Sharoky, Catherine E; Sellers, Morgan M; Keele, Luke J; Wirtalla, Christopher J; Karakousis, Giorgos C; Morris, Jon B; Kelz, Rachel R
We sought to compare postoperative outcomes of female surgeons (FS) and male surgeons (MS) within general surgery. FS in the workforce are increasing in number. Female physicians provide exceptional care in other specialties. Differences in surgical outcomes of FS and MS have not been examined. We linked the AMA Physician Masterfile to discharge claims from New York, Florida, and Pennsylvania (2012 to 2013) to examine practice patterns and to compare surgical outcomes of FS and MS. We paired FS and MS operating at the same hospital using cardinality matching with refined balance and compared inpatient mortality, any postoperative complication, and prolonged length of stay (pLOS) in FS and MS. Overall practice patterns differed between the 663 FS and 3219 MS. We identified 2462 surgeons (19% FS, 81% MS) at 429 hospitals who met inclusion criteria for outcomes analysis. FS were younger (mean age ± SD FS: 48.5 ± 8.4 years, MS: 54.3 ± 9.4y; P best fit for them regardless of sex.
Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage
Introduction: This paper reports a preliminary study into the commitment and academic confidence of male students in undergraduate psychology, prompted by our own observations of the performance of male students and the literature on sex differences in education. Method: Using an analytical survey, level 1 psychology students at a new university…
Vries, M. de; Vosters, S.; Merkx, G.F.M.; Hauwers, K.W.M. d'; Wansink, D.G.; Ramos, L.; Boer, P. de
In mammalian male gametogenesis the sex chromosomes are distinctive in both gene activity and epigenetic strategy. At first meiotic prophase the heteromorphic X and Y chromosomes are placed in a separate chromatin domain called the XY body. In this process, X,Y chromatin becomes highly phosphorylate
Vries, M. de; Vosters, S.; Merkx, G.F.M.; Hauwers, K.W.M. d'; Wansink, D.G.; Ramos, L.; Boer, P. de
In mammalian male gametogenesis the sex chromosomes are distinctive in both gene activity and epigenetic strategy. At first meiotic prophase the heteromorphic X and Y chromosomes are placed in a separate chromatin domain called the XY body. In this process, X,Y chromatin becomes highly
Martín-Brufau, Ramón; Corbalán, Javier
The association between creativity and psychopathology has, for decades, been a focus of heated debate fuelled by contradictory findings. Nevertheless, the findings suggest complex associations between creativity and psychopathology. Other studies have investigated the association between creativity and sex, with inconsistent results. The aim of…
Martín-Brufau, Ramón; Corbalán, Javier
The association between creativity and psychopathology has, for decades, been a focus of heated debate fuelled by contradictory findings. Nevertheless, the findings suggest complex associations between creativity and psychopathology. Other studies have investigated the association between creativity and sex, with inconsistent results. The aim of…
Yan, Wei; McCarrey, John R
Mammalian females have two X chromosomes, while males have only one X plus a Y chromosome. In order to balance X-linked gene dosage between the sexes, one X chromosome undergoes inactivation during development of female embryos. This process has been termed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI). Inactivation of the single X chromosome also occurs in the male, but is transient and is confined to the late stages of first meiotic prophase during spermatogenesis. This phenomenon has been termed meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). A substantial portion ( approximately 15-25%) of X-linked mRNA-encoding genes escapes XCI in female somatic cells. While no mRNA genes are known to escape MSCI in males, approximately 80% of X-linked miRNA genes have been shown to escape this process. Recent results have led to the proposal that the RNA interference mechanism may be involved in regulating XCI in female cells. We suggest that some MSCI-escaping miRNAs may play a similar role in regulating MSCI in male germ cells.
de Vries, Marieke; Vosters, Sanne; Merkx, Gerard; D'Hauwers, Kathleen; Wansink, Derick G; Ramos, Liliana; de Boer, Peter
In mammalian male gametogenesis the sex chromosomes are distinctive in both gene activity and epigenetic strategy. At first meiotic prophase the heteromorphic X and Y chromosomes are placed in a separate chromatin domain called the XY body. In this process, X,Y chromatin becomes highly phosphorylated at S139 of H2AX leading to the repression of gonosomal genes, a process known as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), which has been studied best in mice. Post-meiotically this repression is largely maintained. Disturbance of MSCI in mice leads to harmful X,Y gene expression, eventuating in spermatocyte death and sperm heterogeneity. Sperm heterogeneity is a characteristic of the human male. For this reason we were interested in the efficiency of MSCI in human primary spermatocytes. We investigated MSCI in pachytene spermatocytes of seven probands: four infertile men and three fertile controls, using direct and indirect in situ methods. A considerable degree of variation in the degree of MSCI was detected, both between and within probands. Moreover, in post-meiotic stages this variation was observed as well, indicating survival of spermatocytes with incompletely inactivated sex chromosomes. Furthermore, we investigated the presence of H3K9me3 posttranslational modifications on the X and Y chromatin. Contrary to constitutive centromeric heterochromatin, this heterochromatin marker did not specifically accumulate on the XY body, with the exception of the heterochromatic part of the Y chromosome. This may reflect the lower degree of MSCI in man compared to mouse. These results point at relaxation of MSCI, which can be explained by genetic changes in sex chromosome composition during evolution and candidates as a mechanism behind human sperm heterogeneity.
Marieke de Vries
Full Text Available In mammalian male gametogenesis the sex chromosomes are distinctive in both gene activity and epigenetic strategy. At first meiotic prophase the heteromorphic X and Y chromosomes are placed in a separate chromatin domain called the XY body. In this process, X,Y chromatin becomes highly phosphorylated at S139 of H2AX leading to the repression of gonosomal genes, a process known as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI, which has been studied best in mice. Post-meiotically this repression is largely maintained. Disturbance of MSCI in mice leads to harmful X,Y gene expression, eventuating in spermatocyte death and sperm heterogeneity. Sperm heterogeneity is a characteristic of the human male. For this reason we were interested in the efficiency of MSCI in human primary spermatocytes. We investigated MSCI in pachytene spermatocytes of seven probands: four infertile men and three fertile controls, using direct and indirect in situ methods. A considerable degree of variation in the degree of MSCI was detected, both between and within probands. Moreover, in post-meiotic stages this variation was observed as well, indicating survival of spermatocytes with incompletely inactivated sex chromosomes. Furthermore, we investigated the presence of H3K9me3 posttranslational modifications on the X and Y chromatin. Contrary to constitutive centromeric heterochromatin, this heterochromatin marker did not specifically accumulate on the XY body, with the exception of the heterochromatic part of the Y chromosome. This may reflect the lower degree of MSCI in man compared to mouse. These results point at relaxation of MSCI, which can be explained by genetic changes in sex chromosome composition during evolution and candidates as a mechanism behind human sperm heterogeneity.
Kathryn McClelland; Josephine Bowles; Peter Koopman
Disorders of sex development often arise from anomalies in the molecular or cellular networks that guide the differentiation of the embryonic gonad into either a testis or an ovary,two functionally distinct organs.The activation of the Y-linked gene Sry(sexdetermining region Y) and its downstream target Sox9 (Sry box-containinggene 9) triggers testis differentiation by stimulating the differentiation of Sertoli cells,which then direct testis morphogenesis.Once engaged,a genetic pathway promotes the testis development while actively suppressing genes involved in ovarian development.This review focuses on the events of testis determination and the struggle to maintain male fate in the face of antagonistic pressure from the underlying female programme.
Matsushita, Michinari; Takao, Mikako; Makita, Akifumi
In dioecious plants, differences in growth traits between sexes in a response to micro-environmental heterogeneity may affect sex ratio bias and spatial distributions. Here, we examined sex ratios, stem growth traits and spatial distribution patterns in the dioecious clonal shrub Aucuba japonica var. borealis, in stands with varying light intensities. We found that male stems were significantly more decumbent (lower height/length ratio) but female stems were upright (higher height/length ratio). Moreover, we found sex-different response in stem density (no. of stems per unit area) along a light intensity gradient; in males the stem density increased with increases in canopy openness, but not in females. The higher sensitivity of males in increasing stem density to light intensity correlated with male-biased sex ratio; fine-scale sex ratio was strongly male-biased as canopy openness increased. There were also differences between sexes in spatial distributions of stems. Spatial segregation of sexes and male patches occupying larger areas than female patches might result from vigorous growth of males under well-lit environments. In summary, females and males showed different growth responses to environmental variation, and this seemed to be one of possible causes for the sex-differential spatial distributions and locally biased sex ratios.
Getz, Sandra K.; Herman, Jeanne B.
This study tests whether or not there are sex differences in judgments of the success of various male and female lifestyles, and if so, what differential standards are applied to males and females. The most interesting result of this study is that college men and women use the same standards to judge the success of male lifestyles but different…
Pan, Zheng-Jun; Li, Xi-Yin; Zhou, Feng-Jian; Qiang, Xiao-Gang; Gui, Jian-Fang
Comprehending sex determination mechanism is a first step for developing sex control breeding biotechnologies in fish. Pseudobagrus ussuriensis, one of bagrid catfishes in Bagridae, had been observed to have about threefold size dimorphism between males and females, but its sex determination mechanism had been unknown. In this study, we firstly used the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)-based screening approach to isolate a male-specific DNA fragment and thereby identified a 10,569 bp of male-specific sequence and a 10,365 bp of female-related sequence by genome walking in the bagrid catfish, in which a substantial genetic differentiation with 96.35 % nucleotide identity was revealed between them. Subsequently, a high differentiating region of 650 bp with only 70.26 % nucleotide identity was found from the corresponding two sequences, and three primer pairs of male-specific marker, male and female-shared marker with different length products in male and female genomes, and female-related marker were designed. Significantly, when these markers were used to identify genetic sex of the bagrid catfish, only male individuals was detected to amplify the male-specific marker fragment, and female-related marker was discovered to produce dosage association in females and in males. Our current data provide significant genetic evidence that P. ussuriensis has heterogametic XY sex chromosomes in males and homogametic XX sex chromosomes in females. Therefore, sex determination mechanism of P. ussuriensis is male heterogametic XX/XY system.
Berhan, Yifru; Berhan, Asres
There are several studies that showed the high prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors among youths, but little is known how significant the proportion of higher risk sex is when the male and female youths are compared. A meta-analysis was done using 26 countries' Demographic and Health Survey data from and outside Africa to make comparisons of higher risk sex among the most vulnerable group of male and female youths. Random effects analytic model was applied and the pooled odds ratios were determined using Mantel-Haenszel statistical method. In this meta-analysis, 19,148 male and 65,094 female youths who reported to have sexual intercourse in a 12-month period were included. The overall OR demonstrated that higher risk sex was ten times more prevalent in male youths than in female youths. The practice of higher risk sex by male youths aged 15-19 years was more than 27-fold higher than that of their female counterparts. Similarly, male youths in urban areas, belonged to a family with middle to highest wealth index, and educated to secondary and above were more than ninefold, eightfold and sixfold at risk of practicing higher risk sex than their female counterparts, respectively. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrated that the practice of risky sexual intercourse by male youths was incomparably higher than female youths. Future risky sex protective interventions should be tailored to secondary and above educated male youths in urban areas.
Freund, K; Watson, R; Rienzo, D
Male sex offenders against minors were grouped according to age and sex of victims, and according to whether they had offended against one or more than one minor. Cases of incest or courtship disorder were not included in the study. Among offenders against female children, the number of one-case offenders was substantially larger than that of multicase offenders. The opposite was true of offenders against male children, and there was no significant difference between one-case and multicase offenders against female or male early adolescents. If these counts reflect corresponding prevalences within sex offenders against minors in a Western cultural setting, some inferences can be made from these comparisons.
Harriman, Rebecca L; Johnston, Barry; Kenny, Paula M
Contributors and editors were asked to respond to a series of questions concerning male sex work in order to stimulate an informal "conversation." Some of the topics explored include: why people seek the services of prostitutes; is the term "sex work" favorable to "prostitution": is it right to pay for sex; and is exploitation a necessary part of the sex worker/client interchange'? Contributors' responses were compiled and listed in the order they were received. Common elements of their responses are summarized and the advantages of this informal approach are articulated.
Juvenile sex ratios are often assumed to be equal for many species with genetic sex determination, but this has rarely been tested in fish embryos due to their small size and absence of sex-specific markers. We artificially crossed three populations of brown trout and used a recently developed genetic marker for sexing the offspring of both pure and hybrid crosses. Sex ratios (SR = proportion of males) varied widely one month after hatching ranging from 0.15 to 0.90 (mean = 0.39 ± 0.03). Families with high survival tended to produce balanced or male-biased sex ratios, but SR was significantly female-biased when survival was low, suggesting that males sustain higher mortality during development. No difference in SR was found between pure and hybrid families, but the existence of sire × dam interactions suggests that genetic incompatibility may play a role in determining sex ratios. Our findings have implications for animal breeding and conservation because skewed sex ratios will tend to reduce effective population size and bias selection estimates. PMID:27928001
Examines the tendency of men to engage in domestic violence and sexual exploitation and presents male sex-role acquisition as a process of psychosocial violence against young boys, which creates a sense of shame, powerlessness, self-alienation, isolation from others, and retaliatory rage and inhibits capacities for intimacy and mutuality.…
This study investigated whether sexual imprinting plays a role in the recognition of the sex of conspecifics. Subjects were zebra finch males that had been raised with either normal pairs, white pairs or pairs of both morphs. They were tested for their preferences in six two-stimuli tests covering a
Harris, Shanette M.
Examines how African-American alternative masculine behaviors are expressed within same-sex peer groups and friendships. It is proposed that African-American males have adopted an alternative style of masculinity to cope with social and interpersonal pressures, even though it can sometimes be dysfunctional and associated with negative…
Full Text Available In the present study a proteomics approach has been taken to analyze differential protein expression between mature male and sex reversed male of Nemacheilus angorae In regard to the fruitful studies of sex reversal in mammalian species and the fact that some major sex determination molecules are conserved among vertebrates, Nemacheilus angorae (Angorae loach seems to be a good model system in studying molecules involved in sex differentiation.N. angorae is a teleports fish exhibiting a spontaneous sex reversal (male to female pattern. The gonads of adult individuals were dissected and used for histological investigation and protein analysis. Proteins were next analyzed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the distinguished spots have been compared in two experimental samples. Among them, 23 differentially expressed proteins spots were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. Two spots in sex reversed testis with high score showed significant similarity to Vasa (assembling of the pole plasm and the pronuclear region of the oocyte and Proline 4-hydroxylase proteins. Vasa are involved in germ cell development both in invertebrates and vertebrates. This data could be considered as starting base for subsequent studies to identify proteins involved in sex reversal and differentiation at different stages of gonadal maturation in fish.
Wheldon, Christopher W; Pathak, Elizabeth B
Extradyadic sex is a significant source of risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men in same-sex relationships. Nonmonogamous sexual agreements are common among male same-sex couples and may serve as effective targets for risk reduction interventions; however, there is a dearth of research reporting on the social and cultural determinants of explicit nonmonogamous agreements. In this study, it was hypothesized that attitudes toward dominant cultural standards of masculinity (i.e., normative masculinity) would be associated with the types of sexual agreements negotiated among gay male couples. An Internet-based survey was used to collect data from 931 men for this analysis. Results indicated that men who reported high endorsement of normative masculinity were more likely to be in nonmonogamous relationships. Furthermore, high endorsement of normative masculinity was predictive of relationship agreements characterized as the most sexually permissive. These findings indicate that rather than simply predicting nonmonogamy in gay male couples, attitudes toward masculinity may be indirectly related to increased risk of STIs by influencing the types of sexual agreements negotiated. This is the first empirical study to emphasize the role of masculinity as an explanatory factor of same-sex relationship agreements.
Full Text Available Evidence supports the intricate relationship between sleep electroencephalogram (EEG spindling and cognitive abilities in children and adults. Although sleep EEG changes during adolescence index fundamental brain reorganization, a detailed analysis of sleep spindling and the spindle-intelligence relationship was not yet provided for adolescents. Therefore, adolescent development of sleep spindle oscillations were studied in a home polysomnographic study focusing on the effects of chronological age and developmentally acquired overall mental efficiency (fluid IQ with sex as a potential modulating factor. Subjects were 24 healthy adolescents (12 males with an age range of 15–22 years (mean: 18 years and fluid IQ of 91-126 (mean: 104.12, Raven Progressive Matrices Test. Slow spindles (SSs and fast spindles (FSs were analyzed in 21 EEG derivations by using the individual adjustment method. A significant age-dependent increase in average FS density (r = .57; p = .005 was found. Moreover, fluid IQ correlated with FS density (r = .43; p = .04 and amplitude (r = .41; p = .049. The latter effects were entirely driven by particularly reliable FS-IQ correlations in females [r = .80 (p = .002 and r = .67 (p = .012, for density and amplitude, respectively]. Region-specific analyses revealed that these correlations peak in the fronto-central regions. The control of the age-dependence of FS measures and IQ scores did not considerably reduce the spindle-IQ correlations with respect to FS density. The only positive spindle-index of fluid IQ in males turned out to be the frequency of FSs (r = .60, p = .04. Increases in FS density during adolescence may index reshaped structural connectivity related to white matter maturation in the late developing human brain. The continued development over this age range of cognitive functions is indexed by specific measures of sleep spindling unravelling gender differences in adolescent brain maturation and perhaps cognitive
Bókony, Veronika; Kövér, Szilvia; Nemesházi, Edina; Liker, András; Székely, Tamás
Sex reversals whereby individuals of one genetic sex develop the phenotype of the opposite sex occur in ectothermic vertebrates with genetic sex-determination systems that are sensitive to extreme temperatures during sexual differentiation. Recent rises in global temperatures have led researchers to predict that sex reversals will become more common, resulting in the distortion of many populations' sex ratios. However, it is unclear whether susceptibility to climate-driven sex-ratio shifts depends on the type of sex determination that varies across species. First, we show here using individual-based theoretical models that XX/XY (male-heterogametic) and ZZ/ZW (female-heterogametic) sex-determination systems can respond differentially to temperature-induced sex reversals. Interestingly, the impacts of climate warming on adult sex ratio (ASR) depend on the effects of both genotypic and phenotypic sex on survival and reproduction. Second, we analyse the temporal changes of ASR in natural amphibian populations using data from the literature, and find that ASR shifted towards males in ZZ/ZW species over the past 60 years, but did not change significantly in XX/XY species. Our results highlight the fact that we need a better understanding of the interactions between genetic and environmental sex-determining mechanisms to predict the responses of ectotherms to climate change and the associated extinction risks.This article is part of the themed issue 'Adult sex ratios and reproductive decisions: a critical re-examination of sex differences in human and animal societies'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Myhre, Lise Cats; de Jong, Karen; Forsgren, Elisabet; Amundsen, Trond
The roles of females and males in mating competition and mate choice have lately proven more variable, between and within species, than previously thought. In nature, mating competition occurs during mate search and is expected to be regulated by the numbers of potential mates and same-sex competitors. Here, we present the first study to test how a temporal change in sex roles affects mating competition and mate choice during mate sampling. Our model system (the marine fish Gobiusculus flavescens) is uniquely suitable because of its change in sex roles, from conventional to reversed, over the breeding season. As predicted from sex role theory, courtship was typically initiated by males and terminated by females early in the breeding season. The opposite pattern was observed late in the season, at which time several females often simultaneously courted the same male. Mate-searching females visited more males early than late in the breeding season. Our study shows that mutual mate choice and mating competition can have profound effects on female and male behavior. Future work needs to consider the dynamic nature of mating competition and mate choice if we aim to fully understand sexual selection in the wild.
Singh, Rama S; Artieri, Carlo G
The resolution of the paradoxes surrounding the evolutionary origins and maintenance of sexual reproduction has been a major focus in biology. The operation of sexual selection-which is very common among multicellular organisms-has been proposed as an important factor in the maintenance of sex, though in order for this hypothesis to hold, the strength of sexual selection must be stronger in males than in females. Sexual selection poses its own series of evolutionary questions, including how genetic variability is maintained in the face of sustained directional selection (known as the "paradox of the lek"). In this short review, we present evidence obtained from recent comparative genomics projects arguing that 1) the genomic consequences of sexual selection clearly show that its effect is stronger in males and 2) this sustained selection over evolutionary timescales also has an effect of capturing de novo genes and expression patterns influencing male fitness, thus providing a mechanism via which new genetic variation can be input into to male traits. Furthermore, we argue that this latter process of genomic "masculinization" has an additional effect of making males difficult to purge from populations, as evidence from Drosophila indicates that, for example, many male sexually selected seminal fluid factors are required to ensure maximally efficient reproduction. Newly arising parthenogenic mutations would suffer an immediate reproductive rate disadvantage were these proteins lost. We show that recent studies confirm that genomic masculinization, as a result of "male sex drive," has important consequences for the evolution of sexually dimorphic species.
Rieger, Gerulf; Rosenthal, Allen M; Cash, Brian M; Linsenmeier, Joan A W; Bailey, J Michael; Savin-Williams, Ritch C
Conflicting evidence exists regarding whether bisexual-identified men are sexually aroused to both men and women. We hypothesized that a distinct characteristic, level of curiosity about sexually diverse acts, distinguishes bisexual-identified men with and without bisexual arousal. Study 1 assessed men's (n=277) sexual arousal via pupil dilation to male and female sexual stimuli. Bisexual men were, on average, higher in their sexual curiosity than other men. Despite this general difference, only bisexual-identified men with elevated sexual curiosity showed bisexual arousal. Those lower in curiosity had responses resembling those of homosexual men. Study 2 assessed men's (n=72) sexual arousal via genital responses and replicated findings of Study 1. Study 3 provided information on the validity on our measure of sexual curiosity by relating it to general curiosity and sexual sensation seeking (n=83). Based on their sexual arousal and personality, at least two groups of men identify as bisexual.
Michael L Eisenberg; Lata Murthy; Kathleen Hwang; Dolores J Lamb; Larry I Lipshultz
In recent years,investigators have noted a trend toward a declining proportion of male births in many industrialized nations.While men bear the sex-determining chromosome,the role of the female partner as it pertains to fertilization or miscarriage may also alter the gender ratio.We attempted to determine a man's secondary sex ratio (F1 generation) by directly examining the sex chromosomes of his sperm.We examined our male infertility clinic database for all men who had undergone a semen fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).Patient demographic and semen parameters were recorded.Chi-squared analysis was used to compare gender ratios (Ychromosomes/total chromosomes).Multivariable logistic regression was used to predict the odds of possessing a Y-bearing sperm after accounting for demographic and semen parameters.A total of 185 men underwent sperm FISH.For the entire cohort,the proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm was 51.5％.Men with less than five million motile sperm had a significantly lower proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm (50.8％) compared to men with higher sperm counts (51.6％; P=0.02).After multivariable adjustment,a higher sperm concentration,total motile sperm count and semen volume significantly increased the odds of having a Y chromosome-bearing sperm (P＜0.01).As a man's sperm production declines,so does the proportion of Y chromosome-bearing sperm.Thus,a man's reproductive potential may predict his ability to sire male offspring.
Yamamoto, M; Yokoi, K; Katsuno, S; Hibi, H; Miyake, K
We examined a 32-year-old man with a 4-year history of infertility. The man's sex life, male hair pattern, and penis were normal, and he had no history of erection problems. Left and right testicular volumes were 2 ml and 3 ml, respectively. Semen analysis showed no sperm. The endocrine panel revealed increased serum luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone levels, and a normal serum testosterone level. A testicular biopsy demonstrated that both Leydig cell and Sertoli cell hyperplasia were present, and that no germ cells were found in the tubules. A chromosome analysis done on the peripheral blood lymphocytes revealed a karyotype of 46, XX. We identified the sex-determining region, Y, by polymerase chain reaction using Y-specific probes in this patient. The diagnosis was XX male.
Browne, J; Minichiello, V
This qualitative study explores the meanings of the commercial sexual encounter between male sex workers and their clients. The study highlights the various social meanings male sex workers attribute to having sex, their typologies of clients, the psychic contexts of male commercial sex, safer sex interactions, and how these issues inform sexual behaviour. The data shows that the meaning attached to the act of having sex is an important aspect of the way in which participants perceive their partners, conduct themselves during sexual encounters, and engage in safe sex practices. Clients are categorized by sex workers according to their perceptions of 'them', which include 'marrieds', 'easy trade', 'undesirables', 'sugar daddies' and 'heaven trade'. Different types of clients pose alternate levels of risk to the safe sex practices of sex workers. The sex worker's definition of commercial sex as work enables him to separate work and personal sex and define work sex as 'not real sex', in which safe sex practices symbolize both the degree of self that is shared and protective work equipment. It was also found that this sample of sex workers do not negotiate safe sex. Rather they use 'modes of interaction' which direct the encounter either towards safe sex, or they refuse to continue with the transaction. The interactive modes identified are 'natural', 'educative', 'challenge', 'other options' and 'walk-out'. These modes of interaction are effective strategies for ensuring safe sex, and can be used by the broader community to gain partner compliance in safe sex practices.
Lu, Lin-Yu; Yu, Xiaochun
During meiotic prophase, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair-mediated homologous recombination (HR) occurs for exchange of genetic information between homologous chromosomes. Unlike autosomes or female sex chromosomes, human male sex chromosomes X and Y share little homology. Although DSBs are generated throughout male sex chromosomes, homologous recombination does not occur for most regions and DSB repair process is significantly prolonged. As a result, male sex chromosomes are coated with ...
Baral, Stefan David; Friedman, M Reuel; Geibel, Scott; Rebe, Kevin; Bozhinov, Borche; Diouf, Daouda; Sabin, Keith; Holland, Claire E; Chan, Roy; Cáceres, Carlos F
Male sex workers who sell or exchange sex for money or goods encompass a very diverse population across and within countries worldwide. Information characterising their practices, contexts where they live, and their needs is limited, because these individuals are generally included as a subset of larger studies focused on gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) or even female sex workers. Male sex workers, irrespective of their sexual orientation, mostly offer sex to men and rarely identify as sex workers, using local or international terms instead. Growing evidence indicates a sustained or increasing burden of HIV among some male sex workers within the context of the slowing global HIV pandemic. Several synergistic facilitators could be potentiating HIV acquisition and transmission among male sex workers, including biological, behavioural, and structural determinants. Criminalisation and intersectional stigmas of same-sex practices, commercial sex, and HIV all augment risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among male sex workers and reduce the likelihood of these people accessing essential services. These contexts, taken together with complex sexual networks among male sex workers, define this group as a key population underserved by current HIV prevention, treatment, and care services. Dedicated efforts are needed to make those services available for the sake of both public health and human rights. Evidence-based and human rights-affirming services dedicated specifically to male sex workers are needed to improve health outcomes for these men and the people within their sexual networks.
Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Onat, F.Y.; Gallagher, M.J.
While epidemiological data suggest a female prevalence in human childhood- and adolescence-onset typical absence epilepsy syndromes, the sex difference is less clear in adult-onset syndromes. In addition, although there are more females than males diagnosed with typical absence epilepsy syndromes, t
Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Onat, F.Y.; Gallagher, M.J.
While epidemiological data suggest a female prevalence in human childhood- and adolescence-onset typical absence epilepsy syndromes, the sex difference is less clear in adult-onset syndromes. In addition, although there are more females than males diagnosed with typical absence epilepsy syndromes, t
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate self-report of heterosexual anal intercourse among male sex workers who sell sex to men, and to identify the socio-demographic characteristics associated with practice of the behavior. DESIGN: Two cross-sectional surveys of male sex workers who sell sex to men in Mombasa, Kenya. METHODS: Male sex workers selling sex to men were invited to participate in surveys undertaken in 2006 and 2008. A structured questionnaire administered by trained interviewers was used to collect information on socio-demographic characteristics, sexual behaviors, HIV and STI knowledge, and health service usage. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics. Bivariate logistic regression, after controlling for year of survey, was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics associated with heterosexual anal intercourse. RESULTS: From a sample of 867 male sex workers, 297 men had sex with a woman during the previous 30 days - of whom 45% did so with a female client and 86% with a non-paying female partner. Within these groups, 66% and 43% of male sex workers had anal intercourse with a female client and non-paying partner respectively. Factors associated with reporting recent heterosexual anal intercourse in bivariate logistic regression after controlling for year of survey participation were being Muslim, ever or currently married, living with wife only, living with a female partner only, living with more than one sexual partner, self-identifying as basha/king/bisexual, having one's own children, and lower education. CONCLUSIONS: We found unexpectedly high levels of self-reported anal sex with women by male sex workers, including selling sex to female clients as well as with their own partners. Further investigation among women in Mombasa is needed to understand heterosexual anal sex practices, and how HIV programming may respond.
Phillips, Owen R; Clark, Kristi A; Luders, Eileen; Azhir, Ramin; Joshi, Shantanu H; Woods, Roger P; Mazziotta, John C; Toga, Arthur W; Narr, Katherine L
Structural and diffusion imaging studies demonstrate effects of age, sex, and asymmetry in many brain structures. However, few studies have addressed how individual differences might influence the structural integrity of the superficial white matter (SWM), comprised of short-range association (U-fibers), and intracortical axons. This study thus applied a sophisticated computational analysis approach to structural and diffusion imaging data obtained from healthy individuals selected from the International Consortium for Brain Mapping (ICBM) database across a wide adult age range (n=65, age: 18-74 years, all Caucasian). Fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) were sampled and compared at thousands of spatially matched SWM locations and within regions-of-interest to examine global and local variations in SWM integrity across age, sex, and hemisphere. Results showed age-related reductions in FA that were more pronounced in the frontal SWM than in the posterior and ventral brain regions, whereas increases in RD and AD were observed across large areas of the SWM. FA was significantly greater in left temporoparietal regions in men and in the posterior callosum in women. Prominent leftward FA and rightward AD and RD asymmetries were observed in the temporal, parietal, and frontal regions. Results extend previous findings restricted to the deep white matter pathways to demonstrate regional changes in the SWM microstructure relating to processes of demyelination and/or to the number, coherence, or integrity of axons with increasing age. SWM fiber organization/coherence appears greater in the left hemisphere regions spanning language and other networks, while more localized sex effects could possibly reflect sex-specific advantages in information strategies.
Clatts, Michael C; Giang, Le M; Goldsamt, Lloyd A; Yi, Huso
The present study describes complex drug and sexual risk in a group of male sex workers (n = 79) who were recruited in the context of a larger study of young heroin users in Hanoi, Vietnam (n = 1270). Male sex workers were significantly more likely than male non-sex workers to be migrants (P sex workers are more likely to currently use MDMA (P sex workers are more likely to have both male and female concurrent sex partners (P sex partners in the past 30 days (P sex (P sex (P sex. In nearly three-quarters of these exchanges (71.4%), no condom was used. Similarly, in their last sexual encounter with a client partner, 42.2% reported having had insertive anal sex and in nearly half (47.4%) of these encounters no condom was used. Consistent with recent data from elsewhere in the region, there is an urgent need for additional research on male sex work in South-east Asia in order to properly situate behavioural interventions for male sex workers in this region.
van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz; Gallagher, Martin J
While epidemiological data suggest a female prevalence in human childhood- and adolescence-onset typical absence epilepsy syndromes, the sex difference is less clear in adult-onset syndromes. In addition, although there are more females than males diagnosed with typical absence epilepsy syndromes, there is a paucity of studies on sex differences in seizure frequency and semiology in patients diagnosed with any absence epilepsy syndrome. Moreover, it is unknown if there are sex differences in the prevalence or expression of atypical absence epilepsy syndromes. Surprisingly, most studies of animal models of absence epilepsy either did not investigate sex differences, or failed to find sex-dependent effects. However, various rodent models for atypical syndromes such as the AY9944 model (prepubertal females show a higher incidence than prepubertal males), BN model (also with a higher prevalence in males) and the Gabra1 deletion mouse in the C57BL/6J strain offer unique possibilities for the investigation of the mechanisms involved in sex differences. Although the mechanistic bases for the sex differences in humans or these three models are not yet known, studies of the effects of sex hormones on seizures have offered some possibilities. The sex hormones progesterone, estradiol and testosterone exert diametrically opposite effects in genetic absence epilepsy and pharmacologically-evoked convulsive types of epilepsy models. In addition, acute pharmacological effects of progesterone on absence seizures during proestrus are opposite to those seen during pregnancy. 17β-Estradiol has anti-absence seizure effects, but it is only active in atypical absence models. It is speculated that the pro-absence action of progesterone, and perhaps also the delayed pro-absence action of testosterone, are mediated through the neurosteroid allopregnanolone and its structural and functional homolog, androstanediol. These two steroids increase extrasynaptic thalamic tonic GABAergic
Regan, P C; Ramirez, C
This experiment on person perception used a role-playing methodology to examine whether a target individual's sex and sexual orientation influence perceived abilities as a child care worker. Men and women (N = 78) role played the part of a parent who has placed an advertisement for a full-time babysitter. They received information about a male or female, heterosexual or homosexual applicant (randomly assigned). Although participants preferred to hire (and felt more comfortable leaving their children with) a heterosexual woman than any other type of applicant, they believed that homosexual men and women were as knowledgeable about aspects of child care, e.g., nutrition, first aid, as their heterosexual peers. The least preferred child care worker was a heterosexual man, perhaps because such a target is inconsistent with traditional sex-role expectations.
Espinosa, E; Josa, A; Gil, L; González, N
In this study, the annual cycle of the gonadal steroids testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 17β-oestradiol (E2) and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP) was determined using radioimmunoassay and then compared, for XY males (n=35) and sex-reversed XX males (n=27) rainbow trout, to establish possible endocrinology differences. Both in XY males and sex-reversed XX males, significant correlation was shown between body weight and T (r=0.5046 and 0.34078, respectively; psex-reversed XX males were similar and showed an intense seasonal variation. The highest levels for T and 11-KT were detected from December to April with a peak in January (51.67 ± 5.11 and 61.95 ± 4.25 ng/ml, for XY males and 57.1 ± 5.82 and 59.27 ± 4.84 ng/ml, respectively, for XX males). In addition, there was a positive correlation (psex-reversed XX males (r=0.6019). Concentrations of DHP in XY males also showed seasonal variation with a peak in February (25.18 ± 12.99 ng/ml). However, DHP levels in sex-reversed XX males were undetectable (sex-reversed XX males were similar to those observed in XY males. The only difference in the annual gonadal steroid cycle between XY and sex-reversed XX males was in the DHP profile. © 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Karandikar, Sharvari; Prospero, Moises
The present study explores intimate partner violence (IPV) among female sex workers from the red-light area based in Mumbai, India. Using a grounded theory approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with ten sex workers to explore their experiences of IPV in the context of commercial sex work. Narratives were analyzed and themes constructed. A…
Savic, Ivanka; Arver, Stefan
Gender dysphoria is suggested to be a consequence of sex atypical cerebral differentiation. We tested this hypothesis in a magnetic resonance study of voxel-based morphometry and structural volumetry in 48 heterosexual men (HeM) and women (HeW) and 24 gynephillic male to female transsexuals (MtF-TR). Specific interest was paid to gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) fraction, hemispheric asymmetry, and volumes of the hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, and putamen. Like HeM, MtF-TR displayed larger GM volumes than HeW in the cerebellum and lingual gyrus and smaller GM and WM volumes in the precentral gyrus. Both male groups had smaller hippocampal volumes than HeW. As in HeM, but not HeW, the right cerebral hemisphere and thalamus volume was in MtF-TR lager than the left. None of these measures differed between HeM and MtF-TR. MtF-TR displayed also singular features and differed from both control groups by having reduced thalamus and putamen volumes and elevated GM volumes in the right insular and inferior frontal cortex and an area covering the right angular gyrus.The present data do not support the notion that brains of MtF-TR are feminized. The observed changes in MtF-TR bring attention to the networks inferred in processing of body perception.
van Doorn, G. Sander; Kirkpatrick, Mark
Many animal taxa show frequent and rapid transitions between male heterogamety (XY) and female heterogamety (ZW). We develop a model showing how these transitions can be driven by sex-antagonistic selection. Sex-antagonistic selection acting on loci linked to a new sex-determination mutation can cau
Nicoll, Rachel; Zhao, Ying; Wiklund, Urban
males and females. To a lesser extent, hypertension and dyslipidemia were also associated in the high CAC quantiles and the low CAC quantiles respectively. CONCLUSION: In addition to age and male sex in the total population, diabetes is the most important correlate of CAC extent in both sexes....
Liu, Shusen; Detels, Roger
A 2009 survey of 418 venue-based male commercial sex workers in Shenzhen, China revealed that 19.9% used recreational drugs. Consistent condom use by drug users was lower than that by nonusers. HIV, syphilis, and herpes simplex virus 2 prevalences were higher among drug users. Prevention programs need to address drug use among male commercial sex workers in China.
Rosenmai, A.K., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Nielsen, F.K. [Section of Toxicology, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Pedersen, M. [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Hadrup, N. [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Trier, X. [Division of Food Chemistry, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark); Christensen, J.H. [Department of Basic Sciences and Environment, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DK-1871 Frederiksberg C. (Denmark); Vinggaard, A.M. [Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2860 Søborg (Denmark)
synthesis of male sex hormones. ► Generally, levels of estrogens and cortisol stayed unaffected or increased. ► The effect on steroid synthesis was specific on gene expression of Bzrp and CYP19.
Rosen, M.; And Others
Nine males with Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) and seven XYY males, located primarily in prisons and psychiatric hospitals, were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. (Author/KW)
Huysamen, Monique; Boonzaier, Floretta
Commercial sex is an everyday occurrence across a range of contexts in South Africa. In this paper we turn our attention to the often-marginalised role of the buyers of sex by drawing on narrative interviews with male clients of female sex workers recruited through online advertisements in order to explore the ways in which heterosexual men construct, negotiate and perform their masculinity and sexuality through talking about their experiences of paying for sex. We highlight parallels between men's narratives of paying for sex and dominant discourses of gender and heterosexuality. We show how men draw on heteronormative sexual scripts in constructing and making sense of paid sexual encounters and how men are simultaneously able to construct and enact a particular idealised version of masculinity and male sexuality through their talk on paying for sex. Finally, we discuss how online resources could be used more extensively in future research with the male clients of sex workers.
FANG Li-xiu; XIN Rui; CHE Yi; XU Shi-qing
Sex emerges out of a delicate dance between a variety of promale, anti-male, and possibly profemale genes. To investigate the role that sex-related genes play in sex determination and gonadal differentiation of fowl, we constructed a male-to-female sex-reversal model of chick induced by diethylstilbestrol (DES) at onset of incubation (E0). The results of semi-quantitative PCR showed that the expression of Sf1, the orphan nuclear receptor steroidogenic factor-1 gene, was put forward from E7d to E5d and up-regulated during E5-7d;the Dmrt1, the double sex and the Mab-3 related to transcription factor 1 gene, was down-regulated during E3-7d. Meanwhile, anti-Müllerian hormone gene (Amh) expressed at a similar level in the genetic females and sex-reversal females before E7d, while no expression products of the three female-specific genes Wpkci, Fet1 and Foxl2 were detected in male-to-female embryos. These findings suggest that the expression of some certain sex-related genes, induced by the exogenous estrogen during period of sex determination and gonadal differentiation, results in the male-to-female sex reversal. Moreover, high activity of Sf1 gene during E5-7d might be related to the profemale process, while low activity of Dmrt1 gene during E3-5d might be anti-male. The expression activity of Amh gene might only contribute to the promale process after E7d, however, it is possibly not an anti-female gene in chick embryos.
Megan M. Herting
Full Text Available Exercise has been shown to have positive effects on the brain and behavior throughout various stages of the lifespan. However, little is known about the impact of exercise on neurodevelopment during the adolescent years, particularly with regard to white matter microstructure, as assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Both tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS and tractography-based along-tract statistics were utilized to examine the relationship between white matter microstructure and aerobic exercise in adolescent males, ages 15–18. Furthermore, we examined the data by both (1 grouping individuals based on aerobic fitness self-reports (high fit (HF vs. low fit (LF, and (2 using VO2 peak as a continuous variable across the entire sample. Results showed that HF youth had an overall higher number of streamline counts compared to LF peers, which was driven by group differences in corticospinal tract (CST and anterior corpus callosum (Fminor. In addition, VO2 peak was negatively related to FA in the left CST. Together, these results suggest that aerobic fitness relates to white matter connectivity and microstructure in tracts carrying frontal and motor fibers during adolescence. Furthermore, the current study highlights the importance of considering the environmental factor of aerobic exercise when examining adolescent brain development.
Skelly, Gerald U.; Lundstrom, William J.
Advertising featuring men appears to be moving gradually toward a decrease in sex-role stereotyping, although the progress is obviously slow. Of the 660 advertisements examined, only 13 were in the category showing men performing nonstereotypic roles capably or acknowledging that the sexes are fully equal. (PD)
Bos, Henny M W; Kuyper, Lisette; Gartrell, Nanette K
This investigation compared Dutch same-sex parent and different-sex parent households on children's psychological well-being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing. It was also assessed whether associations among children's well-being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing were different in the two household types. Data were based on a nationally representative survey (N = 25,250). Matching was used to enhance similarity in background characteristics between both types of families. Parental and child characteristics were matched for 43 female same-sex parent, 52 male same-sex parent, and 95 different-sex parent households with offspring between 5 and 18 years old. No significant differences were found on children's well-being, problems in the parent-child relationship, being worried about the child, or the use of formal and informal support between mothers in same-sex and different-sex parent households or for fathers in same-sex and different-sex parent households. Regarding perceived confidence in child rearing, fathers in same-sex parent households and mothers in different-sex parent households felt less competent than their counterparts. Neither the associations between children's well-being and the predictors (parenting stress variables) nor those between support and the predictors (parenting stress and children's well-being) differed along household type. In this population-based study, the similarity in child outcomes regardless of household type confirms the results of prior investigations based on convenience samples. These findings are pertinent to family therapists, practitioners, court officials, and policymakers who seek information on parenting experiences and child outcomes in female and male same-sex parent families. © 2017 Family Process Institute.
Pitpitan, Eileen V; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Semple, Shirley J; Wagner, Karla D; Chavarin, Claudia V; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Patterson, Thomas L
HIV prevention efforts must be comprehensive in their understanding of the factors involved in HIV risk. Male clients, who have received less research attention than female sex workers (FSWs), may experience stigma as a function of purchasing sex. Perceived stigma may be related to poor psychological outcomes, risky psychosexual characteristics, and higher drug and sexual risk behavior among male clients of FSWs. However, perceived stigma of purchasing sex may differ between clients of different ethnic groups. In the present study, we examine the correlates of perceived stigma of purchasing sex among Latino versus non-Latino male clients of FSWs in Tijuana, Mexico. Using time-location sampling, we recruited 375 male clients (323 Latino, 52 non-Latino) in Tijuana who completed a computerized survey on various measures. We measured perceived stigma of purchasing sex using three items we developed for this study. Using linear regression analyses we found that perceived stigma was associated with greater guilt, a greater feeling of escape from everyday life, and more negative condom attitudes among Latino clients. This was not found among non-Latino clients. Features of Latino culture, like machismo, and how they may relate to stigma of purchasing sex are discussed.
Lu, Lin-Yu; Yu, Xiaochun
During meiotic prophase, DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair-mediated homologous recombination (HR) occurs for exchange of genetic information between homologous chromosomes. Unlike autosomes or female sex chromosomes, human male sex chromosomes X and Y share little homology. Although DSBs are generated throughout male sex chromosomes, homologous recombination does not occur for most regions and DSB repair process is significantly prolonged. As a result, male sex chromosomes are coated with many DNA damage response proteins and form a unique chromatin structure known as the XY body. Interestingly, associated with the prolonged DSB repair, transcription is repressed in the XY body but not in autosomes, a phenomenon known as meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), which is critical for male meiosis. Here using mice as model organisms, we briefly summarize recent progress on DSB repair in meiotic prophase and focus on the mechanism and function of DNA damage response in the XY body.
Semple, Shirley J; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Chavarin, Claudia; Patterson, Thomas L
Most studies of heterosexual sex risk practices have focused on condomless vaginal sex despite evidence that condomless anal sex has a significantly higher risk of HIV transmission. The present study focused on male clients' anal sex practices with female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana, Mexico, where an HIV epidemic is growing among high-risk groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify psychosocial and behavioral correlates of anal sex among male clients. Our sample of HIV-negative men (N = 400) was predominantly Latino (87.5 %), born in Mexico (78.8 %), never married (36.8 %) or in a regular or common-law marriage (31.5 %), and employed (62.8 %), with an average age and education of 37.8 and 9.2 years, respectively. Eighty-nine percent identified as heterosexual and 11 % as bisexual. By design, 50 % of the sample resided in Tijuana and the other 50 % in San Diego County. Nearly half (49 %) reported at least one incident of anal sex with a FSW in Tijuana in the past 4 months; of those participants, 85 % reported that one or more of their anal sex acts with FSWs had been without a condom. In a multivariate model, anal sex with a FSW in the past 4 months was associated with bisexual identification, methamphetamine use with FSWs, repeat visits to the same FSW, higher scores on perceived stigma about being a client of FSWs, and sexual compulsivity. Prevention programs are needed that address the behavioral and psychosocial correlates of heterosexual anal sex in order to reduce HIV/STI transmission risk among male clients, FSWs, and their sexual network members.
Full Text Available Gametogenesis is a sexually dimorphic process requiring profound differences in germ cell differentiation between the sexes. In mammals, the presence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes in males creates additional sex-specific challenges, including incomplete X and Y pairing during meiotic prophase. This triggers formation of a heterochromatin domain, the XY body. The XY body disassembles after prophase, but specialized sex chromatin persists, with further modification, through meiosis. Here, we investigate the function of DMRT7, a mammal-specific protein related to the invertebrate sexual regulators Doublesex and MAB-3. We find that DMRT7 preferentially localizes to the XY body in the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase and is required for male meiosis. In Dmrt7 mutants, meiotic pairing and recombination appear normal, and a transcriptionally silenced XY body with appropriate chromatin marks is formed, but most germ cells undergo apoptosis during pachynema. A minority of mutant cells can progress to diplonema, but many of these escaping cells have abnormal sex chromatin lacking histone H3K9 di- and trimethylation and heterochromatin protein 1beta accumulation, modifications that normally occur between pachynema and diplonema. Based on the localization of DMRT7 to the XY body and the sex chromatin defects observed in Dmrt7 mutants, we conclude that DMRT7 plays a role in the sex chromatin transformation that occurs between pachynema and diplonema. We suggest that DMRT7 may help control the transition from meiotic sex chromosome inactivation to postmeiotic sex chromatin in males. In addition, because it is found in all branches of mammals, but not in other vertebrates, Dmrt7 may shed light on evolution of meiosis and of sex chromatin.
Gailey, Donald A; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Liu, Jim H; Bauzon, Frederick; Allendorfer, Jane B; Goodwin, Stephen F
Male sexual behavior in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is regulated by fruitless (fru), a sex-determination gene specifying the synthesis of BTB-Zn finger proteins that likely function as male-specific transcriptional regulators. Expression of fru in the nervous system specifies male sexual b
Gailey, Donald A; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Liu, Jim H; Bauzon, Frederick; Allendorfer, Jane B; Goodwin, Stephen F
Male sexual behavior in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is regulated by fruitless (fru), a sex-determination gene specifying the synthesis of BTB-Zn finger proteins that likely function as male-specific transcriptional regulators. Expression of fru in the nervous system specifies male sexual b
Gailey, Donald A; Billeter, Jean-Christophe; Liu, Jim H; Bauzon, Frederick; Allendorfer, Jane B; Goodwin, Stephen F
Male sexual behavior in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is regulated by fruitless (fru), a sex-determination gene specifying the synthesis of BTB-Zn finger proteins that likely function as male-specific transcriptional regulators. Expression of fru in the nervous system specifies male sexual
Full Text Available Abstract Background Male killing endosymbionts manipulate their arthropod host reproduction by only allowing female embryos to develop into infected females and killing all male offspring. Because the resulting change in sex ratio is expected to affect the evolution of sex-specific dispersal, we investigated under which environmental conditions strong sex-biased dispersal would emerge, and how this would affect host and endosymbiont metapopulation persistence. Results We simulated host-endosymbiont metapopulation dynamics in an individual-based model, in which dispersal rates are allowed to evolve independently for the two sexes. Prominent male-biased dispersal emerges under conditions of low environmental stochasticity and high dispersal mortality. By applying a reshuffling algorithm, we show that kin-competition is a major driver of this evolutionary pattern because of the high within-population relatedness of males compared to those of females. Moreover, the evolution of sex-specific dispersal rescues metapopulations from extinction by (i reducing endosymbiont fixation rates and (ii by enhancing the extinction of endosymbionts within metapopulations that are characterized by low environmental stochasticity. Conclusion Male killing endosymbionts induce the evolution of sex-specific dispersal, with prominent male-biased dispersal under conditions of low environmental stochasticity and high dispersal mortality. This male-biased dispersal emerges from stronger kin-competition in males compared to females and induces an evolutionary rescue mechanism.
Jean-Fran·ois Le Galliard; Patrick S. Fitze; Régis Ferrière; Jean Clobert
The adult sex ratio (ASR) is a key parameter of the demography of human and other animal populations, yet the causes of variation in ASR, how individuals respond to this variation, and how their response feeds back...
Kelly, Philip A; Viding, Essi; Puetz, Vanessa B; Palmer, Amy L; Mechelli, Andrea; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Samuel, Sophie; McCrory, Eamon J
While maltreatment is known to impact social and emotional functioning, threat processing, and neural structure, the potentially dimorphic influence of sex on these outcomes remains relatively understudied. We investigated sex differences across these domains in a large community sample of children aged 10 to 14 years (n = 122) comprising 62 children with verified maltreatment experience and 60 well-matched nonmaltreated peers. The maltreated group relative to the nonmaltreated comparison group exhibited poorer social and emotional functioning (more peer problems and heightened emotional reactivity). Cognitively, they displayed a pattern of attentional avoidance of threat in a visual dot-probe task. Similar patterns were observed in males and females in these domains. Reduced gray matter volume was found to characterize the maltreated group in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral middle temporal lobes, and bilateral supramarginal gyrus; sex differences were observed only in the supramarginal gyrus. In addition, a disordinal interaction between maltreatment exposure and sex was found in the postcentral gyrus. Finally, attentional avoidance to threat mediated the relationship between maltreatment and emotional reactivity, and medial orbitofrontal cortex gray matter volume mediated the relationship between maltreatment and peer functioning. Similar mediation patterns were observed across sexes. This study highlights the utility of combining multiple levels of analysis when studying the "latent vulnerability" engendered by childhood maltreatment and yields tentative findings regarding a neural basis of sex differences in long-term outcomes for maltreated children.
Full Text Available This paper utilizes five cycles of the General Social Survey in consecutive years from 2006 through 2010 to address the issue of differential wages amongst members of same-sex couples compared to their counterparts in different-sex couples. We find that men in gay couples have wages that are statistically indistinguishable from those of males in heterosexual relationships. By contrast, a sizeable and statistically significant earnings premium exists for lesbians in same-sex couples.
