidelines, and educational programs, zero surface-related stage 3, 4 and unstaged pressure ulcers have occurred despite a high-risk patient population.

  6. Performance of different support surfaces during experimental resuscitation (CPR

    Esa Soppi


    Full Text Available The relationship between the efficacy of resuscitation and the mattresses and backboards used in acute care units, has been studied previously. However, few reports focus on the relative efficacy of resuscitation when using mattresses with different modes of function. This study examines the performance of different support surfaces during experimental cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. The surfaces included a hard surface, a higher specification foam mattress, a dynamic, alternating pressure mattress, and a dynamic, reactive minimum pressure air mattress system. A pressure sensitive mat was placed between the mattresses and each surface and the efficacy of resuscitation measured using differences in compression frequency, compression depth and hands-on time. Our results suggest that the efficacy of resuscitation is dependent on the mode of action of the mattress, while adequate compression frequency and depth do not have a significant effect. In the open system alternating mattress, deflation of the mattress using the CPR function improved the stability of the resuscitation in our study, especially in situations where the height of the air mattress is greater than 20–25 centimeters. Using our experimental system, resuscitation on a closed air system mattress optimally combined stability and effort, while the CPR function converts the air system of the mattress to open, which impairs its functionality during resuscitation. These results indicate that resuscitation is dependent of the mode of action of the mattress and whether the mattress-specific CPR function was used or not. However, the interactions are complex and are dependent on the interaction between the body and the mattress, i.e. its immersion and envelopment properties. Furthermore, this study casts doubt on the necessity of the CPR function in air mattresses.

  7. Cushions of Thylacospermum caespitosum (Caryophyllaceae) do not facilitate other plants under extreme altitude and dry conditions in the north-west Himalayas.

    de Bello, Francesco; Doležal, Jiří; Dvorský, Miroslav; Chlumská, Zuzana; Řeháková, Klára; Klimešová, Jitka; Klimeš, Leoš


    Cushion plants are commonly considered as keystone nurse species that ameliorate the harsh conditions they inhabit in alpine ecosystems, thus facilitating other species and increasing alpine plant biodiversity. A literature search resulted in 25 key studies showing overwhelming facilitative effects of different cushion plants and hypothesizing greater facilitation with increased environmental severity (i.e. higher altitude and/or lower rainfall). At the same time, emerging ecological theory alongside the cushion-specific literature suggests that facilitation might not always occur under extreme environmental conditions, and especially under high altitude and dryness. To assess these hypotheses, possible nursing effects of Thylacospermum caespitosum (Caryophyllaceae) were examined at extremely high altitude (5900 m a.s.l.) and in dry conditions (precipitation plants were detected. The number and abundance of species were greater outside cushions than within and on the edge of cushions. None of the 13 species detected was positively associated with cushions, while nine of them were negatively associated. Plant diversity increased with the size of the area sampled outside cushions, but no species-area relationship was found within cushions. The results support the emerging theoretical prediction of restricted facilitative effects under extreme combinations of cold and dryness, integrating these ideas in the context of the ecology of cushion plants. This evidence suggests that cases of missing strong facilitation are likely to be found in other extreme alpine conditions.

  8. Allergenic sesquiterpene lactones from cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii Cass.)

    Paulsen, Evy; Gade Hyldgaard, Mette; Andersen, Klaus E.


    BACKGROUND: The Australian cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii) of the Compositae family of plants has become a popular pot and container plant. The plant produces the sesquiterpene lactone allergen calocephalin. OBJECTIVES: To assess the sensitizing potential of sesquiterpene lactones from cushion ...

  9. Mechanical Cushion Design Influence on Cylinder Dynamics

    Borghi, Massimo; Milani, Massimo; Conrad, Finn


    The paper deals with the simulation and the experimental verification of the dynamic behaviour of a linear actuator equipped with different configurations of mechanical cushion. A numerical model, developed and tailored to describe the influence of different modulation of the discharged flow-rate...

  10. Use of weight-bearing MRI for evaluating wheelchair cushions based on internal soft-tissue deformations under ischial tuberosities

    Amit Gefen, PhD


    Full Text Available Deep tissue injury (DTI is a severe type of pressure ulcer, in which damage initiates under intact skin, in soft tissues that are mechanically deformed by load-bearing bony prominences. Sitting-acquired DTI typically occurs in the gluteus muscles that could sustain deformations by the weight-bearing ischial tuberosities (ITs. No clinical method currently exists for measuring internal tissue deformations; so design and selection of wheelchair cushions are based mostly on meas-uring sitting pressures. Our objective was to evaluate the influence of different commercial cushions on internal soft-tissue deformations under the ITs, using weight-bearing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. We specifically compared muscle, superficial fat, and effective (muscle and fat together tissue deformations while subjects (n = 10 sat on four cushions (two viscoelastic and two foam and directly on a rigid support. Deformations were maximal in muscle tissue (mean ~70%, twice more the amount than in fat (~30%. Effective soft-tissue deformations were ~50% to ~60%. Although cushions mildly reduced muscle deformations in the order of 10%, theoretically, our interpretation suggests that this deformation level adds safe sitting time. This study demonstrated that weight-bearing MRI is applicable for evaluating wheelchair cushions and, in the future, may be a tool to systematically support cushion design and selection.

  11. Microcontrolled air-mattress for ulcer by pressure prevention

    Pasluosta, Cristian F; Fontana, Juan M; Beltramone, Diego A; Taborda, Ricardo A M [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba. Cordoba (Argentina)


    An ulcer by pressure is produced when a constant pressure is exerted over the skin. This generates the collapse of the blood vessels and, therefore, a lack in the contribution of the necessary nutrients for the affected zone. As a consequence, the skin deteriorates, eventually causing an ulcer. In order to prevent it, a protocol must be applied to the patient, which is reflected on time and cost of treatment. There are some air mattresses available for this purpose, but whose performance does not fulfill all requirements. The prototype designed in our laboratory is based on the principle of the air mattress. Its objective is to improve on existing technologies and, due to an increased automation, reduce time dedication for personnel in charge of the patient. A clinical experience was made in the local Emergencies Hospital and also in an institution dedicated to aged patients care. In both cases, the results obtained and the comments from the personnel involved were favorable.

  12. Microcontrolled air-mattress for ulcer by pressure prevention

    Pasluosta, Cristian F.; Fontana, Juan M.; Beltramone, Diego A.; Taborda, Ricardo A. M.


    An ulcer by pressure is produced when a constant pressure is exerted over the skin. This generates the collapse of the blood vessels and, therefore, a lack in the contribution of the necessary nutrients for the affected zone. As a consequence, the skin deteriorates, eventually causing an ulcer. In order to prevent it, a protocol must be applied to the patient, which is reflected on time and cost of treatment. There are some air mattresses available for this purpose, but whose performance does not fulfill all requirements. The prototype designed in our laboratory is based on the principle of the air mattress. Its objective is to improve on existing technologies and, due to an increased automation, reduce time dedication for personnel in charge of the patient. A clinical experience was made in the local Emergencies Hospital and also in an institution dedicated to aged patients care. In both cases, the results obtained and the comments from the personnel involved were favorable.

  13. 16 CFR 1632.4 - Mattress test procedure.


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mattress test procedure. 1632.4 Section 1632.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD...) / hr cm2 °C/cm (0.24±0.04 Btu/hr ft2 °F/in) at 23.9 °C (75 °F). 1 1 Glass fiberboard that meets Federal...

  14. Simplified Knotless Mattress Repair of Type II SLAP Lesions.

    Chia, Marcus Robert; Hatrick, Cameron


    Arthroscopic repair of lesions of the superior labrum and biceps anchor has been shown to provide good to excellent results. We describe a simplified arthroscopic surgical technique using a single knotless anchor with a mattress suture configuration. This technique provides an effective and reproducible method to reattach and re-create the normal appearance of the superior labrum and biceps anchor in a time-efficient manner without the need for knot tying.

  15. [Pressure ulcer prevention with pressure-reducing seat cushions].

    Reijnen, Guido; Heule, Freerk


    Analysis of the effectiveness of pressure-reducing seat cushions. Literature review. Investigation of the literature yielded 8 relevant studies. These studies encompassed three clinical trials with a total of 296 patients, and five laboratory experiments with a total of 107 subjects, including patients. The publications were written at level A (RCT and meta-analysis) and level B (other study forms) according to the principles of evidence-based medicine. Both the pressure parameters of the pressure-reducing seat cushion and the development of pressure ulcers were used as measures for outcome. A 7.6 cm foam cushion was used as reference; it was not considered as one of the pressure-reducing systems. Two studies compared different types of air seat cushions with a foam/gel seat cushion. The best distribution of pressure was found for the air compartment seat cushion. This type of seat cushion provided the smallest contact surface with high pressures. Three studies compared the pressure-reducing systems with a 7.6 cm foam cushion. The methodologically most solid one of these three studies found a lower incidence of sitting-related pressure ulcers for users of a pressure-reducing system (0.9 vs. 6.7%; p = 0.04). The two other studies had too low a power to show significant differences. These two compared different types of foam/gel seat cushions and a low profile air seat cushion and found no significant differences in distribution of pressures. One study compared various foam cushions of differing thickness and found that foam cushions most optimally distributed pressure at a thickness of 8 centimetres. Pressure-reducing systems are effective in preventing pressure ulcers. Within the group of pressure-reducing systems, the air compartment seat cushion has the best pressure-distributing properties.

  16. Fire resistant resilient foams. [for seat cushions

    Gagliani, J.


    Primary program objectives were the formulation, screening, optimization and characterization of open-cell, fire resistant, low-smoke emitting, thermally stable, resilient polyimide foams suitable for seat cushions in commercial aircraft and spacecraft. Secondary program objectives were to obtain maximum improvement of the tension, elongation and tear characteristics of the foams, while maintaining the resiliency, thermal stability, low smoke emission and other desirable attributes of these materials.

  17. Performance of Used Tire Cushion Layer under Rockfall Impact

    Jianhu Sun


    Full Text Available Rock shed is widely used in traffic lines against rockfall. In order to cushion rockfall impact and dissipate impact energy, cushion layer is usually adopted in rock shed. Used tire cushion layer is proposed in this paper and it can cushion rockfall impact utilizing large radial deformation of tire. Reinforced concrete structure model is built with used tire cushion layer and artificial rockfall test is carried out. Twelve tests are divided into 4 sets with different rockfall mass, rockfall height, and tire filling material. Simplified calculation model with spring-damper is derived from radial repeated compression test of used tire, which improves the calculation efficiency. Test and numerical simulation show that application of used tire cushion layer in rock shed can cushion rockfall impact and effectively reduce peak acceleration and the maximum impact force. Filling sand and gravel in tire can improve tire stiffness and energy absorption capacity but will decrease cushion effect due to its large density. With the same impact energy, light rockfall is more destructive than weight rockfall for used tire cushion layer.

  18. Spectral analysis of snoring events from an Emfit mattress.

    Perez-Macias, Jose Maria; Viik, Jari; Varri, Alpo; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Tenhunen, Mirja


    The aim of this study is to explore the capability of an Emfit (electromechanical film transducer) mattress to detect snoring (SN) by analyzing the spectral differences between normal breathing (NB) and SN. Episodes of representative NB and SN of a maximum of 10 min were visually selected for analysis from 33 subjects. To define the bands of interest, we studied the statistical differences in the power spectral density (PSD) between both breathing types. Three bands were selected for further analysis: 6-16 Hz (BW1), 16-30 Hz (BW2) and 60-100 Hz (BW3). We characterized the differences between NB and SN periods in these bands using a set of spectral features estimated from the PSD. We found that 15 out of the 29 features reached statistical significance with the Mann-Whitney U-test. Diagnostic properties for each feature were assessed using receiver operating characteristic analysis. According to our results, the highest diagnostic performance was achieved using the power ratio between BW2 and BW3 (0.85 area under the receiver operating curve, 80% sensitivity, 80% specificity and 80% accuracy). We found that there are significant differences in the defined bands between the NB and SN periods. A peak was found in BW3 for SN epochs, which was best detected using power ratios. Our work suggests that it is possible to detect snoring with an Emfit mattress. The mattress-type movement sensors are inexpensive and unobtrusive, and thus provide an interesting tool for sleep research.

  19. Computer-aided conceptual design of Air Cushion Vehicles

    Band, E. G. U.; Lavis, D. R.

    This paper describes the development and use of a computer-aided design tool which has been used to explore preferred options for amphibious Air-Cushion Vehicle (ACV) and Surface-Effect Ship (SES) designs in support of U.S. Navy and U.S. Army programs. The tool, referred to as the ACV Design Synthesis Model (ADSM), is an interactive computer program which provides a description of feasible ACV or SES concepts that could be developed, by a competent design team, to perform the mission described by the input parameters. The paper discusses how the program was used to explore parametrically the design of a range of self-propelled hoverbarges to meet requirements of the U.S. Army Logistics Over the Shore (LOTS) phases of an amphibious landing. Examples of results are presented to illustrate the method used in determining design and performance trade-offs.

  20. Feasibility report: Operation of light air cushion vehicle at McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Dibbern, J. S.


    This report explores the viability of the use of an air cushion vehicle (ACV) or hovercraft to perform logistic and scientific support in the area of McMurdo Station, Antarctica. After a review of personnel assets and facilities at McMurdo Station to support the ACV plus a reconnaissance of the five major routes selected, it appears that an air cushion vehicle in the 1 to 1 1/2 ton payload class would be of significant value to support operations. It would reduce transit times for surface vehicle traverses on the routes selected and reduce requirements for expenditure of helicopter flight time in others. Of major significance is the ability to handle passenger/shuttle requirements between the Scott Base transition and Williams Field Skiway. Use of the ACV for high frequency passenger operations would help preserve the snow road for cargo operations during periods of road deterioration.

  1. Air cushion vehicles - Any potential for Canada?

    Laframboise, J. F.


    The present evaluation of air cushion vehicle (ACV) operational and commercial suitability in the Canadian context notes that the most successful and durable ACV applications are those in which only ACVs can perform the required mission. An important factor is the reliability of the craft being tested in a given field of operations. Because of their low ground pressure, ACVs can operate over low-cost trails with an efficiency that compares with that of trucks over conventional roads; this renders them especially attractive for transportation networks in the North West Territories.

  2. Air-cushioning in impact problems

    Moore, M. R.


    This paper concerns the displacement potential formulation of the post-impact influence of an air-cushioning layer on the 2D impact of a liquid half-space by a rigid body. The liquid and air are both ideal and incompressible and attention is focussed on cases when the density ratio between the air and liquid is small. In particular, the correction to classical Wagner theory is analysed in detail for the impact of circular cylinders and wedges. © The Authors 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved.

  3. 21 CFR 872.3540 - OTC denture cushion or pad.


    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3540 OTC denture cushion or pad. (a...-counter. (b) Classification. (1) Class I if the device is made of wax-impregnated cotton cloth that the... denture cushion or pad is made of a material other than wax-impregnated cotton cloth or if the...

  4. Nonlinear Response of Strong Nonlinear System Arisen in Polymer Cushion

    Jun Wang


    Full Text Available A dynamic model is proposed for a polymer foam-based nonlinear cushioning system. An accurate analytical solution for the nonlinear free vibration of the system is derived by applying He's variational iteration method, and conditions for resonance are obtained, which should be avoided in the cushioning design.

  5. Residual settlement calculation of geocell cushion over gravel piles

    陈昌富; 杨宇; 肖淑君; 周志军


    The calculation of residual settlement of bidirectional reinforced composite foundation, which is composed of geocell cushion over gravel piles, was studied. The geocell cushion was modeled as a thin flexible plate with large deflection. Based on the Kirchhoff hypothesis, the governing differential equations and boundary conditions of the deformation of geocell cushion under working load were founded using von Karman method and solved by Galerkin method. On theses bases, the gravel piles and inter-pile soils were assumed as Winkler ground with variable spring stiffness so as to execute the approximate calculation of the residual settlement of the bidirectional reinforced composite foundation. The calculation method was verified by two laboratory experiments concerning settlement of embankments. One experiment was with just geocell cushion installed to treat the soft clay under embankments; another one was with both geocell cushion and gravel piles installed. The results show that the calculated settlement curve and the maximum settlement are closed to the observed ones.

  6. Anti-rebound Cushion Device for Hydraulic Breaker

    Zhao Hongqiang


    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of rebound impact and its negative influence on the present hydraulic breaker. To get over its shortcomings, a new anti-rebound cushion device has been designed to prevent the phenomenon of rebound impact. A hydraulic cushion is used to absorb the rebound impact energy, which can be released for the next stroke of the hydraulic breaker. Thus, there is little loss of energy, and the efficiency of the impact system can be increased by 5 %. The absorption effect of the hydraulic anti-rebound cushion increases the service life of breaker components by up to twice as long as in the current breaker. A dynamic model and a motion equation of the anti-rebound cushion device are presented, and the optimum frequency and damping ratio are obtained, providing optimum design parameters for the anti-rebound cushion device.

  7. Testing the stress-gradient hypothesis at the roof of the world: effects of the cushion plant Thylacospermum caespitosum on species assemblages.

    Miroslav Dvorský

    Full Text Available Many cushion plants ameliorate the harsh environment they inhabit in alpine ecosystems and act as nurse plants, with significantly more species growing within their canopy than outside. These facilitative interactions seem to increase with the abiotic stress, thus supporting the stress-gradient hypothesis. We tested this prediction by exploring the association pattern of vascular plants with the dominant cushion plant Thylacospermum caespitosum (Caryophyllaceae in the arid Trans-Himalaya, where vascular plants occur at one of the highest worldwide elevational limits. We compared plant composition between 1112 pair-plots placed both inside cushions and in surrounding open areas, in communities from cold steppes to subnival zones along two elevational gradients (East Karakoram: 4850-5250 m and Little Tibet: 5350-5850 m. We used PERMANOVA to assess differences in species composition, Friedman-based permutation tests to determine individual species habitat preferences, species-area curves to assess whether interactions are size-dependent and competitive intensity and importance indices to evaluate plant-plant interactions. No indications for net facilitation were found along the elevation gradients. The open areas were not only richer in species, but not a single species preferred to grow exclusively inside cushions, while 39-60% of 56 species detected had a significant preference for the habitat outside cushions. Across the entire elevation range of T. caespitosum, the number and abundance of species were greater outside cushions, suggesting that competitive rather than facilitative interactions prevail. This was supported by lower soil nutrient contents inside cushions, indicating a resource preemption, and little thermal amelioration at the extreme end of the elevational gradient. We attribute the negative associations to competition for limited resources, a strong environmental filter in arid high-mountain environment selecting the stress

  8. Comparative biomechanical evaluation of different wheelchair seat cushions.

    Ferrarin, M; Andreoni, G; Pedotti, A


    The aim of the present study was to perform a comparative biomechanical analysis of four antidecubitus wheelchair cushions. Thirty wheelchair users were considered divided into three groups: paraplegic subjects (with no cutaneous sensation), neurologic subjects (with intact cutaneous sensation), and elderly subjects. The biomechanical evaluation was performed using a piezoresistive sensor matrix system to quantify parameters referred to pressure distribution, seating surface and posture. Dedicated software was developed for the automatic elaboration of the raw data and the computation of the parameters of interest. Differences among cushion types and subject groups were analyzed. An analysis of time-transient behaviors was also performed. Results showed that no significant differences in pressure peak reduction were found among the four cushions. Moreover, no time-transient behavior was shown by any cushions. However, both the location of pressure peaks and posture were dependent on cushion types. Comparison of the three subject groups showed that elderly subjects had the highest mean pressure and the lowest contact surface, while paraplegics presented the highest pressure peaks. This procedure appears indicated for individualizing the prescription of a wheelchair cushion and even for customizing a cushion to induce a specific posture.

  9. Air cushion vehicles for arctic operation

    Koleser, J.; Lavis, D. R.


    Attention is given to the results of the NAVSEA FY85 Surface Ship Concept Formulation Design Study for an initial operational capability year-2000 air cushion vehicle (ACV) suitable for logistics and general search/rescue duties in the Arctic. Two designs were developed during the study; the first utilized an ACV design synthesis math model while the second evolved as a derivative of an existing U.S. production craft. Both are regarded as feasible from an engineering and naval architectural standpoint. Results of performance and cost trade-off studies suggest that, for an Arctic ACV, gas turbines are the preferred power plant choice and an aluminum alloy is the preferred hull structural material choice. The most appropriate skirt height is approximately 12 ft.

  10. Geographical variation and the determinants of domestic endotoxin levels in mattress dust in Europe

    Chen, C.M.; Thiering, E.; Doekes, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070079803; Zock, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/095184309; Bakolis, I.; Norbäck, D.; Sunyer, J.; Villani, S.; Verlato, G.; Täubel, M.; Jarvis, D.


    Endotoxin exposures have manifold effects on human health. The geographical variation and determinants of domestic endotoxin levels in Europe have not yet been extensively described. To investigate the geographical variation and determinants of domestic endotoxin concentrations in mattress dust in

  11. A Study to Investigate the Sleeping Comfort of Mattress using Finite Element Method

    Yoshida, Hiroaki; Kamijo, Masayoshi; Shimizu, Yoshio

    Sleep is an essential physiological activity for human beings and many studies have so far investigated sleeping comfort of mattresses. The appropriate measurement of stress distribution within the human body would provide valuable information to us. For the appropriate measurement to estimate stress distribution within the human body, numerical analysis is considered one of the most desirable techniques, and Finite Element Method (FEM), which is widely accepted as a useful numerical technique, was utilized in this study. Since human body dimensions have individual differences, however, it is presumed that the way of the internal stress distribution also changes due to the differences and that the mattress preference varies among different body forms. Thus, we developed three human FEM models reproducing the body forms of three types of male subjects, and investigated the sleeping comfort of mattress based on the relationship between FEM analysis findings and sensory testing results. In comparison with the results of both FEM analysis and sensory testing in the neck region, we found, the sensory testing results corresponded to the FEM analysis findings, and it was possible to estimate subjects' preferences of mattress and comfort in the neck region using the FEM analysis. In this study, we believe, the FEM analysis managed to quantify the subjects' preferences for mattress and to prove itself that it is the valuable tools to examine the sleeping comfort of mattress.

  12. Proceedings of the 1994 CACTS conference on air cushion technology

    Laframboise, J.E. [ed.


    The conference held by the Canadian Air Cushion Technology Society (CACTS) was attended by 56 specialists in the field from around the world. CACTS is devoted to the development and application of air cushion technology, primarily in the transportation domain, but also in industry and other fields where the technology may be of benefit. Some uses for the technology include rescue operations in natural disasters such as flooding and oil spill clean up operations in coastal waters. A total of 20 papers were presented at this meeting. Subjects included air cushion spray booms, amphibious transporters in oil spill events, unconventional propulsion systems for air cushion vehicles, ride control systems, and high-speed hovercraft design. Refs., tabs., figs.

  13. Multi-method investigation of cushion peatlands (

    Forbriger, M.; Schittek, K.; Höfle, B.; Siart, C.; Eitel, B.


    This study presents a multi-method and multi-proxy approach for palaeonvironmental investigations in the western andean cordillera of southern Peru (Lucanas province, 14° S) using cushion peatlands as terrestrial geoarchives. The region stretching between the Altiplano and the Peruvian desert in the lowland shares a long term settlement history, in which local cultures adapted to climate change in many different ways. Being one of the most outstanding human remains, the abri below Cerro Llamoca, 4.450 m a.s.l. in the uppermost ranges of the Llamoca peatland catchment area further reveals an occupation history of almost 10.000 years, as revealed by latest archaeological investigations. In remote and highly elevated regions such as the central Andes, cushion peatlands basically represent the only high resolution terrestrial archives suitable for geoarchaeological and palaeoenvironmental studies. Characterized by high accumulation rates, they ideally document environmental changes, particularly at small time intervals. Within the multidisciplinary project 'Andean Transect - Climate Sensitivity of pre-Columbian Man-Environment-Systems' several sediment cores with depths up to 11.5 m b.s. were recovered from the Llamoca peatland. Based on almost 100 AMS 14C-datings they provide a chronology of 8000 years and, thus, offer profound insights into climatic and environmental changes in the study area. While nearly homogeneous peat layers record stable environmental conditions, the heterogeneous granulometric composition of intercalated sediment layers documents several periods of intense geomorphodynamic activity. Due to high resolution geochemical analyses of peat layers (1 cm interval; humification degree, CNS measurements, XRF-scanning), the existence of slight and short-term trends of landscape development during these phases can be identified. Additional pollen, charred particles and plant macrofossil analyses confirm these findings and help reconstructing local

  14. Sonographic appearance of anal cushions of hemorrhoids

    Aimaiti, Adilijiang; A Ba Bai Ke Re, Ma Mu Ti Jiang; Ibrahim, Irshat; Chen, Hui; Tuerdi, Maimaitituerxun; Mayinuer


    AIM To evaluate the diagnostic value of different sonographic methods in hemorrhoids. METHODS Forty-two healthy volunteers and sixty-two patients with grades I-IV hemorrhoids received two different sonographic examinations from January 2013 to January 2016 at the First and Second Hospitals of Xinjiang Medical University in a prospective way. We analyzed the ultrasonographic findings of these participants and evaluated the outcomes. Resected grades III and IV hemorrhoid tissues were pathologically examined. The concordance of ultrasonographic results with pathology results was assessed with the Cohen’s kappa coefficient. RESULTS All healthy volunteers and all patients had no particular complications related to sonography. There were no statistically significant differences between the participants regarding age (P = 0.5919), gender (P = 0.4183), and persistent symptoms (P > 0.8692). All healthy control participants had no special findings. However, 30 patients with hemorrhoids showed blood signals around the dentate line on ultrasonography. When grades I and II hemorrhoids were analyzed, there were no significant differences between transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), transperianal ultrasound (TPUS), and transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) (P > 0.05). Grades III and IV hemorrhoids revealed blood flow with different directions which could be observed as a “mosaic pattern”. In patients with grades III and IV hemorrhoids, the number of patients with “mosaic pattern” as revealed by TRUS, TPUS and TVUS was 22, 12, and 4, respectively. Patients with grades III and IV disease presented with a pathologically abnormal cushion which usually appeared as a “mosaic pattern” in TPUS and an arteriovenous fistula in pathology. Subepithelial vessels of resected grades III and IV hemorrhoid tissues were manifested by obvious structural impairment and retrograde and ruptured changes of internal elastic lamina. Some parts of the Trietz’s muscle showed hypertrophy and distortion

  15. Does a foamy-block mattress system prevent pressure sores ? A prospective randomised clinical trial in 1729 patients.

    Berthe, J V; Bustillo, A; Mélot, C; de Fontaine, S


    Pressure ulcers are a frequent complication of bed rest. The development of an efficient and low cost pressure relieving system for the prevention of bed-sores would be of considerable hospital health and economic interest. Our study was designed to determine the effectiveness in pressure-sore prevention of an interface pressure-decreasing mattress, the Kliniplot mattress, used in our institution since 1978. In a prospective randomised controlled 7-month clinical trial we compared the Kliniplot mattress with our standard hospital mattress in 1729 patients admitted to medical and surgical departments (neurology, cardiology, oncology-haematology, neurosurgery, thoracic surgery and orthopaedic surgery). Two groups (Klinipot mattress and standard hospital mattress) were monitored for the prevention of pressure sores. The patients were evaluated on a daily basis from their admission until the eventual occurrence of a bed-sore. Patients' characteristics and pressure-sore risk factors were similar at the baseline in both groups. Patients presenting with a pressure sore at the time of admission were excluded. Forty-two of the 1729 patients (2.4%) who entered the study developed at least one pressure sore. Twenty-one of the 657 patients (3.2%) nursed on the Kliniplot mattress, and 21 of the 1072 patients (1.9%) on the standard mattress developed bed-sores (p = 0.154). The median time for the occurrence of pressure sores was 31 days (range 6-87) with the Kliniplot mattress and 18 days (range 2 to 38) with the standard mattress (p sores using the modified Ek's scale were no different at the baseline between both groups (p = 0.764). The severity of the pressure sores was no different between both groups (p = 0.918). Our results show that the occurrence of pressure sores is not reduced but is delayed when patients are nursed on a Kliniplot pressure-decreasing mattress.

  16. Simulation of temperature and humidity in mattresses to evaluate risks on house dust mite allergy

    Van Ginkel, J.T. [OTB Research Inst. for Housing, Urban and Mobility Studies, Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Sustainable and Healthy Housing


    Mattresses and carpets in bedrooms are the main habitats of house dust mites in thermally well-insulated homes. The major source of allergens are the feces of house mites which feed on human skin scales and which extract vapour from the air by hygroscopic secretion. The critical equilibrium humidity (CEH) is the relative humidity at which the rate of water loss is equal to the rate of water uptake. House dust mites live in human habitats where the relative humidity is greater than the CEH. This paper presents a newly developed simulation model which shows the transient and spatial distribution of temperature and humidity levels in a mattress influenced by skin scales and ambient conditions. It was developed in an attempt to reduce risks on house dust mite allergy from mattresses and carpets. Preliminary results indicate that transmission of water vapour occurs much faster than the transmission of heat. It was suggested that a spring mattress has a lower risk for growth of house mites than a foam mattress. 21 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  17. House dust mites and their allergens in Danish mattresses -- results from a population based study

    Sidenius, Kirsten E; Hallas, Thorkil E; Poulsen, Lars K.


    The purpose of this study was to identify the level of house dust mites (HDMs) and their allergens in mattresses, not selected on their owners atopic status, and to find associated factors. Dust was collected from 68 mattresses. The recruitment was population-based and conducted during the screen......The purpose of this study was to identify the level of house dust mites (HDMs) and their allergens in mattresses, not selected on their owners atopic status, and to find associated factors. Dust was collected from 68 mattresses. The recruitment was population-based and conducted during...... the screening phase of a HDM intervention study. The visited persons declared to have had a "cold" bedroom the previous winter. HDMs were counted and dust was analysed by ELISA for Der 1 (= Der f 1+ Der p 1+ Der m 1). Multiple regression analysis was carried out to find housing conditions associated with high...... HDM levels. Type of housing, mattress age and self-assessed winter bedroom-temperature explained 47% of Der 1. Median concentrations were 3.77 microg Der 1/g and 1 HDM/0.1 g dust. Both immunochemically and microscopically Dermatophagoides farinae was dominant; D. pteronyssinus less frequent...

  18. Determination of turnover and cushion gas volume of a prospected gas storage reservoir under uncertainty

    Gubik, A. [RAG-AG Wien (Austria); Baffoe, J.; Schulze-Riegert, R. [SPT Group GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)


    Gas storages define a key contribution for building a reliable gas supply chain from production to consumers. In a competitive gas market with short reaction times to seasonal and other gas injection and extraction requirements, gas storages also receive a strong focus on availability and precise prediction estimates for future operation scenarios. Reservoir management workflows are increasingly built on reservoir simulation support for optimizing production schemes and estimating the impact of subsurface uncertainties on field development scenarios. Simulation models for gas storages are calibrated to geological data and accurate reproduction of historical production data are defined as a prerequisite for reliable production and performance forecasts. The underlying model validation process is called history matching, which potentially generates alternative simulation models due to prevailing geological uncertainties. In the past, a single basecase reference model was used to predict production capacities of a gas storage. The working gas volume was precisely defined over a contracted plateau delivery and the required cushion gas volume maintains the reservoir pressure during the operation. Cushion and working gas Volume are strongly dependent on reservoir parameters. In this work an existing depleted gas reservoir and the operation target as a gas storage is described. Key input data to the reservoir model description and simulation is reviewed including production history and geological uncertainties based on large well spacing, limited core and well data and a limited seismic resolution. Target delivery scenarios of the prospected gas storage are evaluated under uncertainty. As one key objective, optimal working gas and cushion gas volumes are described in a probabilistic context reflecting geological uncertainties. Several work steps are defined and included in an integrated workflow design. Equiprobable geological models are generated and evaluated based on

  19. Research of Contact Stresses between Seat Cushion and Human Body

    Pervan Stjepan


    Full Text Available Design optimization of seat cushions is associated with the need to investigate their softness using, for this purpose, various kinds of loading pads. The aim of the investigation was: to determine seat cushion stiffness of a chair selected from a set of dining-room furniture, to determine values and distributions of contact strains on the seat surface caused by loading pad of different hardness, numerical calculation of contact strains between the seat cushion and the loading pad and to verify the results of these calculations with the results of laboratory experiments. The performed tests showed that the assessment of the seat cushion stiffness and the evaluation of contact stresses on their surface should be carried out using an equally stiff loading pad. In numerical calculations, polyurethane foams should be modeled as hyperfoam bodies of σ=f(ε characteristics determined in an axial compression test. Contact stresses between the seat cushion and the user’s body should be reduced as a result of application of a frictionless connection of thin layers of polyurethane foams with foam forming the proper elastic layer of the seat.

  20. Isocyanate emissions from pyrolysis of mattresses containing polyurethane foam.

    Garrido, María A; Gerecke, Andreas C; Heeb, Norbert; Font, Rafael; Conesa, Juan A


    This study examined the emissions of powerful asthmatic agents called isocyanates from small-scale pyrolysis experiments of two common foams employed in mattress production such as flexible polyurethane foam (FPUF) and viscoelastic memory foam (VMF). A nitrogen atmosphere and five different temperatures, 300, 350, 400, 450 and 850 °C, were selected to carry out the experiments in order to evaluate the worst possible conditions for thermal degradation. A similar trend for both materials was found. At lower temperatures, diisocyanates were the most important products whereas at 850 °C monoisocyanates, and mainly isocyanic acid released mainly from the thermal cracking of diisocyanates evolved directly from the polymer chains. The total yields of isocyanates were in the range of 1.43-11.95 mg/m(3) for FPUF at 300-850 °C and 0.05-6.13 mg/m(3) for VMF, 300-850 °C. This difference could be a consequence of the lower amount of isocyanates employed in the VMF production which was confirmed by the nitrogen content of the foams, 5.95% FPUF vs. 3.34% in VMF. Additionally, a qualitative search for so far unknown isocyanates was performed in samples from the pyrolysis of FPUF at 300, 400 and 850 °C. It was confirmed that six different aminoisocyanates at 300 °C were evolved, whereas at 400 and 850 °C only five of them were detected. The general trend observed was a decrease of the aminoisocyanate levels with increasing pyrolysis temperature.

  1. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1633 - Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane 8 Figure 8 to Part 1633 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION.... 8 Figure 8 to Part 1633—Jig for Setting Mattresses and Foundation Sides in Same Plane ER15MR06.007...

  2. A study of the behaviour of and the forces in a bed protecting mattress: the falling apron

    Vrijling, J.K.; Ravenstijn, P.


    In many cases the bottom around a structure that is exposed to current has to be protected by a mattress. The purpose of the mattress is to protect the soil besides the structure from erosion and scour, thus preserving the strength of the foundation of the structure. Examples are the bottom protecti



    Experimental and numerical studies of air-cushion-cascade were conducted and described. The SIMPLE algorithm combined with the normal k-ε turbulence model was adopted to simulate the air-phase flow. The experiment was carried out an IFA 300 anemometer. The flow field was measured for different ratios of main-stream velocity to jet velocity, different numbers of gaps and a couple of gap widths. The contur of the air-cushion was obtained, and the numerical calculations gave a closed-form result. The results show that the air-cushion thickness would increase with the increase of the jet volcoity, gap width and gap number mainly determined by the jet in the former half cascade. The possibility to achieve anti-erosion by the turbulent jet was examined and confirmed.

  4. Bedding on geotextile mattresses: how much is needed to improve cow comfort?

    Tucker, C B; Weary, D M


    The objective of our study was to evaluate how the amount of sawdust bedding on mattresses affects dairy cattle behavior and preferences. Eleven nonlactating, multiparous cows were housed individually in pens with access to 3 free stalls. Each stall was fitted with a geotextile mattress covered with either 0, 1, or 7.5 kg of kiln-dried sawdust. The experiment began with 7 d of acclimatization to all 3 stalls. Cows were then allowed access to only 1 of the 3 stalls at a time, each for 3 d (restriction phase). At the end of this restriction phase, cows were allowed free access to all 3 stalls for 3 d (free-choice phase). Time spent lying and the number of lying bouts increased significantly with the amount of bedding, from 12.3 +/- 0.53 h lying and 8.5 +/- 0.62 bouts per 24 h on bare mattresses to 13.8 +/- 0.53 h lying and 10.0 +/- 0.62 bouts per 24 h on mattresses with 7.5 kg of sawdust. In addition, the animals spent less time standing with only the front hooves in the stalls when more sawdust was present. When allowed free access to all 3 options, all 11 animals spent a majority of their time lying and standing in the 7.5-kg option. In conclusion, cows preferred mattresses bedded with 7.5 kg of sawdust, on which they spent more time lying down and less time standing with only the front hooves in stalls. These results indicate that more sawdust bedding improves cow comfort in stalls with geotextile mattresses.

  5. Evaluation of free-stall mattress bedding treatments to reduce mastitis bacterial growth

    Kristula, M.A.; Dou, Z.; Toth, J.D.; Smith, B.I.; Harvey, N.; Sabo, M. [University of Penn, Kennett Square, PA (United States)


    Bacterial counts were compared in free-stall mattresses and teat ends exposed to 5 treatments in a factorial study design on 1 dairy farm. Mattresses in five 30-cow groups were subjected to 1 of 5 bedding treatments every other day: 0.5 kg of hydrated limestone, 120 mL of commercial acidic conditioner, 1 kg of coal fly ash, 1 kg of kiln-dried wood shavings, and control (no bedding). Counts of coliforms, Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus spp. were lowest on mattresses bedded with lime. Mattresses bedded with the commercial acidic conditioner had the next lowest counts for coliforms, Klebsiella spp., and Streptococcus spp. Wood shavings and the no-bedding control had the highest counts for coliform and Klebsiella spp. Compared with wood shavings or control, fly ash reduced the counts of coliforms, whereas for the other 3 bacterial groups, the reduction was not always significant. Streptococcus spp. counts were greatest in the control group and did not differ among the shavings and fly ash groups. Teat swab results indicated that hydrated lime was the only bedding treatment that significantly decreased the counts of both coliforms and Klebsiella spp. There were no differences in Streptococcus spp. numbers on the teats between any of the bedding treatments. Bacterial populations grew steadily on mattresses and were generally higher at 36 to 48 h than at 12 to 24 h, whereas bacterial populations on teats grew rapidly by 12 h and then remained constant. Hydrated lime was the only treatment that significantly reduced bacterial counts on both mattresses and teat ends, but it caused some skin irritation.

  6. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla


    BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate whether mattress and pillow encasings resulted in an effective long-term control of HDM...... allergen levels, thereby reducing the need for asthma medication in children with asthma and HDM allergy. METHODS: In a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study 60 children (age range, 6-15 years) with asthma and HDM allergy were randomized to active (allergy control) or placebo mattress...... children with asthma and HDM allergy....

  7. The Effects of Inflated Seating Cushions on Engagement in Preschool Circle Time

    Seifert, Anna M.; Metz, Alexia E.


    Inflatable balls and cushions made of non-latex rubber can provide alternatives to sitting on the floor/ground or classroom chairs. This study tested the effect of inflatable cushions (wiggle cushions) placed on the floor for seating during circle time in typical preschool classrooms. The effect on attention was tested using alternating periods of…

  8. Developments in skirt systems for air cushion vehicles

    Inch, Peter; Prentice, Mark E.; Lewis, Carol Jean

    The present evaluation of the development status of air-cushion vehicle (ACV) skirts emphasizes the materials employed, with a view to the formulation of materials-performance requirements for next-generation AVCs and, in particular, an 'air-cushion catamaran' surface-effect ship (SES). Attention is given to novel skirt-design features which furnish substantial savings in maintenance costs. The employment of extant test rig data and the use of CAD methods are discussed, and the features of a novel system for the direct fixing of a bow finger onto an SES structure are noted.

  9. Optimization of Aircraft Seat Cushion Fire Blocking Layers.



  10. Posture Detection Based on Smart Cushion for Wheelchair Users

    Congcong Ma


    Full Text Available The postures of wheelchair users can reveal their sitting habit, mood, and even predict health risks such as pressure ulcers or lower back pain. Mining the hidden information of the postures can reveal their wellness and general health conditions. In this paper, a cushion-based posture recognition system is used to process pressure sensor signals for the detection of user’s posture in the wheelchair. The proposed posture detection method is composed of three main steps: data level classification for posture detection, backward selection of sensor configuration, and recognition results compared with previous literature. Five supervised classification techniques—Decision Tree (J48, Support Vector Machines (SVM, Multilayer Perceptron (MLP, Naive Bayes, and k-Nearest Neighbor (k-NN—are compared in terms of classification accuracy, precision, recall, and F-measure. Results indicate that the J48 classifier provides the highest accuracy compared to other techniques. The backward selection method was used to determine the best sensor deployment configuration of the wheelchair. Several kinds of pressure sensor deployments are compared and our new method of deployment is shown to better detect postures of the wheelchair users. Performance analysis also took into account the Body Mass Index (BMI, useful for evaluating the robustness of the method across individual physical differences. Results show that our proposed sensor deployment is effective, achieving 99.47% posture recognition accuracy. Our proposed method is very competitive for posture recognition and robust in comparison with other former research. Accurate posture detection represents a fundamental basic block to develop several applications, including fatigue estimation and activity level assessment.

  11. Simulation study of plane motion of air cushion vehicle

    ZHAO Shu-qin; SHI Xiao-cheng; SHI Yi-long; BIAN Xin-qian


    This research is on horizontal plane motion equations of Air Cushion Vehicle (ACV) and its simulation. To investigate this, a lot of simulation study including ACV's voyage and turning performance has been done. It was found that the voyage simulation results were accorded with ACV own characteristic and turning simulation results were accorded with USA ACV's movement characteristic basically.

  12. Simulation study of plane motion of air cushion vehicle

    Zhao, Shu-Qin; Shi, Xiao-Cheng; Shi, Yi-Long; Bian, Xin-Qian


    This research is on horizontal plane motion equations of Air Cushion Vehicle (ACV) and its simulation. To investigate this, a lot of simulation study including ACV’s voyage and turning performance has been done. It was found that the voyage simulation results were accorded with ACV own characteristic and turning simulation results were accorded with USA ACV’s movement characteristic basically.

  13. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla


    BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate whether mattress and pillow encasings resulted in an effective long-term control of H...

  14. Geographical variation and the determinants of domestic endotoxin levels in mattress dust in Europe

    Chen, C.M.; Thiering, E.; Doekes, G.; Zock, J.P.; Bakolis, I.; Norbäck, D.; Sunyer, J.; Villani, S.; Verlato, G.; Täubel, M.; Jarvis, D.


    Endotoxin exposures have manifold effects on human health. The geographical variation and determinants of domestic endotoxin levels in Europe have not yet been extensively described. To investigate the geographical variation and determinants of domestic endotoxin concentrations in mattress dust in E

  15. A survey of wheelchair use by paraplegic individuals in Japan. Part 1: Characteristics of wheelchair cushions.

    Sumiya, T; Kawamura, K; Tokuhiro, A; Takechi, H; Ogata, H


    The characteristics of wheelchair cushions used by 218 paraplegic patients who lived independent lives were surveyed to clarify the present state of wheelchair cushioning for pressure sore prevention in Japan. Out of 586 cushions surveyed, 91.0% were ready-made and the rest were custom-made. The outstanding popularity of polyurethane foam ready-made cushions (76.3%) suggested that insufficient consideration was taken in the selection of cushions. Custom-made cushions displayed unique modifications to relieve contact pressure or to stabilize sitting posture, which should be systematically provided for all patients. The variety of cushion types and the frequent dissatisfaction with cushions seen in patients with current pressure sores suggested a strong demand for the effective prescription of cushions. Furthermore, 30% of all cushions had had an excessively prolonged use, indicating insufficient follow-up. A medical system including deliberate prescription and regular follow-up of wheelchair cushions should be established for the effective prevention of pressure sores.

  16. Moss cushions facilitate water and nutrient supply for plant species on bare limestone pavements

    Jensen, Kaj Sand; Hammer, Kathrine


    Dense moss cushions of different size are distributed across the bare limestone pavements on Øland, SE Sweden. Increasing cushion size is predicted to physically protect and improve performance and colonization by vascular plants. Therefore, we tested water balance, phosphorus supply, and species...... richness, and evaluated duration of plant activity during desiccation as a function of ground area, for a large collection of moss cushions. We found that lower evaporation and higher water storage contributed equally to extending the desiccation period with increasing cushion size. Evaporation rates...... under stagnant conditions. One moss species was added to the species pool for every nine-fold increase in cushion area. Vascular plants were absent from the smallest cushions, whereas one or two species, on average, appeared in 375- and 8,500-cm(2) cushions with water available for 6 and 10 days during...

  17. The primary factor for suture configuration at rotator cuff repair: Width of mattress or distance from tear edge

    Onur Hapa


    Conclusion: Bite size from the edge of the tendon seems to be more important than the width of the mattress. The curve of the suture passing device may also have an effect on the strength of the suture tendon interface.

  18. ICU intensive care unit application effect analysis of air-cushion pressure ulcers prevention%ICU重症监护病房应用防压疮气垫的效果分析



    目的:探讨ICU重症监护病房应用防压疮气垫的护理效果。方法:将我院重症监护室发生压疮的高危患者40例随机分为观察组和对照组各20例,观察组给予防压疮气垫护理,对照组未采用防压疮气垫防护措施,比较两组的压疮发生率。结果:对照组患者的压疮发生率显著高于观察组,两组比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:防压疮气垫能显著降低患者的压疮发生率,是ICU防治高危压疮的有效措施之一。%Objective:To discuss the ICU intensive care unit using the nursing effect of preventing pressure ulcers mattress. Methods:to the intensive care unit 40 patients with higher risk of pressure ulcers were randomly divided into observation group and control group 20 cases, observation group was given care in the air-cushion pressure ulcers, adopt protective measures preventing pressure ulcers air cushion, the control group to compare two groups the incidence of pressure ulcers. Results:the observation group is significantly higher than the control group, the incidence of pressure ulcers in patients with two groups of comparison, the difference statistically significant(P<0.05). Conclusion:for patients with pressure ulcers prevention air cushion bed can significantly reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers, ICU is one of the effective measures of prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers in high-risk patients.

  19. Gas cushion control of OVJP print head position

    Forrest, Stephen R


    An OVJP apparatus and method for applying organic vapor or other flowable material to a substrate using a printing head mechanism in which the print head spacing from the substrate is controllable using a cushion of air or other gas applied between the print head and substrate. The print head is mounted for translational movement towards and away from the substrate and is biased toward the substrate by springs or other means. A gas cushion feed assembly supplies a gas under pressure between the print head and substrate which opposes the biasing of the print head toward the substrate so as to form a space between the print head and substrate. By controlling the pressure of gas supplied, the print head separation from the substrate can be precisely controlled.

  20. Effect of air conditioning and chair cushion on scrotal temperature.

    Song, Gook-Sup; Kim, Wonwoo; Seo, Ju Tae


    The hypothesis of this study is that the air conditioning temperature and thickness of the chair cushion affect a man's scrotal, and consequently testicular, temperature. Ten healthy male subjects volunteered for the study (age: 23.4 +/- 2.4 years; height: 173.8 +/- 5.09 cm; weight: 71.6 +/- 9.7 kg; body fat ratio: 18.6 +/- 4.1%). The air conditioning temperature was controlled at 18 degrees C to represent the heating season, and at 26 degrees C to represent the cooling season. The thickness of the chair cushions was varied from 0 to 8 cm at 2 cm intervals. The changes in the scrotal surface temperature (SST) and buttock skin temperature were measured for 120 min. At the ambient temperatures (t(a)) of 18 and 26 degrees C, the average SST were 33.76 +/- 1.28 and 35.02 +/- 0.54 degrees C for the chair cushion thickness (C(thk)) of 0 cm, 33.87 +/- 1.07 and 34.96 +/- 0.75 degrees C for C(thk) 2 cm, 33.91 +/- 0.84 and 35.03 +/- 0.85 degrees C for C(thk) 4 cm, 34.42 +/- 0.89 and 35.02 +/- 0.63 degrees C for C(thk) 6 cm, and 34.65 +/- 1.21 and 34.99 +/- 0.62 degrees C for C(thk) 8 cm respectively. SST was significantly affected by the air conditioning temperature (p < 0.001), but was not statistically correlated with the chair cushion thickness.

  1. SESAME Equations of State for Stress Cushion and Related Materials

    Coe, Joshua Damon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    I examine LANL equations of state (EOS) for stress cushion and related materials, namely S5370, SX358, and Sylgard 184. In the the rst two cases, the SESAME library contains entries for both the inert (unreacted) and decomposition products. I compare inert EOS results with ambient property measurements to the extent possible, then I check the compositions used to build the products tables. I plot the predicted Hugoniots alongside the available shock data, then draw some conclusions.

  2. Air cushion furnace technology for heat treatment of high quality aluminum alloy auto body sheet

    Li Yong; Wang Zhaodong; Ma Mingtu; Wang Guodong; Fu Tianliang; Li Jiadong; Liang Xiong


    The process characteristics of heat treatment of aluminum alloy auto body sheet and the working prin-ciple of air cushion furnace were introduced. The process position and irreplaceable role of air cushion furnace in the aluminum alloy auto body sheet production was pointed out after the difficulty and key points in the whole production process of auto body sheet were studied. Then the development process of air cushion furnace line of aluminum alloy sheet was reviewed,summarized and divided to two stages. Based on the research of air cushion furnace,the key technology of it was analyzed,then the key points on process,equipment and control models of air cushion furnace for aluminum alloy auto body sheet in future were put forward. With the rapid de-velopment of automotive industry,there will be certainly a new upsurge of research and application of air cush-ion furnace for heat treatment of aluminum alloy auto body sheet.

  3. A randomized trial of exothermic mattresses for preterm newborns in polyethylene bags.

    McCarthy, Lisa K


    Hypothermia on admission to the NICU is associated with increased mortality in preterm infants. Many newborns are hypothermic on admission despite using polyethylene bags (PBs). Using exothermic mattresses (EMs) in addition to PBs may reduce hypothermia but increase hyperthermia. We wished to determine whether placing preterm newborns in PBs on EMs in the DR results in more infants with rectal temperature outside the range 36.5 to 37.5°C on NICU admission.

  4. Short communication: Genetic characterization of digital cushion thickness.

    Oikonomou, G; Banos, G; Machado, V; Caixeta, L; Bicalho, R C


    Dairy cow lameness is a serious animal welfare issue. It is also a significant cause of economic losses, reducing reproductive efficiency and milk production and increasing culling rates. The digital cushion is a complex structure composed mostly of adipose tissue located underneath the distal phalanx and has recently been phenotypically associated with incidence of claw horn disruption lesions (CHDL); namely, sole ulcers and white line disease. The objective of this study was to characterize digital cushion thickness genetically and to investigate its association with body condition score (BCS), locomotion score (LOCO), CHDL, and milk production. Data were collected from 1 large closely monitored commercial dairy farm located in upstate New York; 923 dairy cows were used. Before trimming, the following data were collected by a member of the research team: BCS, cow height measurement, and LOCO. Presence or not of CHDL (sole ulcer or white line disease, or both) was recorded at trimming. Immediately after the cows were hoof trimmed, they underwent digital sonographic B-mode examination for the measurement of digital cushion thickness. Factors such as parity number, stage of lactation, calving date, mature-equivalent 305-d milk yield (ME305MY), and pedigree information were obtained from the farm's dairy management software (DairyCOMP 305; Valley Agricultural Software, Tulare, CA). Univariate animal models were used to obtain variance component estimations for each studied trait (CHDL, BCS, digital cushion thickness average, LOCO, height, and ME305MY) and a 6-variate analysis was conducted to estimate the genetic, residual, and phenotypic correlations between the studied traits. The heritability estimate of DCTA was 0.33±0.09, whereas a statistically significant genetic correlation was estimated between DCTA and CHDL (-0.60±0.29). Of the other genetic correlations, significant estimates were derived for BCS with LOCO (-0.49±0.19) and ME305MY (-0.48±0.20). Digital

  5. An Enhanced Sensing Application Based on a Flexible Projected Capacitive-Sensing Mattress

    Wen-Ying Chang


    Full Text Available This paper presents a cost-effective sensor system for mattresses that can classify the sleeping posture of an individual and prevent pressure ulcers. This system applies projected capacitive sensing to the field of health care. The charge time (CT method was used to sensitively and accurately measure the capacitance of the projected electrodes. The required characteristics of the projected capacitor were identified to develop large-area applications for sensory mattresses. The area of the electrodes, the use of shielding, and the increased length of the transmission line were calibrated to more accurately measure the capacitance of the electrodes in large-size applications. To offer the users comfort in the prone position, a flexible substrate was selected and covered with 16 × 20 electrodes. Compared with the static charge sensitive bed (SCSB, our proposed system-flexible projected capacitive-sensing mattress (FPCSM comes with more electrodes to increase the resolution of posture identification. As for the body pressure system (BPS, the FPCSM has advantages such as lower cost, higher aging-resistance capability, and the ability to sense the capacitance of the covered regions without physical contact. The proposed guard ring design effectively absorbs the noise and interrupts leakage paths. The projected capacitive electrode is suitable for proximity-sensing applications and succeeds at quickly recognizing the sleeping pattern of the user.