Full Text Available Whilst many studies show sex differences in cerebral asymmetry, their mechanisms are still unknown. This report describes the potential impact of sex hormones and sex chromosomes by comparing MR data from 39 male and 47 female controls and 33 men with an extra X-chromosome (47,XXY Methods: Regional asymmetry in grey and white matter volumes (GMV and WMV was calculated using voxel based moprhometry (SPM5, by contrasting the unflipped and flipped individual GMV and WMV images. In addition, structural volumes were calculated for the thalamus, caudate, putamen, amygdala, and hippocampus, using the FreeSurfer software. Effects of plasma testosterone and estrogen on the GMV and WMV, as well on the right/left ratios of the subcortical volumes were tested by multi-regression analysis.Results: All three groups showed a leftward asymmetry in the motor cortex and the planum temporale, and a rightward asymmetry of the middle occipital cortex. Both asymmetries were more pronounced in 46,XY males than 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, and were positively correlated with testosterone levels. There was also a rightward asymmetry of the vermis and leftward asymmetry in the cerebellar hemispheres in all groups. Notably, cerebellar asymmetries were larger in 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, but were not related to sex hormone levels. No asymmetry differences between 46,XX females and 47,XXY males, and no overall effects of brain size were detected.Conclusion: The asymmetry in the planum temporale area and the occipital cortex seem related to processes associated with testosterone, whereas the observed cerebellar asymmetries suggest a link with X-chromosome escapee genes. Sex differences in cerebral asymmetry are moderated by sex hormones and X-chromosome genes, in a regionally differentiated manner.
Roger W. Fuester; Kenneth S. Swan; Philip B. Taylor; Keith R. Hopper; Paul Ode
Male-biased sex ratios in laboratory colonies of parasitic wasps used in biological control are harmful because they can prevent the establishment of introduced species or hinder commercial production of species used for augmentative control.
Zhang, Jian-Xu; Sun, Lixing; Zhang, Jin-Hua; Feng, Zhi-Yong
This study was aimed at identifying sex pheromones of the rat (Rattus norvegicus). We characterized the volatiles and semivolatiles of rat preputial gland and voided urine by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified them by their GC areas (abundances) and percentage of GC areas (relative abundances). Although all the compounds other than 4-heptanone and phenol detected were shared by males and females, the quantities for some of these sex-common compounds exhibited sexual dimorphism and decreased with gonadectomy. Thus, these compounds might be sex pheromones. Among them, squalene from preputial glands and 2-heptanone and 4-ethyl phenol from urine were 3 major compounds. They were richer in males and could be suppressed by castration. Adding any of the 3 compounds (at a concentration higher than its physiological level in male urine) to castrated male urine (CMU) increased the attractiveness of CMU to sex-naive females. Adding the 3 together (at the levels in normal male urine) to CMU significantly increased the attractiveness of CMU to females. However, such combination did not fully restore females' preference for urine from intact males, suggesting that some other trace compounds such as 4-heptanone and phenol might also play some roles in sex attractiveness. Thus, squalene, 2-heptanone, and 4-ethyl phenol were indeed male pheromone molecules in rats. Our study also indicates that E,E-beta-farnesene and E-alpha-farnesene, both richer in females than males, might be putative female pheromones.
Kim, Haesook T.; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Woolfrey, Ann E.; St. Martin, Andrew; Chen, Junfang; Saber, Wael; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Armand, Philippe; Eapen, Mary
We investigated whether and how recipient-donor sex affects transplantation outcomes of 11,797 patients transplanted between 2008 and 2010. Thirty-seven percent were male recipients with male donors, 21% male recipients with female donors, 25% female recipients with male donors, and 17% female recipients with female donors. In multivariable analyses, male recipients had inferior overall survival and progression-free survival compared to females regardless of donor sex, with an 11% relative increase in the hazard of death (P<0.0001) and a 10% relative increase in the hazard of death or relapse (P<0.0001). The detrimental effect of male recipients varied by donor sex. For male recipients with male donors, there was a 12% relative increase in the subdistribution hazard of relapse compared with female recipients with male donors (P=0.0036) and male recipients with female donors (P=0.0037). For male recipients with female donors, there was a 19% relative increase in the subdistribution hazard of non-relapse mortality compared with male recipients with male donors (P<0.0001) and a 22% relative increase compared with female recipients with male donors (P=0.0003). In addition, male recipients with female donors showed a 21% relative increase in the subdistribution hazard of chronic graft-versus-host disease (P<0.0001) compared with female recipients with male donors. Donor sex had no effect on outcomes for female recipients. Transplantation of grafts from male and female donors was associated with inferior overall survival and progression-free survival in male recipients with differing patterns of failure. Recipient sex is an important prognostic factor independent of donor sex. PMID:27354023
Hager Karl; Jennings Kori; Hosono Seiyu; Howell Susan; Gruen Jeffrey R; Rivkees Scott A; Tartaglia Nicole R; Rinder Henry M
Abstract Background Male sex chromosome aneuploidies are underdiagnosed despite concomitant physical and behavioral manifestations. Objective To develop a non-invasive, rapid and high-throughput molecular diagnostic assay for detection of male sex chromosome aneuploidies, including 47,XXY (Klinefelter), 47,XYY, 48,XXYY and 48,XXXY syndromes. Methods The assay utilizes three XYM and four XA markers to interrogate Y:X and X:autosome ratios, respectively. The seven markers were PCR amplified usi...
Group I, the control group, received normal rat chow and water ad libitum. ... significant positive effects on male sex hormones and sperm quality at doses ... The structure and function of cell membranes are also ... Allowances/Intake of zinc is sex and age dependent, ..... catappa seeds on sexual behavior and fertility of.
Katsulis, Yasmina; Durfee, Alesha
We investigated prevalence and correlates of sexual risk behaviours among male and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico, the busiest border crossing area on the US - Mexico border, analysing survey data from a purposive, cross-sectional sample of male and female sex workers who worked in a range of indoor and outdoor settings. Logistic regression was used to determine factors that were associated with sexual risk-taking, defined as failing to use a condom with last client. In bivariate regression models, gender, work setting (e.g., indoor vs. outdoor), poverty, engaging in survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction were correlated with sexual risk. When controlling for work location, housing insecurity, poverty, survival sex, marital status and perceived drug addiction, male sex workers were still 10 times more likely than female sex workers (FSW) to engage in sex without a condom during their last encounter with a client. And, although FSW were significantly more likely than males to have used a condom with a client, they were significantly less likely than males to have used a condom with their regular partner. Future research should further examine how gender shapes sexual risk activities in both commercial and non-commercial relationships.
Alexander, Gerianne M; Charles, Nora
An individual's reproductive potential appears to influence response to attractive faces of the opposite sex. Otherwise, relatively little is known about the characteristics of the adult observer that may influence his or her affective evaluation of male and female faces. An untested hypothesis (based on the proposed role of attractive faces in mate selection) is that most women would show greater interest in male faces whereas most men would show greater interest in female faces. Further, evidence from individuals with preferences for same-sex sexual partners suggests that response to attractive male and female faces may be influenced by gender-linked play preferences. To test these hypotheses, visual attention directed to sex-linked stimuli (faces, toys, play styles) was measured in 39 men and 44 women using eye tracking technology. Consistent with our predictions, men directed greater visual attention to all male-typical stimuli and visual attention to male and female faces was associated with visual attention to gender conforming or nonconforming stimuli in a manner consistent with previous research on sexual orientation. In contrast, women showed a visual preference for female-typical toys, but no visual preference for male faces or female-typical play styles. These findings indicate that sex differences in visual processing extend beyond stimuli associated with adult sexual behavior. We speculate that sex differences in visual processing are a component of the expression of gender phenotypes across the lifespan that may reflect sex differences in the motivational properties of gender-linked stimuli.
Frank T Denton
Full Text Available Objective: The paper explores the population effects of male preference stopping rules and of alternative combinations of fertility rates and male-biased birth sex ratios. Methods: The 'laboratory' is a closed, stable population with five age groups and a dynamic process represented by a compact Leslie matrix. The new element is sex-selective abortion. We consider nine stopping rules, one with no male preference, two with male preference but no abortion, and six with male preference and the availability of abortion to achieve a desired number of male births. We calculate the probability distribution over the number of births and number of male births for each rule and work out the effects at the population level if the rule is adopted by all women bearing children. We then assess the impact of alternative combinations of fertility rates and male-biased sex ratios on the population. Results: In the absence of sex-selective abortion, stopping rules generally have no effect on the male/female birth proportions in the population, although they can alter the fertility rate, age distribution, and rate of growth. When sex-selective abortion is introduced the effect on male/female proportions may be considerable, and other effects may also be quite different. The contribution of this paper is the quantification of effects that might have been predictable in general but which require model-based calculations to see how large they can be. As the paper shows, they can in fact be very large: a population in which sex-selective abortion is widely practised can look quite different from what it would otherwise be.
Armstrong, Heather L; Reissing, Elke D
Women report a wide variety of reasons to have sex (e.g., Meston & Buss, 2010), and while it is reasonable to assume that those reasons may vary based on the context of the relationship, this assumption has not yet been tested. The purpose of this study was to explore how relationship type, sexual attraction, and the gender of one's partner interact and affect the sexual motivations of women. A total of 510 women (361 who reported exclusively other-sex attraction and 149 who reported same-sex/bisexual attraction) completed the YSEX? questionnaire. Participants rated their sexual motivations for casual sex and sex in a committed relationship with male and/or female partners, depending on reported sexual attraction. Results showed that relationship type affected reported motivation for sex: physical motivations were more strongly endorsed for casual sex, whereas emotional motivations were more strongly endorsed for sex in committed relationships. No significant differences in motivation were reported between women who reported same-sex attraction and those who did not. Women who reported bisexual attraction and identified as being lesbian, bisexual, or another sexual minority reported no significant differences in motivation for sex with male or female partners. The results of this study highlight the importance of relationship context when discussing sexual motivation and suggest a high degree of similarity in motivation for women, regardless of sexual orientation or gender of partner.
Mitchell, Jason W
Prior studies with men who have sex with men have documented a strong association between substance use with sex and risk for acquisition of HIV. However, few studies have been conducted about gay male couples' use of substances with sex, despite the fact that between one third and two thirds of men who have sex with men acquire HIV from their relationship partners. The present study sought to (1) describe whether one or both partners in the male couple uses substances with sex-by substance type-within and/or outside of their relationship, and (2) assess whether differences exist in those who use substances with sex within and outside the relationship by the couples' HIV status. Dyadic data for this analysis were collected in the United States from a nation-wide cross-sectional Internet study about male couples' relationships and behaviors. Couple-level descriptive and comparative analyses were employed with 361 male couples. Except for alcohol, most couples did not use substances with sex. Of those who did, rates of who used it with sex and substance type within the relationship varied; most couples only had one partner who used substances with sex outside the relationship. Significantly higher proportions of concordantly HIV-negative and HIV-positive couples had both partners who used substances (all types) with sex within their relationship over discordant couples. Most couples had one partner who used outside the relationship; only marijuana and erectile dysfunction medication use with sex significantly differed by couples' HIV status. Findings indicate the need to conduct additional research for prevention development.
Jace Bradford King
Full Text Available Widespread disparities in white matter (WM microstructure and organization have been found in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; however, little is known about the role sex plays in these differences. The present diffusion tensor imaging (DTI study performed whole-brain, tract-based, voxel-wise and region of interest (ROI analyses to investigate WM microstructure differences between ADHD and healthy control (HC adolescents to examine the impact of sex on measures of fractional anisotropy (FA. Eighteen adolescents with ADHD and 24 HC were included in this study. All participants received a 64-direction DTI scan on a 3 Tesla Siemens scanner. FSL’s TBSS was used to preform whole-brain, tract-based, voxel-wise analyses. Tracts demonstrating significant sex-by-diagnosis interactions were further evaluated using univariate analyses performed on mean FA data that were extracted from ROIs using the Johns Hopkins University WM tractography atlas. TBSS analyses between diagnostic groups revealed significantly increased FA in HC relative to ADHD in the bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF, forceps major, left cingulum, and bilateral callosal regions. In addition, both TBSS and separate ROI analyses revealed significant sex-by-diagnosis interactions for the corticospinal tract (CST, inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF and SLF. In the HC group, FA was increased in males relative to females for all analyses. In WM regions demonstrating a significant sex-by-diagnosis, FA was increased in females relative to males in the ADHD group. Our findings suggest that WM microstructure in several major WM tracts differs between males and females with ADHD. These differences in WM microstructure may account for some of the differences in ADHD subtypes and comorbidities seen between the sexes. Additional studies in ADHD, examining sex differences in phenotypic expression, treatment response and brain network trajectories are
Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy
Tribolium castaneum Transformer (TcTra) is essential for female sex determination and maintenance through the regulation of sex-specific splicing of doublesex (dsx) pre-mRNA. In females, TcTra also regulates the sex-specific splicing of its own pre-mRNA to ensure continuous production of functional Tra protein. Transformer protein is absent in males and hence dsx pre-mRNA is spliced in a default mode. The mechanisms by which males inhibit the production of functional Tra protein are not known. Here, we report on functional characterization of transformer-2 (tra-2) gene (an ortholog of Drosophila transformer-2) in T. castaneum. RNA interference-mediated knockdown in the expression of gene coding for tra-2 in female pupae or adults resulted in the production of male-specific isoform of dsx and both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 is essential for the female-specific splicing of tra and dsx pre-mRNAs. Interestingly, knockdown of tra-2 in males did not affect the splicing of dsx but resulted in the production of both female and male isoforms of tra suggesting that Tra-2 suppresses female-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA in males. This dual regulation of sex-specific splicing of tra pre-mRNA ensures a tight regulation of sex determination and maintenance. These data suggest a critical role for Tra-2 in suppression of female sex determination cascade in males. In addition, RNAi studies showed that Tra-2 is also required for successful embryonic and larval development in both sexes.
Biello, Katie B; Thomas, Beena E; Johnson, Blake E; Closson, Elizabeth F; Navakodi, Pandiaraja; Dhanalakshmi, A; Menon, Sunil; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A; Mimiaga, Matthew J
Male sex workers (MSW) are a significant but invisible population in India who are at risk for HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Few studies from India have documented HIV risk factors and motivations for sex work in this population. Between 2013 and 2014, a community-based convenience sample of 100 MSW in Chennai (south India) completed a baseline risk assessment as part of a behavioral intervention. Participants were ≥18 years, and reported current sex work. We report medians and proportions, and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests are used to examine differences between sex work and sexual behavior measures by income source. Participants were engaged in sex work for 5.0 years (IQR = 2.3-10.0), and earned 3000 (IQR = 2000-8000) Rupees (India engage in high levels of sexual risk for HIV/STIs. Money appears to be a driving factor for engaging in sex work and condomless sex with clients. HIV prevention interventions with MSW should focus on facilitating skills that will support their ability to negotiate sexual safety in the context of monetary disincentives.
Hall, J M
This essay serves as a broad investigation of the origins of what came to be called the "gay boom" in 1990's Japanese cinema: a culmination of print media, television, and especially films which made the gay male not merely a visible (political) subject but also the site of displaced contestations of gendered (female) desire. The most visible transnational signifier of the "gay boom" was the 1992 film Okoge, a film which, in keeping with a Japanese trend which relocates the gay male as a safe displacement of female desire, posits the heterosexual female as the audience's point of identification in a film about the lives of gay Japanese men. Using this as a starting point, this essay seeks to explore how male homosexuality and gender construction operate within both Japanese nationalism and the transnational discourse of Japanese cinema's dissemination.
Sex assignment in 46XY genetic male children with congenital inadequacy of the penis (CIP) is controversial. Traditionally, children with penile length less than 2 cm at birth are considered unsuitable to be raised as males. They are typically re-assigned to female-sex and feminizing genitoplasty is usually done in infancy. However, the concept of cerebral androgen imprinting has caused paradigm shift in the philosophy of sex re-assignment. Masculinization of the brain, rather than length of the penis, is the modern criterion of sex re-assignment in CIP. This review summarizes the current understanding of the complex issue. In 46XY children with CIP, male-sex assignment appears appropriate in non-hormonal conditions such as idiopathic micropenis, aphallia and exstrophy. Female-sex re-assignment appears acceptable in complete androgen insensitivity (CAIS), while partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) patients are highly dissatisfied with the assignment of either sex. Children with 5-alpha reductase deficiency are likely to have spontaneous penile lengthening at puberty. Hence, they are better raised as males. Although female assignment is common in pure gonadal dysgenesis, long-term results are not known to justify the decision.
Blomberg Jensen, Martin
The spectrum of vitamin D (VD)-mediated effects has expanded in recent years, and VD is now recognized as a versatile signaling molecule rather than being solely a regulator of bone health and calcium homeostasis. One of the recently identified target areas of VD is male reproductive function....... The VD receptor (VDR) and the VD metabolizing enzyme expression studies documented the presence of this system in the testes, mature spermatozoa, and ejaculatory tract, suggesting that both systemic and local VD metabolism may influence male reproductive function. However, it is still debated which cell...
Martino, Wayne; Frank, Blye
This paper draws on research into male teachers in one single sex high school in the Australian context to highlight how issues of masculinity impact on their pedagogical practices and relationships with boys. The study is situated within the broader international field of research on male teachers, masculinities and schooling in Australia, the UK…
Cohen, Donald D.; Rose, Ryda D.
A survey of sex and birth control behavior of 51 male adolescents aged 15-17 was conducted using structured interviews. Based on research with teenage females, three social influences were examined for their possible impact on male birth control behavior. (Author/BW)
Cohen, Donald D.; Rose, Ryda D.
A survey of sex and birth control behavior of 51 male adolescents aged 15-17 was conducted using structured interviews. Based on research with teenage females, three social influences were examined for their possible impact on male birth control behavior. (Author/BW)
Ferreira Aline Dayrell
Full Text Available This study aims to characterize the profile of male injecting drug users who have sex with other men (MSM IDUs recruited through a cross-sectional multi-city survey (AjUDE-Brasil II Project in six Brazilian cities, in 2000-2001. MSM IDUs were compared to other male IDUs using bivariate and multivariate procedures (logistic regression and answer tree analysis with the CHAID algorithm. Among the 709 male IDUs, 187 (26.4% reported ever having had sex with other men, while only 37 reported sex with other men in the previous six months. MSM IDUs were more likely to be unemployed (OR = 2.3, to have injected tranquilizers (OR = 3.6, and to be HIV-seropositive (OR = 2.1, compared to other male IDUs. Male same-sex relations in this subgroup appear to be associated with strategies to finance drug consuming habits, including sex for drugs with occasional female partners or obtaining injection paraphernalia from occasional sex partners. Further studies should focus on this especially vulnerable subgroup of IDUs, due to the bidirectional and complex interrelationships between their drug injecting habits and sexual risk behaviors.
Caroline M Nieberding
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Female sex pheromones attracting mating partners over long distances are a major determinant of reproductive isolation and speciation in Lepidoptera. Males can also produce sex pheromones but their study, particularly in butterflies, has received little attention. A detailed comparison of sex pheromones in male butterflies with those of female moths would reveal patterns of conservation versus novelty in the associated behaviours, biosynthetic pathways, compounds, scent-releasing structures and receiving systems. Here we assess whether the African butterfly Bicyclus anynana, for which genetic, genomic, phylogenetic, ecological and ethological tools are available, represents a relevant model to contribute to such comparative studies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a multidisciplinary approach, we determined the chemical composition of the male sex pheromone (MSP in the African butterfly B. anynana, and demonstrated its behavioural activity. First, we identified three compounds forming the presumptive MSP, namely (Z-9-tetradecenol (Z9-14:OH, hexadecanal (16:Ald and 6,10,14-trimethylpentadecan-2-ol (6,10,14-trime-15-2-ol, and produced by the male secondary sexual structures, the androconia. Second, we described the male courtship sequence and found that males with artificially reduced amounts of MSP have a reduced mating success in semi-field conditions. Finally, we could restore the mating success of these males by perfuming them with the synthetic MSP. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides one of the first integrative analyses of a MSP in butterflies. The toolkit it has developed will enable the investigation of the type of information about male quality that is conveyed by the MSP in intraspecific communication. Interestingly, the chemical structure of B. anynana MSP is similar to some sex pheromones of female moths making a direct comparison of pheromone biosynthesis between male butterflies and female moths relevant
Tannenbaum, Cara; Greaves, Lorraine; Graham, Ian D
There has been a recent swell in activity by health research funding organizations and science journal editors to increase uptake of sex and gender considerations in study design, conduct and reporting in order to ensure that research results apply to everyone. However, examination of the implementation research literature reveals that attention to sex and gender has not yet infiltrated research methods in this field. The rationale for routinely considering sex and gender in implementation research is multifold. Sex and gender are important in decision-making, communication, stakeholder engagement and preferences for the uptake of interventions. Gender roles, gender identity, gender relations, and institutionalized gender influence the way in which an implementation strategy works, for whom, under what circumstances and why. There is emerging evidence that programme theories may operate differently within and across sexes, genders and other intersectional characteristics under various circumstances. Furthermore, without proper study, implementation strategies may inadvertently exploit or ignore, rather than transform thinking about sex and gender-related factors. Techniques are described for measuring and analyzing sex and gender in implementation research using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The present paper describes the application of methods for integrating sex and gender in implementation research. Consistently asking critical questions about sex and gender will likely lead to the discovery of positive outcomes, as well as unintended consequences. The result has potential to strengthen both the practice and science of implementation, improve health outcomes and reduce gender inequities.
Aguilar, Raúl; Gil, Luis; Gray, Jeffrey A; Driscoll, Peter; Flint, Jonathan; Dawson, Gerard R; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Escorihuela, Rosa M; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto; Tobeña, Adolf
The pattern of sex differences in a large sample (about 400 for each sex) of F2-generation rats, derived from inbred Roman high- and low-avoidance strains differing in fearfulness and brain functioning, was investigated. We obtained measures from responses to a battery of novel/threatening tests [open field (OF), plus maze (PM), hole board (HB), activity (A), and acoustic startle reflex (ASR)] as well as learned fear paradigms [classical fear conditioning (CFC) and shuttlebox avoidance conditioning (SAC)]. The results showed that almost all behaviors assessed fit with a pattern of unidirectional sex effects characterized by male rats as being more fearful than females: males defecated more than females in the OF, PM, HB, ASR, and CFC; ambulated less in the OF, PM, A, and SAC; showed more self-grooming in PM and HB; explored the open arms of the PM and the holes of the HB less; displayed enhanced ASR; and showed poorer performance in the SAC task. We applied two factor analyses to each sex showing that, in general, they shared a common three-factor structure: a Learned Fear Factor comprising SAC and CFC responding, a Fear of Heights/Open Spaces Factor with the highest loadings for open arm behavior in the PM, and an Emotional Reactivity Factor, mainly grouping defecations, ambulation, and self-grooming. These results indicate that the essential components of fearful behavior are similar for both sexes in an inbred but genetically heterogeneous population.
Full Text Available Strongly female-biased sex ratios are typical for the fungal feeding haplodiploid Xyleborini (Scolytinae, Coleoptera, and are a result of inbreeding and local mate competition (LMC. These ambrosia beetles are hardly ever found outside of trees, and thus male frequency and behavior have not been addressed in any empirical studies to date. In fact, for most species the males remain undescribed. Data on sex ratios and male behavior could, however, provide important insights into the Xyleborini’s mating system and the evolution of inbreeding and LMC in general. In this study, I used in vitro rearing methods to obtain the first observational data on sex ratio, male production, male and female dispersal, and mating behavior in a xyleborine ambrosia beetle. Females of Xyleborinus saxesenii Ratzeburg produced between 0 and 3 sons per brood, and the absence of males was relatively independent of the number of daughters to be fertilized and the maternal brood sex ratio. Both conformed to a strict LMC strategy with a relatively precise and constant number of males. If males were present they eclosed just before the first females dispersed, and stayed in the gallery until all female offspring had matured. They constantly wandered through the gallery system, presumably in search of unfertilized females, and attempted to mate with larvae, other males, and females of all ages. Copulations, however, only occurred with immature females. From galleries with males, nearly all females dispersed fertilized. Only a few left the natal gallery without being fertilized, and subsequently went on to produce large and solely male broods. If broods were male-less, dispersing females always failed to found new galleries.
El-Serafi, A T; Osama, S; El-Zalat, H; EL-Deen, I M
Chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection is a serious problem all over the world and has a special importance in Egypt, where the prevalence of infection is 14.7% of population. In males, HCV is associated with sexual dysfunction and changes in the semen parameters. This study aimed at estimation of a panel of the most important related hormones in the serum of patients and illustration of their correlation to the routine laboratory investigations. The four studied hormones showed alteration in the patients in comparison with the controls. While androstenedione, prolactin and testosterone were significantly increased in patients, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate was decreased. These changes in the hormones were not related to the liver functions, pathological grade or even viral load. We hypothesised a model of how HCV can induce these hormonal changes and recommended to add these hormones to the follow-up panel of male patients with HCV.
Alex Gutierrez Moreno
Full Text Available This article presents a review of some of the most important factors in the history of sex education in Colombia. Likewise, the educability of sexuality is discussed from the political agreement of the Colombian Constitution. Moreover, it is argued on the social function of sex education, not only as a cultural continuum, but as democratic values-oriented training
Soler, C; Kekäläinen, J; Núñez, M; Sancho, M; Álvarez, J G; Núñez, J; Yaber, I; Gutiérrez, R
Phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis (PLFH) predicts that male secondary sexual traits reveal honest information about male fertilization ability. However, PLFH has rarely been studied in humans. The aim of the present study was to test PLFH in humans and to investigate whether potential ability to select fertile partners is independent of sex or cultural background. We found that on the contrary to the hypothesis, facial masculinity was negatively associated with semen quality. As increased levels of testosterone have been demonstrated to impair sperm production, this finding may indicate a trade-off between investments in secondary sexual signalling (i.e. facial masculinity) and fertility or status-dependent differences in investments in semen quality. In both sexes and nationalities (Spanish and Colombian), ranked male facial attractiveness predicted male semen quality. However, Spanish males and females estimated facial images generally more attractive (gave higher ranks) than Colombian raters, and in both nationalities, males gave higher ranks than females. This suggests that male facial cues may provide culture- and sex-independent information about male fertility. However, our results also indicate that humans may be more sensitive to facial attractiveness cues within their own populations and also that males may generally overestimate the attractiveness of other men to females. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Archie, Elizabeth A; Tung, Jenny; Clark, Michael; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C
Social integration and support can have profound effects on human survival. The extent of this phenomenon in non-human animals is largely unknown, but such knowledge is important to understanding the evolution of both lifespan and sociality. Here, we report evidence that levels of affiliative social behaviour (i.e. 'social connectedness') with both same-sex and opposite-sex conspecifics predict adult survival in wild female baboons. In the Amboseli ecosystem in Kenya, adult female baboons that were socially connected to either adult males or adult females lived longer than females who were socially isolated from both sexes--females with strong connectedness to individuals of both sexes lived the longest. Female social connectedness to males was predicted by high dominance rank, indicating that males are a limited resource for females, and females compete for access to male social partners. To date, only a handful of animal studies have found that social relationships may affect survival. This study extends those findings by examining relationships to both sexes in by far the largest dataset yet examined for any animal. Our results support the idea that social effects on survival are evolutionarily conserved in social mammals.
Tucker, Catherine; Dixon, Andrea; Griddine, Ke'Shana
Mattering to others has been shown to be a key construct of mental health and wellness. Emerging research links interpersonal mattering and school climate. In this study, the authors use transcendental phenomenology to explore how interpersonal mattering impacts the academic achievement of urban African American males who are academically…
Full Text Available Research problem: Perceptions about sex-re- iated myths and misconceptions.Objectives: To identify the difference in perceptions of mates and females over sex-reiated myths and misconceptions.Study Design - Community based cross sectional study.Setting - Self-administered questionnaire study was undertaken in an urban area of Jhansi.Participants - Married couples with reproductive age wife.Sample size - 417 couples of the area.Study Variables-Sex-related myths and misconceptionsOutcome Variables - Masturbation, Penis-size and sexual performance, STD transmission. Intercourse with virgin and cure of STDs, Initiation of sexual act, Bleeding on first night.Statistical analysis - By chi - square test.Results: Response rate 63.8%. Only 8.6% females and 33.7% males knew correctly about masturbation. Males also knew better about route of STD infection (73.5% and about the fact that intercouse with a virgin cannot cure STDs (47.4%. Females, however, outnumber males on the question of relation between man's penis size and his sexual performance (70%, initiation of sexual act (58.6% and bleeding in females on first night of marriage (70%.Conclusion: Males and females had significantly different perceptions on sex related myths and misconceptions.Recommendations: Sex education campaigns should be designed and implemented to eliminate these age old sex related myths and misconceptions.
Rahmati, Batool; Ghosian Moghaddam, Mohammad Hassan; Khalili, Mohsen; Enayati, Ehsan; Maleki, Maryam; Rezaeei, Saeedeh
Background Opioid consumption has been widely increasing across the globe; how- ever, it can cause adverse effects on the body. Morphine, an opioid, can reduce sex hor- mones and fertility. Withania somnifera (WS) is a traditional herb used to improve sexual activities. This study strives to investigate the effect of WS on sex hormones and gonado- tropins in addicted male rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, forty-eight male National Maritime Research Institute (NMRI) rats were randomly divided into four groups: i. Control group, ii. WS-treated control group, iii. Addicted group, and iv. WS-treated addicted group. Wa- ter-soluble morphine was given to rats for 21 days to induce addiction, concurrently the treated groups (2 and 4) also received WS plant-mixed pelleted food (6.25%). At the end of the treatment, the sex hormone and gonadotropin levels of the rats’ sera were deter- mined in all the groups. Results Except for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), morphine reduced most of the gonadotropin and sex hormone levels. Whereas WS caused a considerable increase in the hormones in the treated addicted group, there was only a slight increase in the treated control group. Conclusion WS increased sex hormones and gonadotropins-especially testosterone, es- trogen, and luteinizing hormone-in the addicted male rats and even increased the proges- terone level, a stimulant of most sex hormones in addicted male rats. PMID:27441058
Full Text Available Visual culture has much to contribute to an understanding of the history of sexuality. Yet, to date, the depiction of pederasty in the art of the Renaissance has not been covered adequately by dominant theoretical paradigms. Moreover, the interpretive approach of traditional art historical discourse has been both limited and limiting in its timidity toward matters concerning the representation of sexual proclivity between males. This article will address the ways in which Italian Renaissance artistic depictions of some mythological narratives were enmeshed with the period’s attitudes toward sexual and social relationships between men.Particular attention is paid here to the manner in which, under the veneer of a mythological narrative, certain works of art embodied a complex set of messages that encoded issues of masculine behaviour and performance in the context of intergenerational same-sex erotic relationships. The primary case studies under investigation for these concerns of gender and sexuality in this particular context are Benvenuto Cellini’s marble Apollo and Hyacinth (1545, and Giulio Romano’s drawing of Apollo and Cyparissus (1524. By incorporating pictorial analysis, social history, and gender and sexuality studies, new possibilities will be offered for evaluating these artworks as visual chronicles of particular sexual and cultural mores of the period. Furthermore, this article will consider how visual representation of these mythic narratives of erotic behaviour between males conformed to the culturally defined sexual and social roles relating to the articulation of power that permeated one of the greatest milestones in art history.
Wang, Lu; Liu, Wenjing; Zhao, Weidong; Song, Gendi; Wang, Guishuan; Wang, Xiaorong; Sun, Fei
In mammalian meiosis, the X and Y chromosomes are largely unsynapsed and transcriptionally silenced during the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase (meiotic sex chromosome inactivation), forming a specialized nuclear territory called sex or XY body. An increasing number of proteins and noncoding RNAs were found to localize to the sex body and take part in influencing expression of sex chromosome genes. Cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2 (-/-)) spermatocytes show incomplete sex chromosome pairing. Here, we further showed that phosphorylation of CDK2 isoform 1 (p-CDK2(39) [39 kDa]) on threonine 160 localizes to the sites of asynapsis and the sex body, interacting with phosphorylated gamma-H2AX. Meanwhile, p-CDK2(39) is frequently mislocalized throughout the sex body, and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation is disrupted in PWK×C57BL/6J hybrid mice. Furthermore, pachytene spermatocytes treated with mevastatin (an inhibitor of p-CDK2) showed overexpression of sex chromosome-linked genes. Our results highlight an important role for p-CDK2(39) in influencing silencing of the sex chromosomes during male meiosis by interacting with gamma-H2AX.
Evans, Tanya M; Flowers, D Lynn; Napoliello, Eileen M; Eden, Guinevere F
Developmental dyslexia, characterized by unexpected reading difficulty, is associated with anomalous brain anatomy and function. Previous structural neuroimaging studies have converged in reports of less gray matter volume (GMV) in dyslexics within left hemisphere regions known to subserve language. Due to the higher prevalence of dyslexia in males, these studies are heavily weighted towards males, raising the question whether studies of dyslexia in females only and using the same techniques, would generate the same findings. In a replication study of men, we obtained the same findings of less GMV in dyslexics in left middle/inferior temporal gyri and right postcentral/supramarginal gyri as reported in the literature. However, comparisons in women with and without dyslexia did not yield left hemisphere differences, and instead, we found less GMV in right precuneus and paracentral lobule/medial frontal gyrus. In boys, we found less GMV in left inferior parietal cortex (supramarginal/angular gyri), again consistent with previous work, while in girls differences were within right central sulcus, spanning adjacent gyri, and left primary visual cortex. Our investigation into anatomical variants in dyslexia replicates existing studies in males, but at the same time shows that dyslexia in females is not characterized by involvement of left hemisphere language regions but rather early sensory and motor cortices (i.e., motor and premotor cortex, primary visual cortex). Our findings suggest that models on the brain basis of dyslexia, primarily developed through the study of males, may not be appropriate for females and suggest a need for more sex-specific investigations into dyslexia.
Evans, Tanya M.; Flowers, D. Lynn; Napoliello, Eileen M.; Eden, Guinevere F.
Developmental dyslexia, characterized by unexpected reading difficulty, is associated with anomalous brain anatomy and function. Previous structural neuroimaging studies have converged in reports of less gray matter volume (GMV) in dyslexics within left hemisphere regions known to subserve language. Due to the higher prevalence of dyslexia in males, these studies are heavily weighted towards males, raising the question whether studies of dyslexia in females only and using the same techniques, would generate the same findings. In a replication study of men we obtained the same findings of less GMV in dyslexics in left middle/inferior temporal gyri and right postcentral/supramarginal gyri as reported in the literature. However, comparisons in women with and without dyslexia did not yield left hemisphere differences and instead we found less GMV in right precuneus and paracentral lobule/medial frontal gyrus. In boys, we found less GMV in left inferior parietal cortex (supramarginal/angular gyri), again consistent with previous work, while in girls differences were within right central sulcus, spanning adjacent gyri, and left primary visual cortex. Our investigation into anatomical variants in dyslexia replicates existing studies in males, but at the same time shows that dyslexia in females is not characterized by involvement of left hemisphere language regions but rather early sensory and motor cortices (i.e. motor and premotor cortex, primary visual cortex). Our findings suggest that models on the brain basis of dyslexia, primarily developed through the study of males, may not be appropriate for females and suggest a need for more sex-specific investigations into dyslexia. PMID:23625146
Tanaka, Satomi S; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi
Sex determination is essential for the sexual reproduction to generate the next generation by the formation of functional male or female gametes. In mammals, primary sex determination is commenced by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome, which controls the fate of the gonadal primordium. The somatic precursor of gonads, the genital ridge is formed at the mid-gestation stage and gives rise to one of two organs, a testis or an ovary. The fate of the genital ridge, which is governed by the differentiation of somatic cells into Sertoli cells in the testes or granulosa cells in the ovaries, further determines the sex of an individual and their germ cells. Mutation studies in human patients with disorders of sex development and mouse models have revealed factors that are involved in mammalian sex determination. In most of mammals, a single genetic trigger, the Y-linked gene Sry (sex determination region on Y chromosome), regulates testicular differentiation. Despite identification of Sry in 1990, precise mechanisms underlying the sex determination of bipotential genital ridges are still largely unknown. Here, we review the recent progress that has provided new insights into the mechanisms underlying genital ridge formation as well as the regulation of Sry expression and its functions in male sex determination of mice.
Siefkes, Michael J.; Bergstedt, Roger A.; Twohey, Michael B.; Li, Weiming
Release of males sterilized by injection with bisazir is an important experimental technique in management of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus), an invasive, nuisance species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Sea lampreys are semelparous and sterilization can theoretically eliminate a male's reproductive capacity and, if the ability to obtain mates is not affected, waste the sex products of females spawning with him. It has been demonstrated that spermiating males release a sex pheromone that attracts ovulating females. We demonstrated that sterilized, spermiating males also released the pheromone and attracted ovulating females. In a two-choice maze, ovulating females increased searching behavior and spent more time in the side of the maze containing chemical stimuli from sterilized, spermiating males. This attraction response was also observed in spawning stream experiments. Also, electro-olfactograms showed that female olfactory organs were equally sensitive to chemical stimuli from sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males. Finally, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry showed that extracts from water conditioned with sterilized and nonsterilized, spermiating males contained the same pheromonal molecule at similar levels. We concluded that injection of bisazir did not affect the efficacy of sex pheromone in sterilized males.
Baxter, Emma M; Jarvis, Susan; Palarea-Albaladejo, Javier; Edwards, Sandra A
For the most part solutions to farm animal welfare issues, such as piglet mortality, are likely to lie within the scientific disciplines of environmental design and genetic selection, however understanding the ecological basis of some of the complex dynamics observed between parent and offspring could make a valuable contribution. One interesting, and often discussed, aspect of mortality is the propensity for it to be sex-biased. This study investigated whether known physiological and behavioural indicators of piglet survival differed between the sexes and whether life history strategies (often reported in wild or feral populations) relating to parental investment were being displayed in a domestic population of pigs. Sex ratio (proportion of males (males/males+females)) at birth was 0.54 and sex allocation (maternal investment measured as piglet birth weight/litter weight) was statistically significantly male-biased at 0.55 (t(35) = 2.51 P = 0.017), suggesting that sows invested more in sons than daughters during gestation. Despite this investment in birth weight, a known survival indicator, total pre-weaning male mortality was statistically significantly higher than female mortality (12% vs. 7% respectively z = 2.06 P = 0.040). Males tended to suffer from crushing by the sow more than females and statistically significantly more males died from disease-related causes. Although males were born on average heavier, with higher body mass index and ponderal index, these differences were not sustained. In addition male piglets showed impaired thermoregulation compared to females. These results suggest male-biased mortality exists despite greater initial maternal investment, and therefore reflects the greater susceptibility of this sex to causal mortality factors. Life history strategies are being displayed by a domestic population of pigs with sows in this study displaying a form of parental optimism by allocating greater resources at birth to males and
Emma M Baxter
Full Text Available For the most part solutions to farm animal welfare issues, such as piglet mortality, are likely to lie within the scientific disciplines of environmental design and genetic selection, however understanding the ecological basis of some of the complex dynamics observed between parent and offspring could make a valuable contribution. One interesting, and often discussed, aspect of mortality is the propensity for it to be sex-biased. This study investigated whether known physiological and behavioural indicators of piglet survival differed between the sexes and whether life history strategies (often reported in wild or feral populations relating to parental investment were being displayed in a domestic population of pigs. Sex ratio (proportion of males (males/males+females at birth was 0.54 and sex allocation (maternal investment measured as piglet birth weight/litter weight was statistically significantly male-biased at 0.55 (t(35 = 2.51 P = 0.017, suggesting that sows invested more in sons than daughters during gestation. Despite this investment in birth weight, a known survival indicator, total pre-weaning male mortality was statistically significantly higher than female mortality (12% vs. 7% respectively z = 2.06 P = 0.040. Males tended to suffer from crushing by the sow more than females and statistically significantly more males died from disease-related causes. Although males were born on average heavier, with higher body mass index and ponderal index, these differences were not sustained. In addition male piglets showed impaired thermoregulation compared to females. These results suggest male-biased mortality exists despite greater initial maternal investment, and therefore reflects the greater susceptibility of this sex to causal mortality factors. Life history strategies are being displayed by a domestic population of pigs with sows in this study displaying a form of parental optimism by allocating greater resources at birth
Full Text Available The androgenic gland (AG, playing an important role in sex differentiation of male crustacean, is a target candidate to understand the mechanism of male development and to mine male-specific sex markers. An SSH library (designated as male reproduction-related tissues—SSH library, MRT-SSH library for short was constructed using cDNA from tissues located at the basal part of the 5th pereiopods, including AG and part of spermatophore sac, as tester, and the cDNA from the basal part of the 4th pereiopods of these male shrimp as driver. 402 ESTs from the SSH library were sequenced and assembled into 48 contigs and 104 singlets. Twelve contigs and 14 singlets were identified as known genes. The proteins encoded by the identified genes were categorized, according to their proposed functions, into neuropeptide hormone and hormone transporter, RNA posttranscriptional regulation, translation, cell growth and death, metabolism, genetic information processing, signal transduction/transport, or immunity-related proteins. Eleven highly expressed contigs in the SSH library were selected for validation of the MRT-SSH library and screening sex markers of shrimp. One contig, specifically expressed in male shrimp, had a potential to be developed as a transcriptomic sex marker in shrimp.
Lambert, Max R.
In amphibians, abnormal metamorph sex ratios and sexual development have almost exclusively been considered in response to synthetic compounds like pesticides or pharmaceuticals. However, endocrine-active plant chemicals (i.e. phytoestrogens) are commonly found in agricultural and urban waterways hosting frog populations with deviant sexual development. Yet the effects of these compounds on amphibian development remain predominantly unexplored. Legumes, like clover, are common in agricultural fields and urban yards and exude phytoestrogen mixtures from their roots. These root exudates serve important ecological functions and may also be a source of phytoestrogens in waterways. I show that clover root exudate produces male-biased sex ratios and accelerates male metamorphosis relative to females in low and intermediate doses of root exudate. My results indicate that root exudates are a potential source of contaminants impacting vertebrate development and that humans may be cultivating sexual abnormalities in wildlife by actively managing certain plant species. PMID:27019728
Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C
Exposure to faces biases perceptions of subsequently viewed faces. Faces similar to those seen previously are judged more normal and attractive than they were prior to exposure. Here we show sex-contingent after-effects following adaptation to eye-spacing (experiment 1), facial identity (experiment 2) and masculinity (experiment 3). Viewing faces of one sex with increased eye-spacing and faces of the other sex with decreased eye-spacing simultaneously induced opposite after-effects for male and female faces (assessed by normality judgments). Viewing faces transformed in identity or masculinity increased preferences for novel faces with characteristics similar to those viewed only when the sex of the faces presented in the adaptation phase and in post-adaptation preference tests were congruent. Because after-effects reflect changes in responses of neural populations that code faces, our findings indicate that distinct neural populations code male and female faces.
For almost 2000 years, human beings have been discussing about gender. New scientific evidences give interesting new points of view, partially subverting the normal dichotomy described by the "two-gender" theory. In this article, we are going to critically review the history of the approach towards people born with a Sexual-Differentiation-Disorder, passing through the analysis of the Italian National Ethics Committee's opinion, describing the modern scientific evidences on the gender-identity development, furthermore ruling out the new approach borned from the femminist philosophies, and the new biogiuridical experiments borned in Australia and Germany. Would it be possible a world where a person could be more then a male or a female?
Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Luvi, Sabrina Damara; Hartono, Sari, Yulia
The molecular epidemiology data of torque teno virus (TTV) in Indonesia is very rare. This study evaluated the prevalence of TTV in male commercial sex workers, as one of the high risk community for blood borne viruses pathogens in Surakarta, Indonesia. All blood samples collected from male commercial sex workers in Surakarta in 2009-2013 were tested by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplified PCR products were molecularly cloned and subjected to sequence analysis. TTV DNA was detected in 80.9% (72/89) samples. Furthermore, the molecular characterization revealed that the most prevalent was genogroup 3, followed by genogroup 2 and l, respectively. TTV was detected in male commercial sex workers in Surakarta with high infection rate. Further investigation about TTV circulation in Indonesian population is needed in order to provide additional information about the genetic variability and TTV epidemiology in Indonesia, especially in the high risk communities.
Gale, Shawn D; Baxter, Leslie; Thompson, Juliann
Previously we demonstrated sex differences in episodic memory in healthy elderly and suggested that normative data be separated by sex. The present study extended the exploration of sex differences on memory measures into two clinical populations, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Seventy-six subjects with MCI and 101 subjects with AD diagnosed by a multidisciplinary team were included. These two groups were also compared to a group of 177 healthy elderly control participants. Sex differences on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT; total and delayed recall) raw scores and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R) were demonstrated within the healthy but not the MCI or AD groups. Calculating z scores by sex for both dementing groups based on the healthy controls suggested a larger performance gap between healthy and dementing women than between healthy and dementing men. MCI females were on average 0.48 standard deviations lower for total verbal learning compared to healthy female controls than were MCI males when compared to healthy male controls. For verbal delayed recall the gap was even larger (SD = 1.09). Similarly, on the BVMT-R, a measure of visual memory, the difference was 0.60 standard deviations for total visual learning and 0.99 standard deviations for delayed recall. This same sex difference, with females showing greater impairment compared to the controls group than did the males, was also present within the AD group. The greater memory impairment in dementing females rather than males when compared to sex-matched healthy controls was unlikely to be due to more severe illness since females performed equivalently to males on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, Mini-Mental Status Examination, and Dementia Rating Scale, and were also similar for age, education, and apolipoprotein status. The present study suggested relatively greater memory impairment in females with MCI or AD than in controls.
Sternberg Paul W
-inhibition of muscle groups helps maintain proper tail posture. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that coordination of opposing sex-specific and core muscle groups, through the activity of multiple neurotransmitters, is required for regulation of male tail posture during mating. We have provided a simple model for regulation of male tail posture that provides a foundation for studies of how genes, molecular pathways, and neural circuits contribute to sensory regulation of this motor behavior.
Xu, Wei; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Lou, Qin-Qin; Chen, Xiao-Ran; Qin, Zhan-Fen; Wie, Wu-Ji
Previous studies have demonstrated that some amphibian species can be sex-reversed by high concentrations of androgens. Little attention has focused on the effects of androgenic endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on amphibians. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of lower concentrations of the androgenic EDC 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on gonadal differentiation and development in Pelophylax nigromaculatus, a true frog distributed widely in East Asia. Tadpoles at Gosner stage 24/25 were exposed to nominal concentrations of 40 ng/L, 400 ng/L, and 4000 ng/L DHT to complete metamorphosis. In all DHT treatment groups, males and ambiguous sexes were identified based on gonadal morphology, whereas no females were found; thus, all treatment groups exhibited male-skewed ratios compared with the control group. Gonadal histological examination revealed that ambiguous sexes displayed overall testicular structure with certain ovarian characteristics, demonstrating that DHT-induced sex-ambiguous gonads were incomplete ovary-to-testis reversals (IOTTRs). The expression levels of some ovary-biased genes in the IOTTRs were significantly higher than in the control testes but lower than in the control ovaries. These results show that low concentrations of DHT induced complete or incomplete female-to-male sex reversal in P. nigromaculatus, and incomplete sex reversal retained certain ovarian characteristics not only at gonadal morphological and histological levels but also at the molecular level. They present study highlights potential risks of DHT and other androgenic EDCs for P. nigromaculatus. © 2015 SETAC.
Full Text Available Human and animal immune functions present sex dimorphism that seems to be mainly regulated by sex hormones. In the present study, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes total superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px were measured in intraperitoneal resident macrophages from adult male and female rats. In addition to comparing males and females, we also examined the regulation of these enzyme activities in macrophages by sex steroids. GSH-Px activity did not differ between male and female macrophages. However, both total SOD and CAT activities were markedly higher in females than in males (83 and 180%. Removal of the gonads in both males and females (comparison between castrated groups increased the difference in SOD activity from 83 to 138% and reduced the difference in CAT activity from 180 to 86%. Castration and testosterone administration did not significantly modify the activities of the antioxidant enzymes in male macrophages. Ovariectomy did not affect SOD or GSH-Px activity but markedly reduced (48% CAT activity. This latter change was fully reversed by estrogen administration, whereas progesterone had a smaller effect. These results led us to conclude that differences in the SOD and CAT activities may partially explain some of the differences in immune function reported for males and females. Also, estrogen is a potent regulator of CAT in macrophages and therefore this enzyme activity in macrophages may vary considerably during the menstrual cycle.
Shukla, Jayendra Nath; Palli, Subba Reddy
Sex in insects is determined by a cascade of regulators ultimately controlling sex-specific splicing of a transcription factor, Doublesex (Dsx). We recently identified homolog of dsx in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Tcdsx). Here, we report on the identification and characterization of a regulator of Tcdsx splicing in T. castaneum. Two male-specific and one female-specific isoforms of T. castaneum transformer (Tctra) were identified. RNA interference-aided knockdown of Tctra in pupa or adults caused a change in sex from females to males by diverting the splicing of Tcdsx pre-mRNA to male-specific isoform. All the pupa and adults developed from Tctra dsRNA injected final instar larvae showed male-specific sexually dimorphic structures. Tctra parental RNAi caused an elimination of females from the progeny resulting in production of all male progeny. Transformer parental RNAi could be used to produce all male population for use in pest control though sterile male release methods. PMID:22924109
Williams, S P; Gardos, P S; Ortiz-Torres, B; Tross, S; Ehrhardt, A A
Heterosexual transmission of HIV is growing at an increasing rate. One primary prevention strategy is to consistently use condoms. With the exception of female condoms, women do not "wear" condoms and therefore must negotiate condom use with their male partners. This present study examines the strategies women believe they would use in a safer sex negotiation with a male partner including (1) initiating negotiations, (2) resolving conflict, and (3) maintaining the intention to practice safer sex. The findings highlight the importance of understanding women's patterns of negotiation as well as their repertoire of negotiation skills prior to their exposure to behavioral interventions and prevention programs.
ARNOLD DE LOOF
The paradigm, still around in textbooks, that 'in insects sex is strictly genetic,thus that they do not have sex hormones', is mainly based on a wrong interpretation of the 'gynandromorph argument'. It is no longer tenable. Given the fact that vertebrates and invertebrates probably had a common, sexually reproducing ancestor, there is no reason to assume that only vertebrates need sex hormones. The major function of sex hormones is to inform the somatoplasm about developmental changes that take place in the gonads. In contrast to juvenile hormone and neuropeptides, ecdysteroids meet all criteria to act as sex hormones, which was probably their ancient role. Their much better documented role in moulting and metamorphosis was a secondary acquisition that enabled arthropods to cope with growth problems, imposed by a rigid cuticle. Female insects use 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), secreted by the follicle cells of the ovary, in a similar way as females of egg-laying vertebrates use estrogens. For a variety of reasons, the possibility that ecdysteroids, in particular ecdysone (E), might also act as sex hormones in male insects, thus as the counterpart of testosterone of vertebrates, has been very much overlooked. Thanks to the recent discovery of the molecular basis of the haploid-diploid system of sex determination in the honeybee, the characterization of Halloween genes, proteomics, RNAi and so on, it now becomes possible to verify whether in insects, as with vertebrates, males are the endocrinologically default gender form.
Nelson, C; Keith, J
This study contrasted female and male early adolescent sex role attitude and behavior development in an ecological context as defined by Bronfenbrenner. Data were the results of a state-wide survey of early adolescents and their parents. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to test both sex role attitude development and behavior development models. Only the models for attitude development were significant. The level of traditionalism of female sex role attitude development was significantly influenced by maternal employment, the level of traditionalism of the father's sex role attitudes in interaction with the amount of time he spent with his daughter, and chronological age. In contrast, the level of traditionalism of male sex role attitude development was significantly influenced by the level of traditionalism of the mother's sex role attitudes in interaction with the level of closeness to the mother that was reported by the son, and both mother's and father's perception of pubertal age. The implications of the findings for human development theory, early adolescence as a stage of development, and sex role theory and research are discussed.
Lorway, Robert; Reza-Paul, Sushena; Pasha, Akram
Growing public health attention has been placed on the HIV vulnerability of males who sell sex to males in India. However, there is little research that outlines the trajectories through which males come to be involved in practicing sex work in India. Locating "male sex work" within a vibrant social, political, and erotic landscape, this article explores the intertwining of "sexual subjectivity" and "sex work." The authors refer to 70 sexual life histories generated from research conducted in Mysore to unsettle dominant public health notions that regard male sex work as rooted solely in poverty or as a decontexualized "behavioral risk factor." Such perspectives are countered by demonstrating how male sex work in Mysore encompasses a complex interplay between self-realization, sexual desire, social interaction, and public health discourse. Local conceptualizations of selfhood are discussed to suggest the limitations of prevailing empowerment discourses that advance Western notions of individuality.
Izrayelit, Yevgeniy; Srinivasan, Jagan; Campbell, Sydney L.; Jo, Yeara; von Reuss, Stephan H.; Genoff, Margaux-C; Paul W. Sternberg; Schroeder, Frank C.
In the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, a class of small molecule signals called ascarosides regulate development, mating, and social behaviors. Ascaroside production has been studied in the predominant sex, the hermaphrodite, but not in males, which account for less than 1% of wild-type worms grown under typical laboratory conditions. Using HPLC–MS-based targeted metabolomics, we show that males also produce ascarosides and that their ascaroside profile differs markedly from that of he...
Izrayelit, Yevgeniy; Srinivasan, Jagan; Campbell, Sydney L.; Jo, Yeara; von Reuss, Stephan H.; Genoff, Margaux C.; Paul W. Sternberg; Schroeder, Frank C.
In the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, a class of small molecule signals called ascarosides regulate development, mating and social behaviors. Ascaroside production has been studied in the predominant sex, the hermaphrodite, but not in males, which account for less than 1% of wild-type worms grown under typical laboratory conditions. Using HPLC-MS-based targeted metabolomics, we show that males also produce ascarosides and that their ascaroside profile differs markedly from that of her...
Scholten, MRM; Aleman, A; Montagne, B; Kahn, RS
The aim of this study was to examine sex differences in emotion processing in patients with schizophrenia and control subjects. To this end, 53 patients with schizophrenia (28 men and 25 women), and 42 controls (21 men and 21 women) were assessed with the use of a facial affect recognition morphing
Zhu, Chuankun; Pan, Zhengjun; Wang, Hui; Chang, Guoliang; Ding, Huaiyu
The Ussuri catfish Pseudobagrus ussuriensis is a promising aquaculture fish with sexual dimorphism that males grow 2-3 times faster than females. Therefore, all-male breeding could increase production of this fish, and sex-linked markers would be useful during the breeding process. In this study, a male-associated marker named PuGT54 was isolated in P. ussuriensis from a previously constructed microsatellite library. A total of 185 P. ussuriensis individuals containing 95 females and 90 males were used to test the usage of this maker. And results showed that sexes of all individuals were successfully identified, indicating the high reliability and accuracy of this marker for sex identification. Furthermore, the male-specific fragment amplified by this maker was cloned and sequenced, which was 118 base pairs in length. As homologous genes of this fragment was not found through BLASTn, detailed information of the male-specific fragment is unknown presently. Nevertheless, this marker would be helpful in conservation, breeding and ecological study of P. ussuriensis.
Chong, Tracy; Collins, James J; Brubacher, John L; Zarkower, David; Newmark, Phillip A
Evolutionary transitions between hermaphroditic and dioecious reproductive states are found in many groups of animals. To understand such transitions, it is important to characterize diverse modes of sex determination utilized by metazoans. Currently, little is known about how simultaneous hermaphrodites specify and maintain male and female organs in a single individual. Here we show that a sex-specific gene, Smed-dmd-1 encoding a predicted doublesex/male-abnormal-3 (DM) domain transcription factor, is required for specification of male germ cells in a simultaneous hermaphrodite, the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. dmd-1 has a male-specific role in the maintenance and regeneration of the testes and male accessory reproductive organs. In addition, a homologue of dmd-1 exhibits male-specific expression in Schistosoma mansoni, a derived, dioecious flatworm. These results demonstrate conservation of the role of DM domain genes in sexual development in lophotrochozoans and suggest one means by which modulation of sex-specific pathways can drive the transition from hermaphroditism to dioecy.
Baral, Stefan David; Friedman, M. Reuel; Geibel, Scott; Rebe, Kevin; Bozhinov, Borche; Diouf, Daouda; Sabin, Keith; Holland, Claire E.; Chan, Roy; Caceres, Carlos
Summary Male sex workers (MSW) who sell/exchange sex for money or goods comprise an extremely diverse population across and within countries worldwide. Information characterizing their practices, contexts where they live, and their needs is very limited, as these men are generally included as subsets of larger studies focused on gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) or even female sex workers. MSW, regardless of their sexual orientation, mostly offer sex to men, and rarely identify as sex workers, using local or international terms instead. There is growing evidence of a sustained or increasing burden of HIV among some MSW in the context of the slowing global HIV pandemic. There are several synergistic facilitator spotentiating HIV acquisition and transmission among MSW, including biological, behavioural, and structural determinants. The criminalization and intersectional stigmas of same-sex practices, commercial sex, and HIV all increase HIV and STI risk for MSW and decrease their likelihood of accessing essential services. These contexts, taken together with complex sexual networks among MSW, define them as a key population underserved by current HIV prevention, treatment, and care services. Dedicated efforts are needed to make those services available for the sake of both public health and human rights. PMID:25059939
Szász, Eszter; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Hegyi, Gergely; Szöllősi, Eszter; Markó, Gábor; Török, János; Rosivall, Balázs
Brood sex ratio is often affected by parental or environmental quality, presumably in an adaptive manner that is the sex that confers higher fitness benefits to the mother is overproduced. So far, studies on the role of parental quality have focused on parental morphology and attractiveness. However, another aspect, the partner's behavioral characteristics, may also be expected to play a role in brood sex ratio adjustment. To test this hypothesis, we investigated whether the proportion of sons in the brood is predicted by the level of territorial aggression displayed by the father, in the collared flycatcher ( Ficedula albicollis). The proportion of sons in the brood was higher in early broods and increased with paternal tarsus length. When controlling for breeding date and body size, we found a higher proportion of sons in the brood of less aggressive fathers. Male nestlings are more sensitive to the rearing environment, and the behavior of courting males may often be used by females to assess their future parental activity. Therefore, adjusting brood sex ratio to the level of male aggression could be adaptive. Our results indicate that the behavior of the partner could indeed be a significant determinant in brood sex ratio adjustment, which should not be overlooked in future studies.
Campbell, Chadwick K; Gomez, Anu Manchikanti; Hoff, Colleen; Grisham, Kirk K; Wilson, Patrick A; Dworkin, Shari L
Research has suggested that men who have sex with men and who have older sexual partners are at increased risk of HIV infection. However, while several studies have explored risk among men in age-discrepant non-primary partnerships, only two have explored age discrepancy and risk in primary same-sex male relationships. We used data from semi-structured in-depth interviews to explore sexual behaviour and HIV risk among 14 Black, white and interracial (Black/white) same-sex male couples with an age difference of 10 or more years. Most couples regularly used condoms, and sexual positioning tended to lead to lower risk for younger partners. Some serodiscordant couples abstained from anal sex, while others used seropositioning to avoid transmission within the relationship. Within some couples, older partners acted as mentors on HIV prevention and broader life lessons. Future studies should further explore the potential risks and benefits of large age differences in same-sex male primary relationships.
Grover, Stephanie A; Shmorgun, Ziva; Moskovtsev, Sergey I; Baratz, Ari; Librach, Clifford L
To date, there is limited published data on same-sex male couples and single men using assisted reproduction treatment to build their families. The objective of this retrospective study was to better understand treatment considerations and outcomes for this population when using assisted reproduction treatment. A total of 37 same-sex male couples and eight single men (seven homosexual and one heterosexual) who attended the CReATe Fertility Centre for assisted reproduction services were studied. There was a 21-fold increase in the number of same-sex male couples and single men undergoing assisted reproduction treatment since 2003. The mean age was 46years (24-58). Twenty-eight couples (76%) chose to use spermatozoa from both partners to fertilize their donated oocytes. Most men (32 same-sex male couples and seven single men; 87%) obtained oocytes from an anonymous donor, whereas five couples and one single man (13%) had a known donor. Anonymous donors who were open to be contacted by the child after the age of 18 were selected by 67% of patients. Of all 25 deliveries, eight (32%) were sets of twins. All of the twins were half genetic siblings.
Riser, Diana K.; Pegram, Sheri E.; Farley, Julee P.
The current review explores the complex paths that can lead to adolescent and young adult males becoming sexually abusive. Because sexual abuse is an ongoing issue in our society that is often oversimplified, this article distinguishes between the various risk factors that predict sexually abusive behavior and types of sex offenders, particularly…
Marco Caricato; Fabio Ausania; Giovanni Francesco Marangi; Ilaria Cipollone; Gerardo Flammia; Paolo Persichetti; Lucio Trodella; Roberto Coppola
We present a case of a transsexual patient who underwent a partial pelvectomy and genital reconstruction for anal cancer after chemoradiation. This is the first case in literature reporting on the occurrence of anal cancer after male-to-female sex reassignment surgery. We describe the surgical approach presenting our technique to avoid postoperative complications and preserve the sexual reassignment.
Birgisson, Gunnar Hrafn
Assessed predicted psychological differences between denying (n=30) and admitting (n=72) male sex offenders within the framework of Eysenck's theory on the personality of criminals. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) and Gudjonsson's Compliance Questionnaire (CQ) were administered to consenting participants who were probationers in…
Zhao, Liang; Svingen, Terje; Ting Ng, Ee
Genes related to Dmrt1, which encodes a DNA-binding DM domain transcription factor, act as triggers for primary sex determination in a broad range of metazoan species. However, this role is fulfilled in mammals by Sry, a newly evolved gene on the Y chromosome, such that Dmrt1 has become dispensable...... for primary sex determination and instead maintains Sertoli cell phenotype in postnatal testes. Here, we report that enforced expression of Dmrt1 in XX mouse fetal gonads using a Wt1-BAC transgene system is sufficient to drive testicular differentiation and male secondary sex development. XX transgenic fetal...... into testicular cell types, including steroidogenic fetal Leydig cells and non-meiotic germ cells. As a consequence, male internal and external reproductive organs developed postnatally, with an absence of female reproductive tissues. These results reveal that Dmrt1 has retained its ability to act as the primary...
Full Text Available Several dispositional traits have been examined in mating contexts by evolutionary psychologists. Such traits include life history strategy, sociosexuality, and the Big Five. Recently, scholars have examined the validity and predictive utility of mating intelligence, a new construct designed to capture the cognitive processes that underlie mating psychology. The current research employed a battery of dispositional traits that include all these constructs in an effort to predict preferences for different kinds of sex acts. Sexual acts vary wildly, and the ability to predict this variability may well hold an important key to underlying sexual strategies. A sample of 607 young adults (144 males and 463 females completed measures of each of these traits as well as a measure of preference for specific sex acts (along with providing information on their sexual orientation. The traits predicted variability in preference for sex acts – with mating intelligence being the most predictive (for instance, mating intelligence was positively related to preference for vaginal intercourse across the sexes. Sex differences emerged (e.g., males show a stronger preference for anal sex than do females. Discussion focuses on (a sex differences in preference for sex acts along with (b why the trait variables predicted preferences in sex acts.
Full Text Available In humans and most mammals, differentiation of the embryonic gonad into ovaries or testes is controlled by the Y-linked gene SRY. Here we show a role for the Gadd45g protein in this primary sex differentiation. We characterized mice deficient in Gadd45a, Gadd45b and Gadd45g, as well as double-knockout mice for Gadd45ab, Gadd45ag and Gadd45bg, and found a specific role for Gadd45g in male fertility and testis development. Gadd45g-deficient XY mice on a mixed 129/C57BL/6 background showed varying degrees of disorders of sexual development (DSD, ranging from male infertility to an intersex phenotype or complete gonadal dysgenesis (CGD. On a pure C57BL/6 (B6 background, all Gadd45g(-/- XY mice were born as completely sex-reversed XY-females, whereas lack of Gadd45a and/or Gadd45b did not affect primary sex determination or testis development. Gadd45g expression was similar in female and male embryonic gonads, and peaked around the time of sex differentiation at 11.5 days post-coitum (dpc. The molecular cause of the sex reversal was the failure of Gadd45g(-/- XY gonads to achieve the SRY expression threshold necessary for testes differentiation, resulting in ovary and Müllerian duct development. These results identify Gadd45g as a candidate gene for male infertility and 46,XY sex reversal in humans.
Pritchard Antonia L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhinoviruses (RV are key triggers in acute asthma exacerbations. Previous studies suggest that men suffer from infectious diseases more frequently and with greater severity than women. Additionally, the immune response to most infections and vaccinations decreases with age. Most immune function studies do not account for such differences, therefore the aim of this study was to determine if the immune response to rhinovirus varies with sex or age. Methods Blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 63 healthy individuals and grouped by sex and age (≤50 years old and ≥52 years old. Cells were cultured with rhinovirus 16 at a multiplicity of infection of 1. The chemokine IP-10 was measured at 24 h as an index of innate immunity while IFNγ and IL-13 were measured at 5 days as an index of adaptive immunity. Results Rhinovirus induced IFNγ and IL-13 was significantly higher in ≤50 year old women than in age matched men (p 0.005. There was no sex or age based difference in rhinovirus induced IP-10 expression. Both IFNγ and IL-13 were negatively correlated with age in women but not in men. Conclusions This study suggests that pre-menopausal women have a stronger adaptive immune response to rhinovirus infection than men and older people, though the mechanisms responsible for these differences remain to be determined. Our findings highlight the importance of gender and age balance in clinical studies and in the development of new treatments and vaccines.
Zhao, Liang; Svingen, Terje; Ting Ng, Ee;
Genes related to Dmrt1, which encodes a DNA-binding DM domain transcription factor, act as triggers for primary sex determination in a broad range of metazoan species. However, this role is fulfilled in mammals by Sry, a newly evolved gene on the Y chromosome, such that Dmrt1 has become dispensable...... for primary sex determination and instead maintains Sertoli cell phenotype in postnatal testes. Here, we report that enforced expression of Dmrt1 in XX mouse fetal gonads using a Wt1-BAC transgene system is sufficient to drive testicular differentiation and male secondary sex development. XX transgenic fetal...... testis-determining trigger in mammals, even though this function is no longer normally required. Thus, Dmrt1 provides a common thread in the evolution of sex determination mechanisms in metazoans....
Cohen, D D; Rose, R D
A survey of sex and birth control behavior of 51 male adolescents aged 15-17 was conducted utilizing a structured interview protocol. The sample was drawn from 3 community agencies. The respondents resided in a major northeastern metropolitan part of Pennsylvania. The purpose of the study was to describe male adolescent birth control behavior incorporating developmental issues, and to interpret the findings in light of what is known about female birth control behavior. Based on research with teenage females, 3 social influences were examined for their possible impact on male birth control behavior. An interview schedule was undertaken to form the basis of the demographic items, the description of the social network, history of sex and birth control behavior, pregnancy history and communication about sex and birth control. A questionnaire, designed to measure the influence of significant others on females' birth control behavior, formed the basis of the items concerning the expectations of others about contraceptive behavior. Thirdly, questions on perceived power relations with girlfriends were used to determin the influence of teenage females' self-perceptions of power in dyadic relationships on their own contraceptive usage. A new operational definition of male effective birth control usage involving the effectiveness of the method and the consistency of its usage was developed. Findings similar to those obtained in the research on females suggest that adolescent sexual partners may be the only direct social influence on adolescents' birth control usage. Results indicating differences from research with females suggest that in general: male birth control behavior is primarily self-oriented, males are more likely to be effective contraceptors with casual partners than with girlfriends, males are more likely to communicate about sex and birth control with similar age peers than with family members and/or other adults, and that teen males view sex and birth control
Hall, Andrew Brantley; Basu, Sanjay; Jiang, Xiaofang; Qi, Yumin; Timoshevskiy, Vladimir A; Biedler, James K; Sharakhova, Maria V; Elahi, Rubayet; Anderson, Michelle A E; Chen, Xiao-Guang; Sharakhov, Igor V; Adelman, Zach N; Tu, Zhijian
Sex determination in the mosquito Aedes aegypti is governed by a dominant male-determining factor (M factor) located within a Y chromosome-like region called the M locus. Here, we show that an M-locus gene, Nix, functions as an M factor in A. aegypti. Nix exhibits persistent M linkage and early embryonic expression, two characteristics required of an M factor. Nix knockout with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 resulted in largely feminized genetic males and the production of female isoforms of two key regulators of sexual differentiation: doublesex and fruitless. Ectopic expression of Nix resulted in genetic females with nearly complete male genitalia. Thus, Nix is both required and sufficient to initiate male development. This study provides a foundation for mosquito control strategies that convert female mosquitoes into harmless males.
Yang, Xueyan; Attané, Isabelle; Li, Shuzhuo; Yang, Bo
The male marriage squeeze in China may increase the prevalence of male same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried male migrants who lack stable female sexual partners. The same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried male migrants appear to be at high risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), mainly because of a lack of knowledge of these diseases. Using data from the "Survey on Reproductive Health and Family Life of Migrant Male Bachelors in Urban Areas" conducted in Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, in December 2009 and January 2010, this study compares same-sex sexual behaviors of unmarried with that of married male migrants (including married but separated men who are migrating without their spouse or partner and cohabitating men who are migrating with their spouse or partner). It is reported that the prevalence of same-sex sexual behaviors among unmarried males reaches 11%, more than twice the 5.1% reported by married but separated men and thrice the 3.8% reported by cohabitating men. It also appears that the same-sex sexual behaviors is significantly associated with men's attitudes toward same-sex sexual behaviors (odds ratio = 1.59, p same-sex sexual behaviors (estimated coefficients = .83, p < .01) and marital status (estimated coefficients for married but separated = -.50, p < .05; estimated coefficients for cohabitating = -.77, p < .001).
Plath, Martin; Bierbach, David
Mate choice can be sensitive to social cues from neighboring individuals, e.g., animals can copy mate choice decisions. Males that are at risk of being copied by others may respond to this with reduced preference expression ("audience effects"). We review the various pathways by which sperm competition risk affects (1) male mate copying behavior and (2) audience effects. For example, a recent study suggests that males gather complex social information on rivals' sexual competitiveness (sexual activity and attractiveness to females) and respond with reduced expression of mating preferences only "when it matters," i.e., when a sexually competitive rival is present.
Merone, Jean; Nwogu, Onyekahi; Redington, Jennifer M; Uversky, Vladimir N
Sex differentiation is a complex process where sexually indifferent embryo progressively acquires male or female characteristics via tightly controlled, perfectly timed, and sophisticatedly intertwined chain of events. This process is controlled and regulated by a set of specific proteins, with one of the first steps in sex differentiation being the activation of the Y-chromosomal Sry gene (sex-determining region Y) in males that acts as a switch from undifferentiated gonad somatic cells to testis development. There are several key players in this process, which constitute the Sry transcriptional network, and collective action of which governs testis determination. Although it is accepted now that many proteins engaged in signal transduction as well as regulation and control of various biological processes are intrinsically disordered (i.e., do not have unique structure and remain unstructured, or incompletely structured, under physiological conditions), the roles and profusion of intrinsic disorder in proteins involved in the male sex determination have not been accessed as of yet. The goal of this study is to cover this gap by analyzing some key players of the Sry transcriptional network. To this end, we employed a broad set of computational tools for intrinsic disorder analysis and conducted intensive literature search in order to gain information on the structural peculiarities of the Sry network-related proteins, their intrinsic disorder predispositions, and the roles of intrinsic disorder in their functions.
KRAAK, SBM; DELOOZE, EMA
Why are there two chromosomal sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates; ZW/ZZ, meaning female heterogamety, and XX/XY, meaning male heterogamety? We propose an evolutionary explanation. Transition from environmental sex determination to genetic sex determination can result when an allele that
Reports a study of alternative theories of sex discrimination which imply ambiguous predictions about the relation between the male/female earnings ratio and the status and sex composition of the occupation. Notes that about one-half of the earnings gap between the sexes can be attributed to direct discrimination in the labor market, with…
KRAAK, SBM; DELOOZE, EMA
Why are there two chromosomal sex-determining mechanisms in vertebrates; ZW/ZZ, meaning female heterogamety, and XX/XY, meaning male heterogamety? We propose an evolutionary explanation. Transition from environmental sex determination to genetic sex determination can result when an allele that accel
South, Sandra H; Steiner, Dianna; Arnqvist, Göran
Male mate choice in species with conventional sex roles is difficult to explain and has, therefore, been the focus of many recent theoretical models. These models have focused on variance in female quality and, to a lesser extent, male investments/costs associated with mating. In this study, we investigate the costs of courtship and copulation in the polygynous mosquito Sabethes cyaneus. In this species, both males and females possess elaborate ornaments. Previous studies suggest that the most likely explanation for the presence of these ornaments is mutual mate choice. Thus, this system provides an excellent model for exploring the evolution of mutual mate choice in polygynous species. We disentangle the costs of courtship and copulation by monitoring male survival in three groups of males: housed alone (group 1); able only to court females (group 2); or able to court and copulate with females (group 3). We show that males incur a cost of courtship and copulation and that courtship intensity is negatively related to male longevity. Our results suggest that courtship and copulation carry additive costs to males. We discuss the implications of these results in the context of current mutual mate choice theory and suggest that courtship costs may be an unappreciated key factor in the evolution of male mate choice.
Izrayelit, Yevgeniy; Srinivasan, Jagan; Campbell, Sydney L.; Jo, Yeara; von Reuss, Stephan H.; Genoff, Margaux C.; Sternberg, Paul W.; Schroeder, Frank C.
In the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, a class of small molecule signals called ascarosides regulate development, mating and social behaviors. Ascaroside production has been studied in the predominant sex, the hermaphrodite, but not in males, which account for less than 1% of wild-type worms grown under typical laboratory conditions. Using HPLC-MS-based targeted metabolomics, we show that males also produce ascarosides and that their ascaroside profile differs markedly from that of hermaphrodites. Whereas hermaphrodite ascaroside profiles are dominated by ascr#3, containing an α,β-unsaturated fatty acid, males predominantly produce the corresponding dihydro-derivative ascr#10. This small structural modification profoundly affects signaling properties: hermaphrodites are retained by attomole-amounts of male-produced ascr#10, whereas hermaphrodite-produced ascr#3 repels hermaphrodites and attracts males. Male production of ascr#10 is population density-dependent, indicating sensory regulation of ascaroside biosynthesis. Analysis of gene expression data supports a model in which sex-specific regulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation produces functionally different ascaroside profiles. PMID:22662967
Izrayelit, Yevgeniy; Srinivasan, Jagan; Campbell, Sydney L; Jo, Yeara; von Reuss, Stephan H; Genoff, Margaux C; Sternberg, Paul W; Schroeder, Frank C
In the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, a class of small molecule signals called ascarosides regulate development, mating, and social behaviors. Ascaroside production has been studied in the predominant sex, the hermaphrodite, but not in males, which account for less than 1% of wild-type worms grown under typical laboratory conditions. Using HPLC-MS-based targeted metabolomics, we show that males also produce ascarosides and that their ascaroside profile differs markedly from that of hermaphrodites. Whereas hermaphrodite ascaroside profiles are dominated by ascr#3, containing an α,β-unsaturated fatty acid, males predominantly produce the corresponding dihydro-derivative ascr#10. This small structural modification profoundly affects signaling properties: hermaphrodites are retained by attomole-amounts of male-produced ascr#10, whereas hermaphrodite-produced ascr#3 repels hermaphrodites and attracts males. Male production of ascr#10 is population density-dependent, indicating sensory regulation of ascaroside biosynthesis. Analysis of gene expression data supports a model in which sex-specific regulation of peroxisomal β-oxidation produces functionally different ascaroside profiles.
Shikkiah de Quadros-Wander
Full Text Available Gender differences in perceptions of sexual intent and commitment have been the subject of formal and informal inquiry for considerable time. One evolutionary theory, Error Management Theory (EMT, predicts that opposite-sex perceptions of female sexual intent and male commitment intent reflect intrinsic biases that minimize gender-specific evolutionary costs. The results supporting these hypotheses were obtained from subjects regardless of mood. We hypothesized that mood would influence ratings of sexual and commitment intent. Sixty participants (30 males, 30 females were recruited and exposed to a positive and negative mood condition in counterbalanced groups using video stimuli. Preliminary analyses found an unexpected effect of order of mood induction, necessitating separate analyses of the Positive-Negative (PN and Negative-Positive (NP groups. Contrary to the original study, there were no gender effects. Positive moods led to increased ratings of both sexual and commitment intent across genders. Further, negative to positive mood-change was associated with significantly increased ratings. Both males and females attributed significantly higher sexual intent to same-sex rivals than themselves, but only males assessed themselves as having significantly higher commitment intent than same-sex rivals. The EMT model may require adaptation to acknowledge effects of variables such as mood on its predictions of gender-specific biases.
Sergey Matveevsky; Irina Bakloushinskaya; Oxana Kolomiets
Most mammalian species have heteromorphic sex chromosomes in males, except for a few enigmatic groups such as the mole voles Ellobius, which do not have the Y chromosome and Sry gene. The Ellobius (XX ♀♂ ) system of sex chromosomes has no analogues among other animals. The structure and meiotic behaviour of the two X chromosomes were investigated for males of the sibling species Ellobius talpinus and Ellobius tancrei. Their sex chromosomes, despite their identical G-structure, demonstrate sho...
Badas, E. P.; Martinez, J.; Rivero-de Aguilar, J.; Stevens, M.; van der Velde, M.; Komdeur, J.; Merino, S.
Many passerines lay protoporphyrin-pigmented eggs, and the degree of spotting seems to be related to female condition and environmental characteristics. However, most studies have ignored the relationship between the male's quality and eggshell pigmentation. Because ornaments can act as honest
Noe, Katherine H; Grade, Madeline; Stonnington, Cynthia M; Driver-Dunckley, Erika; Locke, Dona E C
The influence of gender on psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) diagnosis was examined retrospectively in 439 subjects undergoing video-EEG (vEEG) for spell classification, of whom 142 women and 42 men had confirmed PNES. The epileptologist's predicted diagnosis was correct in 72% overall. Confirmed epilepsy was correctly predicted in 94% men and 88% women. In contrast, confirmed PNES was accurately predicted in 86% women versus 61% men (p=0.003). Sex-based differences in likelihood of an indeterminate admission were not observed for predicted epilepsy or physiologic events, but were for predicted PNES (39% men, 12% women, p=0.0002). More frequent failure to record spells in men than women with predicted PNES was not explained by spell frequency, duration of monitoring, age, medication use, or personality profile. PNES are not only less common in men, but also more challenging to recognize in the clinic, and even when suspected more difficult to confirm with vEEG.
Reynard, Louise N; Turner, James M A
During male meiosis, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced, a process termed meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Recent studies have shown that the sex chromosomes remain substantially transcriptionally repressed after meiosis in round spermatids, but the mechanisms involved in this later repression are poorly understood. Mice with deletions of the Y chromosome long arm (MSYq-) have increased spermatid expression of multicopy X and Y genes, and so represent a model for studying post-meiotic sex chromosome repression. Here, we show that the increase in sex chromosome transcription in spermatids from MSYq- mice affects not only multicopy but also single-copy XY genes, as well as an X-linked reporter gene. This increase in transcription is accompanied by specific changes in the sex chromosome histone code, including almost complete loss of H4K8Ac and reduction of H3K9me3 and CBX1. Together, these data show that an MSYq gene regulates sex chromosome gene expression as well as chromatin remodelling in spermatids.
Bishop, Simon; Limmer, Mark
Each year large numbers of Western men travel to Thailand for sex tourism. Although many will use condoms during their sexual encounters, others will not, potentially exposing themselves to the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. Although sex tourism in Thailand has been well documented, the social drivers underpinning voluntary sexual risk-taking through the avoidance of condoms remain poorly understood. Engaging with R.W. Connell's concept of hegemonic masculinity and drawing on data collected from 1237 online discussion board posts and 14 face-to-face interviews, this study considers the ways in which understandings and performances of masculinities may inform the sexual risk-taking behaviours of Western male sex tourists. It argues that for some of these men, unprotected sex is viewed not as a reckless behaviour but, instead, as a safe and appropriate masculine practice, supported by relationships that are often framed as romantic and within a setting where HIV is still largely considered a homosexual disease. With sex workers often disempowered to request safer sexual practices, and some men's attitudes towards unprotected sex resistant to external health promotion advice, the paper concludes by considering what this might mean for policy and practice.
Graeme Clive Hays
Full Text Available The implications of climate change for global biodiversity may be profound with those species with little capacity for adaptation being thought to be particularly vulnerable to warming. A classic case of groups for concern are those animals exhibiting temperature-dependent sex-determination (TSD, such as sea turtles, where climate warming may produce single sex populations and hence extinction. We show that, globally, female biased hatchling sex ratios dominate sea turtle populations (exceeding 3:1 in >50% records, which, at-a-glance, reiterates concerns for extinction. However, we also demonstrate that more frequent breeding by males, empirically shown by satellite tracking 23 individuals and supported by a generalized bio-energetic life history model, generates more balanced operational sex ratios (OSRs. Hence, concerns of increasingly skewed hatchling sex ratios and reduced population viability are less acute than previously thought for sea turtles. In fact, in some scenarios skewed hatchling sex ratios in groups with TSD may be adaptive to ensure optimum OSRs.
Aspbury, Andrea S; Grayson, Kristine L; Fantaye, Selamawit; Nichols, Ian; Myers-Burton, Miranda; Ortiz-Mangual, Xavier; Gabor, Caitlin R
In populations with a male-biased operational sex ratio, coercive mating by males can have fitness consequences for females. One component of reduced fitness for females in populations with a male-biased OSR may be greater activation of the stress response, resulting in higher corticosterone release rates (CORT; a glucocorticoid stress hormone in amphibians). We test the hypothesis that a male-biased sex ratio affects female activity and release rates of CORT and testosterone (T) in male and female red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens). First, we evaluated if chemical cues from a male-biased sex ratio affect activity and CORT release rates in females. We predicted that females exposed to chemical cues of three males would be less active and have higher CORT release rates than those exposed to chemical cues of one male. Second, we measured CORT release rates of red-spotted newts in field enclosures with either a male-biased or a female-biased sex ratio. We predicted that females in the male-biased treatment would have higher CORT and T release rates than those in a female-biased treatment, owing to higher levels of male harassment. We also predicted that males would have higher CORT and T release rates in male-biased treatments due to higher levels of male-male competition. Females were not less active in response to chemical cues from more males over fewer males, but there was a positive relationship between female activity and CORT when they were exposed to the cues of three males. We also found that females, but not males, in the male-biased sex ratio treatment had higher CORT and T release rates than those in the female-biased treatment. Our results support the hypothesis that a male-biased sex ratio leads to a higher stress response, which may underlie the observed decrease in immune function and body condition in previous work exposing female red-spotted newts to a male-biased sex ratio. This study furthers our understanding of the mechanistic basis
Full Text Available A major focus in speciation genetics is to identify the chromosomal regions and genes that reduce hybridization and gene flow. We investigated the genetic architecture of mating behavior in the parasitoid wasp species pair Nasonia giraulti and Nasonia oneida that exhibit strong prezygotic isolation. Behavioral analysis showed that N. oneida females had consistently higher latency times, and broke off the mating sequence more often in the mounting stage when confronted with N. giraulti males compared with males of their own species. N. oneida males produce a lower quantity of the long-range male sex pheromone (4R,5S-5-hydroxy-4-decanolide (RS-HDL. Crosses between the two species yielded hybrid males with various pheromone quantities, and these males were used in mating trials with females of either species to measure female mate discrimination rates. A quantitative trait locus (QTL analysis involving 475 recombinant hybrid males (F2, 2148 reciprocally backcrossed females (F3, and a linkage map of 52 equally spaced neutral single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers plus SNPs in 40 candidate mating behavior genes revealed four QTL for male pheromone amount, depending on partner species. Our results demonstrate that the RS-HDL pheromone plays a role in the mating system of N. giraulti and N. oneida, but also that additional communication cues are involved in mate choice. No QTL were found for female mate discrimination, which points at a polygenic architecture of female choice with strong environmental influences.
Cinková, Ivana; Policht, Richard
Recognition of information from acoustic signals is crucial in many animals, and individuals are under selection pressure to discriminate between the signals of conspecifics and heterospecifics or males and females. Here, we first report that rhinos use information encoded in their calls to assess conspecifics and individuals of closely related species. The southern (Ceratotherium simum) and critically endangered northern (C. cottoni) white rhinos are the most social out of all the rhinoceros species and use a contact call pant. We found that southern white rhino pant calls provide reliable information about the caller's sex, age class and social situation. Playback experiments on wild territorial southern white rhinoceros males revealed that they responded more strongly to the pant calls of conspecific females compared to the calls of other territorial males. This suggests that pant calls are more important form of communication between males and females than between territorial males. Territorial southern males also discriminated between female and territorial male calls of northern species and reacted more intensively to the calls of northern than southern males. This might be caused by a novelty effect since both species naturally live in allopatry. We conclude that white rhinos can directly benefit from assessing individuals at long distances using vocal cues especially because their eyesight is poor. Pant calls thus likely play a significant role in their social relationships and spatial organization. In addition, better understanding of vocal communication in white rhinos might be helpful in conservation management particularly because of their low reproduction in captivity.
Enns, Deborah L; Tiidus, Peter M
As women enter menopause, the concentration of estrogen and other female hormones declines. This hormonal decrease has been associated with a number of negative outcomes, including a greater incidence of injury as well as a delay in recovery from these injuries. Over the past two decades, our understanding of the protective effects of estrogen against various types of injury and disease states has grown immensely. In skeletal muscle, studies with animals have demonstrated that sex and estrogen may potentially influence muscle contractile properties and attenuate indices of post-exercise muscle damage, including the release of creatine kinase into the bloodstream and activity of the intramuscular lysosomal acid hydrolase, beta-glucuronidase. Furthermore, numerous studies have revealed an estrogen-mediated attenuation of infiltration of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and macrophages into the skeletal muscles of rats following exercise or injury. Estrogen has also been shown to play a significant role in stimulating muscle repair and regenerative processes, including the activation and proliferation of satellite cells. Although the mechanisms by which estrogen exerts its influence upon indices of skeletal muscle damage, inflammation and repair have not been fully elucidated, it is thought that estrogen may potentially exert its protective effects by: (i) acting as an antioxidant, thus limiting oxidative damage; (ii) acting as a membrane stabilizer by intercalating within membrane phospholipids; and (iii) binding to estrogen receptors, thus governing the regulation of a number of downstream genes and molecular targets. In contrast to animal studies, studies with humans have not as clearly delineated an effect of estrogen on muscle contractile function or on indices of post-exercise muscle damage and inflammation. These inconsistencies have been attributed to a number of factors, including age and fitness level of subjects, the type and intensity of exercise
Fossøy, Frode; Antonov, Anton; Moksnes, Arne; Røskaft, Eivin; Vikan, Johan R; Møller, Anders P; Shykoff, Jacqui A; Stokke, Bård G
Generalist parasites regularly evolve host-specific races that each specialize on one particular host species. Many host-specific races originate from geographically structured populations where local adaptations to different host species drive the differentiation of distinct races. However, in sympatric populations where several host races coexist, gene flow could potentially disrupt such host-specific adaptations. Here, we analyse genetic differentiation among three sympatrically breeding host races of the brood-parasitic common cuckoo, Cuculus canorus. In this species, host-specific adaptations are assumed to be controlled by females only, possibly via the female-specific W-chromosome, thereby avoiding that gene flow via males disrupts local adaptations. Although males were more likely to have offspring in two different host species (43% versus 7%), they did not have significantly more descendants being raised outside their putative foster species than females (9% versus 2%). We found significant genetic differentiation for both biparentally inherited microsatellite DNA markers and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA markers. To our knowledge, this is the first study that finds significant genetic differentiation in biparentally inherited markers among cuckoo host-specific races. Our results imply that males also may contribute to the evolution and maintenance of the different races, and hence that the genes responsible for egg phenotype may be found on autosomal chromosomes rather than the female-specific W-chromosome as previously assumed.
Turner, James M A; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Elliott, David J; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Pehrson, John R; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Burgoyne, Paul S
X chromosome inactivation occurs twice during the life cycle of placental mammals. In normal females, one X chromosome in each cell is inactivated early in embryogenesis, while in the male, the X chromosome is inactivated together with the Y chromosome in spermatogenic cells shortly before or during early meiotic prophase. Inactivation of one X chromosome in somatic cells of females serves to equalise X-linked gene dosage between males and females, but the role of male meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) is unknown. The inactive X-chromosome of somatic cells and male meiotic cells share similar properties such as late replication and enrichment for histone macroH2A1.2, suggesting a common mechanism of inactivation. This possibility is supported by the fact that Xist RNA that mediates somatic X-inactivation is expressed in the testis of male mice and humans. In the present study we show that both Xist RNA and Tsix RNA, an antisense RNA that controls Xist function in the soma, are expressed in the testis in a germ-cell-dependent manner. However, our finding that MSCI and sex-body formation are unaltered in mice with targeted mutations of Xist that prevent somatic X inactivation suggests that somatic X-inactivation and MSCI occur by fundamentally different mechanisms.
Masao Izawa; Mitunori Kimura; Tomiko Yamada; Makoto Saji
Aim: As an attempt to clarify the molecular basis of castration-induced apoptosis, this study was undertaken to demonstrate the expression of caspase-1 in male accessory sex organs of rats. Methods and results: cDNA of rat caspase-1 was cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction from the ventral prostates. The open reading frame predicts 402 amino acids, which shows more than 91% and 63 % identity to those of mouse and human, respec tively. Northern analyses demonstrated the presence of castration-induced up-regulation of the 1.6 kb transcript in the ventral prostate and the seminal vesicles. Finally, the authors demonstrated the caspase-1 transcripts in the epithelia of these tissues by in situ hybridization analyses. Conclusion: Castration induces the expression of caspase-1 tran scripts in the epithelia of ventral prostate and seminal vesicle. These observations suggest a possible role of caspase-1 in apoptosis in male accessory sex organs.
Fleming, M Z; MacGowan, B R; Salt, P
The sex-role-based perceptions of self and spouse in a group of female-to-male transsexuals, their wives, and a matched control group were studied. Each participant was given four copies of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire and asked to rate self, spouse, ideal self, and ideal spouse. The transsexual group rated themselves significantly higher than the control male group on the F scale, while there were no significant differences between the two groups on the M and M-F scales. The transsexuals' wives rated their spouses higher than did the control women on the F scale, and this difference approached significance. There were no significant differences between the spouse ratings of these two groups on the M and M-F scales. These results are discussed in terms of the relationship between sex role and gender identity and in terms of the theories that propose role strain as the cause of transsexualism.
Full Text Available Background: In countries with developed economies, a common approach to protecting communities from sexual offending is to provide specialized treatment for convicted sex offenders to reduce recidivism. Many psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy interventions are currently in widespread use as sex offender treatment (SOT options delivered within programs to prevent recidivism or reoffending among convicted adult male sex offenders. A number of systematic reviews (SRs have already evaluated the evidence from primary research studies on the effectiveness of these interventions.Methods: A structured overview of SRs published in English since January 1998 was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy delivered within programs to reduce recidivism among convicted adult male sex offenders.Results: Eight SRs met the inclusion criteria. Evidence from seven moderate-to-high quality SRs suggests that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT delivered within programs adhering to the risk/need/responsivity (RNR model has the potential to reduce recidivism. These findings must be tempered as they are mostly based on poor quality primary research. The reviewed evidence was inconclusive as to the components or framework of an effective SOT program or the setting in which a program should be delivered.Conclusions: This overview provides decision-makers in the SOT field with an accessible, good quality synthesis of the best evidence available on the effectiveness of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy delivered within programs to reduce recidivism among convicted adult male sex offenders. While further research is warranted, the available evidence suggests that CBT delivered within programs adhering to the RNR model represents the most promising approach.
Samudzi, Zoe; Mannell, Jenevieve
Sex workers are often perceived as possessing 'deviant' identities, contributing to their exclusion from health services. The literature on sex worker identities in relation to health has focused primarily on cisgender female sex workers as the 'carriers of disease', obscuring the experiences of cisgender male and transgender sex workers and the complexities their gender identities bring to understandings of stigma and exclusion. To address this gap, this study draws on 21 interviews with cisgender male and transgender female sex workers receiving services from the Sex Workers Education and Advocacy Taskforce in Cape Town, South Africa. Our findings suggest that the social identities imposed upon sex workers contribute to their exclusion from public, private, discursive and geographic spaces. While many transgender female sex workers described their identities using positive and empowered language, cisgender male sex workers frequently expressed shame and internalised stigma related to identities, which could be described as 'less than masculine'. While many of those interviewed felt empowered by positive identities as transgender women, sex workers and sex worker-advocates, disempowerment and vulnerability were also linked to inappropriately masculinised and feminised identities. Understanding the links between gender identities and social exclusion is crucial to creating effective health interventions for both cisgender men and transgender women in sex work.
Christiansen, Sofie; Scholze, Martin; Dalgaard, Majken;
are not well described, especially when they exert their actions by differing molecular mechanisms. Objectives: To fill this gap, we investigated the effects of mixtures of a widely used plasticizer, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), two fungicides present in food, vinclozolin and prochloraz......By disrupting the action of androgens during gestation, certain chemicals present in food, consumer products and the environment can induce irreversible demasculinisation and malformations of sex organs among male offspring. However, the consequences of simultaneous exposure to such chemicals...
Mbonye, Martin; Siu, Godfrey E; Kiwanuka, Thadeus; Seeley, Janet
Regular male partners of female sex workers (FSWs) represent an important population to reach with HIV-prevention interventions. This paper discusses the relationship dynamics and HIV/sexually transmitted infection risk behaviour of men involved with self-identified FSWs in Kampala. Between 2011 and 2014 we conducted repeat in-depth interviews with 42 male partners of FSWs attending a clinic for women at high risk of HIV-infection in Kampala. Men publicly struggled with the stigma of dating women who are considered to be engaged in a shamed profession, but privately saw meaning in these relationships. In coping with the stigma, some described the work of their partners in terms that distanced them from sex work, while others struggled to have the control that "being a man" demanded since they could not monitor all movements of their partners. Dealing with HIV disclosure was hard and seeking support was difficult for some of the men, leading to missed opportunities and guilt. Despite challenges, relationships with sex workers offered men some benefits such as access to much needed care and treatment. A few men also admitted to being motivated by material and financial benefits from sex workers who they perceived as being rich and this was one factor that helped them sustain the relationships. These findings offer insights into the complex relationship dynamics within high risk sexual partnerships. However, the findings suggest that effective interventions that are couple centred can be established to promote better health.
Teresa G. Valencak
Full Text Available Adipose tissue is a complex and multi-faceted organ. It responds dynamically to internal and external stimuli, depending on the developmental stage and activity of the organism. The most common functional subunits of adipose tissue, white and brown adipocytes, regulate and respond to endocrine processes, which then determine metabolic rate as well as adipose tissue functions. While the molecular aspects of white and brown adipose biology have become clearer in the recent past, much less is known about sex-specific differences in regulation and deposition of adipose tissue, and the specific role of the so-called pink adipocytes during lactation in females. This review summarises the current understanding of adipose tissue dynamics with a focus on sex-specific differences in adipose tissue energy metabolism and endocrine functions, focussing on mammalian model organisms as well as human-derived data. In females, pink adipocytes trans-differentiate during pregnancy from subcutaneous white adipocytes and are responsible for milk-secretion in mammary glands. Overlooking biological sex variation may ultimately hamper clinical treatments of many aspects of metabolic disorders.
Full Text Available Biological diversity on Earth depends on the multiplication of species or speciation, which is the evolution of reproductive isolation such as hybrid sterility between two new species. An unsolved puzzle is the exact mechanism(s that causes two genomes to diverge from their common ancestor so that some divergent genes no longer function properly in the hybrids. Here we report genetic analyses of divergent genes controlling male fertility and sex ratio in two very young fruitfly species, Drosophila albomicans and D. nasuta. A majority of the genetic divergence for both traits is mapped to the same regions by quantitative trait loci mappings. With introgressions, six major loci are found to contribute to both traits. This genetic colocalization implicates that genes for hybrid male sterility have evolved primarily for controlling sex ratio. We propose that genetic conflicts over sex ratio may operate as a perpetual dynamo for genome divergence. This particular evolutionary mechanism may largely contribute to the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility and the disproportionate enrichment of its underlying genes on the X chromosome--two patterns widely observed across animals.
Zhang, Linbin; Sun, Tianai; Woldesellassie, Fitsum; Xiao, Hailian; Tao, Yun
Biological diversity on Earth depends on the multiplication of species or speciation, which is the evolution of reproductive isolation such as hybrid sterility between two new species. An unsolved puzzle is the exact mechanism(s) that causes two genomes to diverge from their common ancestor so that some divergent genes no longer function properly in the hybrids. Here we report genetic analyses of divergent genes controlling male fertility and sex ratio in two very young fruitfly species, Drosophila albomicans and D. nasuta. A majority of the genetic divergence for both traits is mapped to the same regions by quantitative trait loci mappings. With introgressions, six major loci are found to contribute to both traits. This genetic colocalization implicates that genes for hybrid male sterility have evolved primarily for controlling sex ratio. We propose that genetic conflicts over sex ratio may operate as a perpetual dynamo for genome divergence. This particular evolutionary mechanism may largely contribute to the rapid evolution of hybrid male sterility and the disproportionate enrichment of its underlying genes on the X chromosome--two patterns widely observed across animals.
Thangjam Ranjita Devi; B V Shyamala
Sexually dimorphic characters have two-fold complexities in pattern formation as they have to get input fromboth somatic sex determination as well as the positional determining regulators. Sex comb development in Drosophila requires functions of the somatic sex-determining gene doublesex and the homeotic gene Sex combs reduced. Attempts have not been made to decipher the role of dsx in imparting sexually dimorphic expression of SCR and the differential function of sex-specific variants of dsx products in sex comb development. Our results in this study indicate that male-like pattern of SCR expression is independent of dsx function, and dsxF must be responsible for bringing about dimorphism in SCR expression, whereas dsxM function is required with Scr for the morphogenesis of sex comb.
Osborne, Cynthia S; Lawrence, Anne A
Gender dysphoria (GD), a feeling of persistent discomfort with one's biologic sex or assigned gender, is estimated to be more prevalent in male prison inmates than in nonincarcerated males; there may be 3000-4000 male inmates with GD in prisons in the United States. An increasing number of U.S. prison systems now offer gender dysphoric inmates diagnostic evaluation, psychotherapy, cross-sex hormone therapy, and opportunities, albeit limited, to enact their preferred gender role. Sex reassignment surgery (SRS), however, has not been offered to inmates except in response to litigation. In the first case of its kind, the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation recently agreed to provide SRS to an inmate and developed policy guidelines for its future provision. In other recent cases, U.S. courts have ruled that male inmates with GD are entitled to SRS when it is medically necessary. Although these decisions may facilitate the provision of SRS to inmates in the future, many U.S. prison systems will probably remain reluctant to offer SRS unless legally compelled to do so. In this review, we address the medical necessity of SRS for male inmates with GD. We also discuss eligibility criteria and the practical considerations involved in providing SRS to inmates. We conclude by offering recommendations for physicians, mental health professionals, and prison administrators, designed to facilitate provision of SRS to inmates with GD in a manner that provides humane treatment, maximizes the likelihood of successful outcomes, minimizes risk of regret, and generates data that can help inform future decisions.
Simmonds, Daniel J; Hallquist, Michael N; Asato, Miya; Luna, Beatriz
White matter (WM) continues to mature through adolescence in parallel with gains in cognitive ability. To date, developmental changes in human WM microstructure have been inferred using analyses of cross-sectional or two time-point follow-up studies, limiting our understanding of individual developmental trajectories. The aims of the present longitudinal study were to characterize the timing of WM growth and investigate how sex and behavior are associated with different developmental trajectories. We utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 128 individuals aged 8-28, who received annual scans for up to 5 years and completed motor and cognitive tasks. Flexible nonlinear growth curves indicated a hierarchical pattern of WM development. By late childhood, posterior cortical-subcortical connections were similar to adults. During adolescence, WM microstructure reached adult levels, including frontocortical, frontosubcortical and cerebellar connections. Later to mature in adulthood were major corticolimbic association tracts and connections at terminal gray matter sites in cortical and basal ganglia regions. These patterns may reflect adolescent maturation of frontal connectivity supporting cognitive abilities, particularly the protracted refinement of corticolimbic connectivity underlying cognition-emotion interactions. Sex and behavior also played a large role. Males showed continuous WM growth from childhood through early adulthood, whereas females mainly showed growth during mid-adolescence. Further, earlier WM growth in adolescence was associated with faster and more efficient responding and better inhibitory control whereas later growth in adulthood was associated with poorer performance, suggesting that the timing of WM growth is important for cognitive development.
Full Text Available Background: Male sex workers (MSWs have recently been recognized as an important risk group for sexually transmitted infections (STIs including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Although there are global studies on MSWs, few such studies describe the behavioral patterns and STIs among this population in India. Methods: MSWs were evaluated at the Humsafar trust, a community based organization situated in suburban Mumbai, India. We report on the demographics, sexual behaviors, and STIs including HIV of these sex workers. Results: Of the 75 MSWs, 24 were men and 51 were transgenders. The mean age of the group was 23.3 (+ 4.9 years. About 15% were married or lived with a permanent partner. Of these individuals, 85% reported sex work as a main source of income and 15% as an additional source. All the individuals reported anal sex (87% anal receptive sex and 13% anal insertive sex. About 13% of MSWs had never used a condom. The HIV prevalence was 33% (17% in men vs 41% in transgenders, P = 0.04. The STI prevalence was 60% (58% in men vs 61% in transgenders, P = 0.8. Syphilis was the most common STI (28% in these MSWs. HIV was associated with being a transgender (41 vs 17%, P = 0.04, age > 26 years (57 vs 28%, P = 0.04, more than one year of sex work (38 vs 8%, P = 0.05, and income < Rs. 2000 per month (62 vs 27%, P = 0.02. Conclusions: The MSWs have high-risk behaviors, low consistent condom use, and high STI/HIV infections. These groups should be the focus of intensive public health interventions aimed at reduction of risky sexual practices, and STI/HIV prevention and care.
Yang, Yi; Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl A; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad E
There has been little theory-based research focusing on condom use among male clients of female sex workers (CFSW) in China. The current study applied social cognitive theory to condom use behaviors of CFSW in China. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted among 584 CFSW recruited through snowball sampling. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied to examine factors associated with consistent condom use. A minority (30.65 %) of respondents reported using condoms consistently with FSW, and 7 of 12 social cognitive dimensions/subdimensions were found to be significantly influential. The most significant factors were self-efficacy [adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) = 2.11, 95 %, CI = 1.74-2.43] and personal pleasure reduction (APR = 0.3, 95 % CI = 0.15-0.6). HIV-related knowledge, perceived HIV susceptibility, condom cost, condom efficacy, and embarrassment of carrying condoms were not associated with consistent condom uses with FSW. Findings from the current study suggest future prevention programs should target sex venues, and condom access should ensure both quantity and quality. Peer education should focus on knowledge education and peer norms, and knowledge education should include information on HIV infection severity and how to increase pleasure with condom use.