  6. Sterilization using ozone-ion gas sterilization using ozone-ion gas for mattresses used by the elderly; Ozone ion kunjoho ni kansuru kenkyu. Ozone ion kunjoho no zaitaku kaigoyo mattress mekkin eno oyo

    Mikami, H.; Suzuki, A.; Hamasaki, H. [Shinryo Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Ishikawa, S.; Miyata, M.; Nanba, T. [Kitasato Univ., Tokyo (Japan); Sueyoshi, K. [Mitsubishi Research Institute Inc., Tokyo (Japan)


    The new generation of Japanese is facing an aging society: the number of young people is decreasing dramatically, while the number of elderly is increasing. Consequently, care for the elderly has become a big problem. One particular problem area we`ve investigated is the use of unclean mattresses by the bedridden elderly. These mattresses provide an all too excellent environments for the growth of microbes. We measured the density of microbes on the cover of mattresses at 775cfu/cm{sup 2} and in the bed filling at 136cfu/g. The dominant species of microbes were MRSA and Bacillus. We used MRSA, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli as biological indicators and tested whether our system using ozone-ion fumigants was applicable for sterilization of mattresses. The survival ratio of MRSA were 10{sup -8} {approx} 10{sup -9}, 10{sup -7} {approx} 10{sup -8} for B. subtilis and below 10{sup -8} for E. coli. These experiments made it clear that our system is applicable for sterilization of the mattresses used by bedfast elderly. (author)

  7. Thirty years of research and development of air cushion vehicles

    Bertelsen, William R.

    This paper describes the conception of the air cushion vehicle (ACV) from experiments with the ground effect of a VTOL aircraft model. Then it describes the evolution of the ultimate ACV drive system through building and testing many models and 16 full-scale ACV to arrive at complete controllability. Adequate control of the frictionless craft, which are without inherent yaw stability, requires control force of the order of magnitude of propulsion. The derived gimbal fans provide such control force in the form of direct thrust, which is instantly available in any of 360 degrees, meterable, instantly cancelable, and reversible.

  8. Creating new cities through the large air-cushion vehicle.

    Anderson, J. L.; Finnegan, P. M.


    The air-cushion vehicle (ACV) can travel over concrete roads, grass, sand, mud, swamp, snow, ice, and water. This mobility makes possible a totally new geographical freedom in choosing transportation routes, locating ports, and laying out a city. By the 1980s fleets of large ACV freighters could begin carrying ocean-going cargo. The mobility of an ACV fleet would allow placing hoverports away from areas now crowded. New cities could rise along shallow or reef-bound seacoasts and rivers, just as cities once rose around deep-water seaports.

  9. Northwest passage: Trade route for large air cushion vehicles

    Anderson, J. L.


    A conceptual vehicle and powerplant (10,000-ton) nuclear-powered air-cushion vehicle (ACV) that could open the Northwest Passage and other Arctic passages to commercial traffic is identified. The report contains a description of the conceptual vehicle, including the powerplant and operations, an assessment of technical feasibility, estimates of capital and operating costs, and identification of eligible cargo and markets. A comparison of the nuclear ACV freighter with nuclear container ships shows that for containerized or roll-on/roll-off cargo the ACV would provide greatly reduced transit time between North Atlantic and North Pacific ports at a competitive cost.

  10. Dynamic stiffness and transmissibility of commercially available wheelchair cushions using a laboratory test method

    Yasmin Garcia-Mendez, BS


    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that wheelchair (WC users are exposed to unhealthy levels of vibration during WC use. Health risks associated with vibration exposure include vertebral disc degeneration and back pain, which may consequently decrease the function and independence of WC users. Some evidence suggests that the cushions used in WCs may amplify vibrations, although conclusive evidence has not been presented in the literature. This study evaluated and compared the transmissibility of commercially available WC cushions with two laboratory test methods: (1 direct measurement of transmissibility while human subjects propelled a WC over a road course with different cushions and (2 characterization of cushions with a material testing system (MTS combined with mathematical models of the apparent mass of the human body. Results showed that although dynamic characterization of WC cushions is possible with an MTS, the results did not correlate well with the transmissibility obtained in the WC road course. Significant differences were found for transmissibility among the cushions tested, with the air-based cushions having lower transmissibility than the foam- or gel-based cushions.

  11. Simulation research on carbon dioxide as cushion gas in gas underground reservoirs

    TAN Yu-fei; LIN Tao


    Aimed at the problem of mixing working gas and cushion gas in carbon sequestration technology, the feasibility of using cation dioxide as the cushion gas in reservoirs is discussed firstly. At the usual condition of reservoirs, carbon dioxide is a kind of supercritieal fluid with high condensability, high viscosity and high density. Secondly, this article studies the laws of formation and development of mixing zone by numerical simulation and analyses the impact on mixing zone brought by different injection modes and rational ratios of cushion gas in reservoirs. It is proposed that the appropriate injection ratio of cushion gas is 20% - 30%. Using carbon dioxide as cushion gas in gas reservoirs is able to make the running of natural gas reservoirs economical and efficient.

  12. Pressure Mapping of a Standard Hospital Recliner and Select Cushions With Healthy Adults: A Comparative Study.

    Slayton, Stephanie; Morris, Paula; Brinkley, Jason

    The aim of the study was to compare the degree of pressure created when healthy adult volunteers sat on a hospital recliner chair in various positions and on various cushions. Comparative cross-sectional study. Thirty-four healthy subjects were recruited from the community, an urban city in a rural area of Eastern North Carolina. Interface pressure measurements were taken by the investigators for each subject sitting on a standard hospital recliner under each of the following conditions: no cushion, foam cushion, nonadjustable air cushion, nonadjustable air/foam cushion, and adjustable air cushion. Subject positions, upright sitting and reclined, were randomly selected. Analyses consisted of data visualizations by investigators and univariate statistics. For each surface, mean pressure, peak pressure, and Pressure Area Index (PAI) were obtained and compared. Inferences were drawn from a repeated-measures analysis-of-covariance model. Subject position was not associated with any of the measures for each surface after adjusting for other variables (average pressure P = .1094, maximum/peak pressure P = .1318, PAI P = .4336). Subject weight, the type of surface, and their interaction do impact the results (average pressure, maximum/peak pressure, and PAI, P pressures and the lowest PAI. The nonadjustable air and air/foam cushions performed most similarly to each other, showing lowest mean and average interface pressures and the highest PAI. Position of a hospital recliner chair in the 2 positions studied had no association with interface pressure outcomes; therefore, other methods of pressure redistribution need to be utilized by clinicians. Based on the results of this study, clinicians may need to reevaluate the type of cushion used in the acute hospital setting, as a standard foam cushion was found to increase interface pressures when compared to other cushions and a standard hospital recliner.

  13. BMP-2 induces versican and hyaluronan that contribute to post-EMT AV cushion cell migration.

    Inai, Kei; Burnside, Jessica L; Hoffman, Stanley; Toole, Bryan P; Sugi, Yukiko


    Distal outgrowth and maturation of mesenchymalized endocardial cushions are critical morphogenetic events during post-EMT atrioventricular (AV) valvuloseptal morphogenesis. We explored the role of BMP-2 in the regulation of valvulogenic extracellular matrix (ECM) components, versican and hyaluronan (HA), and cell migration during post-EMT AV cushion distal outgrowth/expansion. We observed intense staining of versican and HA in AV cushion mesenchyme from the early cushion expansion stage, Hamburger and Hamilton (HH) stage-17 to the cushion maturation stage, HH stage-29 in the chick. Based on this expression pattern we examined the role of BMP-2 in regulating versican and HA using 3D AV cushion mesenchymal cell (CMC) aggregate cultures on hydrated collagen gels. BMP-2 induced versican expression and HA deposition as well as mRNA expression of versican and Has2 by CMCs in a dose dependent manner. Noggin, an antagonist of BMP, abolished BMP-2-induced versican and HA as well as mRNA expression of versican and Has2. We further examined whether BMP-2-promoted cell migration was associated with expression of versican and HA. BMP-2- promoted cell migration was significantly impaired by treatments with versican siRNA and HA oligomer. In conclusion, we provide evidence that BMP-2 induces expression of versican and HA by AV CMCs and that these ECM components contribute to BMP-2-induced CMC migration, indicating critical roles for BMP-2 in distal outgrowth/expansion of mesenchymalized AV cushions.

  14. BMP-2 induces versican and hyaluronan that contribute to post-EMT AV cushion cell migration.

    Kei Inai

    Full Text Available Distal outgrowth and maturation of mesenchymalized endocardial cushions are critical morphogenetic events during post-EMT atrioventricular (AV valvuloseptal morphogenesis. We explored the role of BMP-2 in the regulation of valvulogenic extracellular matrix (ECM components, versican and hyaluronan (HA, and cell migration during post-EMT AV cushion distal outgrowth/expansion. We observed intense staining of versican and HA in AV cushion mesenchyme from the early cushion expansion stage, Hamburger and Hamilton (HH stage-17 to the cushion maturation stage, HH stage-29 in the chick. Based on this expression pattern we examined the role of BMP-2 in regulating versican and HA using 3D AV cushion mesenchymal cell (CMC aggregate cultures on hydrated collagen gels. BMP-2 induced versican expression and HA deposition as well as mRNA expression of versican and Has2 by CMCs in a dose dependent manner. Noggin, an antagonist of BMP, abolished BMP-2-induced versican and HA as well as mRNA expression of versican and Has2. We further examined whether BMP-2-promoted cell migration was associated with expression of versican and HA. BMP-2- promoted cell migration was significantly impaired by treatments with versican siRNA and HA oligomer. In conclusion, we provide evidence that BMP-2 induces expression of versican and HA by AV CMCs and that these ECM components contribute to BMP-2-induced CMC migration, indicating critical roles for BMP-2 in distal outgrowth/expansion of mesenchymalized AV cushions.

  15. A systematic review of the recent ecological literature on cushion plants: champions of plant facilitation

    A. M. Reid


    Full Text Available Cushion-forming plant species are found in alpine and polar environments around the world. They modify the microclimate, thereby facilitating other plant species. Similar to the effectiveness of shrubs as a means to study facilitation in arid and semi-arid environments, we explore the potential for cushion plant species to expand the generality of research on this contemporary ecological interaction. A systematic review was conducted to determine the number of publications and citation frequency on relevant ecological topics whilst using shrub literature as a baseline to assess relative importance of cushions as a focal point for future ecological research. Although there are forty times more shrub articles, mean citations per paper is comparable between cushion and shrub literature. Furthermore, the scope of ecological research topics studied using cushions is broad including facilitation, competition, environmental gradients, life history, genetics, reproduction, community, ecosystem and evolution. The preliminary ecological evidence to date also strongly suggests that cushion plants can be keystone species in their ecosystems. Hence, ecological research on net interactions including facilitation and patterns of diversity can be successfully examined using cushion plants, and this is particularly timely given expectations associated with a changing climate in these regions.

  16. [Mites in mattress dust and relevant environmental factors in student dormitories in Shenzhen].

    Wang, Bin; Wu, Jie; Liu, Zhi-gang; Ran, Pi-xin; Gao, Qiao; Luo, Chun-hui; Ai, Mei


    Three hundred and eight mattress dust samples were collected from college dormitories in Shenzhen with a mite prevalence of 88% (271/308). From the samples, 6163 mites were isolated and identified. Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus and Blomia tropicalis were three most abundant species, occupying 29.7%, 21.7% and 17.9%, respectively. It was found that sex of the students, mattress cover (bamboo mat or bed sheet), with or without air conditioner installation, and daily using of air conditioner (8 h) had no significant influence on the mite prevalence (P>0.05). However, logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of mite sensitization in male student dormitory was significantly lower than that in female dormitory (OR=0.55, P=0.038), and the risk of using bed sheets was significantly higher than using bamboo mats (OR=2.13, P=0.040). Both mite prevalence and the risk of mite sensitization significantly decreased with higher floor of the dormitory building.



    Full Text Available This article describes a first approximation of a weighted estimate of air cushion chassis. The algorithm for calculating the weight of air cushion chassis allows not only to estimate the mass of the chassis to a first approximation, but also to conduct a preliminary analysis of the influence of various parameters of the aircraft and the chassis on the weight of the aircraft at the stage of before designing. The algorithm can be expanded to include additional design decisions, such as the transformation of the fuselage, increasing the air cushion chassis canopy due to extensions, center of gravity, etc.

  18. Study of distribution and characteristics of the time average of pressure of a water cushion pool

    Guo, Y. H.; Fu, J. F.


    When a dam discharges flood water, the plunging flow with greater kinetic energy, will scour the riverbed, resulting in erosion damage. In order to improve the anti-erosion capacity of a riverbed, the cushion pool created. This paper is based on turbulent jet theoryto deduce the semi-empirical formula of the time average of pressure in the impinging portion of the cushion pool. Additionally, MATLAB numerical is used to conduct a simulation analysis according to turbulent jet energy and watercushion depth when water floods into the water cushion pool, to determine the regularities of distribution and related characteristics.

  19. Air-cushion tankers for Alaskan North Slope oil

    Anderson, J. L.


    A concept is described for transporting oil from the Arctic to southern markets in 10,000-ton, chemically fueled air-cushion vehicles (ACV's) configured as tankers. Based on preliminary cost estimates the conceptual ACV tanker system as tailored to the transportation of Alaskan North Slope oil could deliver the oil for about the same price per barrel as the proposed trans-Alaska pipeline with only one-third of the capital investment. The report includes the description of the conceptual system and its operation; preliminary cost estimates; an appraisal of ACV tanker development; and a comparison of system costs, versatility, vulnerability, and ecological effect with those of the trans-Alaska pipeline.

  20. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    Vaughn, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Constantineau, Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Groves, Gordon E. (Tijeras, NM)


    An efficient pump system for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers.

  1. Reduced energy and volume air pump for a seat cushion

    Vaughn, M.R.; Constantineau, E.J.; Groves, G.E.


    An efficient pump system is described for transferring air between sets of bladders in a cushion. The pump system utilizes a reversible piston within a cylinder in conjunction with an equalizing valve in the piston which opens when the piston reaches the end of travel in one direction. The weight of a seated user then forces air back across the piston from an inflated bladder to the previously deflated bladder until the pressure is equalized. In this fashion the work done by the pump is cut in half. The inflation and deflation of the different bladders is controlled to vary the pressure on the several pressure points of a seated user. A principal application is for wheel chair use to prevent pressure ulcers. 12 figs.

  2. An audit of cushioned diabetic footwear: relation to patient compliance.

    Chantelau, E; Haage, P


    The recurrence rate of neuropathic foot ulcers is reported in 51 diabetic patients regularly attending a diabetic foot clinic. All of the patients were provided with protective footwear reducing peak plantar pressure at the forefoot area by 50% (versus normal shoes), and were followed up for up to 4 years. Compliance with this footwear was recorded by assessing the daily time of wearing protective or normal shoes, and compliance with foot care was recorded from the entries in the patients charts. The results of this observational study demonstrate that wearing protective shoes for > 60% of the daytime significantly (p = 0.0002) reduced the ulcer relapse rate by > 50% in comparison with shorter wearing times for these shoes. In addition, patients without ulcer relapses had foot care significantly more frequently than patients with relapse (p < 0.05). It is concluded that cushioned protective footwear in association with frequent foot care is essential in the prevention of neuropathic diabetic foot ulcer recurrence.

  3. Standing steady-state wave-making calculation method for air cushion vehicles; Air cushion vehicle no teijo zoha keisanho ni tsuite

    Eguchi, T. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    The pulse-height distribution of a cushion room of air cushion vehicle (ACV) has been tried to be approached by means of the panel shift type Rankine source method. When using this method, it was not required to introduce the pressure distribution model simulating the fall-off effect for the step-formed cushion pressure distribution. The wave form and wave making resistance could be estimated precisely by assigning the pressure gradient to one longitudinal direction panel in the calculation. The waveform shape within the cushion room could be calculated rather precisely by comparing with the analytic solution. This calculation method did have an ability providing the pulse-height information in the cushion room of ACV for seal design and configuration of ships. The analytic solution using for the comparison was sufficient for determining the pulse-height in the high speed region. However, it was hard to respond to non-linear problems or optional shape problems. It was pointed out to be further improved. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Mattress encasings and mite allergen levels in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy study

    van Strien, RT; Koopman, LP; Kerkhof, M; Oldenwening, M; de Jongste, JC; Gerritsen, J; Neijens, HJ; Aalberse, RC; Smit, HA; Brunekreef, B


    Background Reduction of allergen exposure from birth may reduce sensitization and subsequent allergic disease. Objective To measure the influence of mite allergen-impermeable mattress encasings and cotton placebo encasings on the amount of dust and mite allergen in beds. Methods A total of 810 child

  5. Mattress encasings and mite allergen levels in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy study

    van Strien, RT; Koopman, LP; Kerkhof, M; Oldenwening, M; de Jongste, JC; Gerritsen, J; Neijens, HJ; Aalberse, RC; Smit, HA; Brunekreef, B


    Background Reduction of allergen exposure from birth may reduce sensitization and subsequent allergic disease. Objective To measure the influence of mite allergen-impermeable mattress encasings and cotton placebo encasings on the amount of dust and mite allergen in beds. Methods A total of 810 child

  6. The 8-year follow-up of the PIAMA intervention study assessing the effect of mite-impermeable mattress covers

    Gehring, U.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831344; de Jongste, J.C.; Kerkhof, M.; Oldewening, M.; Postma, D.; van Strien, R.T.; Wijga, A.H.; Willers, S.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834696; Wolse, A.; Gerritsen, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/336510160; Smit, H.A.; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180


    Background: Exposure to high levels of house dust mite (HDM) allergens is associated with the development of allergic sensitization to HDM, a risk factor for the development of asthma, rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis. We studied the effect of an early intervention with mite-impermeable mattress co

  7. Finite element modeling for predicting the contact pressure between a foam mattress and the human body in a supine position.

    Lee, Wookjin; Won, Byeong Hee; Cho, Seong Wook


    In this paper, we generated finite element (FE) models to predict the contact pressure between a foam mattress and the human body in a supine position. Twenty-year-old males were used for three-dimensional scanning to produce the FE human models, which was composed of skin and muscle tissue. A linear elastic isotropic material model was used for the skin, and the Mooney-Rivlin model was used for the muscle tissue because it can effectively represent the nonlinear behavior of muscle. The contact pressure between the human model and the mattress was predicted by numerical simulation. The human models were validated by comparing the body pressure distribution obtained from the same human subject when he was lying on two different mattress types. The experimental results showed that the slope of the lower part of the mattress caused a decrease in the contact pressure at the heels, and the effect of bone structure was most pronounced in the scapula. After inserting a simple structure to function as the scapula, the contact pressure predicted by the FE human models was consistent with the experimental body pressure distribution for all body parts. These results suggest that the models proposed in this paper will be useful to researchers and designers of products related to the prevention of pressure ulcers.

  8. [Arthroscopic Bankart lesion repair by double-row vertical mattress suture with anchors for anteroinferior glenohumeral instability].

    Tang, Kang-Lai; Chen, Guang-Xing; Guo, Lin; Gong, Ji-Cheng; Zhou, Bing-Hua; Yang, Hui-Feng; Gu, Ling-Chuan; Li, Hong-Zhi; Yang, Liu; Xu, Jian-Zhong


    To introduce a new arthroscopic Bankart repair by vertical mattress suture with anchors, and to evaluate its clinical effectiveness. A new arthroscopic Bankart repair by vertical mattress suture with anchors was performed, including to insert only 2 anchors at 3 o'clock and 5 o'clock position and make vertical mattress suture of labrum-ligament complex at 2, 4 and 6 o'clock of labrum, and to shift up the anterior-inferior capsule. Nine cases of anterior glenohumeral instability without severe glenoid bone defect were followed-up for an average period of 14 months (range from 6 to 26 months). The average surgery age was 28 years (range from 21 to 46 years). The average surgery time was 51 min (40 - 75 min). Clinical scores as evaluated by the modified Rowe score advanced from 40 +/- 16 points to 92 +/- 19 points (75 - 94). There was no any recurrence and complication. External rotation was reduced by 5 degrees at 0 degrees adduction and by 3 degrees at 90 degrees of abduction. The arthroscopic Bankart repair by vertical mattress suture with anchors for anteroinferior glenohumeral instability is favorable as an easy, short-time surgery with excellent clinical results in short-term follow-up.

  9. Economic assessment of pressure sore prevention using a computerized mattress system in patients with spinal cord injury.

    Catz, Amiram; Zifroni, Avi; Philo, Ora


    To assess the economic profitability of a new computerized mattress system in patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI) by comparison with two other alternatives, as an example of the use of a quantitative approach for decision-making in choosing between alternatives for sore prevention. The cost of achieving one day without signs of impending pressure sore was compared between the alternative options using cost minimization analysis. Savings in nursing costs for the three options were calculated for cost-benefit analysis. A foam mattress system is significantly cheaper than the other examined alternatives, and if the nursing manpower cost is constant and the nursing staff is capable of performing sufficient repositioning, this system would achieve the desired medical outcome at a minimal cost. However, if the nursing staff cannot perform sufficient repositioning, or if the use of nursing manpower can be adjusted to the actual need, then it is the computerized mattress system that achieves the desired outcome at the minimal cost. In this case, less than 20 New Israeli Shekels (NIS) per day spent on the equipment save NIS 45 per day in labor costs. The economic evaluation indicates that the computerized mattress system is advisable for patients with SCI who require assistance for repositioning, but its profitability depends on the employment terms of the nursing manpower. In addition, other possible alternative pressure management systems should be examined, and additional research may be needed to determine the optimal combination of such systems for a spinal cord rehabilitation department.

  10. A quantitative analysis of microcirculation in sore-prone pressure areas on conventional and pressure relief hospital mattresses using laser Doppler flowmetry and tissue spectrophotometry.

    Rothenberger, Jens; Krauss, Sabrina; Held, Manuel; Bender, Dominik; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Constantinescu, Mihai Adrian; Jaminet, Patrick


    Pressure ulcers are associated with severe impairment for the patients and high economic load. With this study we wanted to gain more insight to the skin perfusion dynamics due to external loading. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of different types of pressure relief mattresses. A total of 25 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. Perfusion dynamics of the sacral and the heel area were assessed using the O2C-device, which combines a laser light, to determine blood flow, and white light to determine the relative amount of hemoglobin. Three mattresses were evaluated compared to a hard surface: a standard hospital foam mattress bed, a visco-elastic foam mattress, and an air-fluidized bed. In the heel area, only the air-fluidized bed was able to maintain the blood circulation (mean blood flow of 13.6 ± 6 versus 3.9 ± 3 AU and mean relative amount of hemoglobin of 44.0 ± 14 versus 32.7 ± 12 AU.) In the sacral area, all used mattresses revealed an improvement of blood circulation compared to the hard surface. The results of this study form a more precise pattern of perfusion changes due to external loading on various pressure relief mattresses. This knowledge may reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers and may be an influencing factor in pressure relief mattress selection. Copyright © 2014 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. a Vibrational Model of Open Celled Polyurethane Foam Automotive Seat Cushions

    Patten, W. N.; Sha, S.; Mo, C.


    A mechanistic model of a seat cushion is developed. The work relates the kinematic motion of the seat to the geometric and constitutive properties of the cellular foam used in the seat. The model includes the influence of pneumatic damping caused by friction between the gas within the open-celled foam and matrix polymer. A continuous shape function is introduced to characterize the piecewise continuous stress-strain characteristic of flexible open-celled foam. After some simplification, a non-linear dynamic automotive seat cushion model is derived, which relies explicitly on the constitutive properties of polyurethane foams and on the geometry of the seat cushion. Experimental and analytical models of the two automotive seats are compared to verify the model. The comparisons indicate that the new model is able to predict the dynamic performance of an automotive seat cushion with fidelity.

  12. The 8-year follow-up of the PIAMA intervention study assessing the effect of mite-impermeable mattress covers.

    Gehring, U; de Jongste, J C; Kerkhof, M; Oldewening, M; Postma, D; van Strien, R T; Wijga, A H; Willers, S M; Wolse, A; Gerritsen, J; Smit, H A; Brunekreef, B


    Exposure to high levels of house dust mite (HDM) allergens is associated with the development of allergic sensitization to HDM, a risk factor for the development of asthma, rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis. We studied the effect of an early intervention with mite-impermeable mattress covers on HDM allergen levels and the development of asthma and mite allergy throughout the first 8 years of life. High-risk children (allergic mother) were prenatally recruited and randomly allocated to two groups receiving mite allergen-impermeable (n = 416) and placebo mattress covers (n = 394) or no intervention (n = 472). Asthma and allergies were assessed yearly by questionnaire. Specific immunoglobulin E and bronchial hyper-responsiveness were measured at the age of 8 years. Mattress dust samples collected at different time points were analyzed for HDM allergens. At the age of 8 years, levels of HDM allergen Der f1 but not Der p1 were lower in the active than the placebo mattress cover group. In repeated measures analyses, we found a temporary decreased risk of asthma symptoms at the age of 2 years in the intervention group compared to the placebo group and a temporary association between higher HDM allergen exposure at the age of 3 months and more asthma symptoms. Early intervention with mite-impermeable mattress covers is successful in reducing exposure to Der f1; it only temporarily reduces the risk of asthma symptoms and does not reduce the risk of hay fever, eczema, and allergic sensitization. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. BMP2 expression in the endocardial lineage is required for AV endocardial cushion maturation and remodeling.

    Saxon, Jacob G; Baer, Daniel R; Barton, Julie A; Hawkins, Travis; Wu, Bingruo; Trusk, Thomas C; Harris, Stephen E; Zhou, Bin; Mishina, Yuji; Sugi, Yukiko


    Distal outgrowth, maturation and remodeling of the endocardial cushion mesenchyme in the atrioventricular (AV) canal are the essential morphogenetic events during four-chambered heart formation. Mesenchymalized AV endocardial cushions give rise to the AV valves and the membranous ventricular septum (VS). Failure of these processes results in several human congenital heart defects. Despite this clinical relevance, the mechanisms governing how mesenchymalized AV endocardial cushions mature and remodel into the membranous VS and AV valves have only begun to be elucidated. The role of BMP signaling in the myocardial and secondary heart forming lineage has been well studied; however, little is known about the role of BMP2 expression in the endocardial lineage. To fill this knowledge gap, we generated Bmp2 endocardial lineage-specific conditional knockouts (referred to as Bmp2 cKO(Endo)) by crossing conditionally-targeted Bmp2(flox/flox) mice with a Cre-driver line, Nfatc1(Cre), wherein Cre-mediated recombination was restricted to the endocardial cells and their mesenchymal progeny. Bmp2 cKO(Endo) mouse embryos did not exhibit failure or delay in the initial AV endocardial cushion formation at embryonic day (ED) 9.5-11.5; however, significant reductions in AV cushion size were detected in Bmp2 cKO(Endo) mouse embryos when compared to control embryos at ED13.5 and ED16.5. Moreover, deletion of Bmp2 from the endocardial lineage consistently resulted in membranous ventricular septal defects (VSDs), and mitral valve deficiencies, as evidenced by the absence of stratification of mitral valves at birth. Muscular VSDs were not found in Bmp2 cKO(Endo) mouse hearts. To understand the underlying morphogenetic mechanisms leading to a decrease in cushion size, cell proliferation and cell death were examined for AV endocardial cushions. Phospho-histone H3 analyses for cell proliferation and TUNEL assays for apoptotic cell death did not reveal significant differences between control

  14. Influence of Cushioning Variables in the Workplace and in the Family on the Probability of Suffering Stress.

    Gonzalo, David Cárdenas


    Stress at work and in the family is a very common issue in our society that generates many health-related problems. During recent years, numerous studies have sought to define the term stress, raising many contradictions that various authors have studied. Other authors have attempted to establish some criteria, in subjective and not very quantitative ways, in an attempt to reduce and even to eliminate stressors and their effects at work and in the family context. The purpose of this study was to quantify so-called cushioning variables, such as control, social support, home/work life conciliation, and even sports and leisure activities, with the purpose of, as much as possible, reducing the negative effects of stress, which seriously affects the health of workers. The study employs data from the Fifth European Working Conditions Survey, in which nearly 44,000 interviewees from 34 countries in the European Union participated. We constructed a probabilistic model based on a Bayesian network, using variables from both the workplace and the family, the aforementioned cushioning variables, as well as the variable stress. If action is taken on the above variables, then the probabilities of suffering high levels of stress may be reduced. Such action may improve the quality of life of people at work and in the family.

  15. Zero methane emission bogs: extreme rhizosphere oxygenation by cushion plants in Patagonia.

    Fritz, Christian; Pancotto, Veronica A; Elzenga, Josephus T M; Visser, Eric J W; Grootjans, Ab P; Pol, Arjan; Iturraspe, Rodolfo; Roelofs, Jan G M; Smolders, Alfons J P


    • Vascular wetland plants may substantially increase methane emissions by producing root exudates and easily degradable litter, and by providing a low-resistance diffusion pathway via their aerenchyma. However, model studies have indicated that vascular plants can reduce methane emission when soil oxygen demand is exceeded by oxygen released from roots. Here, we tested whether these conditions occur in bogs dominated by cushion plants. • Root-methane interactions were studied by comparing methane emissions, stock and oxygen availability in depth profiles below lawns of either cushion plants or Sphagnum mosses in Patagonia. • Cushion plants, Astelia pumila and Donatia fascicularis, formed extensive root systems up to 120 cm in depth. The cold soil (microbial activity and oxygen consumption. In cushion plant lawns, high soil oxygen coincided with high root densities, but methane emissions were absent. In Sphagnum lawns, methane emissions were substantial. High methane concentrations were only found in soils without cushion plant roots. • This first methane study in Patagonian bog vegetation reveals lower emissions than expected. We conclude that cushion plants are capable of reducing methane emission on an ecosystem scale by thorough soil and methane oxidation. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Dynamic bottleneck elimination in mattress manufacturing line using theory of constraints.

    Gundogar, Emin; Sari, Murat; Kokcam, Abdullah H


    There is a tough competition in the furniture sector like other sectors. Along with the varying product range, production system should also be renewed on a regular basis and the production costs should be kept under control. In this study, spring mattress manufacturing line of a furniture manufacturing company is analyzed. The company wants to increase its production output with new investments. The objective is to find the bottlenecks in production line in order to balance the semi-finished material flow. These bottlenecks are investigated and several different scenarios are tested to improve the current manufacturing system. The problem with a main theme based on the elimination of the bottleneck is solved using Goldratt and Cox's theory of constraints with a simulation based heuristic method. Near optimal alternatives are determined by system models built in Arena 13.5 simulation software. Results show that approximately 46 % capacity enhancements with 2 buffer stocks have increased average production by 88.8 %.

  17. Plume aerodynamic effects of cushion engine in lunar landing

    He Bijiao; He Xiaoying; Zhang Mingxing; Cai Guobiao


    During the second period of China “Tanyue” Project,the explorer will softland on the moon.The cushion engines are used to decelerate the explorer and reduce the impact on the lunar ground.It is necessary to study its plume effects on the explorer component.The self-developed PWS (Plume WorkStation) software based on direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is used to simulate the plume effects of two 150 N engines.Due to the complex structure of the explorer,PWS uses a decoupling method to treat the boundary mesh,which mainly interacts with simulation particles,and has no relation with the computational grids.After the analytical expressions of plane surfaces and curved surfaces of each boundary block are given,the particle position within or without the boundary blocks can be easily determined.Finally the 3D plume field of two 150 N engines is simulated.The pressure,temperature and velocity distributions of plume field are clearly presented by three characteristic slices.The aerodynamic effects on the explorer bottom,the landfall legs and antenna are separately shown.The compression influence on the plume flow of four landfall legs can be observed.

  18. The best for the guest: high Andean nurse cushions of Azorella madreporica enhance arbuscular mycorrhizal status in associated plant species.

    Casanova-Katny, M Angélica; Torres-Mellado, Gustavo Adolfo; Palfner, Goetz; Cavieres, Lohengrin A


    Positive interactions between cushion plant and associated plants species in the high Andes of central Chile should also include the effects of fungal root symbionts. We hypothesized that higher colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi exists in cushion-associated (nursling) plants compared with conspecific individuals growing on bare ground. We assessed the AM status of Andean plants at two sites at different altitudes (3,200 and 3,600 ma.s.l.) in 23 species, particularly in cushions of Azorella madreporica and five associated plants; additionally, AM fungal spores were retrieved from soil outside and beneath cushions. 18 of the 23 examined plant species presented diagnostic structures of arbuscular mycorrhiza; most of them were also colonized by dark-septate endophytes. Mycorrhization of A. madreporica cushions showed differences between both sites (68% and 32%, respectively). In the native species Hordeum comosum, Nastanthus agglomeratus, and Phacelia secunda associated to A. madreporica, mycorrhization was six times higher than in the same species growing dispersed on bare ground at 3,600 ma.s.l., but mycorrhiza development was less cushion dependent in the alien plants Cerastium arvense and Taraxacum officinale at both sites. The ratio of AM fungal spores beneath versus outside cushions was also 6:1. The common and abundant presence of AM in cushion communities at high altitudes emphasizes the importance of the fungal root symbionts in such situations where plant species benefit from the microclimatic conditions generated by the cushion and also from well-developed mycorrhizal networks.

  19. Method for calculating steady-state waves in an air cushion vehicle. Part 2; Air cushion vehicle no teijo zoha keisanho ni tsuite. 2

    Eguchi, T. [Mitsui Engineering and Shipbuilding Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Discussions were given on a method to estimate resistance constituents in wave resistance made in an air chamber of an air cushion vehicle (ACV). An orthogonal coordinate system is considered, which uses the center of a hull as the zero point and is made dimensionless by using cushion length. Flow around the ACV is supposed as an ideal flow, whereas speed potential is defined in the flow field. Then, a linear free surface condition is hypothesized on water surface Z = 0. Number and density of waves were used to introduce a condition to be satisfied by the speed potential. A numerical calculation method arranged a blow-out panel on the water surface, and used a panel shift type Rankine source method which satisfies the free surface condition at Z = 0. Cushion pressure distribution becomes a step-like discontinuous function, and mathematical infinity is generated in the differentiation values. Under an assumption that the pressure rises per one panel where pressure jump is present, the distribution was approximated by providing one panel with inclination of the finite quantity therein. Estimation on wave height distribution in the cushion chamber showed a tendency of qualitatively agreeing with the experimental result, but the wave heights shown in the experiment had the average level decreased as it goes toward the rear of the hull. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  20. A prospective, longitudinal study to assess use of continuous and reactive low-pressure mattresses to reduce pressure ulcer incidence in a pediatric intensive care unit

    García Molina, Pablo; Balaguer López, Evelin; Torra i Bou, Joan Enric; Álvarez Ordiales, Adán; Quesada Ramos, Cristina; Verdú Soriano, José


    Pressure between bony prominences and sleep surfaces, as well as pressure from the use of medical devices, put children admitted to pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) at risk of developing pressure ulcers (PUs). To assess the effect of two pediatric-specific, continuous and reactive low-pressure mattresses on the incidence of PUs, an observational, descriptive, prospective, longitudinal (2009–2011) study was conducted among PICU patients. The two pediatric mattresses — one for children we...

  1. Use of pressure reducing seats and cushions in a community setting.

    Collins, Fiona


    It is generally accepted that sitting for long periods of time without frequent repositioning or provision of appropriate cushions or chairs can lead to pressure ulcer development in people who are elderly, frail, immobile or neurologically impaired. When sitting, in comparison to lying, only a small surface area of the body is providing support, predominantly the buttocks and thighs, and the feet. Therefore, interface pressures are much greater in sitting than lying. Sitting for long periods of time can result in the person adopting poor posture, which in turn can lead to the development of pressure ulcers, particularly on the buttocks, sacrum, greater trochanter and heels. Assessment and provision of appropriate seating equipment for people at risk is often difficult for clinicians working in the community. This article aims to describe the problems experienced by people who sit for long periods of time, to discuss where people should go in order to obtain help with seating needs, and outline some of the potential solutions to poor seating which are available to community staff.

  2. Multicenter comparison of the efficacy on prevention of pressure ulcer in postoperative patients between two types of pressure-relieving mattresses in China

    Jiang, Qixia; Li, Xiaohua; Zhang, Aiqin; Guo, Yanxia; Liu, Yahong; Liu, Haiying; Qu, Xiaolong; Zhu, Yajun; Guo, Xiujun; Liu, Li; Zhang, Liyan; Bo, Suping; Jia, Jing; Chen, Yuejuan; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Jiandong


    Objective: Present study is designed to evaluate the effects of preventing pressure ulcer in surgical patients with two types of pressure-relieving mattresses. Methods: 1074 surgical patients from 12 hospitals in China were divided into A group (static air mattress with repositioning every 2 hours, n = 562) and B group (power pressure air mattress with repositioning every 2 hours, n = 512). The patient was subjected to a pressure-relieving mattress and observed from 0-5 days after surgery. Indications include the Braden scores, hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU) incidence and stage. Results: The Braden scores between two groups in five days after surgery were no significant (P > 0.05). The incidence of HAPU between two groups in same days also was no significant (1.07% vs. 0.98%, P > 0.05). The incidence of Stage I and stage II pressure ulcers in group A and B were 1.07% (6/562) and 0.98% (5/512), respectively (χ2 = 0.148, P = 0.882). Conclusion: The effects of preventing pressure ulcer in surgical patients with two types of pressure-relieving mattresses are similar, but the protocol by static air mattress with repositioning every 2 hours is benefit when no power. PMID:25356144

  3. The Influences of Human Design of Mattress on Sleeping%床垫的人性化设计对睡眠健康的影响

    陈玉霞; 中黎明; 郭勇; 潘颖玲; 胡天怡; 宋杰


    通过睡眠生理、睡眠行为、睡眠节律分析,论述了人对睡眠的需求特征和健康睡眠的重要性,结合人—床界面关系、卧姿脊柱形态、人体体型、床垫物理性能等,分析了睡眠质量和卧姿舒适性的影响因素以及不同人群对床垫需求的差异性,提出了床垫人性化设计的概念。在此基础上,总结了床垫人性化设计的原则,给出了基于床垫人性化设计的床垫性能检测的建议。%By analyzing sleep physiology, behaves and rhythm, it discussed sleeping demand characteristics and the importance of healthy sleep of people. And combined with human-bed interface with spinal morphology in lying position, anthropometry characteristics and physical property of mattress, it analyzed the factors of sleeping quality, lying comfort and different needs of different groups to mattresses, and put forward the concept of humanization design of mattress. On basis of that, it summarized the humanization design principles of mattress, and given suggestions of testing mattress properties on mattress humanization design.

  4. Endocardial cushion defect associated with cor triatriatum sinistrum or supravalve mitral ring.

    Thilenius, O G; Vitullo, D; Bharati, S; Luken, J; Lamberti, J J; Tatooles, C; Lev, M; Carr, I; Arcilla, R A


    Clinical and angiographic or autopsy data, or both, on three children with a subdivided left atrium (cor triatriatum) and an associated endocardial cushion defect are reviewed. (One child had ostium primum defect, and two had complete atrioventricular [A-V] canal.) A fourth patient demonstrates the difficulties in differentiating subdivided left atrium from supravalve mitral stenosis in the presence of an endocardial cushion defect. The clinical findings are greatly influenced by the endocardial cushion defect. A pressure gradient between the pulmonary wedge and (left or right) ventricular end-diastolic pressures in patients with an endocardial cushion defect indicates pulmonary venous obstruction and should alert one to the possibility of these combined lesions. The exact diagnosis is made with injections of angiographic contrast medium into the proximal and distal left atrial chambers, to documented the respective relations of the pulmonary veins, left atrial appendage and A-V valves to these atrial chambers. All three patients with an endocardial cushion defect and a subdivided left atrium had an associated patent ductus arteriosus. The common association of subdivided left atrium with intracardiac, pulmonary venous and aortic anomalies is again demonstrated.

  5. Numerical simulation on the seismic absorption effect of the cushion in rigid-pile composite foundation

    Han, Xiaolei; Li, Yaokun; Ji, Jing; Ying, Junhao; Li, Weichen; Dai, Baicheng


    In order to quantitatively study the seismic absorption effect of the cushion on a superstructure, a numerical simulation and parametric study are carried out on the overall FEA model of a rigid-pile composite foundation in ABAQUS. A simulation of a shaking table test on a rigid mass block is first completed with ABAQUS and EERA, and the effectiveness of the Drucker-Prager constitutive model and the finite-infinite element coupling method is proved. Dynamic time-history analysis of the overall model under frequent and rare earthquakes is carried out using seismic waves from the El Centro, Kobe, and Bonds earthquakes. The different responses of rigid-pile composite foundations and pile-raft foundations are discussed. Furthermore, the influence of thickness and modulus of cushion, and ground acceleration on the seismic absorption effect of the cushion are analyzed. The results show that: 1) the seismic absorption effect of a cushion is good under rare earthquakes, with an absorption ratio of about 0.85; and 2) the seismic absorption effect is strongly affected by cushion thickness and ground acceleration.

  6. Ingredient of Biomass Packaging Material and Compare Study on Cushion Properties

    Fangyi Li


    Full Text Available In order to reduce the white pollution caused by nondegradable waste plastic packaging materials, the biomass cushion packaging material with straw fiber and starch as the main raw materials had been synthesized. The orthogonal experiment was used to study the impact of mass ratio of fiber to starch, content of plasticizer, active agent, and foaming agent on the compressive strength of cushion material. Infrared spectrometer and theory of water’s bridge-connection were used to study the hydroxyl groups among the fiber and starch. The results were demonstrated as follows: the mass ratio of fiber to starch had the most significant impact on compressive strength. When the contents of the plasticizer, the foaming agent, and the active agent were, respectively, 12%, 0.1%, and 0.3% and the mass ratio of fiber to starch was 2 : 5, the compressive strength was the best up to 0.94 MPa. Meanwhile, with the plasticizer content and the mass ratio of fiber to starch increasing, the cushioning coefficient of the material decreased first and then increased. Comparing the cushion and rebound performance of this material with others, the biomass cushion packaging material could be an ideal substitute of plastic packaging materials such as EPS and EPE.

  7. Size class structure, growth rates, and orientation of the central Andean cushion Azorella compacta

    Catherine Kleier


    Full Text Available Azorella compacta (llareta; Apiaceae forms dense, woody, cushions and characterizes the high elevation rocky slopes of the central Andean Altiplano. Field studies of an elevational gradient of A. compacta within Lauca National Park in northern Chile found a reverse J-shape distribution of size classes of individuals with abundant small plants at all elevations. A new elevational limit for A. compacta was established at 5,250 m. A series of cushions marked 14 years earlier showed either slight shrinkage or small degrees of growth up to 2.2 cm yr−1. Despite their irregularity in growth, cushions of A. compacta show a strong orientation, centered on a north-facing aspect and angle of about 20° from horizontal. This exposure to maximize solar irradiance closely matches previous observations of a population favoring north-facing slopes at a similar angle. Populations of A. compacta appear to be stable, or even expanding, with young plants abundant.

  8. A theoretical study of limit cycle oscillations of plenum air cushions

    Hinchey, M. J.; Sullivan, P. A.


    Air cushion vehicles (ACV) are prone to the occurrence of dynamic instabilities which frequently appear as stable finite amplitude oscillations. The aim of this work is to ascertain if the non-linearities characteristics of ACV dynamics generate limit cycle oscillations for cushion systems operating at conditions for which a linear theory predicts instability. The types of non-linearity that can occur are discussed, and an analysis is presented for a single cell flexible skirted plenum chamber constrained to move in pure heave only. Two cushion feed cases are considered: a plenum box supply and a duct. The results obtained by a Galerkin/describing function analysis are compared with those generated by a full numerical simulation. For the plenum box supply system, it is shown that the limit cycles can be suppressed by using a piston to introduce high frequency small amplitude volume oscillations into the plenum chamber.

  9. Size class structure, growth rates, and orientation of the central Andean cushion Azorella compacta

    Trenary, Tim; Graham, Eric A.; Stenzel, William; Rundel, Philip W.


    Azorella compacta (llareta; Apiaceae) forms dense, woody, cushions and characterizes the high elevation rocky slopes of the central Andean Altiplano. Field studies of an elevational gradient of A. compacta within Lauca National Park in northern Chile found a reverse J-shape distribution of size classes of individuals with abundant small plants at all elevations. A new elevational limit for A. compacta was established at 5,250 m. A series of cushions marked 14 years earlier showed either slight shrinkage or small degrees of growth up to 2.2 cm yr−1. Despite their irregularity in growth, cushions of A. compacta show a strong orientation, centered on a north-facing aspect and angle of about 20° from horizontal. This exposure to maximize solar irradiance closely matches previous observations of a population favoring north-facing slopes at a similar angle. Populations of A. compacta appear to be stable, or even expanding, with young plants abundant. PMID:25802811

  10. Examples of the application of the cause-effect ergonomic evaluation model to the wheelchair cushions.

    Barberà-Guillem, Ricard; Page, Álvaro; Laparra, José; Durà, Juan V


    This article highlights the potential of the application of the cause-effect model for the ergonomic evaluation in the field of cushions. User involvement in the prescription and development of assistive devices have been identified a key aspect for positive interventions, although the reality is that we lack of systematic approaches and examples of best practices. The potential benefits are identified for the development of new products and in the prescription process. Additional research would be necessary to better link the characteristics of the cushions and users with the biomechanical and physiological performance of the interface cushion-user and the consequences measured in health, user perception and activity performance. This article shows examples of the relationship in this three levels from the point of view of the user perception.

  11. Research of air-cushion isolation effects on high arch dam reservoir

    Zhang, Shao-Jie; Chen, Jiang; Zhang, Yuan-Ze; Liu, Hao-Wu


    A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of air-cushion isolated arch dam is presented with the nonlinear gas-liquid-solid multi-field dynamic coupling effect taken into account. In this model, the displacement formulation in Lagrange method, pressure formulation in Euler method, nonlinear contact model based on Coulomb friction law are applied to the air-cushion, reservoir and contraction joint domain, respectively. The dynamic response of Jinping I arch dam with a height of 305 m is analyzed using the seismic records of the Wenchuan Earthquake in 2008. Numerical results show that the air-cushion isolation reduces significantly the hydrodynamic pressure as well as the opening width for the contraction joints of high arch dam.

  12. Applying ISO 16840–2 Standard to differentiate impact force dissipation characteristics of selection of commercial wheelchair cushions

    Martin Ferguson-Pell, PhD


    Full Text Available Results from applying the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 16840–2 test method for determining the impact damping characteristics of 35 wheelchair cushions plus a high resilience (HR70 polyurethane reference foam sample are reported. The generation of impact forces when a wheelchair user either transfers onto a cushion or the wheelchair encounters rough terrain or bumps down a step can endanger the viability of tissues, especially if these forces occur repeatedly. The results demonstrate significant differences in the impact force dissipation characteristics of different cushion products but do not reliably identify differences in performance that can be attributed to descriptive information about cushion composition alone. Instead, these results demonstrate that the materials, proprietary design, and construction features of wheelchair cushions in combination dictate impact force dissipation properties. The results of a cluster analysis are used to generate a model that can be used to compare the impact damping properties obtained from the ISO 16840–2 test method with those of a range of cushions and the reference cushion. Manufacturers will therefore be able to provide users and clinicians with information about the impact force dissipation properties of the cushions that will enable them to make more informed product choices for achieving improved comfort and to protect skin integrity.

  13. Design of a Novel Flexible Capacitive Sensing Mattress for Monitoring Sleeping Respiratory

    Wen-Ying Chang


    Full Text Available In this paper, an algorithm to extract respiration signals using a flexible projected capacitive sensing mattress (FPCSM designed for personal health assessment is proposed. Unlike the interfaces of conventional measurement systems for poly-somnography (PSG and other alternative contemporary systems, the proposed FPCSM uses projected capacitive sensing capability that is not worn or attached to the body. The FPCSM is composed of a multi-electrode sensor array that can not only observe gestures and motion behaviors, but also enables the FPCSM to function as a respiration monitor during sleep using the proposed approach. To improve long-term monitoring when body movement is possible, the FPCSM enables the selection of data from the sensing array, and the FPCSM methodology selects the electrodes with the optimal signals after the application of a channel reduction algorithm that counts the reversals in the capacitive sensing signals as a quality indicator. The simple algorithm is implemented in the time domain. The FPCSM system is used in experimental tests and is simultaneously compared with a commercial PSG system for verification. Multiple synchronous measurements are performed from different locations of body contact, and parallel data sets are collected. The experimental comparison yields a correlation coefficient of 0.88 between FPCSM and PSG, demonstrating the feasibility of the system design.

  14. 1986 CACTS International Conference on Air Cushion Technology, Toronto, Canada, Sept. 16-18, 1986, Preprints

    MacEwen, W. R.

    The present conference on the design and development, innovative configurational concepts, test result analyses and operational characteristics of ACVs gives attention to design criteria for light, high-speed ACVs in desert environments, preliminary over-water tests of linear propellers, tests on high speed hovercraft icebreaking, and the performance of an air cushion crawler all-terrain vehicle. Also discussed are the use of ACVs as high speed ASW vehicles, performance criteria for air cushion heave dynamics, the bounce characteristics of an ACV's responsive skirt, and the use of hovercraft in ice enforcement.

  15. Ultra-structure of adipocytes in the digital cushion of ostrich (Stuthio Camelus foot pad

    Amira Eid Derbalah


    Full Text Available The ultra-structural examination of adipocytes in the digital cushion of ostrich foot pad was performed to reveal the structural adaptation of adipocytes and elastic fibers of digital cushion to accommodate with fast movement of this unique bird. Two types of adipocytes were found, the first type was typical signet ring cells which had large fat droplets whose dimension dwarfed the cell organelles. The second type was diffused form with oval shaped adipocytes. Microfibillar aggregates of elastic fibers were closely packed and appeared to bead in a regular fashion. Some of this microfibrillar was reshaping adipocytes by making invagination of their plasma membrane.

  16. 1986 CACTS International Conference on Air Cushion Technology, Toronto, Canada, Sept. 16-18, 1986, Preprints

    Macewen, W.R.


    The present conference on the design and development, innovative configurational concepts, test result analyses and operational characteristics of ACVs gives attention to design criteria for light, high-speed ACVs in desert environments, preliminary over-water tests of linear propellers, tests on high speed hovercraft icebreaking, and the performance of an air cushion crawler all-terrain vehicle. Also discussed are the use of ACVs as high speed ASW vehicles, performance criteria for air cushion heave dynamics, the bounce characteristics of an ACV's responsive skirt, and the use of hovercraft in ice enforcement.