Chang, Hung-Shu; Anway, Matthew D; Rekow, Stephen S; Skinner, Michael K
Embryonic exposure to the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin at the time of gonadal sex determination was previously found to promote transgenerational disease states. The actions of vinclozolin appear to be due to epigenetic alterations in the male germline that are transmitted to subsequent generations. Analysis of the transgenerational epigenetic effects on the male germline (i.e. sperm) identified 25 candidate DNA sequences with altered methylation patterns in the vinclozolin generation sperm. These sequences were identified and mapped to specific genes and noncoding DNA regions. Bisulfite sequencing was used to confirm the altered methylation pattern of 15 of the candidate DNA sequences. Alterations in the epigenetic pattern (i.e. methylation) of these genes/DNA sequences were found in the F2 and F3 generation germline. Therefore, the reprogramming of the male germline involves the induction of new imprinted-like genes/DNA sequences that acquire an apparent permanent DNA methylation pattern that is passed at least through the paternal allele. The expression pattern of several of the genes during embryonic development were found to be altered in the vinclozolin F1 and F2 generation testis. A number of the imprinted-like genes/DNA sequences identified are associated with epigenetic linked diseases. In summary, an endocrine disruptor exposure during embryonic gonadal sex determination was found to promote an alteration in the epigenetic (i.e. induction of imprinted-like genes/DNA sequences) programming of the male germline, and this is associated with the development of transgenerational disease states.
Nie, Li; Liao, Susu; Weeks, Margaret R; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Jingmei; Zhang, Qingning; Zhou, Yuejiao; He, Bin; Li, Jianghong; Dunn, Jennifer
The female condom (FC) is an effective tool for dual protection, but it remains underused. Individual and contextual reasons need to be explored. The aim of this study was to compare individual and contextual characteristics of FC multitime users, 1-time users, and nonusers among women in the sex industry of 4 study sites in China. A standardized 1-year FC intervention along with male condoms was implemented through outreach to sex establishments. Three serial cross-sectional surveys were conducted at baseline and after each of two 6-month intervention phases. A total of 445, 437, and 290 eligible women were interviewed at 3 cross-sectional surveys, respectively. At the first and second postintervention surveys, 83.3% and 81.7% of women reported knowing about FC, and 28.8% and 36.6% had used FC at least once. Women who used FC multiple times reported less unprotected sex than nonusers in the last 30 days (3.0% vs. 17.2% at first and 3.2% vs. 16.8% at second postintervention survey, P 4.0) and working in boarding houses (adjusted odds ratio, 3.4) were associated with FC use. Adding FC into male-condom-only intervention may reduce unprotected sex among women in sex establishments in rural and small urban areas of China. Adoption of FC may be related not only to intervention exposure but also to contextual factors associated with study site and type of sex establishments.
Open up any biomedical or public health journal prior to the 1970s, and one term will be glaringly absent: gender. Open up any recent biomedical or public health journal, and two terms will be used either: (1) interchangeably, or (2) as distinct constructs: gender and sex. Why the change? Why the confusion?-and why does it matter? After briefly reviewing conceptual debates leading to distinctions between 'sex' and 'gender' as biological and social constructs, respectively, the paper draws on ecosocial theory to present 12 case examples in which gender relations and sex-linked biology are singly, neither, or both relevant as independent or synergistic determinants of the selected outcomes. Spanning from birth defects to mortality, these outcomes include: chromosomal disorders, infectious and non-infectious disease, occupational and environmental disease, trauma, pregnancy, menopause, and access to health services. As these examples highlight, not only can gender relations influence expression-and interpretation-of biological traits, but also sex-linked biological characteristics can, in some cases, contribute to or amplify gender differentials in health. Because our science will only be as clear and error-free as our thinking, greater precision about whether and when gender relations, sex-linked biology, both, or neither matter for health is warranted.
Kosztolányi, A; Barta, Z; Küpper, C; Székely, T
In a number of insects, fishes and birds, the conventional sex roles are reversed: males are the main care provider, whereas females focus on matings. The reversal of typical sex roles is an evolutionary puzzle, because it challenges the foundations of sex roles, sexual selection and parental investment theory. Recent theoretical models predict that biased parental care may be a response to biased adult sex ratios (ASRs). However, estimating ASR is challenging in natural populations, because males and females often have different detectabilities. Here, we use demographic modelling with field data from 2101 individuals, including 579 molecularly sexed offspring, to provide evidence that ASR is strongly male biased in a polyandrous bird with male-biased care. The model predicts 6.1 times more adult males than females (ASR=0.860, proportion of males) in the Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus. The extreme male bias is consistent between years and concordant with experimental results showing strongly biased mating opportunity towards females. Based on these results, we conjecture that parental sex-role reversal may occur in populations that exhibit extreme male-biased ASR.
Potts, Annie; Grace, Victoria M; Vares, Tiina; Gavey, Nicola
Discourse on male sexuality in mid-to-later life has exploded in recent years (Gullette 1998). Attention to this topic has been spurred by the advent of (highly profitable) sexuopharmaceutical 'solutions' to erectile changes affecting older men. 'Success' stories abound in the media and in medical literature related to the restoration of faulty erections and ailing sex lives through drugs such as Viagra (sildenafil citrate), Uprima (apomorphine) and Cialis (tadalafil). In this paper we explore some of the ways in which notions about ageing and male sexuality are changing in popular cultural and medical texts in response to the advent of Viagra and the increasing authority of biomedicine in this area. We also demonstrate how the recent biomedical endorsement of 'sex for life' (the imperative to maintain an active youthful masculine [hetero]sexuality - defined in terms of male orgasm through penetrative sex) may be challenged by the very accounts of older men who are, or have been, affected by erectile difficulties and have used drugs like Viagra themselves. We present the perspectives of mid-to-late life heterosexual men in New Zealand whose stories question the contemporary biomedical privileging of erections and intercourse 'at any cost and at any age'. We argue that the current push to identify and treat so-called erectile dysfunction (and restore erections and penetrative sex to relationships) neglects some men's own experiences of alternative modes of relating sexually that they identify as 'normal', 'healthy', 'enjoyable' and 'satisfying' for them and their partners; and undermines their understanding of such changes as positive outcomes of ageing, experience and maturity.
Adilardi, Renzo Sebastián; Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés Alejandro; Mola, Liliana María
Scorpions of the genus Tityus show holokinetic chromosomes, achiasmatic male meiosis and an absence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, like all Buthidae. In this work, we analysed the meiotic behaviour and chromosome rearrangements of a population of the scorpion Tityus confluens, characterising the cytotypes of males, females and embryos with different cytogenetic techniques. This revealed that all the females were structural homozygotes, while all the males were structural heterozygotes for different chromosome rearrangements. Four different cytotypes were described in males, which differed in chromosome number (2n = 5 and 2n = 6) and meiotic multivalent configurations (chains of four, five and six chromosomes). Based on a detailed mitotic and meiotic analysis, we propose a sequence of chromosome rearrangements that could give rise to each cytotype and in which fusions have played a major role. Based on the comparison of males, females and a brood of embryos, we also propose that the presence of multivalents in males and homologous pairs in females could be associated with the presence of cryptic sex chromosomes, with the male being the heterogametic sex. We propose that the ancestral karyotype of this species could have had homomorphic XY/XX (male/female) sex chromosomes and a fusion could have occurred between the Y chromosome and an autosome. PMID:27783630
Evans, Tanya M.; Flowers, D. Lynn; Napoliello, Eileen M.; Eden, Guinevere F.
Developmental dyslexia, characterized by unexpected reading difficulty, is associated with anomalous brain anatomy and function. Previous structural neuroimaging studies have converged in reports of less gray matter volume (GMV) in dyslexics within left hemisphere regions known to subserve language. Due to the higher prevalence of dyslexia in males, these studies are heavily weighted towards males, raising the question whether studies of dyslexia in females only and using the same techniques,...
Gonzales, Rayna J; Ansar, Saema; Duckles, Sue P; Krause, Diana N
Tissues from males can be regulated by a balance of androgenic and estrogenic effects because of local metabolism of testosterone and expression of relevant steroid hormone receptors. As a critical first step to understanding sex hormone influences in the cerebral circulation of males, we investigated the presence of enzymes that metabolize testosterone to active products and their respective receptors. We found that cerebral blood vessels from male rats express 5alpha-reductase type 2 and aromatase, enzymes responsible for conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 17beta-estradiol, respectively. Protein levels of these enzymes, however, were not modulated by long-term in vivo hormone treatment. We also showed the presence of receptors for both androgens (AR) and estrogens (ER) from male cerebral vessels. Western blot analysis showed bands corresponding to the full-length AR (110 kDa) and ERalpha (66 kDa). Long-term in vivo treatment of orchiectomized rats with testosterone or DHT, but not estrogen, increased AR levels in cerebral vessels. In contrast, ERalpha protein levels were increased after in vivo treatment with estrogen but not testosterone. Fluorescent immunostaining revealed ERalpha, AR, and 5alpha-reductase type 2 in both the endothelial and smooth muscle layers of cerebral arteries, whereas aromatase staining was solely localized to the endothelium. Thus, cerebral vessels from males are target tissues for both androgens and estrogen. Furthermore, local metabolism of testosterone might balance opposing androgenic and estrogenic influences on cerebrovascular as well as brain function in males.
Royo, Hélène; Polikiewicz, Grzegorz; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Prosser, Haydn; Mitchell, Mike; Bradley, Allan; de Rooij, Dirk G; Burgoyne, Paul S; Turner, James M A
The mammalian X and Y chromosomes share little homology and are largely unsynapsed during normal meiosis. This asynapsis triggers inactivation of X- and Y-linked genes, or meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Whether MSCI is essential for male meiosis is unclear. Pachytene arrest and apoptosis is observed in mouse mutants in which MSCI fails, e.g., Brca1(-/-), H2afx(-/-), Sycp1(-/-), and Msh5(-/-). However, these also harbor defects in synapsis and/or recombination and as such may activate a putative pachytene checkpoint. Here we present evidence that MSCI failure is sufficient to cause pachytene arrest. XYY males exhibit Y-Y synapsis and Y chromosomal escape from MSCI without accompanying synapsis/recombination defects. We find that XYY males, like synapsis/recombination mutants, display pachytene arrest and that this can be circumvented by preventing Y-Y synapsis and associated Y gene expression. Pachytene expression of individual Y genes inserted as transgenes on autosomes shows that expression of the Zfy 1/2 paralogs in XY males is sufficient to phenocopy the pachytene arrest phenotype; insertion of Zfy 1/2 on the X chromosome where they are subject to MSCI prevents this response. Our findings show that MSCI is essential for male meiosis and, as such, provide insight into the differential severity of meiotic mutations' effects on male and female meiosis.
Liu, Hanqin; Guan, Bo; Xu, Jiang; Hou, Changchun; Tian, Hua; Chen, Hongxi
Yellow catfish has become one of the most important freshwater aquaculture species in China. The mono-sex male yellow catfish has important application value in aquaculture because the male grows generally faster than the sibling females under the same conditions. This study has screened YY super-male and YY physiological female yellow catfish by sex reversal, gynogenesis, and progeny testing, which can help to achieve the large-scale production of YY super-male and XY all-male. From 2008 to 2010, about 123,000 YY super-male were produced, and about 81 million XY all-male fry were produced with 100% male rate by random sampling. Therefore, these results indicate that YY super-male and YY physiological female yellow catfish can be viable and fertile. We conclude that the mono-sex breeding technique by YY super-male yellow catfish is stable and reliable, which has great potential for application in yellow catfish aquaculture.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Male sex chromosome aneuploidies are underdiagnosed despite concomitant physical and behavioral manifestations. Objective To develop a non-invasive, rapid and high-throughput molecular diagnostic assay for detection of male sex chromosome aneuploidies, including 47,XXY (Klinefelter, 47,XYY, 48,XXYY and 48,XXXY syndromes. Methods The assay utilizes three XYM and four XA markers to interrogate Y:X and X:autosome ratios, respectively. The seven markers were PCR amplified using genomic DNA isolated from a cohort of 323 males with aneuploid (n = 117 and 46,XY (n = 206 karyotypes. The resulting PCR products were subjected to Pyrosequencing, a quantitative DNA sequencing method. Results Receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves were used to establish thresholds for the discrimination of aneuploid from normal samples. The XYM markers permitted the identification of 47,XXY, 48,XXXY and 47,XYY syndromes with 100% sensitivity and specificity in both purified DNA and buccal swab samples. The 48,XXYY karyotype was delineated by XA marker data from 46,XY; an X allele threshold of 43% also permitted detection of 48,XXYY with 100% sensitivity and specificity. Analysis of X chromosome-specific biallelic SNPs demonstrated that 43 of 45 individuals (96% with 48,XXYY karyotype had two distinct X chromosomes, while 2 (4% had a duplicate X, providing evidence that 48,XXYY may result from nondisjunction during early mitotic divisions of a 46,XY embryo. Conclusions Quantitative Pyrosequencing, with high-throughput potential, can detect male sex chromosome aneuploidies with 100% sensitivity.
Fernández de Mosteyrín, Sol; del Val Acebrón, María; Fernández de Mosteyrín, Teresa; Fernández Guerrero, Manuel L
The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases increases in males who have sex with males (MSM), despite the knowledge on how to prevent them. To determine the mechanisms that are driving this lack of prevention is important to reverse the trend. An anonymous, voluntary and self-reporting questionnaire was completed by HIV+ MSM patients who were seen in a hospital clinic, with the aim of finding out the sexual risk practices and behaviour, as well as their perceptions and assessment as regards this risk. The questionnaire included 58questions, divided into 10sections, to explore the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour as regards HIV. The questionnaires were also given to the physicians, with the aim of exploring their perceptions, attitudes and opinions as regards the situation of the epidemic, prevention, perception of the diseases and the patient, and values in clinical practice. A total of 495 questionnaires from the patients were analysed. Most of them (87%) said they knew how HIV was acquired, and 97% knew how to prevent it, but 69% knew they were in a risk situation, and 43% had little concern of contracting HIV. Almost two-thirds (65%) had sex with ≥2persons on the same day, 47% met on the Internet and 26% had group sex. The same percentage of those surveyed considered that they acted impulsively. They highlighted a lack of information (33%), bad luck (32%), assumed excessive risk (36%), and lake of concern (25%), as the main reasons for acquiring the infection. When confronted with diagnosis 41% of patients answered «I never thought that it would happen to me», and 32% said «I had bad luck». Of the 121 physicians who completed the questionnaire, 24% considered that infection due to HIV/AIDS was out of control in Spain, and 65% responded that there was an image that HIV/AIDS was a controlled disease and of little concern. A large majority (71%) of those surveyed, considered that the increase in new
K. N Yezhova
Full Text Available Objective: to perform a complex study of typical plasma sex hormone changes and their functional significance in males with severe concomitant injury (SCI. Subjects and methods. Fifty-nine males aged 18—49 years who had SCI were enrolled in the study. The admission severity was an APACHE II score of 18.6±2.4. According to the outcome of the disease, all the patients were divided into 2 groups: A survivors; B deceased persons. A control comprised 12 healthy male donors aged 19-36 years, in whom the levels of 8 sex steroids were measured. The standard procedures were used to comparatively analyze the concentrations of pituitary reproductive hormones and aldosterone. Hormonal concentrations were studied over time on posttraumatic days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 15. The plasma hormone profile was examined by test kits (BSL, USA on a Stat Fax 2100 device (Awareness Technology Inc., USA for enzyme immunoassay. Prolactin, luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, progesterone (P, 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OH-P, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, androstendione (A, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT, estrone (E1, estradiol (E2, and aldosterone were determined. Results. The complex study of phasic changes in the profile of 11 plasma sex hormones was first conducted in males in the posttraumatic period. Moreover, the typical plasma hormonal changes were elevated prolactin levels and their phasic variations, normal LH and FSH levels with a tendency for further phasic LH changes and FSH reduction. After the injury, the plasma concentration of P was increased and that of 17-OH-P was decreased. The levels of A and DHEA-S varied in the normal range with a tendency for DHEA-S to be lower during the process. In the posttraumatic period, the plasma content of T and DHT was substantially reduced and that of E1 and E2 was increased. The deceased patients generally showed higher levels of A, DHEA-S, and estrogens as a reflection of
Modzelewski, Andrew J; Hilz, Stephanie; Crate, Elizabeth A; Schweidenback, Caterina T H; Fogarty, Elizabeth A; Grenier, Jennifer K; Freire, Raimundo; Cohen, Paula E; Grimson, Andrew
Small RNAs play crucial roles in regulating gene expression during mammalian meiosis. To investigate the function of microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) during meiosis in males, we generated germ-cell-specific conditional deletions of Dgcr8 and Dicer in mice. Analysis of spermatocytes from both conditional knockout lines revealed that there were frequent chromosomal fusions during meiosis, always involving one or both sex chromosomes. RNA sequencing indicates upregulation of Atm in spermatocytes from miRNA-deficient mice, and immunofluorescence imaging demonstrates an increased abundance of activated ATM kinase and mislocalization of phosphorylated MDC1, an ATM phosphorylation substrate. The Atm 3'UTR contains many potential microRNA target sites, and, notably, target sites for several miRNAs depleted in both conditional knockout mice were highly effective at promoting repression. RNF8, a telomere-associated protein whose localization is controlled by the MDC1-ATM kinase cascade, normally associates with the sex chromosomes during pachytene, but in both conditional knockouts redistributed to the autosomes. Taken together, these results suggest that Atm dysregulation in microRNA-deficient germ lines contributes to the redistribution of proteins involved in chromosomal stability from the sex chromosomes to the autosomes, resulting in sex chromosome fusions during meiotic prophase I. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Theve, Elizabeth J; Feng, Yan; Taghizadeh, Koli; Cormier, Kathleen S; Bell, David R; Fox, James G; Rogers, Arlin B
Hepatitis B virus (HBV), the leading cause of human hepatocellular carcinoma, is especially virulent in males infected at an early age. Likewise, the murine liver carcinogen Helicobacter hepaticus is most pathogenic in male mice infected before puberty. We used this model to investigate the influence of male sex hormone signaling on infectious hepatitis. Male A/JCr mice were infected with H. hepaticus or vehicle at 4 weeks and randomized into surgical and pharmacologic treatment groups. Interruption of androgen pathways was confirmed by hormone measurements, histopathology, and liver gene and Cyp4a protein expression. Castrated males and those receiving the competitive androgen receptor antagonist flutamide had significantly less severe hepatitis as determined by histologic activity index than intact controls at 4 months. Importantly, the powerful androgen receptor agonist dihydrotestosterone did not promote hepatitis. No effect on hepatitis was evident in males treated with the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor dutasteride, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha agonist bezafibrate, or the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug flufenamic acid. Consistent with previous observations of hepatitis-associated liver-gender disruption, transcriptional alterations involved both feminine (cytochrome P450 4a14) and masculine (cytochrome P450 4a12 and trefoil factor 3) genes, as well gender-neutral (H19 fetal liver mRNA, lipocalin 2, and ubiquitin D) genes. Hepatitis was associated with increased unsaturated C(18) long-chain fatty acids (oleic acid and linoleic acid) relative to saturated stearic acid. Our results indicate that certain forms of androgen interruption can inhibit H. hepaticus-induced hepatitis in young male mice, whereas androgen receptor agonism does not worsen disease. This raises the possibility of targeted hormonal therapy in young male patients with childhood-acquired HBV.
Egwurugwu, J N; Ifedi, C U; Uchefuna, R C; Ezeokafor, E N; Alagwu, E A
This study assessed the effects of zinc on male sex hormones and semen quality in male albino wistar rats. Forty rats weighing between 150- 210g, grouped into 5 of 8 rats each, were used for the research that lasted for six weeks. Group I, the control group, received normal rat chow and water ad libitum. The four test groups II-V, received 20g, 40g, 60g and 80g of zinc sulphate mixed with their rat chow respectively in addition to water for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and assayed for Luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Prolactin (PL), testosterone (T), progesterone and oestradiol. Semen was also analysed for sperm motility, sperm count and morphology. Results showed statistically significant decrease in serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) (pzinc concentrations. There was statistically significant dose dependent decrease in sperm motility and morphology in the test groups compared with the control (pzinc sulphate has some significant positive effects on male sex hormones and sperm quality at doses within physiological levels but harmful at higher doses.
Oike, Akira; Kodama, Maho; Nakamura, Yoriko; Nakamura, Masahisa
Androgens play a critical role in testicular differentiation in many species of vertebrates. While female-to-male sex reversal can be induced by testosterone (T) in some species of amphibians, the mechanism still remains largely unknown even at the histological level. In this study, we determined a threshold dosage of T to induce female-to-male sex reversal in the Japanese frog Rana (R.) rugosa. Tadpoles were allowed to metamorphose into frogs with T present in the rearing water. At 0.2 ng/mL T, female frogs formed tissue comprising a mixture of ovary and testis, the so-called ovotestis, the size of which was significantly smaller than the wild-type ovary. Histological changes occurring in the oocytes of T-treated ovaries induced oocyte degeneration in the masculinizing ovaries leading to their final disappearance. In parallel, many germ cells emerged in the cortex of the ovotestis and, later, in the medulla as well. RT-PCR analysis revealed upregulated expression of CYP17 and Dmrt1 but not 17βHSD in the ovotestis, and downregulation of Pat1a expression. Furthermore, immunohistology revealed CYP17-positive signals in the cortex of the masculinizing ovary, spreading throughout the whole area as the testis developed. These results indicate that oocytes are sensitive to T in the ovary of R. rugosa and that male-type germ cells expand in the masculinizing gonad (testis) contemporaneous with oocyte disappearance. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mohammadi, Azarm Akhavien; Tetro, Jason A; Filion, Lionel G
Immunological approaches to gender selection have been contemplated since the discovery of the family of male-specific H-Y antigens found only on the surface of male cells. H-Y antigens are able to elicit an immune reaction when cells or tissues from a male donor are grafted to a female recipient. We describe here the development and testing of an inexpensive approach using polyclonal antibodies against four specific H-Y outer membrane proteins male enhanced antigen 1 (MEA 1), male enhanced antigen 2 (MEA 2), sex determining region Y (SRY) and testis determining factor (TDF). Epitopes based on hydrophilic primary sequences of the proteins were synthesized, N-terminal biotin-labeled, linked to streptavidin and mixed with a Ribi adjuvant prior to immunization in rabbits. The antiserum was tested to determine affinity to swine spermatozoa using anti-motility, flow cytometry and motility and sedimentation chambers. Fluorescent microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to identify the percentage of motile spermatozoa that contained the Y chromosome. We found that the polyclonal antibodies had high affinity to the spermatozoa leading to a cessation of motility. Furthermore, the majority of these non-motile spermatozoa contained the Y chromosome. We conclude that the use of polyclonal antiserum against synthetic H-Y peptide antigens may be an inexpensive and simple means to inhibit the motility of swine spermatozoa bearing the Y chromosome.
Klassen, Waldemar; Adams, Jean V.; Twohey, Michael B.
The suppression of sea lamprey populations, Petromyzon marinus (Linnaeus), was modeled using four different applications of the male sex pheromone: (1) pheromone-baited traps that remove females from the spawning population, (2) pheromone-baited decoys that exhaust females before they are able to spawn, (3) pheromone-enhanced sterile males that increase the proportion of non-fertile matings, and (4) camouflaging of the pheromone emitted by calling males to make it difficult for females to find a mate. The models indicated that thousands of traps or hundreds of thousands of decoys would be required to suppress a population of 100,000 animals. The potential efficacy of pheromone camouflages is largely unknown, and additional research is required to estimate how much pheromone is needed to camouflage the pheromone plumes of calling males. Pheromone-enhanced sterile males appear to be a promising application in the Great Lakes. Using this technique for three generations each of ca. 7 years duration could reduce sea lamprey populations by 90% for Lakes Huron and Ontario and by 98% for Lake Michigan, based on current trapping operations that capture 20 to 30% of the population each year.
Starks, Tyrel J.; Gamarel, Kristi E.; Johnson, Mallory O.
Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) remains a main risk factor for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) and this is of particular concern for partners of HIV serodiscordant status. However, HIV transmission risk has been demonstrated to vary by the sexual position adopted among partners. Guided by interdependence theory, this study examined how relational factors were differentially associated with risk taking (HIV-positive/insertive and HIV-negative/receptive) and strategic positioning (HIV-positive/receptive and HIV-negative/insertive) UAI withinserodiscordant same-sex male couples. HIV-positive men and their HIV-negative partners (ncouples=91; nindividuals=182) simultaneously but independently completed computerized questionnaires and HIV-positive men had blood drawn for viral load.A minority of couples (30%) engaged in risk taking and/or strategicpositioning unprotected anal sex. Results of multinomial logistic regressionindicated that HIV-negative partners’ levels of relationship commitment were positively associated with the odds of engaging in both risk taking and strategic positioning sexual behaviors. For HIV-negative partners, reports of relationship intimacy, autonomy, and sexual satisfaction were negatively associated with odds of reporting risk taking behavior. In contrast, HIV-positive partners’reported sexual satisfaction was positively associated with odds of engaging in risk taking behavior. Findings suggested that aspects of relational quality may be differentially associated with sexual decision making for same-sex male couples in serodiscordant relationships. Study findings lend support for the incorporation ofdiscussions of HIV risk reduction strategies, enhancing communication between partners, and support for general relationship functioning in HIV care. PMID:24243004
Full Text Available Human decision-making has been frequently studied and sex differences have been reported. Interestingly, previous results of hormone concentration on decision-making are somewhat inconsistent, regarding the impact of menstrual cycle phase in women or the influence of testosterone concentration on decision-making in women and men. However, the influence of the female sex hormone concentration (estradiol, progesterone and the impact of oral contraceptive intake have rarely been examined and data regarding the effect of daytime variations of male testosterone are lacking. Moreover if personality factors such as sensation seeking, impulsivity and anxiety influence decision-making, sex-specific effects, act as modulators is unclear. In the present study 71 women and 45 men were enrolled. All participants performed a novel computerized decision-making task measuring risk-taking behavior on the basis of contingencies (Haegler et al., 2010, which can be carried out several times without a learning effect. Saliva samples were collected to obtain estradiol, progesterone and testosterone levels. Additionally, all participants completed questionnaires measuring various personality factors.Data analysis revealed no sex differences in decision-making and no significant impact of testosterone concentration on behavioral performance in women or men. However, a significant negative correlation between progesterone concentration of women in the luteal phase and their performance in the risk-averse condition was obtained. Interestingly, a significant correlation between trait anxiety and decision-making occurred in females and males. Despite similar risky decision-making of women and men and no influence of testosterone concentration, menstrual cycle phase showed an effect on risk taking in women. In contrary to other studies, our findings provide rather subtle evidence for hormonal influences in decision-making, which may be primarily explained by task factors.
Starks, Tyrel J; Gamarel, Kristi E; Johnson, Mallory O
Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) remains a main risk factor for HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) and this is of particular concern for partners of HIV serodiscordant status. However, HIV transmission risk has been demonstrated to vary by the sexual position adopted among partners. Guided by interdependence theory, this study examined how relational factors were differentially associated with risk taking (HIV-positive/insertive and HIV-negative/receptive) and strategic positioning (HIV-positive/receptive and HIV-negative/insertive) UAI within serodiscordant same-sex male couples. HIV-positive men and their HIV-negative partners (n couples = 91; n individuals = 182) simultaneously but independently completed computerized questionnaires and HIV-positive men had blood drawn for viral load. A minority of couples (30 %) engaged in risk taking and/or strategic positioning unprotected anal sex. Results of multinomial logistic regression indicated that HIV-negative partners' levels of relationship commitment were positively associated with the odds of engaging in strategic positioning sexual behaviors. For HIV-negative partners, reports of relationship intimacy, and sexual satisfaction were negatively associated with odds of reporting risk taking behavior. In contrast, HIV-positive partners' reported sexual satisfaction was positively associated with odds of engaging in risk taking behavior. Findings suggested that aspects of relational quality may be differentially associated with sexual decision making for same-sex male couples in serodiscordant relationships. Study findings lend support for the incorporation of discussions of HIV risk reduction strategies, enhancing communication between partners, and support for general relationship functioning in HIV care.
Žibrat, U.; Brancelj, A.
In populations with both males and females sex-ratio is one of the driving forces of population dynamics. It influences fecundity, inbreeding and social interactions. Sex-ratio is affected by several biotic and abiotic factors, either by selective killing of one sex or by inducing migrations. In alpine lakes of Triglav National Park, Slovenia, an extremely male biased sex-ratio in Arctodiaptomus alpinus (Imhof, 1885) was regularly observed since 1992. We analysed population dynamics and sex-ratio of A. alpinus in three alpine lakes (Jezero v Ledvicah, Rjavo jezero and Zgornje Kriško jezero) from Triglav National Park in Slovenia. In addition to seasonal dynamics we also researched long-term changes in sex-ratio (in a period of 11 years from autumn samples) as a result of increased air-temperature, and zooplankton diurnal vertical migrations. Adults of both sexes were found to appear at the same time in the water collumn with males prevailing throughout the season. A similar trend was found in copepodites CV. The percent of adult females began increasing in late summer, when there were no more copepodites and recrutation from copepodites CV to adults stopped, while male mortality increased. All cohorts of A. alpinus were found to perform diurnal vertical migrations. Both adult and CV females remained close to the bottom during the day and migrated vertically during the night. Results of the long-term study show no changes in sex-ratio in autumn.
Maklakov Alexei A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex differences in lifespan are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom but the causes underlying this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Several explanations based on asymmetrical inheritance patterns (sex chromosomes or mitochondrial DNA have been proposed, but these ideas have rarely been tested experimentally. Alternatively, sexual dimorphism in lifespan could result from sex-specific selection, caused by fundamental differences in how males and females optimize their fitness by allocating resources into current and future reproduction. Results Here we used sex-specific responses to inbreeding to study the genetic architecture of lifespan and mortality rates in Callosobruchus maculatus, a seed beetle that shows sexual dimorphism in lifespan. Two independent assays revealed opposing sex-specific responses to inbreeding. The combined data set showed that inbred males live longer than outbred males, while females show the opposite pattern. Both sexes suffered reduced fitness measured as lifetime reproductive success as a result of inbreeding. Conclusion No model based on asymmetrical inheritance can explain increased male lifespan in response to inbreeding. Our results are however compatible with models based on sex-specific selection on reproductive strategies. We therefore suggest that sex-specific differences in lifespan in this species primarily result from sexually divergent selection.
Full Text Available In many insects, mate finding relies on female-released sex pheromones, which have to be deciphered by the male olfactory system within an odorous background of plant volatiles present in the environment of a calling female. With respect to pheromone-mediated mate localization, plant odorants may be neutral, favorable or disturbing. Here we examined the impact of plant odorants on detection and coding of the major sex pheromone component, (Z-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16:Ald in the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens. By in vivo imaging the activity in the male antennal lobe, we monitored the interference at the level of olfactory sensory neurons (OSN to illuminate mixture interactions. The results show that stimulating the male antenna with Z11-16:Ald and distinct plant-related odorants simultaneously suppressed pheromone-evoked activity in the region of the macroglomerular complex (MGC, where Z11-16:Ald-specific OSNs terminate. Based on our previous findings that antennal detection of Z11-16:Ald involves an interplay of the pheromone binding protein HvirPBP2 and the pheromone receptor HR13, we asked if the plant odorants may interfere with any of the elements involved in pheromone detection. Using a competitive fluorescence binding assay, we found that the plant odorants neither bind to HvirPBP2 nor affect the binding of Z11-16:Ald to the protein. However, imaging experiments analyzing a cell line that expressed the receptor HR13 revealed that plant odorants significantly inhibited the Z11-16:Ald-evoked calcium responses. Together the results indicate that, plant odorants can interfere with the signaling process of the major sex pheromone component at the receptor level. Consequently, it can be assumed that plant odorants in the environment may reduce the firing activity of pheromone-specific OSNs in H. virescens and thus affect mate localization.
Greenlee, Anne R; Shiao, Meng-Shin; Snyder, Elizabeth; Buaas, F William; Gu, Tongjun; Stearns, Timothy M; Sharma, Manju; Murchison, Elizabeth P; Puente, Gabriella C; Braun, Robert E
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, non-coding RNAs that mediate post-transcriptional gene silencing by inhibiting mRNA translation and promoting mRNA decay. DICER1, an RNase III endonuclease encoded by Dicer1, is required for processing short 21-22 nucleotide miRNAs from longer double-stranded RNA precursors. Here, we investigate the loss of Dicer1 in mouse postnatal male germ cells to determine how disruptions in the miRNA biogenesis pathway may contribute to infertility. Reduced levels of Dicer1 transcripts and DICER1 were confirmed in germ cell knock-out (GCKO) testes by postnatal day 18 (P18). Compared to wild-type (WT) at 8 weeks, GCKO males had no change in body weight; yet showed significant reductions in testis mass and sperm number. Histology and fertility tests confirmed spermatogenic failure in GCKO males. Array analyses at P18 showed that in comparison to WT testes, 75% of miRNA genes and 37% of protein coding genes were differentially expressed in GCKO testes. Among these, 96% of miRNA genes were significantly down-regulated, while 4% miRNA genes were overexpressed. Interestingly, we observed preferential overexpression of genes encoded on the sex chromosomes in GCKO testes, including more than 80% of previously identified targets of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). Compared to WT, GCKO mice showed higher percentages of germ cells at early meiotic stages (leptotene and zygotene) but lower percentages at later stages (pachytene, diplotene and metaphase I) providing evidence that deletion of Dicer1 leads to disruptions in meiotic progression. Therefore, deleting Dicer1 in early postnatal germ cells resulted in deregulation of transcripts encoded by genes on the sex chromosomes, impaired meiotic progression and led to spermatogenic failure and infertility.
Anne R Greenlee
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of endogenous, non-coding RNAs that mediate post-transcriptional gene silencing by inhibiting mRNA translation and promoting mRNA decay. DICER1, an RNase III endonuclease encoded by Dicer1, is required for processing short 21-22 nucleotide miRNAs from longer double-stranded RNA precursors. Here, we investigate the loss of Dicer1 in mouse postnatal male germ cells to determine how disruptions in the miRNA biogenesis pathway may contribute to infertility. Reduced levels of Dicer1 transcripts and DICER1 were confirmed in germ cell knock-out (GCKO testes by postnatal day 18 (P18. Compared to wild-type (WT at 8 weeks, GCKO males had no change in body weight; yet showed significant reductions in testis mass and sperm number. Histology and fertility tests confirmed spermatogenic failure in GCKO males. Array analyses at P18 showed that in comparison to WT testes, 75% of miRNA genes and 37% of protein coding genes were differentially expressed in GCKO testes. Among these, 96% of miRNA genes were significantly down-regulated, while 4% miRNA genes were overexpressed. Interestingly, we observed preferential overexpression of genes encoded on the sex chromosomes in GCKO testes, including more than 80% of previously identified targets of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI. Compared to WT, GCKO mice showed higher percentages of germ cells at early meiotic stages (leptotene and zygotene but lower percentages at later stages (pachytene, diplotene and metaphase I providing evidence that deletion of Dicer1 leads to disruptions in meiotic progression. Therefore, deleting Dicer1 in early postnatal germ cells resulted in deregulation of transcripts encoded by genes on the sex chromosomes, impaired meiotic progression and led to spermatogenic failure and infertility.
Full Text Available The increasing burden of sexually transmitted infections (STIs including HIV and syphilis among male sex workers (MSWs is a major global concern. The aim of our study was to evaluate the difference between MSWs and non-commercial MSMs in China.During 2008-09, in a cross-sectional study, 2618 adult MSM were recruited through respondent-driven and snowball sampling from seven cities of China. Information regarding socio-demographics, risk behaviors, HIV-related knowledge and STI-related symptoms were collected and participants were tested for HIV and syphilis.Among 2618 participating MSM, 9.97% sold sex to males. HIV prevalence was 7.45% (6.13% among MSWs and 7.59% among non-MSW MSM and syphilis prevalence was 14.32% (10.73% for MSWs and 14.72% for non-MSW MSM. Compared to non-MSW MSM, MSWs were more likely to be younger (adjusted odds ratio: aOR = 0.91, 95% confidence interval: 95%CI=0.88-0.93, never married (aOR = 4.38, 95% CI = 2.38-6.80, less educated, heterosexual (aOR = 13.04, 95% CI = 6.08-27.95, less knowledgeable regarding HIV (aOR = 0.70, 95% CI=0.51-0.96, experiencing symptoms of STI (aOR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.47-3.19, engaging in condomless vaginal intercourse (aOR = 2.16, 95% CI = 1.47-3.19 and less likely to engage in condomless anal intercourse (aOR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.46-0.85.High HIV and syphilis prevalence warranted urgent intervention targeting MSWs as a separate sentinel group for efficient surveillance owing to their different distribution from non-MSW MSM. Although male sex workers and non-commercial homosexuals have similar rates of HIV and syphilis, MSWs have different characteristics which should be considered in designing intervention programs targeting them.
Wang, Yingying; Adamson, Chris; Yuan, Weihong; Altaye, Mekibib; Rajagopal, Akila; Byars, Anna W; Holland, Scott K
Adolescence is a complex transitional period in human development, composing physical maturation, cognitive and social behavioral changes. The objective of this study is to investigate sex differences in white matter development and the associations between intelligence and white matter microstructure in the adolescent brain using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). In a cohort of 16 typically-developing adolescents aged 13 to 17 years, longitudinal DTI data were recorded from each subject at two time points that were one year apart. We used TBSS to analyze the diffusion indices including fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD). Our results suggest that boys (13-18 years) continued to demonstrate white matter maturation, whereas girls appeared to reach mature levels earlier. In addition, we identified significant positive correlations between FA and full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) in the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus when both sexes were looked at together. Only girls showed significant positive correlations between FA and verbal IQ in the left cortico-spinal tract and superior longitudinal fasciculus. The preliminary evidence presented in this study supports that boys and girls have different developmental trajectories in white matter microstructure.
Full Text Available Most animals rely on olfaction to find sexual partners, food or a habitat. The olfactory system faces the challenge of extracting meaningful information from a noisy odorous environment. In most moth species, males respond to sex pheromone emitted by females in an environment with abundant plant volatiles. Plant odours could either facilitate the localization of females (females calling on host plants, mask the female pheromone or they could be neutral without any effect on the pheromone. Here we studied how mixtures of a behaviourally-attractive floral odour, heptanal, and the sex pheromone are encoded at different levels of the olfactory pathway in males of the noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon. In addition, we asked how interactions between the two odorants change as a function of the males' mating status. We investigated mixture detection in both the pheromone-specific and in the general odorant pathway. We used a recordings from individual sensilla to study responses of olfactory receptor neurons, b in vivo calcium imaging with a bath-applied dye to characterize the global input response in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe and c intracellular recordings of antennal lobe output neurons, projection neurons, in virgin and newly-mated males. Our results show that heptanal reduces pheromone sensitivity at the peripheral and central olfactory level independently of the mating status. Contrarily, heptanal-responding olfactory receptor neurons are not influenced by pheromone in a mixture, although some post-mating modulation occurs at the input of the sexually isomorphic ordinary glomeruli, where general odours are processed within the antennal lobe. The results are discussed in the context of mate localization.
Campbell, Polly; Good, Jeffrey M; Nachman, Michael W
In male mammals, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced in primary spermatocytes by meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) and remain repressed for the duration of spermatogenesis. Here, we test the longstanding hypothesis that disrupted MSCI might contribute to the preferential sterility of heterogametic hybrid males. We studied a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus in which sterility is asymmetric: F1 males with a M. m. musculus mother are sterile or nearly so while F1 males with a M. m. domesticus mother are normal. In previous work, we discovered widespread overexpression of X-linked genes in the testes of sterile but not fertile F1 males. Here, we ask whether this overexpression is specifically a result of disrupted MSCI. To do this, we isolated cells from different stages of spermatogenesis and measured the expression of several genes using quantitative PCR. We found that X overexpression in sterile F1 primary spermatocytes is coincident with the onset of MSCI and persists in postmeiotic spermatids. Using a series of recombinant X genotypes, we then asked whether X overexpression in hybrids is controlled by cis-acting loci across the X chromosome. We found that it is not. Instead, one large interval in the proximal portion of the M. m. musculus X chromosome is associated with both overexpression and the severity of sterility phenotypes in hybrids. These results demonstrate a strong association between X-linked hybrid male sterility and disruption of MSCI and suggest that trans-acting loci on the X are important for the transcriptional regulation of the X chromosome during spermatogenesis.
Broquet, Thomas; Barranger, Audrey; Billard, Emmanuelle; Bestin, Anastasia; Berger, Rémy; Honnaert, Gaelle; Viard, Frédérique
Sequential hermaphroditism is adaptive when the reproductive value of an individual varies with size or age, and this relationship differs between males and females. In this case, theory shows that the lifetime reproductive output of an individual is increased by changing sex (a hypothesis referred to as the size-advantage model). Sex-linked differences in size-fitness curves can stem from differential costs of reproduction, the mating system, and differences in growth and mortality between sexes. Detailed empirical data is required to disentangle the relative roles of each of these factors within the theory. Quantitative data are also needed to explore the role of sperm storage, which has not yet been considered with sequential hermaphrodites. Using experimental rearing and paternity assignment, we report relationships between size and reproductive success of Crepidula fornicata, a protandrous (male-first) gastropod. Male reproductive success increased with size due to the polygamous system and stacking behavior of the species, but females nonetheless had greater reproductive success than males of the same size, in agreement with the size-advantage theory. Sperm storage appeared to be a critical determinant of success for both sexes, and modeling the effect of sperm storage showed that it could potentially accelerate sex change in protandrous species.
Ichijima, Yosuke; Ichijima, Misako; Lou, Zhenkun; Nussenzweig, André; Camerini-Otero, R Daniel; Chen, Junjie; Andreassen, Paul R; Namekawa, Satoshi H
Chromosome-wide inactivation is an epigenetic signature of sex chromosomes. The mechanism by which the chromosome-wide domain is recognized and gene silencing is induced remains unclear. Here we identify an essential mechanism underlying the recognition of the chromosome-wide domain in the male germline. We show that mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1), a binding partner of phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), defines the chromosome-wide domain, initiates meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI), and leads to XY body formation. Importantly, MSCI consists of two genetically separable steps. The first step is the MDC1-independent recognition of the unsynapsed axis by DNA damage response (DDR) factors such as ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR), TOPBP1, and γH2AX. The second step is the MDC1-dependent chromosome-wide spreading of DDR factors to the entire chromatin. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, in somatic cells, MDC1-dependent amplification of the γH2AX signal occurs following replicative stress and is associated with transcriptional silencing. We propose that a common DDR pathway underlies both MSCI and the response of somatic cells to replicative stress. These results establish that the DDR pathway centered on MDC1 triggers epigenetic silencing of sex chromosomes in germ cells.
Introduction. Controversies on clitoral anatomy and its role in female sexual function still make clitoral reconstructive surgery very challenging. We evaluated the role of clitoral anatomic features in female to male sex reassignment surgery. Material and Methods. The study included 97 female transsexuals, aged from 18 to 41 years, who underwent single stage metoidioplasty between March 2008 and January 2013. The operative technique involved vaginectomy, the release of clitoral ligaments and urethral plate, urethroplasty by combining buccal mucosa graft and genital flaps, and scrotoplasty with insertion of testicle prostheses. Postoperative questionnaire was used to evaluate aesthetic, functional, and sexual outcome. Results. The mean followup was 30 months. The mean length of the neophallus was 7 cm, compared to mean preoperative length of the hypertrophied clitoris of 3.3 cm. Complications occurred in 27.84% of all patients, related mostly to urethroplasty. Voiding while standing was achieved in all cases. None of the patients had problems in sexual arousal, masturbation, or orgasms. Conclusion. Accurate knowledge of the clitoral anatomy, physiology, and neurovascular supply is crucial for a successful outcome of female to male sex reassignment surgery. Our approach appears to ensure overall satisfaction and high quality of sexual life. PMID:24982953
Full Text Available Introduction. Controversies on clitoral anatomy and its role in female sexual function still make clitoral reconstructive surgery very challenging. We evaluated the role of clitoral anatomic features in female to male sex reassignment surgery. Material and Methods. The study included 97 female transsexuals, aged from 18 to 41 years, who underwent single stage metoidioplasty between March 2008 and January 2013. The operative technique involved vaginectomy, the release of clitoral ligaments and urethral plate, urethroplasty by combining buccal mucosa graft and genital flaps, and scrotoplasty with insertion of testicle prostheses. Postoperative questionnaire was used to evaluate aesthetic, functional, and sexual outcome. Results. The mean followup was 30 months. The mean length of the neophallus was 7 cm, compared to mean preoperative length of the hypertrophied clitoris of 3.3 cm. Complications occurred in 27.84% of all patients, related mostly to urethroplasty. Voiding while standing was achieved in all cases. None of the patients had problems in sexual arousal, masturbation, or orgasms. Conclusion. Accurate knowledge of the clitoral anatomy, physiology, and neurovascular supply is crucial for a successful outcome of female to male sex reassignment surgery. Our approach appears to ensure overall satisfaction and high quality of sexual life.
von Arx, Martin; Schmidt-Büsser, Daniela; Guerin, Patrick M
Plant volatiles play an important role in the lives of phytophagous insects, by guiding them to oviposition, feeding and mating sites. We tested the effects of different host-plant volatiles on attraction of Lobesia botrana males to the female-produced sex pheromone, in a wind tunnel. Addition of volatile emissions from grapevines or individual plant volatiles to pheromone increased the behavioral responses of L. botrana males over those to pheromone alone. At a low release rate (under-dosed) of pheromone, addition of (E)-β-caryophyllene, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, 1-hexanol, or 1-octen-3-ol increased all behavioral responses, from activation to pheromone source contact, while addition of (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, (E)-β-farnesene, (Z)-3-hexenol, or methyl salicylate affected only the initial behavioral responses. Dose-response experiments suggested an optimal release ratio of 1:1000 (sex pheromone: host plant volatile). Our results highlight the role of plant volatiles in the sensory ecology of L. botrana.
Lailvaux, Simon P; Wilson, Robbie; Kasumovic, Michael M
Phenotypic traits are often influenced by dynamic resource allocation trade-offs which, when occurring over the course of individual lifespan, may manifest as trait aging. Although aging is studied for a variety of traits that are closely tied to reproduction or reproductive effort, the aging of multiple traits related to fitness in other ways are less well understood. We took advantage of almost 30 years of data on human whole-organism performance in the National Basketball Association (USA) to examine trends of aging in performance traits associated with scoring. Given that patterns of aging differ between sexes in other animal species, we also analyzed a smaller dataset on players in the Women's National Basketball Association to test for potential sex differences in the aging of comparable traits. We tested the hypothesis that age-related changes in a specific aspect of overall performance can be compensated for by elevated expression of another, related aspect. Our analyses suggest that the aging of performance traits used in basketball is generally characterized by senescence in males, whereas age-related changes in basketball performance are less evident in females. Our data also indicate a different rate of senescence of different performance traits associated with scoring over a male's lifetime.
A study examined the ways in which cyclical changes in the business cycle affect unemployment rates by sex in male-dominated occupations and industries. Using data from the monthly reports on employment and earnings issued by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (1969-1982), the report examined employment rates in selected male-dominated and…
Cordeiro, Lisa; Tartaglia, Nicole; Roeltgen, David; Ross, Judith
We compare social skills in three groups of males with sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Participants included males with XXY (N = 102, M = 10.08 years), XYY (N = 40, M = 9.93 years), and XXYY (N = 32, M = 11.57 years). XXY had lower (better) SRS scores compared to XYY and XXYY. Scores were not…
Biello, Katie B; Colby, Donn; Closson, Elizabeth; Mimiaga, Matthew J
In Vietnam, the co-occurrence (i.e., "syndemic") of psychosocial factors (e.g., depression and substance use) may disproportionately burden male sex workers and increase their HIV risk. A comprehensive survey was conducted among 300 male sex workers in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam in 2010. We performed logistic regression to examine the association between the syndemic variable-a count score of the number of five psychosocial conditions endorsed-and unprotected anal sex (UAS) in the past. One-third of participants reported any UAS, and 42 % reported ≥2 psychosocial health problems. In multivariable models, experiencing ≥4 psychosocial health problems was significantly associated with UAS. Every unit increase in number of psychosocial health problems was associated with a 25-30 % increase in odds of UAS. Understanding the syndemic condition and its association with HIV risk among male sex workers in Vietnam may lead to the development of more effective, comprehensive interventions.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop a genetic sex marker for the pointed gourd (Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. to allow gender determination at any stage in the life cycle. Screening of genomic DNA with intersimple sequence repeat (ISSR primers was used to discover sex-specific touch-down polymerase chain reaction (Td-PCR amplification products. Using pooled DNA from male and female genotypes and 42 ISSR primers, a putative male specific marker (~550 bp was identified. DNA marker specific to male is an indication of existence of nonepigenetic factors involved in gender development in pointed gourd. The ISSR technique has proved to be a reliable technique in gender determination of pointed gourd genotypes at the seedling phenophase. The sex marker developed here could also be used as a starting material towards sequence characterization of sex linked genes for better understanding the developmental as well as evolutionary pathways in sexual dimorphism.
Grov, Christian; Koken, Juline; Smith, Martez; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Much contemporary focus on male-for-male sex work has been with men who place advertisements on profile-based sex work websites. Less is known about men who sell sex via online bulletin boards. We compared two samples of men who were selling sex: a 2014-2015 survey of men on Craigslist.org (n = 95) and a 2013 study of men on Rentboy.com (n = 418). In multivariable modelling, compared to Rentboy, Craigslist participants had a significantly higher odds of being non-White (AOR = 5.32), gay identified (AOR = 2.32), making less than US$20,000 a year (AOR = 3.77), having used marijuana in the past 12 months (AOR = 3.41). Furthermore, compared to Rentboy, Craigslist participants had significantly lower odds of escorting full-time (AOR = .24), kissing (AOR = .23) or having anal insertive sex (AOR = .36) with their last male client, that their last paid encounter exceeded 1 hour in duration (AOR = .49) or having been paid over US$200 for that encounter (AOR = .19), and fewer clients in the past 30 days (AOR = .95). Craigslist participants were at greater economic disadvantage compared to men from Rentboy; however, they were less likely to engage in HIV risk behaviours (anal sex and condomless anal sex). These samples may represent distinct populations along the continuum of sex work.
There has been extensive traffic of male-biased genes out of the mammalian and Drosophila X-chromosomes, and there are also reports of an under-representation of male-biased genes on the X. This may reflect an adaptive process driven by natural selection where an autosomal location of male-biased genes is favored since male genes are only exposed to selection one-third of the time when X-linked. However, there are several alternative explanations to "out-of-the-X" gene movement, including mutational bias and a means for X-linked genes to escape meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) during spermatogenesis. As a critical test of the hypothesis that genomic relocation of sex-biased genes is an adaptive process, I examined the emergence, and loss, of genes on the chicken Z-chromosome, i.e., a female heterogametic system (males ZZ, females ZW). Here, the analogous prediction would be an emergence of male-biased genes onto, not a loss from, the Z-chromosome because Z is found more often in males than autosomes are. I found that genes expressed in testis but not in ovary are highly over-represented among genes that have emerged on the Z-chromosome during avian evolution. Moreover, genes with male-biased expression are similarly over-represented among new Z-chromosomal genes. Interestingly, genes with female-biased expression have more often moved from than to the Z-chromosome. These observations show that male and female heterogametic organisms display opposing directionalities in the emergence and loss of sex-biased genes on sex chromosomes. This is consistent with theoretical models on the evolution of sexually antagonistic genes in which new mutations are at least partly dominant.
Closson, Elizabeth F; Colby, Donn J; Nguyen, Thi; Cohen, Samuel S; Biello, Katie; Mimiaga, Matthew J
In Vietnam, there is an emerging HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). Male sex workers engage in high-risk sexual behaviours that make them particularly vulnerable to HIV infection. In 2010, 23 MSM in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) who recently received payment for sex with another man completed in-depth qualitative interviews exploring motivations for sex work, patterns of sex work disclosure and experiences of social stigma. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and translated into English and analysed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Low wages, unstable employment and family remittances were motivating factors for MSM in HCMC to sell sex. Participants described experiences of enacted and felt social stigma related to their involvement in sex work. In response, they utilised stigma management techniques aimed at concealment of involvement in sex work. Such strategies restricted sexual communication with non-paying sex partners and potentially limited their ability to seek social support from family and friends. Departing from decontextualized depictions of sex work disclosure, our findings describe how decisions to reveal involvement in sex work are shaped by social and structural factors such as social stigma, techniques to minimise exposure to stigma, economic imperatives and familial responsibilities.
Isabel M L Scott; Nicholas Pound; Stephen, Ian D.; Clark, Andrew P; Penton-Voak, Ian S
Copyright: © 2010 Scott et al. Background: In many animals, exaggerated sex-typical male traits are preferred by females, and may be a signal of both past and current disease resistance. The proposal that the same is true in humans - i.e., that masculine men are immunocompetent and attractive - underpins a large literature on facial masculinity preferences. Recently, theoretical models have suggested that current condition may be a better index of mate value than past immunocompetence. Thi...
Berglund, A.; Johannsen, T. H.; Stochholm, K.
STUDY QUESTION What is the epidemiology and trajectory of health and socioeconomic status in males with 46,XX disorders of sex development (DSD)? SUMMARY ANSWER 46,XX DSD males had an increased overall morbidity compared to male background population controls, and the socioeconomic status...... excluding endocrine and urogenital diseases as well as congenital malformations (HR = 1.2, 95% CI: 0.8-1.6). Mortality was not increased (HR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.2-2.5) compared to male controls. 46,XX DSD males had poorer education (HR = 0.1, 95% CI: 0.0-0.9) and fewer fatherhoods (HR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0...
Berglund, A; Johannsen, T H; Stochholm, K
STUDY QUESTION: What is the epidemiology and trajectory of health and socioeconomic status in males with 46,XX disorders of sex development (DSD)? SUMMARY ANSWER: 46,XX DSD males had an increased overall morbidity compared to male background population controls, and the socioeconomic status...... excluding endocrine and urogenital diseases as well as congenital malformations (HR = 1.2, 95% CI: 0.8-1.6). Mortality was not increased (HR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.2-2.5) compared to male controls. 46,XX DSD males had poorer education (HR = 0.1, 95% CI: 0.0-0.9) and fewer fatherhoods (HR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0...
Kristin L Dunkle
Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa the population prevalence of men who have sex with men (MSM is unknown, as is the population prevalence of male-on-male sexual violence, and whether male-on-male sexual violence may relate to HIV risk. This paper describes lifetime prevalence of consensual male-male sexual behavior and male-on-male sexual violence (victimization and perpetration in two South African provinces, socio-demographic factors associated with these experiences, and associations with HIV serostatus.In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008, men aged 18-49 y from randomly selected households in the Eastern Cape and KwaZulu-Natal provinces provided anonymous survey data and dried blood spots for HIV serostatus assessment. Interviews were completed in 1,737 of 2,298 (75.6% of enumerated and eligible households. From these households, 1,705 men (97.1% provided data on lifetime history of same-sex experiences, and 1,220 (70.2% also provided dried blood spots for HIV testing. 5.4% (n = 92 of participants reported a lifetime history of any consensual sexual activity with another man; 9.6% (n = 164 reported any sexual victimization by a man, and 3.0% (n = 51 reported perpetrating sexual violence against another man. 85.0% (n = 79 of men with a history of consensual sex with men reported having a current female partner, and 27.7% (n = 26 reported having a current male partner. Of the latter, 80.6% (n = 21/26 also reported having a female partner. Men reporting a history of consensual male-male sexual behavior are more likely to have been a victim of male-on-male sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 7.24; 95% CI 4.26-12.3, and to have perpetrated sexual violence against another man (aOR = 3.10; 95% CI 1.22-7.90. Men reporting consensual oral/anal sex with a man were more likely to be HIV+ than men with no such history (aOR = 3.11; 95% CI 1.24-7.80. Men who had raped a man were more likely to be HIV+ than non
Sundararajan, Vignesh; Civetta, Alberto
Male sex genes have shown a pattern of rapid interspecies divergence at both the coding and gene expression level. A common outcome from crosses between closely-related species is hybrid male sterility. Phenotypic and genetic studies in Drosophila sterile hybrid males have shown that spermatogenesis arrest is postmeiotic with few exceptions, and that most misregulated genes are involved in late stages of spermatogenesis. Comparative studies of gene regulation in sterile hybrids and parental species have mainly used microarrays providing a whole genome representation of regulatory problems in sterile hybrids. Real-time PCR studies can reject or reveal differences not observed in microarray assays. Moreover, differences in gene expression between samples can be dependant on the source of RNA (e.g., whole body vs. tissue). Here we survey expression in D. simulans, D. mauritiana and both intra and interspecies hybrids using a real-time PCR approach for eight genes expressed at the four main stages of sperm development. We find that all genes show a trend toward under expression in the testes of sterile hybrids relative to parental species with only the two proliferation genes (bam and bgcn) and the two meiotic class genes (can and sa) showing significant down regulation. The observed pattern of down regulation for the genes tested can not fully explain hybrid male sterility. We discuss the down regulation of spermatogenesis genes in hybrids between closely-related species within the contest of rapid divergence experienced by the male genome, hybrid sterility and possible allometric changes due to subtle testes-specific developmental abnormalities.
Goldstone, Stephen E; Hundert, Joshua S; Huyett, Jeff W
The incidence of anal squamous carcinoma in males who have sex with males is rising. We reported that infrared coagulation of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-positive males who have sex with males yielded a recurrence rate after the first ablation of 65 percent and 58 percent after a second ablation. The cure rate of an individual lesion was 72 percent. We endeavored to determine whether this technique demonstrates improved results in HIV-negative males who have sex with males. We performed a retrospective review of medical records on HIV-negative males who have sex with males who had infrared coagulation ablation of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Patients had at least six months' follow-up with cytology, high-resolution anoscopy, and biopsy. Recurrent high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were retreated. Seventy-five patients were enrolled, with a median age of 36 years, and 113 lesions were treated. Forty patients (53 percent) developed a recurrence in a median time of 238 days and 35 patients (47 percent) were disease free for a median of 516 days. When patients were treated a second or third time, recurrence rates dropped to 28 and 0 percent, respectively. The probability of successfully treating an individual lesion at first infrared coagulation was 81 percent and 93 percent when retreated. HIV-positive patients were twice as likely to have lesions persist and 1.7 times more likely to develop a recurrent high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. No patient developed squamous-cell carcinoma, anal stenosis, or had a serious complication. Infrared coagulation is a safe and effective office-based procedure for treating anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Although recurrence was high after the first infrared coagulation, repeated treatment led to resolution of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Treatment success with infrared coagulation is significantly superior in HIV-negative patients compared
Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Seok-Kwun; Jeong, Gwang-Woo
Several studies seem to support the hypothesis that brain anatomy is associated with transsexualism. However, these studies were still limited because few neuroanatomical findings have been obtained from female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals. This study compared the cerebral regional volumes of gray matter (GM) between FtM transsexuals and female controls using a voxel-based morphometry. Twelve FtM transsexuals who had undergone sex-reassignment surgery and 15 female controls participated in this study. Both groups were age matched and right-handed, with no history of neurological illness. Fifteen female controls were recruited to determine whether GM volumes in FtM transsexuals more closely resembled individuals who shared their biological sex. MRI data were processed using SPM 8 with the diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL). FtM transsexuals showed significantly larger volumes of the thalamus, hypothalamus, midbrain, gyrus rectus, head of caudate nucleus, precentral gyrus, and subcallosal area compared with the female controls. However, the female controls showed a significantly larger volume in the superior temporal gyrus including Heschl's gyrus and Rolandic operculum. These findings confirm that the volume difference in brain substructures in FtM transsexuals is likely to be associated with transsexualism and that transsexualism is probably associated with distinct cerebral structures, determining gender identity.
Cai, Yong; Wang, Zixin; Lau, Joseph TF; Li, Jinghua; Ma, Tiecheng; Liu, Yan
Introduction Globally, transgender women sex workers have a high prevalence of HIV and condomless receptive anal intercourse with male clients (CRAIMC). We investigated the prevalence of CRAIMC and factors associated with CRAIMC among transgender women sex workers in China. Methods In 2014, we anonymously interviewed 220 transgender women sex workers face to face in Shenyang, China. Those who self-reported as HIV negative or as having unknown HIV serostatus were invited to take up free, anonymous HIV rapid testing (n=183); 90 did so. Using CRAIMC in the last month as the dependent variable, three types of associated factors were investigated, in addition to background factors: feminizing medical interventions, sex work and perceptions related to condom use. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Results Of the participants, 16.8% self-reported as HIV positive and 9.1% were detected to be HIV positive through free HIV testing; 26.8% had had CRAIMC in the last month, 45.5% had performed sex work in other Chinese cities (last year), and 23.2% had had condomless anal intercourse with men who were non-clients. In the adjusted analysis, significant factors associated with CRAIMC (last month) included the following: 1) any feminizing medical intervention performed (adjusted odds ratio, AOR: 2.22); 2) sex-work-related factors, including recruitment of male clients most often at hotels (AOR: 5.02) and charge per episode of transactional sex (201 to 400 RMB, AOR: 0.27; reference group: ≤100 RMB); and 3) perceptions related to condom use, including perceived transgender identity's impact on condomless sex such as wearing feminine attire, concern about exposing their status as a transgender woman to male clients (AOR: 1.20) and perceived self-efficacy of consistent condom use with male clients (AOR: 0.56). Perceived self-efficacy of consistent condom use with male clients fully mediated the association between perceived transgender identity's impact
King, A C; Errico, A L; Parsons, O A
This study investigated the relationship between alcoholics' personality characteristics [as indexed by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)] and sex steroid levels. Three serum samples were drawn over a 90-min period in 58 inpatient male alcoholics (mean 33 days sober) and 33 non-alcoholic controls. The EPQ was administered at approximately the same point in the treatment process. Replicating previous work, we found alcoholics scored significantly higher on the Neuroticism and Psychoticism scales of the EPQ than controls. Alcoholics also had higher levels of estradiol and total testosterone than controls, which may be reflective of a biological rebound or characteristic premorbid levels. A significant positive correlation was found between testosterone and extroversion in controls, but not in alcoholics. Alcoholics showed a positive correlation between estradiol and neuroticism and a negative relationship between estradiol and extroversion. The results suggest that (a) 'normal' hormone-personality relationships are disrupted in male alcoholics, and b) personality and psychological changes consistent with the physical feminization syndrome may occur in male alcoholics.
Matveevsky, Sergey; Bakloushinskaya, Irina; Kolomiets, Oxana
Most mammalian species have heteromorphic sex chromosomes in males, except for a few enigmatic groups such as the mole voles Ellobius, which do not have the Y chromosome and Sry gene. The Ellobius (XX ♀♂) system of sex chromosomes has no analogues among other animals. The structure and meiotic behaviour of the two X chromosomes were investigated for males of the sibling species Ellobius talpinus and Ellobius tancrei. Their sex chromosomes, despite their identical G-structure, demonstrate short synaptic fragments and crossover-associated MLH1 foci in both telomeric regions only. The chromatin undergoes modifications in the meiotic sex chromosomes. SUMO-1 marks a small nucleolus-like body of the meiotic XX. ATR and ubiH2A are localized in the asynaptic area and the histone γH2AFX covers the entire XX bivalent. The distribution of some markers of chromatin inactivation differentiates sex chromosomes of mole voles from those of other mammals. Sex chromosomes of both studied species have identical recombination and meiotic inactivation patterns. In Ellobius, similar chromosome morphology masks the functional heteromorphism of the male sex chromosomes, which can be seen at meiosis.
Jacobson, Lisa A; Peterson, Daniel J; Rosch, Keri S; Crocetti, Deana; Mori, Susumu; Mostofsky, Stewart H
Sexual dimorphism is evident in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including subtype prevalence, adverse outcomes, and neural phenotype. Neurobiological studies of ADHD suggest that boys show more abnormalities in motor and premotor structure and function, whereas girls differ from typically developing (TD) peers in prefrontal circuitry. We applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to identify ADHD-related sex-specific differences in motor/premotor and prefrontal white matter (WM) microstructure in children. DTI estimated differences in WM microstructure among 120 children 8 to 12 years of age, 60 with ADHD (30 boys and 30 girls) and 60 controls (30 boys and 30 girls), matched on age, IQ, and handedness. Effects of diagnosis and sex on fractional anisotropy (FA) were assessed in motor/premotor and prefrontal regions. Group differences in FA and associations with response control (e.g., reaction time variability [CVRT] and commission error rate) were examined separately within sex. Sex-by-diagnosis interactions were observed for FA in primary motor (M1) and medial orbitofrontal (MOFC) cortex. Post hoc tests revealed that boys with ADHD showed bilateral reductions in FA within M1, compared with TD peers; in contrast, girls with ADHD showed higher FA bilaterally within MOFC. Decreased M1 FA was associated with higher CVRT in boys and higher commission error rates in girls. For MOFC, lower FA was associated with greater CVRT and commission error rates across all participants with ADHD. ADHD affects the white matter of boys and girls differently; boys appear to be more affected in regions responsible for control of basic actions, whereas girls show more abnormalities in regions responsible for higher-level, top-down control. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vedder, Oscar; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Benito, María M; Becker, Peter H
Optimal sex allocation is frequency-dependent, but senescence may cause behaviour at old age to be suboptimal. We investigated whether sex allocation changes with parental age, using 16 years of data comprising more than 2500 molecularly sexed offspring of more than 600 known-age parents in common terns (Sterna hirundo), slightly sexually size-dimorphic seabirds. We decomposed parental age effects into within-individual change and sex allocation-associated selective (dis)appearance. Individual parents did not differ consistently in sex allocation, but offspring sex ratios at fledging changed from female- to male-biased as parents aged. Sex ratios at hatching were not related to parental age, suggesting sons to outperform daughters after hatching in broods of old parents. Our results call for the integration of sex allocation theory with theory on ageing and demography, as a change in sex allocation with age per se will cause the age structure of a population to affect the frequency-dependent benefits and the age-specific strength of selection on sex allocation.
Full Text Available The influence of GA3, IAA, ethrel, ABA and kinetin on sex expression in male and female plants of hemp (Cannabis sativa cultivar LKC SD was investigated. The growth regulators were applied separately and in combinations on stem apices of plant determined sexually and having the first flower primordia. Gibberellic acid promoted masculinization, whereas IAA, ethylene and kinetin had a feminization effect on sex of hemp. Abscisic acid did not exert any direct effect on sex determination, it however acted antagnisticaly in relation to the effect exerted by GA3 and IAA. The results of combined application of IAA and ethrel with other growth regulators suggest, that the mechanism of action of auxin and ethylene in the control of sex expression in hemp is different. Auxins in this process cannot be regarded only as causing agents of ethylene production increase.
McNamara, Kathryn B; Robinson, Stephen P; Rosa, Márta E; Sloan, Nadia S; van Lieshout, Emile; Simmons, Leigh W
Sperm competition risk and intensity can select for adaptations that increase male fertilisation success. Evolutionary responses are examined typically by generating increased strength of sexual selection via direct manipulation of female mating rates (by enforcing monandry or polyandry) or by alteration of adult sex ratios. Despite being a model species for sexual selection research, the effect of sexual selection intensity via adult sex-ratio manipulation on male investment strategies has not been investigated in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. We imposed 32 generations of experimental evolution on 10 populations of beetles by manipulating adult sex ratio. Contrary to predictions, males evolving in male-biased populations did not increase their testes and accessory gland size. This absence of divergence in ejaculate investment was also reflected in the fact that males from male-biased populations were not more successful in either preventing females from remating, or in competing directly for fertilisations. These populations already demonstrate divergence in mating behaviour and immunity, suggesting sufficient generations have passed to allow divergence in physiological and behavioural traits. We propose several explanations for the absence of divergence in sperm competitiveness among our populations and the pitfalls of using sex ratio manipulation to assess evolutionary responses to sexual selection intensity.
McNamara, Kathryn B.; Robinson, Stephen P.; Rosa, Márta E.; Sloan, Nadia S.; van Lieshout, Emile; Simmons, Leigh W.
Sperm competition risk and intensity can select for adaptations that increase male fertilisation success. Evolutionary responses are examined typically by generating increased strength of sexual selection via direct manipulation of female mating rates (by enforcing monandry or polyandry) or by alteration of adult sex ratios. Despite being a model species for sexual selection research, the effect of sexual selection intensity via adult sex-ratio manipulation on male investment strategies has not been investigated in the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. We imposed 32 generations of experimental evolution on 10 populations of beetles by manipulating adult sex ratio. Contrary to predictions, males evolving in male-biased populations did not increase their testes and accessory gland size. This absence of divergence in ejaculate investment was also reflected in the fact that males from male-biased populations were not more successful in either preventing females from remating, or in competing directly for fertilisations. These populations already demonstrate divergence in mating behaviour and immunity, suggesting sufficient generations have passed to allow divergence in physiological and behavioural traits. We propose several explanations for the absence of divergence in sperm competitiveness among our populations and the pitfalls of using sex ratio manipulation to assess evolutionary responses to sexual selection intensity. PMID:27306351
Yabar, Carlos Augusto; Salvatierra, Javier; Quijano, Eberth
HIV genetic diversity in female sex workers (FSW) has been previously described in Peru; however this information is not yet available for male sex workers (MSW). Therefore, purified peripheral blood mononuclear cell DNA from 147 HIV-infected subjects identified as MSW and FSW was used to amplify a 460-bp fragment corresponding to the p24-p7 region of the gag gene. The PCR product was digested with restriction enzymes to identify genetic polymorphism. Later, a random group of samples (n = 19) was sequenced to perform phylogenetic analysis, intragenic recombination analysis, and deleterious mutations leading to a nonfunctional protein in conservative regions of the Gag protein. RFLP analysis revealed 11 genetic variants for AluI and five for MspI. A group of nonsex workers (NSW) used for comparison showed different RFLP genetic variant distributions. Of interest, nine cases of mixed genetic variants were observed for MSW, one case for FSW, and none for NSW. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all HIV-1 species were subtype B. Intragenic recombination analysis showed a B/C recombination case from an FSW (boostrap = 1000; p value < 0.05). Of interest, deleterious mutations were observed in three cases of conservative D2 zinc domains for Gag 3/19 and one case of the high homology region (1/19). This study shows that gag of HIV circulating from MSW has high genetic polymorphism involving deleterious mutations in conserved domains from the p24-p7 gag region.
Padilla, Mark B
While theories of "structure" and social inequality have increasingly informed global health efforts for HIV prevention--with growing recognition of the linkages between large-scale political and economic factors in the distribution and impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic--there is still little theorization of precisely how structural factors shape the very bodies and sexualities of specific populations and groups. In order to extend the theoretical understanding of these macro-micro linkages, this article examines how the growth of the tourism industry in the Dominican Republic has produced sexual practices and identities that reflect both the influence of large-scale structural processes and the resistant responses of local individuals. Drawing on social science theories of political economy, embodiment, and authenticity, I argue that an understanding of patterns of sexuality and HIV risk in the region requires analysis of how political-economic transformations related to tourism intersect with the individual experiences and practices of sexuality on the ground. The analysis draws on long-term ethnographic research with bisexually behaving male sex workers in two cities in the Dominican Republic, including participant observation, in-depth interviews, focus groups, and surveys. By examining the global and local values placed on these men's bodies and the ways sex workers use their bodies to broker tourists' pleasure, we may better understand how the large-scale structures of the tourism industry are linked to the specific meanings and practices of sexuality.
Ryman, Sephira G; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Yeo, Ronald A; Caprihan, Arvind; Carrasco, Jessica; Vakhtin, Andrei A; Flores, Ranee A; Wertz, Christopher; Jung, Rex E
Creative cognition emerges from a complex network of interacting brain regions. This study investigated the relationship between the structural organization of the human brain and aspects of creative cognition tapped by divergent thinking tasks. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) was used to obtain fiber tracts from 83 segmented cortical regions. This information was represented as a network and metrics of connectivity organization, including connectivity strength, clustering and communication efficiency were computed, and their relationship to individual levels of creativity was examined. Permutation testing identified significant sex differences in the relationship between global connectivity and creativity as measured by divergent thinking tests. Females demonstrated significant inverse relationships between global connectivity and creative cognition, whereas there were no significant relationships observed in males. Node specific analyses revealed inverse relationships across measures of connectivity, efficiency, clustering and creative cognition in widespread regions in females. Our findings suggest that females involve more regions of the brain in processing to produce novel ideas to solutions, perhaps at the expense of efficiency (greater path lengths). Males, in contrast, exhibited few, relatively weak positive relationships across these measures. Extending recent observations of sex differences in connectome structure, our findings of sexually dimorphic relationships suggest a unique topological organization of connectivity underlying the generation of novel ideas in males and females.
Hull, L; Mandy, W; Petrides, K.
Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing behavioural and cognitive characteristics in males and females with and without an autism spectrum condition diagnosis. A total of 13 studies were included ...
Quinnies, Kayla M; Bonthuis, Paul J.; Harris, Erin P; Shetty, Savera RJ; Rissman, Emilie F.
Background Sex differences in pituitary growth hormone (GH) are well documented and coordinate maturation and growth. GH and its receptor are also produced in the brain where they may impact cognitive function and synaptic plasticity, and estradiol produces Gh sex differences in rat hippocampus. In mice, circulating estradiol increases Gh mRNA in female but not in male medial preoptic area (mPOA); therefore, additional factors regulate sexually dimorphic Gh expression in the brain. Thus, we h...
Emily L Landeen
Full Text Available The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes has repeatedly resulted in the evolution of sex chromosome-specific forms of regulation, including sex chromosome dosage compensation in the soma and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in the germline. In the male germline of Drosophila melanogaster, a novel but poorly understood form of sex chromosome-specific transcriptional regulation occurs that is distinct from canonical sex chromosome dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation. Previous work shows that expression of reporter genes driven by testis-specific promoters is considerably lower-approximately 3-fold or more-for transgenes inserted into X chromosome versus autosome locations. Here we characterize this transcriptional suppression of X-linked genes in the male germline and its evolutionary consequences. Using transgenes and transpositions, we show that most endogenous X-linked genes, not just testis-specific ones, are transcriptionally suppressed several-fold specifically in the Drosophila male germline. In wild-type testes, this sex chromosome-wide transcriptional suppression is generally undetectable, being effectively compensated by the gene-by-gene evolutionary recruitment of strong promoters on the X chromosome. We identify and experimentally validate a promoter element sequence motif that is enriched upstream of the transcription start sites of hundreds of testis-expressed genes; evolutionarily conserved across species; associated with strong gene expression levels in testes; and overrepresented on the X chromosome. These findings show that the expression of X-linked genes in the Drosophila testes reflects a balance between chromosome-wide epigenetic transcriptional suppression and long-term compensatory adaptation by sex-linked genes. Our results have broad implications for the evolution of gene expression in the Drosophila male germline and for genome evolution.
Landeen, Emily L; Muirhead, Christina A; Wright, Lori; Meiklejohn, Colin D; Presgraves, Daven C
The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes has repeatedly resulted in the evolution of sex chromosome-specific forms of regulation, including sex chromosome dosage compensation in the soma and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation in the germline. In the male germline of Drosophila melanogaster, a novel but poorly understood form of sex chromosome-specific transcriptional regulation occurs that is distinct from canonical sex chromosome dosage compensation or meiotic inactivation. Previous work shows that expression of reporter genes driven by testis-specific promoters is considerably lower-approximately 3-fold or more-for transgenes inserted into X chromosome versus autosome locations. Here we characterize this transcriptional suppression of X-linked genes in the male germline and its evolutionary consequences. Using transgenes and transpositions, we show that most endogenous X-linked genes, not just testis-specific ones, are transcriptionally suppressed several-fold specifically in the Drosophila male germline. In wild-type testes, this sex chromosome-wide transcriptional suppression is generally undetectable, being effectively compensated by the gene-by-gene evolutionary recruitment of strong promoters on the X chromosome. We identify and experimentally validate a promoter element sequence motif that is enriched upstream of the transcription start sites of hundreds of testis-expressed genes; evolutionarily conserved across species; associated with strong gene expression levels in testes; and overrepresented on the X chromosome. These findings show that the expression of X-linked genes in the Drosophila testes reflects a balance between chromosome-wide epigenetic transcriptional suppression and long-term compensatory adaptation by sex-linked genes. Our results have broad implications for the evolution of gene expression in the Drosophila male germline and for genome evolution.
Zhao, Yunchuan; Kim, Heejung; Peltzer, Jill
Male and female students manifest different behaviors in condomless sex. This cross-sectional, exploratory, correlational study examined the differences in risk factors for condomless sex between male and female high school students, using secondary data from 4,968 sexually active males and females participating in the 2011 National Youth Risk…
Harding, A.M.A.; Kitaysky, A.S.; Hamer, K.C.; Hall, M.E.; Welcker, J.; Talbot, S.L.; Karnovsky, N.J.; Gabrielsen, G.W.; Gremillet, D.
We examined how short-term impacts of experimentally increased foraging effort by one parent reverberate around the family in a monomorphic seabird (little auk, Alle alle), and whether these effects depend on offspring sex. In many species, more effort is required to rear sons successfully than daughters. However, undernourishment may have stronger adverse consequences for male offspring, which could result in a lower fitness benefit of additional parental effort when rearing a son. We tested two alternative hypotheses concerning the responses of partners to handicapping parents via feather clipping: partners rearing a son are (1) more willing or able to compensate for the reduced contribution of their mate, or (2) less willing or able to compensate, compared to those rearing a daughter. Hypothesis 1 predicts that sons will be no more adversely affected than daughters, and the impact on parents will be greater when rearing a son. Hypothesis 2 predicts that sons will be more adversely affected than daughters, and parents raising a son less affected. Although experimental chicks of both sexes fledged in poorer condition than controls, sons attained higher mass and more rapid growth than daughters in both groups. Clipped parents lost a similar proportion of their initial mass regardless of chick sex, whereas partners of clipped birds lost more mass when rearing a son. These results support hypothesis 1: impacts of increased foraging effort by one parent were felt by offspring, regardless of their sex, and by the partners of manipulated birds, particularly when the offspring was male. ?? 2009 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.
Full Text Available Maternal hormones are important mediators of prenatal maternal effects in animals. Although their effects on offspring phenotype are often sex-specific, the reason why sometimes sons are more sensitive to prenatal hormone exposure and sometimes daughters is not well understood. Here I combine an experimental manipulation of yolk testosterone concentration in the egg and quantification of selection acting on yolk androgen-sensitive traits in a natural population of great tits (Parus major with a literature review to test the hypothesis that sex-specific selection on traits affected by yolk androgens determines which sex is more sensitive to prenatal hormone exposure. An experimental increase of the testosterone content in the egg boosted the post-hatching growth of male, but not female great tit nestlings. However, I found no evidence that survival selection on body mass or size is acting differently in the two sexes. A literature review revealed that yolk androgen manipulations affect the growth of males and females differently across species. Interestingly, in studies performed in the wild a significant association between the strength and direction of sexual size dimorphism and sex-specific sensitivities to yolk androgens was observed. In studies performed in captivity, no such relationship was found. Thus, across species there is some evidence that sex-specific selection on body size influences how strongly growth trajectories of males and females are affected by maternally-derived yolk androgens.
Robertson, Angela Marie; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo S; Morris, Martina; Patterson, Thomas L; Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A
To investigate the prevalence and correlates of concurrent (overlapping) sexual partnerships among female sex workers (FSWs) and their non-commercial male partners in two Mexico-US border cities. A cross-sectional survey of FSWs and their non-commercial male partners was conducted in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico (2010-2011). Eligible FSWs and verified non-commercial partners were aged ≥18 years; FSWs had ever used hard drugs (lifetime) and recently exchanged sex for money, drugs or other goods (past month). Participants underwent baseline questionnaires obtaining dates of sex and condom use with ≤5 other recurring partners, including FSWs' regular clients. These dates were compared with dates of sex with enrolled study partners to determine overlap (ie, 'recurring' concurrency). Bivariate probit regression identified recurring concurrency correlates. Among 428 individuals (214 couples), past-year recurring concurrency prevalence was 16% and was higher among women than their non-commercial male partners (26% vs 6%). In 10 couples (5%), both partners reported recurring concurrency. The majority of couples (64%) always had unprotected sex, and most of the individuals (70%) with recurring concurrency 'sometimes' or 'never' used condoms with their concurrent partners. Recurring concurrency was positively associated with FSWs' income, men's caballerismo (a form of traditional masculinity) and men's belief that their FSW partners had sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Recurring concurrency, representing sustained periods of overlapping partnerships in which unprotected sex was common, should be addressed by couple-based STI prevention interventions.
Mank, Judith E; Ellegren, Hans
Evolutionary theory predicts that sexually antagonistic loci will be preferentially sex-linked, and this association can be empirically testes with data on sex-biased gene expression with the assumption that sex-biased gene expression represents the resolution of past sexual antagonism. However, incomplete dosage compensating mechanisms and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation have hampered efforts to connect expression data to theoretical predictions regarding the genomic distribution of sexually antagonistic loci in a variety of animals. Here we use data on the underlying regulatory mechanism that produce expression sex-bias to test the genomic distribution of sexually antagonistic genes in chicken. Using this approach, which is free from problems associated with the lack of dosage compensation in birds, we show that female-detriment genes are significantly overrepresented on the Z chromosome, and female-benefit genes underrepresented. By contrast, male-effect genes show no over- or underrepresentation on the Z chromosome. These data are consistent with a dominant mode of inheritance for sexually antagonistic genes, in which male-benefit coding mutations are more likely to be fixed on the Z due to stronger male-specific selective pressures. After fixation of male-benefit alleles, regulatory changes in females evolve to minimize antagonism by reducing female expression.
McQuate, Grant T.
Sweetpotato, commercially grown in over 100 countries, is one of the ten most important staple crops in the world. Sweetpotato weevil is a major pest of sweetpotato in most areas of cultivation, the feeding of which induces production in the sweetpotato root of extremely bitter tasting and toxic sesquiterpenes which can render the sweetpotato unfit for consumption. A significant step towards improved management of this weevil species was the identification of a female-produced sex pheromone [(Z)-3-dodecenyl (E)-2-butenoate] to which males are highly attracted. Reported here are results of research that documents a nearly 5-fold increase in male sweetpotato weevil catch in traps baited with this pheromone and a green light provided by a solar-powered, light-emitting diode (LED). The combination of olfactory and night-visible visual cues significantly enhanced trap effectiveness for this nighttime-active insect species. These results provide promise for improved sweetpotato weevil detection and suppression in mass trapping programs. PMID:24675727
Mikkelsen, Mattis; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro
Declines in amphibian populations and species biodiversity during the last decades has called for an assessment of possible threats to these animals. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known endocrine disrupting contaminants and are found in high levels in some populations of wild living amphibians. To evaluate the endocrine disrupting potential of PCBs in adult frogs, Aroclor 1,254 were subcutaneously injected into male European common frogs Rana temporaria. The injected doses ranged from 0.01 to 100 mg/kg body mass, resulting in liver concentrations between 74 and 133,619 microg/kg ww. After 14 days, serum testosterone (T), estradiol (E) and hepatic retinol (R) and retinylpalmitate (RP) were easured. No dose dependent effects were found on levels of hormones or retinoids. However, a significantly higher within-group variation in the E-T ratio in the exposed groups may indicate that the sex-hormone homeostasis of male R. temporaria is affected by PCBs shortly after arousal from hibernation, but that the effects are subtle and that several different mechanisms are involved. The lack of direct effect on T, E, R and RP may be due to the timing of exposure (shortly after arousal from hibernation), or due to a relatively short exposure time to Aroclor 1,254. Based on the results, we propose that future research should focus on effects of PCBs in relation to the different physiological phases frogs experience throughout the year (hibernation, reproduction etc.).
Ault, Jeffrey G; Felt, Kristen D; Doan, Ryan N; Nedo, Alexander O; Ellison, Cassondra A; Paliulis, Leocadia V
During meiosis I, homologous chromosomes join together to form bivalents. Through trial and error, bivalents achieve stable bipolar orientations (attachments) on the spindle that eventually allow the segregation of homologous chromosomes to opposite poles. Bipolar orientations are stable through tension generated by poleward forces to opposite poles. Unipolar orientations lack tension and are stereotypically not stable. The behavior of sex chromosomes during meiosis I in the male black widow spider Latrodectus mactans (Araneae, Theridiidae) challenges the principles governing such a scenario. We found that male L. mactans has two distinct X chromosomes, X1 and X2. The X chromosomes join together to form a connection that is present in prometaphase I but is lost during metaphase I, before the autosomes disjoin at anaphase I. We found that both X chromosomes form stable unipolar orientations to the same pole that assure their co-segregation at anaphase I. Using micromanipulation, immunofluorescence microscopy, and electron microscopy, we studied this unusual chromosome behavior to explain how it may fit the current dogma of chromosome distribution during cell division.
Sneddon, Lynne U; Huntingford, Felicity A; Taylor, Alan C; Clare, Anthony S
Exposure to receptive female pheromone elicits guarding behavior in shore crab males (Carcinus maenas), but little is known about the effects of sex pheromone on male competition or if the female plays an active role in mate choice. This study examined whether female pheromone enhanced agonistic behavior between males and what effects visual and chemical cues had on the rules and costs of such contests. We also investigated whether females exhibit a preference for males in terms of size. Under laboratory conditions, solitary male shore crabs engaged males who already had possession of a female. The visual and chemical presence of a receptive female had an impact on contest rules and costs. Fights were costly in terms of duration and of sustaining injury with either one or both crabs incurring injury in 40% of fights. To investigate the metabolic consequences of fighting over a perceived sexual resource (chemical cue only), fights were staged between pairs of size-matched males in the presence of water containing the female sex pheromone, water in which males had been kept, and untreated seawater. The duration and intensity of contests were greater when staged in the presence of the female pheromone compared with the two other treatments. Crabs that fought in the presence of female sex pheromone also had a greater accumulation of L-lactate and a reduction of glycogen stores. Fights were less costly in terms of injury with a single chemical cue compared with enhanced costs with a multiple sexual cue. The importance of female choice was determined by presenting postmolt females with different sized males. Males were kept in a fixed position, and the majority of females approached and performed courtship behavior to the largest males, demonstrating that females may be selective in terms of size.
Rodrigues, João Fabrício Mota; Coelho, Marco Túlio Pacheco
Sampling the biodiversity is an essential step for conservation, and understanding the efficiency of sampling methods allows us to estimate the quality of our biodiversity data. Sex ratio is an important population characteristic, but until now, no study has evaluated how efficient are the sampling methods commonly used in biodiversity surveys in estimating the sex ratio of populations. We used a virtual ecologist approach to investigate whether active and passive capture methods are able to accurately sample a population’s sex ratio and whether differences in movement pattern and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex-ratios when using these methods. Our simulation allowed the recognition of individuals, similar to mark-recapture studies. We found that differences in both movement patterns and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex ratios. However, increasing the sampling effort or the number of sampling days improves the ability of passive or active capture methods to properly sample sex ratio. Thus, prior knowledge regarding movement patterns and detectability for species is important information to guide field studies aiming to understand sex ratio related patterns. PMID:27441554
Rodrigues, João Fabrício Mota; Coelho, Marco Túlio Pacheco
Sampling the biodiversity is an essential step for conservation, and understanding the efficiency of sampling methods allows us to estimate the quality of our biodiversity data. Sex ratio is an important population characteristic, but until now, no study has evaluated how efficient are the sampling methods commonly used in biodiversity surveys in estimating the sex ratio of populations. We used a virtual ecologist approach to investigate whether active and passive capture methods are able to accurately sample a population's sex ratio and whether differences in movement pattern and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex-ratios when using these methods. Our simulation allowed the recognition of individuals, similar to mark-recapture studies. We found that differences in both movement patterns and detectability between males and females produce biased estimates of sex ratios. However, increasing the sampling effort or the number of sampling days improves the ability of passive or active capture methods to properly sample sex ratio. Thus, prior knowledge regarding movement patterns and detectability for species is important information to guide field studies aiming to understand sex ratio related patterns.
Maslow, Carey B.; Friedman, Samuel R.; Perlis, Theresa E.; Rockwell, Russell; Des Jarlais, Don C.
Objectives. This study examined HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among male injection drug users (IDUs) who have sex with men and among other male IDUs. Methods. Male IDUs were interviewed and tested for HIV at a detoxification clinic during 1990 to 1994 and 1995 to 1999. Analyses compared male IDUs who do and do not have sex with men within and between periods. Results. Initially, HIV seroprevalence and risk behaviors were higher among IDUs who have sex with men. Seroprevalence (initially 60.5% vs 48.3%) declined approximately 15% in both groups, remaining higher among those who have sex with men. Generally, injection prevalence, but not sexual risk behaviors, declined. Conclusions. Male IDUs who have sex with men are more likely to engage in higher-risk behaviors and to be HIV infected. Improved intervention approaches for male IDUs who have sex with men are needed. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:382–384) PMID:11867315
Full Text Available Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengkaji performa ikan nila hasil sex reversal (SRV, genetically male tilapia (GMT, dan YY pada fase pendederan pertama di akuarium. Benih ikan dipelihara selama 22 hari, dari umur 6 hari hingga 28 hari. Parameter yang diamati meliputi tingkat sintasan, persentase ikan jantan, laju pertumbuhan, dan biomassa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tingkat sintasan tidak berbeda (P>0,05 antar ketiga kelompok ikan dan kontrol (KN, berkisar antara 85,30%--86,20%. Persentase ikan jantan antara SRV (94,5% ± 1,32% vs. GMT (93,8% ± 1,25% dan GMT vs. YY (90,2% ± 1,83% tidak berbeda (P>0,05, sedangkan antara SRV lebih tinggi daripada YY (P0.05, ranged from 85.30%-86.20%. Percentage of male fish between SRV (94.5% ± 1.32% versus GMT (93.8% ± 1.25% and GMT versus YY (90.2% ± 1.83% were also similar (P>0.05, while SRV is higher than YY (P<0.05. Percentage of male fish in the three fish groups was higher than that of control (56.9% ± 3.62%. Growth of YY fish and GMT were higher compared to SRV and control fish (KN. The mean weight of YY fish at the end of the experiment reached 476 mg, GMT fish 447 mg, SRV fish 379 mg and control 342 mg. Biomass of YY, GMT and SRV fish were respectively higher by 41.3%, 32.9%, and 10.3% compared to control. With high performance and technical consideration in farm, GMT fish can be a potential alternative to be cultured in fish farm in order to increase aquaculture production of nile tilapia.
Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena
The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.
Aisenberg, Anita; Baruffaldi, Luciana; González, Macarena
The use of chemical signals in a sexual context is widespread in the animal kingdom. Most studies in spiders report the use of female pheromones that attract potential sexual partners. Allocosa brasiliensis and Allocosa alticeps are two burrowing wolf spiders that show sex-role reversal. Females locate male burrows and initiate courtship before males perform any detectable visual or vibratory signal. So, females of these species would be detecting chemical or mechanical cues left by males. Our objective was to explore the potential for male pheromones to play a role in mate detection in A. brasiliensis and A. alticeps. We designed two experiments. In Experiment 1, we tested the occurrence of male contact pheromones by evaluating female courtship when exposed to empty burrows constructed by males or females (control). In Experiment 2, we tested the existence of male volatile pheromones by evaluating female behaviour when exposed to artificial burrows connected to tubes containing males, females or empty tubes (control). Our results suggest the occurrence of male volatile pheromones that trigger female courtship in both Allocosa species. The sex-role reversal postulated for these wolf spiders could be driving the consequent reversal in typical pheromone-emitter and detector roles expected for spiders.
Peper, Jiska S; de Reus, Marcel A; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Schutter, Dennis J L G
Functional neuroimaging studies in adults show that aggression involves reduced brain communication between subcortical and cortical areas dedicated to motivation and control, respectively. Prior research indicates that sex steroid hormone production during adolescence negatively influences the rapid development of white matter connectivity between subcortical and cortical areas during adolescence and may potentiate aggression. Here, we tested this hypothesis in 258 participants between 8 and 25 years of age by using Diffusion Weighted Imaging to examine the microstructure of white matter connections within the fronto-temporal-subcortical network. Trait aggression was measured using the Buss Perry Aggression Questionnaire and testosterone and estradiol levels were measured in saliva. Results indicated that higher levels of testosterone were associated with less white matter integrity within the fronto-temporal-subcortical network (i.e., higher mean diffusivity [MD] longitudinal [LD], and radial diffusivity [RD]). Furthermore, lower fractional anisotropy and higher MD, LD, and RD values within this network increased expressive forms of aggression and reduced inhibited forms of aggression (hostility). Our study indicates higher levels of testosterone relating to lower quality of structural cortical-subcortical connectivity, arguably resulting in a shift from inhibited towards expressive forms of aggression. Our data adds evidence to the idea that aggressive tendencies are subcortically driven, but individuals with relatively high testosterone might have lower structural connectivity within cortical control areas, resulting in a stronger tendency to act on these aggressive tendencies.
Frick, Karyn M.; Kim, Jaekyoon; Tuscher, Jennifer J.; Fortress, Ashley M.
Ample evidence has demonstrated that sex steroid hormones, such as the potent estrogen 17ß-estradiol (E[subscript 2]), affect hippocampal morphology, plasticity, and memory in male and female rodents. Yet relatively few investigators who work with male subjects consider the effects of these hormones on learning and memory. This review describes…
Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Zavlin, Dmitry; Lellé, Jean-Daniel; Herschbach, Peter; Henrich, Gerhard; Kovacs, Laszlo; Ehrenberger, Benjamin; Machens, Hans-Guenther; Schaff, Juergen
Several therapy options exist for male-to-female (MTF) transgenders desiring sex reassignment. Surgery includes numerous different procedures. Of those, vaginoplasty is predominant and aims at providing attractive esthetics and fully functional genitals. This study aimed to present the surgical results of our modified combined vaginoplasty technique in a consecutive patient cohort. We included 40 MTF transgender patients who underwent a two-stage sex reassignment surgery (SRS) in an observational prospective study between September 2012 and January 2014. Demographic characteristics, medical and surgical history, operative details, and outcomes after surgery were documented. Postoperatively, 23 patients received a pelvic examination following the standardized protocol. Measured vaginal depth was 11.77-14.99 cm depending on the size of the dilator used (25-40 mm). Vaginal, clitoral, and labial sensitivities were intact and favorable in all examined patients. Nineteen women (47.5%) opted for breast augmentations to achieve a feminine cosmesis, making it the most common nongenital operation. Complications were mostly minor and temporary. Severe adverse events, such as wound infections (n = 3), colon injuries (3), short (1) or narrow (1) vaginas, or partial clitoral necroses (1), were rare and immediately addressed by the surgical team. No vaginal construction was lost, and no secondary reconstructive approaches were required. Satisfactory physical results and favorable low rates of complications endorse our combined technique for MTF SRS. These findings, however, need to be confirmed by other research groups as well. Therefore, in our opinion, MTF SRS remains an evolving area of development, whose research is aiming to establish a state-of-the-art surgical technique. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kristine J Teichman
Full Text Available Wildlife-human conflicts occur wherever large carnivores overlap human inhabited areas. Conflict mitigation can be facilitated by understanding long-term dynamics and examining sex-structured conflict patterns. Predicting areas with high probability of conflict helps focus management strategies in order to proactively decrease carnivore mortality. We investigated the importance of cougar (Puma concolor habitat, human landscape characteristics and the combination of habitat and human features on the temporal and spatial patterns of cougar-human conflicts in British Columbia. Conflicts (n = 1,727; 1978-2007 involved similar numbers of male and female cougars with conflict rate decreasing over the past decade. Conflicts were concentrated within the southern part of the province with the most conflicts per unit area occurring on Vancouver Island. For both sexes, the most supported spatial models for the most recent (1998-2007 conflicts contained both human and habitat variables. Conflicts were more likely to occur close to roads, at intermediate elevations and far from the northern edge of the cougar distribution range in British Columbia. Male cougar conflicts were more likely to occur in areas of intermediate human density. Unlike cougar conflicts in other regions, cattle density was not a significant predictor of conflict location. With human populations expanding, conflicts are expected to increase. Conservation tools, such as the maps predicting conflict hotspots from this study, can help focus management efforts to decrease carnivore-human conflict.
Mathiron, Anthony G E; Lena, Jean-Paul; Baouch, Sarah; Denoël, Mathieu
Paedomorphosis is a major evolutionary process that bypasses metamorphosis and allows reproduction in larvae. In newts and salamanders, it can be facultative with paedomorphs retaining gills and metamorphs dispersing. The evolution of these developmental processes is thought to have been driven by the costs and benefits of inhabiting aquatic versus terrestrial habitats. In this context, we aimed at testing the hypothesis that climatic drivers affect phenotypic transition and the difference across sexes because sex-ratio is biased in natural populations. Through a replicated laboratory experiment, we showed that paedomorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus) metamorphosed at a higher frequency when water availability decreased and metamorphosed earlier when temperature increased in these conditions. All responses were sex-biased, and males were more prone to change phenotype than females. Our work shows how climatic variables can affect facultative paedomorphosis and support theoretical models predicting life on land instead of in water. Moreover, because males metamorphose and leave water more often and earlier than females, these results, for the first time, give an experimental explanation for the rarity of male paedomorphosis (the 'male escape hypothesis') and suggest the importance of sex in the evolution of paedomorphosis versus metamorphosis. © 2017 The Author(s).
Bilde, T.; Maklakov, Alexei A.; Meisner, Katrine;
-specific responses to inbreeding to study the genetic architecture of lifespan and mortality rates in Callosobruchus maculatus, a seed beetle that shows sexual dimorphism in lifespan. Two independent assays revealed opposing sex-specific responses to inbreeding. The combined data set showed that inbred males live...
Silva, Monica; Ross, Ines
Evaluated a 1-year sex education program for low income male high school students in Chile. Findings for 92 students in the baseline year, 1993, and 196 students in the 1998 cohort show a reduction in the percentage of students reporting having had sexual intercourse, changes attitudes toward abstinence, and differences in communication about…
Conclusions: S. torvum extract can reverse the level of sex hormones to their normal level and reduce serum cholesterol in HFD-induced obese male rats. Furthermore, the long term oral administration of S. torvum extract is harmless.
邓建宇; 黄永平; 魏洪义; 杜家纬
Electroantennogram (EAG) evaluation of selected compounds from wilted leaves ofblack poplar,Populus nigra,showed that phenyl acetaldehyde, methyl salicylate, (E)-2-hexenal elicited strong responses from male antennae of Helicoverpa armigera. When mixed with sex pheromone (Ph), some volatiles, e.g. phenyl acetaldehyde, benzyl alcohol,phenylethanol, methylsalicylate, linalool, benzaldehyde, (Z)-3-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenylacetate, (Z)-6-nonenol, cineole, (E)-2-hexenal, and geraniol elicited stronger responses from male antennae than Ph alone. Wind tunnel bioassay demonstrated that various volatiles could either enhance or inhibit the effect of synthetic sex pheromone. (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenol and linalool in combination with Ph could not induce any male to land on source at all, whereas phenyl acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, (Z)-6-nonenol and salicylaldehyde combined with Ph enhanced male response rates by 58.63%,50.33%, 51.85% and 127.78%, respectively, compared to Ph alone. These results suggested that some volatiles should modify sex pheromone caused behavior and that some of them could possibly be used as a tool for disrupting mating or for enhancing the effect of synthetic sex pheromone in the field.
邓建宇; 黄永平; 魏洪义
Electroantennogram (EAG) evaluation of selected compounds from wilted leaves of black poplar, Populus nigra, showed that phenyl acetaldehyde, methyl salicylate, (E)-2-hexenal elicited strong responses from male antennae of Helicoverpa armigera. When mixed with sex pheromone (Ph), some volatiles, e.g. phenyl acetaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, phenylethanol, methylsalicylate, linalool, benzaldehyde, (Z)-3-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenylacetate, (Z)-6-nonenol, cineole, (E)-2-hexenal, and geraniol elicited stronger responses from male antennae than Ph alone. Wind tunnel bioassay demonstrated that various volatiles could either enhance or inhibit the effect of synthetic sex pheromone. (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenol and linalool in combination with Ph could not induce any male to land on source at all, whereas phenyl acetaldehyde, benzaldehyde, (Z)-6-nonenol and salicylaldehyde combined with Ph enhanced male response rates by 58.63%, 50.33%, 51.85% and 127.78%, respectively, compared to Ph alone. These results suggested that some volatiles shouldmodify sex pheromone caused behavior and that some of them could possibly be used as a tool for disrupting mating or for enhancing the effect of synthetic sex pheromone in the field.
Full Text Available Attractiveness judgment in the context of mate preferences is thought to reflect an assessment of mate quality in relation to an absolute scale of genetic fitness and a relative scale of self-similarity. In this study, subjects judged the attractiveness and trustworthiness of faces in composite images that were manipulated to produce self-similar (self-resemblance and dissimilar (other-resemblance images. Males differentiated between self- and other-resemblance as well as among different degrees of self-resemblance in their attractiveness ratings; females did not. Specifically, in Experiment 1, using a morphing technique, we created previously unseen face images possessing different degrees (0%, 30%, 40%, or 50% of incorporation of the subject's images (different degrees of self-resemblance and found that males preferred images that were closer to average (0% rather than more self-similar, whereas females showed no preference for any degree of self-similarity. In Experiment 2, we added a pro-social question about trustworthiness. We replicated the Experiment 1 attractiveness rating results and further found that males differentiated between self- and other-resemblance for the same degree of composites; women did not. Both males and females showed a similar preference for self-resemblances when judging trustworthiness. In conclusion, only males factored self-resemblance into their attractiveness ratings of opposite-sex individuals in a manner consistent with cues of reproductive fitness, although both sexes favored self-resemblance when judging trustworthiness.
Cornioley, Tina; Jenouvrier, Stéphanie; Börger, Luca; Weimerskirch, Henri; Ozgul, Arpat
One of the predicted consequences of climate change is a shift in body mass distributions within animal populations. Yet body mass, an important component of the physiological state of an organism, can affect key life-history traits and consequently population dynamics. Over the past decades, the wandering albatross-a pelagic seabird providing bi-parental care with marked sexual size dimorphism-has exhibited an increase in average body mass and breeding success in parallel with experiencing increasing wind speeds. To assess the impact of these changes, we examined how body mass affects five key life-history traits at the individual level: adult survival, breeding probability, breeding success, chick mass and juvenile survival. We found that male mass impacted all traits examined except breeding probability, whereas female mass affected none. Adult male survival increased with increasing mass. Increasing adult male mass increased breeding success and mass of sons but not of daughters. Juvenile male survival increased with their chick mass. These results suggest that a higher investment in sons by fathers can increase their inclusive fitness, which is not the case for daughters. Our study highlights sex-specific differences in the effect of body mass on the life history of a monogamous species with bi-parental care. © 2017 The Authors.