  17. Selective fluid cushion in the submucosal layer by water jet: advantage for endoscopic mucosal resection.

    Kaehler, G F B A; Sold, M G; Fischer, K; Post, S; Enderle, M


    Numerous new techniques have recently been reported and described for the endoscopic mucosal resection of large superficial lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. We present here for the first time the application of a water jet dissector for mucosa elevation. In an ex vivo study, the effectiveness of a water jet dissector (Helix Hydro-Jet) placed directly on the stomach walls of 8 pigs was examined to create a mucosal elevation. After having determined optimal pressures, angle of application, and application times, 13 submucosal fluid cushions were produced in different areas of the stomach walls of 8 pigs in vivo, and the sizes of the resulting submucosal cushions were measured. Using pressures between 30 and 70 bar, it was routinely possible to create submucosal fluid cushions in the stomach wall ex vivo as well as in vivo. Histological examination showed a selective edema in the submucosa without damage to the deeper mucosal layers of the gastric wall. The capacity of a targeted high-pressure water jet to penetrate the mucosa and selectively create a fluid cushion in the submucosa facilitates endoscopic resection of the mucosa. This new method could contribute to ameliorate the endoscopic treatment of mucosal tumors which previously could not be resected endoscopically due to their size, extent, or location. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. An Analysis of Skill Requirements for Operators of Amphibious Air Cushion Vehicles (ACVs).

    McKnight, A. James; And Others

    This report describes the skills required in the operation of an amphibious air cushion vehicle (ACV) in Army tactical and logistic missions. The research involved analyzing ACV characteristics, operating requirements, environmental effects, and results of a simulation experiment. The analysis indicates that ACV operation is complicated by an…

  19. An Analysis of Skill Requirements for Operators of Amphibious Air Cushion Vehicles (ACVs).

    McKnight, A. James; And Others

    This report describes the skills required in the operation of an amphibious air cushion vehicle (ACV) in Army tactical and logistic missions. The research involved analyzing ACV characteristics, operating requirements, environmental effects, and results of a simulation experiment. The analysis indicates that ACV operation is complicated by an…

  20. A preliminary investigation into the design of pressure cushions and their potential applications for forearm robotic orthoses.

    Alavi, N; Zampierin, S; Komeili, M; Cocuzza, S; Debei, S; Menon, C


    Load cells are often used in rehabilitation robotics to monitor human-robot interaction. While load cells are accurate and suitable for the stationary end-point robots used in rehabilitation hospitals, their cost and inability to conform to the shape of the body hinder their application in developing affordable and wearable robotic orthoses for assisting individuals in the activities of daily living. This exploratory work investigates the possibility of using an alternative technology, namely compliant polymeric air cushions, to measure interaction forces between the user and a wearable rigid structure. A polymeric air cushion was designed, analyzed using a finite element model (FEM), and tested using a bench-top characterization system. The cushions underwent repeatability testing, and signal delay testing from a step response while increasing the length of the cushion's tubes. Subsequently, a 3D printed wrist brace prototype was integrated with six polymeric air cushions and tested in static conditions where a volunteer exerted isometric pronation/supination torque and forces in vertical and horizontal directions. The load measured by integrating data recorded by the six sensors was compared with force data measured by a high quality load cell and torque sensor. The FEM and experimental data comparison was within the error bounds of the external differential pressure sensor used to monitor the pressure inside the cushion. The ratio obtained experimentally between the pressure inside the pressure cushion and the 8 N applied load deviated by only 1.28% from the FEM. A drift smaller than 1% was observed over 10 cycles. The rise times of the cushion under an 8 N step response for a 0.46, 1.03, and 2.02 m length tube was 0.45, 0.39, and 0.37 s. Tests with the wrist brace showed a moderate root mean square error (RMSE) between the force estimated by the pressure cushions and the external load cells. Specifically, the RMSE was 13 mNm, 500 mN, and 1.24 N for

  1. Analysis of ergonomics conditions of a brand of mattress and pillows. University-industry project, Medellín-Colombia.

    Sáenz Zapata, Luz M; Arias, Ana María L; Guzmán, Emilio C; Arias de L, Martha


    This project presents an analysis of the ergonomic conditions of three types of mattress and three types of pillow. The products are manufactured by a Colombian company which specializes in flexible polyurethane foam and other products designed for rest and relaxation. The project was developed through the University - Industry relationship: a strategic partnership based on the knowledge and strengths of each component. The conceptual theories that underpin the Ergonomics Research Division of the Design Studies Research Group (GED) provided the methodological approach for the project: the characteristics, the requirements and the relationships that are established between the components that constitute the User - Product - Context system (basic principles of the Ergonomics - Design relationship). An important factor in the project was the conception and measurement of comfort. Comfort can be measured on an objective level (quantitative measurement), and on a subjective level (a user's particular perceptions and tastes). What constitutes 'comfort' can vary from person to person, thus making the identification of criteria for the standardization of consumer products problematic. This project enabled design recommendations to be made to the Company vis-à-vis future proposals for mattress and pillow products. This experience of applied research was carried out by professors and students from the Faculty of Industrial Design at the UPB in Medellín, Colombia.

  2. Mycelial Mattress from a Sporangia Formation-Delayed Mutant of Rhizopus stolonifer as Wound Healing-Enhancing Biomaterial.

    Chien, Mei-Yin; Chen, Ling-Chun; Chen, Ying-Chen; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Tsai, Ya-Chi; Ho, Hsiu-O; Su, Ching-Hua; Liu, Der-Zen


    A mycelial mattress of Rhizopus stolonifer obtained from a liquid static culture was utilized for wound dressing and biomedical use. Following screening of mutants induced by UV radiation, F6, exhibiting delayed sporangium formation was selected because its sporangium maturation exhibited a 5-day delay without significant loss of mycelial weight compared to the wild type. The sporangium-free mycelial mattress from the sporangiospore culture of F6 was treated with 1N sodium hydroxide NaOH at 85°C for 2 h to produce a sponge-like membrane named Rhizochitin. The trifluoroacetic acid hydrolysate of Rhizochitin contained 36% N-acetylglucosamine and 53% hexose respectively detected by the Elson-Morgen and phenol-sulfuric acid methods. Results indicated the wound area in rats covered with Rhizochitin was 40% less than that of the uncovered group. Rhizochitin decreased the expression of PDGF in the proliferation stage, increased the expression of TGF-β in the inflammation and proliferation stages, and increased the expression of VEGF in the inflammation and proliferation stages. Rhizochitin inhibited secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 on days 1, 7, 9, and 12 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 on days 3, 7, 9, and 12. It was concluded that Rhizochitin has beneficial properties of biocompatible, biodegradable, and wound healing.

  3. Theoretical investigation of heave dynamics of an air cushion vehicle bag and finger skirt

    Chung, Joon

    This thesis describes a theoretical investigation of the nonlinear and linear heave dynamics of an air cushion vehicle (ACV) equipped with a bag and finger skirt system with the purpose of understanding the skirt's effect on the vehicle heave dynamics. Throughout the course of this work, the pure heave motion of a two dimensional section of the skirt is investigated using several mathematical models. Both the nonlinear and linearized analyses include a detailed model of the skirt geometry, which is modelled as a combination of inelastic membranes and links. Air flow processes from the bag to the cushion and from the cushion to the atmosphere are assumed to be quasisteady, and the bag and cushion volumes are modelled as lumped pneumatic capacitances. The modulation of the escaping cushion air by skirt-ground contact is also included. The nonlinear simulations reveal that characteristically nonlinear dynamical phenomena such as period doubling and chaos can be expected to occur during the normal operation of ACVs. Furthermore, a configuration representative of a 37 tonne vehicle shows a resonance at frequencies in the range for which humans are most sensitive. Although these results thus show that some aspects of the bag and finger skirt heave dynamics can be highly nonlinear, they indicate that under certain circumstances, standard linear techniques can yield useful insights. Results from the linear analysis suggest that changes in skirt geometry cannot be used to radically modify the undesirable heave response of the bag and finger skirt, but reducing the skirt mass is quite effective. The pneumatic capacitance of the bag and cushion volume proves to be an important factor in the heave response. In particular, it contributes to heave instability. The air compressibility also affects heave response at high frequencies, with the effect becoming more prominent as the flow rate is reduced. The importance of unsteady fan effects on ACV dynamics is investigated by the

  4. The alpine cushion plant Silene acaulis as foundation species: a bug's-eye view to facilitation and microclimate.

    Olivia Molenda

    Full Text Available Alpine ecosystems are important globally with high levels of endemic and rare species. Given that they will be highly impacted by climate change, understanding biotic factors that maintain diversity is critical. Silene acaulis is a common alpine nurse plant shown to positively influence the diversity and abundance of organisms--predominantly other plant species. The hypothesis that cushion or nurse plants in general are important to multiple trophic levels has been proposed but rarely tested. Alpine arthropod diversity is also largely understudied worldwide, and the plant-arthropod interactions reported are mostly negative, that is,. herbivory. Plant and arthropod diversity and abundance were sampled on S. acaulis and at paired adjacent microsites with other non-cushion forming vegetation present on Whistler Mountain, B.C., Canada to examine the relative trophic effects of cushion plants. Plant species richness and abundance but not Simpson's diversity index was higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetation. Arthropod richness, abundance, and diversity were all higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetated sites. On a microclimatic scale, S. acaulis ameliorated stressful conditions for plants and invertebrates living inside it, but the highest levels of arthropod diversity were observed on cushions with tall plant growth. Hence, alpine cushion plants can be foundation species not only for other plant species but other trophic levels, and these impacts are expressed through both direct and indirect effects associated with altered environmental conditions and localized productivity. Whilst this case study tests a limited subset of the membership of alpine animal communities, it clearly demonstrates that cushion-forming plant species are an important consideration in understanding resilience to global changes for many organisms in addition to other plants.

  5. 3D characterization of EMT cell density in developing cardiac cushions using optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Yu, Siyao; Gu, Shi; Zhao, Xiaowei; Liu, Yehe; Jenkins, Michael W.; Watanabe, Michiko; Rollins, Andrew M.


    Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common birth defect, affecting between 4 and 75 per 1,000 live births depending on the inclusion criteria. Many of these defects can be traced to defects of cardiac cushions, critical structures during development that serve as precursors to many structures in the mature heart, including the atrial and ventricular septa, and all four sets of cardiac valves. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the process through which cardiac cushions become populated with cells. Altered cushion size or altered cushion cell density has been linked to many forms of CHDs, however, quantitation of cell density in the complex 3D cushion structure poses a significant challenge to conventional histology. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technique capable of 3D imaging of the developing heart, but typically lacks the resolution to differentiate individual cells. Our goal is to develop an algorithm to quantitatively characterize the density of cells in the developing cushion using 3D OCT imaging. First, in a heart volume, the atrioventricular (AV) cushions were manually segmented. Next, all voxel values in the region of interest were pooled together to generate a histogram. Finally, two populations of voxels were classified using either K-means classification, or a Gaussian mixture model (GMM). The voxel population with higher values represents cells in the cushion. To test the algorithm, we imaged and evaluated avian embryonic hearts at looping stages. As expected, our result suggested that the cell density increases with developmental stages. We validated the technique against scoring by expert readers.

  6. Sea Keeping Analysis of Air Cushion Vehicle with Different Wave Angles under the Operation Resistance

    ZHOU Jia; TANG Wen-yong; ZHANG Sheng-kun


    The air cushion vehicle (ACV) sea keeping characteristic under different wave directions with the operation resistance is discussed with the couples of the heave, pitch roll motion and the pressure of the cushion.In previous researches, only wave and cross wave direction were discussed. Then a Matlab program is made to calculate the united frequency responses of heave, pitch and roll amplitude of the craft, under different wave frequencies and different wave directions. The results of the research depict some dangerous situations under which the sympathetic vibration happens in heave, pitch and roll motion and the amplitudes are extremely higher than those under the ordinary conditions. These results will be helpful in ACV design and operation.

  7. Pin cushion plasmonic device for polarization beam splitting, focusing, and beam position estimation.

    Lerman, Gilad M; Levy, Uriel


    Great hopes rest on surface plasmon polaritons' (SPPs) potential to bring new functionalities and applications into various branches of optics. In this paper, we demonstrate a pin cushion structure capable of coupling light from free space into SPPs, split them based on the polarization content of the illuminating beam of light, and focus them into small spots. We also show that for a circularly or randomly polarized light, four focal spots will be generated at the center of each quarter circle comprising the pin cushion device. Furthermore, following the relation between the relative intensity of the obtained four focal spots and the relative position of the illuminating beam with respect to the structure, we propose and demonstrate the potential use of our structure as a miniaturized plasmonic version of the well-known four quadrant detector. Additional potential applications may vary from multichannel microscopy and multioptical traps to real time beam tracking systems.

  8. BMPER Promotes Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in the Developing Cardiac Cushions.

    Laura Dyer

    Full Text Available Formation of the cardiac valves is an essential component of cardiovascular development. Consistent with the role of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signaling pathway in cardiac valve formation, embryos that are deficient for the BMP regulator BMPER (BMP-binding endothelial regulator display the cardiac valve anomaly mitral valve prolapse. However, how BMPER deficiency leads to this defect is unknown. Based on its expression pattern in the developing cardiac cushions, we hypothesized that BMPER regulates BMP2-mediated signaling, leading to fine-tuned epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and extracellular matrix deposition. In the BMPER-/- embryo, EMT is dysregulated in the atrioventricular and outflow tract cushions compared with their wild-type counterparts, as indicated by a significant increase of Sox9-positive cells during cushion formation. However, proliferation is not impaired in the developing BMPER-/- valves. In vitro data show that BMPER directly binds BMP2. In cultured endothelial cells, BMPER blocks BMP2-induced Smad activation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, BMP2 increases the Sox9 protein level, and this increase is inhibited by co-treatment with BMPER. Consistently, in the BMPER-/- embryos, semi-quantitative analysis of Smad activation shows that the canonical BMP pathway is significantly more active in the atrioventricular cushions during EMT. These results indicate that BMPER negatively regulates BMP-induced Smad and Sox9 activity during valve development. Together, these results identify BMPER as a regulator of BMP2-induced cardiac valve development and will contribute to our understanding of valvular defects.

  9. Assessing the Operational Readiness of Landing Craft Air Cushion Vessels Using Statistical Modeling


    Beachmaster Unit ONE C/A Craft Alteration CASREP Casualty Report CBM Condition Based Maintenance CCI Corrosion Control Inspection CESE...Allowance List CSMP Current Ship Maintenance Project CSR Craft Status Report CRAFTALT Craft Alteration C4N Command, Control , Communications...Assault Craft Unit (ACU)-5 manages a fleet of 40 Landing Craft Air Cushion (LCAC) hovercrafts from its base at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton

  10. Evaluating the Vibration Isolation of Soft Seat Cushions Using AN Active Anthropodynamic Dummy

    LEWIS, C. H.; GRIFFIN, M. J.


    Seat test standards require human subjects to be used for measuring the vibration isolation of vehicle seats. Anthropodynamic dummies, based on passive mass-spring- damper systems, have been developed for testing seats but their performance has been limited at low excitation magnitudes by non-linear phenomena, such as friction in the mechanical components that provide damping. The use of an electrodynamic actuator to generate damping forces, controlled by feedback from acceleration and force transducers, may help to overcome these limitations and provide additional benefits. The transmissibilities of five foam cushions have been measured using an actively controlled anthropodynamic dummy, in which damping and spring forces were supplied by an electrodynamic actuator. The dummy could be set up to approximate alternative single-degree-of-freedom and two-degree-of-freedom apparent mass models of the seated human body by varying motion feedback parameters. Cushion transmissibilities were also measured with nine human subjects, having an average seated weight similar to the dummy. At frequencies greater than 4 Hz, mean cushion transmissibilities measured with subjects were in closer agreement with the transmissibilities obtained with a two degree-of-freedom dummy than with a single degree-of-freedom dummy. However, at frequencies between 2 and 4 Hz, cushion transmissibilities obtained with the two-degree-of-freedom dummy showed consistently larger differences from mean transmissibilities with subjects than single-degree-of-freedom dummies, indicating a need for further development of human apparent mass models to account for the effects of magnitude and spectral content of the input motion. Vertical vibration isolation efficiencies (SEAT values) of the five foams were measured with four input motions, including three motions measured in a car. The SEAT values obtained using the active dummy were highly correlated with the median SEAT values obtained with the nine human

  11. 小型 air cushion vehicle の試作研究

    小倉, 一彦; 岡田, 幸夫; 木原, 勇; 土伏, 悌之


    In studying "Engineering" , the fundamental matter is "Manufacturing (Mono-zukuri)". But the students of Electric-Mechanical Engineering Department have little time for manufacturing the complete whole systems, except for Graduation Studies. In order to let the students experience "Manufacturing" of a whole system, we selected a Light Air Cushion Vehicle (ACV) as a subject of our study. In this paper, the process of manufacturing an ACV is reported.

  12. Design and milling manufacture of polyurethane custom contoured cushions for wheelchair users

    Wilson Kindlein Junior


    Full Text Available BackgroundThe design of custom contoured cushions manufactured inflexible polyurethane foams is an option to improvepositioning and comfort for people with disabilities thatspend most of the day seated in the same position. Thesesurfaces increase the contact area between the seat and theuser. This fact contributes to minimise the local pressuresthat can generate problems like decubitus ulcers. Thepresent research aims at establishing development routesfor custom cushion production to wheelchair users. Thisstudy also contributes to the investigation of ComputerNumerical Control (CNC machining of flexible polyurethanefoams.MethodThe proposed route to obtain the customised seat beganwith acquiring the user’s contour in adequate posturethrough plaster cast. To collect the surface geometry, thecast was three-dimensionally scanned and manipulated inCAD/CAM software. CNC milling parameters such as tools,spindle speeds and feed rates to machine flexiblepolyurethane foams were tested. These parameters wereanalysed regarding the surface quality. The best parameterswere then tested in a customised seat. The possibledimensional changes generated during foam cutting wereanalysed through 3D scanning. Also, the customised seatpressure and temperature distribution was tested.ResultsThe best parameters found for foams with a density of50kg/cm3 were high spindle speeds (24000 rpm and feedrates between 2400–4000mm/min. Those parameters didnot generate significant deformities in the machinedcushions. The custom contoured cushion satisfactorilyincreased the contact area between wheelchair and user, asit distributed pressure and heat evenly.ConclusionThrough this study it was possible to define routes for thedevelopment and manufacturing of customised seats usingdirect CNC milling in flexible polyurethane foams. It alsoshowed that custom contoured cushions efficientlydistribute pressure and temperature, which is believed tominimise tissue lesions such as pressure

  13. Analysis of Trunk Flutter in an Air Cushion Landing System. User’s Manual.


    b Vertical distance between inner and outer trunk attachment point CGAP C Discharge coefficient gap flow g CKK Polytropic expansion exit (separation) QFAN QFAN Fan flow QGAP QGAP Gap flow QIN QIN Flow to trunk 96 Program Variable Name Symbol Explanation QINT Momentum change...integral A QOUT Qout Flow, out of trunk QTA QTA Flow, trunk to atmosphere QTC QTC Flow, trunk to cushion QTOT Total gap flow QTRI1 QTR Flow, trim valve

  14. Wax beads as cushioning agents during the compression of coated diltiazem pellets.

    Vergote, G J; Kiekens, F; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P


    Placebo particles were mixed with film-coated diltiazem pellets to evaluate them as cushioning agents during tabletting in order to protect the film coat from damage. The cushioning properties of alpha-lactose monohydrate granules, microcrystalline cellulose pellets and wax/starch beads were evaluated by comparing the dissolution profile of the coated pellets before and after compression (compression force 10 kN). Only the tablet formulations containing wax/starch beads provided protection to the film coat. However, the dissolution rate of tablets formulated with waxy maltodextrin/paraffinic wax placebo beads was too slow as the tablets did not disintegrate. Adding 50% (w/w) drum-dried corn starch/Explotab/paraffinic wax beads to the formulation was the optimal amount of cushioning beads to provide sufficient protection for the film coat and yield disintegrating tablets. Using a compression simulator, the effect of precompression force and compression time on the dissolution rate was found to be insignificant. The diametral crushing strength of tablets containing 50% (w/w) drum-dried corn starch/Explotab/paraffinic wax beads was about 25.0 N (+/-0.3 N), with a friability of 0.4% (+/-0.04%). This study demonstrates that adding deformable wax pellets minimizes the damage to film-coated pellets during compression.

  15. Effects of insoles and additional shock absorption foam on the cushioning properties of sport shoes.

    Chiu, Hung-Ta; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of insoles and additional shock absorption foam on the cushioning properties of various sport shoes with an impact testing method. Three commercial sport shoes were used in this study, and shock absorption foam (TPE5020; Vers Tech Science Co. Ltd., Taiwan) with 2-mm thickness was placed below the insole in the heel region for each shoe. Eight total impacts with potential energy ranged from 1.82 to 6.08 J were performed onto the heel region of the shoe. The order of testing conditions was first without insole, then with insole, and finally interposing the shock absorption foam for each shoe. Peak deceleration of the striker was measured with an accelerometer attached to the striker during impact. The results of this study seemed to show that the insole or additional shock absorption foam could perform its shock absorption effect well for the shoes with limited midsole cushioning. Further, our findings showed that insoles absorbed more, even up to 24-32% of impact energy under low impact energy. It seemed to indicate that insoles play a more important role in cushioning properties of sport shoes under a low impact energy condition.

  16. A comparative sudy of two pressure relieving techniques on three different wheelchair cushions

    C. Eksteen


    Full Text Available Introduction: Pressure relief done by a spinal cordinjured patient is of utmost importance in order to prevent pressuresore formation. Some pressure-relieving techniques are describedin previous literature, but their effectivity has not yet been deter-mined on different wheelchair cushions.Null Hypothesis (H0: The null hypothesis (H0 stated for thistudy is that there is no difference in the effectivity of forwardleaning and forward leaning towards the left as pressure relievingtechniques for quadriplegic wheelchair users over the differenwheelchair cushions.Design: An analytical experimental study design using a convenient sample group of ten complete lesion quadriplegics (C6 to T1 was performed at the Physiotherapy Department,University of Pretoria.Method: Interface pressure (in mmHg over the ischial tuberosities and upper thigh areas was measured using theTalley Oxford Pressure Monitor MKII with a 12-way matrix cell system.Results and Conclusion: The Friedman test for associated observations indicated statistically that the leaning  diagonally forward pressure relieving technique is more effective for all three wheelchair cushions used in this study.

  17. Volatile organic chemical emissions from carpet cushions: Screening measurements. Final report

    Hodgson, A.T.; Phan, T.A.


    The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has received complaints from consumers regarding the occurrence of adverse health effects following the installation of new carpeting (Schachter, 1990). Carpet systems are suspected of emitting chemicals which may be the cause of these complaints, as well as objectionable odors. Carpets themselves have been shown to emit a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The objective of this study was to screen the representative samples of carpet cushions for emissions of individual VOCS, total VOCs (TVOC), formaldehyde, and, for the two types of polyurethane cushions, isomers of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). The measurements of VOCS, TVOC and formaldehyde were made over six-hour periods using small-volume (4-L) dynamic chambers. Sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques were used to identify many of the VOCs emitted by the cushion samples and to obtain quantitative estimates of the emission rates of selected compounds. Separate screening measurements were conducted for TDI. The data from the screening measurements were used by the CPSC`s Health Sciences Laboratory to help design and conduct week-long measurements of emission rates of selected compounds.

  18. Air Cushion Vehicle Operator Training System (ACVOTS) Problem Analysis


    Bays) - Close-in maneuvering (Long Point) - Overland operations (Crooked Island) - Open water operations (Gulf of Mexico ) Audio Visual Equipment...types of media are used to support their implementation. - programmed text/ storyboard text, - sound slide, - videotape, - computer based instruction...types which facilitate student knowledge learning. Examples of academic media include: instructor lecture, mediated lecture, storyboard text, program

  19. The use of alternating mattresses in the management and prevention of pressure ulcers in a community setting.

    Hampton, Sylvie


    The district nurse and community nurse has a duty of care to provide the most appropriate care for any individual who is at risk of pressure injury. This is often difficult as time constraints mean that education can be absent or reliant on other nurses who may not be up to date with the latest thinking on prevention. Also, district and community nurses cannot be in a patient's home 24 hours a day in order to provide the turning regime that is required for prevention of pressure ulcers. Therefore, they are reliant on education for the carers and provision of the most appropriate equipment for the individual patient. It is vital that the carer not only knows what to look for, but also what to do if any redness is noted and who to call. This article will provide tips on mattress types for the high-risk patient who may or may not have a pressure injury.

  20. The Overall Scheme Selection of Rubble Leveling for Gravel Cushion Laying Ship on Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge%港珠澳大桥沉管碎石垫层铺设船(平台)抛石整平总体方案选型

    杨秀礼; 邵曼华; 徐杰


    港珠澳大桥沉管隧道采用先铺法碎石垫层基础,拟建造专用碎石铺设船(平台)。详细介绍了港珠澳大桥沉管垫层铺设要求,通过对比国内外碎石垫层施工装备铺设的几种工艺及特点,确定港珠澳大桥专用整平船采用支撑平台式,抛石管抛石整平总体方案。%The tunnel construction project of Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge adopts the method of pre-bedding gravel cushion foundation firstly and plans to build a special ship ( flatworm ) for laying gravel cushion. This paper introduces the requirements of laying gravel cushion for Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge, compares several different construction techniques and features for laying gravel cushion adopted at home and abroad. Through such comparison, the overall scheme of supporting environment and the gravel-laying pipe to lay gravel and level off is used in the construction of the ship’ s major structure.

  1. The lasso-loop, lasso-mattress and simple-cinch stitch for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair: are there biomechanical differences?

    Liodakis, Emmanouil; Dratzidis, Antonios; Kraemer, Manuel; Hurschler, Christof; Krettek, Christian; Hawi, Ahmed; Omar, Mohamed; Meller, Rupert; Hawi, Nael


    Various stitching techniques have been described to facilitate arthroscopic repair of rotator cuff tears. The aim of the present study was to compare the biomechanical properties of the lasso-loop, lasso-mattress and simple-cinch stitch for rotator cuff repair. Twelve infraspinatus tendons were harvested from sheep and split in half. The tendons were randomized into three different stitch configuration groups for biomechanical testing: lasso-loop, lasso-mattress and simple-cinch stitch. Each specimen was first cyclically loaded on a universal materials testing machine under force control from 5 to 30 N at 0.25 Hz for twenty cycles. Then, each specimen was loaded to failure under displacement control at a rate of 1 mm/s. Cyclic elongation, peak-to-peak displacement and ultimate tensile load were reported as mean ± standard error and compared using one way analysis of variance. The type of failure was recorded. No differences in cyclic elongation (1.31 ± 0.09 mm for the simple-cinch vs. 1.49 ± 0.07 mm for the lasso-mattress vs. 1.61 ± 0.09 mm for the lasso-loop stitch, p = 0.063) or peak-to-peak displacement (0.58 ± 0.04 mm for the simple-cinch, 0.50 ± 0.03 mm for the lasso-mattress and 0.62 ± 0.06 mm for the lasso-loop stitch, p = 0.141) were seen between all tested stitch configurations. In the load-to-failure test, the simple cinch stitch (149.38 ± 11.89 N) and the lasso-mattress (149.38 ± 10.33 N) stitch demonstrated significantly higher ultimate load than the lasso-loop stitch (65.88 ± 4.75 N, p < 0.001). All stitch configurations failed with suture pull out. The lasso-mattress and the simple-cinch stitch showed similar biomechanical properties with significant higher tensile loads needed for failure than the lasso-loop stitch.




    Full Text Available En la cadena de suministro y en la logística, la gestión de almacenes y en especial las operaciones de preparación de pedidos y despacho, son determinantes en la eficiencia operacional y en la satisfacción del cliente; por estos motivos, el presente artículo tiene como objetivo desarrollar un modelo de simulación discreta que apoye el análisis y evaluación de alternativas de mejora de estas operaciones en una empresa mediana del sector colchonero de la ciudad de Medellín. A través de la implementación y análisis de los resultados del modelo de simulación discreta de las operaciones en estudio, la empresa podría disminuir el tiempo de permanencia de un colchón en el sistema de 4.12 h a 3.7 h y el número de colchones atendidos aumentaría de 102 a 110 unidades con una confianza estadística del 95%. El modelo permitió que la empresa de colchones evaluara diferentes alternativas que no sólo le permitiera analizar la mejora de su eficiencia, sino también enfocarse a la satisfacción del cliente en la gestión de almacenes.

  3. Bacterial community of cushion plant Thylacospermum ceaspitosum on elevational gradient in the Himalayan cold desert.

    Klára eŘeháková


    Full Text Available Although bacterial assemblages are important components of soils in arid ecosystems, the knowledge about composition, life-strategies and environmental drivers is still fragmentary, especially in remote high-elevation mountains. We compared the quality and quantity of heterotrophic bacterial assemblages between the rhizosphere of the dominant cushion-forming plant Thylacospermum ceaspitosum and its surrounding bulk soil in two mountain ranges (East Karakoram: 4850–5250 m and Little Tibet: 5350–5850 m, in communities from cold steppes to the subnival zone in Ladakh, arid Trans-Himalaya, northwest India. Bacterial communities were characterized by molecular fingerprinting in combination with culture-dependent methods. The effects of environmental factors (elevation, mountain range, and soil physico-chemical parameters on the bacterial community composition and structure were tested by multivariate redundancy analysis and conditional inference trees. Actinobacteria dominate the cultivable part of community and represent a major bacterial lineage of cold desert soils. The most abundant genera were Streptomyces, Arthrobacter and Paenibacillus, representing both r- and K- strategists. The soil texture is the most important factor for the community structure and the total bacteria counts. Less abundant and diverse assemblages are found in East Karakoram with coarser soils derived from leucogranite bedrock, while more diverse assemblages in Little Tibet are associated with finer soils derived from easily weathering gneisses. Cushion rhizosphere is in general less diverse than bulk soil, and contains more r-strategists. K-strategists are more associated with the extremes of the gradient, with drought at lowest elevations (4850 - 5000 m and frost at the highest elevations (5750 - 5850 m. The present study illuminates the composition of soil bacterial assemblages in relation to the cushion plant Thylacospermum ceaspitosum in a xeric environment and



    Full Text Available This article deals with a set of stands made in NIMK TSAGI for testing and creating the air cushion chassis for the aircraft and vehicles. It allows to fully embrace the process of developing and constructing the air cushion chassis for air- craft and solve problems relating to peculiarities of such aircraft on the takeoff, landing and movement in the elementary prepared and unprepared soil runways, flat terrain and water areas. The complex includes: the experimental installation to study aeroelasticity phenomena of the chassis in the extending and retracting process with simulation of aircraft and ekran- oplane takeoff and landing modes in the air flow, including the wind tunnels; the experimental stand with vertical screen for testing of ekranoplane models in T-5 wind tunnel of NIMC TsAGI, permitting to simultaneously vary the model’s posi- tion relatively to the screen, roll, pitch (angle of attack, and banking; mobile experimental stand with contact crawler gear, for experimental determination and comparative evaluation of the chassis with different patterns of formation and air cush- ion fences for all-year-round testing in natural conditions at elementary-prepared and unprepared sites and water areas. Based on mathematical simulation of flow past in the wind tunnel the possibility of use booth stand with vertical screen and experimental installation to study aeroelasticity phenomena of the chassis for experimental studies, respectively, by defini- tion of the aerodynamic characteristics of forces and moments of the air cushion aircraft and ekranoplanes models and the research of phenomena of aeroelasticity of flexible fencing is substantiated.

  5. Parameter Estimation and Verification of Unmanned Air Cushion Vehicle (UACV System

    Ab Rashid Mohd Zamzuri


    Full Text Available This project is mainly about the dynamic modelling and parameter estimation of Unmanned Air Cushion Vehicle (UACV. The purpose of developing mathematical model of the Unmanned Air Cushion Vehicle (UACV is due to its under actuated nonlinearities where it has less input compared to the output required. This system able to maneuver over land, water and other surfaces either at certain speed or maintain at a stationary position. In order to model the UACV, the system is set to have two propellers which are responsible to lift the vehicle by forcing high pressure air under the system. The air inflates the “skirt” under the vehicle, causing it to rise above the surface while another two propellers are used to steer the UACV forward. UACV system can be considered as under actuated since it possess fewer controller inputs that its degree of freedom. The system’s motions are defined by the six degrees of freedom which are; heaved, sway and surge. Another three components are rotational motions which can be elaborated as roll, pitch and yaw. The problem related to UACV is normally related to obtaining accurate parameters of the system to be included into the mathematical model of the system. This is due to the body inertia of the system during the static and moving condition. Besides, the air that flows into the UACV skirt to create the cushion causes imbalance and will affect the system stability and controllability. In this research, UACV need to be mathematically modelled using Euler-Lagrange method. Then, parameters of the system can be obtained through direct calculation and Solidworks software. The parameters acquired are compared and verified using simulation and experimental studies.

  6. A Study of Maneuvering Control for an Air Cushion Vehicle Based on Back Propagation Neural Network

    LU Jun; HUANG Guo-liang; LI Shu-zhi


    A back propagation (BP) neural network mathematical model was established to investigate the maneuvering control of an air cushion vehicle (ACV). The calculation was based on four-freedom-degree model experiments of hydrodynamics and aerodynamics. It is necessary for the ACV to control the velocity and the yaw rate as well as the velocity angle at the same time. The yaw rate and the velocity angle must be controlled correspondingly because of the whipping, which is a special characteristic for the ACV. The calculation results show that it is an efficient way for the ACV's maneuvering control by using a BP neural network to adjust PID parameters online.

  7. Do Wages Continue Increasing at Older Ages? Evidence on the Wage Cushion in the Netherlands

    Deelen, Anja; Euwals, Rob


    In this study, we investigate the anatomy of older workers’ wages. The central question is whether the wage cushion—i.e., the difference between actual wages and collectively agreed-upon (maximum) contractual wages—contributes to the fact that wages continue increasing at older ages. We follow the wages of individual workers in twenty-two sectors of industry in the Netherlands using administrative data for the period 2006 – 2010. In the public sector, we find no evidence of a wage cus...

  8. Effectiveness of Disc 'O' Sit cushions on attention to task in second-grade students with attention difficulties.

    Pfeiffer, Beth; Henry, Amy; Miller, Stephanie; Witherell, Suzie


    This study investigated the effectiveness of a type of dynamic seating system, the Disc 'O' Sit cushion (Gymnic, Osoppo, Italy), for improving attention to task among second-grade students with attention difficulties. Sixty-three second-grade students participated in the study. Using a randomized controlled trial design, 31 students were assigned to a treatment group, and 32 were assigned to a control group. Treatment group participants used Disc 'O' Sit cushions throughout the school day for a 2-week period. The teachers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (Gioia, Isquith, Guy, & Kenworthy, 1996) for each participant before and after the intervention. An analysis of variance identified a statistically significant difference in the attention to task before and after the intervention for the treatment group. The results of the study provide preliminary evidence for the use of the Disc 'O' Sit cushion as an occupational therapy intervention to improve attention in the school setting.

  9. Validation and determination of the sensing area of the KINOTEX sensor as part of development of a new mattress with an interface pressure-sensing system.

    Sakai, Kozue; Nakagami, Gojiro; Matsui, Noriko; Sanada, Hiromi; Kitagawa, Atsuko; Tadaka, Etsuko; Sugama, Junko


    The purpose of the present study was to examine the validity of the KINOTEX sensor via comparison with an existing sensor and to determine the sensing areas for a new alternating-air mattress that incorporates an interface pressure-sensing system. The study design was an evaluation study to validate and determine the sensing area of the KINOTEX sensor in comparison with another sensor. Study participants were fifty-one healthy volunteers over eighteen years of age, and the two sensors were placed between participants and an alternating-air mattress. We measured the contact area, full weight load, and maximum pressure in the calcaneal region using two sensors and obtained a graphic pressure distribution of >40 mmHg in the lateral and supine positions. Correlation coefficients between sensors were r = 0.88 (p < 0.001) for the contact area, r = 0.89 (p < 0.001) for full weight load, and r = 0.72 (p < 0.001) at maximum pressure in the calcaneal region. Ninety-one percent of the pressure distribution was recorded in the central 50 cm of the bed, and 94.6% was recorded within an area 160 cm in length need the foot of the bed. We investigated the correlation between the KINOTEX sensor and an existing sensor and determined the necessary sensing area. Results suggested the feasibility of developing a new alternating-air mattress incorporating an interface pressure-sensing system to help prevent pressure ulcers.

  10. Effect of Sleeping Posture and Mattress on the Comfort of Sleeping%睡姿和床垫对人体睡眠舒适性的影响

    朱芋锭; 申黎明; 张晓春


    The study summarizes the position classiifcation, and analyzes the effect of different position on the human body pressure distribution and the form of spinal column, through body pressure distribution test and the spinal form measurement technology to evaluate body pressure distribution and spinal form on different mattress in different position. The results show that, different sleeping postures and mattress types have different effects on the human body pressure distribution and the spinal form; the body pressure distribution and spine morphology measurements can be used to evaluate the effect of different sleeping position on human comfort, and provide a theoretical basis for mattress design.%本文对人体睡姿进行了分类总结,分析了不同睡姿对体压分布和脊柱形态的影响,并通过人体压力分布测量和脊柱形态测量来评估不同睡姿在床垫上的体压分布和脊柱形态情况,结果表明:不同的睡姿和不同床垫类型对体压分布和脊柱形态有不同的影响;体压分布和脊柱形态测量可用来评估不同睡姿对人体舒适性的影响,为床垫设计提供理论依据。

  11. The effect of cushioning insoles on back and lower extremity pain in an industrial setting.

    Jefferson, John R


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between low back pain and lower extremity pain in a group of factory workers and determine the effect of cushioning insoles on low back pain and lower extremity pain. Data were gathered via questionnaire from 306 employees of an aircraft engine assembly factory. A subset of 40 workers who had reported significant levels of back or lower extremity pain were sampled for four consecutive 12-hour shifts wearing their normal footwear and then a week later for four consecutive shifts wearing cushioning insoles. High levels of low back pain and lower extremity pain were reported by workers on the plant floor, but low back pain was poorly correlated to lower extremity pain (r = 0.371). The effect of insoles on the subset of 40 workers was to lower low back pain by 38%, foot pain by 37%, and knee pain by 38% (p < .001). The reduction in low back pain, however, was not correlated to the reduction in lower extremity pain; workers reporting a decrease in low back pain differed from those reporting less lower extremity pain.

  12. Outcomes of digital zone IV and V and thumb zone TI to TIV extensor tendon repairs using a running interlocking horizontal mattress technique.

    Altobelli, Grant G; Conneely, Stacy; Haufler, Christina; Walsh, Maura; Ruchelsman, David E


    Biomechanical evidence has demonstrated that the running interlocking horizontal mattress (RIHM) repair for extensor tendon lacerations is significantly stronger, with higher ultimate load to failure and less tendon shortening compared with other techniques. We investigated the efficacy and safety of primary extensor tendon repair using the RIHM repair technique in the fingers followed by the immediate controlled active motion protocol, and in the thumb followed by a dynamic extension protocol. We conducted a retrospective review of all patients undergoing extensor tendon repair from August 2009 to April 2012 by single surgeon in an academic hand surgery practice. The inclusion criteria were simple extensor tendon lacerations in digital zones IV and V and thumb zones TI to TIV and primary repair performed using the RIHM technique. We included 8 consecutive patients with 9 tendon lacerations (3 in the thumb). One patient underwent a concomitant dorsal hand rotation flap for soft tissue coverage. We used a 3-0 nonabsorbable braided suture to perform a running simple suture in 1 direction to obtain a tension-free tenorrhaphy, followed by an RIHM corset-type suture using the same continuous strand in the opposite direction. Average time to surgery was 10 days (range, 3-33 d). Mean follow-up was 15 weeks (range, 10-26 wk). We applied the immediate controlled active motion protocol to all injuries except those in the thumb, where we used a dynamic extension protocol instead. Using the criteria of Miller, all 9 tendon repairs achieved excellent or good results. There were no tendon ruptures or extensor lags. No patients required secondary surgery for tenolysis or joint release. No wound complications occurred. The RIHM technique for primary extensor tendon repairs in zone IV and V and T1 to TIV is safe, allows for immediate controlled active motion in the fingers and an immediate dynamic extension protocol in the thumb, and achieves good to excellent functional outcomes

  13. Polydopamine-Supported Lipid Bilayers

    Souryvanh Nirasay


    Full Text Available We report the formation of lipid membranes supported by a soft polymeric cushion of polydopamine. First, 20 nm thick polydopamine films were formed on mica substrates. Atomic force microscopy imaging indicated that these films were also soft with a surface roughness of 2 nm under hydrated conditions. A zwitterionic phospholipid bilayer was then deposited on the polydopamine cushion by fusion of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC vesicles. Polydopamine films preserved the lateral mobility of the phospholipids as shown by fluorescence microscopy recovery after photobleaching (FRAP experiments. Diffusion coefficients of ~5.9 and 7.2 µm2 s−1 were respectively determined for DMPC and DOPC at room temperature, values which are characteristic of lipids in a free standing bilayer system.

  14. Polydopamine-Supported Lipid Bilayers

    Nirasay, Souryvanh; Badia, Antonella; Leclair, Grégoire; Claverie, Jerome P.; Marcotte, Isabelle


    We report the formation of lipid membranes supported by a soft polymeric cushion of polydopamine. First, 20 nm thick polydopamine films were formed on mica substrates. Atomic force microscopy imaging indicated that these films were also soft with a surface roughness of 2 nm under hydrated conditions. A zwitterionic phospholipid bilayer was then deposited on the polydopamine cushion by fusion of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) vesicles. Polydopamine films preserved the lateral mobility of the phospholipids as shown by fluorescence microscopy recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments. Diffusion coefficients of ~5.9 and 7.2 µm2 s−1 were respectively determined for DMPC and DOPC at room temperature, values which are characteristic of lipids in a free standing bilayer system.

  15. The influence of time and distance traveled by bed bugs, Cimex lectularius, on permethrin uptake from treated mattress liners.

    Kells, Stephen A; Hymel, Sabrina N


    Residual insecticides interrupt the dispersal of bed bugs (Cimex lectularius, L.), but one of the issues encountered with residual applications is understanding the uptake of active residues by the insect. This study determined permethrin uptake by bed bugs walking on the ActiveGuard(®) Mattress Liner product, via a combination of video recording in arenas and gas chromatography analyses. The best model for estimating permethrin uptake utilized a covariance model (r(2)  = 0.469) with two factors: time of exposure (F1,55 = 2.44, P < 0.001) and distance traveled (F1,55  = 0.30, P = 0.0460). Bed bug permethrin uptake was 15.1 (95% CI: 10.3-22.1) ng insect(-1) within 1 min exposure, 21.0 (15.0, 31.0) ng insect(-1) within 10 min and ≈ 42 (29.8, 60.6) ng insect(-1) within ≥50 min exposure. Correcting for percentage recovery, these values would be increased by a factor of 1.21. This permethrin-treated fabric provides a surface from which bed bugs begin rapidly to absorb permethrin on contact and within the first 1 cm of travel. Variability in uptake was likely a result of grooming and thigmotaxis, and future work should use quantitative methods to study behaviors and formulations that increase exposure to the toxicant. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. The efficacy of a removable vacuum-cushioned cast replacement system in reducing plantar forefoot pressures in diabetic patients

    S.A. Bus; R. Waaijman; M. Arts; H. Manning


    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the plantar forefoot offloading efficacy of a new prefabricated vacuum-cushioned cast replacement system designed for foot ulcer treatment in neuropathic diabetic patients. Methods: Fifteen diabetic subjects with peripheral neuropathy underwent

  17. PV-ETFE 气枕结构温度实测研究%Field measurement of temperature of PV-ETFE cushion structures

    胡建辉; 陈务军; 赵兵; 宋浩


    To investigate temperature characteristics of the ethylene‐tetra‐fluoro‐ethylene (ETFE) cushion integrated flexible amorphous silicon photovoltaic panels (PV‐ETFE for short), two types of PV‐ETFE cushions were designed. Cushion 1 was a three‐layer ETFE cushion integrated PV on sur‐face of its middle layer and cushion 2 was a double‐layer ETFE cushion integrated PV on surface of its top layer. Then, temperature of the two PV‐ETFE cushions in summer was field‐measured. The re‐sults show that temperature differences between the two PV‐ETFE cushions were 35. 4 ℃ for PV and 26. 2℃ for ETFE foils, the major influencing factors for ETFE foil of cushion 1, ETFE foil of cushion 2 and PV are the air temperature in cushion 1, air flow outside the cushion 2, and shade and angle of incidence of the solar irradiance, respectively.%为了研究柔性非晶硅薄膜光伏电池‐乙烯四氟乙烯共聚物(简称PV‐ETFE)气枕结构的温度特征,设计了由三层ET FE气枕与集成于其中层膜上表面PV组成的气枕1及由双层ET FE气枕与集成于其上层膜上表面PV组成的气枕2,实测了两种气枕的PV和ET FE薄膜的夏季温度数据.通过分析得到:两种气枕的PV和ET FE薄膜温度差分别为35.4℃和26.2℃;气枕1和气枕2 ET FE薄膜受气枕内空气温度和气枕外空气流动影响明显;PV温度受阴影及太阳光入射角影响.

  18. Progress report on Bertelsen research and development of an air cushion crawler all-terrain vehicle

    Bertelsen, W. R.


    The ACV is an exceptional amphibian but it is not, nor is any other existing craft, an all-terrain vehicle (ATV). Using the best elements of the ACV in an air-cushion crawler tractor, a true ATV can be attained. A conventional crawler drive train will propel two tracks as pressurized, propulsive pontoons. The key to a successful ATV is in perfecting efficient, durable, sliding seals to allow the belt to move in its orbit around the track unit and maintain its internal pressure. After deriving the adequate seal, a 12 inch wide x 86 inch long endless rubber belt was fitted bilateral seals and slide plates with internal guide wheels fore and aft with a 21 inch wheel base. From this approximately one-quarter scale model, full-scale air track crawlers, true ATVs, of any size and capacity can be produced.

  19. 重叠结构缓冲材料缓冲性能分析%Analysis of Cushioning Properties for Cushioning Materials with Overlapping Structures of EPE and EPS Via Finite Element Method

    宋晓利; 刘全校; 张改梅; 孟繁珺; 生雪莹


    为了研究EPE厚度的变化对重叠结构缓冲材料缓冲性能的影响,发泡聚乙烯( Expanded Polyethylene,EPE)及发泡聚丙烯( Expanded Polystyrene,EPS)所组成的重叠结构的缓冲材料缓冲性能变化情况,采用有限元法对 EPE 及EPS所组成的重叠结构的缓冲材料的缓冲性能进行了分析。结果表明:随着EPE厚度的增加,最大加速度及最小动态缓冲系数呈下降趋势,但不呈线性关系,且缓冲系数的变化幅度不大。当EPE的厚度达到总厚度的75%时,重叠结构缓冲材料的最大加速度及最小动态缓冲系数最小;随着EPE厚度的增加,最小缓冲系数的静应力会逐渐向右移动,缓冲材料的抗压强度越来越好。%In order to study the effect of EPE’s thickness on the cushioning properties of the cushioning materials which were made of Expanded Polyethylene ( EPE ) and Expanded Polystyrene ( EPS) ,the cushioning properties of the cushioning materials are analyzed based on the finite element method. The results show that with the increase of EPE’s thickness, the maximum acceleration and static stress are not proportional and decreasing. The change of the buffer coefficient is not very large. When the thickness of EPE is 75%, the maximum ac-celeration and minimum dynamic buffer coefficient of the cushioning materials is minimum. With the increase of EPE’s thickness, the static stress of the minimum buffer coefficient will move to the right. The compressive strength of the cushioning materials is better and better.

  20. Effect evaluation of a heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients’ temperatures in prehospital emergency care – an intervention study

    Jonas Aléx


    Full Text Available Background: The ambulance milieu does not offer good thermal comfort to patients during the cold Swedish winters. Patients’ exposure to cold temperatures combined with a cold ambulance mattress seems to be the major factor leading to an overall sensation of discomfort. There is little research on the effect of active heat delivered from underneath in ambulance care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electrically heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients’ temperatures in the prehospital emergency care. Methods: A quantitative intervention study on ambulance care was conducted in the north of Sweden. The ambulance used for the intervention group (n=30 was equipped with an electrically heated mattress on the regular ambulance stretcher whereas for the control group (n=30 no active heat was provided on the stretcher. Outcome variables were measured as thermal comfort on the Cold Discomfort Scale (CDS, subjective comments on cold experiences, and finger, ear and air temperatures. Results: Thermal comfort, measured by CDS, improved during the ambulance transport to the emergency department in the intervention group (p=0.001 but decreased in the control group (p=0.014. A significant higher proportion (57% of the control group rated the stretcher as cold to lie down compared to the intervention group (3%, p<0.001. At arrival, finger, ear and compartment air temperature showed no statistical significant difference between groups. Mean transport time was approximately 15 minutes. Conclusions: The use of active heat from underneath increases the patients’ thermal comfort and may prevent the negative consequences of cold stress.

  1. Effect evaluation of a heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients' temperatures in prehospital emergency care--an intervention study.

    Aléx, Jonas; Karlsson, Stig; Björnstig, Ulf; Saveman, Britt-Inger


    The ambulance milieu does not offer good thermal comfort to patients during the cold Swedish winters. Patients' exposure to cold temperatures combined with a cold ambulance mattress seems to be the major factor leading to an overall sensation of discomfort. There is little research on the effect of active heat delivered from underneath in ambulance care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electrically heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients' temperatures in the prehospital emergency care. A quantitative intervention study on ambulance care was conducted in the north of Sweden. The ambulance used for the intervention group (n=30) was equipped with an electrically heated mattress on the regular ambulance stretcher whereas for the control group (n=30) no active heat was provided on the stretcher. Outcome variables were measured as thermal comfort on the Cold Discomfort Scale (CDS), subjective comments on cold experiences, and finger, ear and air temperatures. Thermal comfort, measured by CDS, improved during the ambulance transport to the emergency department in the intervention group (p=0.001) but decreased in the control group (p=0.014). A significant higher proportion (57%) of the control group rated the stretcher as cold to lie down compared to the intervention group (3%, p<0.001). At arrival, finger, ear and compartment air temperature showed no statistical significant difference between groups. Mean transport time was approximately 15 minutes. The use of active heat from underneath increases the patients' thermal comfort and may prevent the negative consequences of cold stress.

  2. 1985 Joint International Conference on Air Cushion Technology, Rockville, MD, September 24-26, 1985, Preprints and Late Papers

    Amyot, J. R.


    Papers are presented on the effect of a resonant skirt on ACV seakeeping, aerodynamic characteristics of a bag-cone skirt, and a calculation of the static forces acting on ACV bag-finger skirts. Also considered are tactical problems relating to the hovercraft application of marine gas turbines, development of the Air Cushion Equipment Transporter, prevention of propeller Foreign Object Damage, and air propellers and their environmental problems on ACVs. Other topics include the maneuvering simulation of an Antarctic hovercraft, computer-aided conceptual design of air ACVs, the use of model-test data for predicting full-scale ACV resistance, and passive control of air cushion heave dynamics. Papers are also presented on hovercraft in low enforcement, managing LCAC in the evolving acquisition environment, and SES and ACV for naval mission.

  3. 单片机控制的冷暖坐垫%Cushion Controlled By Single-Chip



    介绍了一种利用ATmega8单片机控制帕尔贴半导体组件制冷、制热的坐垫。坐垫内置水管与外部水箱连通。根据帕尔贴原理,对水箱内的水制冷或加热,并通过微型泵进行水循环,使坐垫的温度与水箱温度保持一致。%This paper introduces the cushion controlled by Peltier to cool or heat by ATmega8 Single-Chip.The cushion has built-in water pipes,with water pipes connected with the external tank.According to the principle of Peltier,water in the tank is cooled or heated,and water circulation is realized by the micro-pump,keeping temperature of the cushion the same with the water temperature.