Xie, Qing-Ping; He, Xue; Sui, Yi-Ning; Chen, Li-Li; Sun, Li-Na; Wang, De-Shou
Steroidogenic factor-1 (Sf-1) (officially designated nuclear receptor subfamily 5 group A member 1 [NR5A1]) is a master regulator of steroidogenesis and reproduction in mammals. However, its function remains unclear in nonmammalian vertebrates. In the present study, we used immunohistochemistry to detect expression of Sf-1 in the steroidogenic cells, the interstitial, granulosa, and theca cells of the ovary, and the Leydig cells of the testis, in Nile tilapia. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9) cleavage of sf-1 resulted in a high mutation rate in the F0 generation and a phenotype of gonadal dysgenesis and reduced steroidogenic cells in XX and XY fish. Sf-1 deficiency also resulted in decreased cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1a, forkhead box L2 expression, and serum estradiol-17β in XX fish. In XY fish, Sf-1 deficiency increased cytochrome P450, family 19, subfamily A, polypeptide 1a and forkhead box L2 expression but decreased cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily B, polypeptide 2 expression and serum 11-ketotestosterone levels. 17α-methyltestosterone treatment successfully rescued the gonadal phenotype of Sf-1-deficient XY fish, as demonstrated by normal spermatogenesis and production of F1 mutants. In contrast, estradiol-17β treatment only partially rescued the gonadal phenotype of Sf-1-deficient XX fish, as demonstrated by the appearance of phase II oocytes. Furthermore, both sf-1(+/-) F1 XX and XY mutants developed as fertile males, although spermatogenesis was delayed and efferent duct formation was disordered. Our data suggest that Sf-1 is a major regulator of steroidogenesis and reproduction in fish, as it is in mammals. Sf-1 deficiency resulted in gonadal dysgenesis and feminization of XY gonads. However, unlike in mammals, Sf-1 deficiency also resulted in female to male sex reversal in 8.1% of F0 and 92.1% of sf-1(+/-) F1 in XX fish.
Aylwin, A Scott; Reddon, John R; Burke, Andrew R
An attenuating sample of 87 male adolescent sexual offenders logged sexual fantasies during their entire time in therapy. These patients were attending residential treatment and kept a log recording all normal and deviant sexual fantasies which they experienced. Patients recorded which fantasies were interrupted and which fantasies were accompanied by masturbation. Typically, at the beginning of treatment, the reported rate of normal fantasies was maximal, the occurrence of deviant fantasies was minimal, and there was little effort to interrupt the deviant fantasies. The reported frequency of deviant fantasies increased substantially (about 380%) during the first 5 months of treatment and then steadily declined (approximately 47%) over the remaining months in therapy. Following an initial decline in the early months of treatment, an increase in the rates of normal fantasies was reported. Additionally, over the course of treatment, the frequency of deviant fantasies decreased relative to all fantasies. While deviant fantasies remained predominant to normal sexual fantasies and were more frequently paired with masturbation, patients reported substantial changes in the proportion of deviant fantasies that were interrupted (from about 20% to 70%). Implications of the results for juvenile sex offender treatment are discussed.
Belza, M J; Llácer, A; Mora, R; Morales, M; Castilla, J; de la Fuente, L
This paper describes the sociodemographic and work characteristics, prevalence of HIV infection and associated risk behaviours among male sex workers (MSWs) in Madrid (Spain). Using an anonymous semi-structured questionnaire, educators attached to a mobile unit under a street-based prostitution programme surveyed 84 MSWs from several Madrid areas. Of the total surveyed: 35% were immigrants, mean age was 23 years, mean period in prostitution was four years; 21% had no primary education; 16% had injected drugs at some time; 11% reported private sexual relationships exclusively with women; 89% always used condoms in anal practices with clients; and 41% were in sexual relationships with their partners. Only 11% had ever used fortified condoms. In the preceding month, 37% had experienced condom failure, 82% without having used any lubricant. In all, 67% reported having undergone HIV testing, with a higher percentage of positive results among injecting (60%) versus non-injecting drug users (17%). Immigrants had a lower level of education, made less use of condoms, had more condom failures and, in their private lives, a greater proportion reported sexual relationships exclusively with women. In Spain, MSWs should be included in HIV prevention programmes, which ought to be specifically adapted to immigrants. Priority should be given to reducing the condom failure rate in anal intercourse, by improving access to fortified condoms.
Kim, Mi Ae; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Kim, Tae Ha; Lee, Jung Sick; Choi, Ah-Young; Choi, Beom-Soon; Choi, Ik-Young; Sohn, Young Chang
In order to characterize the female or male transcriptome of the Pacific abalone and further increase genomic resources, we sequenced the mRNA of full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) libraries derived from pooled tissues of female and male Haliotis discus hannai by employing the Iso-Seq protocol of the PacBio RSII platform. We successfully assembled whole full-length cDNA sequences and constructed a transcriptome database that included isoform information. After clustering, a total of 15,110 and 12,145 genes that coded for proteins were identified in female and male abalones, respectively. A total of 13,057 putative orthologs were retained from each transcriptome in abalones. Overall Gene Ontology terms and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways analyzed in each database showed a similar composition between sexes. In addition, a total of 519 and 391 isoforms were genome-widely identified with at least two isoforms from female and male transcriptome databases. We found that the number of isoforms and their alternatively spliced patterns are variable and sex-dependent. This information represents the first significant contribution to sex-preferential genomic resources of the Pacific abalone. The availability of whole female and male transcriptome database and their isoform information will be useful to improve our understanding of molecular responses and also for the analysis of population dynamics in the Pacific abalone. PMID:28282934
Karen Ann Ribbons
Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis is more common in women than men and females have more relapses than men. In a large international cohort we have evaluated the effect of gender on disability accumulation and disease progression to determine if male MS patients have a worse clinical outcome than females.Using the MSBase Registry, data from 15,826 MS patients from 25 countries was analysed. Changes in the severity of MS (EDSS were compared between sexes using a repeated measures analysis in generalised linear mixed models. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to test for sex difference in the time to reach EDSS milestones 3 and 6 and the secondary progressive MS.In relapse onset MS patients (n = 14,453, males progressed significantly faster in their EDSS than females (0.133 vs 0.112 per year, P<0.001,. Females had a reduced risk of secondary progressive MS (HR (95% CI = 0.77 (0.67 to 0.90 P = 0.001. In primary progressive MS (n = 1,373, there was a significant increase in EDSS over time in males and females (P<0.001 but there was no significant sex effect on the annualized rate of EDSS change.Among registrants of MSBase, male relapse-onset patients accumulate disability faster than female patients. In contrast, the rate of disability accumulation between male and female patients with primary progressive MS is similar.
O'Brien, S F; Russell, J C; Dolphin, P J; Davidge, S T
Vascular wall function was assessed in obese insulin-resistant (cp/cp) and lean normal (+/?), male and female, JCR:LA-cp rats. Both male and female cp/cp rats showed enhanced maximum contractility in response to norepinephrine; impaired smooth muscle in response to sodium nitroprusside, a nitric oxide (NO) donor; and impaired relaxation in response to acetylcholine (ACh), compared with their lean counterparts. The abnormalities were similar in male and female cp/cp rats. The NO synthase inhibitor, Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), inhibited ACh-mediated relaxation significantly in male rats, both cp/cp and +/?. The inhibition of ACh-mediated relaxation by L-NAME in +/? females was less, with no reduction in maximal relaxation, and was absent in cp/cp females. These effects suggest that the relative importance of NO in the endothelial modulation of smooth muscle contractility is greater in male rats. The results are consistent with a decreased role for endothelial NO in the cp/cp rats of both sexes and a reduction in NO-independent cholinergic relaxation in the male cp/cp rat. This NO-independent mechanism is not affected in the female cp/cp rats. The relatively small differences between males and females in smooth muscle cell and vascular function may contribute to sex-related differences in the atherogenesis, vasospasm, and ischemic damage associated with the obese insulin-resistant state.
Bose, A P H; Adragna, J B; Balshine, S
In this study, the morphology of sagittal otoliths of the plainfin midshipman fish Porichthys notatus was compared between populations, sexes and male alternative reproductive phenotypes (known as 'type I males or guarders' and 'type II males or sneakers'). Sagitta size increased with P. notatus size and changes in shape were also detected with increasing body size. Porichthys notatus sagittae begin as simple rounded structures, but then elongate as they grow and take on a more triangular and complex shape with several prominent notches and indentations along the dorsal and caudal edges. Moreover, the sagittae of the two geographically and genetically distinct populations of P. notatus (northern and southern) differed in shape. Porichthys notatus from the north possessed taller sagittae with deeper caudal indentations compared to P. notatus from the south. Sagitta shape also differed between females and males of the conventional guarder tactic. Furthermore, guarder males had smaller sagittae for their body size than did sneaker males or females. These differences in sagittal otolith morphology are discussed in relation to ecological and life history differences between the sexes and male tactics of this species. This is the first study to investigate teleost otolith morphology from the perspective of alternative reproductive tactics.
Picard, Marion Anne-Lise; Cosseau, Céline; Mouahid, Gabriel; Duval, David; Grunau, Christoph; Toulza, Ève; Allienne, Jean-François; Boissier, Jérôme
The Dmrt (Double sex/Male-abnormal-3 Related Transcription factor) genes have been intensively studied because they represent major transcription factors in the pathways governing sex determination and differentiation. These genes have been identified in animal groups ranging from cnidarians to mammals, and some of the genes functionally studied. Here, we propose to analyze (i) the presence/absence of various Dmrt gene groups in the different taxa across the animal kingdom; (ii) the relative expression levels of the Dmrt genes in each sex; (iii) the specific spatial (by organ) and temporal (by developmental stage) variations in gene expression. This review considers non-mammalian animals at all levels of study (i.e. no particular importance is given to animal models), and using all types of sexual strategy (hermaphroditic or gonochoric) and means of sex determination (i.e. genetic or environmental). To conclude this global comparison, we offer an analysis of the DM domains conserved among the different DMRT proteins, and propose a general sex-specific pattern for each member of the Dmrt gene family.
Shuker, DM; Sykes, EM; Browning, LE; Beukeboom, LW; West, SA; Keller, L.
Sex allocation is an important reproductive decision for parents. However, it is often assumed that females have substantial control over sex allocation decisions, and this is particularly true in haplodiploid insects, in which females apparently determine sex by deciding whether to fertilise an egg
Quintero-Fong, L; Toledo, J; Ruiz, L; Rendón, P; Orozco-Dávila, D; Cruz, L; Liedo, P
The sexual performance of Anastrepha ludens males of the Tapachula-7 genetic sexing strain, produced via selection based on mating success, was compared with that of males produced without selection in competition with wild males. Mating competition, development time, survival, mass-rearing quality parameters and pheromone production were compared. The results showed that selection based on mating competitiveness significantly improved the sexual performance of offspring. Development time, survival of larvae, pupae and adults, and weights of larvae and pupae increased with each selection cycle. Differences in the relative quantity of the pheromone compounds (Z)-3-nonenol and anastrephin were observed when comparing the parental males with the F4 and wild males. The implications of this colony management method on the sterile insect technique are discussed.
Isabel M L Scott
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In many animals, exaggerated sex-typical male traits are preferred by females, and may be a signal of both past and current disease resistance. The proposal that the same is true in humans--i.e., that masculine men are immunocompetent and attractive--underpins a large literature on facial masculinity preferences. Recently, theoretical models have suggested that current condition may be a better index of mate value than past immunocompetence. This is particularly likely in populations where pathogenic fluctuation is fast relative to host life history. As life history is slow in humans, there is reason to expect that, among humans, condition-dependent traits might contribute more to attractiveness than relatively stable traits such as masculinity. To date, however, there has been little rigorous assessment of whether, in the presence of variation in other cues, masculinity predicts attractiveness or not. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The relationship between masculinity and attractiveness was assessed in two samples of male faces. Most previous research has assessed masculinity either with subjective ratings or with simple anatomical measures. Here, we used geometric morphometric techniques to assess facial masculinity, generating a morphological masculinity measure based on a discriminant function that correctly classified >96% faces as male or female. When assessed using this measure, there was no relationship between morphological masculinity and rated attractiveness. In contrast, skin colour--a fluctuating, condition-dependent cue--was a significant predictor of attractiveness. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that facial morphological masculinity may contribute less to men's attractiveness than previously assumed. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that current condition is more relevant to male mate value than past disease resistance, and hence that temporally fluctuating traits (such as colour
Scott, Isabel M L; Pound, Nicholas; Stephen, Ian D; Clark, Andrew P; Penton-Voak, Ian S
In many animals, exaggerated sex-typical male traits are preferred by females, and may be a signal of both past and current disease resistance. The proposal that the same is true in humans--i.e., that masculine men are immunocompetent and attractive--underpins a large literature on facial masculinity preferences. Recently, theoretical models have suggested that current condition may be a better index of mate value than past immunocompetence. This is particularly likely in populations where pathogenic fluctuation is fast relative to host life history. As life history is slow in humans, there is reason to expect that, among humans, condition-dependent traits might contribute more to attractiveness than relatively stable traits such as masculinity. To date, however, there has been little rigorous assessment of whether, in the presence of variation in other cues, masculinity predicts attractiveness or not. The relationship between masculinity and attractiveness was assessed in two samples of male faces. Most previous research has assessed masculinity either with subjective ratings or with simple anatomical measures. Here, we used geometric morphometric techniques to assess facial masculinity, generating a morphological masculinity measure based on a discriminant function that correctly classified >96% faces as male or female. When assessed using this measure, there was no relationship between morphological masculinity and rated attractiveness. In contrast, skin colour--a fluctuating, condition-dependent cue--was a significant predictor of attractiveness. These findings suggest that facial morphological masculinity may contribute less to men's attractiveness than previously assumed. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that current condition is more relevant to male mate value than past disease resistance, and hence that temporally fluctuating traits (such as colour) contribute more to male attractiveness than stable cues of sexual dimorphism.
Warner, Daniel A; Addis, Elizabeth; Du, Wei-guo; Wibbels, Thane; Janzen, Fredric J
Steroid hormones affect sex determination in a variety of vertebrates. The feminizing effects of exposure to estradiol and the masculinizing effects of aromatase inhibition during development are well established in a broad range of vertebrate taxa, but paradoxical findings are occasionally reported. Four independent experiments were conducted on two turtle species with temperature-dependent sex determination (Chrysemys picta and Chelydra serpentina) to quantify the effects of egg incubation temperature, estradiol, and an aromatase inhibitor on offspring sex ratios. As expected, the warmer incubation temperatures induced female development and the cooler temperatures produced primarily males. However, application of an aromatase inhibitor had no effect on offspring sex ratios, and exogenous applications of estradiol to eggs produced male offspring across all incubation temperatures. These unexpected results were remarkably consistent across all four experiments and both study species. Elevated concentrations of estradiol could interact with androgen receptors or inhibit aromatase expression, which might result in relatively high testosterone concentrations that lead to testis development. These findings add to a short list of studies that report paradoxical effects of steroid hormones, which addresses the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the role of sex steroids in sexual development.
Chen, Shuqing; Zeng, Baosheng; James, Anthony A.; Tan, Anjiang; Huang, Yongping
Manipulation of sex determination pathways in insects provides the basis for a wide spectrum of strategies to benefit agriculture and public health. Furthermore, insects display a remarkable diversity in the genetic pathways that lead to sex differentiation. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been cultivated by humans as a beneficial insect for over two millennia, and more recently as a model system for studying lepidopteran genetics and development. Previous studies have identified the B. mori Fem piRNA as the primary female determining factor and BmMasc as its downstream target, while the genetic scenario for male sex determination was still unclear. In the current study, we exploite the transgenic CRISPR/Cas9 system to generate a comprehensive set of knockout mutations in genes BmSxl, Bmtra2, BmImp, BmImpM, BmPSI and BmMasc, to investigate their roles in silkworm sex determination. Absence of Bmtra2 results in the complete depletion of Bmdsx transcripts, which is the conserved downstream factor in the sex determination pathway, and induces embryonic lethality. Loss of BmImp or BmImpM function does not affect the sexual differentiation. Mutations in BmPSI and BmMasc genes affect the splicing of Bmdsx and the female reproductive apparatus appeared in the male external genital. Intriguingly, we identify that BmPSI regulates expression of BmMasc, BmImpM and Bmdsx, supporting the conclusion that it acts as a key auxiliary factor in silkworm male sex determination. PMID:28103247
Clark, Jesse L.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Lescano, Andres G.; Konda, Kelika A.; Leon, Segundo R.; Jones, Franca R.; Kegeles, Susan M.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Coates, Thomas J.
Background Peru has a concentrated HIV epidemic in which men who have sex with men are particularly vulnerable. We describe the lifetime prevalence of same-sex sexual contact and associated risk behaviors of men in Peru's general population, regardless of their sexual identity. Methods and Results A probability sample of males from low-income households in three Peruvian cities completed an epidemiologic survey addressing their sexual risk behavior, including sex with other men. Serum was tested for HSV-2, HIV, and syphilis. Urine was tested for chlamydia and gonorrhea. A total of 2,271 18–30 year old men and women were contacted, of whom 1,645 (72.4%) agreed to participate in the study. Among the sexually experienced men surveyed, 15.2% (85/558, 95% CI: 12.2%–18.2%) reported a history of sex with other men. Men ever reporting sex with men (MESM) had a lower educational level, had greater numbers of sex partners, and were more likely to engage in risk behaviors including unprotected sex with casual partners, paying for or providing compensated sex, and using illegal drugs. MESM were also more likely to have had previous STI symptoms or a prior STI diagnosis, and had a greater prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity. Conclusions Many low-income Peruvian men have engaged in same-sex sexual contact and maintain greater behavioral and biological risk factors for HIV/STI transmission than non-MESM. Improved surveillance strategies for HIV and STIs among MESM are necessary to better understand the epidemiology of HIV in Latin America and to prevent its further spread. PMID:17712426
Nami Miura, Tatsuro Nakagawa, Sadahiro Tatsuki, Kazushige Touhara, Yukio Ishikawa
Full Text Available In many moths, mate-finding communication is mediated by the female sex pheromones. Since differentiation of sex pheromones is often associated with speciation, it is intriguing to know how the changes in female sex pheromone have been tracked by the pheromone recognition system of the males. A male-specific odorant receptor was found to have been conserved through the evolution of sex pheromone communication systems in the genus Ostrinia (Lepidoptera: Crambidae. In an effort to characterize pheromone receptors of O. scapulalis, which uses a mixture of (E-11- and (Z-11-tetradecenyl acetates as a sex pheromone, we cloned a gene (OscaOR1 encoding a male-specific odorant receptor. In addition, we cloned a gene of the Or83b family (OscaOR2. Functional assays using Xenopus oocytes co-expressing OscaOR1 and OscaOR2 have shown that OscaOR1 is, unexpectedly, a receptor of (E-11-tetradecenol (E11-14:OH, a single pheromone component of a congener O. latipennis. Subsequent studies on O. latipennis showed that this species indeed has a gene orthologous to OscaOR1 (OlatOR1, a functional assay of which confirmed it to be a gene encoding the receptor of E11-14:OH. Furthermore, investigations of six other Ostrinia species have revealed that all of them have a gene orthologous to OscaOR1, although none of these species, except O. ovalipennis, a species most closely related to O. latipennis, uses E11-14:OH as the pheromone component. The present findings suggest that the male-specific receptor of E11-14:OH was acquired before the divergence of the genus Ostrinia, and functionally retained through the evolution of this genus.
Arad, Michal; Weiner, Ina
The estrogen hypothesis of schizophrenia suggests that estrogen is a natural neuroprotector in women and that exogenous estrogen may have antipsychotic potential, but results of clinical studies have been inconsistent. We have recently shown using the latent inhibition (LI) model of schizophrenia that 17β-estradiol exerts antipsychotic activity in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. The present study sought to extend the characterization of the antipsychotic action of 17β-estradiol (10, 50 and 150 μg/kg) by testing its capacity to reverse amphetamine- and MK-801-induced LI aberrations in gonadally intact female and male rats. No-drug controls of both sexes showed LI, ie, reduced efficacy of a previously non-reinforced stimulus to gain behavioral control when paired with reinforcement, if conditioned with two but not five tone-shock pairings. In both sexes, amphetamine (1 mg/kg) and MK-801 (50 μg/kg) produced disruption (under weak conditioning) and persistence (under strong conditioning) of LI, modeling positive and negative/cognitive symptoms, respectively. 17β-estradiol at 50 and 150 μg/kg potentiated LI under strong conditioning and reversed amphetamine-induced LI disruption in both males and females, mimicking the action of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs (APDs) in the LI model. 17β-estradiol also reversed MK-induced persistent LI, an effect mimicking atypical APDs and NMDA receptor enhancers, but this effect was observed in males and OVX females but not in intact females. These findings indicate that in the LI model, 17β-estradiol exerts a clear-cut antipsychotic activity in both sexes and, remarkably, is more efficacious in males and OVX females where it also exerts activity considered predictive of anti-negative/cognitive symptoms.
Wegner, Alexander; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Rebernik, Laura; Roderigo, Till; Engelbrecht, Elisa; Jäger, Marcus; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred; Benson, Sven
Abstract A role of the innate immune system is increasingly recognized as a mechanism contributing to pain sensitization. Experimental administration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) constitutes a model to study inflammation-induced pain sensitization, but all existing human evidence comes from male participants. We assessed visceral and musculoskeletal pain sensitivity after low-dose LPS administration in healthy men and women to test the hypothesis that women show greater LPS-induced hyperalgesia compared with men. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, healthy men (n = 20) and healthy women using oral contraceptives (n = 20) received an intravenous injection of 0.4 ng/kg body weight LPS or placebo. Pain sensitivity was assessed with established visceral and musculoskeletal pain models (ie, rectal pain thresholds; pressure pain thresholds for different muscle groups), together with a heartbeat perception (interoceptive accuracy) task. Plasma cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6) were measured along with state anxiety at baseline and up to 6-hour postinjection. Lipopolysaccharide application led to significant increases in plasma cytokines and state anxiety and decreased interoceptive awareness in men and women (P pain thresholds were significantly decreased in the LPS condition (all P visceral and musculoskeletal hyperalgesia, irrespective of biological sex. These findings support the broad applicability of experimental endotoxin administration as a translational preclinical model of inflammation-induced pain sensitization in both sexes. PMID:26058036
Yoon, Jongmin; Sofaer, Helen; Sillett, T. Scott; Morrison, Scott A.; Ghalambor, Cameron K.
Comparative studies of populations occupying different environments can provide insights into the ecological conditions affecting differences in parental strategies, including the relative contributions of males and females. Male and female parental strategies reflect the interplay between ecological conditions, the contributions of the social mate, and the needs of offspring. Climate is expected to underlie geographic variation in incubation and brooding behavior, and can thereby affect both the absolute and relative contributions of each sex to other aspects of parental care such as offspring provisioning. However, geographic variation in brooding behavior has received much less attention than variation in incubation attentiveness or provisioning rates. We compared parental behavior during the nestling period in populations of orange-crowned warblers Oreothlypis celata near the northern (64°N) and southern (33°N) boundaries of the breeding range. In Alaska, we found that males were responsible for the majority of food delivery whereas the sexes contributed equally to provisioning in California. Higher male provisioning in Alaska appeared to facilitate a higher proportion of time females spent brooding the nestlings. Surprisingly, differences in brooding between populations could not be explained by variation in ambient temperature, which was similar between populations during the nestling period. While these results represent a single population contrast, they suggest additional hypotheses for the ecological correlates and evolutionary drivers of geographic variation in brooding behavior, and the factors that shape the contributions of each sex.
Nyante, S J; Graubard, B I; Li, Y; McQuillan, G M; Platz, E A; Rohrmann, S; Bradwin, G; McGlynn, K A
Previous studies suggest that male testosterone concentrations have declined over time. To explore this in a large US population, we examined testosterone and free testosterone concentrations in National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 1988-1991 and 1999-2004. We also examined sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), estradiol, and androstanediol glucuronide (3α-diol-G) over the same period. Non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican-American men from 1988-1991 and 1999-2004 NHANES surveys who were ≥20 years old and had serum from morning blood draws were included in this analysis (1988-1991: N = 1,413; 1999-2004: N = 902). Testosterone, estradiol and SHBG were measured by competitive electrochemiluminescence immunoassays and 3α-diol-G was measured by enzyme immunoassay. Free testosterone was calculated using testosterone and SHBG values. Adjusted mean hormone concentrations were estimated using linear regression, accounting for NHANES sampling weights and design, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, waist circumference, alcohol use and smoking. Differences in adjusted mean concentrations (Δ) and two-sided p-values were calculated; p 1988-1991 and 1999-2004, but there was little change in testosterone, free testosterone, or SHBG (Δ: 3α-diol-G = -1.83 ng/mL, p 1988-1991 and 1999-2004 in the US general population. Subgroup analyses suggest that SHBG and 3α-diol-G declined in young white men, estradiol declined in white and Mexican-American men, and free testosterone increased in young black men. These changes may be related to the increasing prevalence of reproductive disorders in young men.
Full Text Available Recent studies with magnetic resonance imaging suggest that age-related changes in white matter during male adolescence may indicate an increase in g ratio wherein the radial growth of an axon outpaces a corresponding increase in myelin thickness. We review the original Rushton (1951 model where a g ratio of ~0.6 represents an optimal relationship between the axon and fibre diameters vis-à-vis conduction velocity, and point out evidence indicating slightly higher g ratio in large-diameter fibres. We estimate that fibres with a diameter larger than 9.6 µm will have a relatively thinner myelin sheath, and brains with increasingly larger proportions of such large-diameter fibres will have progressively lower concentration of myelin. We conclude by pointing out possible implications of “suboptimal” g ratio for the emergence of “disconnection” disorders, such as schizophrenia, in late adolescence.
Parra, Andrés; Rama, Encarnación; Vinader-Caerols, Concepción; Monleón, Santiago
The purpose of the present work was to study possible differences in the learning of inhibitory avoidance (also called passive avoidance) in male and female CD1 mice acquired from three different suppliers, for which a one-trial step-through version of the paradigm was employed. Ninety-six mice from Charles River (France), Janvier (France) and Harlan (The Netherlands) laboratories were divided by sex and assigned to group C, J or H, respectively (n=16). The animals were tested in the training phase (foot-shock: 0.3mA, 5s) and again for avoidance (no foot-shock delivered) one week later. Inhibitory avoidance learning (test latencies significantly higher than training latencies) was observed in every one of the six groups of animals. The variable Supplier was statistically significant, showing better to worse avoidance in C, J and H mice (in that order). A post hoc analysis showed differences between groups C and H. Females tended to exhibit avoidance learning to a greater extent than males. Our results suggest that inhibitory avoidance learning in CD1 mice varies depending on the breeding facilities from which they originate, and that females should be included in inhibitory avoidance studies.
Wolfe-Christensen, Cortney; Fedele, David A; Mullins, Larry L; Lakshmanan, Yegappan; Wisniewski, Amy B
To examine whether male and female caregivers of children with a disorder of sex development (DSD) differ in levels of anxious and depressive symptoms. Participants included 80 caregivers (40 males, 40 females) of 40 children with a DSD. Children were categorized based on illness characteristics including ambiguous genitalia, life-threatening, and life-threatening with ambiguous genitalia. Caregivers completed measures of anxious and depressive symptoms. A significant caregiver × diagnosis interaction for anxious symptoms emerged, with male caregivers of children with both ambiguous genitalia and a life-threatening condition reporting significantly lower levels of anxious symptoms than female caregivers of the same children. The findings are surprising because of the low level of anxious symptoms reported by male caregivers of children with a complex DSD. It is possible that they have disengaged themselves from the child and/or diagnosis, causing their female counterparts to take on more responsibility.
Colin D Meiklejohn
Full Text Available The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes (e.g., XY in males or ZW in females has repeatedly elicited the evolution of two kinds of chromosome-specific regulation: dosage compensation--the equalization of X chromosome gene expression in males and females--and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI--the transcriptional silencing and heterochromatinization of the X during meiosis in the male (or Z in the female germline. How the X chromosome is regulated in the Drosophila melanogaster male germline is unclear. Here we report three new findings concerning gene expression from the X in Drosophila testes. First, X chromosome-wide dosage compensation appears to be absent from most of the Drosophila male germline. Second, microarray analysis provides no evidence for X chromosome-specific inactivation during meiosis. Third, we confirm the previous discovery that the expression of transgene reporters driven by autosomal spermatogenesis-specific promoters is strongly reduced when inserted on the X chromosome versus the autosomes; but we show that this chromosomal difference in expression is established in premeiotic cells and persists in meiotic cells. The magnitude of the X-autosome difference in transgene expression cannot be explained by the absence of dosage compensation, suggesting that a previously unrecognized mechanism limits expression from the X during spermatogenesis in Drosophila. These findings help to resolve several previously conflicting reports and have implications for patterns of genome evolution and speciation in Drosophila.
Meiklejohn, Colin D; Landeen, Emily L; Cook, Jodi M; Kingan, Sarah B; Presgraves, Daven C
The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes (e.g., XY in males or ZW in females) has repeatedly elicited the evolution of two kinds of chromosome-specific regulation: dosage compensation--the equalization of X chromosome gene expression in males and females--and meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI)--the transcriptional silencing and heterochromatinization of the X during meiosis in the male (or Z in the female) germline. How the X chromosome is regulated in the Drosophila melanogaster male germline is unclear. Here we report three new findings concerning gene expression from the X in Drosophila testes. First, X chromosome-wide dosage compensation appears to be absent from most of the Drosophila male germline. Second, microarray analysis provides no evidence for X chromosome-specific inactivation during meiosis. Third, we confirm the previous discovery that the expression of transgene reporters driven by autosomal spermatogenesis-specific promoters is strongly reduced when inserted on the X chromosome versus the autosomes; but we show that this chromosomal difference in expression is established in premeiotic cells and persists in meiotic cells. The magnitude of the X-autosome difference in transgene expression cannot be explained by the absence of dosage compensation, suggesting that a previously unrecognized mechanism limits expression from the X during spermatogenesis in Drosophila. These findings help to resolve several previously conflicting reports and have implications for patterns of genome evolution and speciation in Drosophila.
Ribbons, Karen Ann; McElduff, Patrick; Boz, Cavit; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Duquette, Pierre; Girard, Marc; Grand’Maison, Francois; Hupperts, Raymond; Grammond, Pierre; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Petersen, Thor; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Giuliani, Giorgio; Barnett, Michael; van Pesch, Vincent; Amato, Maria-Pia; Iuliano, Gerardo; Fiol, Marcela; Slee, Mark; Verheul, Freek; Cristiano, Edgardo; Fernandez-Bolanos, Ricardo; Saladino, Maria-Laura; Rio, Maria Edite; Cabrera-Gomez, Jose; Butzkueven, Helmut; van Munster, Erik; Den Braber-Moerland, Leontien; La Spitaleri, Daniele; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Gray, Orla; Deri, Norma; Alroughani, Raed; Lechner-Scott, Jeannette
Background Multiple Sclerosis is more common in women than men and females have more relapses than men. In a large international cohort we have evaluated the effect of gender on disability accumulation and disease progression to determine if male MS patients have a worse clinical outcome than females. Methods Using the MSBase Registry, data from 15,826 MS patients from 25 countries was analysed. Changes in the severity of MS (EDSS) were compared between sexes using a repeated measures analysis in generalised linear mixed models. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to test for sex difference in the time to reach EDSS milestones 3 and 6 and the secondary progressive MS. Results In relapse onset MS patients (n = 14,453), males progressed significantly faster in their EDSS than females (0.133 vs 0.112 per year, PEDSS over time in males and females (PEDSS change. Conclusion Among registrants of MSBase, male relapse-onset patients accumulate disability faster than female patients. In contrast, the rate of disability accumulation between male and female patients with primary progressive MS is similar. PMID:26046348
Yagi, Shunya; Chow, Carmen; Lieblich, Stephanie E; Galea, Liisa A M
Adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) plays a crucial role for pattern separation, and there are sex differences in the regulation of neurogenesis. Although sex differences, favoring males, in spatial navigation have been reported, it is not known whether there are sex differences in pattern separation. The current study was designed to determine whether there are sex differences in the ability for separating similar or distinct patterns, learning strategy choice, adult neurogenesis, and immediate early gene (IEG) expression in the DG in response to pattern separation training. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats received a single injection of the DNA synthesis marker, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), and were tested for the ability of separating spatial patterns in a spatial pattern separation version of delayed nonmatching to place task using the eight-arm radial arm maze. Twenty-seven days following BrdU injection, rats received a probe trial to determine whether they were idiothetic or spatial strategy users. We found that male spatial strategy users outperformed female spatial strategy users only when separating similar, but not distinct, patterns. Furthermore, male spatial strategy users had greater neurogenesis in response to pattern separation training than all other groups. Interestingly, neurogenesis was positively correlated with performance on similar pattern trials during pattern separation in female spatial strategy users but negatively correlated with performance in male idiothetic strategy users. These results suggest that the survival of new neurons may play an important positive role for pattern separation of similar patterns in females. Furthermore, we found sex and strategy differences in IEG expression in the CA1 and CA3 regions in response to pattern separation. These findings emphasize the importance of studying biological sex on hippocampal function and neural plasticity.
Scandura, Terri A.; Ragins, Belle Rose
Responses from 608 certified public accountants who had mentors showed that biological sex was not related to mentoring, but gender role orientation was. Those with androgynous sex role orientation reported more mentoring functions than did those with masculine or feminine orientations. (SK)
Chemnitz, Johanna; Bagrii, Nadiia; Ayasse, Manfred; Steiger, Sandra
Life history theory predicts a trade-off between male sexual trait expression and immunocompetence. Using burying beetles, Nicrophorus vespilloides, as a model, we investigated the relationship between male immune function, sex pheromone emission, and attractiveness under field conditions. In the first experiment, we tested whether there is a positive correlation between immune capacity, sex pheromone characteristics (quantity, relative composition, and time invested in pheromone emission), and male attractiveness. As a measurement of immune capacity, we used an individual's encapsulation ability against a novel antigen. In the second experiment, we specifically examined whether a trade-off between chemical trait expression and immune function existed. To this end, we challenged the immune system and measured the subsequent investment in sex pheromone emission and the attractiveness of the male under field conditions. We found that a male's immunocompetence was neither related to the emission of the male's sex pheromone nor to its attractiveness in the field. Furthermore, none of the immune-challenge treatments affected the subsequent investment in pheromone emission or number of females attracted. However, we showed that the same males that emitted a high quantity of their sex pheromone in the laboratory were able to attract more females in the field. Our data suggest that the chemical signal is not a reliable predictor of a male's immunocompetence but rather is a general important fitness-related trait, with a higher emission of the sex pheromone measured in the laboratory directly affecting the attractiveness of a male under field conditions.
Thomson, James D
The basic tenet of sex allocation theory is that an organism's reproductive success, through either male or female function, can be represented as a sex-specific, monotonic, increasing function of the organism's investment of resources in that function. The shapes of these curves determine what patterns of resource allocation can be evolutionarily stable. Although SA theory has stimulated creative thinking about plant sexual tactics, quantifying the shapes of male and female gain curves has proven so difficult that other approaches must be considered. I contrast sex allocation theory to a different, emerging viewpoint, pollen presentation theory (PPT), which attempts to address variation in reproductive success by measuring and modeling the quantitative fates of pollen grains. Models suggest that RS through male function depends heavily on the packaging and gradual dispensing of pollen to pollinators, even with the amount of investment held constant. Many plants do deploy pollen gradually, through morphological and "behavioral" mechanisms that range from obvious to subtle. They may thereby influence many aspects of the evolution of sexual modes in plants, including transitions between dioecy and cosexuality. After reviewing the main implications of the models, I discuss recent work aimed at testing some key assumptions and predictions by functional and comparative studies in the genus Penstemon. Species of Penstemon conform to PPT predictions that bee-adapted flowers will restrict per-visit pollen availability more than hummingbird-adapted flowers.
Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P
Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yang, Shu; Lu, Wei; Zhou, De-shan; Tang, Yong
White matter degenerates with normal aging and accordingly results in declines in multiple brain functions. Previous neuroimaging studies have implied that the white matter is plastic by experiences and contributory to the experience-dependent recovery of brain functions. However, it is not clear how and how far enriched environment (EE) plays a role in the white matter remodeling. Male rats exhibit earlier and severer age-related damages in the white matter and its myelinated fibers than female rats; therefore, in this current study, 24 middle-aged (14-month-old) and 24 old-aged (24-month-old) male SD rats were randomly assigned to an EE or standard environment (SE) for 4 months prior to Morris water maze tests. Five rats from each group were then randomly sampled for stereological assessment of the white matter. Results revealed that EE could somewhat induce improvement of spatial learning and significantly increase the white matter volume, the myelinated fiber volume and the myelinated fiber length during normal aging. The EE-induced improvement of spatial learning ability was significantly correlated with the EE-induced increase of the white matter and its myelinated fibers. We suggested that exposure to an EE could delay the progress of age-related changes in the white matter and the effect could extend to old age.
Jessica K Abbott
Full Text Available When males and females have different fitness optima for the same trait but share loci, intralocus sexual conflict is likely to occur. Epigenetic mechanisms such as genomic imprinting (in which expression is altered according to parent-of-origin and sex-specific maternal effects have been suggested as ways by which this conflict can be resolved. However these ideas have not yet been empirically tested. We designed an experimental evolution protocol in Drosophila melanogaster that enabled us to look for epigenetic effects on the X-chromosome-a hotspot for sexually antagonistic loci. We used special compound-X females to enforce father-to-son transmission of the X-chromosome for many generations, and compared fitness and gene expression levels between Control males, males with a Control X-chromosome that had undergone one generation of father-son transmission, and males with an X-chromosome that had undergone many generations of father-son transmission. Fitness differences were dramatic, with experimentally-evolved males approximately 20% greater than controls, and with males inheriting a non-evolved X from their father about 20% lower than controls. These data are consistent with both strong intralocus sexual conflict and misimprinting of the X-chromosome under paternal inheritance. However, expression differences suggested that reduced fitness under paternal X inheritance was largely due to deleterious maternal effects. Our data confirm the sexually-antagonistic nature of Drosophila's X-chromosome and suggest that the response to male-limited X-chromosome evolution entails compensatory evolution for maternal effects, and perhaps modification of other epigenetic effects via coevolution of the sex chromosomes.
Datto, Jeffrey P; Bastidas, Johana C; Miller, Nicole L; Shah, Anna K; Arheart, Kristopher L; Marcillo, Alexander E; Dietrich, W Dalton; Pearse, Damien D
The possibility of a gender-related difference in recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) remains a controversial subject. Current empirical animal research lacks sizable test groups to definitively determine whether significant differences exist. Evaluating locomotor recovery variances between sexes following a precise, clinically relevant spinal cord contusion model can provide valuable insight into a possible gender-related advantage in outcome post-SCI. In the current study, we hypothesized that by employing larger sample sizes in a reproducible contusive SCI paradigm, subtle distinctions in locomotor recovery between sexes, if they exist, would be elucidated through a broad range of behavioral tests. During 13 weeks of functional assessment after a thoracic (T8) contusive SCI in rat, significant differences owing to gender existed for the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score and CatWalk hindlimb swing, support four, and single stance analyses. Significant differences in locomotor performance were noticeable as early as 4 weeks post-SCI. Stereological tissue-volume analysis determined that females, more so than males, also exhibited greater volumes of preserved gray and white matter within the injured cord segment as well as more spared ventral white matter area at the center of the lesion. The stereological tissue analysis differences favoring females directly correlated with the female rats' greater functional improvement observed at endpoint.
Shiino, Akihiko; Chen, Yen-Wei; Tanigaki, Kenji; Yamada, Atsushi; Vigers, Piers; Watanabe, Toshiyuki; Tooyama, Ikuo; Akiguchi, Ichiro
It has been contended that any observed difference of the corpus callosum (CC) size between men and women is not sex-related but brain-size-related. A recent report, however, showed that the midsagittal CC area was significantly larger in women in 37 brain-size-matched pairs of normal young adults. Since this constituted strong evidence of sexual dimorphism and was obtained from publicly available data in OASIS, we examined volume differences within the CC and in other white matter using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We created a three-dimensional region of interest of the CC and measured its volume. The VBM statistics were analyzed by permutation test and threshold-free cluster enhancement (TFCE) with the significance levels at FWER sex-related difference. We also found that white matter in the bilateral anterior frontal regions and the left lateral white matter near to Broca’s area were larger in women, whereas there were no significant larger regions in men. Since we used brain-size-matched subjects, our results gave strong volumetric evidence of localized sexual dimorphism of white matter.
Schellino, Roberta; Trova, Sara; Cimino, Irene; Farinetti, Alice; Jongbloets, Bart C.; Pasterkamp, R. Jeroen; Panzica, Giancarlo; Giacobini, Paolo; De Marchis, Silvia; Peretto, Paolo
Opposite-sex attraction in most mammals depends on the fine-tuned integration of pheromonal stimuli with gonadal hormones in the brain circuits underlying sexual behaviour. Neural activity in these circuits is regulated by sensory processing in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), the first central station of the vomeronasal system. Recent evidence indicates adult neurogenesis in the AOB is involved in sex behaviour; however, the mechanisms underlying this function are unknown. By using Semaphorin 7A knockout (Sema7A ko) mice, which show a reduced number of gonadotropin-releasing-hormone neurons, small testicles and subfertility, and wild-type males castrated during adulthood, we demonstrate that the level of circulating testosterone regulates the sex-specific control of AOB neurogenesis and the vomeronasal system activation, which influences opposite-sex cue preference/attraction in mice. Overall, these data highlight adult neurogenesis as a hub for the integration of pheromonal and hormonal cues that control sex-specific responses in brain circuits. PMID:27782186
Vedder, O.; Magrath, M.J.L.; van der Velde, Marco; Komdeur, J.
It has been hypothesized that parents increase their fitness by biasing the sex ratio of extra-pair offspring (EPO) towards males. Here, we report a male bias among EPO in a wild population of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). This resulted from a decline in both the proportion of males and EPO over
Vedder, Oscar; Magrath, Michael J. L.; van der Velde, Marco; Komdeur, Jan
It has been hypothesized that parents increase their fitness by biasing the sex ratio of extra-pair offspring (EPO) towards males. Here, we report a male bias among EPO in a wild population of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus). This resulted from a decline in both the proportion of males and EPO over the laying order of eggs in the clutch. However, previous studies suggest that, unlike the decline in EPO with laying order, the relationship between offspring sex ratio and laying order is not consistent between years and populations in this species. Hence, we caution against treating the decline in proportion of males with laying order, and the resulting male bias among EPO, as support for the above hypothesis. Variable patterns of offspring sex and paternity over the laying order may explain inconsistent associations between offspring sex and paternity, between and within species. PMID:24026349
Fuss, Johannes; Hellweg, Rainer; Van Caenegem, Eva; Briken, Peer; Stalla, Günter K; T'Sjoen, Guy; Auer, Matthias K
Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are reduced in male-to-female transsexual persons (MtF) compared to male controls. It was hypothesized before that this might reflect either an involvement of BDNF in a biomechanism of transsexualism or to be the result of persistent social stress due to the condition. Here, we demonstrate that 12 month of cross-sex hormone treatment reduces serum BDNF levels in male-to-female transsexual persons independent of anthropometric measures. Participants were acquired through the European Network for the Investigation of Gender Incongruence (ENIGI). Reduced serum BDNF in MtF thus seems to be a result of hormonal treatment rather than a consequence or risk factor of transsexualism.
Tracas, Ashley; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Artamonova, Irina; Rangel, M Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Ulibarri, Monica D
Female sex workers (FSWs) often report inconsistent condom use with clients and noncommercial male partners, yet changes in condom use with various partner types during participation in observation studies remains underexplored. This longitudinal study of 214 FSWs and their male, noncommercial partners in the Mexico-U.S. border region, where HIV prevalence among FSWs continues to be high, utilized negative binomial regressions to examine changes in condom use with intimate partners and clients (regular and nonregular) over 24 months. Condom use decreased over time among couples in Ciudad Juarez, but there was no change in condom use among couples in Tijuana. FSWs' condom use with regular and nonregular clients significantly increased over time, which is consistent with previous research finding behavioral changes when participating in observational studies. Findings suggest the need for continued efforts to promote condom use among FSWs and their noncommercial male partners in addition to clients.
Lobel, T E
The social perception of masculine, feminine, androgynous and undifferentiated males was examined. Preadolescent boys (n = 251) were shown a video film portraying a male target playing either a masculine game with boys, a feminine game with girls, a neutral game with boys, or a neutral game with girls and were required to make a variety of inferences about him. All 4 groups made similar cognitive stereotypic inferences that varied in accordance with the gender stereotypic nature of the target's behavior. However, for the affective judgments (e.g., liking the target and wanting to engage in activities with him), the feminine males showed a pattern of inferences that was not only different from other sex role orientations, but often the reverse. The implications of these results for S. L. Bem's gender schema theory (1981) and H. Markus's self schema theory (H. Markus, M. Crane, S. L. Bernstein, & M. Siladi, 1982) are discussed.
Tracas, Ashley; Bazzi, Angela Robertson; Artamonova, Irina; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Staines, Hugo; Ulibarri, Monica D.
Female sex workers (FSWs) often report inconsistent condom use with clients and noncommercial male partners, yet changes in condom use with various partner types during participation in observation studies remains underexplored. This longitudinal study of 214 FSWs and their male, noncommercial partners in the Mexico-U.S. border region, where HIV prevalence among FSWs continues to be high, utilized negative binomial regressions to examine changes in condom use with intimate partners and clients (regular and nonregular) over 24 months. Condom use decreased over time among couples in Ciudad Juarez, but there was no change in condom use among couples in Tijuana. FSWs’ condom use with regular and nonregular clients significantly increased over time, which is consistent with previous research finding behavioral changes when participating in observational studies. Findings suggest the need for continued efforts to promote condom use among FSWs and their noncommercial male partners in addition to clients. PMID:27427926
de Carvalho, D; Marques, D A; Bernuci, M P; Leite, C M; Araújo-Lopes, R; Anselmo-Franci, J; Bícego, K C; Szawka, R E; Gargaglioni, L H
The locus coeruleus (LC) has been suggested as a CO2 chemoreceptor site in mammals. Most of the studies involving the role of the LC in hypercapnic ventilatory responses have been performed in males. Since ovarian steroids modulate the activity of LC neurons and females have a different respiratory response to CO2 than males, we evaluated the activity of LC noradrenergic neurons during normocapnia and hypercapnia in female and male rats with distinct sex hormone levels. Ovariectomized (OVX), estradiol (E2)-treated ovariectomized (OVX+E2) and female rats on the diestrous day of the estrous cycle were evaluated. Concurrently, males were investigated as gonad-intact, orchidectomized (ORX), testosterone (T)-treated ORX (ORX+T), and E2-treated ORX (ORX+E2). Activation of LC neurons was determined by double-label immunohistochemistry to c-Fos and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Hypercapnia induced by 7% CO2 increased the number of c-Fos/TH-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the LC of all groups when compared to air exposure. Hypercapnia-induced c-Fos expression did not differ between diestrous females and intact male rats. In the OVX+E2 group, there was attenuation in the c-Fos expression during normocapnia compared with OVX rats, but CO2 responsiveness was not altered. Moreover, in ORX rats, neither T nor E2 treatments changed c-Fos expression in LC noradrenergic neurons. Thus, in female rats, E2 reduces activation of LC noradrenergic neurons, whereas in males, sex hormones do not influence the LC activity.
Wegner, Alexander; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Rebernik, Laura; Roderigo, Till; Engelbrecht, Elisa; Jäger, Marcus; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred; Benson, Sven
A role of the innate immune system is increasingly recognized as a mechanism contributing to pain sensitization. Experimental administration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) constitutes a model to study inflammation-induced pain sensitization, but all existing human evidence comes from male participants. We assessed visceral and musculoskeletal pain sensitivity after low-dose LPS administration in healthy men and women to test the hypothesis that women show greater LPS-induced hyperalgesia compared with men. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, healthy men (n = 20) and healthy women using oral contraceptives (n = 20) received an intravenous injection of 0.4 ng/kg body weight LPS or placebo. Pain sensitivity was assessed with established visceral and musculoskeletal pain models (ie, rectal pain thresholds; pressure pain thresholds for different muscle groups), together with a heartbeat perception (interoceptive accuracy) task. Plasma cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6) were measured along with state anxiety at baseline and up to 6-hour postinjection. Lipopolysaccharide application led to significant increases in plasma cytokines and state anxiety and decreased interoceptive awareness in men and women (P pain thresholds were significantly decreased in the LPS condition (all P pain sensitization in both sexes.
Warner, Tara D.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.; Longmore, Monica A.
Research links sex ratios with the likelihood of marriage and divorce. However, whether sex ratios similarly influence precursors to marriage (transitions in and out of dating or cohabiting relationships) is unknown. Utilizing data from the Toledo Adolescent Relationships Study and the 2000 U.S. Census, this study assesses whether sex ratios…
Paranhos, Beatriz Jordao; Alves, Renata Morelli, E-mail: email@example.com [EMBRAPA Semi-Arido, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); McInnis, Donald [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/PBARC), Honolulu, HI (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center; Uramoto, Keiko [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Damasceno, Itala; Malavasi, Aldo [Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil, Juazeiro, BA (Brazil); Goncalves, Nilmara [Valexport, Petrolina, PE (Brazil); Costa, Maria de Lourdes; Walder, Julio [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Antonio [EMBRAPA Mandioca e Fruticultura, Cruz das Almas, BA (Brazil)
A key point of the sterile insect technique applied to the medfly, Ceratitis capitata, is that the sterile males produced in the laboratory should have at least a minimal sexual compatibility with wild females. Among several genetic sexing tsl (Temperature Sensitive Lethal) strains of C. capitata mass-reared around the world, the Biofabrica Moscamed Brasil has chosen the most recent mass produced tsl strain, Vienna 8 (V8), which has been evaluated in the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil, since April, 2005. The tests were accomplished in field cages, with different treatments for V8 males, sterile or fertile, exposed to the aroma of ginger root oil (GRO) or not, versus wild males and females. Males of one strain (V8 or wild) were painted white on the thorax the day before the mating tests. All the insects were virgin, and early in the morning (7-8 A.M.) males were released inside the field cages, 10 min. before females. Mating pairs were collected in glass vials, until early afternoon. From this raw data, both the type of male mating and the time in copula were recorded for each pair. Then, the total percentage of mated females, the RSI (Relative Sterility Index), and Fried's competitiveness values (C), were calculated for each field cage. The percentage of females mated was statistically higher to sterile males exposed to GRO than to non exposed to GRO. Time in copula was significantly higher for wild flies than for laboratory flies, except for the case of fertile V8 males exposed to GRO x wild females. The RSI and C values were significantly higher for V8 males (irradiated and fertile) treated with GRO than for V8 males not treated with GRO. The results indicate that there is adequate sexual compatibility between sterile males of the tsl Vienna 8 strain and wild C. capitata females from the San Francisco River Valley, Brazil. Also, the radiation dose of 95 Gy, used to sterilize the males, did not affect their sexual activity. Ginger root oil acted as a
Saw, Yu Mon; Saw, Thu Nandar; Wai, Kyi Mar; Poudel, Krishna C; Win, Hla Hla
Sex trading is a recognized risk factor for human immune deficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted infections among non-injecting drug users (NIDUs). However, very little research has addressed the factors associated with sex trading among male NIDUs in Myanmar. A cross-sectional study was conducted from January to February 2010 using the respondent-driven sampling method. In total, 210 NIDUs aged between 18 and 49 years, with no history of injecting drug use, and who used non-injected illicit drugs in the last 6 months were recruited. Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire to collect information on participants' sexual and drug use behaviors. Binary and multivariate logistic regressions were applied to analyze the resulting data. Of 210 NIDUs, 84 (40%) reported involvement in the sex trade during the last 3 months. In the adjusted model, factors associated with sex trade involvement included homosexual preference (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 4.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.61-14.95), having more than two partners (AOR = 3.88; 95% CI 1.55-9.72), had a regular job (AOR = 5.10; 95% CI 1.65-15.72), use of stimulant drugs rather than opiate (AOR = 2.38; 95% CI 1.10-5.15), and who used drugs more than twice per day. More than one third of NIDUs were involved in sex trading. This study suggested that further comprehensive intervention programs that aim to reduce risk factors of trading sex among NIDUs may consider including NIDUs who used stimulant drugs, had regular/full-time jobs, used drugs more than twice per day, and had homosexual preferences.