  4. Experimental investigation of the optimization of stilling basin with shallow- water cushion used for low Froude number energy dissipation

    李连侠; 廖华胜; 刘达; 蒋胜银


    Energy dissipations induced by the hydraulic jump and the trajectory jet are the most widely known as the two dissipation modes at the downstream of flood discharging structures, which are often considered quite different even contradictory. However, such two energy dissipators can be used jointly and harmonically. In this paper, a new type of stilling basin with a shallow-water cushion and a triangular bottom deflector is proposed based on two different scale physical model tests of the flood discharging tunnel No.2 of Luding hydropower project. The experimental results show that the flow regime of the hydraulic jump in the presented stilling basin with bottom deflector enjoys a good and stable performance within a large range of flow rates and the energy dissipation rate is considerably high as compared to the conventional stilling basin even at a low Froude number. The results also indicate that the stilling basin with triangular bottom deflector has a better performance in improving the potential cavitation erosion according to the analysis of the pressure and the cavitation number compared to the trapezoidal one. The proposed new type of shallow-cushion stilling basin with a shallow-water cushion can be applied in similar energy dissipation projects with low Froude number and large range of flow rates.

  5. Motion analysis of wheelchair propulsion movements in hemiplegic patients: effect of a wheelchair cushion on suppressing posterior pelvic tilt.

    Kawada, Kyohei; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Takanashi, Akira; Miyazima, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Sumiko


    [Purpose] This study sought to ascertain whether, in hemiplegic patients, the effect of a wheelchair cushion to suppress pelvic posterior tilt when initiating wheelchair propulsion would continue in subsequent propulsions. [Subjects] Eighteen hemiplegic patients who were able to propel a wheelchair in a seated position participated in this study. [Methods] An adjustable wheelchair was fitted with a cushion that had an anchoring function, and a thigh pad on the propulsion side was removed. Propulsion movements from the seated position without moving through three propulsion cycles were measured using a three-dimensional motion analysis system, and electromyography was used to determine the angle of pelvic posterior tilt, muscle activity of the biceps femoris long head, and propulsion speed. [Results] Pelvic posterior tilt could be suppressed through the three propulsion cycles, which served to increase propulsion speed. Muscle activity of the biceps femoris long head was highest when initiating propulsion and decreased thereafter. [Conclusion] The effect of the wheelchair cushion on suppressing pelvic posterior tilt continued through three propulsion cycles.

  6. A nanometric cushion for enhancing scratch and wear resistance of hard films.

    Gotlib-Vainshtein, Katya; Girshevitz, Olga; Sukenik, Chaim N; Barlam, David; Cohen, Sidney R


    Scratch resistance and friction are core properties which define the tribological characteristics of materials. Attempts to optimize these quantities at solid surfaces are the subject of intense technological interest. The capability to modulate these surface properties while preserving both the bulk properties of the materials and a well-defined, constant chemical composition of the surface is particularly attractive. We report herein the use of a soft, flexible underlayer to control the scratch resistance of oxide surfaces. Titania films of several nm thickness are coated onto substrates of silicon, kapton, polycarbonate, and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The scratch resistance measured by scanning force microscopy is found to be substrate dependent, diminishing in the order PDMS, kapton/polycarbonate, Si/SiO2. Furthermore, when PDMS is applied as an intermediate layer between a harder substrate and titania, marked improvement in the scratch resistance is achieved. This is shown by quantitative wear tests for silicon or kapton, by coating these substrates with PDMS which is subsequently capped by a titania layer, resulting in enhanced scratch/wear resistance. The physical basis of this effect is explored by means of Finite Element Analysis, and we suggest a model for friction reduction based on the "cushioning effect" of a soft intermediate layer.

  7. Modeling, simulation & optimization of the landing craft air cushion fleet readiness.

    Engi, Dennis


    The Landing Craft Air Cushion is a high-speed, over-the-beach, fully amphibious landing craft capable of carrying a 60-75 ton payload. The LCAC fleet can serve to transport weapons systems, equipment, cargo and personnel from ship to shore and across the beach. This transport system is an integral part of our military arsenal and, as such, its readiness is an important consideration for our national security. Further, the best way to expend financial resources that have been allocated to maintain this fleet is a critical Issue. There is a clear coupling between the measure of Fleet Readiness as defined by the customer for this project and the information that is provided by Sandia's ProOpta methodology. Further, there is a richness in the data that provides even more value to the analyst. This report provides an analytic framework for understanding the connection between Fleet Readiness and the output provided by Sandia's ProOpta software. Further, this report highlights valuable information that can also be made available using the ProOpta output and concepts from basic probability theory. Finally, enabling assumptions along with areas that warrant consideration for further study are identified.

  8. Molecular analysis of the nondisjoined chromosome in trisomy 21 with and without endocardial cushion defects

    Zittergruen, M.M.; Murray, J.C.; Lauer, R.M. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)] [and others


    Congenital heart disease is found in approximately 40% of patients with Down syndrome (DS), with endocardial cushion defects (ECDs) comprising one-third of the defects. Sixteen highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were typed in two groups (Group 1: DS with ECD, n=43, and Group 2: DS without ECD, n=52) to determine: (1) the parental origin of the extra chromosome, (2) the presence or absence of disomic homozygosity (reduced) or heterozygosity (nonreduced) of the markers along 21q, and (3) the presence or absence of recombination in the nondisjoined chromosome. The association of these three factors with the presence of ECD in DS was then determined. The origin of the nondisjoined chromosome was maternal in 86.3% of the total cases with no significant differences between groups 1 and 2. The most centromeric marker was nonreduced in 77% of the maternally-derived trisomies (indicative of a meiosis II nondisjunction) with no significant differences between groups 1 and 2. The most telomeric markers showed no differences in the number of reduced or nonreduced markers between maternally and paternally derived chromosomes or between groups 1 and 2. Recombination was significantly decreased in group 1 (28%) compared to group 2 (56%) (chi-square 7.45, p < 0.01) with similar values for both paternally and maternally-derived trisomies. Overall, recombination was present in 43.2% of the nondisjoined chromosomes which is similar to the 42.3% recombination reported in nondisjoined chromosomes in trisomy 21.

  9. Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) as Sandwich Coating Cushion for Silicon Anode in Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Han, Yuzhen; Qi, Pengfei; Zhou, Junwen; Feng, Xiao; Li, Siwu; Fu, Xiaotao; Zhao, Jingshu; Yu, Danni; Wang, Bo


    A novel metal-organic framework (MOF) sandwich coating method (denoted as MOF-SC) is developed for hybrid Li ion battery electrode preparation, in which the MOF films are casted on the surface of a silicon layer and sandwiched between the active silicon and the separator. The obtained electrodes show improved cycling performance. The areal capacity of the cheap and readily available microsized Si treated with MOF-SC can reach 1700 μAh cm(-2) at 265 μA cm(-2) and maintain at 850 μAh cm(-2) after 50 cycles. Beyond the above, the commercial nanosized Si treated by MOF-SC also shows greatly enhanced areal capacity and outstanding cycle stability, 600 μAh cm(-2) for 100 cycles without any apparent fading. By virtue of the novel structure prepared by the MOFs, this new MOF-SC structure serves as an efficient protection cushion for the drastic volume change of silicon during charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, this MOF layer, with large pore volume and high surface area, can adsorb electrolyte and allow faster diffusion of Li(+) as evidenced by decreased impedance and improved rate performance.

  10. Wear rate evaluation of a novel polycarbonate-urethane cushion form bearing for artificial hip joints.

    Elsner, Jonathan J; Mezape, Yoav; Hakshur, Keren; Shemesh, Maoz; Linder-Ganz, Eran; Shterling, Avi; Eliaz, Noam


    There is growing interest in the use of compliant materials as an alternative to hard bearing materials such as polyethylene, metal and ceramics in artificial joints. Cushion form bearings based on polycarbonate-urethane (PCU) mimic the natural synovial joint more closely by promoting fluid-film lubrication. In the current study, we used a physiological simulator to evaluate the wear characteristics of a compliant PCU acetabular buffer, coupled against a cobalt-chrome femoral head. The wear rate was evaluated over 8 million cycles gravimetrically, as well as by wear particle isolation using filtration and bio-ferrography (BF). The gravimetric and BF methods showed a wear rate of 9.9-12.5mg per million cycles, whereas filtration resulted in a lower wear rate of 5.8mg per million cycles. Bio-ferrography was proven to be an effective method for the determination of wear characteristics of the PCU acetabular buffer. Specifically, it was found to be more sensitive towards the detection of wear particles compared to the conventional filtration method, and less prone to environmental fluctuations than the gravimetric method. PCU demonstrated a low particle generation rate (1-5×10⁶ particles per million cycles), with the majority (96.6%) of wear particle mass lying above the biologically active range, 0.2-10μm. Thus, PCU offers a substantial advantage over traditional bearing materials, not only in its low wear rate, but also in its osteolytic potential.

  11. 桩帽垫层对锤击沉桩的影响数值分析%Numerical Analysis of Influence of Pile Cap Cushion on Driving Pile

    王继成; 倪占东; 柳爱; 周向阳


    Elastic pile cap cushion and hardwood cushion are simulated by ABAQUS, the famous finite element software, in order to study the influence of pile cap cushion on driving pile in this paper. It is discovered that elastic cushion can reduce the stress of the driven pile evidently during the driving process,but the capacity of reducing the pile stress of hardwood is poor. The penetration can be increased greatly with suitable thickness and stiffness of the cushion. There is certain relationship among hammering energy, thickness and stiffness of the cushion. A certain stiffness corresponds to an optimal thickness, the optimal thickness and the range of optimal thickness is enlarged with the increase of stiffness. Much better effectiveness of driving pile with thicker and suitable pile cap cushion can be obtained.%为了研究桩帽垫层对锤击沉桩效果的影响,采用有限元软件ABAQUS对弹性桩帽垫层和硬木垫层进行了模拟,发现弹性垫层在锤击过程中可显著降低桩身应力,而硬木板降低桩身应力的能力有限.采用合适厚度、刚度的垫层时,可显著增加贯人度.锤击能、垫层厚度、垫层刚度之间存在一定关系.对于某一垫层刚度,存在一最优垫层厚度,垫层刚度增加,最优垫层厚度范围也增加了.厚度较厚、刚度稍大的垫层能取得较好的沉桩效果.

  12. Carbohydrate reserves in the facilitator cushion plant Laretia acaulis suggest carbon limitation at high elevation and no negative effects of beneficiary plants.

    García Lino, Mary Carolina; Cavieres, Lohengrin A; Zotz, Gerhard; Bader, Maaike Y


    The elevational range of the alpine cushion plant Laretia acaulis (Apiaceae) comprises a cold upper extreme and a dry lower extreme. For this species, we predict reduced growth and increased non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations (i.e. carbon sink limitation) at both elevational extremes. In a facilitative interaction, these cushions harbor other plant species (beneficiaries). Such interactions appear to reduce reproduction in other cushion species, but not in L. acaulis. However, vegetative effects may be more important in this long-lived species and may be stronger under marginal conditions. We studied growth and NSC concentrations in leaves and stems of L. acaulis collected from cushions along its full elevational range in the Andes of Central Chile. NSC concentrations were lowest and cushions were smaller and much less abundant at the highest elevation. At the lowest elevation, NSC concentrations and cushion sizes were similar to those of intermediate elevations but cushions were somewhat less abundant. NSC concentrations and growth did not change with beneficiary cover at any elevation. Lower NSC concentrations at the upper extreme contradict the sink-limitation hypothesis and may indicate that a lack of warmth is not limiting growth at high-elevation. At the lower extreme, carbon gain and growth do not appear more limiting than at intermediate elevations. The lower population density at both extremes suggests that the regeneration niche exerts important limitations to this species' distribution. The lack of an effect of beneficiaries on reproduction and vegetative performance suggests that the interaction between L. acaulis and its beneficiaries is probably commensalistic.

  13. Retinoic Acid Signaling Is Essential for Valvulogenesis by Affecting Endocardial Cushions Formation in Zebrafish Embryos.

    Li, Junbo; Yue, Yunyun; Zhao, Qingshun


    Retinoic acid (RA) plays important roles in many stages of heart morphogenesis. Zebrafish embryos treated with exogenous RA display defective atrio-ventricular canal (AVC) specification. However, whether endogenous RA signaling takes part in cardiac valve formation remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the role of RA signaling in cardiac valve development by knocking down aldh1a2, the gene encoding an enzyme that is mainly responsible for RA synthesis during early development, in zebrafish embryos. The results showed that partially knocking down aldh1a2 caused defective formation of primitive cardiac valve leaflets at 108 hpf (hour post-fertilization). Inhibiting endogenous RA signaling by 4-diethylaminobenzal-dehyde revealed that 16-26 hpf was a key time window when RA signaling affects the valvulogenesis. The aldh1a2 morphants had defective formation of endocardial cushion (EC) at 76 hpf though they had almost normal hemodynamics and cardiac chamber specification at early development. Examining the expression patterns of AVC marker genes including bmp4, bmp2b, nppa, notch1b, and has2, we found the morphants displayed abnormal development of endocardial AVC but almost normal development of myocardial AVC at 50 hpf. Being consistent with the reduced expression of notch1b in endocardial AVC, the VE-cadherin gene cdh5, the downstream gene of Notch signaling, was ectopically expressed in AVC of aldh1a2 morphants at 50 hpf, and overexpression of cdh5 greatly affected the formation of EC in the embryos at 76 hpf. Taken together, our results suggest that RA signaling plays essential roles in zebrafish cardiac valvulogenesis.

  14. A new mulinane diterpenoid from the cushion shrub Azorella compacta growing in Perú

    Salgado, Francisco; Areche, Carlos; Sepúlveda, Beatriz; Simirgiotis, Mario J.; Cáceres, Fátima; Quispe, Cristina; Quispe, Lina; Cano, Teresa


    Background: Azorella compacta is a rare yellow-green compact resinous cushion shrub growing from the high Andes of southern Perú to northwestern Argentina, and which is a producer of biologically active and unique diterpenoids. Objective: This study investigated the secondary metabolites present in a Peruvian sample of Azorella compacta and the evaluation of gastroprotective activity of the isolated compounds in a gastric- induced ulcer model in mice. Material and Methods: Six secondary metabolites (diterpenoids 1-6) present in the dichloromethane (DCM) extract of A. compacta growing in Perú were isolated by a combination of Sephadex LH-20 permeation and silica gel chromatography and their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (NMR) and molecular modeling. The gastroprotective activity of the new compound 1 was evaluated on the HCl/EtOH-induced gastric lesion model in mice and compared to the activity showed by the known compounds. Results: A new mulinane diterpene along with five known diterpenoids have been isolated from a Peruvian sample of A. compacta and the gastroprotective results show that compound 1 is less active than the other known mulinane diterpenoids isolated. Conclusions: A. compacta growing in Perú showed the presence of the new mulinane 1, which was poorly active in the HCl/EtOH-induced gastric lesion model in mice. Indeed, the activity was lower than other diterpenoids (2-6) showing an oxygenated function at C-16 or/and C-20, which confirm the role of an oxygenated group (OH or carboxylic acid) for the gastroprotective activity of mulinane compounds. PMID:25298672

  15. What is the best support surface in prevention and treatment, as of 2012, for a patient at risk and/or suffering from pressure ulcer sore? Developing French guidelines for clinical practice.

    Colin, D; Rochet, J-M; Ribinik, P; Barrois, B; Passadori, Y; Michel, J-M


    The use of support surfaces in the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers prevention is an important part of care for a patient at risk and/or suffering from sore(s). Define which support surfaces to use in prevention and treatment of at-risk and/or pressure sore patients. A systematic review of the literature querying the several Pascal Biomed, PubMed and Cochrane Library databases from 2000 through 2010. RESULTS (GRADE A): In prevention, a structured foam mattress is more efficient than a standard hospital mattress. An alternating pressure mattress is more effective than a visco-elastic mattress limiting the occurrence heel pressure ulcers, but those that do occur are more serious. A low-air-loss bed is more efficient than a mixed pulsating air mattress in prevention of heel pressure ulcers. Some types of sheepskin can reduce sacral pressure ulcer incidence in orthopedic patients. Use of an overlay on an operating table limits the occurrence of peroperative and postoperative pressure ulcers. An air-fluidized bed improves pressure ulcer healing. The data in the literature are not always relevant and do not suffice to dictate a clinician's choices. We are compelled to recognize the methodological limitations of many studies, the lack of corporate interest in conducting such studies and the relatively small number of available trials. However, the effectiveness of some support surfaces reaches a sufficient level of evidence, especially when they are associated with postural, hydration and nutritional measures. Support surfaces are recommended in prevention and treatment of patients at risk and/or already suffering from pressure ulcer, and their use should constitute part of an overall preventive or curative strategy. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. A Comparative Study Between an Improved Novel Air-Cushion Sensor and a Wheeled Probe for Minimally Invasive Surgery

    Challacombe, Benjamin; Li, Jichun; Seneviratne, Lakmal; Althoefer, Kaspar; Dasgupta, Prokar; Murphy, Declan


    Abstract Purpose We describe a comparative study between an enhanced air-cushion tactile sensor and a wheeled indentation probe. These laparoscopic tools are designed to rapidly locate soft-tissue abnormalities during minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Materials and Methods The air-cushion tactile sensor consists of an optically based sensor with a 7.8 mm sphere “floating” on a cushion of air at the tip of a shaft. The wheeled indentation probe is a 10 mm wide and 5 mm in diameter wheel mounted to a force/torque sensor. A continuous rolling indentation technique is used to pass the sensors over the soft-tissue surfaces. The variations in stiffness of the viscoelastic materials that are detected during the rolling indentations are illustrated by stiffness maps that can be used for tissue diagnosis. The probes were tested by having to detect four embedded nodules in a silicone phantom. Each probe was attached to a robotic manipulator and rolled over the silicone phantom in parallel paths. The readings of each probe collected during the process of rolling indentation were used to achieve the final results. Results The results show that both sensors reliably detected the areas of variable stiffness by accurately identifying the location of each nodule. These are illustrated in the form of two three-dimensional spatiomechanical maps. Conclusions These probes have the potential to be used in MIS because they could provide surgeons with information on the mechanical properties of soft tissue, consequently enhancing the reduction in haptic feedback. PMID:20624084

  17. Subjective valuation of cushioning in a human drop landing task as quantified by trade-offs in mechanical work.

    Skinner, Nathaniel E; Zelik, Karl E; Kuo, Arthur D


    Humans can perform motor tasks in a variety of ways, yet often favor a particular strategy. Some factors governing the preferred strategy may be objective and quantifiable, (e.g. metabolic energy or mechanical work) while others may be more subjective and less measurable, (e.g. discomfort, pain, or mental effort). Subjectivity can make it challenging to explain or predict preferred movement strategies. We propose that subjective factors might nevertheless be characterized indirectly by their trade-offs against more objective measures such as work. Here we investigated whether subjective costs that influence human movement during drop landings could be indirectly assessed by quantifying mechanical work performed. When landing on rigid ground, humans typically absorb much of the collision actively by bending their knees, perhaps to avoid the discomfort of stiff-legged landings. We measured how work performed by healthy adults (N=8) changed as a function of surface cushioning for drop landings (fixed at about 0.4m) onto varying amounts of foam. Landing on more foam dissipated more energy passively in the surface, thus reducing the net dissipation required of subjects, due to relatively fixed landing energy. However, subjects actually performed even less work in the dissipative collision, as well as in the subsequent active, positive work to return to upright stance (approximately linear decrease of about 1.52 J per 1 cm of foam thickness). As foam thickness increased, there was also a corresponding reduction in center-of-mass vertical displacement after initial impact by up to 43%. Humans appear to subjectively value cushioning, revealed by the extra work they perform landing without it. Cushioning is thus worth more than the energy it dissipates, in an amount that indicates the subjective discomfort of stiff landings.

  18. Advancing a smart air cushion system for preventing pressure ulcers using projection Moiré for large deformation measurements

    Cheng, Sheng-Lin; Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Lee, Carina Jean-Tien; Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Lee, Chih-Kung


    A pressure ulcer is one of the most important concerns for wheelchair bound patients with spinal cord injuries. A pressure ulcer is a localized injury near the buttocks that bear ischial tuberosity oppression over a long period of time. Due to elevated compression to blood vessels, the surrounding tissues suffer from a lack of oxygen and nutrition. The ulcers eventually lead to skin damage followed by tissue necrosis. The current medical strategy is to minimize the occurrence of pressure ulcers by regularly helping patients change their posture. However, these methods do not always work effectively or well. As a solution to fundamentally prevent pressure ulcers, a smart air cushion system was developed to detect and control pressure actively. The air cushion works by automatically adjusting a patient's sitting posture to effectively relieve the buttock pressure. To analyze the correlation between the dynamic pressure profiles of an air cell with a patient's weight, a projection Moiré system was adopted to measure the deformation of an air cell and its associated stress distribution. Combining a full-field deformation imaging with air pressure measured within an air cell, the patient's weight and the stress distribution can be simultaneously obtained. By integrating a full-field optical metrology with a time varying pressure sensor output coupled with different active air control algorithms for various designs, we can tailor the ratio of the air cells. Our preliminary data suggests that this newly developed smart air cushion has the potential to selectively reduce localized compression on the tissues at the buttocks. Furthermore, it can take a patient's weight which is an additional benefit so that medical personnel can reference it to prescribe the correct drug dosages.

  19. Digital Cushion Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Metabolism Gene Network Expression in Holstein Dairy Cows Fed a High-Energy Diet.

    Zeeshan Muhammad Iqbal

    Full Text Available The hoof digital cushion is a complex structure composed of adipose tissue beneath the distal phalanx, i.e. axial, middle and abaxial fat pad. The major role of these fat depots is dampening compression of the corium underneath the cushion. The study aimed to determine expression of target genes and fatty acid profiles in the hoof of non-pregnant dry Holstein cows fed low (CON or high-energy (OVE diets. The middle fat pad of the hoof digital cushion was collected soon after slaughter. Despite the lack of effect on expression of the transcription regulators SREBF1 and PPARG, the expression of the lipogenic enzymes ACACA, FASN, SCD, and DGAT2 was upregulated with OVE. Along with the upregulation of G6PD and IDH1, important for NADPH synthesis during lipogenesis, and the basal glucose transporter SLC2A1, these data indicated a pro-lipogenic response in the digital cushion with OVE. The expression of the lipid droplet-associated protein PLIN2 was upregulated while expression of lipolytic enzymes (ATGL, ABDH5, and LIPE only tended to be upregulated with OVE. Therefore, OVE induced lipogenesis, lipid droplet formation, and lipolysis, albeit to different extents. Although concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA did not differ, among the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, the concentration of 20:5n3 was lower with OVE. Among the saturated fatty acids, 20:0 concentration was greater with OVE. Although data indicated that the hoof digital cushion metabolic transcriptome is responsive to higher-energy diets, this did not translate into marked differences in the fatty acid composition. The decrease in concentration of PUFA, which could contribute to synthesis of inflammatory molecules, in OVE-fed cows indicated that feeding higher-energy diets might be detrimental for the mediation of inflammation in digital cushion. This effect could be further exacerbated by physiologic and endocrine changes during the peripartal period that favor inflammation.

  20. Expansion cushions for directly buried district heating networks. Main object products of mineral wool; Expansionskuddar foer direktfoerlagda fjaerrvaermeledningar - med huvudinriktning paa mineralullsprodukter

    Andersson, Sture [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Heat and Power Engineering; Jensson, B. [Malmoe Energi Fjaerrvaerme (Sweden)


    The initiation of this project is the question: How can we decrease the total costs for the construction of directly buried District Heating networks by a simplified routing of the piping and a more optimal use of the pipe material, taking into account the interaction between the piping and the soil and the material properties of the soil? How can long straight routings and bends with need for expansion work together, as the bends in the same time shall be secured against damages in a cost-effective way? When using modern computer based calculation programs, it can be shown that the PUR-insulation in the expansion zones, and particularly in the bends, may suffer a greater risk for being exposed to unacceptable high stresses than the metal service pipe. Therefore, in most cases, the calculated compression stresses in the PUR-foam will become decisive with respect to the routing as such but also with respect to the procedures prescribed when the system is taken into operation. In order to be able to connect long, straight routes of piping to expansion bends and in the same time make sure that the compression stresses of the PUR foam do not exceed permissible values, those bends may have to be supplied with some kind of expansion absorbing devices. One of the main goals of this project has been to look for expansion cushions with suitable material properties, especially with respect to compression. Such a material should remain soft and elastic in the horizontal direction and in the same time offer a support for vertical loads. A material that can swallow large movements of the pipe bend, gently supporting the bend without giving too high reaction forces. 5 refs, 7 figs, 3 appendices

  1. Guaianolides and a seco-Eudesmane from the Resinous Exudates of Cushion Bush (Leucophyta brownii) and Evaluation of Their Cytostatic and Anti-inflammatory Activity

    Hyldgaard, Mette G; Purup, Stig; Bond, Andrew D


    A detailed phytochemical investigation of a dichloromethane extract of the resinous exudates of the cushion bush plant (Leucophyta brownii) resulted in the isolation of the new 8,12-guaianolides leucophytalins A (5) and B (6), the new 1,10-seco-eudesmane leucophytalin C (10), six rare 8,12-guaian......A detailed phytochemical investigation of a dichloromethane extract of the resinous exudates of the cushion bush plant (Leucophyta brownii) resulted in the isolation of the new 8,12-guaianolides leucophytalins A (5) and B (6), the new 1,10-seco-eudesmane leucophytalin C (10), six rare 8...




    Full Text Available Thermal comfort of wheelchairs still requires improvements, since users remain on the chair for as long as 12 h a day. Increased sweating makes the skin more susceptible to colonization by fungi and bacteria, and may cause pressure ulcers. In this sense, the microencapsulation of Phase-Change Materials (PCMs may help to enhance wheelchair cushion comfort by regulating heat exchange. This study describes the production of PCM microcapsules and their application in flexible polyurethane foams after expansion, and assesses improvements in heat exchange. Microcapsules with eicosane core coated with melamine-formaldehyde were produced. Eicosane is a thermoregulation agent whose phase-change temperature is near that of the human body’s. Microcapsules were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Then, microcapsules were applied on polyurethane foams by vacuum filtration and high-pressure air gun. Samples were exposed to a heat source and analysed by infrared thermography. The results indicate that thermal load increased in samples treated with microcapsules, especially by pressure air gun, and show that it is possible to enhance thermal comfort in wheelchair seats. Thereby, this study contributes to enhance quality of life for wheelchair users, focusing on thermal comfort provided by cushion seats made from PU foam.

  3. Determination of the volatile fraction of phosphorus flame retardants in cushioning foam of upholstered furniture: towards respiratory exposure assessment.

    Ghislain, Mylène; Beigbeder, Joana; Dumazert, Loïc; Lopez-Cuesta, José-Marie; Lounis, Mohammed; Leconte, Stéphane; Desauziers, Valérie


    The purpose of this paper was to highlight potential exposure in indoor air to phosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) due to their use in upholstered furniture. For that, an analytical method of PFRs by headspace coupled to solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) was developed on cushioning foams in order to determine the PFRs' volatile fraction in the material. Tests on model foams proved the feasibility of the method. The average repeatability (RSD) is 6.3 % and the limits of detection range from 0.33 to 1.29 μg g(-1) of foam, depending on the PFRs. Results showed that some PFRs can actually be emitted in air, leading to a potential risk of exposure by inhalation. The volatile fraction can be high (up to 98 % of the total PFRs amount) and depends on the physicochemical properties of flame retardants, on the textural characteristics of the materials and on the temperature. The methodology developed for cushioning foams could be further applied to other types of materials and can be used to rate them according to their potential releases of phosphorus flame retardants.

  4. Mapping sub-antarctic cushion plants using random forests to combine very high resolution satellite imagery and terrain modelling.

    Phillippa K Bricher

    Full Text Available Monitoring changes in the distribution and density of plant species often requires accurate and high-resolution baseline maps of those species. Detecting such change at the landscape scale is often problematic, particularly in remote areas. We examine a new technique to improve accuracy and objectivity in mapping vegetation, combining species distribution modelling and satellite image classification on a remote sub-Antarctic island. In this study, we combine spectral data from very high resolution WorldView-2 satellite imagery and terrain variables from a high resolution digital elevation model to improve mapping accuracy, in both pixel- and object-based classifications. Random forest classification was used to explore the effectiveness of these approaches on mapping the distribution of the critically endangered cushion plant Azorella macquariensis Orchard (Apiaceae on sub-Antarctic Macquarie Island. Both pixel- and object-based classifications of the distribution of Azorella achieved very high overall validation accuracies (91.6-96.3%, κ = 0.849-0.924. Both two-class and three-class classifications were able to accurately and consistently identify the areas where Azorella was absent, indicating that these maps provide a suitable baseline for monitoring expected change in the distribution of the cushion plants. Detecting such change is critical given the threats this species is currently facing under altering environmental conditions. The method presented here has applications to monitoring a range of species, particularly in remote and isolated environments.

  5. A prospective, longitudinal study to assess use of continuous and reactive low-pressure mattresses to reduce pressure ulcer incidence in a pediatric intensive care unit.

    García-Molina, Pablo; Balaguer-López, Evelin; Torra I Bou, Joan Enric; Alvarez-Ordiales, Adan; Quesada-Ramos, Cristina; Verdú-Soriano, José


    Pressure between bony prominences and sleep surfaces, as well as pressure from the use of medical devices, put children admitted to pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) at risk of developing pressure ulcers (PUs). To assess the effect of two pediatric-specific, continuous and reactive low-pressure mattresses on the incidence of PUs, an observational, descriptive, prospective, longitudinal (2009-2011) study was conducted among PICU patients. The two pediatric mattresses - one for children weighing between 500 g and 6 Kg and another for children weighing more than 6 Kg - were provided to patients at risk for PUs (Braden-Q ≤16, Neonatal Skin Risk Assessment Scale [NSRAS] ≤13, or per nurse assessment of clinical need). Between 2009 and 2011, 30 children (13 [43.3%] girls and 17 [56.7%] boys), ages 0 to 10 years, at risk of developing PUs (NSRAS risk: n = 14 [13.2 ± 3.03] and Braden-Q risk: n = 10 [10.4 ± 2.4]) were placed on the study mattresses for a median of 4 (range 1 to 25) days. Primary reasons for PICU admission included disorders of the respiratory system (40%), infectious and parasitic diseases (23.3%), and illnesses of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue (10%). All other PU prevention strategies (eg, repositioning, specialty devices) used as part of standard care protocols also were implemented. Of the 30 participants, only one (3.3%) (confidence interval [CI] 95% = 0.08 -17.2%) developed a nondevice-related PU. No adverse events occurred. A 2008 incidence study in the same PICU, before use of these special surfaces, found a cumulative incidence of 20% nondevice-related PUs. The observed incidence rate of nonmedical device-related PUs in this high-risk population placed on these mattresses is encouraging and warrants future research.

  6. Contact sensitization to calocephalin, a sesquiterpene lactone of the guaianolide type from cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii, Compositae)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Hindsén, Monica;


    Cushion bush [Leucophyta brownii Cass. = Calocephalus brownii (Cass.) F. Muell.] is an Australian Compositae shrub that has been introduced into Scandinavia as a pot plant. The first case of sensitization occurred in a gardener, and the main allergen was identified as the guaianolide calocephalin....

  7. Novel wireless health monitor with acupuncture bio-potentials obtained by using a replaceable salt-water-wetted foam-rubber cushions on RFID-tag.

    Lin, Jium-Ming; Lu, Hung-Han; Lin, Cheng-Hung


    This paper proposes a bio-potential measurement apparatus including a wireless device for transmitting acupuncture bio-potential information to a remote control station for health conditions analysis and monitor. The key technology of this system is to make replaceable foam-rubber cushions, double-side conducting tapes, chip and antenna on the radio frequency identification (RFID) tag. The foam-rubber cushions can be wetted with salt-water and contact with the acupuncture points to reduce contact resistance. Besides, the double-side conducting tapes are applied to fix foam-rubber cushions. Thus, one can peel the used cushions or tapes away and supply new ones quickly. Since the tag is a flexible plastic substrate, it is easy to deploy on the skin. Besides, the amplifier made by CMOS technology on RFID chip could amplify the signals to improve S/N ratio and impedance matching. Thus, cloud server can wirelessly monitor the health conditions. An example shows that the proposed system can be used as a wireless health condition monitor, the numerical method and the criteria are given to analyze eleven bio-potentials for the important acupunctures of eleven meridians on a person's hands and legs. Then a professional doctor can know the performance of an individual and the cross-linking effects of the organs.

  8. Finding the optimal setting of inflated air pressure for a multi-cell air cushion for wheelchair patients with spinal cord injury.

    Hamanami K


    Full Text Available Pressure distribution patterns of the seating interface on the multi-cell air cushion (ROHO High Profile of 36 adults with spinal cord injury (SCI (Neurological level Th3 -L1 were measured at different air pressure levels by a pressure mat measurement system. Stress distribution relative to the inflated air pressure in the air cushion on the patients' wheelchairs was analyzed to determine the appropriate inflated air pressure of the cushion for patients. The maximum pressure points in all subjects were at the areas of the ischial tuberosities (82 to 347 mmHg. The optimal reduction in interface pressure at the ischial tuberosities was obtained just before bottoming out. The cushion air pressure at that point was between 17 and 42 mmHg, and correlated well to body weight (r = 0.495, P = 0.0021. In contrast, the maximum pressure levels did not correlate to body weight or the Body Mass Index (BMI. Pressure at the ischial area could be reduced, but not eliminated, by adjusting the air pressure. The maximum pressure levels seemed to be related to the shape of the buttocks, especially the amount of soft tissue, and exceeded the defined threshold for pressure ulcers (> 80 g/cm2.

  9. Estudio comparativo de microsutura vascular en ratas: punto simple y punto de colchonero horizontal Comparative study about vascular microsurgery on rats: classic interrupted suture versus horizontal mattress suture

    C. Casado Sánchez


    Full Text Available La Microcirugía es la técnica empleada para la realización de la microanastomosis vascular. El objetivo del presente estudio es comparar dos tipos de técnicas de microsutura: los puntos simples clásicos, de empleo habitual en la microcirugía vascular, y los puntos de colchonero horizontales, no evaluados habitualmente para este tipo de cirugía. Fueron intervenidas 20 ratas albinas de la cepa Wistar (peso medio de 250 - 300 gr. bajo anestesia general; realizamos sección transversal en la arteria femoral, procediendo a su reparación microquirúrgica inmediata. Se establecieron 2 grupos de animales: en el grupo A (n=10, la microsutura se hizo mediante 6 puntos sueltos simples, y en el grupo B (n=10, empleando 3 puntos de colchonero horizontal. Comprobamos la patencia en el desclampado inmediato y tras una hora del desclampado (para ambas técnicas fue positiva en el 100% de los casos, y la hemorragia en ambos tiempos (se registró un único caso de sangrado en el postoperatorio inmediato en el grupo B, que requirió la revisión de la microsutura. El tiempo medio de ejecución de la sutura en el grupo B, 15 minutos aproximadamente, fue más corto que en el grupo A, 21 minutos aproximadamente, diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p Microsurgery is the procedure of choice for vascular microanastamoses. The objective of this study was to compare two types of suture techniques: classic interrupted suture anastomoses, commonly used for vascular anastamoses in microsurgery, and another technique using horizontal mattress sutures, rarely evaluated in this type of surgery. Twenty albino Wistar rats were operated (average weight: 250 - 300 gr. under general anaesthesia. A transverse section of the femoral artery was performed and immediately followed by an anastamoses. The animals were placed into two groups of ten. The classic 6 interrupted suture anastomoses technique was performed in group A (n = 10 and another technique using 3

  10. The perfect ash-storm: large-scale Pyroclastic Density Current experiments reveal highly mobile, self-fluidising and air-cushioned flow transport regime

    Lube, G.; Cronin, S. J.; Breard, E.; Valentine, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Hort, M. K.; Freundt, A.


    entrainment and upward elutriation of ambient air inside this front. It is immediately followed by the fine-ash rich and highly impermeable main flow body. Passage of the flow body is accompanied by strongly increasing pore-pressures of 1-3 kPa that almost fully supports the weight of the entire underflow - depicting flow-induced fluidisation of the main flow part. The remainder of the flow body shows further increases in pore-pressure aside with strong reductions in flow mass. This suggests the occurrence of zones of air-cushions forming at the base of the underflow that largely aid its inviscid runout. This sequence is repeated during arrival and passage of up to three more flow pulses. The low-permeability deposits maintain high internal gas pore pressures for several minutes after emplacement, before sudden deaeration, settling and gas loss is caused by fracturing. Flow-induced fluidisation and basal air-cushioning provide key processes behind the enigmatic long runout behaviour of dense PDCs.

  11. 磁力床垫对中长跑运动员心境状态和睡眠质量的影响%Effect of Magnetic Mattress on Mental State and Sleep Quality of Middle and Long Distance Runners

    徐文泉; 王智; 冯玲


    为检测磁力床垫对中长跑运动员心境状态和睡眠质量的影响,采用文献资料法、实验比较法、问卷调查法和数理统计法,以现役29名中长跑运动员为研究对象,其中15名为实验组(使用磁力床垫)、14名为对照组(使用普通床垫),对他们大运动量训练后的心境状态和睡眠质量展开调查,结果表明:(1)使用磁力床垫的实验组在调节心境状态方面明显优于使用普通床垫的对照组,它能够明显缓解运动员疲劳、恢复精力、抚平慌乱情绪和有效处理纷乱情绪;(2)磁力床垫在中长跑运动员提高睡眠质量方面,主要体现在能够延长睡眠的有效时间。%In order to test the effect of magnetic mattress on mental state and sleep quality of middle and long distance runners, the authors surveyed the athletes' mental state and sleep quality after intensive training by the methods of literature study, experimental comparison, questionnaire and statistics. 29 middle-distance runners were chosen as the subjects, among whom 15 were put into experiment group (using magnetic mattress) and 14 in control group (using ordinary mattress). The result shows that the mental state adjustment of the experiment group is obviously better than that of the control group. Magnetic mattress can help athletes to alleviate fatigue, recover energy and ease their mood. In terms of sleep quality improvement, magnetic mattress may effectively prolong the athletes' sleep time.

  12. Biomimetic Membrane Arrays on Cast Hydrogel Supports

    Roerdink-Lander, Monique; Ibragimova, Sania; Rein Hansen, Christian;


    Lipid bilayers are intrinsically fragile and require mechanical support in technical applications based on biomimetic membranes. Tethering the lipid bilayer membranes to solid substrates, either directly through covalent or ionic substrate−lipid links or indirectly on substrate-supported cushions......, provides mechanical support but at the cost of small molecule transport through the membrane−support sandwich. To stabilize biomimetic membranes while allowing transport through a membrane−support sandwich, we have investigated the feasibility of using an ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE......)/hydrogel sandwich as the support. The sandwich is realized as a perforated surface-treated ETFE film onto which a hydrogel composite support structure is cast. We report a simple method to prepare arrays of lipid bilayer membranes with low intrinsic electrical conductance on the highly permeable, self...

  13. 生物质缓冲包装材料制备及性能实验研究%Preparation and properties of biomass cushion packaging material

    李刚; 李方义; 管凯凯; 刘鹏; 吕禹; 贾秀杰; 李剑峰


    To solve the environmental pollution caused by the non-degradable waste of plastic packaging materials,the biomass cushion packaging materials with different ingredients have been synthesized,which are made up of straw fiber and starch as the main raw materials.The orthogonal experiment method is used to study the impact of the mass ratio of fiber and starch,the content of plasticizer,active agent and blowing agent on the compressive strength of biomass cushion packaging material.The results were as follows:the influence order of various factors on compressive strength was:plasticizer >the mass ratio of fiber and starch> foaming agent>active agent.When the contents of the plasticizer,foaming agent,active agent are respectively 12%,0.1%,0.3% with the mass ratio of fiber and starch being 2:5,the compressive strength can reach 0.94MPa.Through research on the impacts of plasticizer content and mass ratio of fiber and starch on the cushion performance,the cushion coefficient of the material decreases firstly and increases subsequently with the two factors rising.When the plasticizer content was 12% and the mass ratio of fiber and starch was 2:5,the smallest cushion coefficient and the best cushion performance of the material are obtained.Compared the cushion and rebound performance with EPS (expanded polystyrene),EPE (expanded polyethylene) and other packaging materials,it indicates that the biomass cushion packaging material can replace the cushion packaging materials such as EPS and EPE.%为解决不可降解的废弃塑料类包装材料对环境造成的污染,以稻草纤维、淀粉为主要原料制备了生物质缓冲包装材料,采用正交实验方法研究了生物质缓冲包装材料纤维与淀粉质量比、塑化剂、活性剂和发泡剂含量等对材料抗压强度的影响,结果表明,各因素对材料抗压强度影响的主次顺序为塑化剂>纤维与淀粉质量比>发泡剂>活性剂.塑化剂含量为12%、

  14. Principle Analysis & Numerical Simulation to New Type NC Hydraulic Cushion System%新型数控液压垫系统原理分析及数字仿真

    蔡喜; 陈刚


    The paper introduces a new type NC hydraulic cushion system. The numerical simulation to the cushion system was performed with matlab simulink to provide the basis for the optimization. The cushion system with high stability and dynamic response meets the requirement of customers in actual application and replaces abroad branded NC hydraulic cushion systems.%介绍一种新型数控液压垫系统,利用matlab simulink对该液压垫系统做数字仿真分析,为优化系统参数提供依据。该系统具有很好的稳定性和动态响应,能够满足用户实际使用需要,可以替代国外品牌的数控液压垫。

  15. Rain erosion of wind turbine blade coatings using discrete water jets: Effects of water cushioning, substrate geometry, impact distance, and coating properties

    Zhang, Shizhong; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Bernad, Pablo L.


    Rapid and reliable rain erosion screening of blade coatings for wind turbines is a strong need in the coatings industry. One possibility in this direction is the use of discrete water jets, where so-called jet slugs are impacted on a coating surface. Previous investigations have mapped...... the influence of water jet slug velocity and impact frequency. In the present work, the effects on coating erosion of water cushioning, substrate curvature, and water nozzle-coating distance were explored. The investigations showed that in some cases water cushioning (the presence of a liquid film...... on the coating surface prior to impact) influences the erosion. Contrary to this, substrate curvature and the water nozzle-coating distance (coatings, including tensile strength, flexibility...

  16. Study of Cushion Airbag Material for Precision Airdrop%精确空投缓冲气囊材料研究

    黄刚; 李良春


    介绍了精确空投着陆缓冲的作用原理以及对气囊材料的要求,分析了聚酰胺、聚酯纤维2种气囊织物材料和氯丁橡胶、硅酮2种涂层材料的结构性能及发展,总结了当前主要的新材料技术,提出了着陆缓冲气囊材料的发展趋势.%The cushion principle of precision airdrop landing and its requirements for airbag material were introduced. The structure, performance, and development of two airbag fabric materials polyamide (PA) and polyester and two coat materials neoprene and silicone were analyzed. Several main new material technologies were summarized and the development trend of the landing cushion airbag material technology was put forward.

  17. 混凝土重力坝气幕隔震效果研究%Air-cushion isolation effects on a concrete gravity dam

    陈江; 熊峰


    The gas-liquid-solid tri-phase coupling numerical model for a concrete gravity dam based on air-cushion isolation control was presented here.In this model,the cracking behavior of dam concrete was considered.The radiation damping effect of the truncated boundary of the dam foundation was simulated with a visco-elastic artificial boundary condition.The 3D nonlinear simulation of air-cushion isolation effects on the concrete gravity dam was conducted for the first time.It was shown that the air-cushion reduces the hydrodynamic pressure and the acceleration response of the dam body effectively,so the cracking range of the dam body decreases;with increase in the thickness of the air-cushion,the reduction of hydrodynamic pressure and the acceleration response is more significant;the rate of reduction level decreases progressively;compared with the uniform-thickness air-cushion,the variable-thickness air-cushion can improve the utilization ratio and develop the air-cushion isolation effects more effectively.In the various cases here,the maximum hydrodynamic pressure is reduced by 50% approximately,the maximum dam peak acceleration is reduced by more than 30% with the variable-thickness air-cushion.%基于气幕隔震控制的气-液-固三相耦合数值模型,在该模型中考虑了坝体混凝土的开裂行为,采用黏弹性人工边界模拟坝基截断边界的辐射阻尼效应,首次完成了混凝土重力坝气幕隔震效果的三维非线性数值模拟。结果表明:气幕可以有效降低坝体上游面的动水压力及坝体加速度反应,从而减小坝体的开裂范围。随着气幕厚度的增大,动水压力和加速度削减越多,削减幅度的提高率递减。采用变厚度气幕能提高利用率,更有效地发挥气幕的隔震效果,该工况,变厚度气幕对混凝土重力坝动水压力极值的削减幅度约为50%,坝顶加速度峰值的消减幅度超过30%。

  18. Mmp15 is a direct target of Snai1 during endothelial to mesenchymal transformation and endocardial cushion development.

    Tao, Ge; Levay, Agata K; Gridley, Thomas; Lincoln, Joy


    Cardiac valves originate from endocardial cushions (EC) formed by endothelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) during embryogenesis. The zinc-finger transcription factor Snai1 has previously been reported to be important for EMT during organogenesis, yet its role in early valve development has not been directly examined. In this study we show that Snai1 is highly expressed in endothelial, and newly transformed mesenchyme cells during EC development. Mice with targeted snai1 knockdown display hypocellular ECs at E10.5 associated with decreased expression of mesenchyme cell markers and downregulation of the matrix metalloproteinase (mmp) family member, mmp15. Snai1 overexpression studies in atrioventricular canal collagen I gel explants indicate that Snai1 is sufficient to promote mmp15 expression, cell transformation, and mesenchymal cell migration and invasion. However, treatment with the catalytically active form of MMP15 promotes cell motility, and not transformation. Further, we show that Snai1-mediated cell migration requires MMP activity, and caMMP15 treatment rescues attenuated migration defects observed in murine ECs following snai1 knockdown. Together, findings from this study reveal previously unappreciated mechanisms of Snai1 for the direct regulation of MMPs during EC development.

  19. 压力控制型防压疮垫的减压性能测试分析%Evaluation of Pressure Reduction of Pressure-control Ulcer Cushion

    云晓; 郭欢


    Objective To evaluate the decompression performance of anti pressure ulcer cushions with different materials and structures. Methods The common cotton cushion, sponge cushion, 3D fabric cushion, and upper 3D fabric and lower sponge cushion were analyzed by XSensor pressure sensor testing system. The pressure distribution, the pressure peak and the average pressure were analyzed to compare the decompression performance and the comfortable capability. Results and Conclusion The upper 3D fabric and lower sponge cushion can en-sure the decompression performance with excellent permeability. Both decompression and air comfort permeability should be the future di-rection of ulcer cushions research and production.%目的:测试分析几种不同材质结构的防压疮垫的减压性能。方法使用XSensor压力传感器测试系统,测试试验者使用普通棉质床垫、海绵防压疮垫、3D织物防压疮垫和上层3D织物下层海绵防压疮垫4种防压疮垫的压力情况。从压力分布图、压力峰值、压力平均值几个角度进行评价,对比各种防压疮垫减压性能及使用舒适性。结果和结论上层3D织物下层海绵防压疮垫的组合方式既可保证减压性能效果又具备优良的透气性。兼顾减压及透气舒适性应是今后防压疮产品的生产研究方向。


    XIAJianzhong; TENGNianbao


    The paper describes mechanical properties and deformation features of shaft adjoining rocks in gliding tectonic ground and presents the shaft-fupporting procedure of smooth-wall cushion blasting ,preliminary bolting and shotcreting and pouring reinforced concrete liner in one-time-whole-section in the basis of adjoining rock deformations measured dynamically in site ,Field measurements of the pressure exerted on shaft wall show that this supporting procedure has enough safety reserve to meet the safety repuirements in mining production.

  1. An in vivo comparison of the modified Mason-Allen suture technique versus an inclined horizontal mattress suture technique with regard to tendon-to-bone healing: a biomechanical and histologic study in sheep.

    Schlegel, Theodore F; Hawkins, Richard J; Lewis, Chad W; Turner, A Simon


    The purpose of this study is to examine long-term tendon-to-bone healing, by use of a sheep animal model, after rotator cuff repairs performed with 2 different suture techniques: an inclined horizontal mattress suture pattern placed with special arthroscopic instrumentation (HMS) and the modified Mason-Allen pattern (MMA). After a pre hoc power analysis, 18 skeletally mature sheep were randomly assigned to either the HMS or MMA repair technique, with contralateral limbs used for the control group. At 26 weeks, the animals were euthanized. Six sheep from each group underwent biomechanical testing. Load-to-failure and stiffness results indicated no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. Avulsion of the tuberosity was the primary mode of failure for both groups. In the remaining 6 sheep, histologic evaluation demonstrated that, regardless of treatment, the tendon appeared completely healed in the bony trough. Because the long-term biomechanical and histologic properties of healed tendons repaired with an HMA technique are equal to those obtained with an MMA technique, the inclined horizontal mattress suture may be appropriate for arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Short-term studies are necessary to determine whether these findings are true early after tendon repair, when failure may be most common.

  2. Site Monitoring and Analysis on Differential Settlement of Subgrade Adjusted with Gravel Cushion%碎石垫层调整路基差异沉降的现场监测与分析



    我国对水泥混凝土路面下碎石垫层的研究很不充分,对碎石垫层调整路基差异沉降的机理研究较少,缺乏对碎石垫层调整路基差异沉降的现场监测研究。依托广东省阳江~阳春高速公路进行了碎石垫层调整路基差异沉降的现场监测研究,研究成果对于完善水泥路面碎石垫层的设计方法具有重要作用。%As there is not sufficient researches on the gravel cushion under cement concrete pavement in our country, there is less researches on mechanism of subgrade differential settlement adjusted by gravel cushion,there is also short-age of researches on on-site monitoring for subgrade differential settlement adjusted by gravel cushion.In this article, being based on practice of Yangjiang-Yangchun Expressway in Guangdong Province,study on on-site monitoring for subgrade differential settlement adjusted by gravel cushion has been carried out,and the study findings have an impor-tant role on the design method improvement for gravel cushion for cement pavement.

  3. Phospholipid diffusion coefficients of cushioned model membranes determined via z-scan fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    Sterling, Sarah M; Allgeyer, Edward S; Fick, Jörg; Prudovsky, Igor; Mason, Michael D; Neivandt, David J


    Model cellular membranes enable the study of biological processes in a controlled environment and reduce the traditional challenges associated with live or fixed cell studies. However, model membrane systems based on the air/water or oil/solution interface do not allow for incorporation of transmembrane proteins or for the study of protein transport mechanisms. Conversely, a phospholipid bilayer deposited via the Langmuir-Blodgett/Langmuir-Schaefer method on a hydrogel layer is potentially an effective mimic of the cross section of a biological membrane and facilitates both protein incorporation and transport studies. Prior to application, however, such membranes must be fully characterized, particularly with respect to the phospholipid bilayer phase transition temperature. Here we present a detailed characterization of the phase transition temperature of the inner and outer leaflets of a chitosan supported model membrane system. Specifically, the lateral diffusion coefficient of each individual leaflet has been determined as a function of temperature. Measurements were performed utilizing z-scan fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), a technique that yields calibration-free diffusion information. Analysis via the method of Wawrezinieck and co-workers revealed that phospholipid diffusion changes from raftlike to free diffusion as the temperature is increased-an insight into the dynamic behavior of hydrogel supported membranes not previously reported.

  4. Anal cushion lifting method is a novel radical management strategy for hemorrhoids that does not involve excision or cause postoperative anal complications

    Gentaro; Ishiyama; Toshihiko; Nishidate; Yuji; Ishiyama; Akihiko; Nishio; Ken; Tarumi; Maiko; Kawamura; Kenji; Okita; Toru; Mizuguchi; Mineko; Fujimiya; Koichi; Hirata


    AIM: To describe the anal cushion lifting(ACL) method with preliminary clinical results. METHODS: Between January to September 2007, 127 patients who received ACL method for hemorrhoid was investigated with informed consent. In this study, three surgeons who specialized in anorectal surgery performed the procedures. Patients with grade two or more severe hemorrhoids according to Goligher’s classification were considered to be indicated for surgery. The patients were given the choice to undergo either the ACL method or theligation and excision method. ACL method is an original technique for managing hemorrhoids without excision. After dissecting the anal cushion from the internal sphincter muscle, the anal cushion was lifted to oral side and ligated at the proper position. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients were recorded including complications after surgery. RESULTS: A total of 127 patients were enrolled. Their median age was 42(19-84) years, and 74.8% were female. In addition, more than 99% of the patients had grade 3 or worse hemorrhoids. The median followup period was 26(0-88) mo, and the median operative time was 15(4-30) min. After surgery, analgesics were used for a median period of three days(0-21). Pain control was achieved using extra-oral analgesic drugs, although some patients required intravenous injections of analgesic drugs. The median duration of the patients’ postoperative hospital stay was 7(2-13) d. A total of 10 complications(7.9%) occurred. Bleeding was observed in one patient and was successfully controlled with manual compression. Urinary retention occurred in 6 patients, but it disappeared spontaneously in all cases. Recurrent hemorrhoids developed in 3 patients after 36, 47, and 61 mo, respectively. No anal stenosis or persistent anal pain occurred. CONCLUSION: We consider that the ACL method might be better than all other current methods for managing hemorrhoids.

  5. Design and Development of Portable Support Surface and Multilayered Fabric Cover for Bed Sore Prevention.

    Kandha Vadivu, P


    Pressure ulcers are serious and common health concern affecting about 1.5-3 million adults and is a serious health concern for elders. Pressure ulcers or bed sores seem to be one of the most challenging inflicts to the doctors and may result in significant morbidity and mortality and are associated with high cost in terms of human sufferings, cost of treatment, and possible litigation. Though modern medical science has launched a variety of treatment methods, prevention is the best way to get rid of it. Pressure sores are best prevented by using support surfaces that are volatile in nature-like water mattress, variable pressure mattress, etc. In this research work, a portable support surface has been designed and developed for preventing bedsore. It consists of four individual components for the body part such as bodice back, hip, elbow, and heel which are likely to be affected by bedsores. Each component has volatile surface provisions in them with refilling and cleaning facility. The portable support surface is easy to wear and remove and also cheaper. Above all, the kit is user-friendly with no side effects and preferred and guaranteed by the doctors.

  6. Settlement Calculation and Analysis of Replacement Cushion Foundation in Angola%安哥拉换填垫层地基的沉降计算分析

    彭友君; 杨铮; 彭博


    安哥拉浅部棕红色砂Quelo地层具有湿陷性特征,采用换填垫层进行地基处理后,沉降计算是岩土工程研究最重要的课题。分别对换填垫层、压实地基、天然地基浸水后,通过勘探和原位测试给出了土的物理力学指标,建立锥头阻力与地基反力系数的回归方程,完善随深度变化的沉降计算参数,按照英国标准规定的公式和算例进行沉降计算,假定条形基础与换填垫层组成整体基础并对其可靠性进行验算,从而简化了沉降计算方法,将沉降计算结果与实测沉降量对比分析后,说明沉降计算结果可信并满足设计要求,实体楼的浸水试验也得到了印证,安哥拉砂土地基采用换填垫层法进行地基处理是合理的。%The shallow red brown sand Quelo stratum in Angola has the characteristic of collapsibility, and the most important subject of geotechnical engineering research is settlement calculation after foundation treatment by adopting replacement cushion. After immersion of the replacement cushion, compacted foundation and natural foundation, the physical and mechanical indicators of the soil are given through exploration and in⁃situ test, the regression equation of the cone resistance and foundation reaction force coefficient is established, and the settlement calculation parameters changed with depth are perfected. Settlement calculation is conducted according to the formula and example specified in British Standards. It is assumed that the strip foundation and the replacement cushion constitute the overall foundation, and reliability is checked, so as to simplify the settlement calculation method. Through contrastive analysis of the settlement calculation results and measured settlement amount, it indicates that the settlement calculation results are reliable, and can meet design requirements. The water immersion test of the entity building is also proved, and it is reasonable to

  7. Application of UGNX NC Programming Technology in Lebuss Drum Cushion Block's Processing%UGNX数控编程技术在Lebus卷筒导向垫块加工中的应用

    邓玉聪; 徐长生


    针对Lebuss卷筒导向垫块在设计和制造上存在的困难,建立卷筒和垫块的三维模型,利用UG的数控加工自动编程功能生成垫块的数控加工程序来对垫块进行精确加工.%Based on the difficulties in designing and manufacturing of lebuss drum cushion block, 3D models of drum and cushion block are established directly,and using UG CNC automatic programming function the NC machining process of cushion block is generated to process it precisely.This pape's method has Practical application value on Lebuss drum design and manufacturing.

  8. Fusion of single proteoliposomes with planar, cushioned bilayers in microfluidic flow cells.

    Karatekin, Erdem; Rothman, James E


    Many biological processes rely on membrane fusion, and therefore assays to study its mechanisms are necessary. Here we report an assay with sensitivity to single-vesicle, and even to single-molecule events using fluorescently labeled vesicle-associated v-SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) liposomes and target-membrane-associated t-SNARE-reconstituted planar, supported bilayers (t-SBLs). Docking and fusion events can be detected using conventional far-field epifluorescence or total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy. In this assay, fusion is dependent on SNAP-25, one of the t-SNARE subunits that is required for fusion in vivo. The success of the assay is due to the use of: (i) bilayers covered with a thin layer of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to control bilayer-bilayer and bilayer-substrate interactions, and (ii) microfluidic flow channels that present many advantages, such as the removal of nonspecifically bound liposomes by flow. The protocol takes 6-8 d to complete. Analysis can take up to 2 weeks.

  9. Effects of Micronized Fibers on the Cushion Properties of Foam Buffer Package Materials

    Chongxing Huang


    Full Text Available Foam buffer package materials composed of plant fibers have been a focus of research in recent years because of their environmentally beneficial ability to become fully disintegrated. In this study, bleached bagasse pulp was micronized using a PFI mill, and foam buffer materials were prepared using the micronized fiber. The effects of the beating degree of micronized fibers on the dimensional stability, moisture absorption, static compression, and dynamic compression characteristics were discussed. Results showed that, in both the static and the dynamic compression experiments, the buffer properties improved with an increasing beating degree. The buffer materials made of highly micronized fiber were stronger under pressure and impact. Specifically, the highly micronized fiber’s ability to absorb energy curing impact was improved, demonstrating that it can support a higher compression and impacting load in a certain deformation scope. However, during the drying process, the dimensional stability of the samples also declined with an increasing beating degree. The moisture absorption of the samples improved when the beating degree was increased.

  10. Effect of Supporting Polyelectrolyte Multilayers and Deposition Conditions on the Formation of 1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1-Palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine Lipid Bilayers.

    Wlodek, Magdalena; Szuwarzynski, Michal; Kolasinska-Sojka, Marta


    The formation of complete supported lipid bilayers by vesicle adsorption and rupture was studied in relation to deposition conditions of vesicles and underlying cushion formed from various polyelectrolytes. Lipid vesicles were formed from zwitterionic 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and negatively charged 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (POPE) in phosphate buffer of various pH with or without NaCl addition. Polyelectrolyte multilayer films (PEM) were constructed by sequential adsorption of alternately charged polyelectrolytes from their solutions-layer-by-layer deposition (LBL). The mechanism of the formation of supported lipid bilayer on polyelectrolyte films was studied by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). QCM-D allowed following the adsorption kinetics while AFM measurements verified the morphology of lipid vesicles and isolated bilayer patches on the PEM cushions providing local topological images in terms of lateral organization. Additionally, polyelectrolyte cushions were characterized with ellipsometry to find thickness and swelling properties, and their roughness was determined using AFM. It has been demonstrated that the pH value and an addition of NaCl in the buffer solution as well as the type of the polyelectrolyte cushion influence the kinetics of bilayer formation and the quality of formed bilayer patches.

  11. Effect of the Research Advances of Anal Cushions on the Treatment of Hemorrhoids%肛垫的研究进展对痔治疗的影响



    @@ 肛垫(anal cushions,vascular cushions)是一个解剖学概念,最早见于Thomson 1975年发表的论文(The nature of haemorrhoids),也称肛门海绵体(corpus cavernosum recti),是指齿状线上方宽约1.5 cm呈环状增厚的直肠柱区,借"Y"形沟分割成右前、右后和左中三块,由血管、平滑肌(Treitz肌)、弹力纤维和结缔组织所构成.肛垫早在胚胎期就已存在,属于人体正常结构的一部分.与直肠粘膜、粘膜下层、肌层比较,主要表现为肛管内局部增厚的粘膜下组织.

  12. 3-D simulation of transient flow patterns in a corridor-shaped air-cushion surge chamber based on computational fluid dynamics

    XIA Lin-sheng; CHENG Yong-guang; ZHOU Da-qing


    The 3-D characteristics of the water-air flow patterns in a corridor-shaped air-cushion surge chamber during hydraulic transients need to be considered in the shape optimization.To verify the reliability of the water-air two-phase model,namely,the volume of fluid model,the process of charging water into a closed air chamber is successfully simulated.Using the model,the 3-D flow characteristics under the load rejection and acceptance conditions within the air-cushion surge chamber of a specific hydropower station are studied.The flee surface waves,the flow patterns,and the pressure changes during the surge wave process are analyzed in detail.The longitudinal flow of water in the long corridor-shaped surge chamber is similar to the open channel flow with respect to the wave propagation,reflection and superposition characteristics.The lumped parameters of the 3-D numerical simulation agree with the results of a 1-D calculation of hydraulic transients in the whole water conveying system,which validates the 3-D method.The 3-D flow structures obtained can be applied to the shape optimization of the chamber.

  13. Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Migration Law of Gas Mixture Using Carbon Dioxide as Cushion Gas in Underground Gas Storage Reservoir

    ChuanKai Niu; YuFei Tan


    One of the major technical challenges in using carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) as part of the cushion gas of the underground gas storage reservoir ( UGSR) is the mixture of CO2 and natural gas. To decrease the mixing extent and manage the migration of the mixed zone, an understanding of the mechanism of CO2 and natural gas mixing and the diffusion of the mixed gas in aquifer is necessary. In this paper, a numerical model based on the three dimensional gas-water two-phase flow theory and gas diffusion theory is developed to understand this mechanism. This model is validated by the actual operational data in Dazhangtuo UGSR in Tianjin City, China. Using the validated model, the mixed characteristic of CO2 and natural gas and the migration mechanism of the mixed zone in an underground porous reservoir is further studied. Particularly, the impacts of the following factors on the migration mechanism are studied:the ratio of CO2 injection, the reservoir porosity and the initial operating pressure. Based on the results, the optimal CO2 injection ratio and an optimal control strategy to manage the migration of the mixed zone are obtained. These results provide technical guides for using CO2 as cushion gas for UGSR in real projects.

  14. Co-occurrence of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium decemcellulare and Lasiodiplodia theobromae isolates in cushion galls disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Castillo Daynet Sosa del


    Full Text Available Flowery cushion gall of cacao is a disease complex with six types. Fusarium decemcellulare have been isolated from both flowery and green point galls and recognized as the etiological agent of the disease. In the present work we: i identified by ITS-rDNA sequencing and/or taxonomy the cultivable fungal species or Operative Taxonomic Units (OTUs associated with the five symptoms of cushion galls in cacao from Venezuela, and ii determined the gall inducing capacity on cacao peeled seeds after 45 days of inoculation with suspensions of mycelia/ spores from distinct isolate types. The whole isolate collection rendered an abundance of 113 isolates with a richness of 39 OTUs (27 and eight identified at the species or genera levels, respectively, and in unidentified fungi. The dominant recovered species (≈36% were F. decemcellulare and Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Some isolates of F. decemcellulare, L. theobromae, F. equiseti, Fusarium spp., F. solani, F. incarnatum, Rhizocthonia solani and Penicillium sp. were pathogenic. Some other isolates of the first six mentioned taxa behave as non-pathogenic. Furthermore, pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates can also co-occur within a single plant and gall type. Moreover, 2-5 species within a single gall symptom in a single tree were identified (not necessarily at the same point in the tree, indicating a broad diversity of co-occurring taxa.

  15. 复合材料薄膜充气床垫的多物质ALE数值模拟%Numerical simulation of ALE Multi-material method for a composite membrane air-charge mattress

    杨颜志; 金先龙; 张伟伟


    某型充气床垫是典型的气囊结构,该床垫由新型柔性薄膜材料制成,力学性能复杂.目前,国内外气囊仿真研究多采用两种方法,一种是控制体积方法(CV),该方法比较简便计算需求较少,但计算精度只能满足一般的工程需要;另一种方法是基于有限元技术的ALE方法,该方法计算精度高,可用于气囊的详细仿真.针对充气床垫充气爆破工况和载人工况的复杂性,采用多物质ALE方法对其进行了详细数值模拟.充气爆破工况通过与物理试验对比,判断出床垫结构的薄弱位置,同时提出结构改进方案.载人工作工况通过参数分析方法,分析不同克气内压时床垫变形和应力状况,并判断出床垫最佳工作内压.最终的仿真结果可作为该型产品设计定型的重要依据,也为同类问题提供了参考.%An air-charge mattress is a typical air bag manufactured using new flexible film material with complex mechanical property.At present,two methods are used for air bag simulation in domestic and international studies.One is the control volume method (CV) needing less computing demands and being relatively simple,but its accuracy only meets the reguirements of common engineering projects.Another method is ALE method based on finite element technigue,it has good precision and can be used for the detailed simulation of air bags.Aiming at the complexity of two different load conditions,the detailed numerical simulation based on the multi ?material ALE method was pevfomed.The weak position of a mattress was estimated by contrasting the numerical simulation with the physical test in splitting load condition,and then a structural improvement plan was put forward.Parameter analysis method was used in man - carrying condition,and the stresses and vertical displacements of the mattress were compared under different interior pressures.Then,the optimal interior pressure of the mattress in man-carrying condition was determined


    王旭军; 龚剑; 赵锡宏


    Based on field measured data,the lateral deformation laws of retaining wall,which belongs to super-large deep foundation pit of Shanghai Tower podium,are analyzed. The analytical results show that,during the period from completion of cushion concrete placement to the completion of beam-slab concrete placement,the increment in lateral deformation of retaining wall is very small,indicating that the constraint effect of cushion on deformation of retaining wall is significant. However,due to the eccentric load effect,the lateral deformation of circle wall,which is the support point of cushion,is relatively large;and it leads to a large increment in lateral deformation of measuring point P04 during this period. Combining with the site construction conditions,the constraint effect of cushion concrete is explained. During the period of structure concrete curing,due to the concrete shrinkage of overlong beam-slab structure or bottom plate,the increment in lateral displacement of retaining wall is large. During the curing period of bottom plate,the increment in lateral deformation of measuring point P23 is larger than that caused by soil excavation for the last time. For the short concrete structure,the effect of concrete shrinkage on the lateral displacement of retaining wall can be neglected. Finally,based on the above laws,some suggestions are proposed to control the deformation of retaining wall effectively.%  基于实测数据,对上海中心大厦裙房逆作超大深基坑工程的围护墙变形规律进行分析。分析结果表明,在垫层混凝土浇筑完成至梁板结构混凝土浇筑完成期间,围护墙侧移增量很小,垫层对围护墙变形具有明显的约束效应;在此期间,因作为垫层支撑点的圆形地墙受偏载作用引起较大的变形,导致测点P04墙体侧移增量较大;结合现场施工条件,对混凝土垫层约束效应的发挥进行说明。在混凝土结构养护期间,超长水平支撑梁

  17. Endocardial cushion defect

    ... known as cyanosis (the lips may also be blue) Feeding difficulties Failure to gain weight and grow ... the child is an adult. These include heart rhythm problems and a leaky mitral valve. Children with ...

  18. 土工布加筋垫层对路基变形和稳定的影响%Effect of the geotextile-reinforced sand cushion on the deformation and stability of the foundation under a embankment

    翁升; 马时冬


    某高速公路高填方路堤下的深厚软基,采用以塑料板排水为主,配合机织土工布加筋砂垫层进行了软基处理.在对有加筋砂垫层和无加筋砂垫层的软基变形性状进行比较的基础上,评价了加筋砂垫层的作用及效果.还通过计算,分析了机织土工布的预应变对路基稳定性的影响,从而说明施工加筋砂垫层时,对加筋材料施加预应变的重要性.% The soft foundation under a freeway compacted by high fill was treated mainly by drainage with plastic plates cooperated by woven geotextile-reinforced sand cushion. Based on the comparison of the deformation behavior of soft foundation of both reinforced sand cushion and ordinary sand cushion,the role and effect of the reinforced sand cushion were evaluated. At last,the effect of the prestrained geotextiles on the stability of the embankment was analyzed through calculation,thus the importance was shown of the prestrain in construction.

  19. Air cushioned landing craft (LCAC) based ship to shore movement simulation: A decision aid for the amphibious commander. A (SMMAT) application

    Kearns, Edward P., III


    Amphibious forces are the enabling force of choice to globally project rapid and sustainable combat power in the littoral. Whether delivering supplies and equipment for military operations or for humanitarian or disaster relief, the air cushioned landing craft (LCAC) is the primary surface ship-to-shore movement craft. The time needed to transfer the forces ashore may be critical to operational success and is an important planning consideration. Many factors complicate accurate prediction of this time. Even so, various commanders must use the best available information, given mission priorities and resource and capability limitations, to make numerous tradeoff decisions in planning and executing the movement of forces. A simulation toolbox, the simulated mobility modeling and analysis toolbox (SMMAT), is introduced, and a robust LCAC ship-to-shore simulation model is developed as an extension to SMMAT. This model provides the commander a prediction and tradeoff analysis tool for planning and executing the projection of power ashore.

  20. 凉液垫在手术体位摆放中的应用%Application of cool liquid cushion in operative position placement

    李雪清; 左育涛; 刘燕梅; 刘金秀


    Objective:To probe into the application effect of cool liquid cushion in the placement of operation po-sition.Methods:Each 60 cases of patients were selected whose surgical positions in operating room in our hospi-tal were respectively supine position,lateral position,lithotomy position,prone position and the placed time more than 4 hours,a total of 240 cases.They were randomly divided into control group and experimental group, 120 cases in each.The patients in control group were treated by routine methods to put the operation position, and the conventional cushion protection was given in compressed sponge.In experimental group,different speci-fications of cool liquid cushion was placed in pressure areas to protect,then to compare the pressure ulcer condi-tions and required physiological bending in posture compliance between two groups of patients.Results:The in-cidence of pressure sores in experimental group patients was lower than that in control group,the compliance rate of physiological curve required for position was higher than that in control group,and there was statistically significant difference (P<0.05).Conclusion:The cool liquid cushion applied for protecting pressured parts in position placement of operation patients can reded the incidence of pressure sore and increase the compliance rate of patient’s posture physiology bending and improve patients’comfort.%[目的]探讨凉液垫在手术体位摆放中的应用效果。[方法]选取在我院手术室手术体位分别是仰卧位、侧卧位、截石位、俯卧位且摆放时间超过4 h的病人各60例,共240例,随机分为对照组和试验组各120例。对照组按常规方法摆放手术体位,受压处常规给予海绵垫保护;试验组应用不同规格的凉液垫放置在受压部位进行保护,比较两组病人压疮发生情况及体位所需的生理弯曲符合情况。[结果]试验组病人压疮发生率低于对照组,体位所需的生理弯曲符合率高

  1. Finite element analysis as a tool for parametric prosthetic foot design and evaluation. Technique development in the solid ankle cushioned heel (SACH) foot.

    Saunders, Marnie M; Schwentker, Edwards P; Kay, David B; Bennett, Gordon; Jacobs, Christopher R; Verstraete, Mary C; Njus, Glen O


    In this study, we developed an approach for prosthetic foot design incorporating motion analysis, mechanical testing and computer analysis. Using computer modeling and finite element analysis, a three-dimensional (3D), numerical foot model of the solid ankle cushioned heel (SACH) foot was constructed and analyzed based upon loading conditions obtained from the gait analysis of an amputee and validated experimentally using mechanical testing. The model was then used to address effects of viscoelastic heel performance numerically. This is just one example of the type of parametric analysis and design enabled by this approach. More importantly, by incorporating the unique gait characteristics of the amputee, these parametric analyses may lead to prosthetic feet more appropriately representing a particular user's needs, comfort and activity level.

  2. N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-l-cysteine in urine from workers exposed to 1-bromopropane in foam cushion spray adhesives.

    Hanley, Kevin W; Petersen, Martin R; Cheever, Kenneth L; Luo, Lian


    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) has been marketed as an alternative for ozone depleting and other solvents; it is used in aerosol products, adhesives, metal, precision, and electronics cleaning solvents. Mechanisms of toxicity of 1-BP are not fully understood, but it may be a neurological and reproductive toxicant. Sparse exposure information prompted this study using 1-BP air sampling and urinary metabolites. Mercapturic acid conjugates are excreted in urine from 1-BP metabolism involving debromination. Research objectives were to evaluate the utility of urinary N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-L-cysteine (AcPrCys) for assessing exposure to 1-BP and compare it to urinary bromide [Br((-))] previously reported for these workers. Forty-eight-hour urine specimens were obtained from 30 workers at two factories where 1-BP spray adhesives were used to construct polyurethane foam seat cushions. Urine specimens were also obtained from 21 unexposed control subjects. All the workers' urine was collected into composite samples representing three time intervals: at work, after work but before bedtime, and upon awakening. Time-weighted average (TWA) geometric mean breathing zone concentrations were 92.4 and 10.5 p.p.m. for spraying and non-spraying jobs, respectively. Urinary AcPrCys showed the same trend as TWA exposures to 1-BP: higher levels were observed for sprayers. Associations of AcPrCys concentrations, adjusted for creatinine, with 1-BP TWA exposure were statistically significant for both sprayers (P < 0.05) and non-sprayers (P < 0.01). Spearman correlation coefficients for AcPrCys and Br((-)) analyses determined from the same urine specimens were highly correlated (P < 0.0001). This study confirms that urinary AcPrCys is an important 1-BP metabolite and an effective biomarker for highly exposed foam cushion workers.

  3. Msx1 and Msx2 are required for endothelial-mesenchymal transformation of the atrioventricular cushions and patterning of the atrioventricular myocardium

    Maxson Robert E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Msx1 and Msx2, which belong to the highly conserved Nk family of homeobox genes, display overlapping expression patterns and redundant functions in multiple tissues and organs during vertebrate development. Msx1 and Msx2 have well-documented roles in mediating epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during organogenesis. Given that both Msx1 and Msx2 are crucial downstream effectors of Bmp signaling, we investigated whether Msx1 and Msx2 are required for the Bmp-induced endothelial-mesenchymal transformation (EMT during atrioventricular (AV valve formation. Results While both Msx1-/- and Msx2-/- single homozygous mutant mice exhibited normal valve formation, we observed hypoplastic AV cushions and malformed AV valves in Msx1-/-; Msx2-/- mutants, indicating redundant functions of Msx1 and Msx2 during AV valve morphogenesis. In Msx1/2 null mutant AV cushions, we found decreased Bmp2/4 and Notch1 signaling as well as reduced expression of Has2, NFATc1 and Notch1, demonstrating impaired endocardial activation and EMT. Moreover, perturbed expression of chamber-specific genes Anf, Tbx2, Hand1 and Hand2 reveals mispatterning of the Msx1/2 double mutant myocardium and suggests functions of Msx1 and Msx2 in regulating myocardial signals required for remodelling AV valves and maintaining an undifferentiated state of the AV myocardium. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate redundant roles of Msx1 and Msx2 in regulating signals required for development of the AV myocardium and formation of the AV valves.

  4. Study of Cushioning Properties of Loose Filling Materials%松散填充材料的缓冲性能研究

    徐熙燕; 康勇刚


    Loose filling material has suitability and convenience in packing operation, and can be used for packa- ging of products with varied shape, size and dimension. Packaging protection function of the material is deter- mined by its loading ability, cushioning packaging property, and the ability of proper securing products inside the container. Tests of static compression, dynamic impact, and degree of migration were carried out to four different types of loose filling material. The packaging properties of the loose filling materials were analyzed and compared with moulded pulp loose filling material. The influence of single unit structure and shape of loose filling material on cushioning property and securing function was explained.%松散填充材料可以用于对任意规格尺寸及形状的产品进行缓冲包装和固定,具有包装作业的方便性和适用性。松散填充材料的载荷能力、缓冲包装性能及对产品的固定作用,决定了这一材料的包装保护功能。通过对4种结构形状的松散填充材料在静态压缩、动态冲击和迁移性方面的测试与评价,分析了各种松散填充材料的包装性能,并与纸浆模制松散填充材料进行了比较,说明了松散填充材料单体结构形状对其缓冲性能和固定作用的影响。


    廖党金; 曹冶; 王秋实; 张先惠; 于吉锋; 叶勇刚; 田浪; 王金江; 王文贵; 李江凌; 王建明; 杨清泉


    为了解发酵床养猪的疫病风险,采用细菌常规分离鉴定、小白鼠攻毒、寄生虫虫卵检测方法,分别对5个养猪发酵床垫料和养猪场常规圈舍粪污内的致病菌和寄生虫虫卵进行了检测。结果显示:在发酵床垫料内分离到25种(亚种、类)致病菌,而常规饲养圈舍粪污内分离到8种(亚种、类)致病菌;发酵床垫料和常规饲养圈舍粪污内的同种致病菌的致病比较,发酵床内致病菌的致病性高于常规饲养圈舍粪污内致病菌的致病性。3个发酵床养猪时间延长1年后,发酵床垫料中的致病菌增加了4~9种(亚种、类),其中1个发酵床的病原菌种类是1年前的3.25倍;5个养猪场的8个发酵床垫料中,有5个发酵床垫料内寄生虫虫卵呈阳性,即阳性率为62.5%,寄生虫种类为蛔虫和毛首线虫,其中,蛔虫虫卵有4个发酵床垫料呈阳性(阳性率50.0%),毛首线虫虫卵有4个发酵床垫料呈阳性(阳性率50.0%),对患寄生虫病最严重的1头猪进行解剖,其大肠黏膜上布满了毛首线虫。结果表明,发酵床养猪疫病风险高,不符合健康养殖范畴。%For understanding of the risks of epidemic diseases caused by fermentation beds, the pathogenic bacteria and parasite eggs from the fermentation mattress materials and wastewater samples in the breeding houses of 5 pig farms were examined using conventional bacterial culture, parasite egg count and mouse inoculation. As a results, 25 species of pathogenic bacteria were detected from fermentation mattress materials and 8 species of pathogenic bacteria from breeding pig houses. There was higher intensity of pathogenic bacteria in the fermentation mattress materials than wastewater samples. Additionally, there were 4~9 more bacterium species found in thefi rstyear than the secondyear on 3 pig farms. The parasite eggs from the 5 fermentation beds were positive, includingAscaris suum

  6. Research in prevention of pressure ulcer for bed-ridden patients by simple turn-over pillow and turn-over mattress%简易翻身枕、翻身褥用于卧床患者预防压疮的效果研究



    Objective To study the prevention of pressure ulcer for bed-ridden patients by simple turn-over pillow and turn-over mattress.Methods Self-made simple turn-over pillow and turnover mattress were used in 1300 patients who had high risk of pressure ulcer,and the application effect was observed.Results No pressure ulcer occurred in 1300 patients when they were discharged.Conclusions Simple turn-over pillow and turn-over mattress showed definite effect to prevent pressure ulcer,they have application value,and are worthy of wide spread.%目的 探讨简易翻身枕、翻身褥用于卧床患者预防压疮的效果.方法 将自行研制的简易翻身枕、翻身褥用于1300例易患压疮患者,观察应用效果.结果 1300例患者出院时均皮肤完好,无压疮发生.结论 简易翻身枕、翻身褥确为一种预防压疮的有效方法,具有一定的应用价值,值得推广.

  7. Tethered and Polymer Supported Bilayer Lipid Membranes: Structure and Function

    Jakob Andersson


    Full Text Available Solid supported bilayer lipid membranes are model systems to mimic natural cell membranes in order to understand structural and functional properties of such systems. The use of a model system allows for the use of a wide variety of analytical tools including atomic force microscopy, impedance spectroscopy, neutron reflectometry, and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Among the large number of different types of model membranes polymer-supported and tethered lipid bilayers have been shown to be versatile and useful systems. Both systems consist of a lipid bilayer, which is de-coupled from an underlying support by a spacer cushion. Both systems will be reviewed, with an emphasis on the effect that the spacer moiety has on the bilayer properties.

  8. Preventive Biomechanics Optimizing Support Systems for the Human Body in the Lying and Sitting Position

    Silber, Gerhard


    How can we optimize a bedridden patient’s mattress? How can we make a passenger seat on a long distance flight or ride more comfortable? What qualities should a runner’s shoes have? To objectively address such questions using engineering and scientific methods, adequate virtual human body models for use in computer simulation of loading scenarios are required. The authors have developed a novel method incorporating subject studies, magnetic resonance imaging, 3D-CAD-reconstruction, continuum mechanics, material theory and the finite element method. The focus is laid upon the mechanical in vivo-characterization of human soft tissue, which is indispensable for simulating its mechanical interaction with, for example, medical bedding or automotive and airplane seating systems. Using the examples of arbitrary body support systems, the presented approach provides visual insight into simulated internal mechanical body tissue stress and strain, with the goal of biomechanical optimization of body support systems. ...

  9. An Objective Evaluation Method for the Comfort of Foam Cushion in Vehicle Sea%汽车泡沫坐垫舒适性的客观评价方法

    金晓萍; 袁向科; 王波; 陶鑫; 成波; 丁教霞; 李志辉


    介绍了评价汽车座椅泡沫坐垫舒适性的物理特性指标和体压分布指标,以及两者之间的关系.研究结果表明,体压分布能综合反映坐垫的舒适性,而物理特性则为坐垫材料的选取提供理论依据.因此在泡沫坐垫舒适性设计和评价中,宜综合使用上述两种评价指标.%Two indicators, physical characteristics and body pressure distribution, as well as their relationship are presented in this paper for evaluating the comfort of foam cushion in vehicle seat. The results of study show that body pressure distribution can comprehensively reflect the comfort of seat cushion, while physical characteristics provides the theoretical basis in selecting foam material. Thus it is appropriate to combine these two evaluation indicators in designing and evaluating the comfort of foam cushion in vehicle seat.

  10. Application of EPS Insulation Board Cushion to the Slope in Hongqi Reservoir%EPS 保温板垫层在红旗水库护坡中的应用



    Through the application of contrast polystyrene insulation cushion( EPS) and gravel cushion solution in Hongqi reservoir upstream concrete slab revetment of Liaoning province, with the analysis of prototype observation test and data for three years, EPS insulation board replacement sand gravel cushion has been put forward to use as slope protection, and which is feasible in northern cold area .This technology can effectively reduce freezing depth of the soil under the slope.It can reduce the frost heave deformation and solves the problem of frost heaving of the dam slope.%通过对辽宁省红旗水库上游混凝土板护坡下应用聚苯乙烯(简称EPS)保温板垫层和砂砾石垫层方案对比,经过三年的原型观测试验及数据分析,提出在寒冷地区使用EPS保温板替代砂砾石作为护坡垫层的可行性。该技术能够有效降低护坡下土体冻结深度,减少冻胀变形,解决了坝坡的冻胀问题。

  11. A novel bionic design of dental implant for promoting its long-term success using nerve growth factor (NGF): utilizing nano-springs to construct a stress-cushioning structure inside the implant.

    He, Hao; Yao, Yang; Wang, Yanying; Wu, Yingying; Yang, Yang; Gong, Ping


    The absence of periodontium causes masticatory load in excess of the self-repairing potential of peri-implant bone; peri-implant bone loss caused by occlusal overload is not uncommon in patients and greatly diminishes chances of long-term success. Regenerative treatments may be useful in inducing peri-implant bone regeneration, but are only stopgap solutions to the aftermaths caused by the imperfect biomechanical compatibility of the dental implant. Despite promising success, the tissue-engineered periodontal ligament still needs a period of time to be perfected before being clinically applied. Hence, we propose a novel design of dental implant that utilizes nano-springs to construct a stress-cushioning structure inside the implant. Many studies have shown that NGF, a neurotrophin, is effective for nerve regeneration in both animal and clinical studies. Moreover, NGF has the potential to accelerate bone healing in patients with fracture and fracture nonunion and improve osseointegration of the implant. The key point of the design is to reduce stress concentrated around peri-implant bone by cushioning masticatory forces and distributing them to all the peri-implant bone through nano-springs, and promote osseoperception and osseointegration by NGF-induced nerve regeneration and new bone formation. This design, which transfers the main biomechanical interface of the implant from outside to inside, if proven to be valid, may to some extent compensate for the functions of lost periodontium in stress cushioning and proprioception.

  12. 气垫隔声结构水中隔声性能分析%Analysis of Underwater Performance of Sound Insulation Structure with Air Cushion

    周涛; 陈志坚


      提出气垫隔声结构形式,与以橡胶阻尼材料为基体的隔声去耦瓦相比,气垫隔声结构具有孔隙率大的特点,能更好的隔声去耦。用解析方法分析无限、有限气垫隔声结构在水中的隔声性能,研究板厚与中间层特性声阻抗对隔声量的影响并分析无限结构与有限结构的差别。结果表明:在水中的隔声曲线中没有在空气中因“质量―弹簧―质量”共振造成的隔声低谷现象,且在低频时有限结构的隔声性能较好。行波管声学试验测试了气垫双层板结构的低频隔声性能,证实气垫隔声结构在水中的隔声效果和其在水中声学性能的正确性。%The sound insulation structure with air cushion was presented. Compared with the sound-isolating decoupling tiles made of rubber damping material, this structure has better sound-isolating and decoupling effect due to its large porosity. The underwater sound insulation performances of infinite and finite double-layer panel structures with air cushions were studied respectively with analytical method. The influences of panel thickness and characteristic impedance of the middle layer on the sound-isolating performance were analyzed. The results show that the phenomenon of sound-isolation valley due to the mass-spring-mass resonance disappears and the finite-sized structure has a better sound-isolating performance in low frequency range. Finally, traveling wave tube test was carried out to investigate the finite-sized structure. The test results verified the correctness of this method for analyzing the underwater sound insulation performance of the structures.

  13. Cushion Curve Study of Corrugated Paperboard with EBE-flute%EBE楞瓦楞纸板缓冲曲线研究

    黄蜜; 吴淑芳; 杜启祥


    Corrugated paperboard is used for transporting packaging,as it has reasonable degradation,cushion and thermal insulation properties.The stress-strain curves was obtained by using universal testing machine.The result showed that the stress-strain curve is%瓦楞纸板因其可降解性、优良的缓冲性能和隔温性能,常用于运输包装中。首先利用万能试验机得到了EBE楞瓦楞纸板静态应力-应变曲线,结果表明瓦楞纸板应力-应变曲线具有非单调性的特点,因此求解瓦楞纸板缓冲曲线需要分段处理。最后计算了EBE瓦楞纸板的缓冲系数-最大应力曲线,并给出了使用缓冲曲线设计包装结构的算例。

  14. Differentiation between solid-ankle cushioned heel and energy storage and return prosthetic foot based on step-to-step transition cost.

    Wezenberg, Daphne; Cutti, Andrea G; Bruno, Antonino; Houdijk, Han


    Decreased push-off power by the prosthetic foot and inadequate roll-over shape of the foot have been shown to increase the energy dissipated during the step-to-step transition in human walking. The aim of this study was to determine whether energy storage and return (ESAR) feet are able to reduce the mechanical energy dissipated during the step-to-step transition. Fifteen males with a unilateral lower-limb amputation walked with their prescribed ESAR foot (Vari-Flex, Ossur; Reykjavik, Iceland) and with a solid-ankle cushioned heel foot (SACH) (1D10, Ottobock; Duderstadt, Germany), while ground reaction forces and kinematics were recorded. The positive mechanical work on the center of mass performed by the trailing prosthetic limb was larger (33%, p = 0.01) and the negative work performed by the leading intact limb was lower (13%, p = 0.04) when walking with the ESAR foot compared with the SACH foot. The reduced step-to-step transition cost coincided with a higher mechanical push-off power generated by the ESAR foot and an extended forward progression of the center of pressure under the prosthetic ESAR foot. Results can explain the proposed improvement in walking economy with this kind of energy storing and return prosthetic foot.

  15. Characterization of polymer-supported native membranes by X-ray and neutron reflectivity

    Rossetti, Fernanda; Schneck, Emanuel; Kaufmann, Stefan; Tutus, Murat; Tanaka, Motomu [Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory II, University of Heidelberg (Germany); Konovalev, Oleg [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Fragneto, Giovanna [Institut Laue Langevin, Grenoble (France)


    Polymer-supported artificial and/or native membranes attract increasing interest as planar models of cell membranes. Immuno-fluorescence labeling experiments have demonstrated that native cells and microsomes can be spread on polymer 'cushions' based on ultrathin films of regenerated cellulose. However, structures of such 'two-dimensional biological membranes' on the molecular level are still unknown. This poster will present a quantitative study-performed by X-ray and neutron reflectivity measurements at the solid-liquid interface-of structures of bio-membranes on cellulose cushions that mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM). The films are prepared by Langmuir-Blodgett transfer, so that the thickness can be controlled within nm accuracy in the range of 5-50 nm. It will be shown that the deposition of several types of natural bio-membrane extracts (sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes, human erythrocyte ghosts, HeLa cell membrane extracts) results in a clear change in the global shape of the reflectivity curves for cellulose supports of different thickness. The observed changes coincide with the formation of homogeneous polymer-supported lipid membranes over a macroscopically large area.

  16. 间断横褥式缝合对预防跟骨骨折术后切口并发症的作用%The preventative effect of discontinuous transverse mattress suture on postoperative incision complications of calcaneus fractures

    刘志久; 袁光辉


    Objective:To explore the preventative effect of discontinuous transverse mattress suture on postoperative incision complications of calcaneus fractures. Methods: The medical records of patients with calcaneus fractures treated by open reduction and plate internal fixation through the lateral approach were analyzed retrospectively. Ninety-two patients(107 feet) were included into the study,male 86 cases, while female 6 cases;ranging in age from 17 to 66 years with a median of 37. 5 years;ranging from 7 to 12 days with a median of 9. 5 days in time intervals from injury to surgery. Sixty-three feet of 55 patients ( group Ⅰ )were administrated with discontinuous transverse mattress suture,while 44 feet of 37 patients( group Ⅱ ) were administrated with layered suture. Such incision complications as tension blister around the incision, skin necrosis at the incision margin, cutting incision skin by sutures, plate exposure were recorded respectively. Results: After the operation, four feet with tension blister around the incision and one foot with skin necrosis at the incision margin were found in group Ⅰ , which were all healed after dressing change. For the patients in group Ⅱ ,four feet with skin necrosis at the incision margin, three feet with simultaneous signss of tension blister,skin necrosis at the incision margin and cutting incision skin by sutures and two feet with tension blister were found and were healed after dressing change, and one case with plate exposure was found and healed after flap transplantation. There were no statistical difference in incidence rate of tension blister, cutting incision skin by sutures and plate exposure between the two groups(x2 =0. 817,P =0. 366;P = 0. 067 ;P =0.411) ; while the incidence rate of skin necrosis at the incision margin and the overall incision complications of groupⅡ was higher than that of group Ⅰ (x2 = 5. 751 ,P=0. 017;x2 =6. 111 ,P= 0.013). Conclusion; The incidence rate of postoperative incision

  17. 青岛海湾大桥承台混凝土寒季养护技术%Cold Weather Curing of Cushion Cap Concrete in Qingdao Bay Bridge

    郭保林; 刘征涯; 胡孝展


    青岛海湾大桥位于海水含盐度高且存在较严重自然冻融循环的胶州湾海域,施工环境与服役环境都比较恶劣.非通航孔桥承台位于潮差区与浪溅区,为了保证施工期及运营期的混凝土耐久性,采用低水胶比、大掺量矿物掺和料、适量引气的混凝土配制技术,并利用外部围水设施实现海上干法施工.在冬季,为了降低施工期外界环境对混凝土性能的不利影响,将围水设施顶部用帆布覆盖,内部空间布置加热水箱,承台侧面利用蓄水型模板衬里提供不间断的保湿养护.自浇筑至14d养护龄期内,承台侧面及顶面温度始终高于15℃,相对湿度高于95%,模板衬里内积蓄的水量高于混凝土养护所需要的水量,采取该养护方案实现了承台混凝土的持续保温保湿养护,保证了承台混凝土的各项性能健康发展.%The saline concentration of seawater is comparatively high and there are 50 times of freezing and thawing cycles in Kiaochow bay where the Qingdao Bay Bridge is located, moreover, the construction and service environment are very severe for reinforced concrete structure.The cushion caps of approach bridge are all among tidal zone and splash zone.Low water-cement-ratio, high volume mineral admixtures, and air entraining are the main technology to prepare cushion cap concrete.Some cofferdams are utilized to make the construction environment seawater free.In winter, the top of cofferdams are covered with canvas, the space between cushion cap and canvas are heated by several boiling water tanks, and the lateral surface of cushion cap are curing by controlled permeability formwork liner in order to reduce the disadvantage influence of construction factor to concrete.During the first 14 days curing,the environment temperature around the cushion cap are kept above 15℃ , and the RH is above 95%.The free water contained among controlled permeability formwork liner is more than the need of concrete

  18. 聚苯颗粒制备地面垫层用轻质保温砂浆的研究%Research on the preparation of polystyrene particles lightweight insulation mortar used as ground cushion

    田胜力; 李志博; 徐海峰; 郎昆仑; 杨永峰


    研究聚苯颗粒作为轻骨料制备地面垫层用轻质保温隔热砂浆的可行性。采用正交试验探究了水泥、机制砂、聚苯颗粒、HPMC 用量对砂浆的工作性能、力学性能等因素的影响规律。研究表明:采用聚苯颗粒可以制备出工作性能、力学性能优良的地面垫层用轻质保温砂浆。其28 d 抗压强度达到3.6 MPa、干密度为842 kg?m3,导热系数为0.22 W?(m·K),满足12BJ -1工程做法所要求的干拌复合轻集料混凝土垫层性能指标。%The feasibility of preparing lightweight insulation mortar used as ground cushion by polystyrene particles was studied in this paper.The orthogonal experiment was employed to explore the influence of dosage of cement,manufactured sand,polystyrene particles and HPMC on the workability,mechanical properties and other factors of the mortar.The results show lightweight insulation mortar used as ground cushion with excellent performance can be prepared with polystyrene particles.The 28 days compressive strength of prepared mortar reach 3.6 MPa,dry density is 842 kg?m3 ,the thermal conductivity is 0.22 W?(m·K),which meet the performance index of dry mix composite lightweight aggregate concrete cushion in the standard of 12BJ - 1.

  19. 抗冲地砖对立姿舰员的冲击防护效能分析%Performance of an Elastic Polymer Foam Cushion in Attenuating Responses of Shipboard Standing-men to Vertical Ship Shock

    吴静波; 谌勇; 李兆俊; 黄建松; 华宏星


    Protection of shipboard personnel from shock events induced by underwater explosion is very interesting to ship designers. In this study, the potential attenuation performance of an elastic polymer foam cushion inserted between standing-man and ship deck is investigated theoretically. An 8-DOF nonlinear lumped-parameter model is used to predict the standing-man's biodynam-ic responses and injury potential. The cushion is modeled by a chain of masses separated by nonlinear springs and dampers in parallel to simulate the micro inertia, stiffness and rate-dependent effects exhibited by common polymer cellular materials. Two variables, kickoff speed (KS) ratio and deck reaction force (DRF) ratio corresponding to two types of typical injury potential of standing-men, are defined as evaluation parameters. The influence of critical buckling force level, material rate dependent effect as well as other design factors on the attenuation performance of the foam cushion is discussed in detail. Some general design rules are also presented.%利用八自由度集总参数模型描述立姿舰员的生物动力学响应并预测其受损趋势,应用非线性质量-弹簧及阻尼模型模拟多孔结构的微惯性、刚度及粘性效应.定义最大抛离速度比及最大甲板反力比评价抗冲地砖的防护效果,讨论了抗冲地砖的无量纲临界屈曲力水平、粘性效应对其人员防护效果的影响,给出了人员抗冲用抗冲地砖应遵循的一般设计原则.

  20. The optimum design with multiple target of the inspection device with rebber shock-absorbing cushion%橡胶减振垫送检装置的多目标规划优化设计研究

    石怀荣; 芮延年; 张辉


    基于机构工作目标和机构运动学特性,采用多目标规划优化设计的方法,研制满足检测减振垫性能的送检机械装置.以满足机构工作特性及机构性能指标为设计优化基础,建立送检机构运动特性、结构参数以及机构工作性能的多目标优化计算模型.研究分析各目标函数间的相互关联性,建立减振垫送检装置的多目标规划优化设计模型,确定机构优化设计目标函数,以便为自主研发新型、高效减振垫性能检测机械装置提供支持.%According as the optimum design with multiple target and the organizational working goal and characteristic of organizational movement, so that develop the inspection decive to check functions of rebber shock-absorbing cushion. The optimum design based on satisfied the working characteristic and performance of machine, then made the computational model by the optimum design with multiple with motion characteristic ,configuration parameter and working function of the inspection. The model of the optimum design with multiple target of the inspection device with rebber shock-absorbing cushion which set up by the relevance research of each object function,finally establish the optimum design with target. Thus the theoretical principle was been set up to self-developed the inspection device with rebber shock-absorbing cushion by functional, effectively and continuable.

  1. Preparation and Application Performance of Particle Hemp Haulm Board for Cushioning Packaging Material%面向缓冲包装材料的麻杆刨花板制备及应用性能研究

    王风玫; 母军; 张德荣; 李媛媛


    利用提取麻纤维后的加工剩余物-麻杆作为原材料,制备了缓冲刨花板。以不同的密度、施胶量以及厚度进行正交试验,测定了刨花板的性能,分析了麻杆刨花板作为缓冲包装材料的应用性能特点。实验结果表明:以麻杆为原料,在热压温度175℃下,用分段式热压工艺制备的刨花板,具有色浅、质轻的特性;在施胶量为10%时,刨花板的静曲强度和弹性模量均为最佳值;当σ〉190N/cm^2时,所制备的麻杆刨花板具有较低的缓冲系数,可替代EPE作为缓冲包装材料。%Cushioning particle board was prepared using hemp haulm as raw material, which was the residue ot hemp fiber production. Orthogonal experiments were carried out with different density, sizing dosage, and thickness, and performance of the particleboard was tested. The application performance of the particleboard as cushion packaging material was analyzed. The results showed that the particleboard has the characteristics of light mass and color when hot-pressing temperature at 175 ℃ and using piecewise hot-pressing process; when the sizing dosage is 10%, static bending strength and elastic modulus is the best; when σ〉190 N/cm^2, the particleboard has lower buffer coefficient and can substitute for EPE as cushioning packaging material.

  2. 朝鲜不对称作战的利器——全垫升气垫船%North Korean Smart Weapons of Asymmetry Operation- the Air Cushion Craft

    李中良; 徐清华; 漆巍; 英戈


    As the South Korea procured a lot new surface warships,increasing the surface combat strength,forming the maritime advantages against the North Korea,the North Korea has to take the asymmetry measures to respond the great pressure with building a lot air cushion crafts. The thesis describes the types,capabilities,characteristics and deployment of the North Korean air cushion crafts, analyzes why the North Korea develops this kind of surface ship. Its specific operation methods of landing forces delivery,special assault, maritime assault,setting mines and obstacles with the air cushion crafts,studies on the South Korea's fighting measures against the North Korean air cushion crafts,which include destroying bases, air-to-surface attack,area control, distance limitation,and dealing with the wild with accuracy.%随着韩国大力发展水面舰艇增强其海上作战能力,形成对朝鲜的海上优势,朝鲜则不得不采用不对称作战方式应对来自韩国的海上重重压力,大量建造全垫升气垫船.阐述了朝鲜装备全垫升气垫船类型、性能特点及基本部署情况,分析了朝鲜发展气垫船的缘由;剖析了朝鲜采用气垫船实施登陆输送、特种攻击、海上突击和布设水雷障碍的具体使用方法;研究了韩国在反击朝鲜气垫船采取击毁基地、以空制海、以面制点、以远制近、以精确应对粗放的5种战法应对举措.

  3. Analysis and Experimental Study of Air-cushion Pressure Used to Cardboard Adhesive%一种用于纸板黏合的气垫压合分析及实验研究



    Cushion has a wide range of applications in engineering. It is a new attempt to use it in the lamination process of corrugated cardboard adhesive, to get the theoretical analysis and experimental research. It is made to numerical simulation of multi-stoma pressure distribution from a single stomatal mathematical model by using ANSYS finite element software. It can be used to the experimental device that conveyor speed, air supply’s pressure and flow, and air-cushion thickness can be adjusted. Experiments show that the device can meet analysis results by a test system for relevant parameters. The result shows that the pressure of air distribution simulation is in good agreement with the measured results. The corrugated cardboard and pressing orthogonal ex-perimental results show that is the more appropriate for the pressure of air 1000Pa, air cushion thickness 2mm, pressing time 3min, air cushion pressure used in corrugated cardboard and pressing is feasible.%将气垫用于瓦楞纸板黏合的压合工艺是一种新的尝试,为了探讨气垫压力形成、压力分布及工艺效果,进行了理论分析和实验研究。利用ANSYS有限元软件,从单个气孔的压力分布数学模型出发,对多气孔的压力分布进行数值模拟,用一种供风压力、流量、气垫厚度都可调节的气垫压合实验装置,通过相关参数测试系统,验证了分析结果。结果表明:气垫压力分布模拟与实测结果吻合较好,瓦楞纸板黏合压合正交实验表明,选用气垫压力1000Pa、气垫厚度2mm、压合时间3min是比较合适的,气垫压合用于瓦楞纸黏合压合是可行的。

  4. Improved setup and positioning accuracy using a three-point customized cushion/mask/bite-block immobilization system for stereotactic reirradiation of head and neck cancer.

    Wang, He; Wang, Congjun; Tung, Samuel; Dimmitt, Andrew Wilson; Wong, Pei Fong; Edson, Mark A; Garden, Adam S; Rosenthal, David I; Fuller, Clifton D; Gunn, Gary B; Takiar, Vinita; Wang, Xin A; Luo, Dershan; Yang, James N; Wong, Jennifer; Phan, Jack


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the setup and positioning uncertainty of a custom cushion/mask/bite-block (CMB) immobilization system and determine PTV margin for image-guided head and neck stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (HN-SABR). We analyzed 105 treatment sessions among 21 patients treated with HN-SABR for recurrent head and neck cancers using a custom CMB immobilization system. Initial patient setup was performed using the ExacTrac infrared (IR) tracking system and initial setup errors were based on comparison of ExacTrac IR tracking system to corrected online ExacTrac X-rays images registered to treatment plans. Residual setup errors were determined using repeat verification X-ray. The online ExacTrac corrections were compared to cone-beam CT (CBCT) before treatment to assess agreement. Intrafractional positioning errors were determined using prebeam X-rays. The systematic and random errors were analyzed. The initial translational setup errors were -0.8 ± 1.3 mm, -0.8 ± 1.6 mm, and 0.3 ± 1.9 mm in AP, CC, and LR directions, respectively, with a three-dimensional (3D) vector of 2.7 ± 1.4 mm. The initial rotational errors were up to 2.4° if 6D couch is not available. CBCT agreed with ExacTrac X-ray images to within 2 mm and 2.5°. The intrafractional uncertainties were 0.1 ± 0.6 mm, 0.1 ± 0.6 mm, and 0.2 ± 0.5 mm in AP, CC, and LR directions, respectively, and 0.0° ± 0.5°, 0.0° ± 0.6°, and -0.1° ± 0.4° in yaw, roll, and pitch direction, respectively. The translational vector was 0.9 ± 0.6 mm. The calculated PTV margins mPTV(90,95) were within 1.6 mm when using image guidance for online setup correction. The use of image guidance for online setup correction, in combination with our customized CMB device, highly restricted target motion during treatments and provided robust immobilization to ensure minimum dose of 95% to target volume with 2.0 mm PTV margin for HN-SABR.