Yang, Xueyan; Attané, Isabelle; Li, Shuzhuo; Zhang, Qunlin
Using data from a survey conducted in the rural areas of Anhui Province, this study adopted the crosstabs and logistic regression model to analyze the same-sex sexual behaviors of forced male bachelors and the determinants when compared with married men with same ages. The prevalence of same-sex sexual behaviors among the unmarried men was reported as 17.2%, significantly higher than 8.9% among married men with same ages, indicating that same-sex sexual behaviors could be as a compensation for the absence of female sexual partners to some extent for those marriage squeezed or forced male bachelors. Among all groups, the occurrence of unprotected sexual behaviors were reported above 60%, regardless of marital status and the genders of sexual partners; the scores obtained on knowledge of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among bachelors (AIDS knowledge = 2.85; STDs knowledge = 2.38) are much poorer than those of married men (AIDS knowledge = 3.45; STDs knowledge = 2.79), which might exert potential negative impacts on men's health.
Paula M Checchi
Full Text Available Meiosis is a specialized form of cellular division that results in the precise halving of the genome to produce gametes for sexual reproduction. Checkpoints function during meiosis to detect errors and subsequently to activate a signaling cascade that prevents the formation of aneuploid gametes. Indeed, asynapsis of a homologous chromosome pair elicits a checkpoint response that can in turn trigger germline apoptosis. In a heterogametic germ line, however, sex chromosomes proceed through meiosis with unsynapsed regions and are not recognized by checkpoint machinery. We conducted a directed RNAi screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify regulatory factors that prevent recognition of heteromorphic sex chromosomes as unpaired and uncovered a role for the SET domain histone H3 lysine 9 histone methyltransferase (HMTase MET-2 and two additional HMTases in shielding the male X from checkpoint machinery. We found that MET-2 also mediates the transcriptional silencing program of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI but not meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC, suggesting that these processes are distinct. Further, MSCI and checkpoint shielding can be uncoupled, as double-strand breaks targeted to an unpaired, transcriptionally silenced extra-chromosomal array induce checkpoint activation in germ lines depleted for met-2. In summary, our data uncover a mechanism by which repressive chromatin architecture enables checkpoint proteins to distinguish between the partnerless male X chromosome and asynapsed chromosomes thereby shielding the lone X from inappropriate activation of an apoptotic program.
Checchi, Paula M; Engebrecht, JoAnne
Meiosis is a specialized form of cellular division that results in the precise halving of the genome to produce gametes for sexual reproduction. Checkpoints function during meiosis to detect errors and subsequently to activate a signaling cascade that prevents the formation of aneuploid gametes. Indeed, asynapsis of a homologous chromosome pair elicits a checkpoint response that can in turn trigger germline apoptosis. In a heterogametic germ line, however, sex chromosomes proceed through meiosis with unsynapsed regions and are not recognized by checkpoint machinery. We conducted a directed RNAi screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to identify regulatory factors that prevent recognition of heteromorphic sex chromosomes as unpaired and uncovered a role for the SET domain histone H3 lysine 9 histone methyltransferase (HMTase) MET-2 and two additional HMTases in shielding the male X from checkpoint machinery. We found that MET-2 also mediates the transcriptional silencing program of meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI) but not meiotic silencing of unsynapsed chromatin (MSUC), suggesting that these processes are distinct. Further, MSCI and checkpoint shielding can be uncoupled, as double-strand breaks targeted to an unpaired, transcriptionally silenced extra-chromosomal array induce checkpoint activation in germ lines depleted for met-2. In summary, our data uncover a mechanism by which repressive chromatin architecture enables checkpoint proteins to distinguish between the partnerless male X chromosome and asynapsed chromosomes thereby shielding the lone X from inappropriate activation of an apoptotic program.
Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J; Mayer, Kenneth H; Tinsley, Jake P; Safren, Steven A
Sex work is a significant risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) among men who have sex with men (MSM); however, there is a dearth of knowledge about how to reduce risk in this group. MSM sex workers (N = 32) completed a semistructured qualitative interview and a close-ended quantitative assessment. Analyses focused on themes relevant to intervention development. Participants reported an average of 46 male sex partners in the prior 12 months; 31% of participants were HIV-infected. Male sex workers frequently used substances during sex and had elevated levels of psychological distress. Qualitative findings suggest that trauma-informed mental health and substance abuse treatment, ready access to HIV/STI testing and treatment and condoms/informational materials, support groups to address isolation/loneliness, skill-building for risk reduction with sex partners, and paid incentives as add-ons to effective behavior change interventions may be valuable intervention components. Targeting consumers of paid/exchanged sex may assist with changing community norms regarding the practice of transactional sex. Multipronged interventions to decrease sexual risk taking among male sex workers would also benefit from addressing the unique socioeconomic and legal needs of this population.
Ahuja, Abha; Singh, Rama S
We investigated the genetic architecture of variation in male sex comb bristle number, a rapidly evolving secondary sexual character of Drosophila. Twenty-four generations of divergent artificial selection for sex comb bristle number in a heterogeneous population of Drosophila melanogaster resulted in a significant response that was more pronounced in the direction of low bristle numbers. We observed a strong positive correlated response to selection in the corresponding female transverse bristle row. The correlated response in male abdominal and sternopleural bristle numbers, on the other hand, did not follow the same pattern as sex comb bristle number differences between selection lines. Relaxation-of-selection experiments along with mate choice and fecundity assays using the selection lines developed demonstrated the action of stabilizing selection on sex comb bristle number. Our results show (1) substantial genetic variation underlying sex comb bristle number variation; (2) a weak relationship between the sex comb and developmentally related, non-sex bristle systems; and (3) that sexual selection may be a driving force in sex comb evolution, indicating the potential of sex combs to diversify rapidly during population differentiation and speciation. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of genetic variation in display and nondisplay male sex traits.
Klein, Verena; Schmidt, Alexander F; Turner, Daniel; Briken, Peer
Although much is currently known about hypersexuality (in the form of excessive sexual behavior) among sexual offenders, the degree to which hypersexual behavior is linked to paraphilic and especially pedophilic interests in non-forensic populations has not been established.The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the associations between total sexual outlets(TSO) and other sex drive indicators, antisocial behavior, pedophilic interests, and sexual offending behavior in a large population-based community sample of males. The sample included 8,718 German men who participated in an online study. Hypersexual behavior as measured by self-reported TSO, self-reported sex drive, criminal history, and pedophilic interests were assessed. In moderated hierarchical logistic regression analyses self-reported contact sexual offending against children was linked to sexual fantasizing about children and anti sociality.There was no association between aggregated sex drive, and sexual abusive behaviour in the multivariate analyses. In contrast, self-reported child pornography consumption was associated with sex drive, sexual fantasies involving children, and anti sociality. Nevertheless, in convicted sexual offenders anti sociality, sexual preoccupation (like hypersexuality), and pedophilic interest are important predictors of sexual reoffending against prepubescent children.Therefore, in clinical practice an assessment of criminal history and pedophilic interests in hypersexual individuals and vice versa hypersexuality in antisocial or pedophilic men should be considered [corrected].
Full Text Available Although much is currently known about hypersexuality (in the form of excessive sexual behavior among sexual offenders, the degree to which hypersexual behavior is linked to paraphilic and especially pedophilic interests in non-forensic populations has not been established.The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the associations between total sexual outlets(TSO and other sex drive indicators, antisocial behavior, pedophilic interests, and sexual offending behavior in a large population-based community sample of males. The sample included 8,718 German men who participated in an online study. Hypersexual behavior as measured by self-reported TSO, self-reported sex drive, criminal history, and pedophilic interests were assessed. In moderated hierarchical logistic regression analyses self-reported contact sexual offending against children was linked to sexual fantasizing about children and anti sociality.There was no association between aggregated sex drive, and sexual abusive behaviour in the multivariate analyses. In contrast, self-reported child pornography consumption was associated with sex drive, sexual fantasies involving children, and anti sociality. Nevertheless, in convicted sexual offenders anti sociality, sexual preoccupation (like hypersexuality, and pedophilic interest are important predictors of sexual reoffending against prepubescent children.Therefore, in clinical practice an assessment of criminal history and pedophilic interests in hypersexual individuals and vice versa hypersexuality in antisocial or pedophilic men should be considered [corrected].
Nadler, Joel T.; Berry, Seth A.; Stockdale, Margaret S.
To address the stranger-to-stranger critique of stereotyping research, psychology students (n = 139) and law students (n = 58) rated photographs of familiar or unfamiliar male or female professors on competence. Results from Study 1 indicated that familiar male psychology faculty were rated as more competent than were familiar female faculty,…
García-Cárdenas, Nallely; Olvera-Hernández, Sandra; Gómez-Quintanar, Blanca Nelly; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso
Homosexual men show a 2-4 higher risk to suffer anxiety in comparison with heterosexuals. It is unknown if biological factors collaborate to increase such incidence. Fluoxetine produces differential brain activation in homosexuals as compared with heterosexuals, suggesting that it may produce a divergent behavioral effect dependant on sex-preference. The first aim was to evaluate experimental anxiety in male rats that show same-sex preference in the elevated plus maze (EPM). The second goal explored the putative differential effect of fluoxetine (10mg/kg) in male rats with female and same-sex preference in the EPM. To induce same-sex preference males were prenatally treated with letrozole (0.56μg/kg, 10-20 gestation days), while controls were males prenatally treated with letrozole that retain female-preference or which mothers received oil. In both groups we found animals with male preference, but the proportion was higher in males that prenatally received letrozole (10 vs. 27%). Males with same-sex preference spent less time and showed lower number of entries to the open arms of the EPM than males that prefer females, regardless of the prenatal treatment. In males with female preference, fluoxetine reduced the time spent and number of entries to the open arms that was absent in males with same-sex preference. These data suggest that biological factors contribute to the high levels of anxiety in subjects with same-sex preference and that fluoxetine in men may produce a divergent action depending on sexual orientation.
... COMMISSION In the Matter of Cape Systems Group, Inc., Caribbean Cigar Company, Casual Male Corp., Cell Power... lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Cape Systems Group, Inc. because... there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Cell Power...
Yu, Junxiu; He, Yongjun; Guo, Zhen
In previous reports concerning the association between sex disparity and age, gastric cancer (GC) patients were simply divided into younger and older groups by age. We analyzed the age trend of the male to female sex ratio (MFSR) in GC based on patient sequential age in order to observe the changing process of MFSR with age. One thousand seven hundred fifty-one surgical gastric adenocarcinoma patients aged 26 to 85 years were investigated between January 1996 and December 2010. The patients were grouped by age intervals of 5 years. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to determine how the MFSR changed with age. The median age of the 1,751 patients with GC was 60 years (26 to 85 years). There were 1,334 male and 417 female patients (MFSR was 3.20). Cochran-Armitage trend test analysis showed that total MFSR increased significantly with age (Z = 5.964, P trend test showed that MFSR increased significantly with age from 26 to 60 years (Z = 7.433, P trend until 60 years of age. The male GC patients showed an increasing tendency, and female GC patients showed a decreasing tendency with age. This trend reached a plateau phase after 60 years of age.
Cunha, F S; Domenice, S; Câmara, V L; Sircili, M H P; Gooren, L J G; Mendonça, B B; Costa, E M F
Male-to-female transsexual persons use oestrogens + antiandrogens to adapt their physical bodies to the female sex. Doses are usually somewhat higher than those used by hypogonadal women receiving oestrogen replacement. Particularly in cases of self-administration of cross-sex hormones, doses may be very high. Oestrogens are powerful stimulators of synthesis and release of prolactin and serum prolactin levels are usually somewhat increased following oestrogen treatment. Prolactinomas have been reported in male-to-female transsexual persons, both after use of high and conventional doses of oestrogens but remain rare events. We report two new cases of prolactinomas in male-to-female transsexual persons, one in a 41-year-old subject who had used nonsupervised high-dose oestrogen treatment since the age of 23 years and another one in a 42 year old who had initiated oestrogen treatment at the age of 17 years. Their serum prolactin levels were strongly increased, and the diagnosis of a pituitary tumour was confirmed by imaging techniques. Both cases responded well to treatment with cabergoline treatment whereupon serum prolactin normalised. Our two cases are added to the three cases of prolactinomas in the literature in persons who had used supraphysiological doses of oestrogens.
Megan M McLaughlin
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Female sex workers have been the target of numerous sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention strategies in China, but their male clients have attracted considerably less public health attention and resources. We sought to systematically assess the prevalence of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among heterosexual male clients of female sex workers in China. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Original research manuscripts were identified by searching Chinese and English language databases, and 37 studies analyzing 26,552 male clients were included in the review. Client STI prevalence across studies was heterogeneous. Pooled prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals were 0.68% (0.36-1.28% for HIV, 2.91% (2.17-3.89% for syphilis, 2.16% (1.46-3.17% for gonorrhea, and 8.01% (4.94-12.72% for chlamydia. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The pooled prevalence estimates of HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia among clients in this review exceed the prevalences previously reported among population-representative samples and low-risk groups in China. However, heterogeneity across studies and sampling limitations prevent definitive conclusions about how the prevalence of STIs in this population compares to the general population. These findings suggest a need for greater attention to clients' sexual risk and disease prevalence in China's STI research agenda in order to inform effective prevention policies.
Pedersen, Nina Gros; Rode, L; Ekelund, Christer
Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of fetal sex, smoking and body mass index (BMI) on nuchal translucency (NT). Methods: We analyzed data from 7,357 women with a normal singleton live birth outcome with information on smoking, BMI and sex of the infant. NT measurements were converted...... to multiples of the median (MoM(NT)) using a previously reported linear regression analysis. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for MoM(NT) >95th centile was 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) for smokers compared to nonsmokers and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.7) for male fetuses compared to female fetuses. Obese women (BMI >/=30) had...
Pedersen, Nina Gros; Rode, Line; Ekelund, Christer
Objectives: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of fetal sex, smoking and body mass index (BMI) on nuchal translucency (NT). Methods: We analyzed data from 7,357 women with a normal singleton live birth outcome with information on smoking, BMI and sex of the infant. NT measurements were converted...... to multiples of the median (MoM(NT)) using a previously reported linear regression analysis. Results: The odds ratio (OR) for MoM(NT) >95th centile was 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.9) for smokers compared to nonsmokers and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.7) for male fetuses compared to female fetuses. Obese women (BMI >/=30) had...
Saraiva, João L; Keller-Costa, Tina; Hubbard, Peter C; Rato, Ana; Canário, Adelino V M
Androgens, namely 11-ketotestosterone (11KT), have a central role in male fish reproductive physiology and are thought to be involved in both aggression and social signalling. Aggressive encounters occur frequently in social species, and fights may cause energy depletion, injury and loss of social status. Signalling for social dominance and fighting ability in an agonistic context can minimize these costs. Here, we test the hypothesis of a 'chemical diplomacy' mechanism through urinary signals that avoids aggression and evokes an androgen response in receiver males of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). We show a decoupling between aggression and the androgen response; males fighting their mirror image experience an unresolved interaction and a severe drop in urinary 11KT. However, if concurrently exposed to dominant male urine, aggression drops but urinary 11KT levels remain high. Furthermore, 11KT increases in males exposed to dominant male urine in the absence of a visual stimulus. The use of a urinary signal to lower aggression may be an adaptive mechanism to resolve disputes and avoid the costs of fighting. As dominance is linked to nest building and mating with females, the 11KT response of subordinate males suggests chemical eavesdropping, possibly in preparation for parasitic fertilizations.
The gender gap in achievement and the increasing awareness of differences between male and female cognitive development have ignited a growing interest in single-sex education. No Child Left Behind legislation and amendments to Title IX legislation have increased the number of schools in America offering single-sex education. This 2-year…
Ferber, Marianne A.; Loab, Jane W.
Married women with or without children appear to experience less success in academic life. Marital and, for men, parental status may enter reward decisions as a possible indicator of perceived financial need. Perception of sex discrimination appears to be more accurate among women than men. (Author/JB)
Chaney, Michael P.; Blalock, Andrew C.
The authors collected surveys from 517 men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited from Internet chat rooms to examine the relationships among boredom, social connectedness, and sexual addiction. The results provide addictions professionals psychosocial factors to assess when working with sexually addicted MSM. (Contains 3 tables.)
Chaney, Michael P.; Blalock, Andrew C.
The authors collected surveys from 517 men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited from Internet chat rooms to examine the relationships among boredom, social connectedness, and sexual addiction. The results provide addictions professionals psychosocial factors to assess when working with sexually addicted MSM. (Contains 3 tables.)
von Hoermann Christian
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The hide beetle Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae feeds as an adult and larva on decomposing animal remains and can also be found on human corpses. Therefore, forensic entomological questions with regard to when and how the first receptive females appear on carcasses are important, as the developmental stages of their larvae can be used to calculate the post-mortem interval. To date, we know that freshly emerged males respond to the cadaver odour of post-bloated carcasses (approximately 9 days after death at Tmean = 27°C, being attracted by benzyl butyrate. This component occurs at its highest concentration at this stage of decay. The aim of our study was to determine the principle of attraction of virgin females to the feeding and breeding substrate. For this purpose, we tested the response of these females to headspace samples of piglet cadavers and male sex pheromones [(Z9-unsaturated fatty acid isopropyl esters] in a Y-olfactometer. Because we expected that such an odour combination is of importance for virgin female attraction, we tested the following two questions: 1 Are virgin female hide beetles attracted by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones? 2 During which decomposition stage do the first virgin females respond to cadaver odour when combined with male sex pheromones? Results We found that young virgin females were attracted to the cadaver by a combination of cadaver odour and male sex pheromones. Neither cadaver odour alone nor male sex pheromones alone was significantly more attractive than a solvent control. Our results also gave a weak indication that the first young virgin females respond as early as the post-bloating stage to its associated decomposition odour when combined with male sex pheromones. Conclusions Our results indicate that freshly emerged males possibly respond to cadaver odour and visit carcasses before virgin females. Being attracted to cadavers when male sex
Weyher, Anna H; Phillips-Conroy, Jane E; Fourrier, Marc S; Jolly, Clifford J
The behavior of the Central African Kinda baboon (Papio kindae) is not well documented. Having previously noted distinctive grooming behavior in several Kinda baboon populations, we investigated the topic more systematically in the Kafue National Park, Zambia. We recorded the duration and details of male-female dyadic interactions (approaches, withdrawals and time spent grooming) in the early morning and late afternoon. Such interactions were more often initiated by the male and terminated by the female partner. The male groomed the female more often, and longer, than she groomed him, regardless of the female's reproductive state or the presence of an infant. The bias towards male grooming was stronger in morning than evening interactions. These behaviors, whose function is not immediately obvious, and which are unlike those previously reported in baboons, further exemplify the distinctiveness of the taxon.
HAPP, GEORGE M
.... (Valentine 1931, Tschinkel et al. 1967, Happ and Wheeler 1969, Happ 1969). Of these pheromones, the best characterized is an attractant which is produced by females and which acts only on males...
Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jensen, Tina K; Juul, Anders;
Adverse secular trends in male reproductive health have been reported to be reflected in increased testicular cancer risk and decreased semen quality in more recently born men. These secular trends may also be reflected by changes in Leydig cell function....
Fink, Bernhard; André, Selina; Mines, Johanna S; Weege, Bettina; Shackelford, Todd K; Butovskaya, Marina L
Men and women accurately assess male physical strength from facial and body morphology cues. Women's assessments of male facial attractiveness, masculinity, and dominance correlate positively with male physical strength. A positive relationship also has been reported between physical strength and attractiveness of men's dance movements. Here, we investigate men's and women's attractiveness, dominance, and strength assessments from brief samples of male gait. Handgrip strength (HGS) was measured in 70 heterosexual men and their gait was motion-captured. Men and women judged 20 precategorized strong (high HGS) and weak (low HGS) walkers on attractiveness, dominance, and strength, and provided a measure of their own HGS. Both men and women judged strong walkers higher on dominance and strength than weak walkers. Women but not men judged strong walkers more attractive than weak walkers. These effects were independent of observers' physical strength. Male physical strength is conveyed not only through facial and body morphology, but also through body movements. We discuss our findings with reference to studies suggesting that physical strength provides information about male quality in contexts of inter- and intrasexual selection. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:913-917, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hou, Ya-Yi; Han, Xiao-Dong; Suzuki, Yuzuru
The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α; 20β-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.
The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β- dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in male rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestosterone and 17α, 20β-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.
Triana-Del Rio, Rodrigo; Montero-Domínguez, Felix; Cibrian-Llanderal, Tamara; Tecamachaltzi-Silvaran, Miriam B; Garcia, Luis I; Manzo, Jorge; Hernandez, María Elena; Coria-Avila, Genaro A
The effects of the dopamine D2-type receptor agonist quinpirole (QNP) were examined on the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference induced by cohabitation in rats. In Experiment 1, males received either saline or QNP (1.25mg/kg) and cohabited during three trials with almond-scented stimulus males that were sexually naïve. In Experiment 2, males received six trials, and in Experiment 3 received three trials with sexually expert stimulus males. During a final drug-free preference test, males chose between the familiar or a novel male partner. In Experiments 1, 2 and 3 only QNP-treated males displayed a social preference for the familiar male, observed with more time spent together. In Experiment 3 males also displayed a sexual preference observed with more non-contact erections when were exposed to their male partner. In Experiment 4 we tested the effects on OVX, E+P primed females that received 1 systemic injection of either saline or QNP during three conditioning trials. In Experiment 5, females received 2 injections 12-h apart during each trial. Results indicated that both saline and QNP-treated females failed to develop partner preference. These data demonstrate that enhanced D2-type receptor activity during cohabitation facilitates the development of conditioned same-sex partner preference in males, but not in female rats. We discuss the implications for same-sex partner preferences.
Reczek, Corinne; Spiker, Russell; Liu, Hui; Crosnoe, Robert
The children of different-sex married couples appear to be advantaged on a range of outcomes relative to the children of different-sex cohabiting couples. Despite the legalization of same-sex marriage in the United States, whether and how this general pattern extends to the children of same-sex married and cohabiting couples is unknown. This study examines this question with nationally representative data from the 2004–2013 pooled National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Results reveal that children in cohabiting households have poorer health outcomes than children in married households regardless of the sex composition of their parents. Children in same-sex and different-sex married households are relatively similar to each other on health outcomes, as are children in same-sex and different-sex cohabiting households. These patterns are not fully explained by socioeconomic differences among the four different types of families. This evidence can inform general debates about family structure and child health as well as and policy interventions aiming to reduce child health disparities. PMID:27553617
Reczek, Corinne; Spiker, Russell; Liu, Hui; Crosnoe, Robert
The children of different-sex married couples appear to be advantaged on a range of outcomes relative to the children of different-sex cohabiting couples. Despite the legalization of same-sex marriage in the United States, whether and how this general pattern extends to the children of same-sex married and cohabiting couples is unknown. This study examines this question with nationally representative data from the 2004-2013 pooled National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Results reveal that children in cohabiting households have poorer health outcomes than children in married households regardless of the sex composition of their parents. Children in same-sex and different-sex married households are relatively similar to each other on health outcomes, as are children in same-sex and different-sex cohabiting households. These patterns are not fully explained by socioeconomic differences among the four different types of families. This evidence can inform general debates about family structure and child health as well as policy interventions aiming to reduce child health disparities.
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Locomotor activity is an important physiologic phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. In previous study we showed that the matricaria chamomilla (chamomile hydroalcholic extract acts differently in male and female mice. Therefore in this study, the role of sex hormones and chamomile hydroalcholic extract were investigated on motor activity behavior in absence of sex glands in adult male and female NMRI mice. Materials and Methods: Gonadectomized male and female mice were divided into groups (seven mice in each group including: receiving testosterone (2 mg/kg S.C., estradiol benzoate (0.1 mg/kg S.C., and progesterone (0.5 mg/kg S.C. with and without hydroalcholic extract of chamomile (50 mg/kg i.p. Motor activity monitor system was used to evaluate locomotor activity parameters (fast and slow activity, fast and slow stereotype activity, fast and slow rearing in all groups. Results: 1 Testosterone had no any effect on motor activity parameters, but extract of chamomile with and without testosterone decreased motor activity parameters in male mice. 2 Estradiol benzoate and chamomile hydroalcholic extract in presence and absence of each other increased locomotor activity parameters in female mice. 3 Progesterone also did not change motor activity parameters in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract in female mice. 4 Administration of Estradiol benzoate with progestrone in presence and absence of chamomile hydroalcholic extract did not alter motor activity parameters in female mice. Conclusion: It seems both of the chamomile hydroalcholic extract and estradiol enhance motor activity and probably act through same system and potentiate the effect of each other. Also it seems there are interaction between estradiol and progesterone and also between chamomile extract and progesterone. Testosterone probably did not have any interaction with chamomile extract in locomotor activity.
Sánchez, Jorge; Sal y Rosas, Victor G.; Hughes, James P.; Baeten, Jared M.; Fuchs, Jonathan; Buchbinder, Susan P.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Casapia, Martín; Ortiz, Abner; Celum, Connie
Objectives To assess the association between male circumcision, insertive anal sex practices, and HIV acquisition in a cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods Data were from 1824 HSV-2 seropositive, HIV seronegative MSM, 1362 (75%) from Peru and 462 (25%) from the US, who participated in a randomized placebo controlled trial of HSV-2 suppression for HIV prevention (HPTN 039). Circumcision status was determined by examination at enrollment. HIV testing was done every three months for up to 18 months. Partner-specific sexual behavior for up to the last three partners during the previous three months was analyzed. Results There was no significant association between male circumcision and HIV acquisition in univariate analysis (RR=0.84, 95% CI 0.50–1.42). In a pre-specified multivariate analysis that assumed a linear relationship between the proportion of insertive acts and effect of circumcision on HIV acquisition, the interaction between circumcision and proportion of insertive acts was not significant (p=0.11). In an exploratory analysis that categorized behavior with recent partners by proportion of insertive acts (<60% or ≥60% insertive acts), circumcision was associated with a non-statistically significant 69% reduction in the risk of HIV acquisition (RR=0.31, 95% CI 0.06–1.51) among men who reported ≥60% of insertive acts with recent male partners. Conclusion Circumcision does not have a significant protective effect against HIV acquisition among MSM from Peru and US, although there may be reduced risk for men who are primarily insertive with their male partners. This association needs to be investigated across diverse cohorts of MSM. PMID:21099672
Pollet, Thomas V; Nettle, Daniel
Evolutionary psychologists have documented a widespread female preference for men of high status and resources, and evidence from several populations suggests that this preference has real effects on marriage success. Here, we show that in the US population of 1910, socioeconomic status (SES) had a positive effect on men's chances of marrying. We also test a further prediction from the biological markets theory, namely that where the local sex ratio produces an oversupply of men, women will be able to drive a harder bargain. As the sex ratio of the states increases, the effect of SES on marriage success becomes stronger, indicating increased competition between men and an increased ability to choose on the part of women.
Page, Jesús; de la Fuente, Roberto; Manterola, Marcia; Parra, María Teresa; Viera, Alberto; Berríos, Soledad; Fernández-Donoso, Raúl; Rufas, Julio S
During the first meiotic prophase in male mammals, sex chromosomes undergo a program of transcriptional silencing called meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). MSCI is triggered by accumulation of proteins like BRCA1, ATR, and γH2AX on unsynapsed chromosomes, followed by local changes on the sex chromatin, including histone modifications, incorporation of specific histone variants, non-histone proteins, and RNAs. It is generally thought that MSCI represents the transition of unsynapsed chromatin from a transcriptionally active state to a repressed state. However, transcription is generally low in the whole nucleus during the early stages of the first meiotic prophase, when markers of MSCI first appear, and is then reactivated globally during pachytene. Thus, an alternative possibility is that MSCI represents the targeted maintenance and/or reinforcement of a prior repressed state, i.e., a failure to reactivate. Here, we present an analysis of the temporal and spatial appearance of transcriptional and MSCI markers, as well as chromatin modifications related to transcriptional regulation. We show that levels of RNA pol II and histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9 (H3K9ac) are low during leptotene, zygotene, and early pachytene, but increase strongly in mid-pachytene, indicating that reactivation occurs with some delay after synapsis. However, while transcription markers appear abundantly on the autosomes at mid-pachytene, they are not directed to the sex chromosomes. Interestingly, we found that chromatin modifications related to transcriptional silencing and/or MSCI, namely, histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 9 (H3K9me3), histone H3 monomethylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me1), γH2AX, SUMO1, and XMR, appear on the sex chromosomes before autosomes become reactivated. These results suggest that the onset of MSCI during late zygotene and early pachytene may prevent sex chromosome reactivation during mid-pachytene instead of promoting inactivation de novo. Additionally, we
Turner, James M A; Aprelikova, Olga; Xu, Xiaoling; Wang, Ruihong; Kim, Sangsoo; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V R; Barrett, J Carl; Burgoyne, Paul S; Deng, Chu-Xia
In mammalian spermatogenesis, the X and Y chromosomes are transcriptionally silenced during the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase (meiotic sex chromosome inactivation, MSCI), forming a condensed chromatin domain termed the sex or XY body. The nucleosomal core histone H2AX is phosphorylated within the XY chromatin domain just prior to MSCI, and it has been hypothesized that this triggers the chromatin condensation and transcriptional repression. Here, we show that the kinase ATR localizes to XY chromatin at the onset of MSCI and that this localization is disrupted in mice with a mutant form of the tumor suppressor protein BRCA1. In the mutant pachytene cells, ATR is usually present at nonsex chromosomal sites, where it colocalizes with aberrant sites of H2AX phosphorylation; in these cells, there is MSCI failure. In rare pachytene cells, ATR does locate to XY chromatin, H2AX is then phosphorylated, a sex body forms, and MSCI ensues. These observations highlight an important role for BRCA1 in recruiting the kinase ATR to XY chromatin at the onset of MSCI and provide compelling evidence that it is ATR that phosphorylates H2AX and triggers MSCI.
Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Stulp, Gert; Třebický, Vít; Havlíček, Jan
Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541), we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role), men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.
Jaroslava Varella Valentova
Full Text Available Previous research has shown repeatedly that human stature influences mate preferences and mate choice in heterosexuals. In general, it has been shown that tall men and average height women are most preferred by the opposite sex, and that both sexes prefer to be in a relationship where the man is taller than the woman. However, little is known about such partner preferences in homosexual individuals. Based on an online survey of a large sample of non-heterosexual men (N = 541, we found that the majority of men prefer a partner slightly taller than themselves. However, these preferences were dependent on the participant's own height, such that taller men preferred shorter partners, whereas shorter men preferred taller partners. We also examined whether height preferences predicted the preference for dominance and the adoption of particular sexual roles within a couple. Although a large proportion of men preferred to be in an egalitarian relationship with respect to preferred dominance (although not with respect to preferred sexual role, men that preferred a more dominant and more "active" sexual role preferred shorter partners, whereas those that preferred a more submissive and more "passive" sexual role preferred taller partners. Our results indicate that preferences for relative height in homosexual men are modulated by own height, preferred dominance and sex role, and do not simply resemble those of heterosexual women or men.
Beekman, Madeleine; Dowling, Damian K; Aanen, Duur K
Eukaryotic cells typically contain numerous mitochondria, each with multiple copies of their own genome, the mtDNA. Uniparental transmission of mitochondria, usually via the mother, prevents the mixing of mtDNA from different individuals. While on the one hand, this should resolve the potential for selection for fast-replicating mtDNA variants that reduce organismal fitness, maternal inheritance will, in theory, come with another set of problems that are specifically relevant to males. Maternal inheritance implies that the mitochondrial genome is never transmitted through males, and thus selection can target only the mtDNA sequence when carried by females. A consequence is that mtDNA mutations that confer male-biased phenotypic expression will be prone to evade selection, and accumulate. Here, we review the evidence from the ecological, evolutionary and medical literature for male specificity of mtDNA mutations affecting fertility, health and ageing. While such effects have been discovered experimentally in the laboratory, their relevance to natural populations--including the human population--remains unclear. We suggest that the existence of male expression-biased mtDNA mutations is likely to be a broad phenomenon, but that these mutations remain cryptic owing to the presence of counter-adapted nuclear compensatory modifier mutations, which offset their deleterious effects.
Hu, Jian Rao; Du, Ji Zeng; Ji, Xiang
Changes in gonadal activity and plasma sex steroid hormone levels in male and female Eumece chinensis during the breeding season were described. The results showed that: The vitellogensis of follicles of female Eumeces chinensis needed the stimulation of 17beta-estradiol (E2). As ovary masses reached peak values between late April and mid-May, E2 levels rose to the top value by late March, and then sharply declined but went up again before preovulation; The physiological functions of plasma progesterone (P) consisted in its oviductal egg retention, embryo development, and eggshell formation. P levels fluctuated near the basic value between mid-March and late April. In mid-May, with the onset of ovulation, plasma P levels rose rapidly, reached peak value by late May and declined sharply after ovulation. Plasma E2 levels declined as plasma P levels rose, showing an inverse relationship between them; In males, plasma Testosterone (T) levels were closely correlated with the maintenance of spermatogenesis activities, male and male combat, sexual display, and mating. Plasma T levels tended to rise after the termination of hibernation, and reached peak value by mid-April. After mid-May, with the testis aggressing, plasma T levels gradually went down and reached bottom value by late June.
Cui, Zhongkai; Liu, Yun; Wang, Wenwen; Wang, Qian; Zhang, Ning; Lin, Fan; Wang, Na; Shao, Changwei; Dong, Zhongdian; Li, Yangzhen; Yang, Yingming; Hu, Mengzhu; Li, Hailong; Gao, Fengtao; Wei, Zhanfei; Meng, Liang; Liu, Yang; Wei, Min; Zhu, Ying; Guo, Hua; Cheng, Christopher H. K.; Schartl, Manfred; Chen, Songlin
Chinese tongue sole is a marine fish with ZW sex determination. Genome sequencing suggested that the Z-linked dmrt1 is a putative male determination gene, but direct genetic evidence is still lacking. Here we show that TALEN of dmrt1 efficiently induced mutations of this gene. The ZZ dmrt1 mutant fish developed ovary-like testis, and the spermatogenesis was disrupted. The female-related genes foxl2 and cyp19a1a were significantly increased in the gonad of the ZZ dmrt1 mutant. Conversely, the male-related genes Sox9a and Amh were significantly decreased. The dmrt1 deficient ZZ fish grew much faster than ZZ male control. Notably, we obtained an intersex ZW fish with a testis on one side and an ovary on the other side. This fish was chimeric for a dmrt1 mutation in the ovary, and wild-type dmrt1 in the testis. Our data provide the first functional evidence that dmrt1 is a male determining gene in tongue sole. PMID:28205594
Shulman, Julie L.; Gotta, Gabrielle; Green, Robert-Jay
The current study used an online survey to explore the anticipated impact of legalized marriage on partners in same-sex couples living in California. These data were gathered prior to the California Supreme Court decision in May 2008 legalizing same-sex marriage, which held sway for 5 months before California Proposition 8 eliminating same-sex…
Bjerregaard, Peter; Chatwood, Susan; Denning, Bryany;
The objective was to analyze the variation of secondary sex ratios across the Arctic and to estimate the time trend. The rationale for this was claims in news media that, in the Arctic, sex ratios have become reduced due to exposure to anthropogenic contaminants in the environment....
Shulman, Julie L.; Gotta, Gabrielle; Green, Robert-Jay
The current study used an online survey to explore the anticipated impact of legalized marriage on partners in same-sex couples living in California. These data were gathered prior to the California Supreme Court decision in May 2008 legalizing same-sex marriage, which held sway for 5 months before California Proposition 8 eliminating same-sex…
Morrow, J L; Riegler, M; Frommer, M; Shearman, D C A
In tephritids, the sex-determination pathway follows the sex-specific splicing of transformer (tra) mRNA, and the cooperation of tra and transformer-2 (tra-2) to effect the sex-specific splicing of doublesex (dsx), the genetic double-switch responsible for male or female somatic development. The Dominant Male Determiner (M) is the primary signal that controls this pathway. M, as yet uncharacterized, is Y-chromosome linked, expressed in the zygote and directly or indirectly diminishes active TRA protein in male embryos. Here we first demonstrated the high conservation of tra, tra-2 and dsx in two Australian tephritids, Bactrocera tryoni and Bactrocera jarvisi. We then used quantitative reverse transcription PCR on single, sexed embryos to examine expression of the key sex-determination genes during early embryogenesis. Individual embryos were sexed using molecular markers located on the B. jarvisi Y-chromosome that was also introgressed into a B. tryoni line. In B. jarvisi, sex-specific expression of tra transcripts occurred between 3 to 6 h after egg laying, and the dsx isoform was established by 7 h. These milestones were delayed in B. tryoni lines. The results provide a time frame for transcriptomic analyses to identify M and its direct targets, plus information on genes that may be targeted for the development of male-only lines for pest management.
Vihma, Veera; Naukkarinen, Jussi; Turpeinen, Ursula; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rissanen, Aila; Heinonen, Sini; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Jesper; Lundbom, Nina; Mikkola, Tomi S; Tikkanen, Matti J; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H
Obesity and ageing are associated with lower serum testosterone levels in men. How fat distribution or adipose tissue metabolism, independent of genetic factors and age, are related to sex steroid metabolism is less clear. We studied the associations between adiposity and serum sex hormone concentrations, and mRNA expression of genes regulating sex hormone metabolism in adipose tissue in young adult male monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs. The subjects [n=18 pairs; mean age, 32 years; individual body mass indexes (BMIs) 22-36kg/m(2)] included 9 male MZ twin pairs discordant for BMI [intra-pair difference (Δ) in BMI ≥3kg/m(2)]. Sex steroid concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging, and mRNA expressions from subcutaneous adipose tissue by Affymetrix. In BMI-discordant pairs (mean ΔBMI=5.9kg/m(2)), serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT) was lower [mean 1.9 (SD 0.7) vs. 2.4 (1.0) nmol/l, P=0.040] and mRNA expressions of DHT-inactivating AKR1C2 (P=0.021) and cortisol-producing HSD11B1 (P=0.008) higher in the heavier compared to the leaner co-twins. Serum free 17β-estradiol (E2) was higher [2.3 (0.5) vs. 1.9 (0.5) pmol/l, P=0.028], and in all twin pairs, serum E2 and estrone concentrations were higher in the heavier than in the leaner co-twins [107 (28) vs. 90 (22) pmol/l, P=0.006; and 123 (43) vs. 105 (27) pmol/l, P=0.025]. Within all twin pairs, i.e. independent of genetic effects and age, 1) the amount of subcutaneous fat inversely correlated with serum total and free testosterone, DHT, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) concentrations (Padiposity correlated positively with mRNA expressions of AKR1C2, HSD11B1, and aromatase in adipose tissue (Padiposity was associated with decreased serum DHT and increased estrogen concentrations, independent of genetic factors and age. The reduction of DHT could be linked to its increased degradation (by AKR1C2 and
The originator of phrenology, F. J. Gall (1758-1828), saw himself as a natural scientist and physiologist. His approach consisted of brain anatomy but also of palpating skulls and inferring mental faculties. Unlike some of the philosophical principles underlying Gall's work, his conception of sex/gender has not yet been examined in detail. In this article, I will focus on Gall's treatment of men and women, his idea of sex differences, and how far an assumed existence of dichotomous sexes influenced his work. In examining his primary writings, I will argue that Gall held some contradictory views concerning the origin and manifestation of sex/gender characteristics, which were caused by the collision of his naturalistic ideas and internalized gender stereotypes. I will conclude that Gall did not aim at deducing or legitimizing sex/gender relations scientifically, but that he tried to express metaphysical reasons for a given social order in terms of functional brain mechanisms.
Ahmed, Anisuddin; Reichenbach, Laura J; Alam, Nazmul
In Bangladesh, male clients (MCs) of female sex workers (FSWs) represent diverse occupational categories from different socioeconomic strata, and they are considered a bridging group to transmit sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to their spousal and nonspousal female partners. This study aimed to better understand sexual behaviors, STI symptoms, and care-seeking behaviors among MCs of FSWs in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among MCs from November 2005 to July 2006 in 3 types of sex trade settings in Bangladesh. Of 1565 MCs included in this study, 531 were from brothels, 515 from hotels, and 519 from street-based settings. Among the MCs, 32.2% reported having had STI symptoms within the last 1 year before the interview and 81.5% sought care for those symptoms. Among those who reported symptoms, 44.5% received treatment from pharmacies, 37.4% received treatment from qualified medical professionals, 8.6%, received treatment from nongovernment organization clinics, and 7.8% went to herbal providers. Male clients who had only 1 to 4 years of schooling were 2.4 times more likely to have STI symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-3.8) compared with the MCs having 10 or more years of schooling. The MCs who had sex with more than 3 nonmarital sexual partners in the last month were 2 times more likely to have STI symptoms (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). The MCs who used condoms consistently in their non-marital sexual contacts were significantly less likely (adjusted OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.6) to have STI symptoms. Reported risk behaviors, STI symptoms and care-seeking behavior suggest that MCs are a potential risk group for transmission of HIV and STIs. The study findings underscore the need to target HIV/STI prevention intervention for MCs, which are predominantly geared toward FSWs.
Dalwani, Manish; Sakai, Joseph T; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K; Tanabe, Jody; Raymond, Kristen; McWilliams, Shannon K; Thompson, Laetitia L; Banich, Marie T; Crowley, Thomas J
Boys with serious conduct and substance problems (Antisocial Substance Dependence (ASD)) repeatedly make impulsive and risky decisions in spite of possible negative consequences. Because prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in planning behavior in accord with prior rewards and punishments, structural abnormalities in PFC could contribute to a person's propensity to make risky decisions. We acquired high-resolution structural images of 25 male ASD patients (ages 14-18 years) and 19 controls of similar ages using a 3T MR system. We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric analysis (pbrain cluster-level) using Statistical Parametric Mapping version-5 and tested group differences in regional gray matter (GM) volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for total GM volume, age, and IQ; we further adjusted between-group analyses for ADHD and depression. As secondary analyses, we tested for negative associations between GM volume and impulsivity within groups and separately, GM volume and symptom severity within patients using whole-brain regression analyses. ASD boys had significantly lower GM volume than controls in left dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), right lingual gyrus and bilateral cerebellum, and significantly higher GM volume in right precuneus. Left DLPFC GM volume showed negative association with impulsivity within controls and negative association with substance dependence severity within patients. ASD boys show reduced GM volumes in several regions including DLPFC, a region highly relevant to impulsivity, disinhibition, and decision-making, and cerebellum, a region important for behavioral regulation, while they showed increased GM in precuneus, a region associated with self-referential and self-centered thinking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maass, AH; Maier, SKG
The authors have created transgenic mouse models of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mutations in either cardiac troponin T or myosin heavy chain. Mice mutant in myosin heavy chain develop significant cardiac hypertrophy at young adult age. Female mice keep that hypertrophic state, whereas male mice
Applies Erving Goffman's stigma theory to impressions of 25 women in educational administration careers. Analyzes data from an earlier study to show how women administrators, confronted with male leadership norms, deviate, acquire stigma, and become marginal. Concludes with suggestions for change, citing 32 references. (MLH)
Khan, S.; Franke-Fayard, B.; Mair, G.R.; Lasonder, E.; Janse, C.J.; Mann, M.; Waters, A.P.
Gametocytes, the precursor cells of malaria-parasite gametes, circulate in the blood and are responsible for transmission from host to mosquito vector. The individual proteomes of male and female gametocytes were analyzed using mass spectrometry, following separation by flow sorting of transgenic pa
Silversides, David W; Benoit, Jean-Marc; Collard, Fabien; Gilson, Catherine
A female French bulldog was presented with an enlarged clitoris. Abdominal surgery revealed a normal uterus and gonads resembling testes. Histologically, the gonads contained seminiferous tubules. The karyotype was XX, and the SRY gene was not detected. A diagnosis of XX male, SRY negative disorder of sexual development was made.
Maass, AH; Maier, SKG
The authors have created transgenic mouse models of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with mutations in either cardiac troponin T or myosin heavy chain. Mice mutant in myosin heavy chain develop significant cardiac hypertrophy at young adult age. Female mice keep that hypertrophic state, whereas male mice
Khan, S.; Franke-Fayard, B.; Mair, G.R.; Lasonder, E.; Janse, C.J.; Mann, M.; Waters, A.P.
Gametocytes, the precursor cells of malaria-parasite gametes, circulate in the blood and are responsible for transmission from host to mosquito vector. The individual proteomes of male and female gametocytes were analyzed using mass spectrometry, following separation by flow sorting of transgenic
Chen, Yen-Shan; Racca, Joseph D; Phillips, Nelson B; Weiss, Michael A
Human testis determination is initiated by SRY (sex determining region on Y chromosome). Mutations in SRY cause gonadal dysgenesis with female somatic phenotype. Two subtle variants (V60L and I90M in the high-mobility group box) define inherited alleles shared by an XY sterile daughter and fertile father. Whereas specific DNA binding and bending are unaffected in a rat embryonic pre-Sertoli cell line, the variants exhibited selective defects in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling due to impaired nuclear import (V60L; mediated by Exportin-4) or export (I90M; mediated by chromosome region maintenance 1). Decreased shuttling limits nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated (activated) SRY, in turn reducing occupancy of DNA sites regulating Sertoli-cell differentiation [the testis-specific SRY-box 9 (Sox9) enhancer]. Despite distinct patterns of biochemical and cell-biological perturbations, V60L and I90M each attenuated Sox9 expression in transient transfection assays by twofold. Such attenuation was also observed in studies of V60A, a clinical variant associated with ovotestes and hence ambiguity between divergent cell fates. This shared twofold threshold is reminiscent of autosomal syndromes of transcription-factor haploinsufficiency, including XY sex reversal associated with mutations in SOX9. Our results demonstrate that nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SRY is necessary for robust initiation of testicular development. Although also characteristic of ungulate orthologs, such shuttling is not conserved among rodents wherein impaired nuclear export of the high-mobility group box and import-dependent phosphorylation are compensated by a microsatellite-associated transcriptional activation domain. Human sex reversal due to subtle defects in the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of SRY suggests that its transcriptional activity lies near the edge of developmental ambiguity.
Full Text Available
The first case of sex reassignment surgery (SRS in our hospital was performed in January 2001; as of February, 2005, 4 cases of MTF-SRS had been performed. In the 2 most recent cases, we used penile and scrotal skin flaps to avoid complications. The depth and width of the new vagina was made to be adequate for sexual intercourse. Future attention should be focused on devising a surgical technique that will help prevent the complications of partial necrosis of the epidermal skin and wound dehiscence. Although ours is only an initial experience, we describe our surgical technique herein.
Comparisons between 'wild'and 'game farm' mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were made to assess the differences in the temporal changes of plasma hormones. Seasonal variation in the levels of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, 5 -dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone, estradiol-17i?? and progesterone were measured in male and female mallards. In all birds there was a vernal increase in the concentrations of LH and testosterone in plasma which were correlated with the development of the testes and ovaries prior to and during the nesting season. The concentrations of estrogens in the plasma of the females were, in general, slightly higher during the nesting season but were much lower than the levels of testosterone. The highest levels of LH and testosterone in the females coincided precisely with the period of egg laying which occurred approximately one month earlier in game farm females than in wild females. The concentrations of LH and testosterone in the plasma of females decreased rapidly during incubation. In wild males, the decline in levels of these hormones temporally coincided with that of females. In contrast, plasma levels of LH and testosterone of males of the game farm stock remained elevated after the beginning of incubation in females to which they were paired. On the basis of these results and an examination of the literature, it appears that domestication results in: 1) increased reproductive potential through earlier initiation of nesting and by delay of the termination of reproduction until later in the summer; and 2) a decrease in the synchronization of the hormonal events supporting reproduction between the male and female of a pair. Testicular weights and plasma levels of testosterone become higher in game farm and domestic males than in the wild stock but levels of LH are similar.
Studzinska, Anna Magda; Hilton, Denis
Studies show equal impact of sexual harassment (SH) on men and women, whereas lay perceptions are that women suffer more. We identify the phenomenon of minimization of male suffering (MMS), which occurs when people assume that SH has less effect on men's well-being and which results in the perpetrators of SH on men being evaluated less harshly. To verify whether these effects occur, we conducted two studies in which we presented stories describing acts of sexual coercion (SC, study 1) and SC or financial coercion (FC, study 2) and measured the perceived suffering of victims and the perception of the perpetrators. Both studies showed that female victims were perceived to suffer more from SC and FC and that perpetrators of both acts on women were evaluated more negatively. The results support our hypothesis that the suffering of male victims is minimized as they are perceived to suffer less than women.
Olga Sergeevna Shubina
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and functional features of the process of spermatogenesis in the testes of male albino rats when exposed to lead acetate. Materials and Methods: Using histological, morphometric and statistical methods explored the effects of lead acetate on the process of spermatogenesis in the testes of male albino rats. Investigations were carried out using a digital microscope Axio Imager.M2 and automatic cell counter Countess™. Results: It is shown that when exposed to lead acetate a decrease in the production of all populations of spermatogenic cells, decreased spermatogenesis index and an index of relaxation (tension spermatogenesis, the increase in the index of ripening, index meiotic activity and germinative index, which indicates a decrease in the functional activity of the testes. On preparations, it is possible to see that after the influence of acetate of lead the head of spermatozoa becomes more roundish, breaks of tails observed. Conclusion: Lead acetate reduces the productivity of the seminal glands, which leads to the decrease of the concentration of spermatozoa, and their viability. The results of the studies suggest a negative impact of lead acetate in the course of the process of spermatogenesis in the testes of male white rats.
Quero, C; Camps, F; Guerrero, A
The behavioral response of processionary males (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) to the natural pheromone (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynyl acetate (1) and structurally related analogs in a wind tunnel is presented. Stereomerically pureZ-1 and a mixture with theE isomer in 80:20 ratio elicited similar attraction responses at 1 µg and higher. The activity was dose-dependent, being optimum at 1 µg with 90% and 80% of males contacting with the source in the presence of theZ-1 andZ/E-1, respectively. 11-Hexadecynyl acetate (2) functioned as a pheromone mimic, being able to induce the complete mate-finding behavioral sequence, although its activity was much lower than that of the pheromone. (Z)-13-Hexadecen-11-ynyl alcohol (3) and, particularly, (Z)-13-hexadecen-11-ynal (4) were potent inhibitors of the upwind flight response in mixtures withZ-1 in 99:1, 95:5, and 91:9 ratios. (Z)-1,1,1-Trifluoro-16-nonadecen-14-yn-2-one (5) also inhibited the response of males to pheromone, particularly in the source contact behavior. Comparison with activity displayed by analogs in field tests is also reported.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sex-ratio meiotic drive refers to the preferential transmission of the X chromosome by XY males. The loss of Y-bearing sperm is caused by an X-linked distorter and results in female-biased progeny. The fertility of sex-ratio (SR males expressing the distorter is usually strongly reduced compared to wild-type males, especially when they are in competition. The aim of this study was to identify the post-copulatory mechanisms that lower the fertility of SR males in Drosophila simulans. Parameters contributing to male fertility were measured in single and double mating conditions. Results The most detrimental effect on SR males fertility is due to the size of their ejaculate which is half that of wild-type males. Sperm viability and sperm use by the females are also reduced. Sex-ratio males are poor sperm competitors in both offence and defence. We found evidence for sperm release from the female reproductive tract that specifically affects SR males. It results in the removal of stored sperm from a first SR mate without the action of the sperm of the second male. In addition, females mated once with an SR male remate more frequently with wild-type males. Conclusion The paternity reduction of SR males in competitive conditions is greater than that attributable to their low sperm production and could prevent the spread of distorter X chromosomes in populations when multiple mating occur. The female-driven mechanisms are shown to play a major role both throughout the post-copulatory selective process and increased polyandry. The variation in male reproductive performance may drive the evolution of sexual learning capability of females.