  5. 鱼雷缓冲头帽入水冲击性能研究%Water-Entry Impact Performance of Torpedo's Cushion Nose Cap

    徐新栋; 李建辰; 曹小娟


    To solve the problems that theoretical analysis of water-entry impact process of torpedo's cushion nose cap is difficult and strength design boundary of the nose cap is not easy to be determined, we build a finite element model of the nose cap water-entry with the software ABAQUS, and analyze the stress distribution of the nose cap assembly during water-entry impact process. The conclusion is drawn that vertical water-entry with minimum velocity is the most safe condition for the nose cap. Taking this condition as the upper limit of the nose cap strength design, key factors that may induce nose cap crack are analyzed. Accordingly, two methods to make the nose cap easy to crack after water-entry are offered, i.e. weakening the strength of the fairing and reducing the friction between the nose cap assembly and torpedo. Simulation results show that combination of two methods can achieve perfect nose cap water-entry.%针对鱼雷缓冲头帽入水冲击过程理论分析困难、头帽强度设计边界难以确定的问题,采用ABAQUS软件建立了头帽入水有限元模型.研究了其入水冲击时组件应力分布规律,得出了尖拱形头帽以最小速度垂直入水时最难破裂,将此工况作为头帽强度设计的上边界,研究了影响头帽破裂的关键因素,相应给出了2种使头帽入水后更易破裂的改进方法,即降低头帽组件与雷体之间摩擦力和削弱整流罩强度,并通过仿真进行了验证.仿真结果表明,这2种改进方法都可以使头帽更容易破裂,如果同时采用这2种方法,则能够达到更理想的入水效果.

  6. 75 FR 51020 - Third Party Testing for Certain Children's Products; Mattresses, Mattress Pads, and/or Mattress...


    ... manufacturer, private labeler, or other interested party to hide or exert undue influence over the third party... assessment body's testing results are not subject to undue influence by any other person, including another... conformity assessment body does not exercise undue influence over other governmental authorities on matters...


    侯文君; 王鹰


    应用流体的复势函数理论及缝隙流动理论,对具有多供气孔的矩形荷载的气垫场进行了理论分析。用大量的源和汇排列的方法找出了满足边界条件的势函数。从而建立了均匀分布的、任意布孔方式的、多供气孔矩形荷载的气垫压力场压力计算方法和公式,编制了计算气垫场任意一点的压力、气垫承载能力,压力中心和流量的计算程序,并用试验验证了理论分析的正确性。%The air cushion field′s pressured rectangular pad with multiple supply holes are analyzed theoretically by use of complex potential theory and slit flow theory. An appropriate potential function, which satisfies the boundary condition is found by using arrays of infinite sources and sinks. Then calculation formulas of this air cushion field′s pressure distribution with any evenly distributed air-supply holes are derived. A calculating program is worked out and theories mentioned are proved to be correct by tests.

  8. Investigate Based on the Energy Method for D etermining Packing MaterialCushioning Curves%基于能量法测试包装材料缓冲曲线的探讨

    丁毅; 陈立民; 苏杰


    In order to simplify the steps of processing the date based on the energy method for determining materials, this paper made a material named EPE as an example and took an experiment on it based on the energy method. By using of Excel software to obtain the index curves and the cushioning curves under any falling height, thereby, we can detemine the cushioning curves conveniently and quickly.%为简化能量法测试材料缓冲曲线的数据处理步骤,以某一种密度的EPE(发泡聚乙烯)材料为例,基于能量法对其进行试验,根据试验数据运用Excel软件得出对应的能量法的指数曲线并得出这种材料在某一跌落高度下的缓冲曲线图,为能够方便、快捷地得出任意跌落高度下的缓冲曲线作出指导.




      目的评价经阴道尿道膀胱颈筋膜褥式缝合术和无张力网状阴道悬吊术—经闭孔系统(Tension Free VaginalTape Obturator Technique,TVT—O)治疗压力性尿失禁(stress urinary incontinence,SUI)的临床疗效.方法回顾性分析30例采用经阴道尿道膀胱颈筋膜褥式缝合术治疗SUI患者和42例采用TVT-O治疗SUI患者的临床资料.结果与经阴道尿道膀胱颈筋膜褥式缝合术相比,TVT—O治疗SUI住院时间短,疗效显著,手术治愈率高,复发率低,且具有统计学意义(P>0.05), TVT治疗SUI疗效可靠,手术创伤更小.%Objective : Evaluating the clinical effect of Transvaginal resection of bladder neck fascial mattress suture and TVT-O operation in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence . Methods : Retrospective analysis of the clinical data of 30 cases with SUI using the transvaginal resection of bladder neck fascial mattress suture patients and 42 patients treated by TVT-O. Results : The effect of patients with stress urinary incontinence treated by TVT-O is obvious, and postoperative complication rate is low. Conclusion : patients with stress urinary incontinence treated by TVT-O has the advantages of simple operation, smal operation wound, reliable curative effect.

  10. Preparation and properties of cushion packaging material based on mycelium%基于菌丝体的缓冲包装材料制备及性能研究

    吴豪; 赵鹏; 章琦; 冯硕; 张治国; 孙耀宇


    为解决不可降解的废弃塑料类包装材料对环境造成的污染,以棉籽壳、稻壳、麸皮为主要原料,制备了一种基于菌丝体的新型缓冲包装材料———“蘑菇包装”。为了满足不同的需求,将棉籽壳、稻壳、麸皮和水以不同比例混合制作培养基,然后接种不同的菌种,使之生长出不同性能的缓冲包装材料。结果表明:金针菇、鸡腿菇、平菇2005生长速度快于其他菌种,棉籽壳含量越高的培养基中菌丝体的生长情况越好。通过静态压缩试验发现,平菇2005相比较其他菌种,应力变化较小,而且有不错的回弹性能。综合来看,平菇2005与以纯棉籽作为材料制作的缓冲包装材料性能最好。对比平菇2005‐A与EPS材料的缓冲性能表明,平菇2005缓冲包装材料完全可以替代发泡聚苯乙烯包装材料。%We produce a new cushion packaging materials based on mycelium called mushroom packaging ,w hich is made by cottonseed hulls , rice husk and bran to solve the problem of environmental pollution caused by the non‐biodegradable waste plastics packaging materials .In order to meet different needs ,we use cottonseed hulls ,rice husk ,bran and water mixed in different proportions to produce medium and then inoculate them with different strains ,so that we can get the cushion packaging material with different performance .Results show that the needle mushroom ,chicken leg mushroom and oyster mushroom 2005 grow faster than other species ,the higher content of seed coats of medium brings ,the better mycelial grows .Through the static compression experiment found that oyster mushroom 2005 compared with other strains ,stress change is small ,and can have good resilience . T he cushion packaging material made by oyster mushroom 2005 and pure cotton seed have the best performance . Contrast between mushroom 2005‐A and the cushioning property of EPS material show that the buffer packaging

  11. 混凝土面板堆石坝垫层料上游坡面施工技术简介%Construction technology for cushion material upstream slope face of concrete face-slab rockfill dam



    介绍了面板堆石坝的特点及垫层料上游坡面的主要施工方法,以及斜坡碾压固坡技术、挤压边墙施工技术、移动边墙施工技术和翻模固坡技术的施工工艺流程,及其在工程实施中的应用效果。%An introduction was made on the characteristics of face-slab rockfill dam,main construction technolo⁃gies for cushion material upstream slope face,the technical programs and application effects of slope roller compac⁃tion reinforcement technology,extrusion side wall construction technology,shift side wall construction technology and turn-over form slope reinforcement technology.

  12. 完全性心内膜垫缺损合并右室双出口的双心室修复%Biventricular refair for endocardial cushion defects with double outlet right ventricle

    李富骊; 尤斌; 李平; 郑铁; 许李力; 徐屹; 刘硕


    目的 总结完全性心内膜垫缺损合并右室双出口双心室修复的经验.方法 2006年7月至209年11月对6例完全性心内膜垫缺损合并右室双出口病人采用双片法修补完全性心内膜垫缺损,人工血管补片作右心室内隧道,连接室间隔缺损与主动脉口,引导左心室血经内隧道进入主动脉;应用牛心包补片扩大右室流出道;肺动脉瓣环小者用带瓣补片跨环修补右室流出道;心室内隧道有可能阻塞右室流出道造成重度梗阻者,右室流出道与主肺动脉之间安置带瓣管道(Rastelli手术).结果 术后死亡1例,占16.6%,其余病例恢复良好.结论 完全性心内膜垫缺损合并右室双出口一期双心室修复可获得良好效果.%Objective Double-outlet right ventricle,which often associated with total anomalous pulmonary venous connection and complete endocardial cushion defects,has been considered a risk factor for biventricular repair procedure.To reviewed cases treated by biventricular repair for endocardial cushion defects with double outlet right ventricle.Methods From July to November of 2009,6 patients (3 males and 3 females) aged from 7 to 24 (16.17±5.98) years and with endocardial cushion defects and double outlet right ventricle underwent operation of biventricular repair The duration of follow-up ranged from 10 days to 2 years(median,16 months).Endocardial cushion defects were repaired with a 2-patch technique.The artificial vascular patch was implanted to connect the ventricular septal defects and the aorta for draining the blood stream from the left ventricle to the aorta.The other patch was used to repair the ostium primum atrial septal defects.Right ventricular outflow tract obstructions was released and reconstructed by transplanting a bovine pericardium patch.If the size of pulmonary valve annulus was far more below the normal,a transannular pericardial patch was used.Rastelli procedure with a valved conduit between the right

  13. Nutritional Support

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in ...

  14. Multiscale Modeling of Supported Lipid Bilayers

    Hoopes, Matthew I.; Xing, Chenyue; Faller, Roland

    has been used as support material below the bilayer [14,15]. Silicon oxide is the material of choice for vesicle fusion [16]. Polymer cushions dampen the effect of hard surfaces and therefore have been actively investigated [17-20]. However, it is not fully understood which changes the introduction of a solid support introduces into such a biomimetic system. Experimentally it is almost impossible to address such changes, as extremely highresolution data would be required.

  15. Development of solid supports for electrochemical study of biomimetic membrane systems

    Mech-Dorosz, Agnieszka

    recording of a steady-state photocurrent while only a transient photocurrent peak was recorded on the polyelectrolyte cushion without a PES membrane. This PhD thesis also comprises the design and fabrication process of a modular microfluidic system with automated fluid delivery (micropumps and valves...... with reconstituted membrane spanning proteins, are attractive tools. However, BLMs suffer from intrinsic fragility, therefore, requiring techniques to increase their robustness and stability. This PhD thesis presents strategies to construct solid supports for electrochemical studies of two biomimetic membrane...... transporter valinomycin. The presented work also includes a comprehensive EIS analysis and cryological scanning electron microscopic (cryo-SEM) imaging of hydrogels formulated in various molar ratios (1:100; 1:200; 1:400) of the cross-linker poly(ethylene glycol)dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) and 2-hydroxyethylene...

  16. 76 FR 59014 - Standard for the Flammability of Mattresses and Mattress Pads; Technical Amendment


    ... characterize the ignition propensity of cigarettes from 1972, when the Standard was promulgated. In the absence... NIST to develop a predictive, small-scale test for 1632. (The meeting log is at comprise more than 600 production establishments. Larger manufacturers may offer dozens of models,...

  17. Development and validity of a new model for assessing pressure redistribution properties of support surfaces.

    Matsuo, Junko; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi; Okuwa, Mayumi; Nakatani, Toshio; Konya, Chizuko; Sakamoto, Jirou


    Pressure ulcers are a common problem, especially in older patients. In Japan, most institutionalized older people are malnourished and show extreme bony prominence (EBP). EBP is a significant factor in the development of pressure ulcers due to increased interface pressure concentrated at the skin surface over the EBP. The use of support surfaces is recommended for the prophylaxis of pressure ulcers. However, the present equivocal criteria for evaluating the pressure redistribution of support surfaces are inadequate. Since pressure redistribution is influenced by physique and posture, evaluations using human subjects are limited. For this reason, models that can substitute for humans are necessary. We developed a new EBP model based on the anthropometric measurements, including pelvic inclination, of 100 bedridden elderly people. A comparison between the pressure distribution charts of our model and bedridden elderly subjects demonstrated that maximum contact pressure values, buttock contact pressure values, and bone prominence rates corresponded closely. This indicates that the model provides a good approximation of the features of elderly people with EBP. We subsequently examined the validity of the model through quantitative assessment of pressure redistribution functions consisting of immersion, envelopment, and contact area change. The model was able to detect differences in the hardness of urethane foam, differences in the internal pressure of an air mattress, and sequential changes during the pressure switching mode. These results demonstrate the validity of our new buttock model in evaluating pressure redistribution for a variety of surfaces.

  18. Simulation of Structure Falling Slamming Process Affected by Air Cushion and Wind%空气垫与来风对结构物坠落砰击影响的仿真

    朱良生; 于龙飞; 张善举; 李健华


    As the air cushion and the wind both greatly affect the falling process of marine structures from the sky into the water, this paper proposes an air-solid coupled mathematical model to describe the falling slamming process of 3D complex structures.In the investigation, the falling mechanism of structures is analyzed, the air damping and the 6DOF ( Degree of Freedom) motion characteristics are fully taken into consideration, and the three-dimension transient N-S equation, the turbulence dynamic equation, the energy equation and the rigid 6DOF kinematic equa-tion are comprehensively adopted.The proposed model is then applied to numerically simulate the falling slamming process of a structure from the air into the water, and the results are compared with those obtained by the physical model, finding that the proposed model is effective in simulating the falling slamming process.Moreover, from the simulated results obtained at different falling heights or in different wind blow environments, it is found that (1) the existence of air cushion changes not only the structure slamming speed but also the pressure distribution;( 2 ) the slamming may result in a temperature rise of the air cushion; and ( 3 ) the wind blow changes the falling pose of structures and makes the structures fall from the air with a “zigzag” pose and then slam into the water.%针对空气垫及来风对海洋结构物空中坠落入水过程产生重要影响的问题,在对结构物坠落机理进行分析的基础上,充分考虑结构物在空中坠落过程中所受到的空气阻尼及六自由度运动特点,结合流体三维瞬态N-S方程、湍流动力方程、能量方程和刚体6自由度运动方程,建立了三维复杂结构物空中坠落砰击入水的气-固耦合过程数学模型。对结构物坠落砰击入水的数值模拟结果与物模试验结果的比较表明,该数学模型能有效模拟空气中的坠落砰击过程。对不同高度以及来风时的

  19. Effectiveness of house dust mite acaricide tri-n-butyl tin maleate on carpets, fabrics and mattress foam: a standardization of methodology Eficácia do acaricida maleato de estanho tri-n-butílico contra ácaros de poeira em carpetes, tecidos e espuma de colchão: padronização de metodologia

    Satiko Uehara


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the acaricide tri-n-butyl tin maleate, industrially applied to samples of carpets, mattress foam, and fabrics used for furniture upholstery, soft toys and shoe uppers. Approximately 100 adult house dust mites of the species Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were inoculated into a Petri dish containing the sample (a piece of carpet, mattress foam, or fabric, treated with the acaricide, randomly collected. Mite-maintenance culture medium was added on top of each sample. After one, two, three, seven and 30 days of incubation at 25 ºC and 75% relative humidity, each dish was examined using a 40X stereoscopic microscope (40X. One hundred percent acaricide effectiveness was obtained in treated materials by the end of the 30th-day postinoculation period, under optimal conditions for mite maintenance.O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a eficácia do acaricida maleato de estanho tri-n-butílico, aplicado industrialmente em amostras de carpetes, tecidos de revestimentos de móveis e de calçados, assim como de espumas de colchão. Aproximadamente 100 ácaros adultos da espécie Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus foram inoculados em placa de Petri contendo a amostra (pedaço de colchão, tecido ou carpete, tratada com o produto acaricida, coletados aleatoriamente. Foi acrescentado sobre a amostra, meio de cultivo para a manutenção dos ácaros. Cada placa foi examinada após 1, 2, 3, 7 e 30 dias de incubação a 25 ºC e 75% de U.R.A. (umidade relativa do ar, sob microscópio estereoscópico com 40X de aumento. O acaricida maleato de estanho tri-n-butílico apresentou 100% de eficácia acaricida após 30 dias da aplicação, em condições ótimas para a manutenção dos ácaros.

  20. Study on Spiral Case with Elastic Cushion Layer of Large-scale Hydropower Plant Building%大型水电站厂房弹性垫层蜗壳结构研究



    钢蜗壳与外围混凝土之间设置弹性垫层是我国大型水电站厂房常采用的一种结构型式,鉴于弹性垫层的最优摩擦系数以及内水压力向外围混凝土传递机理的不确定性,应用ANSYS有限元程序对某大型水电站垫层蜗壳进行钢衬-钢筋混凝土结构三维非线性有限元仿真研究,考虑钢蜗壳与外围混凝土之间的滑移接触特性,研究钢蜗壳与混凝土之间合理的摩擦系数,深入研究蜗壳各径向断面外围混凝土应力、内水压力传递比、承载比等关键问题,为大型水电站厂房的设计研究提供可靠的理论分析.%The elastic cushion layer between the steel spiral case and surrounding concrete is often used as a structural type in the large-scale hydropower plant in China. In view of the uncertainty of the optimal elastic coefficient of friction and the transfer mechanism of internal water pressure to the surrounding concrete, the spiral case with cushion layer of a large-scale hydropower plant is simulated with ANSYS nonlinear finite element program. Then considering the slip contact characteristics between the steel spiral case and surrounding concrete, the more reasonable coefficient of friction between them is studied. At the same time, the key problems for the outer concrete volute stress and the transfer ratio of water pressure and bearing ratio are also studied deeply. All these as mentioned above could provide reliable and theoretical analysis for the design of large-scale hydropower plants.

  1. Supporting Info

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supporting Information. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Washington , J., T. Jenkins, and E. Weber. Identification of Unsaturated and 2H...

  2. Supporting Info

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supporting Info. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Washington , J., and T. Jenkins. Abiotic Hydrolysis of Fluorotelomer-Based Polymers as a...

  3. Supporting Information

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is the supporting information for the journal article. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Rankin, K., S. Mabury, T. Jenkins, and J....

  4. Construction Techniques for Elastic Vibration-Reducing Cushions of Type-CRTS Ⅰ for Ballastless Tracks%CRTSⅠ型无砟轨道弹性减振垫层施工技术



    Since type-CRTS Ⅰ ballastless tracks are used in the Shiziyang Tunnel of the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong pas- sengers-oriented railway, in order to reduce the vibration and noise and to improve comfort, the elastic vibration-reducing cush- ioning layer is provided under the CA sand bed, the process of which is applied to the project of passengers-oriented,350 km/h- operated railways at home for the first time. The design, material control and laying techniques for the elastic vibration-reducing cushioning layer are dealt with in detail in the paper, which may serve as a useful reference for projects of similar types in the future.%广深港铁路客运专线狮子洋隧道采用CRTSⅠ型板式无砟轨道,为减少振动、噪音及提供舒适度,在CA砂浆层下设置弹性减振垫层,此工艺在国内时速350km的铁路客运专线项目中首次应用。详细介绍弹性减振垫层的设计、材料控制及铺设技术,对同类工程有借鉴意义。

  5. Poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) thermogel as a novel submucosal cushion for endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    Yu, Lin; Xu, Wei; Shen, Wenjia; Cao, Luping; Liu, Yan; Li, Zhaoshen; Ding, Jiandong


    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a clinical therapy for early stage neoplastic lesions in the gastrointestinal tract. It is, however, faced with a crucial problem: the high occurrence of perforation. The formation of a submucosal fluid cushion (SFC) via a fluid injection is the best way to avoid perforation, and thus an appropriate biomaterial is vital for this minimally invasive endoscopic technique. In this study, we introduced an injectable thermogel as a novel submucosal injection substance in ESD. The hydrogel synthesized by us was composed of poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) triblock copolymers. The polymer/water system was a low-viscosity fluid at room temperature and thus easily injected, and turned into a non-flowing gel at body temperature after injection. The submucosal injection of the thermogel to create SFCs was performed in both resected porcine stomachs and living minipigs. High mucosal elevation with a clear margin was maintained for a long duration. Accurate en bloc resection was achieved with the assistance of the thermogel. The mean procedure time was strikingly reduced. Meanwhile, no obvious bleeding, perforation and tissue damage were observed. The application of the thermogel not only facilitated the ESD procedure, but also increased the efficacy and safety of ESD. Therefore, the PLGA-PEG-PLGA thermogel provides an excellent submucosal injection system, and has great potential to improve the ESD technique significantly.

  6. Floristic changes in alpine plant communities induced by the cushion plant Azorella madreporica (Apiaceae in the Andes of central Chile Cambios florísticos en comunidades de plantas alpinas inducidos por la planta en cojín Azorella madrepórica (Apiaceae en los Andes de Chile central



    Full Text Available It is well known that the number of plant species associated with nurse plants increases with elevation. However, studies conducted so far have largely ignored the effect of nurse plants on other community attributes, such as the species abundances, diversity and evenness. Moreover, changes in these community attributes along environmental gradients have also been seldom examined. The present study evaluates the effect of the cushion plant Azorella madrepórica (Apiaceae on species richness, species abundance, diversity and evenness of vascular plants at two elevations in the Andes of central Chile. Theoretically, the impact of this nurse cushion plant on these community attributes should be grater at a higher elevation. Results showed that the proportion of plant species associated with cushion plants increases with elevation, and the abundance of some species is also greater within cushions than on bare ground. Although the proportion of species growing within cushions increased with elevation, diversity and evenness were higher on bare ground. This is due to some few species that attained very high densities within cushions, generating assemblages highly dominated by some few species. Ordination analyses indicated differences in species assemblages within and outside A. madrepórica at the higher elevation. Therefore, the influence of cushion plants on community structure changes with elevation. Accordingly, we suggest that attributes other than species richness must be included in future studies in order to analyze the impact of nurse species on community structure along environmental gradients.Se sabe que el número de especies asociado a plantas nodrizas aumenta con la altitud. Sin embargo, el efecto de plantas nodrizas sobre otros atributos de las comunidades, como la abundancia de especies, diversidad y equidad, ha sido largamente ignorado. Más aún, cambios en estos atributos en gradientes ambientales han sido pocas veces examinados

  7. Supporting ATLAS

    maximilien brice


    Eighteen feet made of stainless steel will support the barrel ATLAS detector in the cavern at Point 1. In total, the ATLAS feet system will carry approximately 6000 tons, and will give the same inclination to the detector as the LHC accelerator.

  8. Research on Tension Control System for Aluminum Strip Air-cushion Heat Treatment line%铝带气垫式热处理线张力控制系统研究

    付天亮; 韦云松; 王昭东; 李家栋


    针对国内某厂铝合金汽车板用气垫式连续热处理线,分析主要工艺设备张力工作特点,采用间接、直接两种张力控制模式对传动系统实施速度和转矩控制,建立了典型工艺设备张力控制方法及整线张力平衡控制策略,构建了以工艺数学模型为核心的张力控制系统.实测表明,静态张力控制精度为-0.05%~0.65%,动态张力控制精度为-3.65%~3.75%,满足热处理线对张力控制精度的需求.%Based on domestic air-cushion continuous heat treatment line for aluminum alloy automobile sheet, tension work characteristics of the main process equipment is analyzed, indirect and direct tension control mode are adopted for dirve system's velocity and torque control. And tension control method for typical process equipment and whole line tension balance control strategy are established, tension control system which centered on process mathematic model is constructed. The results show that static tension control precision is -0.05%~0.65%, and dynamic tension control percision is -3.65%~3.75%, both of which meet the needs of heat treatment line for tension control percision.

  9. 小湾水电站水垫塘抗冲耐磨混凝土施工%Construction of Scour Resistant Concrete for Water Cushion Pool in Xiaowan Hydropower Station



      针对小湾水电站坝后水垫塘抗冲耐磨混凝土施工,工程量大,设计标号高,水胶比小,外掺材料多,跨高温、雨季,且抗冲耐磨混凝土粘稠性强,易发干发白、产生干缩裂缝,混凝土振捣困难,抹面平整度难以控制等特点,提出了混凝土配合比优化设计,混凝土拌和,过流面表面不平整处理,早期塑性干缩预防,后期收缩裂缝、温度裂缝预防,雨季施工防雨等措施,保证了施工质量和进度,取得了良好的社会经济效益。%Some difficulties has been encountered in the scour resistant concrete construction of water cushion pool in Xiaowan Hydropower Station: large construction quantity with high design grade , small ratio of water and gel , many mixed materials, high-temperature rainy season , thick abrasion-resistant concrete easy to dry and white which leads to dry shrinkage crack , difficult concrete vibrator and uneven surface .Measures such as optimization design , concrete mix-ing, flow surface roughness treatment , plastic shrinkage prevention in early stage , shrinking and temperature cracks pre-vention in later stage , rain proof in rainy season are proposed in order to ensure construction quality and progress and to achieve good social and economic benefits .

  10. Neutron and X-ray Scattering From Single Supported Lipid Bilayers: Reflectometry, Grazing Incidence In-Plane Diffraction and Off-Specular Scattering

    Majewski, Jaroslaw


    Biological membranes mediate transport and communication between the cell and its surroundings. They defend the cell against invasive agents, and most present day drugs interact with membrane components. Complexity of the cell membranes renders many of their characteristics impenetrable to fundamental physical studies. As a result, a significant emphasis has been placed on developing model lipid membranes that facilitate the physical and chemical characterization of particular membrane features. X-ray (XR) and neutron reflectivity (NR) and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) techniques can be utilized to measure the structure of single, supported lipid bilayers in bulk water. GIXD studies demonstrated that bilayers formed by vesicle fusion have more disorder in the inner leaflet compared to structures prepared using the Langmuir-Blodgett/Schaeffer (LB/S) technique. In both cases, only a modest water cushion was detected between the bilayer and substrate. Diffraction from in-plane ordered domains was observed from bilayers prepared by either technique. In the case of 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine (DPPC) bilayers, the ordered domains were coupled across both leaflets, scattering as one entity. Contrastingly, the ordered domains were uncoupled in 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphoethanolamine (DPPE) bilayers. NR can be effectively used to study polymer-supported single lipid bilayers in bulk water. Using NR and fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrated that a hydrated, surface-tethered polymer network capable of five-fold change in thickness over a 25-37 C temperature range can be a novel support for single DPPC bilayers in a liquid environment. Moderate temperature change swells the polymer, lifting the membrane from the substrate, creating a nearly aqueous cushion. Additionally, as the polymer swells, it promotes both in- and out-of-plane undulations in the supported membrane. Off-specular neutron scattering was used to deduce the in

  11. Supporting ATLAS


    Eighteen feet made of stainless steel will support the barrel ATLAS detector in the cavern at Point 1. In total, the ATLAS feet system will carry approximately 6000 tons, and will give the same inclination to the detector as the LHC accelerator. The installation of the feet is scheduled to finish during January 2004 with an installation precision at the 1 mm level despite their height of 5.3 metres. The manufacture was carried out in Russia (Company Izhorskiye Zavody in St. Petersburg), as part of a Russian and JINR Dubna in-kind contribution to ATLAS. Involved in the installation is a team from IHEP-Protvino (Russia), the ATLAS technical co-ordination team at CERN, and the CERN survey team. In all, about 15 people are involved. After the feet are in place, the barrel toroid magnet and the barrel calorimeters will be installed. This will keep the ATLAS team busy for the entire year 2004.

  12. An Altered Treatment Plan Based on Direct to Consumer (DTC) Genetic Testing: Personalized Medicine from the Patient/Pin-cushion Perspective.

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D; James, Andra; Paulyson-Nuñez, Kristin


    Direct to consumer (DTC) genomic services facilitate the personalized and participatory aspects of "P4" medicine, but raise questions regarding use of genomic data in providing predictive and preventive healthcare. We illustrate the issues involved by describing a pregnancy management case in which a treatment plan was modified based on a DTC result. A woman whose personal and family history were otherwise unremarkable for thromboembolism learned through DTC testing about the presence of a prothrombin (factor 2) gene mutation (rs1799963). Twice daily injections of enoxaparin were recommended throughout pregnancy for this patient who, without prior knowledge of this mutation, would not have been offered such therapy. Moreover, genetically based medical guidelines are a moving target, and treatment of thrombophilic conditions in asymptomatic patients is controversial. We address the state of the art in actionable personalized medicine with respect to clotting disorders in pregnancy, as well as other factors at play- economics, patient preference, and clinical decision support. We also discuss what steps are needed to increase the utility of genomic data in personalized medicine by collecting information and converting it into actionable knowledge.

  13. Modeling the Effects of Moisture-Related Skin-Support Friction on the Risk for Superficial Pressure Ulcers during Patient Repositioning in Bed

    Eliav eShaked


    Full Text Available Patient repositioning when the skin is moist e.g. due to sweat or urine may cause skin breakdown since wetness increases the skin-support coefficient of friction (COF and hence also the shear stresses that are generated in the skin when the patient is being moved. This everyday hospital scenario was never studied systematically however. The aim of this study was to simulate such interactions using a biomechanical computational model which is the first of its kind, in order to quantitatively describe the effects of repositioning on the pathomechanics of moisture-related tissue damage. We designed a finite element model to analyze skin stresses under a weight-bearing bony prominence while this region of interest slides frictionally over the support surface, as occurs during repositioning. Our results show, expectedly, that maximal effective stresses in the skin increase as the moisture-contents-related COF between the skin and the mattress rises. Interestingly however, the rise in stresses for a wet interface became more prominent when the skin tissue was stiffer - which represented aging or diabetes. This finding demonstrates how the aged/diabetic skin is more fragile than a young-adult skin when repositioning in a moist environment. The modeling used herein can now be extended to test effects of different moisturizers, creams, lubricants or possibly other interventions at the skin-support interface for testing their potential in protecting the skin from superficial pressure ulcers in a standard, objective and quantitative manner.

  14. 带橡胶缓冲垫的出弹装置碰撞有限元分析%Collision finite element analysis of the jacking shells device with rubber cushion

    李少远; 姜贵林; 王洪光; 王茂林; 叶小红


    There exists instantaneous collision problem between the rigid mandrel and shells in the rack and pinion jacking shells device. To reduce the collision force, the rubber buffer is added to the end of the jack. Based on the Mooney-Rivlin model, the constitutive model of rubber cushion is established, and the numerical simulation of the collision characteristics between jacking shells device and shells is researched with ANSYS/Workbench. The analysis results show that in the collision process, the maximum stress of the shells is 1.238 7 MPa, far less than the yield strength of the enclosure material of the shells;the tooth contact stress safety factors of rack and pinion are 3.77 and 3.81, respectively, and the tooth root contact stress safety factors are 4.03 and 3.53, respectively, reaching the mini-mum safety factor in a higher reliability requirement.%齿轮齿条式出弹装置刚性顶杆与炮弹之间存在瞬时碰撞问题.为减小碰撞力,在顶杆端部增加橡胶缓冲垫.采用Mooney-Rivlin 模型建立了橡胶缓冲垫的本构模型,并用有限元ANSYS/Workbench软件对带橡胶缓冲垫的出弹装置和炮弹的接触碰撞特性进行数值模拟研究.分析结果表明:带橡胶缓冲垫的顶杆与炮弹的碰撞过程中,炮弹所受的最大应力为1.2387 MPa,远小于炮弹外壳材料的屈服强度;齿轮和齿条的齿面接触应力安全系数分别为3.77和3.81;齿根接触应力安全系数分别为4.03和3.53,均达到较高可靠度时最小安全系数的要求.

  15. Clinical study of XIR (extreme infrared) cold and warm air mattress used for pre-vention and control ofⅠandⅡperiods of pressure ulcers in ICU patients with high risk of pressure ulcers%远红外线冷暖气流床垫在 ICU压疮高危患者Ⅰ、Ⅱ期压疮防治中的应用效果

    张允; 朱滨; 陈建芬; 庄细琴; 王亚芳


    Objective To explore the effect of XIR cold and warm air mattress used for prevention and control ofⅠandⅡperiods of pressure ulcers in ICU high risk patients of pressure ulcers and provide care references to reduce the incidence of pressure ulcers of the ICU patients with high risk of pressure ulcers and improve pressure ulcer cure rate.Methods 356 cases with high risk of pressure ulcers who were admitted to ICU during January 2010 to December 2011 were selected and randomly divided into observation ( n=186 ) and control ( n=170) groups.XIR cold and warm air mattress was used in observation group and patients in observation group were changed body posi-tion every four hours.The results were compared.Results The pressure ulcer rate of observation group was 13.4%, lower than that of con-trol group (21.8%), the difference was statistically significant.Conclusion XIR cold and warm air mattress could effectively prevent and control pressure ulcers for the ICU patients with high risk of pressure ulcers, it is an effective way to prevent and control pressure ulcers.%目的:探讨远红外线冷暖气流床垫预防和治疗ICU压疮高危患者Ⅰ、Ⅱ期压疮的效果。方法将我院ICU 2010年1月至2011年12月收治的356例压疮患者,随机分为观察组186例和对照组170例,给予观察组患者使用远红外线冷暖气流床垫,4 h翻身1次。比较两组防治效果。结果观察组患者压疮发生率为13.4%,低于对照组21.8%,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);观察组患者Ⅰ、Ⅱ期压疮愈合率为95.8%,高于对照组70.6%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论远红外线冷暖气流床垫防治压疮效果显著,为ICU压疮高危患者有效防治压疮的方法,降低了ICU压疮高危患者的压疮发生率,提高了压疮治愈率。

  16. Finite Element Analysis of Soft-lined Mandibular Complete Denture and its Supporting Structures

    Katayoun Sadr


    Full Text Available Background and aims. There are many edentulous people with severely resorbed residual ridges and non-resilient lining mucosa that are unable to tolerate occlusal forces during functional and parafunctional movements. Lining the tissue surface of dentures with a flexible material can theoretically distribute and absorb forces with cushioning effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a soft liner on stress levels in mandibular complete denture and its supporting structures by finite element analysis. Materials and methods. A simplified 3-dimensional finite element model of relatively resorbed mandible, mucosa, denture and a soft liner was prepared. Then the model, with and without soft liner, underwent normal vertical and lateral occlusal forces. The stresses were analyzed using the ANSYS 12 software. Results. Using the soft liner increased stress levels up to 18.5% and 30% in the cortical bone and mucosa, respectively, after vertical load was applied in the incisor region. Application of bilateral vertical load on the molar area increased stress in cortical bone u to 44% and in the mucosa up to 29%. Unilateral loading in the canine area increased stress level in the mucosa up to 63.5%. The highest stress was seen at denture base followed by the cortical bone. Conclusion. Use of soft liners increased stress in denture supporting structures. Higher level of stress concentration was observed primarily in the denture base followed by the cortical bone.

  17. Mathematical Model of an Air Cushion Vehicle


    angle, clockwise from the bow, is output. it is called ABETA . 10. The propeller pitch angles are output from the propulsion control logic (Item 6 in...YWIND/XWIND). This angle in degrees: ABETA =BETAA (180/ITf ) has a range of -180 to +180. Momentum~ Dr. The vehicle experiences reaction forces due shown in figuire 9. SDRAG = .01385 ABET - 7.69 x ABETA2 (70) if, ABETA < 0, SDRAG = - SDRAG. The frontal drag coefficient is curve fit from Bell

  18. Air Cushion Craft Development. First Revision.


    in Florida. .. ................. 31 20 - Bell-Canada Voyageur and Viking .. .................32 21 - Generalized Breguet Range Chart...continue development. 27 IA-Po Figure 16 -SKMR-1 with and without Skirts 28 The Surface Effect Ships for Ocean Commerce (SESOC) Committee met with...between the U.S. Navy and the Department of Commerce and, as a result, the Joint Surface Effect Ship Program Office (JSESPO) was set up in 1966 to

  19. Group Decision Process Support

    Gøtze, John; Hijikata, Masao


    Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists.......Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists....

  20. 全垫升式气垫船破冰过程的数值模拟%Numerical simulation for ice-breaking process of an amphibian air cushion vehicle

    卢再华; 张志宏; 胡明勇; 姚俊; 张辽远


    A large floating ice sheet can be broken into small slabs with a heavy air cushion vehicle (ACV) traveling on it at a critical speed. Ice-breaking with ACV is a new ice-breaking method in in-land river, it has an important application in prevention of ice jam flood in Yellow River. Here, the ice-breaking process of an ACV was numerically simulated under conditions of shallow water and a thick ice sheet. The simulation results showed that an ACV traveling at a critical speed always chases after the wave crest ahead of it and pushes the waves; thus, the amplitude of the wave around ACV gradually increases due to the continuous push of ACV; initial crack of ice sheet appears at wave trough near the stern of ACV and extends along the axis of ACV in both forward and backward directions; lateral crack at the wave crest ahead of ACV is arisen when the initial crack extends forward to wave crest; an ice-breaking period is finished by ACV accordingly; the cracks behind ACV were shaped as an asterisk symbol along the sailing direction of ACV; the ice sheet breaks into triangular slabs when lateral cracks of different ice-breaking periods intersect with each other; ACV should sail in the same direction parallelly in order to cross the cracks of different ACV voyages and break the ice sheet further.%气垫船破冰是指采用大吨位气垫船以临界航速在冰面上航行进行破冰,是一种较新的内河破冰方法,可应用于黄河凌汛灾害的防治领域.对浅水厚冰层条件下气垫船破冰过程进行了数值模拟.计算结果表明:临界航速下,气垫船始终位于船首波峰后方,对所兴起的船波起持续的推波作用,在冰面上逐渐兴起幅值较大的船波.冰层在船尾波谷处最先产生纵向裂缝并向前后延伸,向前延伸至船首波峰处时引起冰层横向破裂并扩展,完成一个破冰周期.船身后方的裂缝沿气垫船轴线方向呈*号形状,不同破冰周期的横向裂缝交叉后,冰层破裂成

  1. 16 CFR 1633.7 - Mattress test procedure.


    ... Grade 10 machining practice with a well formed #53 drill bit). The holes shall point 5° out of the plane... shall be 1.45 mm to 1.53 mm (0.058 in to 0.061 in) in diameter (which corresponds to Grade 10 machining practice with a well formed #53 drill bit). The holes shall point 5° out of the plane of the diagram...

  2. 16 CFR 1632.5 - Mattress pad test procedure.


    ...) specified in Table II of that method, and the water level, agitator speed, washing time, spin speed and final spin cycle specified for “Normal/Cotton Sturdy” in Table III. (ii) Drying shall be performed...

  3. Conditions for liposome adsorption and bilayer formation on BSA passivated solid supports.

    Silva-López, Elsa I; Edens, Lance E; Barden, Adam O; Keller, David J; Brozik, James A


    Planar solid supported lipid membranes that include an intervening bovine serum albumen (BSA) cushion can greatly reduce undesirable interactions between reconstituted membrane proteins and the underlying substrate. These hetero-self-assemblies reduce frictional coupling by shielding reconstituted membrane proteins from the strong surface charge of the underlying substrate, thereby preventing them from strongly sticking to the substrate themselves. The motivation for this work is to describe the conditions necessary for liposome adsorption and bilayer formation on these hetero-self-assemblies. Described here are experiments that show that the state of BSA is critically important to whether a lipid bilayer is formed or intact liposomes are adsorbed to the BSA passivated surface. It is shown that a smooth layer of native BSA will readily promote lipid bilayer formation while BSA that has been denatured either chemically or by heat will not. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescence microscopy was used to characterize the surfaces of native, heat denatured, and chemically reduced BSA. The mobility of several zwitterionic and negatively charged lipid combinations has been measured using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). From these measurements diffusion constants and percent recoveries have been determined and tabulated. The effect of high concentrations of beta-mercaptoethanol (β-ME) on liposome formation as well as bilayer formation was also explored.

  4. Membrane Protein Mobility and Orientation Preserved in Supported Bilayers Created Directly from Cell Plasma Membrane Blebs.

    Richards, Mark J; Hsia, Chih-Yun; Singh, Rohit R; Haider, Huma; Kumpf, Julia; Kawate, Toshimitsu; Daniel, Susan


    Membrane protein interactions with lipids are crucial for their native biological behavior, yet traditional characterization methods are often carried out on purified protein in the absence of lipids. We present a simple method to transfer membrane proteins expressed in mammalian cells to an assay-friendly, cushioned, supported lipid bilayer platform using cell blebs as an intermediate. Cell blebs, expressing either GPI-linked yellow fluorescent proteins or neon-green fused transmembrane P2X2 receptors, were induced to rupture on glass surfaces using PEGylated lipid vesicles, which resulted in planar supported membranes with over 50% mobility for multipass transmembrane proteins and over 90% for GPI-linked proteins. Fluorescent proteins were tracked, and their diffusion in supported bilayers characterized, using single molecule tracking and moment scaling spectrum (MSS) analysis. Diffusion was characterized for individual proteins as either free or confined, revealing details of the local lipid membrane heterogeneity surrounding the protein. A particularly useful result of our bilayer formation process is the protein orientation in the supported planar bilayer. For both the GPI-linked and transmembrane proteins used here, an enzymatic assay revealed that protein orientation in the planar bilayer results in the extracellular domains facing toward the bulk, and that the dominant mode of bleb rupture is via the "parachute" mechanism. Mobility, orientation, and preservation of the native lipid environment of the proteins using cell blebs offers advantages over proteoliposome reconstitution or disrupted cell membrane preparations, which necessarily result in significant scrambling of protein orientation and typically immobilized membrane proteins in SLBs. The bleb-based bilayer platform presented here is an important step toward integrating membrane proteomic studies on chip, especially for future studies aimed at understanding fundamental effects of lipid interactions

  5. Flowcharts as Technical Support

    Caudill, Jason


    Any time technology is employed in an organization there is a need to provide support for the users. Such support usually needs to be offered at the location where users are trying to access the technological resources. More often than not, the user who needs the support wants to get the support immediately, not at some point in the future after a…

  6. [Prevention of heel pressure sores with a foam body-support device. A randomized controlled trial in a medical intensive care unit].

    Cadue, Jean-François; Karolewicz, Stéphane; Tardy, Catherine; Barrault, Claudie; Robert, René; Pourrat, Olivier


    To assess in a prospective controlled study the efficacy and safety of a specific foam body-support device designed as to prevent heel pressure ulcers. A randomization table was used to allocate 70 patients into 2 groups. The control group was treated with our standard pressure sore prevention protocol (half-seated position, water-mattress and preventive massages 6 times a day); the experimental group was treated with the same standard protocol as well as with the foam body-support device being evaluated. Patients were included if their Waterlow score was >10, indicating a high risk of developing pressure ulcers and if they had no skin lesion on the heels. Foam devices, covered with jersey, were constructed for the legs and allowed the heels to be free of any contact with the bed; another foam block was arranged perpendicularly to the first, in contact with the soles, to prevent ankles from assuming an equinus position (to prevent a dropfoot condition). The principal criterion for efficacy was the number of irreversible skin lesions on the heel (that is, beyond the stage of blanching hyperemia, reversible after finger pressure); these lesions were assessed every day until the end of the study (up to 30 days). The number of irreversible heel pressure ulcers was lower in the experimental (3 patients, 8.6%) than in the control group (19 patients, 55.4%) (ppressure ulcer was higher in the experimental group (5.6 days, compared with 2.8 days, p=0.01). The groups did not differ in the number of pressure sores on the sacrum and leg. An anatomical foam body-support is effective in preventing heel pressure ulcers in patients on a medical intensive care unit and is well tolerated.

  7. Randomized Clinical Trial of Anal Cushion Suture-fixation Comparing with Doppler-Guided Haemor-rhoid Artery Ligation for Grade III Haemorrhoids%肛垫缝扎修复术治疗III度痔的临床对照研究

    翟敏; 巫益珍; 张永安; 李金德; 张旗; 周峰; 徐慧磊


    目的:探讨肛垫缝扎修复术治疗III度痔的疗效。方法:对100例III度痔患者随机分组,50例采用肛垫缝扎修复术(治疗组)治疗,50例采用超声多普勒痔动脉结扎术(DG-HAL,对照组)治疗,对两组疗效、并发症及患者满意度进行对比分析。结果:治疗组治愈率为86%,优于对照组的70%,(P<0.05);治疗组治疗费用为3138.09元,对照组为4020.43元(二者比较P<0.05)。随访24个月,治疗组痔脱垂(2.3%)及总体复发率(7.0%)低于对照组(19.0%,23.8%,P<0.05);治疗组患者认为“好”、“很好”者分别为42例(95.4%)、39例(90.7%),对照组分别为37例(88.9%)、32例(76.2%);两组术后疼痛、Wexner评分、继发出血、肛门不适等均具有较好的安全性(P>0.05)。结论:肛垫缝扎修复术与DG-HAL相比,能有效解除III度痔病症状,有效、经济、安全,具有更高的患者满意度。%Objective To investigate anal cushion suture-fixation operation in the treatment of grade III hem⁃orrhoids. Methods One hundred cases of grade III hemorrhoids were randomly divided into treatment group (anal cushion suture-fixation operation,50 cases)and control group(Doppler-guided hemorrhoidal artery ligation DG-HAL),50 cases.The clinical effects and complications were compared between the two groups. Results Cure rates were 86% in treatment group and 70% in the control(P0.05)in complications, in postoperative pain scores,Wexner scores,bleeding, and the anal discomfort. Conclusion Anal cushion suture-fixation operation is valid in eliminating symptoms induced by grade III hemorrhoids.It is effective, economical and with better sat⁃isfaction than by DG-HAL.

  8. Celiac Support Association

    ... America and support CSA. Click here to start shopping! Celiac SUPPORT ASSOCIATION ® GLUTEN-FREE RESOURCE DIRECTORY These ... visit and register for an online account. Orders must be placed online to be ...

  9. A support design process

    Arthur, J.; Scott, P.B. [Health and Safety Executive (United Kingdom)


    A workman suffered a fatal injury due to a fall of ground from the face of a development drivage, which was supported by passive supports supplemented with roof bolts. A working party was set up to review the support process and evaluate how protection of the workmen could be improved whilst setting supports.The working party included representatives from the trade unions, the mines inspectorate and mine operators.Visits were made to several mines and discussions were held with the workmen and management at these mines. The paper describes the results of the visits and how a support design process was evolved. The process will ensure that the support system is designed to reduce the inherent hazards associated with setting supports using either conventional or mixed support systems.

  10. Paladin Software Support Lab

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Paladin Software Support Environment (SSE) occupies 2,241 square-feet. It contains the hardware and software tools required to support the Paladin Automatic Fire...

  11. MSUD Family Support Group

    ... Group The MSUD Family Support Group is a non-profit 501 (c)(3) organization for those with MSUD ... Family Support Group is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization with no paid staff. Funds are needed ...

  12. Acquisition Support Program Overview


    Principles of Effective Acquisition © 2006 by Carnegie Mellon University page 31 Summary The SEI, through the Acquisition Support Program , works directly...2006 by Carnegie Mellon University page 1 Acquisition Support Program Overview Brian Gallagher Director, Acquisition Support Program 9 March, 2006...MAR 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Acquisition Support Program Overview 5a. CONTRACT

  13. Nutrition support in hospitals

    Kondrup, Jens


    Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance.......Nutrition support in hospitals is becoming an area of focus because of the evidence showing improved clinical outcome with nutrition support, its status as a human rights issue and its integration into quality assurance....

  14. Learner and Faculty Support

    Guan, Sharon; Stanford, Daniel


    This chapter identifies effective ways to address learner and faculty support. It introduces methods for building a successful learner support system by providing sufficient resources and proactively addressing learner motivation. It also addresses effective faculty support through institutional policies, resources, training, and course…

  15. Supported employment, supported education, and career development.

    Mueser, Kim T; Cook, Judith A


    Two articles in the current issue of the Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal bring into focus the important question of the importance of work, and in particular meaningful employment, in people with a serious mental illness. Gewurtz, Cott, Rush, and Kirsh (see record 2012-34112-003) present findings from a change in policy in Canada for the funding of vocational services for people with a serious mental illness from a fee-for-service model to an outcomes-based model, with reimbursement based on successful competitive job placement and retention, irrespective of job type and consumer preference. The results indicated increased rates of competitive work, mainly in entry-level jobs, but they also raised questions as to whether the narrow focus on job attainment may have been at the cost of less career development and ultimately less meaningful work for the consumers. Baksheev, Allott, Jackson, McGorry, and Killackey (see record 2012-34112-002) found that a combined supported employment and education program for people with a first episode of psychosis led to higher rates of employment and class completion than usual services. The analysis presented in this report showed that no individual consumer characteristics other than program assignment (supported employment and education vs. usual services) predicted vocational or educational outcomes. The findings underscore the potency of supported employment, and suggest that combining it with educational services may be fruitful for people who have recently experienced an episode of psychosis. These findings raise several questions that will be touched on in this editorial, including: Why are career development and supported education important? What have we learned about supported education? What are the current gaps in our knowledge about supported education?

  16. Biomechanics of longitudinal arch support mechanisms in foot orthoses and their effect on plantar aponeurosis strain.

    Kogler, G F; Solomonidis, S E; Paul, J P


    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the longitudinal arch support properties of several types of foot orthosis. DESIGN: An in vitro method that simulated 'static stance' was used to determine arch support capabilities, with plantar aponeurosis strain implemented as the performance measure. BACKGROUND: A longitudinal arch support mechanism of an orthosis resists depression of the foot's arches by transferring a portion of the load to the medial structures of the foot. Since the plantar aponeurosis is in tension when the foot is loaded, a quantifiable decrease in strain should occur with an adequate orthotic arch control mechanism. METHODS: A differential variable reluctance transducer was surgically implanted in the plantar aponeurosis of cadaveric donor limb feet (n = 7). Each specimen was mounted in an electromechanical test machine which applied a load of up to 900 N axially to the tibia. The test schedule was divided into seven test conditions: specimen barefoot; specimen with shoe and specimen with shoe and five different orthoses. RESULTS: The University of California Biomechanics Laboratory Shoe Insert and two other foot orthoses significantly decreased the strain in the plantar aponeurosis compared to the barefoot control and were considered effective arch supports (P plantar aponeurosis strain. Significant variations of time required to achieve the specified load levels were recorded among the test conditions, indicating the relative cushioning properties of the shoe/orthosis systems. CONCLUSIONS: The patterns of plantar aponeurosis strain observed in cadaveric tests suggest that certain types of orthoses are more effective than others in the support of the foot's longitudinal arches. It is suggested that to support the longitudinal arches of the foot effectively the medial surface contours of the orthosis must stabilize the apical bony structure of the foot's arch. RELEVANCE: Reducing tension in the plantar aponeurosis is an

  17. Bentonite-supported catalase



    Full Text Available The properties of the clay bentonite as a support for enzyme immobilization were studied using the enzyme catalase. Such an immobilization does not result in enzyme inactivation and constitutes a valuable method for immobilizing catalase at high ionic strength. The bentonite-supported catalase was characterized in terms of pH and ionic strength dependencies, thermal and storage stability and kinetic parameters. These studies indicate that bentonite is a valuable support for the simple adsorption of enzymes.

  18. Decision support basics

    Power, Daniel J


    This book is targeted to busy managers and MBA students who need to grasp the basics of computerized decision support. Some of the topics covered include: What is a DSS? What do managers need to know about computerized decision support? And how can managers identify opportunities to create innovative DSS? Overall the book addresses 35 fundamental questions that are relevant to understanding computerized decision support.

  19. Flexible Support Stanchion

    Rudland, D.L.; /Fermilab


    Figure 1 shows the assembly drawing of the Central Calorimeter Cryostat Flexible Support Stanchion. Figures 2 and 3 show the Flexible Support STanchion in detail. These Stanchions support the cryostat safely, reduce the heat load to the cryostat from the ambient by a factor of more than ten, provide a spring like action that reduce the loads created by thermal contraction of the cryostat and position the cryostate accurately. Table 1 shows all of the details of the Flexible Support system for the C.C. Cryostat.

  20. Morocco - Enterprise Support

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation will measure the specific contribution of the training and support program on key business outcomes. There have been no rigorous evaluations conducted...

  1. Biology Curriculum Support Document.

    North Carolina Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This biology curriculum supplement includes the North Carolina Standard Course of Study Goals, helpful resources, and suggested activities supported by inquiry-based laboratory activities. Contents include a detailed description of content which provides the goals and standards being sough), a materials list for inquiry support labs and…

  2. Magnetic support system

    Nijsse, G.J.P.; Spronck, J.W.


    There is described a support system enabling supporting an object such as a platform (1) free from vibration, in that bearing elements (50) have a stiffness (k) which at a working point (z0) equals zero. A bearing element (50) comprises two magnetic couplings (51, 52) provided by permanent magnets

  3. A Standard of Support.

    Wheat, Dave; Cramer, James E.; Cramer, Mary Kay


    Principals can support teachers' pursuit of National Board of Professional Teaching Standards certification by learning about the NBPTS's certification process, putting candidates in contact with NBPTS support programs, facilitating access to technology, providing building access on weekends, volunteering to photocopy or obtain needed materials,…

  4. Supported Employment in Spain.

    Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Borja, F.; de Urries, Jordan; Bellver, Fernando; Martinez, Salvador


    Supported employment is growing in Spain, assisted by models from other countries and national legislation. The Spanish Association of Supported Employment is providing a framework for program development. The field must deal with the lack of systematic evaluation and with funding problems. (SK)

  5. Magnetic support system

    Nijsse, G.J.P.; Spronck, J.W.


    There is described a support system enabling supporting an object such as a platform (1) free from vibration, in that bearing elements (50) have a stiffness (k) which at a working point (z0) equals zero. A bearing element (50) comprises two magnetic couplings (51, 52) provided by permanent magnets (

  6. Thin supported silica membranes

    Zivkovic, Tijana


    This thesis discusses several transport-related aspects relevant for the application of thin supported silica membranes for gas separation and nanofiltration. The influence of support geometry on overall membrane performance is investigated. Planar (i.e., flat plate), tubular, and multichannel suppo

  7. Cable Supported Bridges

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    Cable supported bridges in the form of suspension bridges and cable-stayed bridges are distinguished by their ability to overcome large spans.The book concentrates on the synthesis of cable supported bridges, covering both design and construction aspects. The analytical part covers simple methods...

  8. Disability and Human Supports

    Jeff McNair


    Full Text Available This article provides a brief overview of models of disability growing out of the field of disability studies and leading to a call for interventions going beyond a simply medical model approach. A brief discussion of human supports/services is provided such that readers engaged in the development of services/supports can base them on best principles.

  9. Rebirth through supported employment.

    Strickler, David C


    In this column, the author describes how supported employment was a conduit for employment for him, and allowed for a remarkable journey of recovery, involving discovery and empowerment, incorporation, purpose, and belonging. After two decades of unemployment or underemployment, he began to see that work was possible through supported education at college, where he excelled. Federal and state grants paid for two thirds of his college education. He periodically met with a vocational rehabilitation counselor, who was very encouraging. He also had a case manager through a private psychiatric organization who provided support. The author concludes that the root of his problems was the lack of supports to help him become incorporated into society-a lack that ushered in a host of problems, probably similar to what others experience. When supports were given, many of those symptoms disappeared.

  10. Stress and social support

    Shadiya Baqutayan


    Full Text Available Background: This is an experimental study and it discusses the effectiveness of social support in managing academic stress among students. Aim: The purpose of this study is to understand the importance of social support in managing stress. Materials and Methods: Simple random sampling was assigned to a number of 120 students, equally divided into an experimental and a control group. Classes on social support as coping mechanisms were given to the experimental group only. The accumulated data were then analyzed, descriptive statistics were used to interpret and evaluate the prevalence of academic stress, and social support. Correlation analysis was employed in the examination of the relationship between stress and social support. Results: The findings of this study indicate that there are significant differences between the experimental group and the control group in relation to stress and social support. Eventually, the experimental group proved to cope with academic stress better than the control group, and they were satisfied with their academic performance during the experimentation. Conclusion: Hence, it is highly advisable to encourage the students to use social support as coping mechanisms.

  11. Stop smoking support programs

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... It is hard to quit smoking if you are acting alone. Smokers may have a ... of quitting with a support program. Stop smoking programs ...

  12. Editorial: Support (November 2007

    Dru Lavigne


    Full Text Available What is your first thought when you encounter the term "open source support"? A programmer typing the answer to a question using a chat utility? Hours spent scouring the Internet for a working configuration sample? Contacting a support engineer at a commercial call centre? If you find it difficult to think about a support engineer, you're not alone. Actuate's recently published 2007 Open Source Survey of senior personnel from financial services, Telco, and public sector organizations across North America and Europe indicates that 46.3% of respondents cite the lack of availability of long term support as a major barrier to their company's adoption of open source technologies.

  13. IT Supporting Strategy Formulation

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.


    This overview approaches information and communication technology (ICT) for competitive intelligence from the perspective of strategy formulation. It provides an ICT architecture for supporting the knowledge processes producing relevant knowledge for strategy formulation. To determine what this arch

  14. Chromatography resin support

    Dobos, James G.


    An apparatus and method of using an improved chromatography resin support is disclosed. The chromatography support platform is provided by a stainless steel hollow cylinder adapted for being inserted into a chromatography column. An exterior wall of the stainless steel cylinder defines a groove for carrying therein an "O"-ring. The upper surface of the stainless steel column is covered by a fine stainless steel mesh welded to the edges of the stainless steel cylinder. When placed upon a receiving ledge defined within a chromatography column, the "O"-ring provides a fluid tight seal with the inner edge wall of the chromatography cylinder. The stainless steel mesh supports the chromatography matrix and provides a back flushable support which is economical and simple to construct.

  15. IT Supporting Strategy Formulation

    Achterbergh, J.M.I.M.


    This overview approaches information and communication technology (ICT) for competitive intelligence from the perspective of strategy formulation. It provides an ICT architecture for supporting the knowledge processes producing relevant knowledge for strategy formulation. To determine what this arch

  16. Pelvic Support Problems

    ... A device inserted into the vagina to support sagging organs. Rectocele: Bulging of the rectum into the ... the urethra into the vaginal wall. Uterine Prolapse: Sagging of the uterus into the vagina. Uterus: A ...

  17. On rationally supported surfaces

    Gravesen, Jens; Juttler, B.; Sir, Z.


    We analyze the class of surfaces which are equipped with rational support functions. Any rational support function can be decomposed into a symmetric (even) and an antisymmetric (odd) part. We analyze certain geometric properties of surfaces with odd and even rational support functions....... In particular it is shown that odd rational support functions correspond to those rational surfaces which can be equipped with a linear field of normal vectors, which were discussed by Sampoli et al. (Sampoli, M.L., Peternell, M., Juttler, B., 2006. Rational surfaces with linear normals and their convolutions...... with rational surfaces. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 23, 179-192). As shown recently, this class of surfaces includes non-developable quadratic triangular Bezier surface patches (Lavicka, M., Bastl, B., 2007. Rational hypersurfaces with rational convolutions. Comput. Aided Geom. Design 24, 410426; Peternell, M...

  18. Online social support networks.

    Mehta, Neil; Atreja, Ashish


    Peer support groups have a long history and have been shown to improve health outcomes. With the increasing familiarity with online social networks like Facebook and ubiquitous access to the Internet, online social support networks are becoming popular. While studies have shown the benefit of these networks in providing emotional support or meeting informational needs, robust data on improving outcomes such as a decrease in health services utilization or reduction in adverse outcomes is lacking. These networks also pose unique challenges in the areas of patient privacy, funding models, quality of content, and research agendas. Addressing these concerns while creating patient-centred, patient-powered online support networks will help leverage these platforms to complement traditional healthcare delivery models in the current environment of value-based care.

  19. Democratic Support and Globalization

    Thomas, K


    This chapter explores the impact of globalization on satisfaction with democracy in a comparative perspective. It explicitly tests whether globalization fosters or constrains support for democracy and if its potential negative effects vanish once countries compensate for the potential negative effects of globalization. The analyses rely on survey data collected by the Comparative Study of Electoral Systems to indicate citizens’ support for democracy. Globalization is captured by the KOF Index...

  20. ATLAS support rails

    Maximilien Brice


    These supports will hold the 7000 tonne ATLAS detector in its cavern at the LHC. The huge toroid will be assembled from eight coils that will house some of the muon chambers. Supported within the toroid will be the inner detector, containing tracking devices, as well as devices to measure the energies of the particles produced in the 14 TeV proton-proton collisions at the LHC.

  1. Support vector machines applications

    Guo, Guodong


    Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.

  2. LHC support post


    LHC support post prototype, which dates in 1995, in a long development period which started in the early ’90s and continued until the end of the decade. The wires next to the support post are probably wires from strain gauges, which are employed to measure the stress level in the material when the support is mechanically loaded. These supports are mechanically optimized to withstand a weight of up to 100Kn (10 tons) while being as thin as possible to minimize conduction heat to magnets. This is the reason why the stress measurement was extensively done in the prototyping phase. About support posts: The high magnetic fields needed for the LHC can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC will be the largest superconducting installation ever built and, at 1.9 degrees above absolute zero (300 degrees below room temperature), one of the the coldest objects in the universe! The magnet supports have to brid...


    Irena Jahutka


    Full Text Available By passing the law on state support in agriculture, fishery and forestry the former support system has been changed. Fishery support beneficiaries can use several kinds of support and help. Former financial stimulations for fishery regulated by law from 1995 to 1st January 2003 were settled by the production stimulation model. Besides that well received model, there are the capital investment model, the support in production insurance, the right to use blue diesel, and granting credit for production of freshwater and saltwater fry, adult fish and shells. These five models of support and help can be used by freshwater and saltwater fish and shell breeders, while for fishing the marine fish the production stimulation model is applied (fishing of small pelagic fish, as well as the capital investment model and right to use blue diesel. Marine and freshwater processors can use the production stimulation and the capital investment model. All these models have in common the fact that all physical and legal entities registered for fishing activities (having licence for commercial fishery, aquaculture (the licence for aquaculture or the one for fish and other marine organisam breeding and processing (having the regulated veterinarian and sanitary conditions, the registration document and having been registered in the List of approved facilities have the right to use them.

  4. Ecological implications of reduced pollen supply in the alpine: a case study using a dominant cushion plant species [v2; ref status: indexed,

    Anya Reid


    Full Text Available The reproductive assurance hypothesis states that self-incompatible female plants must produce twice the number of seeds relative to their self-compatible hermaphroditic counterparts to persist in gynodioecious populations. This is a viable life-history strategy, provided that pollination rates are sufficiently high. However, reduced pollination rates in alpine plants are likely due to climate induced plant-pollinator mismatches and general declines in pollinators. Using a gynodioecious population of the dominant plant Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae, we tested the reproductive assurance hypothesis and also the stress gradient hypothesis with a series of pollinator exclusion trials and extensive measurements of subsequent reproductive output (gender ratio, plant size, percent fruit-set, fruit weight, seeds per fruit, total seeds, seed weight, and seed germination. The reproductive assurance hypothesis was supported with female plants being more sensitive to and less likely to be viable under reductions in pollination rates. These findings are the first to show that the stress gradient hypothesis is also supported under a gradient of pollen supply instead of environmental limitations. Beneficiary abundance was negatively correlated to percent fruit-set under current pollen supply, but became positive under reduced pollen supply suggesting that there are important plant-plant-pollinator interactions related to reproduction in these alpine plant species.

  5. Ecological implications of reduced pollen deposition in alpine plants: a case study using a dominant cushion plant species [v1; ref status: indexed,

    Anya Reid


    Full Text Available The reproductive assurance hypothesis states that self-incompatible female plants must produce twice the number of seeds relative to their self-compatible hermaphroditic counterparts to persist in gynodioecious populations. This is a viable life-history strategy, provided that pollination rates are sufficiently high. However, reduced pollination rates in alpine plants are likely due to climate induced plant-pollinator mismatches and general declines in pollinators. Using a gynodioecious population of the dominant plant Silene acaulis (Caryophyllaceae, we tested the reproductive assurance hypothesis and also the stress gradient hypothesis with a series of pollinator exclusion trials and extensive measurements of subsequent reproductive output (gender ratio, plant size, percent fruit-set, fruit weight, seeds per fruit, total seeds, seed weight, and seed germination. The reproductive assurance hypothesis was supported with female plants being more sensitive to and less likely to be viable under reductions in pollination rates. These findings are the first to show that the stress gradient hypothesis is also supported under a gradient of pollen supply instead of environmental limitations. Beneficiary abundance was negatively correlated to percent fruit-set under current pollen supply, but became positive under reduced pollen supply suggesting that there are important plant-plant-pollinator interactions related to reproduction in these alpine plant species.

  6. Numerical simulation of displacement response of floating ice sheet induced by a moving air cushion vehicle in uniform depth%航行气垫船激励均匀水深浮冰层位移响应的数值模拟

    丁志勇; 李宇辰; 张志宏; 卢再华


    在均匀水深条件下,基于 ALE算法对匀速航行气垫船激励浮冰层的位移响应问题进行数值模拟。计算不同气垫船速度和河道岸壁宽度条件下的冰层位移响应,获得对应于冰层最大垂向位移变形情况下的气垫船临界速度。计算结果与理论解和试验结果符合良好,验证计算方法的有效性。计算结果表明:在临界速度时冰层下陷位移达到最大,而河道岸壁的存在将会使临界速度减小。%Based on the ALE algorithm in uniform depth, the displacement response of floating ice sheet caused by a moving air cushion vehicle (ACV) was numerically simulated, the critical speed of moving load with maximum verticaldis-placement deformation of ice sheet were solved, the influence of river width on the displacement response and critical speed were analyzed. A good agreement exists among the numerical results and theoretical solutions as well as experimentalres-ults. The research shows that maximum depression deformation of ice sheet will appear at critical speed, and the existence of river bank will decrease the value of critical speed.

  7. Adjacent patterns between adenoid and eustachian cushion and its clinical relation with otitis media with effusion%腺样体与咽鼓管圆枕的毗邻关系及其与分泌性中耳炎的相关性

    杨柳; 孙文锴; 蔡蕾; 田滢


    目的观察腺样体肥大儿童的腺样体与咽鼓管圆枕的毗邻关系,探讨其与分泌性中耳炎的相关性。方法144例腺样体肥大(或同时扁桃体肥大)70°鼻内镜下行等离子消融术患儿,术中观察并记录腺样体与咽鼓管圆枕的毗邻关系,并将其分为Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ共3型;比较3组患儿分泌性中耳炎发病率、腺样体重度肥大(A/N比值是否大于0.7)的发生率并计算有无统计学差异。结果本组患儿分泌性中耳炎发病率23.6%;腺样体与咽鼓管圆枕的毗邻关系及合并分泌性中耳炎,Ⅰ型3例(9.1%,3/33)、Ⅱ型10例(16.9%,10/59)、Ⅲ型21例(40.4%,21/52),Ⅰ型与Ⅱ型分泌性中耳炎发生率无显著性差异(χ2=1.077,P=0.299),Ⅰ型与Ⅲ型有显著性差异(χ2=9.757,P=0.002),Ⅱ型与Ⅲ型有显著性差异(χ2 =7.542,P=0.006);Ⅰ型和Ⅱ型组腺样体A/N>0.7之和为34.9%,三型组A/N>0.7为82.2%,Ⅰ型及Ⅱ型腺样体重度肥大率之和与Ⅲ型有显著性差异(χ2=30.556,P=0.000)。结论腺样体与咽鼓管圆枕毗邻关系及腺样体的肥大程度与分泌性中耳炎有显著相关性。%OB J ECT I V E To explore the adjacentpatterns between adenoid and Eustachian cushion in hypertrophic adenoid children and to study its relationship with otitis media with effusion(OME). METHODS A retrospective analysis was conducted in 144 cases of pediatric adenoidal hypertrophy(or concurrenttonsil hypertrophy) admitted for adenoid ablation under the 700 nasal endoscope. Children were divided into 3 groups(TypeⅠ, Ⅱ and Ⅲ) according to adjacentpatterns between adenoid and Eustachian cushion.The incidence of OME, severe hypertrophy of adenoid(A/N>0.7) in differentgroup were analyzed. RESULTS There were 34 children (23.6%) with OME, 3 (9.1%) in type Ⅰ, 10(16.9%) in type Ⅱ and 21(40.4%) in type Ⅲ. No significantdifference was existed between the incidence of OME in type


    Wang Yufeng; Wang Wendong; Cheng Shiduan


    MPLS(Multi-Protocol Label Switching) VPN(Virtual Private Network) traffic has been deployed widely, but currently only supports unicast. This paper briefly introduces several available MPLS VPN multicast approaches, and then analyzes their disadvantages. A novel mechanism that uses two-layer label stack to support MPLS VPN explicit multicast is proposed and the process is discussed in detail. The scalability and performance of the proposed mechanism are studied analytically. The result shows that our solution has great advantage over the currently available scheme in terms of saving core network bandwidth and improving the scalability.

  9. GLAST User Support

    Band, David L.; Science Support Center, GLAST


    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) mission will provide the user community with many scientific opportunities. The mission's interface with the user community is the GLAST Science Support Center (GSSC). Yearly guest investigator (GI) cycles will support research related to GLAST. After the first year GIs may propose pointed observations; however, as a consequence of the large field-of-view of GLAST's instruments, pointed observations will rarely have an advantage over the default survey mode. Data, analysis software and documentation will be provided through the GSSC website (; the website also includes a library of scientific results, and a helpdesk.

  10. Potential support ratios

    Kjærgaard, Søren; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir


    , the prospective potential support ratio usually focuses on the current mortality schedule, or period life expectancy. Instead, in this paper we look at the actual mortality experienced by cohorts in a population, using cohort life tables. We analyse differences between the two perspectives using mortality models......, historical data, and forecasted data. Cohort life expectancy takes future mortality improvements into account, unlike period life expectancy, leading to a higher prospective potential support ratio. Our results indicate that using cohort instead of period life expectancy returns around 0.5 extra younger...

  11. Starship Life Support

    Jones, Harry W.


    The design and mass cost of a starship and its life support system are investigated. The mission plan for a multi generational interstellar voyage to colonize a new planet is used to describe the starship design, including the crew habitat, accommodations, and life support. Only current technology is assumed. Highly reliable life support systems can be provided with reasonably small additional mass, suggesting that they can support long duration missions. Bioregenerative life support, growing crop plants that provide food, water, and oxygen, has been thought to need less mass than providing stored food for long duration missions. The large initial mass of hydroponics systems is paid for over time by saving the mass of stored food. However, the yearly logistics mass required to support a bioregenerative system exceeds the mass of food solids it produces, so that supplying stored dehydrated food always requires less mass than bioregenerative food production. A mixed system that grows about half the food and supplies the other half dehydrated has advantages that allow it to breakeven with stored dehydrated food in about 66 years. However, moderate increases in the hydroponics system mass to achieve high reliability, such as adding spares that double the system mass and replacing the initial system every 100 years, increase the mass cost of bioregenerative life support. In this case, the high reliability half food growing, half food supplying system does not breakeven for 389 years. An even higher reliability half and half system, with three times original system mass and replacing the system every 50 years, never breaks even. Growing food for starship life support requires more mass than providing dehydrated food, even for multigeneration voyages of hundreds of years. The benefits of growing some food may justify the added mass cost. Much more efficient recycling food production is wanted but may not be possible. A single multigenerational interstellar voyage to

  12. Aerogel-supported filament

    Wuest, Craig R.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Johnson, III, Coleman V.


    The present invention is a thin filament embedded in a low density aerogel for use in radiation detection instruments and incandescent lamps. The aerogel provides a supportive matrix that is thermally and electrically nonconductive, mechanically strong, highly porous, gas-permeable, and transparent to ionizing radiation over short distances. A low density, open-cell aerogel is cast around a fine filament or wire, which allows the wire to be positioned with little or no tension and keeps the wire in place in the event of breakage. The aerogel support reduces the stresses on the wire caused by vibrational, gravitational, electrical, and mechanical forces.

  13. Rhode Island Model Evaluation & Support System: Support Professional. Edition II

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015


    Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful evaluation and support system for support professionals will help improve student outcomes. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Support Professional Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all support professionals do their best work…

  14. Social support in development

    Mariska Kromhout; Peteke Feijten; Frieke Vonk; Mirjam de Klerk; Anna Maria Marangos; Wouter Mensink; Maaike den Draak; Alice de Boer; m.m.v. Jurjen Iedema


    Original title: De Wmo in beweging. Evaluatie Wet maatschappelijke ondersteuning 2010-2012 The goal of the Dutch Social Support Act (Wet maatschappelijke ondersteuning – Wmo) is to make it possible for people to manage within and outside their homes and to participate in society. Within the framewor

  15. Supporting Music Teacher Mentors

    Zaffini, Erin Dineen


    While much discussion and research is focused on the importance of music teacher mentors for preservice teachers and novice in-service music educators, little discussion has been devoted to the topic of how we, as members of the music education profession, can support the role of music teacher mentors. This article explores some of the benefits…

  16. Support Vector Components Analysis

    van der Ree, Michiel; Roerdink, Johannes; Phillips, Christophe; Garraux, Gaetan; Salmon, Eric; Wiering, Marco


    In this paper we propose a novel method for learning a distance metric in the process of training Support Vector Machines (SVMs) with the radial basis function kernel. A transformation matrix is adapted in such a way that the SVM dual objective of a classification problem is optimized. By using a wi

  17. Participatory IT-support

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille


    Beyond the initial phases of systems design Participatory Design has potentiality to include operation and maintenance of IT systems in organizations. The paper presents this argument through reports from case studies of local IT-support coined ‘participatory IT-support’. The paper presents...

  18. Bioartificial Liver Support

    Vincent G Bain


    Full Text Available Bioartificial liver support has been increasingly the focus of both basic and clinical research in an attempt to replicate the multiplicity of normal liver function. The concept is attractive because, if it is effective, patients with acute liver failure may be supported until native liver regeneration occurs or, by optimizing their condition, until liver transplantation is possible. Current bioartificial liver support systems utilize primary porcine hepatocytes or transformed human hepatocytes, which are housed within a bioreactor, through which the patient's blood or plasma is pumped in an extracorporeal circuit. The optimal source for the hepatocytes is an area of debate; however, a genetically engineered cell line may provide optimal function. Novel three-dimensional matrices that anchor the hepatocytes are being designed to mimic architectural features of the normal liver. Large multicentre, randomized, controlled trials are ongoing following several pilot studies. Serious side effects such as hemodynamic instability and immune reactions have been infrequent. Much controversy, however, surrounds the issue of possible transmission of pig endogenous retrovirus to humans, and current trials are being carefully monitored. Bioartificial liver support is a promising technology, and the results of current and planned studies are awaited with great interest.

  19. Support or Barrier?

    Sanden, Guro Refsum; Lønsmann, Dorte

    This study offers a critical look at how corporate-level language management influences front-line language practices among employees in three multinational corporations (MNCs) headquartered in Scandinavia. Based on interview and document data, we examine, firstly, what front-line practices emplo...... to a discussion of how a company’s language policy may be seen as both support and a barrier....

  20. Supporting Music Teacher Mentors

    Zaffini, Erin Dineen


    While much discussion and research is focused on the importance of music teacher mentors for preservice teachers and novice in-service music educators, little discussion has been devoted to the topic of how we, as members of the music education profession, can support the role of music teacher mentors. This article explores some of the benefits…

  1. RoboWeedSupport

    Dyrmann, Mads; Nyholm Jørgensen, Rasmus


    Information about the weed population in fields is important for determining the optimal herbicides for the fields. A system based on images is presented that can provide support in determining the species and density of the weeds. Firstly, plants are segmented from the soil. Plants that after th...

  2. Stress Management: Social Support

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Having close friends and family has far-reaching benefits for your health. Here's how to build and maintain these ... ll reap a plethora of rewards. References Stress management: How to strengthen your social support network. American ...

  3. PVM Support for Clusters

    Springer, P.


    The latest version of PVM (3.4.3) now contains support for a PC cluster running Linux, also known as a Beowulf system. A PVM user of a computer outside the Beowulf system can add the Beowulf as a single machine.

  4. Public support for Vigilantism

    Haas, Nicole Eveline


    Why can vigilantes count on public support? Why do citizens in certain cases oppose the formal prosecution and punishment of vigilantes? Are such reactions an indication of lacking confidence in the criminal justice system? Or do situational aspects perhaps also play a role? The goal of this disse

  5. Collaborative Support for Inclusion

    Sanahuja-Gavaldà, Josep M.; Olmos-Rueda, Patricia; Morón-Velasco, Mar


    Nowadays, in Catalonia, students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are increasingly in regular schools although their presence, participation, learning and success are unequal. Barriers towards inclusion often depend on how to organise supporting at regular schools and the teachers' collaboration during this process. In this paper, the support…

  6. Palpability Support Demonstrated

    Brønsted, Jeppe; Grönvall, Erik; Fors, David


    is based on the Active Surfaces concept in which therapists rehabilitate physically and mentally impaired children by means of an activity that stimulates the children both physically and cognitively. In this paper we demonstrate how palpability can be supported in a prototype of the Active Surfaces...

  7. Bed surfaces and pressure sore prevention: an abridged report.

    Brown, S J


    This article summarizes the results of a systematic review of randomized controlled trials testing the effectiveness of special beds, mattresses, and cushions in preventing and treating pressure sores. The review's citation is Cullum, N., Deeks, J., Sheldon, T.A., Song, F., & Fletcher, A.W. (2000). Beds, mattresses and cushions for pressure sore prevention and treatment (Cochrane Review). The Cochrane Library, 4. An integrative research review. 37 studies were included in the analysis. A broad search of databases and unpublished studies was conducted. Data were extracted from those that met the inclusion criteria. Studies were grouped in various ways but mainly by type of product evaluated. Many special products designed to prevent or treat pressure sores are more effective than standard hospital foam mattresses in preventing and treating pressure sores. Special pressure-relieving surfaces should be used for patients at risk for skin breakdown. Individual practitioners and agencies should have a systematic protocol for assessing patients' risk of skin breakdown and for taking action when patients are determined to be at risk. The findings of this review provide some guidance for choosing particular products, albeit not definitive evidence for matching risk levels to products.

  8. Supporting complex search tasks

    Gäde, Maria; Hall, Mark; Huurdeman, Hugo


    There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks, is fragme......There is broad consensus in the field of IR that search is complex in many use cases and applications, both on the Web and in domain specific collections, and both professionally and in our daily life. Yet our understanding of complex search tasks, in comparison to simple look up tasks......, and recommendations, and supporting exploratory search to sensemaking and analytics, UI and UX design pose an overconstrained challenge. How do we know that our approach is any good? Supporting complex search task requires new collaborations across the whole field of IR, and the proposed workshop will bring together...

  9. Business process support

    Carle, Adriana; Fiducia, Daniel [Transportadora de Gas del Sur S.A. (TGS), Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    This paper is about the own development of business support software. The developed applications are used to support two business processes: one of them is the process of gas transportation and the other is the natural gas processing. This software has interphases with the ERP SAP, software SCADA and on line gas transportation simulation software. The main functionalities of the applications are: entrance on line real time of clients transport nominations, transport programming, allocation of the clients transport nominations, transport control, measurements, balanced pipeline, allocation of gas volume to the gas processing plants, calculate of product tons processed in each plant and tons of product distributed to clients. All the developed software generates information to the internal staff, regulatory authorities and clients. (author)

  10. Boosting Support Vector Machines

    Elkin Eduardo García Díaz


    Full Text Available En este artículo, se presenta un algoritmo de clasificación binaria basado en Support Vector Machines (Máquinas de Vectores de Soporte que combinado apropiadamente con técnicas de Boosting consigue un mejor desempeño en cuanto a tiempo de entrenamiento y conserva características similares de generalización con un modelo de igual complejidad pero de representación más compacta./ In this paper we present an algorithm of binary classification based on Support Vector Machines. It is combined with a modified Boosting algorithm. It run faster than the original SVM algorithm with a similar generalization error and equal complexity model but it has more compact representation.

  11. Decision support systems

    Jørgensen, L N; Noe, E; Langvad, A M


    system Crop Protection Online is widely used by advisors and as a learning tool for students. Although the system has been validated in many field trials over the years and has shown reliable results, the number of end-users among farmers has been relatively low during the last 10 years (approximately...... 1000 farmers). A sociological investigation of farmers' decision-making styles in the area of crop protection has shown that arable farmers can be divided into three major groups: (a) system-orientated farmers, (b) experience-based farmers and (c) advisory-orientated farmers. The information required...... by these three groups to make their decisions varies and therefore different ways of using decision support systems need to be provided. Decision support systems need to be developed in close dialogue and collaboration with user groups....

  12. Support open access publishing

    Ekstrøm, Jeannette


    Projektet Support Open Access Publishing har til mål at få opdateret Sherpa/Romeo databasen ( med fagligt relevante, danske tidsskrifter. Projektet skal endvidere undersøge mulighederne for at få udviklet en database, hvor forskere på tværs af relevante tidsskriftsinformati......Projektet Support Open Access Publishing har til mål at få opdateret Sherpa/Romeo databasen ( med fagligt relevante, danske tidsskrifter. Projektet skal endvidere undersøge mulighederne for at få udviklet en database, hvor forskere på tværs af relevante...... tidsskriftsinformationer (faglig disciplin, BFI niveau, Impact Factor, Open Access) vil kunne danne sig et hurtigt overblik, for derved at kunne træffe et kvalificeret valg om, hvor og hvordan man skal publicere sine forskningsresultater....

  13. Supporting shop floor intelligence

    Carstensen, Peter; Schmidt, Kjeld; Wiil, Uffe Kock


    Many manufacturing enterprises are now trying to introduce various forms of flexible work organizations on the shop floor. However, existing computer-based production planning and control systems pose severe obstacles for autonomous working groups and other kinds of shop floor control to become r......-to-day production planning by supporting intelligent and responsible workers in their situated coordination activities on the shop floor....

  14. Supporting Transparency between Students

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    The paper presents the results of a case study that explores the potentials of weblogs and social bookmarking to support transparency in a university course. In the course, groups of students used weblogs and social bookmarking in their work. The objective of the case was to empower students...... students in a course, but that the challenge is to create a balance between personal tools and tools for collaborative group work that are also suitable for transparency between students....

  15. Mark IVA microprocessor support

    Burford, A. L.


    The requirements and plans for the maintenance support of microprocessor-based controllers in the Deep Space Network Mark IVA System are discussed. Additional new interfaces and 16-bit processors have introduced problems not present in the Mark III System. The need for continuous training of maintenance personnel to maintain a level of expertise consistent with the sophistication of the required tools is also emphasized.

  16. Forklift Support Dolly

    Young, W.; Witcher, H. C.


    Long, heavy loads handled safely. Forklift support dolly enables operator to manipulate safely large sections of materials around corners and through narrow aisles and doorways. Dolly has pivoting tandem wheels for maneuverability. Plate laid out lengthwise along truck axis, with one end clamped to forklift and other end clamped to dolly. With this arrangement, minimum width of passage determined by short side of plate rather than by long side.

  17. Magnetic record support

    Nakayama, M.; Morita, H.; Tokuoka, Y.; Izumi, T.; Fukuda, K.; Kubota, Y.


    The magnetic layer of a magnetic record support is coated with a thin film of a polymer with a siloxane bond. The magnetic layer consists of a thin film obtained by vacuum metallization, cathode sputtering or dispersion of a ferromagnetic metal powder in a binder. The polymer with a siloxane bond is produced by the polymerization of an organic silicon compound which inherently contains or is able to form this bond. Polymerization is preferably performed by plasma polymerization.

  18. Integrated Logistics Support Guide


    achievable values of logis- for improved supportability tics and R&M parameters Technological Opportunities CONCEPT (LSA Task 204) EXPLORATION o Define...the award will be Manager identifies and defines what logis- based. In contrast, competitive proposals tics considerations should be addressed in...expandable? b. Software (1) Will diagnostic software changes be possible? (2) Will the organizacional structure allow for continuing software update? (3

  19. Ventricular Assist Device Support

    Fasseas, Panayotis; Kutalek, Steven P.; Samuels, Fania L.; Holmes, Elena C.; Samuels, Louis E.


    We describe herein the cases of 2 patients who had ventricular arrhythmias. In one, a short-term biventricular assist device, the ABIOMED BVS 5000, was placed because the patient had sustained ventricular tachycardia and could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. Excellent hemodynamic support was maintained for several days while the antiarrhythmic therapy was maximized. Sinus rhythm was restored, and the patient was successfully weaned from the ventricular assist device. However, the substrate for the arrhythmia persisted, and a recurrence, 1 week later, resulted in the patient's death. In the 2nd patient, the use of an implantable left ventricular assist device was successful in temporarily alleviating the ventricular tachycardia associated with ischemic cardiomyopathy. However, after 2 days of device assistance, the patient experienced a recurrence of the tachycardia, which degenerated into ventricular fibrillation with a marked deterioration in the patient's hemodynamics. The arrhythmia persisted despite multiple attempts at external cardioversion, and internal cardioversion and placement of an automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator were necessary. This treatment, along with repeated boluses of amiodarone, led to successful suppression of the arrhythmias, and the patient eventually underwent transplantation. The mechanical hemodynamic support of the circulation by ventricular assist devices was effective in supporting these 2 patients who had sustained ventricular arrhythmias. (Tex Heart Inst J 2002;29:33–6) PMID:11995847

  20. [Administrative support for Asperger's syndrome].

    Yamaoka, Shu


    In recent years, administrative support for developmental disabilities, such as Asperger's syndrome, has come to be conspicuous with "Law for Supporting Persons with Developmental Disabilities", which went into effect in 2005, and promotion of "Special Support Education". However, these supports are still insufficient, because administrative support for the Asperger's syndrome in Japan, having just started very recently. Developmental disabilities, such as Asperger's syndrome, are by no means mild as disabilities, it is required to fill up administrative support for them from now on.

  1. Mesomechanical analysis of bearing characteristics of pile-supported embankment with particle flow code%桩承式路堤承载特性颗粒流细观模拟

    郑俊杰; 赖汉江; 董友扣; 张军


    Based on a two-dimensional discrete element method program PFC2D, a numerical model was established to simulate the bearing characteristics of pile-supported embankment. The variations of contact forces, stresses, vertical displacements and pile-soil stress ratios were analyzed. Further- more, a parametric study was carried out to investigate the performance of pile-supported embankment and the selected influencing factors consist of the pile spacing, the width of pile cap, the friction angle of cushion and the particle shape of cushion. The numerical results show that the soil arching struc- ture in embankment fill mainly exists above the pile cap of one time clear pile spacing. The wider the pl e cap as well as the smaller the pile spacing are, the higher pile-soil stress ratio but the weaker sta bility of soil arching structure will be. If the surface of soil particle is rougher as well as the friction angle is greater, pile-soil stress ratio will be higher and the stability of soil arching structure will be stronger. With an increase of surcharge loads, the soil arching structure presents a changing process of forming-failure-reforming.%采用离散元法软件PFC2D,建立了桩承式路堤承载特性颗粒流试验模型.分析了路堤荷载下填土颗粒间接触力、应力和竖向位移等的分布规律以及桩土应力比的变化规律,并研究了桩间距、桩帽宽度、颗粒间内摩擦角和颗粒形状等因素对桩承式路堤承载特性的影响.结果表明:填土颗粒中土拱结构主要存在于桩顶1倍桩净间距高度范围内;桩帽宽度越大,桩间距越小,桩土应力比越大但土拱结构稳定性越弱;填土颗粒表面越粗糙,内摩擦角越大,桩土应力比越大且土拱结构稳定性越强;随着路堤荷载的增加,填土颗粒中土拱结构呈现出形成-破坏-再形成的变化规律.

  2. Decision Support for Radiologists

    M. Fatehi


    Full Text Available Introduction & Background: Radiology practice like any other discipline in medicine consists of professional problem solving. A practicing radiologist may face different kinds of problems from pathology finding in im-age, suggestion of appropriate workup in a specific situation, formulating relevant differential diagnosis list for comparison with normal variants and artifacts. When a radiologist has the opportunity to use a computer he/she will also be able to use digital material/technology to solve these problems and make sound decisions. The available methods/materials for digital decision support in radiology may be categorized as follow: A. Image Processing When a radiological image is captured or converted to digital format, techniques like edge enhancement and contrast change may improve the diagnostic value of an image and help in decision making. B. Computer-aided Detection Thoracic imaging and mammography are two fields with promising advances in computer-aided diagnosis (CAD. The ultimate role of CAD is as a second opinion besides radiologists own perception. It is obvious how-ever that when available, CAD may decrease detection errors in radiology practice. C. Decision Support Databases Image Banks: An electronic atlas may be used to compare patients’ image to a predefined classified set of im-ages in order to help radiologist in pattern recognition. This may also be used for anatomic details and variants. Knowledge Bases: A digital differential diagnosis table or algorithmic approach to a specific problem may be helpful in reading room. Digital Textbooks: Classical radiological textbooks may be used in routine practice to remember some definitions, lists or hints, When available, digital version of textbooks are invaluable decision aids. D. Internet resources Online resources can be easily updated, widely used by different users, uniformly applied by different radiolo-gists. Although digital decision support materials and

  3. Autophagy supports color vision.

    Zhou, Zhenqing; Vinberg, Frans; Schottler, Frank; Doggett, Teresa A; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Ferguson, Thomas A


    Cones comprise only a small portion of the photoreceptors in mammalian retinas. However, cones are vital for color vision and visual perception, and their loss severely diminishes the quality of life for patients with retinal degenerative diseases. Cones function in bright light and have higher demand for energy than rods; yet, the mechanisms that support the energy requirements of cones are poorly understood. One such pathway that potentially could sustain cones under basal and stress conditions is macroautophagy. We addressed the role of macroautophagy in cones by examining how the genetic block of this pathway affects the structural integrity, survival, and function of these neurons. We found that macroautophagy was not detectable in cones under normal conditions but was readily observed following 24 h of fasting. Consistent with this, starvation induced phosphorylation of AMPK specifically in cones indicating cellular starvation. Inhibiting macroautophagy in cones by deleting the essential macroautophagy gene Atg5 led to reduced cone function following starvation suggesting that cones are sensitive to systemic changes in nutrients and activate macroautophagy to maintain their function. ATG5-deficiency rendered cones susceptible to light-induced damage and caused accumulation of damaged mitochondria in the inner segments, shortening of the outer segments, and degeneration of all cone types, revealing the importance of mitophagy in supporting cone metabolic needs. Our results demonstrate that macroautophagy supports the function and long-term survival of cones providing for their unique metabolic requirements and resistance to stress. Targeting macroautophagy has the potential to preserve cone-mediated vision during retinal degenerative diseases.

  4. Environmental analysis support

    Miller, R.L.


    Activities in environmental analysis support included assistance to the Morgantown and Pittsburgh Energy Technology Centers (METC and PETC) in reviewing and preparing documents required by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) for projects selected for the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program. An important activity was the preparation for METC of a final Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed Externally Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) Project in Warren, Pennsylvania. In addition, a post-project environmental analysis was prepared for PETC to evaluate the Demonstration of Advanced Combustion Techniques for a Tangentially-Fired Boiler in Lynn Haven, Florida.




    The AS-DB and AS-SU groups within the Administrative Support division now offer a central entry point to the computer based Information Services under their responsibilities: the AIS Web site at features comprehensive search and navigation facilities as well as an activity based business map to guide AIS users to the information they want. Users will be able to launch any AIS WEB application from its desktop.Enjoy a visit of the site, we value your feedback at!AS-DB/AS-SU

  6. Support or Barrier?

    Sanden, Guro Refsum; Lønsmann, Dorte

    This study offers a critical look at how corporate-level language management influences front-line language practices among employees in three multinational corporations (MNCs) headquartered in Scandinavia. Based on interview and document data, we examine, firstly, what front-line practices...... employees use to cross language boundaries in their everyday work, and, secondly, how these practices relate to top-down language management in the case companies. Our findings show that employees are often dependent on ad hoc and informal solutions in cross- language situations, which leads us...... to a discussion of how a company’s language policy may be seen as both support and a barrier....

  7. Student support infrastructure

    Nøhr, Christian


    The development and diffusion of distance learning programmes has made it possible for students to choose their preferred location to study and consequently, they are expected to be able to use new technologies in order to gain necessary support in a wide range of ares. When universities implement...... distance learning a number of complex issues have to be considered. The chapter presents a framework fro identifying the most important issues. Furthermore, it examines some of the options and problems, which are necessary to consider....

  8. Supported Molecular Matrix Electrophoresis.

    Matsuno, Yu-Ki; Kameyama, Akihiko


    Mucins are difficult to separate using conventional gel electrophoresis methods such as SDS-PAGE and agarose gel electrophoresis, owing to their large size and heterogeneity. On the other hand, cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis can separate these molecules, but is not compatible with glycan analysis. Here, we describe a novel membrane electrophoresis technique, termed "supported molecular matrix electrophoresis" (SMME), in which a porous polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane filter is used to achieve separation. This description includes the separation, visualization, and glycan analysis of mucins with the SMME technique.

  9. 边界元-有限差分混合方法在气垫船破冰数值模拟中的应用%Application of mixed BEM and FDM in numerical simulation of ice-breaking by air cushion vehicle

    刘巨斌; 张志宏; 张辽元; 姚俊


    A unified mathematical model was set up for different operating conditions (on pure water surface,on pure ice surface,on pure broken ice surface,and on semi-water-semi-ice surface) under which air cushion vehicles(ACV)do ice breaking.The numerical calculation method was based on the combination of BEM and FDM,and C language was applied to developing simulation software,which served the function of calculating the wave-making drag of ACV,wave patterns of water or ice and stresses in ice layer.In this software,INTEL MKL mathematical Lib was used to solve linear equations,and Matlab computing engine was used according to C code,to visualize computational grids and some results.OPENMP option was activated to carry out parallel computation on the multi-core computer.The mathematical model,the computing method and the developed software were proved to be effective by comparing the numerical results of the wave-making drag of ACV on total ice with those of the theoretical analysis and experiments mentioned in the existing documents.%对气垫船破冰作业的几种工况建立了统一的数学模型,提出了采用边界元法与有限差分法相结合的数值计算方法.采用C语言编制数值模拟程序,对气垫船兴波阻力、水面和冰面波形以及冰层内应力进行计算,通过调用Intel MKL数学库求解离散得到线性代数方程组;在C语言中调用Matlab计算引擎实现了计算网格和部分计算结果的显示;在多核计算机上采用OPENMP实现程序关键部分的并行计算,提高了计算速度.气垫船在全冰面上兴波阻力的计算结果与已有文献的理论分析计算结果和试验结果符合较好.

  10. Mine roof supports

    Dettmers, M.; Peters, B.; Weirich, W.


    A mine roof support has hydraulic props mounted between a floor sill and a roof bar which can be raised and lowered by extension and retraction of the props. A goaf shield is pivotably connected to the rear of the roof bar and is linked via levers to the floor sill. A hydraulic piston and cylinder unit is connected between the roof bar and the goaf shield. Apparatus serves to prevent damage to the support components, and especially to the unit which could be extended beyond its full stroke when the props are retracted to bring the goaf shield and the roof bar more or less into alignment. The protective apparatus is composed of a compact valve device operated by a member, such as a cam, to block the props from hydraulic pressure when the goaf shield and the roof bar assume a pre-determined angular disposition. Both the valve device and its operating member are disposed in a protected position within chambers formed inside the roof bar and the goaf shield adjacent the pivot connection therebetween.

  11. The BIJOU Teaching Support System.

    Wiseman, Michael


    Describes the large-class BIJOU teaching support system developed at University of California-Berkeley to facilitate recordkeeping and communication with support staff. Reasons why large classes exist, organizational elements, and teaching support systems requirements are reviewed. Tasks supported by the BIJOU saystem, costs, and possible…

  12. The supportive expatriate spouse:

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan


    Previous research on the influence of accompanying expatriate spouses has emphasized the negative impact on the business expatriates that could contribute to unsuccessful outcomes of the foreign assignments. But spouses' influences could also be positive. Applying ethnographic field-work methodol....... These findings are consistent with recent theoretical developments focusing on positive outcomes of the work-family interface and social capital theory and are in line with empirical research on repatriation and post-assignment careers.......-work methodology, this study investigated female spouses' involvement in the career of a sample of Danish business expatriates living in the same compound in Saudi Arabia. Results showed that the accompanying partners were active in trying to support and further their expatriate husbands' immediate careers...

  13. Perioperative nutritional support.

    Morán López, Jesús Manuel; Piedra León, María; García Unzueta, María Teresa; Ortiz Espejo, María; Hernández González, Miriam; Morán López, Ruth; Amado Señaris, José Antonio


    The relationship between preoperative malnutrition and morbi-mortality has been documented for years. Despite the existence of tools that allow its detection, and therefore treat this entity, their introduction into clinical practice is not wide-spread. Both perioperative insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are associated with increased perioperative morbidity and length of hospital stay. The intake of carbohydrate-rich drinks 2-4h prior to surgery reduces insulin resistance. In the immediate postoperative period, the enteral route is safe and well tolerated and its early use reduces hospital stay and postoperative complications compared with parenteral nutritional support. Inmunonutrition has been proven effective to decrease postoperative complications and hospital stay. In view of these data we opted for the adoption of these measures replacing bowel rest and the indiscriminate use of postoperative parenteral nutrition.

  14. EOSDIS Customer Support Challenges

    Moses, J. F.; Boquist, C. L.


    The Earth Observation System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a large, complex data system currently supporting over 18 operational NASA satellite missions including the flagship EOS missions: Terra, Aqua, and Aura. The observations collected by these missions are kept at geographically distributed data centers. EOSDIS manages over four petabytes of data accessed by over 200,000 distinct users last year. The data centers distributed more than 37 million Earth science data products during 2005 to a diverse customer community. An important goal for these data centers is to provide an adequate service at a uniform level for the user community to ensure we get the most benefit from our investment in space resources. This paper discusses the challenges, the ways the data centers coordinate among themselves to provide service, and recent results of measuring customer satisfaction with this service.

  15. [Pediatric advanced life support].

    Muguruma, Takashi


    Important changes or points of emphasis in the recommendations for pediatric advanced life support are as follows. In infants and children with no signs of life, healthcare providers should begin CPR unless they can definitely palpate a pulse within 10 seconds. New evidence documents the important role of ventilations in CPR for infants and children. Rescuers should provide conventional CPR for in-hospital and out-of-hospital pediatric cardiac arrests. The initial defibrillation energy dose of 2 to 4J/kg of either monophasic or biphasic waveform. Both cuffed and uncuffed tracheal tubes are acceptable for infants and children undergoing emergency intubation. Monitoring capnography/capnometry is recommended to confirm proper endotracheal tube position.

  16. Supporting analyses and assessments

    Ohi, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)


    Supporting analysis and assessments can provide a sound analytic foundation and focus for program planning, evaluation, and coordination, particularly if issues of hydrogen production, distribution, storage, safety, and infrastructure can be analyzed in a comprehensive and systematic manner. The overall purpose of this activity is to coordinate all key analytic tasks-such as technology and market status, opportunities, and trends; environmental costs and benefits; and regulatory constraints and opportunities-within a long-term and systematic analytic foundation for program planning and evaluation. Within this context, the purpose of the project is to help develop and evaluate programmatic pathway options that incorporate near and mid-term strategies to achieve the long-term goals of the Hydrogen Program. In FY 95, NREL will develop a comprehensive effort with industry, state and local agencies, and other federal agencies to identify and evaluate programmatic pathway options to achieve the long-term goals of the Program. Activity to date is reported.

  17. Bug bites and stings: When to see a dermatologist

    Full Text Available ... it under the mattress for maximum protection. Pay attention to outbreaks. Check the CDC Travel Health Notices ... and Canada Residents DermCare Team Patients Patient advocates Media Advertisers Quick links About AAD Support AAD Donate ...

  18. Reactor vessel support system. [LMFBR

    Golden, M.P.; Holley, J.C.


    A reactor vessel support system includes a support ring at the reactor top supported through a box ring on a ledge of the reactor containment. The box ring includes an annular space in the center of its cross-section to reduce heat flow and is keyed to the support ledge to transmit seismic forces from the reactor vessel to the containment structure. A coolant channel is provided at the outside circumference of the support ring to supply coolant gas through the keyways to channels between the reactor vessel and support ledge into the containment space.

  19. Some Additional Thoughts about Supported Employment Using Natural Supports.

    Test, David W.; Wood, Wendy M.


    This article responds to critiques of "Natural Supports in the Workplace: The Jury Is Still Out" (Test and Wood) by focusing on what was on trial, the need to define natural supports, the interaction between policy and practice, and implications of natural supports on personnel preparation. (CR)

  20. Healthcare Virtual Support Communities: Pillars of Support and Companionship

    Huang, Kuang-Yuan


    The two studies in this dissertation identify and address two related research gaps in literature on healthcare virtual support communities. Study one suggested that the exclusive emphasis on social support behavior and its impacts on individual well-being in virtual support communities has led to the neglect of another type of social interaction…

  1. Tactical emergency medical support.

    Rinnert, Kathy J; Hall, William L


    As increases in criminal activity collide with more aggressive law enforcement postures, there is more contact between police officers and violent felons. Civilian law enforcement special operations teams routinely engage suspects in these violent, dynamic, and complex interdiction activities. Along with these activities comes the substantial and foreseeable risk of death or grievous harm to law officers, bystanders, hostages, or perpetrators. Further, law enforcement agencies who attempt to apprehend dangerous, heavily armed criminals with a special operations team that lacks the expertise to treat the medical consequences that may arise from such a confrontation may be negligent of deliberate indifference. Meanwhile, evidence exists within the military, civilian law enforcement, and medical literature that on-scene TEMS serves to improve mission success and team safety and health, while decreasing morbidity and mortality in the event of an injury or illness suffered during operations. National professional organizations within law enforcement and emergency medicine have identified and support the fundamental need for mission safety and the development of a standard model to train and incorporate TEMS into law enforcement special operations. The overall objective of TEMS is to minimize the potential for injury and illness and to promote optimal medical care from the scene of operations to a definitive care facility. The design, staffing, and implementation of a TEMS program that maximally uses the community resources integrates previously disparate law enforcement, EMS, and emergency medical/trauma center functions to form a new continuum of care [55].


    Svetlana Trajković


    Full Text Available The modern age in which we live today, modern and highly advanced technology that follows us all, gives great importance in the management of production within the computer support of management. Computer applications in production, the organization of production systems, in the organization of management and business, is gaining in importance. We live in a time when more and more uses computer technology and thus gives the opportunity for a broad and important area of application of computer systems in production, as well as some methods that enable us to successful implementation of a computer, such as in the management of production. Computer technology speeds up the processing and transfer of Information By needed in decision-making at various levels of management. Computer applications in production management and organizational management business production system gets more and more. New generation of computers caused the first technological revolution in industry. On these solutions the industry has been able to use all the modern technology of computers in manufacturing, automation and production management .


    Vita Fradiantika


    Abstract This study aims to investigate the behavior of PSIM’s (Perserikatan Sepakbola Indonesia Mataram supporters. This study used qualitative methods with case study approach. Informants used in this study consist of three members of Brajamusti board and three members of the Maident board. For the triangulation, in this study the Brajamusti President, Chairman of The Maident, and two police officers were interviewed. The results showed that Brajamusti and The Maident are behave fanatic in providing support to PSIM, so that often cause fights between supporters. Factor that cause the broken of Brajamusti is political that made by certain parties for political interests. The positive impact of these two groups of supporters are their contribution for buying tickets in every time they watch PSIM, so it can be a financial support. While the negative impact of the two groups of supporters are the unfair competition between them  that makes support for PSIM become obscured. Keywords: behavior, football, supporters

  4. Engineering Technical Support Center (ETSC)

    ETSC is EPA’s technical support and resource centers responsible for providing specialized scientific and engineering support to decision-makers in the Agency’s ten regional offices, states, communities, and local businesses.

  5. Parent-to-Parent Support.

    Scott, Sue; Doyle, Phyllis


    A parent-to-parent support program was begun to provide early support for parents of handicapped children. New parents are carefully matched with helping parents, who have been trained in communication, resource finding, and referral making. (CL)

  6. What Is Nutrition Support Therapy?

    ... Professional Development Webinars Calendar of Events What Is Nutrition Support Therapy All people need food to live. ... patient populations from pediatrics to geriatrics. Key Terms: Nutrition Support Therapy The provision of enteral or parenteral ...

  7. NGA Ebola Support Data Services

    National Geospatial Intelligence Agency — In support of the ongoing Ebola crisis in Africa, NGA is providing to the public and humanitarian disaster response community these Ebola support data services. They...

  8. `Gas cushion' model and hydrodynamic boundary conditions for superhydrophobic textures

    Nizkaya, Tatiana V; Vinogradova, Olga I


    Superhydrophobic Cassie textures with trapped gas bubbles reduce drag, by generating large effective slip, which is important for a variety of applications that involve a manipulation of liquids at the small scale. Here we discuss how the dissipation in the gas phase of textures modifies their friction properties and effective slip. We propose an operator method, which allows us the mapping of the flow in the gas subphase to a local slip boundary condition at the liquid/gas interface. The determined uniquely local slip length depends on the viscosity contrast and underlying topography, and can be immediately used to evaluate an effective slip of the texture. Beside Cassie surfaces our approach is valid for Wenzel textures, where a liquid follows the surface relief, as well as for rough surfaces impregnated by a low-viscosity `lubricant'. These results provide a framework for the rational design of textured surfaces for numerous applications.

  9. Development of Optimization Procedure for Design of Package Cushioning


    Contains array positions of optimum thickness for each of the three faces. IITM __-_ Item number. IJE --------- Deletion code. ITEM...7) ,CD(10,2) , CS,f.I, WII 00O0C3 COMMON /VPASS/ NIC,IC, IITM ,MIC,MXI,MOMJ,TCON,TEML,TEMH 000003 DIMENSION OM,(11),S(11),XDJ(11) 000003...READ 1000,NIC,IC, IITM ,MIC,MXI,MOMJ,CS,CI,TCON,fEML,TEMH 00003S READ 1020,(0MJ(I),1=1,HOMJ) OOOOSO REAO 1020,(8(1),Isl.KOMJ) 0000b3 READ

  10. Effect of a responsive skirt on air cushion vehicle seakeeping

    Zhou, W. L.; Ma, T.

    The skirt system, which will be excited to make a response motion under the outer disturbance, is treated as a passive control system, and the longitudinal motion equations of ACV are derived according to the control principle. The influence of the skirt response in waves on ACVs seaworthiness is analyzed in the paper. Some results are gotten that the greater vertical deflexion of skirt will make the response of heave, pitch motion and acceleration of the craft decreased a lot, but the horizontal deflexion will go the opposite way. The natural frequency of skirt plays an important role in seaworthiness improvement, the adoption of lower frequency skirt can make the frequency band of craft motion response narrower effectively. The matching of skirt parameters of bow and stern has a certain effect too.

  11. Design criteria for light high speed desert air cushion vehicles

    Abulnaga, B. E.

    An evaluation is made of the applicability and prospective performance of ACVs in trans-Saharan cargo transport, in view of the unique characteristics of the dry sand environment. The lightweight/high-speed ACV concept envisioned is essentially ground effect aircraftlike, with conventional wheels as a low-speed backup suspension system. A propeller is used in ground effect cruise. Attention is given to the effects on vehicle stability and performance of sandy surface irregularities of the desert topography and of cross-winds from various directions relative to vehicle movement.

  12. Tessellating cushions: four-point functions in N=4 SYM

    Eden, Burkhard


    We consider a class of planar tree-level four-point functions in N=4 SYM in a special kinematic regime: one BMN operator with two scalar excitations and three half-BPS operators are put onto a line in configuration space; additionally, for the half-BPS operators a co-moving frame is chosen in flavour space. In configuration space, the four-punctured sphere is naturally triangulated by tree-level planar diagrams. We demonstrate on a number of examples that each tile can be associated with a modified hexagon form-factor in such a way as to efficiently reproduce the tree-level four-point function. Our tessellation is not of the OPE type, fostering the hope of finding an independent, integrability-based approach to the computation of planar four-point functions.

  13. Cushioned Shoe Inserts Won't Guard Against Injury: Review

    ... report was published Dec. 12 in the British Journal of Sports Medicine . SOURCES: Daniel Bonanno, Ph.D., lecturer, podiatry, College of Science, Health, and Engineering, La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia; ...

  14. Control Systems for Platform Landings Cushioned by Air Bags


    feedback control system (39) displayed behavior quite different from the other two controls. Many different pairs of values for Pi and P2 were found that...those of the paramameters. The control instructions, starting at line 23, are for the particular feedback control * " system studied in the report... feedback control system , see Equation (39) Pa Standard atmospheric pressure PC Critical (sonic) pressure in vent Q Dimensionless air-speed in vent q Air

  15. Crystallization Behavior of M97 Series Silicone Cushions

    Chien, A.; DeTeresa, S.; Cohenour, R.; Schnieder, J.; LeMay, J.; Balazs, B.


    M97 series siloxanes are poly(dimethyl-diphenyl) siloxanes that are reinforced through a mixture of precipitated and fumed silica fillers which are blended in through the addition of a short chain polydimethylsiloxane processing aid. M97 silicones exhibit crystallization at -80.25 C by thermal (modulated differential scanning calorimetry) and mechanical (dynamic mechanical analysis) techniques. Isothermal dynamic mechanical analysis experiments illustrated that crystallization occurred over a 1.8 hour period in silica-filled systems and 2.8 hours in unfilled systems. The onset of crystallization typically occurred after a 30 minute incubation/nucleation period. {gamma}-radiation caused the crystallization rate to decrease proportionally with dosage, but did not decrease the amount of crystallization that ultimately occurred. Irradiation in vacuum resulted in slower overall crystallization rates compared to air irradiation due to increased crosslinking of the polymer matrix under vacuum. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry contrasted the crystallization and melting behavior of pure PDMS versus the M97 base polymer and helped determine which component of the composite was the origin of the crystallization phenomena.

  16. Air Cushion Crash Rescue Vehicle (ACCRV) (Phase 1)


    J J ) ) Ll 1 l l l ] .J ] J J J J Spray Skirt (Bag) Diameter ft <t Spray Skirt Tube I I . I r Out" Edg• of Tubo --/------- I...Water flowing through the eductor ( venturi ) draws agent into the flow which is subsequently mixed with the pump discharge water, most of which and communications 3-69 l l J 1 \\ J 1 l j J 1 J J j ] Suction Venturi System (3) Connections o 2 Supply (3) Humidifiers (3

  17. A Differential Thrust Controller for Air Cushion Landing System Aircraft


    70 B17 Root Locuv Plot for Lead Compensator, ra *0.4Second . ... a..o 71 B.8 Root Locus Plot for Lead Compensator, a m 0.6 Second . . I v...dutermtnfiLo atIly nm It, a•, be inpr,,vvd wit ), tWL.fttinil and varies with different peuple, Holwever, it can be pro•elituz with reumonabl.e acouracy...function would be Y it ~ ( + 1) (29)CP tin the clionmmover region, Thr lvIllot"" la tg Lerl Wit I utL .vmsuntud in equatlon (29) bougune it wan Ftnuurned

  18. Supporting Ice Seismology

    Parker, T.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Fowler, J. C.


    Climate change research, and glaciology in particular, has increasingly embraced seismology in recent years. The NSF supported IRIS/PASSCAL Instrument Center is working with researchers to develop the unique instruments and techniques for collecting data in this challenging environment. Global concern with sea level change along with strategic interests of the US government and other nations is driving a large investment in glaciological climate research. A number of groups have demonstrated new seismologically-derived constraints on glaciological conditions and processes. Environmental challenges include remote and precarious locations, necessitating robust yet quickly deployable seismic stations and long periods of autonomous operation. Temperature extremes and the possibility of immersion from large annual snow loads, resulting in a deployment surface that can vary from 50 feet of snow cover to bare ice with large melt pools in a single season are additional major challenges. There is also an urgency created by studies indicating that the high latitude continental ice sheets are metastable and that behavior is changing now. Scientists are presently commonly utilizing adaptations of available instrumentation designed for low latitude and milder field conditions as appropriate, but seek better, more capable, and more flexible solutions, including integration of environmental sensors and real-time data telemetry and station control as some of these experiments evolve into a monitoring effort. Seismic instrumentation is only produced by a small number of companies and, innovation for new instruments takes time and requires substantial investment. While pursuing longer-term innovation funding strategies, we are also adapting current instrumentation paradigms to glaciological use (e.g., by leveraging the cold instrument development for research in Antarctica during the IPY). We are also encouraging industrial partners to respond to these demands and challenges with

  19. 16 CFR 1632.31 - Mattresses/mattress pads-labeling, recordkeeping, guaranties and “one of a kind” exemption.


    ... of their flame resistance. Such labels shall be permanent, prominent, conspicuous, and legible. (2... not influence the ignition resistance of the prototype and could be substituted by another material... specification, to be used in connection with the treatment or management of a named individual's physical...

  20. Supporting African refugees in Canada: insights from a support intervention.

    Stewart, Miriam; Simich, Laura; Shizha, Edward; Makumbe, Knox; Makwarimba, Edward


    Although evidence suggests the importance of social support for refugees, this knowledge has not been invoked to systematically develop culturally congruent support interventions that help refugees adapt to life in receiving countries. The objective of this study was to design and pilot test a culturally congruent intervention that meets the support needs and preferences of two ethno-culturally distinct refugee groups. Support was delivered to Somali and Sudanese refugees (n = 58), by trained peer and professional facilitators. Face-to-face groups comprised of refugees, matched by gender and ethnicity, were created to enhance the depleted social networks of Somali and Sudanese refugees. Each peer support group met bi-weekly for a face-to-face session for 12 weeks. Peer facilitators delivered supplementary one-to-one support via the telephone. The ingredients of the support intervention included: (i) peer facilitators and professionals; (ii) provision of information, affirmation and emotional support; and (iii) accessibility (e.g. childcare, transportation). The study employed a qualitative participatory research design. Data collected for the study included (i) in-depth pre-intervention interviews with potential support group participants in 2008-2009 to assess intervention preferences; (ii) fieldnotes by peer and professional facilitators during the intervention in 2009-10; (iii) post-intervention group interviews with support group participants in 2010; and (iv) in-depth interviews with peer and professional helpers in 2010. A major perceived benefit of the support programme was connecting with people from African refugee participants' cultural communities. Participants appreciated the gender and culture-specific groups. Following the social support intervention, refugees reported increased social integration, decreased loneliness and expanded coping repertoire.

  1. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    D.K. Morton


    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  2. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    D.K. Morton


    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  3. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    D.K. Morton


    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  4. A Forecasting Decision Support System

    Sayed, Hanaa E.; Hossam A. Gabbar; Fouad, Soheir A.; Ahmed, Khalil M.; Miyazaki, Shigeji


    Nowadays forecasting is needed in many fields such as weather forecasting, population estimation, industry demand forecasting, and many others. As complexity and factors increase, it becomes impossible for a human being to do the prediction operation without support of computer system. A Decision support system is needed to model all demand factors and combine with expert opinions to enhance forecasting accuracy. In this research work, we present a decision support system using winters', simp...

  5. Support for coal slide workings

    Alkhimovich, V.P.; Arsenov, N.S.; Boldin, B.M.; Donskov, Yu.I.; Lindenau, N.I.; Zubareva, V.A.


    The support for coal slide working includes carrying frames consisting of wooden supports in the form of a cage. In order to increase the durability of the support and prevent piping of the workings it is equipped with slabs with brackets which are mounted between adjacent carrying frames and which feature lugs and wedges for fixing the plates relative to the carrying frames and on the plate asymmetrically relative to its transverse axis.

  6. Creating a Supportive Environment : Peer Support Groups for Psychotic Disorders

    Castelein, Stynke; Bruggeman, Richard; Davidson, Larry; van der Gaag, Mark


    People with psychotic disorders frequently experience significant mental and social limitations that may result in persisting social isolation. Research has shown that a supportive social environment is crucial for the process of personal recovery. Peer support groups can provide an opportunity to r

  7. ERLN Technical Support for Labs

    The Environmental Response Laboratory Network provides policies and guidance on lab and data requirements, Standardized Analytical Methods, and technical support for water and radiological sampling and analysis

  8. Integrated Support Environment (ISE) Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose:The Integrated Support Environment (ISE) Laboratory serves the fleet, in-service engineers, logisticians and program management offices by automatically and...

  9. Web-based support systems

    Yao, JingTao


    The emerging interdisciplinary study of Web-based support systems focuses on the theories, technologies and tools for the design and implementation of Web-based systems that support various human activities. This book presents the state-of-the-art in Web-based support systems (WSS). The research on WSS is multidisciplinary and focuses on supporting various human activities in different domains/fields based on computer science, information technology, and Web technology. The main goal is to take the opportunities of the Web, to meet the challenges of the Web, to extend the human physical limita

  10. Integrated Support Environment (ISE) Laboratory

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Integrated Support Environment (ISE) Laboratory serves the fleet, in-service engineers, logisticians and program management offices by automatically and...

  11. Final Draft Programme Support Document

    Enemark, Ulrika; Schleimann, Finn; Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    The HSPS III is the third phase of Danish support to the Ghanaian Health Sector. The support is in line with the Ministy of Health's Medium Term Strategy and the Second Five-Year Programme of Work; the latter also bring in line with the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy. The majority of funds (340...

  12. Social Support |

    A strong social support system can help you manage your cancer treatment and day-to-day life. Use this action deck to get information on dealing with different parts of a support network and learn how to make the most of the people who play a role in your life and cancer care.

  13. Correlates of social support receipt.

    Dunkel-Schetter, C; Folkman, S; Lazarus, R S


    Psychological correlates of social support receipt were examined in an investigation of stress and coping among 150 middle-aged community residents. Subjects were interviewed monthly for 6 months, each time concerning a specific stressful situation in the previous month. Social support received and methods of coping were assessed each time, as well as other variables. Factors hypothesized to be associated with support receipt were person predispositions, appraisal patterns with regard to specific stressful encounters, and coping strategies used. Each was most strongly associated with a particular type of social support. Person predispositions related most strongly to emotional support received, appraisal factors related most strongly to aid, and coping strategies related most to informational support received. Furthermore, of the three sets of variables, the individual's ways of coping appeared to be most strongly associated with all types of social support received. Two implications are explored. First, we suggest that the three types of social support studied represent different constructs with different antecedents and consequences. Second, we argue that coping behavior provides interpersonal cues regarding what is wanted or needed in a stressful situation and that the members of the social environment respond accordingly.

  14. Strategic Sealift Supporting Army Deployments


    STRATEGIC SEALIFT SUPPORTING ARMY DEPLOYMENTS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff...THOMPSON, MAJ, US ARMY BFA, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, Louisiana, 1994 Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 2016 Approved for...Strategic Sealift Supporting Army Deployments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Matthew

  15. The Neural Support Vector Machine

    Wiering, Marco; van der Ree, Michiel; Embrechts, Mark; Stollenga, Marijn; Meijster, Arnold; Nolte, A; Schomaker, Lambertus


    This paper describes a new machine learning algorithm for regression and dimensionality reduction tasks. The Neural Support Vector Machine (NSVM) is a hybrid learning algorithm consisting of neural networks and support vector machines (SVMs). The output of the NSVM is given by SVMs that take a

  16. The Neural Support Vector Machine

    Wiering, Marco; van der Ree, Michiel; Embrechts, Mark; Stollenga, Marijn; Meijster, Arnold; Nolte, A; Schomaker, Lambertus


    This paper describes a new machine learning algorithm for regression and dimensionality reduction tasks. The Neural Support Vector Machine (NSVM) is a hybrid learning algorithm consisting of neural networks and support vector machines (SVMs). The output of the NSVM is given by SVMs that take a centr

  17. Law School Academic Support Programs.

    Wangerin, Paul T.


    This article attempts to bridge a perceived gap between legal education and education theory as well as the gap between academic counseling and independent learning by examining law school academic support programs. The article argues that a multidisciplinary analysis provides a helpful basis for evaluating academic support programs that address…

  18. The EGEE user support infrastructure

    Antoni, Torsten


    Grid user support is a challenging task due to the distributed nature of the Grid. The variety of users and Virtual Organisations adds further to the challenge. Support requests come from Grid beginners, from users with specific applications, from site administrators, or from Grid monitoring operators. With the GGUS infrastructure, EGEE provides a portal where users can find support in their daily use of the Grid. The current use of the system shows that the goal has been achieved with success. The Grid user support model in EGEE can be captioned "regional support with central coordination". This model is realised through a support process which is clearly defined and involves all the parties that are needed to run a project-wide support service. This process is sustained by a help desk system which consists of a central platform integrated with several satellite systems belonging to the Regional Operations Centres (ROCs) and the Virtual Organisations (VOs). The central system (Global Grid User Support, GGUS)...

  19. Telecommuting: stress and social support.

    Trent, J T; Smith, A L; Wood, D L


    Occupational stress and social support were measured in adults, 15 working as telecommuters, 9 working at home, and 14 working in a company office. Analysis showed telecommuters and office workers perceived more support than those working at home. Telecommuters also reported less stress and a stronger preference for this new work option.

  20. The EGEE user support infrastructure

    Antoni, T; Mills, A


    User support in a grid environment is a challenging task due to the distributed nature of the grid. The variety of users and VOs adds further to the challenge. One can find support requests by grid beginners, users with specific applications, site administrators, or grid monitoring operators. With the GGUS infrastructure, EGEE provides a portal where users can find support in their daily use of the grid. The current use of the system has shown that the goal has been achieved with success. The grid user support model in EGEE can be captioned ‘regional support with central coordination’. Users can submit a support request to the central GGUS service, or to their Regional Operations' Centre (ROC) or to their Virtual Organisation helpdesks. Within GGUS there are appropriate support groups for all support requests. The ROCs and VOs and the other project wide groups such as middleware groups (JRA), network groups (NA), service groups (SA) and other grid infrastructures (OSG, NorduGrid, etc.) are connected via a...

  1. Business support within business incubators

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.


    Business incubators (BI) have been established worldwide as tools for company creation and small businesses support. BIs claim to help their tenants by providing them with the optimal conditions for increasing early stage survival. Practitioners and researchers agree that business support is a

  2. Stepchild Support Obligations of Stepparents.

    Kargman, Marie Witkin


    Examines the legal responsibilities of support by stepparents for stepchildren during a remarriage and notes the impact of the divorce on child support and visitation and custody after divorce from the remarriage. Reviews recent state legislation and recent court decisions about stepchildren. (Author/JAC)

  3. Social support, caregiving, and aging.

    Chappell, Neena L; Funk, Laura M


    This article reviews the international English-language literature on social support and caregiving in gerontology since the early 1990s. The literature has grown, but consensus on the terms' meaning and measurement is lacking. Interest is ongoing in practical help, in benefits of social support, and in demands and negative outcomes for caregivers, with growing but less emphasis on more theoretical questions, on negative outcomes from the receipt of support, and on positive consequences of providing care. Nevertheless, social support is duly recognized as a social determinant of health and receiving attention at policy levels - both are significant shifts from two decades ago and add to the interest this area will receive from researchers in coming decades. There remain many unanswered questions regarding the changing societal context, but it is clear that the social support of others - throughout our lives including old age - will continue in the future, albeit in ever-changing forms.

  4. Thermally stable nanoparticles on supports

    Roldan Cuenya, Beatriz; Naitabdi, Ahmed R.; Behafarid, Farzad


    An inverse micelle-based method for forming nanoparticles on supports includes dissolving a polymeric material in a solvent to provide a micelle solution. A nanoparticle source is dissolved in the micelle solution. A plurality of micelles having a nanoparticle in their core and an outer polymeric coating layer are formed in the micelle solution. The micelles are applied to a support. The polymeric coating layer is then removed from the micelles to expose the nanoparticles. A supported catalyst includes a nanocrystalline powder, thin film, or single crystal support. Metal nanoparticles having a median size from 0.5 nm to 25 nm, a size distribution having a standard deviation .ltoreq.0.1 of their median size are on or embedded in the support. The plurality of metal nanoparticles are dispersed and in a periodic arrangement. The metal nanoparticles maintain their periodic arrangement and size distribution following heat treatments of at least 1, C.

  5. Case and Administrative Support Tools

    Case and Administrative Support Tools (CAST) is the secure portion of the Office of General Counsel (OGC) Dashboard business process automation tool used to help reduce office administrative labor costs while increasing employee effectiveness. CAST supports business functions which rely on and store Privacy Act sensitive data (PII). Specific business processes included in CAST (and respective PII) are: -Civil Rights Cast Tracking (name, partial medical history, summary of case, and case correspondance). -Employment Law Case Tracking (name, summary of case). -Federal Tort Claims Act Incident Tracking (name, summary of incidents). -Ethics Program Support Tools and Tracking (name, partial financial history). -Summer Honors Application Tracking (name, home address, telephone number, employment history). -Workforce Flexibility Initiative Support Tools (name, alternative workplace phone number). -Resource and Personnel Management Support Tools (name, partial employment and financial history).

  6. Technical Support Essentials Advice to Succeed in Technical Support

    Sanchez, Andrew


    Technical Support Essentials is a book about the many facets of technical support. It attempts to provide a wide array of topics to serve as points of improvement, discussion, or simply topics that you might want to learn. The topics range from good work habits to the way technical supportgroups establish their own style of work. This book applies theories, models, and concepts synthesized from existing research in other fields-such as management, economics, leadership, and psychology-and connects them to technical support. The goal is to build on the work of others and allow their success to

  7. Supporting children: Victims of crime, within victim support

    Walle Vande Ilse


    Full Text Available All too often, the victimization of children is automatically associated with child abuse and sexual abuse. However, children are also confronted, either directly or indirectly, with other kinds of criminality. In spite of that children usually do not get appropriate support and assistance. In this paper, the establishment and development of services for the support of children-victims of crime in Belgium, as well as European cooperation in this regard, are described.

  8. Support Schemes and Ownership Structures

    Ropenus, Stephanie; Schröder, Sascha Thorsten; Costa, Ana

    In recent years, fuel cell based micro‐combined heat and power has received increasing attention due to its potential contribution to energy savings, efficiency gains, customer proximity and flexibility in operation and capacity size. The FC4Home project assesses technical and economic aspects...... for promoting combined heat and power and energy from renewable sources. These Directives are to be implemented at the national level by the Member States. Section 3 conceptually presents the spectrum of national support schemes, ranging from investment support to market‐based operational support. The choice...

  9. Supporting 'Young Carers' in Kenya

    Skovdal, Morten; Campbell, C.; Onyango, V.


    , avoiding engagement with support strategies that could be seen as support of child labour. To challenge this view, and move from policy paralysis to action, we present a study from western Kenya that explores community perceptions of children's work and caregiving as well as opportunities for support....... The study draws on 17 community group conversations and 10 individual interviews, involving 283 members of a Luo community in the Bondo District of western Kenya. We provide a detailed account of how integral children's work is to household survival in the context of poverty, HIV and AIDS as well...

  10. Support for solar energy collectors

    Cole, Corey; Ardell-Smith, Zachary; Ciasulli, John; Jensen, Soren


    A solar energy collection system can include support devices configured to accommodate misalignment of components during assembly. For example, the system can include piles fixed to the earth and an adjustable bearing assembly at the upper end of the pile. The adjustable bearing assembly can include at least one of a vertical adjustment device, a lateral adjustment device and an angular adjustment device. The solar energy collection system can also include a plurality of solar energy collection device pre-wired together and mounted to a support member so as to form modular units. The system can also include enhanced supports for wire trays extending between rows of solar energy collection devices.

  11. Final Draft Programme Support Document

    Enemark, Ulrika; Schleimann, Finn; Vagnby, Bo Hellisen

    The HSPS III is the third phase of Danish support to the Ghanaian Health Sector. The support is in line with the Ministy of Health's Medium Term Strategy and the Second Five-Year Programme of Work; the latter also bring in line with the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy. The majority of funds (340...... million DKK) are chanelled through the common Health Account for all MOH expenditure items except staff salaries. The rest of the funds are utilised for support in the following specific areas: - Health estate and building management; - Improving access to health care; - Stregthening public and private...

  12. Coordinated renewable energy support schemes

    Morthorst, P.E.; Jensen, S.G.


    This paper illustrates the effect that can be observed when support schemes for renewable energy are regionalised. Two theoretical examples are used to explain interactive effects on, e.g., the price of power, conditions for conventional power producers, and changes in import and export of power...... RES-E support schemes already has a common liberalised power market. In this case the introduction of a common support scheme for renewable technologies will lead to more efficient sitings of renewable plants, improving economic and environmental performance of the total power system...

  13. Back Bay Wilderness burning support

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a memorandum concerning prescribed burns between members of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife. It states that burning should be supported...

  14. Supporting Web Search with Visualization

    Hoeber, Orland; Yang, Xue Dong

    One of the fundamental goals of Web-based support systems is to promote and support human activities on the Web. The focus of this Chapter is on the specific activities associated with Web search, with special emphasis given to the use of visualization to enhance the cognitive abilities of Web searchers. An overview of information retrieval basics, along with a focus on Web search and the behaviour of Web searchers is provided. Information visualization is introduced as a means for supporting users as they perform their primary Web search tasks. Given the challenge of visualizing the primarily textual information present in Web search, a taxonomy of the information that is available to support these tasks is given. The specific challenges of representing search information are discussed, and a survey of the current state-of-the-art in visual Web search is introduced. This Chapter concludes with our vision for the future of Web search.

  15. ISIS Individualized Support In Sequencing

    Drachsler, Hendrik; Hummel, Hans


    Drachsler, H., & Hummel, H. G. K. (2007). ISIS Individualized Support In Sequencing. Presentation given during the PIP meeting on March 22, 2007. Open University of the Netherlands: Heerlen, The Netherlands.

  16. Clinical Information Support System (CISS)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Clinical Information Support System (CISS) is a web-based portal application that provides a framework of services for the VA enterprise and supplies an integration...

  17. Towards physical activity support community

    Elloumi, Lamia; van Beijnum, Bernhard J.F.; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Nowadays it is recognized that physical activity, besides other lifestyles, has indisputable beneficial affects on cardiovascular diseases prevention and treatment. Additionally the social support is important and has a valuable impact on the outcomes in cardiovascular disease patients. To provide

  18. Case and Administrative Support Tools

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Case and Administrative Support Tools (CAST) is the secure portion of the Office of General Counsel (OGC) Dashboard business process automation tool used to help...

  19. Clinical Decision Support (CDS) Inventory

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Clinical Decision Support (CDS) Inventory contains descriptions of past and present CDS projects across the Federal Government. It includes Federal projects,...

  20. Penumbra: Doctoral support as drama

    Wisker, Gina; Robinson, Gill; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard


    Much international doctoral learning research focuses on personal, institutional and learning support provided by supervisors, managed relationships,‘nudging’ robust, conceptual, critical, creative work. Other work focuses on stresses experienced in supervisor-student relationships and doctoral j...

  1. Hardware Support for Embedded Java

    Schoeberl, Martin


    The general Java runtime environment is resource hungry and unfriendly for real-time systems. To reduce the resource consumption of Java in embedded systems, direct hardware support of the language is a valuable option. Furthermore, an implementation of the Java virtual machine in hardware enables...... worst-case execution time analysis of Java programs. This chapter gives an overview of current approaches to hardware support for embedded and real-time Java....

  2. Constantinopolitan Charioteers and Their Supporters


    Translated by Katarzyna Gucio Support in sport is certainly one of the oldest human passions. Residents of the eastern Roman imperial capital cheered the chariot drivers. The passion for supporting the drivers was common for all groups and social classes. The hippodrome was visited by the representatives of the aristocracy, artisans and the poor of the city alike. The popularity of chariot racing is evidenced by their frequency. 66 days were reserved for circenses, that is racing. Organizi...

  3. Supporting Teachers in Inclusive Education

    Alekhina S.V.


    Full Text Available The article regards the issues of support provision to teachers involved in inclusive education as the main requirement for successful realization of inclusion. The methodological framework used in the study is a resource approach. The article describes the ways of extending the means of supporting teachers. The article also arguments for consolidating all the educators of inclusive schools into inclusive teams equally interested in joint work of administration and educators of intervention programs.

  4. Hardware Support for Embedded Java

    Schoeberl, Martin


    The general Java runtime environment is resource hungry and unfriendly for real-time systems. To reduce the resource consumption of Java in embedded systems, direct hardware support of the language is a valuable option. Furthermore, an implementation of the Java virtual machine in hardware enables...... worst-case execution time analysis of Java programs. This chapter gives an overview of current approaches to hardware support for embedded and real-time Java....

  5. Supporting change management with PRIMIS

    Sheila Teasdale


    Full Text Available This paper describes the function of PRIMIS, and its role in supporting change management in primary care, especially with regard to changes brought about by the rapid implementation of information technology in the clinical environment. A number of approaches to managing change and supporting people through change are examined and recommended, and the pitfalls of disregarding a body of knowledge on managing change are demonstrated.

  6. Perceived Organisational Support and Profitability

    Graafland, J.J.; Rutten, B.


    This paper investigates the impact of perceived organizational support (POS) on performance.We predict that POS will be reciprocated by positive discretionary employee behavior, which in turn has a positive impact on performance.Empirical research on a sample of Dutch construction companies indeed corroborates a positive relationship between POS and performance. Moreover, the POS-performance link is found to be stronger for good performing firms than for bad performing firms, which supports t...

  7. Supporting Success for All Students

    Manduca, C. A.; Macdonald, H.; McDaris, J. R.; Weissmann, G. S.


    The geoscience student population in the United States today does not reflect the diversity of the US population. Not only does this challenge our ability to educate sufficient numbers of students in the geosciences, it also challenges our ability to address issues of environmental justice, to bring geoscience expertise to diverse communities, and to pursue a research agenda reflecting the needs and interests of our nation as a whole. Programs that are successful in supporting students from underrepresented groups attend to the whole student (Jolly et al, 2004) as they develop not only knowledge and skills, but a sense of belonging and a drive to succeed in geoscience. The whole student approach provides a framework for supporting the success of all students, be they members of underrepresented groups or not. Important aspects of support include mentoring and advising, academic support, an inclusive learning community, and opportunities to learn about the profession and to develop geoscience and professional skills. To successfully provide support for the full range of students, it is critical to consider not only what opportunities are available but the barriers different types of students face in accessing these opportunities. Barriers may arise from gaps in academic experiences, crossing into a new and unfamiliar culture, lack of confidence, stereotype threat, implicit bias and other sources. Isolation of geoscience learning from its application and social context may preferentially discourage some groups. Action can be taken to increase support for all students within an individual course, a department or an institution. The InTeGrate STEP Center for the Geosciences, the Supporting and Advancing Geoscience Education at Two-Year Colleges program and the On the Cutting Edge Professional Development for Geoscience Faculty program all provide resources for individuals and departments including on line information, program descriptions, and workshop opportunities.

  8. Combat Support Forces (1C6C) Naval Surface Forces Requirements-based Budget Determination for Assault Craft Unit ONE


    period of time. It is an instrument of planning, performance measurement, decision-making, and management control , as well as a statement of priorities...Dimmerling, 1997). In 1995, Fleming wrote of the importance of budgeting. She states that “budgeting is one of the important planning and control ...Landing Craft Air Cushioned (LCAC) hovercrafts out of its base at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton located in North San Diego County, California

  9. State of nutrition support teams.

    DeLegge, Mark Henry; Kelly, Andrea True; Kelley, Andrea True


    The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is relatively high (up to 55%) despite breakthroughs in nutrition support therapies. These patients have increased morbidity and mortality, extended hospital stays, and care that is associated with higher costs. These patients are often poorly managed due to inadequate nutrition assessment and poor medical knowledge and practice in the field of nutrition. Nutrition support teams (NSTs) are interdisciplinary support teams with specialty training in nutrition that are often comprised of physicians, dietitians, nurses, and pharmacists. Their role includes nutrition assessment, determination of nutrition needs, recommendations for appropriate nutrition therapy, and management of nutrition support therapy. Studies have demonstrated significant improvements in patient nutrition status and improved clinical outcomes as well as reductions in costs when patients were appropriately managed by a multispecialty NST vs individual caregivers. Despite this, there has been steady decline in the number of formal NST in recent years (65% of hospitals in 1995 to 42% in 2008) as hospitals and other healthcare organizations look for ways to cut costs. Given the importance of nutrition status on clinical outcomes and overall healthcare costs, a number of institutions have introduced and sustained strong nutrition training and support programs and teams, demonstrating both clinical and economic benefit. The benefits of NST, training and implementation strategies, and tips for justifying these clinically and economically beneficial groups to healthcare organizations and governing bodies are discussed in this review.

  10. Multiscale Modeling of supported bilayers

    Faller, Roland; Xing, Chenyue; Hoopes, Matthew I.


    Supported Lipid Bilayers are an abundant research platform for understanding the behavior of real cell membranes as they allow for additional mechanical stability. We studied systematically the changes that a support induces on a phospholipid bilayer using coarse-grained molecular modeling on different levels. We characterize the density and pressure profiles as well as the density imbalance inflicted on the membrane by the support. We also determine the diffusion coefficients and characterize the influence of different corrugations of the support. We then determine the free energy of transfer of phospholipids between the proximal and distal leaflet of a supported membrane using the coarse-grained Martini model. It turns out that there is at equilibrium about a 2-3% higher density in the proximal leaflet. These results are in favorable agreement with recent data obtained by very large scale modeling using a water free model where flip-flop can be observed directly. We compare results of the free energy of transfer obtained by pulling the lipid across the membrane in different ways. There are small quantitative differences but the overall picture is consistent. We are additionally characterizing the intermediate states which determine the barrier height and therefore the rate of translocation.

  11. Advanced Life Support Project Plan


    Life support systems are an enabling technology and have become integral to the success of living and working in space. As NASA embarks on human exploration and development of space to open the space frontier by exploring, using and enabling the development of space and to expand the human experience into the far reaches of space, it becomes imperative, for considerations of safety, cost, and crew health, to minimize consumables and increase the autonomy of the life support system. Utilizing advanced life support technologies increases this autonomy by reducing mass, power, and volume necessary for human support, thus permitting larger payload allocations for science and exploration. Two basic classes of life support systems must be developed, those directed toward applications on transportation/habitation vehicles (e.g., Space Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), next generation launch vehicles, crew-tended stations/observatories, planetary transit spacecraft, etc.) and those directed toward applications on the planetary surfaces (e.g., lunar or Martian landing spacecraft, planetary habitats and facilities, etc.). In general, it can be viewed as those systems compatible with microgravity and those compatible with hypogravity environments. Part B of the Appendix defines the technology development 'Roadmap' to be followed in providing the necessary systems for these missions. The purpose of this Project Plan is to define the Project objectives, Project-level requirements, the management organizations responsible for the Project throughout its life cycle, and Project-level resources, schedules and controls.

  12. Adaptive Collaboration Support Systems: Designing Collaboration Support for Dynamic Environments

    Janeiro, J.; Knoll, S.W.; Lukosch, S.G.; Kolfschoten, G.L.


    Today, engineering systems offer a variety of local and webbased applications to support collaboration by assisting groups in structuring activities, generating and sharing data, and improving group communication. To ensure the quality of collaboration, engineering system design needs to analyze and

  13. Supporting Multiple Cognitive Processing Styles Using Tailored Support Systems

    Tuan Q. Tran; Karen M. Feigh; Amy R. Pritchett


    According to theories of cognitive processing style or cognitive control mode, human performance is more effective when an individual’s cognitive state (e.g., intuition/scramble vs. deliberate/strategic) matches his/her ecological constraints or context (e.g., utilize intuition to strive for a "good-enough" response instead of deliberating for the "best" response under high time pressure). Ill-mapping between cognitive state and ecological constraints are believed to lead to degraded task performance. Consequently, incorporating support systems which are designed to specifically address multiple cognitive and functional states e.g., high workload, stress, boredom, and initiate appropriate mitigation strategies (e.g., reduce information load) is essential to reduce plant risk. Utilizing the concept of Cognitive Control Models, this paper will discuss the importance of tailoring support systems to match an operator's cognitive state, and will further discuss the importance of these ecological constraints in selecting and implementing mitigation strategies for safe and effective system performance. An example from the nuclear power plant industry illustrating how a support system might be tailored to support different cognitive states is included.

  14. Singular effective slip length for longitudinal flow over a dense bubble mattress

    Schnitzer, Ory


    We consider the effective hydrophobicity of a Cassie-state liquid above a periodically grooved surface, with trapped shear-free bubbles protruding between no-slip ridges at a pi/2 contact angle. Specifically, we carry out a singular-perturbation analysis in the limit where the bubbles are closely separated, finding the effective slip length for longitudinal flow along the the ridges as a[pi*sqrt(a/d) - 2.53 + o(1)], a being the bubble radius and d the width of the no-slip segments; the square-root divergence with a/d highlights the strong hydrophobic character of this configuration. The leading singular term follows from a local analysis of the gap regions between the bubbles, together with general matching considerations and a global relation linking the applied shear, the protrusion geometry, and the variation of the flow speed transverse to the no-slip ridges. The corrective constant term is found as an integral quantity of the leading-order "outer" problem, where the bubbles appear to be touching. We find...

  15. Stability of Articulated Concrete Mattresses for Herbert Hoover Dike Improvements, Lake Okeechobee, Florida. Coastal Model Investigation


    r -JI cc 0C 0 O a: wU wi z z il LU 0 6. Wave data were collected on electrical resistance wave gages. Wav, signal generaCion and data acquisition were...E: cc 0 zU~ x II- z LU CO 00 z - 0 ___ ___ _ _ 1r LLJ Q 5 Mississippi River, at a significant cost reduction over existing re’.’etItv1tt,. However...Scea-Jdc view of Plan 2BT after wave attack L4 Photo 24. Sea-sidle view of Plan 2BTA before wave attack 󈧰 C/-i 0 41 0L 7, z : W_ Photo~-j4 26 e -i e

  16. Singular effective slip length for longitudinal flow over a dense bubble mattress

    Schnitzer, Ory


    We consider the effective hydrophobicity of a periodically grooved surface immersed in liquid, with trapped shear-free bubbles protruding between the no-slip ridges at a π /2 contact angle. Specifically, we carry out a singular-perturbation analysis in the limit ɛ ≪1 where the bubbles are closely spaced, finding the effective slip length (normalized by the bubble radius) for longitudinal flow along the ridges as π /√{2 ɛ }-(12 /π ) ln2 +(13 π /24 ) √{2 ɛ }+o (√{ɛ }) , the small parameter ɛ being the planform solid fraction. The square-root divergence highlights the strong hydrophobic character of this configuration; this leading singular term (along with the third term) follows from a local lubrication-like analysis of the gap regions between the bubbles, together with general matching considerations and a global conservation relation. The O (1 ) constant term is found by matching with a leading-order solution in the outer region, where the bubbles appear to be touching. We find excellent agreement between our slip-length formula and a numerical scheme recently derived using a unified-transform method [Crowdy, IMA J. Appl. Math. 80, 1902 (2015), 10.1093/imamat/hxv019]. The comparison demonstrates that our asymptotic formula, together with the diametric dilute-limit approximation [Crowdy, J. Fluid Mech. 791, R7 (2016), 10.1017/jfm.2016.88], provides an elementary analytical description for essentially arbitrary no-slip fractions.

  17. Performance assessment of a ventilated mattress for pollution control of the bed microenvironment in healthcare facilities

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kokora, Monika


    2O were used to mimic human bioeffluents released from the feet and armpits of the manikin, respectively. The concentration of the tracer gases was measured in six points including the breathing zone of the simulated occupants. The results show that the VM combined with mixing ventilation at 1.5 air...

  18. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla


    House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients.......House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients....

  19. Singular effective slip length for longitudinal flow over a dense bubble mattress

    Schnitzer, Ory


    We derive accurate asymptotic expansions in the small-solid-fraction limit ɛ segments with 'outer' expansions valid on the scale of the periodicity, where the protruding bubbles appear to touch. For θ close to π / 2 , the inner-region geometry is narrow and the analysis there resembles lubrication theory; for smaller contact angles the inner region is resolved using a Schwarz-Christoffel mapping. In both cases the outer problem is solved using a mapping from a degenerate curvilinear triangle to an auxiliary half plane. The asymptotic analysis explicitly illustrates the logarithmic-to-algebraic transition, and yields a uniformly valid approximation for the slip length for arbitrary contact angles 0 <= θ <= π / 2 . We demonstrate good agreement with a numerical solution (courtesy of Ms Elena Luca).

  20. Mattress sutures for the modification of end-to-end dunking pancreaticojejunostomy

    Nurkan Torer


     Despite the improvement of surgical techniques, the rate of anastomotic failure of pancreaticojejunostomy remains high (30%-50%). Here we describe the use of vertical mattress sutures  in  the  modification  of  dunking  pancreaticojejunal anastomosis.  In  7  patients  who  used  this  technique,  neither anastomotic  failure  nor  any  major  postsurgical  complication developed. This technique is an easy, safe, and promising for the performance of pancreaticojejunostomy.

  1. Creating a brand identity for a new mattress brand : Case: Napsie by Studio Moderna

    Lazareva, Svetlana


    The aim of this thesis was to study the concept of brand identity and its elements in order to outline a basic brand identity for the case brand. The study was conducted for the case company Studio Moderna and the case brand Napsie. The aim of the research was to study the concepts of brand, branding and brand identity. Furthermore, the research aimed at examining managerial tools and techniques that are used in brand identity creation process. Another aim of the research was to discover how ...

  2. Evaluation of Techniques to Eliminate Erosion from Under River Revetment Mattresses


    geotextiles. (a) (b) Figure 9. Photomnicrographs showing (a) woven and (b) nonwoven geotextile fibers. R.M. Koerner. Designing with Geosynthetics (Prentice...Engineering Research Laboratory, January 1976). Koerner, R.M., Designing With Geosynthetics (Prentice-Hall. 1986). Torrey III, Victor H., Joseph B. Dumbar

  3. Analysis of Trunk Rolling Performances by Mattress Mobility Detection System in Poststroke Patients: A Pilot Study

    Shang-Lin Chiang


    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation of kinematic variables with quality of trunk control in poststroke patients. Methods. This cross-sectional study included stroke subjects with mild to moderate motor deficit corresponding to Brunnstrom stages 3-4. Trunk functional performance was measured using bed mobility monitor system. All tasks were repeated ten times for both directions in each subject. Outcome measurements included the movement time and displacement of center of pressure (CoP from supine to side lying and returning. Results. The results revealed that a significant longer turning time was observed when turning from the paretic side toward the nonparetic side compared to the other direction, with an estimated mean difference of 0.427 sec (P=0.005. We found a significant difference in the time of rolling back to supine position between two directions. The displacement of CoP in rolling back from side lying on the nonparetic side was smaller than that from the paretic side with an estimated mean difference of −0.797 cm (P=0.023. Conclusions. The impaired trunk mobility was associated with increased movement time and decreased displacement of CoP in poststroke patients. Trunk rolling performance has potential in assessment of stroke patients.

  4. The Support to an Entrepreneur

    Marie-Noëlle Albert


    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs are often associated with autonomy, but one of the coauthors, the sole owner of a microbusiness, had a different experience. Based on this, we used an autobiographical narrative method in a constructivist paradigm to explore this phenomenon that is autonomy. The coauthor’s different experience developed the idea that difficulties lived by an entrepreneur can transform autonomy into dependence. This negative complex process is grounded on a request for help by the entrepreneur and the dissymmetric relation between the person who needs help and the support. This kind of relationship promotes a loss of the entrepreneur’s capacities. A non-co-construction of solution (by the entrepreneur and the support is not only less productive, but could also develop a very negative process. This finding is important to better understand support to entrepreneurs.

  5. Nutrition support in surgical oncology.

    Huhmann, Maureen B; August, David A


    This review article, the second in a series of articles to examine the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients, evaluates the evidence related to the use of nutrition support in surgical oncology patients. Cancer patients develop complex nutrition issues. Nutrition support may be indicated in malnourished cancer patients undergoing surgery, depending on individual patient characteristics. As with the first article in this series, this article provides background concerning nutrition issues in cancer patients, as well as discusses the role of nutrition support in the care of surgical cancer patients. The goal of this review is to enrich the discussion contained in the clinical guidelines as they relate to recommendations made for surgical patients, cite the primary literature more completely, and suggest updates to the guideline statements in light of subsequently published studies.

  6. Apparatuses to support photovoltaic modules

    Ciasulli, John; Jones, Jason


    Methods and apparatuses to support photovoltaic ("PV") modules are described. A saddle bracket has a mounting surface to support one or more PV modules over a tube, a gusset coupled to the mounting surface, and a mounting feature coupled to the gusset to couple to the tube. A grounding washer has a first portion to couple to a support; and a second portion coupled to the first portion to provide a ground path to a PV module. A PV system has a saddle bracket; a PV module over the saddle bracket; and a grounding washer coupled to the saddle bracket and the PV module. Saddle brackets can be coupled to a torque tube at predetermined locations. PV modules can be coupled to the saddle brackets.

  7. HANARO user support and training

    Kim, Shin Ae; Kim, K. Y.; Kim, B. K. (and others)


    This project is aimed to support external users for the effective use of HANARO. The total number of projects selected as the beneficiary of the supporting program by MEST was 21 including this project in this year. We supported 2,339 hr measurements for the 31 requests of the 14 projects selected on the field of neutron beam utilization. In the field of materials and nuclear fuel irradiation test the 3 projects were selected and supported for 80 samples. In the fields of neutron activation analysis and radioisotope production the number of selected and supported projects were 1 and 2 respectively. In order to broaden potential user base, maximize instrument utilization, and enhance cooperation with industries, universities and institutes, practice-oriented HANARO user training courses were held for neutron beam utilization and materials and nuclear fuel irradiation fields. In the fields of neutron activation analysis 3 times training courses were held for the university students. The online neutron beam time allocation system was developed and applied successfully for the HRPD in this year. We are planing to apply this system to other neutron beam instruments in the near future. This project is a kind of the user-based supporting program for the maximize of HANARO utilization. The development products and the ideas and suggestions of users obtained through this projects will be collected and applied to the development of next new facilities. Also, by using the 'HANARO utilization and research information management system(HANARO4U)' we construct the research network among users at industries, universities and institutes. This network is expected to increase HANARO utilization and enhance productivity of the facilities.

  8. Supporting collaborative computing and interaction

    Agarwal, Deborah [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McParland, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Perry, Marcia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    To enable collaboration on the daily tasks involved in scientific research, collaborative frameworks should provide lightweight and ubiquitous components that support a wide variety of interaction modes. We envision a collaborative environment as one that provides a persistent space within which participants can locate each other, exchange synchronous and asynchronous messages, share documents and applications, share workflow, and hold videoconferences. We are developing the Pervasive Collaborative Computing Environment (PCCE) as such an environment. The PCCE will provide integrated tools to support shared computing and task control and monitoring. This paper describes the PCCE and the rationale for its design.

  9. Learning with Support Vector Machines

    Campbell, Colin


    Support Vectors Machines have become a well established tool within machine learning. They work well in practice and have now been used across a wide range of applications from recognizing hand-written digits, to face identification, text categorisation, bioinformatics, and database marketing. In this book we give an introductory overview of this subject. We start with a simple Support Vector Machine for performing binary classification before considering multi-class classification and learning in the presence of noise. We show that this framework can be extended to many other scenarios such a

  10. Danish Balance of Payments Support

    Tarp, Finn; Kragh, Mads Váczy

    This study is an analysis of Danish Balance for Payments Support (BOP) covering the period 1988-94. This aid instrument has not so far been used as an active tool to further Danish policy conditionalities vis-à-vis the reform process in developing countries. On the contrary, BOP has mainly been...... relief, credit lines, support to Open General License (OGL) systems and co-financing with the World Bank have been on the rise in recent years. Nontheless, despite the macroeconomic nature of BOP assistance existing evaluation studies and reviews have focused on microeconomic and administrative issues...

  11. Automating hypertext for decision support

    Bieber, Michael


    A decision support system (DSS) shell is being constructed that can support applications in a variety of fields, e.g., engineering, manufacturing, finance. The shell provides a hypertext-style interface for 'navigating' among DSS application models, data, and reports. The traditional notion of hypertext had to be enhanced. Hypertext normally requires manually, pre-defined links. A DSS shell, however, requires that hypertext connections to be built 'on the fly'. The role of hypertext is discussed in augmenting DSS applications and the decision making process. Also discussed is how hypertext nodes, links, and link markers tailored to an arbitrary DSS application were automatically generated.

  12. Understanding and Supporting Technical Creativity

    Sas, Corina; Dix, Alan


    This paper explores the topic of exploration (sic) within the design space and discusses how this can support the development of research design. It highlights the relevance of reflecting upon the exploration of the design space and introduces a set of techniques that can be used for this.

  13. Supporting Biracial Children's Identity Development.

    Morrison, Johnetta Wade; Bordere, Tashel


    Discusses stages of identity development in early childhood, as well as ways teachers can be supportive of that development. Addresses components of identity development in young children, parental preferences, valuing diversity, and curriculum recommendations. Provides suggestions appropriate for children of any racial combination. (SD)

  14. Supporting rights and nurturing networks

    Wilson, Fiona


    The article explores how a bilateral aid donor (British DFID) managed their organizational and relational work when the local office (in Peru) put rights at the centre of their policy. Taking the example of DFID support to alternative thinking in the health sector, critical questions are raised...... about the way donors engage with local networks....

  15. Indicatives, concessives, and evidential support

    Douven, Igor; Verbrugge, Sara


    This paper discusses the issue of categorical acceptability of indicative and concessive conditionals. It presents experimental results in favour of two claims concerning the role of the evidential support relation for acceptability (or otherwise) of conditionals of both types. In particular, the re

  16. Support Services for Distance Education

    Sandra Frieden


    Full Text Available The creation and operation of a distance education support infrastructure requires the collaboration of virtually all administrative departments whose activities deal with students and faculty, and all participating academic departments. Implementation can build on where the institution is and design service-oriented strategies that strengthen institutional support and commitment. Issues to address include planning, faculty issues and concerns, policies and guidelines, approval processes, scheduling, training, publicity, information-line operations, informational materials, orientation and registration processes, class coordination and support, testing, evaluations, receive site management, partnerships, budgets, staffing, library and e-mail support, and different delivery modes (microwave, compressed video, radio, satellite, public television/cable, video tape and online. The process is ongoing and increasingly participative as various groups on campus begin to get involved with distance education activities. The distance education unit must continuously examine and revise its processes and procedures to maintain the academic integrity and service excellence of its programs. It’s a daunting prospect to revise the way things have been done for many years, but each department has an opportunity to respond to new ways of serving and reaching students.

  17. Support Systems for Treatment Integrity

    Goense, Pauline Brigitta; Boendermaker, Leonieke; van Yperen, Tom

    Objective: This systematic review evaluates the content of effective support provided to practitioners of evidence-based interventions in order to establish and maintain treatment integrity. Method: Four articles covering six outcome studies are included in this review, these studies (1) adequately

  18. Industrial Robots for Patient Support

    Sommer, Andres

    Flexibility, precision, and capability to support the clinical workflow make robots the ideal choice for ion beam therapy (IBT) facilities for use in patient positioning. To fulfill the clinical needs in IBT, an industrial robot patient positioner needs to be carefully designed regarding applications and safety issues as well as precision and handling.

  19. Mathematical models for planning support

    L.G. Kroon (Leo); R.A. Zuidwijk (Rob)


    textabstractIn this paper we describe how computer systems can provide planners with active planning support, when these planners are carrying out their daily planning activities. This means that computer systems actively participate in the planning process by automatically generating plans or parti

  20. Supporting Breastfeeding in Your Program

    Perez, Amanda


    Breastfeeding, natural and healthy though it is, can be tough, particularly in communities where there is little encouragement for breastfeeding mothers. In one survey, when asked to identify the barriers to breastfeeding, mothers most often cited busy schedules, embarrassment, and lack of support (Best Start Social Marketing 1997). Child care…