Peper, Jiska S.; De Reus, Marcel A.; Van Den Heuvel, Martijn P.; Schutter, Dennis J L G
Functional neuroimaging studies in adults show that aggression involves reduced brain communication between subcortical and cortical areas dedicated to motivation and control, respectively. Prior research indicates that sex steroid hormone production during adolescence negatively influences the rapi
Full Text Available Megabunus diadema (Fabricius, 1779 is an Atlantic and European harvestman species characterized by a discontinuous distribution from Scandinavia to the Iberian Peninsula. With very few male individuals ever observed in the field until now, the biological uniqueness of the species lies in its reproduction mode, hitherto regarded as asexual, facultative parthenogenesis. Based on a large sample of 741 sexed individuals, the study indicates a sex ratio much higher than what was formerly known, equal to 65.58% of males. Locally varying from 0 to 100% (median 75.5% of males, the sex ratio depends indeed on the altitude and the phenological cycle: the proportion of males decreases with increasing altitude and increases gradually during the spring to reach a plateau in summer. By describing populations locally dominated by male individuals and providing new information on the spatial and temporal patterns of tertiary sex ratio, we question the currently admitted reproduction mode of the species which could be normally sexual, at least locally, rather than asexual. A distribution map of the species on the northern slope of the Pyrenees is provided for the first time. Our study also complements the distribution for the southern slopes of the Pyrenees and the rest of the Iberian Peninsula published recently by Merino-Sáinz et al. (2013.Megabunus diadema (Fabricius 1779 es una especie de opilión Atlántica y Europea, caracterizada por una distribución discontinua desde Escandinavia a la Península Ibérica. La singularidad biológica de la especie se encuentra en el modo de reproducción, la partenogénesis facultativa, hasta ahora considerada como asexual. De hecho, hasta el momento se han observado muy pocos individuos masculinos en el campo. Los resultados de este estudio muestran, sobre una amplia muestra (741 individuos sexuados, que la proporción de sexo masculino es muy superior a lo conocido hasta ahora (65%. Localmente este porcentaje puede
Chen, Sijie; Zhang, Hefei; Wang, Fenghua; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Gang
Sex determinations are diverse in vertebrates. Although many sex-determining genes and pathways are conserved, the mechanistic roles of these genes and pathways in the genetic sex determination are not well understood. DAX1 (encoded by the NR0B1 gene) is a vertebrate specific orphan nuclear receptor that regulates gonadal development and sexual determination. In human, duplication of the NR0B1 gene leads to male-to-female sex reversal. In mice, Nr0b1 shows both pro-testis and anti-testis functions. We generated inheritable nr0b1 mutation in the zebrafish and found the nr0b1 mutation caused homozygous mutants to develop as fertile males due to female-to-male sex reversal. The nr0b1 mutation did not increase Caspase-3 labeling nor tp53 expression in the developing gonads. Introduction of a tp53 mutation into the nr0b1 mutant did not rescue the sex-reversal phenotype. Further examination revealed reduction in cell proliferation and abnormal somatic cell differentiation in the nr0b1 mutant gonads at the undifferentiated and bi-potential ovary stages. Together, our results suggest nr0b1 regulates somatic cell differentiation and cell proliferation to ensure normal sex development in the zebrafish.
Chen, Xin; René García, L
We studied the Caenorhabditis elegans anal depressor development in larval males and hermaphrodites to address how a differentiated cell sex-specifically changes its morphology prior to adulthood. In both sexes, the larval anal depressor muscle is used for defecation behavior. However in the adult males, the muscle's sarcomere is reorganized to facilitate copulation. To address when the changes occur in the anal depressor, we used YFP:actin to monitor, and mutant analysis, laser-ablation and transgenic feminization to perturb the cell's morphological dynamics. In L1 and L2 stage larva, the muscle of both sexes has similar sarcomere morphology, but the hermaphrodite sex-determination system promotes more growth. The male anal depressor begins to change in the L3 stage, first by retracting its muscle arm from the neurons of the defecation circuit. Then the muscle's ventral region develops a slit that demarcates an anterior and posterior domain. This demarcation is not dependent on the anal depressor's intrinsic genetic sex, but is influenced by extrinsic interactions with the developing male sex muscles. However, subsequent changes are dependent on the cell's sex. In the L4 stage, the anterior domain first disassembles the dorsal-ventral sarcomere region and develops filopodia that elongates anteriorly towards the spicule muscles. Later, the posterior domain dissembles the remnants of its sarcomere, but still retains a vestigial attachment to the ventral body wall. Finally, the anterior domain attaches to the sex muscles, and then reassembles an anterior-posteriorly oriented sarcomere. Our work identifies key steps in the dimorphic re-sculpting of the anal depressor that are regulated by genetic sex and by cell-cell signaling.
Barrington, Clare; Latkin, Carl; Sweat, Michael D; Moreno, Luis; Ellen, Jonathan; Kerrigan, Deanna
Male partners of female sex workers are rarely targeted by HIV prevention interventions in the commercial sex industry, despite recognition of their central role and power in condom use negotiation. Social networks offer a naturally existing social structure to increase male participation in preventing HIV. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between social network norms and condom use among male partners of female sex workers in La Romana, Dominican Republic. Male partners (N =318) were recruited from 36 sex establishments to participate in a personal network survey. Measures of social network norms included 1) perceived condom use by male social network members and 2) encouragement to use condoms from social network members. Other social network characteristics included composition, density, social support, and communication. The primary behavioral outcome was consistent condom use by male partners with their most recent female sex worker partner during the last 3 months. In general, men reported small, dense networks with high levels of communication about condoms and consistent condom use. Multivariate logistic regression revealed consistent condom use was significantly more likely among male partners who perceived that some or all of their male social network members used condoms consistently. Perceived condom use was, in turn, significantly associated with dense networks, expressing dislike for condoms, and encouragement to use condoms from social network members. Findings suggest that the tight social networks of male partners may help to explain the high level of condom use and could provide an entry point for HIV prevention efforts with men. Such efforts should tap into existing social dynamics and patterns of communication to promote pro-condom norms and reduce HIV-related vulnerability among men and their sexual partners.
Petzold, Jacquelyn M; Smith, G Troy
Sexually dimorphic signaling is widespread among animals and can act as an honest indicator of mate quality. Additionally, differences in signaling and morphology within a sex can be associated with different strategies for acquiring mates. Weakly electric fish communicate via self-generated electrical fields that transmit information about sex, reproductive state, and social status. The weakly electric knifefish Parapteronotus hasemani exhibits sexual dimorphism in body size as well as substantial within-male variation in body size and jaw length. We asked whether P. hasemani exhibits hormonally mediated sexual dimorphism in electrocommunication behavior. We also asked whether males with short versus long jaws differed significantly from each other in morphology, behavior, hormone levels, or reproductive maturity. Males produced longer chirps than females, but other signal parameters (electric organ discharge frequency; chirp rate and frequency modulation) were sexually monomorphic. Pharmacologically blocking androgen receptors in males reduced chirp duration, suggesting that this sexually dimorphic trait is regulated at least in part by the activational effects of androgens. Males sorted into two distinct morphological categories but did not differ in circulating 11-ketotestosterone or testosterone. Short-jawed males and long-jawed males also did not differ in any aspects of signaling. Thus, chirping and high levels of 11-ketotestosterone were reliably associated with reproductively active males but do not necessarily indicate male type or quality. This contrasts with other alternative male morph systems in which males that differ in morphology also differ in androgen profiles and signaling behavior.
侯亚义; 韩晓冬; SUZUKIYuzuru
The profiles of cortisol, testosterone, ll-ketotestosterone and 17α， 20β- dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one in mule rainbow trout reared under constant water temperature and natural photoperiod were determined by radioimmunoassay. Gonads of male rainbow trout reached maturity when the fish were two years old. Changes in the plasma levels of both sex steroid hormones and cortisol were closely related to the GSI. Plasma levels of testosterone, 11-ketotestostemne and 17a, 2013-dihydroxy 4-pregnene-3-one showed a clear peak in the annual breeding season, when the GSI reached their maxima. Plasma cortisol levels also showed clearly seasonal changes in both two- and three-year-old fish. The results suggest that the elevated plasma levels of cortisol may not just be due to stresses during the breeding season but have certain physiological functions in the reproduction of rainbow trout.
Ng, Wai-Ching Irene; Cheung, Monit; Ma, Anny Kit-Ying
The common law presumption that a boy under the age of 14 is incapable of sexual intercourse has provoked controversial debates in Hong Kong. This article describes a 6-step advocacy journey to examine how community efforts have helped modify this law so that juvenile male sexual offenders under the age of 14 who have committed the crime of having sexual intercourse with underage females can be sentenced to receive appropriate treatment. Seven court cases provided by the magistrates' courts in Hong Kong were used in this advocacy effort for the removal of the presumption in July 2012. Although this effort has yet to reveal signs of effectiveness, it represents greater public awareness about providing rehabilitation appropriate for juvenile sex offenders through a formal sentence. Restorative justice, as opposed to retributive or punitive justice, places an emphasis on rehabilitation of the offender and restoration of victims to a place of wholeness.
Daimon, Takaaki; Fujii, Takeshi; Yago, Masaya; Hsu, Yu-Feng; Nakajima, Yumiko; Fujii, Tsuguru; Katsuma, Susumu; Ishikawa, Yukio; Shimada, Toru
Analysis of female sex pheromone components and subsequent field trap experiments demonstrated that the bombycid moth Trilocha varians uses a mixture of ( E, Z)-10,12-hexadecadienal (bombykal) and ( E,Z)-10,12-hexadecadienyl acetate (bombykyl acetate) as a sex pheromone. Both of these components are derivatives of ( E,Z)-10,12-hexadecadienol (bombykol), the sex pheromone of the domesticated silkmoth Bombyx mori. This finding prompted us to compare the antennal and behavioral responses of T. varians and B. mori to bombykol, bombykal, and bombykyl acetate in detail. The antennae of T. varians males responded to bombykal and bombykyl acetate but not to bombykol, and males were attracted only when lures contained both bombykal and bombykyl acetate. In contrast, the antennae of B. mori males responded to all the three components. Behavioral analysis showed that B. mori males responded to neither bombykal nor bombykyl acetate. Meanwhile, the wing fluttering response of B. mori males to bombykol was strongly inhibited by bombykal and bombykyl acetate, thereby indicating that bombykal and bombykyl acetate act as behavioral antagonists for B. mori males. T. varians would serve as a reference species for B. mori in future investigations into the molecular mechanisms underlying the evolution of sex pheromone communication systems in bombycid moths.
Lippa, Richard A
If sex drive is a generalized energizer of sexual behaviors, then high sex drive should increase an individual's sexual attraction to both men and women. If sex drive energizes only dominant sexual responses, however, then high sex drive should selectively increase attraction to men or to women, but not to both, depending on the individual's sexual orientation. Data from three studies assessing a total of 3,645 participants show that for most women, high sex drive is associated with increased sexual attraction to both men and women. For men, however, high sex drive is associated with increased sexual attraction to only one sex or the other, depending on the individual's sexual orientation. These results suggest that the correlates of sex drive and the organization of sexual orientation are different for women and men.
Steven M Goodreau
Full Text Available Three trials have demonstrated the prophylactic effect of male circumcision (MC for HIV acquisition among heterosexuals, and MC interventions are underway throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Similar efforts for men who have sex with men (MSM are stymied by the potential for circumcised MSM to acquire HIV easily through receptive sex and transmit easily through insertive sex. Existing work suggests that MC for MSM should reach its maximum potential in settings where sexual role segregation is historically high and relatively stable across the lifecourse; HIV incidence among MSM is high; reported willingness for prophylactic circumcision is high; and pre-existing circumcision rates are low. We aim to identify the likely public health impact that MC interventions among MSM would have in one setting that fulfills these conditions-Peru-as a theoretical upper bound for their effectiveness among MSM generally.We use a dynamic, stochastic sexual network model based in exponential-family random graph modeling and parameterized from multiple behavioral surveys of Peruvian MSM. We consider three enrollment criteria (insertive during 100%, >80% or >60% of UAI and two levels of uptake (25% and 50% of eligible men; we explore sexual role proportions from two studies and different frequencies of switching among role categories. Each scenario is simulated 10 times. We estimate that efficiency could reach one case averted per 6 circumcisions. However, the population-level impact of an optimistic MSM-MC intervention in this setting would likely be at most ∼5-10% incidence and prevalence reductions over 25 years.Roll-out of MC for MSM in Peru would not result in a substantial reduction in new HIV infections, despite characteristics in this population that could maximize such effects. Additional studies are needed to confirm these results for other MSM populations, and providers may consider the individual health benefits of offering MC to their MSM patients.
Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown a high prevalence of low serum testosterone levels in men with cardiovascular disease. Moreover, the tyrosine kinase receptor Axl, the ligand of which is growth arrest-specific protein 6 (GAS6, is expressed in the vasculature, and serum GAS6 levels are associated with endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular events. Testosterone regulates GAS6 gene transcription directly, which inhibits calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells and provides a mechanistic insight into the cardioprotective action of androgens. This study was designed to determine the correlation between serum GAS6 and testosterone levels in male patients with coronary heart disease (CHD. We recruited 225 patients with CHD and 102 apparently healthy controls. Serum concentrations of GAS6 and soluble Axl were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, testosterone, estradiol, and other routine biochemical markers were also measured. Testosterone decreased from 432.69 ± 14.40 to 300.76 ± 6.23 ng dl−1 (P < 0.001 and GAS6 decreased from 16.20 ± 0.31 to 12.51 ± 0.19 ng ml−1 (P < 0.001 in patients with CHD, compared with control subjects. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum testosterone and GAS6 levels were positively associated in male patients with CHD. Alterations in GAS6 levels may influence the development of CHD. Downregulation of GAS6/Axl signaling in the presence of low sex hormone levels during disease progression is a potential mechanism by which GAS6 affects CHD. This study provides novel results regarding the influence of sex hormones on serum GAS6 levels in patients with CHD.
Emadi, S R; Rezaei, A; Bolourchi, M; Hovareshti, P; Akbarinejad, V
The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of estradiol benzoate administration before insemination on secondary sex ratio (proportion of male calves at birth) in Holstein dairy cows. Cows (n = 1,647) were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups by parity over a 1-yr period. Cows in the control group (n = 827; 232 primiparous and 595 multiparous cows) received 2 administrations of PGF2α (500 μg) 14 d apart, started at 30 to 35 d postpartum. Twelve d after the second PGF2α injection, cows received GnRH (100 μg), followed by administration of PGF2α 7 d later. Cows in the treatment group (n = 820; 238 primiparous and 582 multiparous cows) received the same hormonal administrations as the cows in the control group. Additionally, cows in the treatment group received estradiol benzoate (1 mg) 1 d after the third PGF2α injection. Estrus detection by visual observation was started 1 d after the third PGF2α injection and after estradiol administration in the control (for 6 d) and treatment (for 36 h) groups, respectively. Artificial insemination was carried out 12 h after observation of standing estrus. Exposure of cows to heat stress at conception was determined based on temperature-humidity index. Estrus detection rate was lower in primiparous than in multiparous cows (P heat stress diminished heat detection rate and fertility (P calves being male in Holstein dairy cows. Moreover, the results showed that cows exposed to heat stress around conception had diminished fertility and increased secondary sex ratio.
Pantalone, David W; Tomassilli, Julia C; Starks, Tyrel J; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T
Objectives. We investigated trends in, and predictors of, unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with casual male partners of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM). Methods. We analyzed data from cross-sectional intercept surveys conducted annually (2003-2008) at 2 large lesbian, gay, and bisexual community events in New York City. Survey data covered GBMSM's highest-risk behaviors for HIV acquisition (HIV-negative or unknown status GBMSM, any UAI) and transmission (HIV-positive GBMSM, any serodiscordant unprotected UAI). Results. Across years, 32.3% to 51.5% of the HIV-negative or unknown status men endorsed any UAI, and 36.9% to 52.9% of the HIV-positive men endorsed serodiscordant UAI. We observed a few statistically significant fluctuations in engagement in high-risk behavior. However, these do not appear to constitute meaningful trends. Similarly, in some years, one or another demographic predictor of UAI was significant. Across years, however, no reliable pattern emerged. Conclusions. A significant proportion of urban GBMSM engage in high-risk sex, regardless of serostatus. No consistent demographic predictors emerged, implying a need for broad-based interventions that target all GBMSM.
Safika, Iko; Johnson, Timothy P; Cho, Young Ik; Praptoraharjo, Ignatius
This article examined differences in condom use during anal intercourse among men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender women in Jakarta, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design, structured interviews, and hierarchical linear modeling were used to examine condom use among MSM recruited from entertainment places (EPs; e.g., discotheques/dance clubs/karaoke bars), massage parlors (MPs), and among transgender women who congregated and/or sought sexual partners on streets/parks (S/P). The sample consisted of 91, 97, and 114 of MSM-EP, MSM-MP, and transgender-S/P, respectively. Respondents reported on 641 unique sexual partner encounters, which were "nested" within 302 respondents. Reported condom use was high, 66%, 84%, and 83% for MSM-EP, MSM-MP, and transgender-S/P, respectively, and varied across type of respondent. At the individual level, depressive symptoms and history of physical abuse during childhood and adulthood were associated with lower condom use (p < .05). By contrast, having a higher level of education was associated with more condom use (p < .05). At the partner level, condom use was associated with type of partners and the use of club drugs before sex. HIV-prevention efforts should take into account the multilevel determinants of condom use within these populations.
Nielson, Carrie M.; Schiaffino, Melody K.; Dunne, Eileen F.; Salemi, Jason L.; Giuliano, Anna R.
Background Male circumcision may lower men’s risk of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and reduce transmission to sex partners. Reported associations between circumcision and HPV infection in men have been inconsistent. Methods Four hundred sixty-three men in 2 US cities were tested at 6 anogenital sites and in semen for 37 types of HPV. Men were eligible if they reported sex with a woman within the past year, no history of genital warts or penile or anal cancer, and no current diagnosis of a sexually transmitted infection. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Circumcision status was assessed by the study clinician. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between circumcision and HPV detection at each site and in semen, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Seventy-four men (16.0%) were uncircumcised. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for any HPV genotype and circumcision were 0.53 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28–0.99) for any anatomic site/specimen, 0.17 (95% CI, 0.05–0.56) for the urethra, 0.44 (95% CI, 0.23–0.82) for the glans/corona, and 0.53 (95% CI, 0.28–0.99) for the penile shaft. AORs were Circumcision may be protective against HPV infection of the urethra, glans/corona, and penile shaft. PMID:19086813
Itil, T M; Michael, S T; Shapiro, D M; Itil, K Z
Based on computer EEG (CEEG) profiles, in high doses, antidepressant properties of mesterolone, a synthetic androgen, were predicted. In a double-blind placebo controlled study, the clinical effects of 300-450 mg daily mesterolone were investigated in 52 relatively young (age range 26-53 years, mean 42.7 years) male depressed outpatients. During 6 weeks of mesterolone treatment, there was a significant improvement of depressive symptomatology. However, since an improvement was also established during the placebo treatment, no statistically appreciable difference in the therapeutic effects of mesterolone was established compared to placebo. Mesterolone treatment significantly decreased both plasma testosterone and protein bound testosterone levels. Patients with high testosterone levels prior to treatment seem to have had more benefit from mesterolone treatment than patients with low testosterone levels. The degree of improvement weakly correlated to the decrease of testosterone levels during mesterolone treatment.
Sandu, Anca-Larisa; Specht, Karsten; Beneventi, Harald; Lundervold, Arvid; Hugdahl, Kenneth
MR images were used to look for brain structure irregularities in adolescent children with dyslexia by use of combined grey and white matter volume measurements and fractal dimension (FD) of the grey-white matter border. The data were collected from 13 dyslexic adolescent (8 boys and 5 girls) that were compared with 18 control subjects (8 boys and 10 girls). The MR images were first segmented, and the volume as well as the FD of the grey/white matter border for the whole brain and for each hemisphere was computed. Changes were found in the measured volumes of both grey and white matter and were best reflected in the ratio of grey/white matter and in FD values, especially in the left hemisphere. The results showed that, although dyslexia is less frequent in women, the structural differences in the brain are more pronounced in their case, pointing to an increased vulnerability of the female brain to morphological changes associated with dyslexia.
Crocetti, Emanuele; Fancelli, Laura; Manneschi, Gianfranco; Caldarella, Adele; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Chiarugi, Alessandra; Nardini, Paolo; Buzzoni, Carlotta
The objective of this study was to provide further insights into the prognostic role of female sex in skin melanoma. The prognostic effect of sex in a population-based case series of 3900 skin melanomas in central Italy has been evaluated considering the possible confounding role of many demographic and clinical variables (age, period of diagnosis, Breslow's thickness, Clark level, ulceration, lymph node status, metastasis, histological type, skin site, and pathological T and N). Multiple imputations, according to chained equations, have been used for imputing incomplete values. A Cox proportional hazards model on the risk of death caused by melanoma was fitted. Univariate and multivariate effects of sex and of other variables were computed. The 5-year cause-specific survival was 87% (95% confidence interval: 86-89%) for women and 80% (78-82%) for men. Women had higher rates at any time since diagnosis. After adjustment for other confounders, women had a 34% reduced risk compared with men of dying from skin melanoma (hazard ratio=0.66, 95% confidence interval: 0.56-0.79). The present study confirmed a strong protective effect of female sex on skin melanoma mortality. The protective factor is still unknown.
Roche, Kathleen M.; Mekos, Debra; Alexander, Cheryl S.; Astone, Nan Marie; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Ensminger, Margaret E.
Building on social ecological research, this study considers whether neighborhood socioeconomic advantage modifies the relationship between parenting practices and sex initiation among young adolescents. Using data on a national sample of 2,559 middle school students, the authors examined two-way interactions between neighborhood socioeconomic…
Erin Z Aprison
Full Text Available Pheromones are secreted molecules that mediate animal communications. These olfactory signals can have substantial effects on physiology and likely play important roles in organismal survival in natural habitats. Here we show that a blend of two ascaroside pheromones produced by C. elegans males primes the female reproductive system in part by improving sperm guidance toward oocytes. Worms have different physiological responses to different ratios of the same two molecules, revealing an efficient mechanism for increasing coding potential of a limited repertoire of molecular signals. The endogenous function of the male sex pheromones has an important side benefit. It substantially ameliorates the detrimental effects of prolonged heat stress on hermaphrodite reproduction because it increases the effectiveness with which surviving gametes are used following stress. Hermaphroditic species are expected to lose female-specific traits in the course of evolution. Our results suggest that some of these traits could have serendipitous utility due to their ability to counter the effects of stress. We propose that this is a general mechanism by which some mating-related functions could be retained in hermaphroditic species, despite their expected decay.
Aprison, Erin Z; Ruvinsky, Ilya
Pheromones are secreted molecules that mediate animal communications. These olfactory signals can have substantial effects on physiology and likely play important roles in organismal survival in natural habitats. Here we show that a blend of two ascaroside pheromones produced by C. elegans males primes the female reproductive system in part by improving sperm guidance toward oocytes. Worms have different physiological responses to different ratios of the same two molecules, revealing an efficient mechanism for increasing coding potential of a limited repertoire of molecular signals. The endogenous function of the male sex pheromones has an important side benefit. It substantially ameliorates the detrimental effects of prolonged heat stress on hermaphrodite reproduction because it increases the effectiveness with which surviving gametes are used following stress. Hermaphroditic species are expected to lose female-specific traits in the course of evolution. Our results suggest that some of these traits could have serendipitous utility due to their ability to counter the effects of stress. We propose that this is a general mechanism by which some mating-related functions could be retained in hermaphroditic species, despite their expected decay.
Lei, H; Anton, S; Hansson, B S
We investigated protocerebral processing of behaviorally relevant signals in the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum. Single neurons were studied both physiologically and morphologically using intracellular recording techniques. In moth pheromone communication systems, the presence of the complete, female-produced pheromone blend is necessary for male attraction. We predicted that more protocerebral neurons, compared with AL, would display blend interactions. However, only a few protocerebral neurons responded differently to the blend than could be deduced from the response to single components. The majority of the pheromone-sensitive protocerebral neurons identified in this study responded to the major pheromone component. In coding time, most AL neurons can follow a 5-Hz odor stimulus, whereas most protocerebral neurons failed at higher frequencies than 1 Hz. The majority of neurons that responded to the odorants tested innervated one or both of the protocerebral lateral accessory lobes. If only one of these was innervated, then the innervation always displayed a varicose appearance, suggesting a presynaptic function. Thus, information seems to be transferred from other protocerebral areas to the lateral accessory lobes. Into these, descending neurons sent smooth, postsynaptic branches. A majority of the neurons innervating the superior medial protocerebrum were found to display single-component specificity. Few additional correlations between odor specificity and structural characteristics were apparent.
Siffroi, J P; Le Bourhis, C; Krausz, C; Barbaux, S; Quintana-Murci, L; Kanafani, S; Rouba, H; Bujan, L; Bourrouillou, G; Seifer, I; Boucher, D; Fellous, M; McElreavey, K; Dadoune, J P
Microdeletions of the long arm of the Y chromosome (Yq) are a common cause of male infertility. Since large structural rearrangements of the Y chromosome are commonly associated with a 45,XO/46,XY chromosomal mosaicism, we studied whether submicroscopic Yq deletions could also be associated with the development of 45,XO cell lines. We studied blood samples from 14 infertile men carrying a Yq microdeletion as revealed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Patients were divided into two groups: group 1 (n = 6), in which karyotype analysis demonstrated a 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, and group 2 (n = 8) with apparently a normal 46,XY karyotype. 45,XO cells were identified by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) using X and Y centromeric probes. Lymphocytes from 11 fertile men were studied as controls. In addition, sperm cells were studied in three oligozoospermic patients in group 2. Our results showed that large and submicroscopic Yq deletions were associated with significantly increased percentages of 45,XO cells in lymphocytes and of sperm cells nullisomic for gonosomes, especially for the Y chromosome. Moreover, two isodicentric Y chromosomes, classified as normal by cytogenetic methods, were detected. Therefore, Yq microdeletions may be associated with Y chromosomal instability leading to the formation of 45,XO cell lines.
Swearer, Susan M.; Turner, Rhonda K.; Givens, Jami E.; Pollack, William S.
This study examined effects of adolescent males' perceptions of being bullied because of verbal taunts related to gender nonconformity (i.e., "They say I'm gay"). Participants included 251 ninth- (n=77), tenth- (n=96), and eleventh- (n=78) grade students in a private, all-male college preparatory school. Participants were divided into two groups…
Vuylsteke, Bea; Semdé, Gisèle; Auld, Andrew F; Sabatier, Jennifer; Kouakou, Joseph; Ettiègne-Traoré, Virginie; Buvé, Anne; Laga, Marie
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-infected sex workers is an important HIV prevention strategy. However, sex workers may have additional challenges for retention in ART care. The objectives of this study were to assess retention of sex workers on ART in a routine setting in Ivory Coast and identify risk factors for loss to follow-up (LTFU). The design was a retrospective cohort study. An analysis of clinic files was conducted in 2 sites providing ART services to sex workers in Ivory Coast. Demographic, behavior, and clinical data of female and male sex workers on ART were abstracted onto a standardized anonymous data collection form. Data collection took place between May 11 and 28, 2010. A total of 376 female and 38 male sex workers were included in the analysis. The retention probability was 75% at 6 months, 68% at 12 months, 55% at 24 months, and 47% at 36 months. Attrition was mainly because of LTFU. Factors significantly associated with LTFU in bivariate analysis were lower schooling level, later calendar year of starting ART, and not receiving initial adherence counseling. Later year of starting ART and not receiving adherence counseling at ART initiation remained significantly associated with LTFU in a multivariate Cox regression model. To improve the retention of sex workers on ART, there is a need for more in-depth investigation of the role of pre-ART counseling and the increasing rates of LTFU with each calendar year.
Gutzmer, Kyle; Ludwig-Barron, Natasha T; Wyatt, Gail E; Hamilton, Alison B; Stockman, Jamila K
We examined African American women's experiences of communication with their male intimate partners a couple of hours before and after an incident of unwanted sex. We also examined women's experiences of disclosure following an incident of unwanted sex. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of sexually active African American women (n = 19) reporting at least one incident of sexual coercion (i.e., being pressured into unwanted sex without consent) by an intimate male partner since the age of 18. Our analysis was guided by "the sexual division of power" from Connell's (1987) theory of gender and power. Data were analyzed inductively by examining the interviews for common themes in the following domains: communication before the unwanted sex, communication after the unwanted sex, and disclosure to others. Men pressured partners for unwanted sex through verbal and non-verbal tactics, ranging from pestering and blunt requests for sex to verbal bullying and violence. Many women responded by clearly saying no. However, many women also described eventually ceasing to resist their partners and engaging in unwanted sex. After the unwanted sex, men actively and passively avoided discussing the incident. Although many women discussed the unwanted sex with family and friends, less women disclosed to trained professionals. In some cases, women did not discuss the incident with anyone at all. These findings indicate that, when addressing sexual violence against women, there is a need to target men as well as the norms of masculinity that underpin physical and sexual violence against women.
Gutzmer, Kyle; Ludwig-Barron, Natasha T.; Wyatt, Gail E.; Hamilton, Alison B.; Stockman, Jamila K.
We examined African American women's experiences of communication with their male intimate partners a couple of hours before and after an incident of unwanted sex. We also examined women's experiences of disclosure following an incident of unwanted sex. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of sexually active African American women (n=19) reporting at least one incident of sexual coercion (i.e., being pressured into unwanted sex without consent) by an intimate male partner since the age of 18. Our analysis was guided by “the sexual division of power” from the Theory of Gender and Power. Data were analyzed inductively by examining the interviews for common themes in the following domains: communication before the unwanted sex, communication after the unwanted sex, and disclosure to others. Men pressured partners for unwanted sex through verbal and nonverbal tactics, ranging from pestering and blunt requests for sex to verbal bullying and violence. Many women responded by clearly saying no. However, many women also described eventually ceasing to resist their partners and engaging in unwanted sex. After the unwanted sex, men actively and passively avoided discussing the incident. Although many women discussed the unwanted sex with family and friends, less women disclosed to trained professionals. In some cases, women did not discuss the incident with anyone at all. These findings indicate that, when addressing sexual violence against women, there is a need to target men as well as the norms of masculinity that underpin physical and sexual violence against women. PMID:26892099
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Condom promotion among female sex workers (FSWs is a key intervention in India's National AIDS Control Program. However, there is limited understanding of how FSWs negotiate condom use with male clients, particularly in the context of their mobility for sex work. The objective of this study is to examine the factors associated with the mobile FSWs' ability to refuse unsafe sex and successfully negotiate condom use with unwilling male clients. METHODS: Data for 5498 mobile FSWs from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 22 districts of four states in southern India were analyzed. Questions assessed FSWs' ability to refuse clients unprotected sex, convince unwilling clients for condom use and negotiate condom use in a new location. Logistic regression models were constructed to examine the association between socio-demographics, economic vulnerability, sex work practice, and program exposure and condom negotiation ability. RESULTS: A majority of FSWs (60% reported the ability to refuse clients for unprotected sex, but less than one-fifth reported the ability to successfully convince an unwilling client to use a condom or to negotiate condom use in a new site. Younger and older mobile FSWs compared to those who were in the middle age group, those with longer sex work experience, with an income source other than sex work, with program exposure and who purchased condoms for use, reported the ability to refuse unprotected sex, to successfully negotiate condom use with unwilling clients and to do so at new sites. CONCLUSION: FSWs need to be empowered to not only refuse unprotected sex but also to be able to motivate and convince unwilling clients for condom use, including those in new locations. In addition to focusing on condom promotion, interventions must address the factors that impact FSWs' ability to negotiate condom use.
Fechner, P.Y.; Marcantonio, S.M.; Jaswaney, V.; Stetten, G.; Migeon, C.J.; Smith, K.D.; Berkovitz, G.D. (Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)); Goodfellow, P.N. (Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London (United Kingdom)); Amrhein, J.A. (Forbes Regional Health Center, Monroeville, PA (United States)); Bard, P.A. (Kaiser Permanente, Sacramento, CA (United States)); Lee, P.A. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Reid, C. (Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Camden, NJ (United States)); Tsalikian, E. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (United States)); Urban, M.D. (Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States))
The condition of 46,XX maleness is characterized by testicular development in subjects who have two X chromosomes but who lack a normal Y chromosome. Several etiologies have been proposed to explain 46,XX maleness: (1) translocation of the testis-determining factor from the Y to the X chromosome, (2) mutation in an autosomal or X chromosome gene which permits testicular determination in the absence of TDF, and (3) undetected mosaicism with a Y-bearing cell line. The authors evaluated 10 affected subjects who were ascertained for different reasons and who had several distinct phenotypes. Six subjects had inherited sequences from the short arm of the Y chromosome including the sex-determining region Y gene (SRY). Five of the subjects were pubertal at the time of evaluation and had a phenotype similar to that of Klinefelter syndrome with evidence of Sertoli cell and Leydig cell dysfunction. One subject had evidence from Southern blot analysis and in situ hybridization for the presence of an intact Y chromosome in approximately 1% of cells. Three subjects lacked Y sequences by Southern blot analysis and by polymerase chain reaction amplification of SRY. These subjects were ascertained in the newborn period because of congenital anomalies. One had multiple anomalies including cardiac abnormalities; one had cardiac anomalies alone; and one had ambiguous genitalia. The data confirm the genetic heterogeneity of 46,XX maleness, in which some subjects have SRY while other subjects lack it. In addition, there is phenotypic heterogeneity among subjects who lack SRY suggesting that there is also genetic heterogeneity within this subgroup. 43 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.
Mota, Natalie P; Medved, Maria; Wang, Jianli; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Whitney, Debbie; Sareen, Jitender
The proportion of women in militaries is growing; however, many studies in the area of military mental health have been conducted with majority male samples. The present study examined sex differences in trauma exposure, work stress, and mental disorders in the Canadian Community Health Survey - Canadian Forces Supplement, a representative sample of 5155 regular force personnel and 3286 reservists ages 16-54. Past-year DSM-IV mental disorders (depression, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, PTSD, and alcohol dependence), lifetime exposure to 28 traumatic events, and work stress were assessed. Regular and reserve female personnel were less likely than males to experience deployment-related traumas, accidents, and several events involving violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] range 0.10-0.62). Women were more likely to endorse sexual trauma, partner abuse, and being stalked (AOR range 3.60-13.63). For work stress, regular force women reported higher levels of job demand and stress around social support than men, whereas regular and reserve force women reported less physical exertion. After adjusting for a range of covariates, regular female personnel were more likely than males to have PTSD (AOR 1.88, 99% CI 1.01-3.50), while reservist women were more likely than men to have depression, panic disorder, and any mood or anxiety disorder (AOR range 1.87-6.98). Both regular and reservist women had lower rates of alcohol dependence (AOR range 0.30-0.34). Clinicians working with female personnel should screen for trauma/stressors and mental disorders that are particularly common in this population.
María Elena Meza-de-Luna
Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzed stereotypes on intimate partner violence (IPV of heterosexual and same-sex couples. The participants, 232 Mexican college students, evaluated physical and psychological IPV exerted by men and women with different sexual orientations. The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. The results indicate that men evaluated women and gay men as having a similar IPV, while men´s perceptions of IPV for these groups were higher than those of women. Women viewed heterosexual men as the most violent and evaluated the other groups with different degrees of IPV. Physical violence is regarded as natural in men, both gay and heterosexual. To conclude, the results suggest that IPV stereotypes are affected by the sex of the evaluators and by their sexual orientation. It is relevant to expand the scope of prevention programs.
Kejnovský, E; Vrána, J; Matsunaga, S.; Soucek, P.; Siroký, J; Dolezel, J; Vyskot, B
The dioecious white campion Silene latifolia (syn. Melandrium album) has heteromorphic sex chromosomes, XX in females and XY in males, that are larger than the autosomes and enable their separation by flow sorting. The group of MROS genes, the first male-specifically expressed genes in dioecious plants, was recently identified in S. latifolia. To localize the MROS genes, we used the flow-sorted X chromosomes and autosomes as a template for PCR with internal primers. Our results indicate that ...
Lee, Tien-Tsung; Hicks, Gary R
Using a survey of more than 5,000 American consumers, this study examines connections between attitudes toward same-sex marriage and media consumption. A positive attitude is predicted by being liberal and less religious, supporting gender and racial equality, willing to try anything once, considering television the primary form of entertainment, watching political talk shows, and reading blogs. The theoretical and methodological contributions and real-world implications of these findings are discussed.
Havlicek, Jan; Husarova, Barbara; Rezacova, Veronika; Klapilova, Katerina
Despite frequent sanctions and potentially serious consequences, extra-dyadic involvements are a relatively common phenomenon. Previously, potential links among extra-dyadic involvements and personal or interpersonal characteristics were extensively explored. However, the developmental aspects of extra-dyadic relationships have been rather overlooked to date. Here, we focus on the association between self-reported extra-dyadic tendencies and behavior, and previous experience with extra-dyadic sex in prior romantic relationships and in the primary family. We asked both members of 86 long-term cohabiting couples to complete several inventories assessing various aspects of the relationship satisfaction, sociosexuality and extra-dyadic intentions and behavior. As in previous studies, we found a lower level of overall Dyadic Adjustment and in the subscales Affectional Expression and Dyadic Consensus, in particular, among women but not men who reported extra-pair sex. Neither experience with own nor partners' infidelity in previous relationships was linked to reported extra-pair sex in the current relationship. However, men who reported their fathers but not mothers being unfaithful were also significantly more often unfaithful and showed a higher level of extra-dyadic intentions. There was no association between parental infidelity and extra-pair sex or extra-dyadic intentions in women. Our results suggest that experience of infidelity within the primary family has an impact on subsequent behavior. However, this is the case only in men. Women's extra-dyadic activities seem to be affected instead by the quality of the current relationship. Future research is needed to test the influence of ontogenetic and hereditary factors on the development of infidelity tendencies.
Nkosi, Sebenzile; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Kekwaletswe, Connie T; Morojele, Neo K
Strong research evidence has shown that medical male circumcision significantly reduces heterosexual HIV acquisition among men. However, its effectiveness is enhanced by behavioural factors such as condom use. Currently, little is known of unprotected sex associated with male circumcision (MC) among alcohol-drinking tavern-going men, or whether engagement in unprotected sex may differ between men who have been traditionally circumcised and those who have been medically circumcised. The study sought to determine the relative importance of alcohol consumption and MC as correlates of unprotected sex and to compare the risk of engaging in unprotected sex between traditionally circumcised and medically circumcised tavern-going men from two rural villages in North-West province, South Africa. Data from 314 adult men (≥18 years) were analysed. The men were recruited from four bars/taverns using systematic sampling. They responded to questions regarding their demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, circumcision status and method (where applicable), and engagement in unprotected sex. Descriptive analyses and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. Age, education, relationship status, alcohol consumption and traditional male circumcision (TMC) were independently and significantly associated with unprotected sex. Specifically, probable alcohol dependence and traditional circumcision were independent risk factors for engaging in unprotected sex among tavern-going men. Traditionally circumcised men had a higher risk of engaging in unprotected sex than medically circumcised men. Interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption, encouraging protective behaviour among men who have undergone TMC, and increasing condom use are needed in bar/tavern settings. HIV prevention education must be urgently incorporated into TMC programmes.
Luders, Eileen; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M
Numerous studies have demonstrated a sexual dimorphism of the human corpus callosum. However, the question remains if sex differences in brain size, which typically is larger in men than in women, or biological sex per se account for the apparent sex differences in callosal morphology. Comparing callosal dimensions between men and women matched for overall brain size may clarify the true contribution of biological sex, as any observed group difference should indicate pure sex effects. We thus examined callosal morphology in 24 male and 24 female brains carefully matched for overall size. In addition, we selected 24 extremely large male brains and 24 extremely small female brains to explore if observed sex effects might vary depending on the degree to which male and female groups differed in brain size. Using the individual T1-weighted brain images (n=96), we delineated the corpus callosum at midline and applied a well-validated surface-based mesh-modeling approach to compare callosal thickness at 100 equidistant points between groups determined by brain size and sex. The corpus callosum was always thicker in men than in women. However, this callosal sex difference was strongly determined by the cerebral sex difference overall. That is, the larger the discrepancy in brain size between men and women, the more pronounced the sex difference in callosal thickness, with hardly any callosal differences remaining between brain-size matched men and women. Altogether, these findings suggest that individual differences in brain size account for apparent sex differences in the anatomy of the corpus callosum.
Full Text Available Objective. To investigate factors associated with HIV infection and the frequency and willingness of male circumcision among men who have sex with men (MSM in Chengdu city, China. Methods. A cross-sectional survey provided information on participants' demographics, risk behaviors, circumcision, and uptake of HIV prevention services. Results. Of 570 participants, 13.3% were infected with HIV and 15.9% with syphilis. An estimated 43.0% of respondents reported having unprotected receptive anal intercourse, and 58.9% reported having ≥2 male sexual partners in the past 6 months. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that syphilis, more male sex partners, predominantly receptive anal intercourse, and exclusively receptive male sex were associated with HIV infection. Higher level of education and peer education service were inversely associated with HIV infection. Nearly a fifth (18.0% of participants were circumcised. More than half of uncircumcised participants expressed willingness to be circumcised. Conclusion. This study reveals a high prevalence of HIV and syphilis among MSM in Chengdu province of China. The frequency of unprotected receptive anal intercourse and multiple male sexual partnerships highlight the urgency for an effective comprehensive HIV prevention strategy. Although the willingness to accept male circumcision (MC is high, further research is needed to assess the protective effective of MC among MSM.
Andersson, L; Sandberg, K
In the present study an extensive amount of data, comprising more than 30,000 offspring in total, was analyzed to evaluate the influence of age and sex on the recombination frequency in the K-PGD segment of the equine linkage group (LG) I and the influence of age, breed and sex on recombination in the Al-Es segment of LG II. A highly significant sex difference is reported for both segments. Male and female recombination values in the K-PGD segment were estimated at 25.8 +/- 0.8 and 33.3 +/- 2.5%, respectively. Similarly, recombination was less frequent in the male (36.6 +/- 0.7%) than in the female (46.6 +/- 1.2%) in the Al-Es segment. Comparison of data from two Swedish horse breeds revealed no significant breed differences in either sex for recombination in the Al-Es segment. No evidence of an age effect was found in any segment or sex. The distribution of individual male recombination estimates was also investigated, and a significant heterogeneity among stallions was revealed in the K-PGD segment. The results are discussed in relation to previous studies on factors affecting recombination in mammals.
Yu, Gary; Goldsamt, Lloyd A; Clatts, Michael C; Giang, Lê Minh
Little is known about the age of onset of sexual and drug risk and their association with complex patterns of recent drug use among male sex workers (MSW) in a developing country, such as Vietnam. The aim of this study was to determine whether latent class analysis (LCA) would aid in the detection of current individual and polydrug use combinations to predict how different trajectories of sexual and drug initiation contribute to different patterns of current illicit drug use. Data were collected from a cross-sectional survey administered to young MSWs between 2010 and 2011 in Vietnam (N = 710). LCA clustered participants into recent drug use groups, incorporating both the specific types and overall count of different drugs used. Men reported drug use within a 1 month period from an 11-item drug use list. LCA identified three distinct drug use classes: (1) alcohol use, (2) alcohol and tobacco use, and (3) high polydrug use. The current drug use classes are associated with sex worker status, housing stability, income level, educational attainment, marital status, sexual identity, and sexual preferences. High levels of drug use are strongly associated with being a recent sex worker, not having recent stable housing, higher than median income, more than a high school education, less likely to be currently in school and more likely to have non-homosexual preferences and heterosexual partners. An event history analysis approach (time-event displays) examined the timing of the age of onset of drug and sexual risks. Early ages of drug and sexual initiation are seen for all three classes. High current drug users show earlier onset of these risks, which are significantly delayed for moderate and low current drug users. LCA incorporating an overall count of different drugs detected three distinct current drug use classes. The data illustrates that the complexity of drug factors that must be accounted for, both in advancing our epidemiological understanding of the complexity
Purves-Tyson Tertia D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased risk of schizophrenia in adolescent males indicates that a link between the development of dopamine-related psychopathology and testosterone-driven brain changes may exist. However, contradictions as to whether testosterone increases or decreases dopamine neurotransmission are found and most studies address this in adult animals. Testosterone-dependent actions in neurons are direct via activation of androgen receptors (AR or indirect by conversion to 17β-estradiol and activation of estrogen receptors (ER. How midbrain dopamine neurons respond to sex steroids depends on the presence of sex steroid receptor(s and the level of steroid conversion enzymes (aromatase and 5α-reductase. We investigated whether gonadectomy and sex steroid replacement could influence dopamine levels by changing tyrosine hydroxylase (TH protein and mRNA and/or dopamine breakdown enzyme mRNA levels [catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT and monoamine oxygenase (MAO A and B] in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We hypothesized that adolescent testosterone would regulate sex steroid signaling through regulation of ER and AR mRNAs and through modulation of aromatase and 5α-reductase mRNA levels. Results We find ERα and AR in midbrain dopamine neurons in adolescent male rats, indicating that dopamine neurons are poised to respond to circulating sex steroids. We report that androgens (T and DHT increase TH protein and increase COMT, MAOA and MAOB mRNAs in the adolescent male rat substantia nigra. We report that all three sex steroids increase AR mRNA. Differential action on ER pathways, with ERα mRNA down-regulation and ERβ mRNA up-regulation by testosterone was found. 5α reductase-1 mRNA was increased by AR activation, and aromatase mRNA was decreased by gonadectomy. Conclusions We conclude that increased testosterone at adolescence can shift the balance of sex steroid signaling to favor androgenic responses through promoting
Lindström Egholm, Cecilie; Krogh, Niels Steen; Pincus, Theodore
OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of discordance in patient's (PtGA) and physician's (PGA) global assessment, and to investigate whether higher discordance in female patients compared with male patients is associated with the physician's sex in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), axial...
Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Helsen, H.H.M.; Griepink, F.C.; Kogel, de W.J.
All aphid species studied so far share the same sex pheromone components, nepetalactol and nepetalactone. Variation by different enantiomers and blends of the two components released by different aphid species are limited and can only partially explain species-specific attraction of males to
This dissertation explored the extent and kind of sex-role stereotyping in popular, prestigious, and sex-role defining children's picture books printed between 1959 and 1972. The sample consisted of two categories of popular children's picture books, best-selling golden books and "New York Times" children's best-sellers, one category of Caldecott…
Pagani-Núñez, Emilio; Senar, Juan Carlos
Given the known influence of parental investment on breeding success of great tits Parus major, females should be expected to use male parental quality as an essential criterion in mate choice. Since parental quality cannot usually be observed directly at the time of pairing, it has been suggested that females rely on male ornaments as indicative of their ability to provide parental care. This hypothesis, called the good parent hypothesis, has been tested repeatedly assessing only parental effort as the number of feedings made by parents. However, in evaluating parental investment, the focus should also be on the quality of prey captured rather than only on its quantity. We analyzed feeding rates and the provisioning of different prey in relation to both male yellow carotenoid-based breast coloration and the size of the black melanin-based stripe in a Mediterranean great tit population. We predicted that more carotenoid ornamented individuals would feed nestlings with a diet consisting of a higher proportion of caterpillars. However, and contrary to predictions, we found that males with higher values of hue in the yellow breast feathers, fed their offspring with a lower proportion of caterpillars and a higher proportion of spiders. In addition, nestlings that received a higher proportion of spiders showed an improved body condition after controlling for tarsus length and other variables. Male feeding rates correlated positively with brood size and tended to correlate negatively with date, although we did not find any effect of male coloration. Our data therefore support the good parent hypothesis, insofar as parental investment is also a matter of quality, and that, at least in the Mediterranean area, caterpillars are not the only key food source.
Inglehart, Marita R; Patel, Manan H; Widmalm, Sven-Erik; Briskie, Daniel M
The authors' objectives were to determine the percentage of children in kindergarten through grade 5 who reported symptoms of temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD); to assess whether sex, race, and socioeconomic background mattered; and to explore the relationships between TMJD and children's oral health and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL). The research team conducted face-to-face interviews with 8,302 children in kindergarten through grade 5 (51% female, 49% male; 53% African American, 42% white). They conducted oral health screenings with 7,439 children. Overall, 23.6% of the children reported pain when chewing tough food, and 18.8% reported pain when opening their mouth wide; 23.2% reported hearing a sound (clicking) when opening their mouth wide. Female students were more likely than male students and African American children were more likely than white children to report TMJD symptoms. The prevalence of TMJD symptoms did not correlate with whether the children had a need for oral health care services or whether they had an abscess or carious teeth with pulpal involvement. TMJD symptoms were associated significantly with children's OHRQoL. Considerable percentages of 4- to 12-year-old children reported TMJD symptoms, with girls and African American children being more likely than their counterparts to be affected. Experiencing TMJD symptoms was associated significantly with poorer OHRQoL. Dental practitioners need to be aware that substantial percentages of kindergarten and elementary school-aged children experience TMJD symptoms. Taking a dental history and conducting an oral examination, therefore, should include assessments of the signs and symptoms of TMJD; treatment recommendations should be provided for affected children. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Smith, J L; Wells, J D
Being able to efficiently differentiate between male and female individuals in the immature forms of insects allows for investigations into sexually dimorphic patterns of growth rates and gene expression. For species lacking sex-specific morphological characteristics during these periods, alternative methods must be devised. Commonly, isolation of sex determination genes reveals sex-specific band patterns and allows for markers that can be used in insect control. For blow flies, a family that includes flies of medical and forensic importance, sex has previously been identified in some members using the male-specific exon in the transformer gene. This gene is relatively conserved between members of the genera Cochliomyia and Lucilia (Diptera: Calliphoridae), and we isolated a portion of this gene in an additional forensically and medically important blow fly genus using the widespread Chrysomya megacephala (F.). We found a relatively high level of conservation between exons 1 and 2 of transformer and were able to amplify a region containing the male-specific exon in C. megacephala. A sex-specific molecular diagnostic test based on the presence of sexually dimorphic PCR product bands showed the expected genotype for adults and intrapuparial period specimens of known sex. The same result could be obtained from single third-instar larval specimens, opening up the possibility to not only determine if development rates are sex dependent, but also to investigate the development of sexually dimorphic traits of interest in C. megacephala. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Nemoto, Tooru; Cruz, Taylor; Iwamoto, Mariko; Trocki, Karen; Perngparn, Usaneya; Areesantichai, Chitlada; Suzuki, Sachiko; Roberts, Colin
Kathoey (male-to-female transgender) sex workers (KSW) in Thailand are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections; however, few qualitative studies have been conducted to understand the sociocultural context of engaging in HIV risk behaviors. A total of 24 participants were purposively sampled in Bangkok based on KSW work venues and substance use. Results revealed the importance of participants' understanding of the self in relation to establishing economic independence through sex work, which could then be used to re-establish support from family, who often have not accepted a son's gender transition. Participants linked being kathoey to a belief in fate but did not view engagement in sex work in the same way. Different sex work venues exposed KSW to different risky situations. HIV prevention programs for kathoey must address the importance of economic security and its relation to social support and gender transition within a cultural- and work-environment-specific framework.
Colby, Donn J; Oldenburg, Catherine E; Nguyen, Thi; Closson, Elizabeth F; Biello, Katie B; Mayer, Kenneth H; Mimiaga, Matthew J
There is little data on the burden of HIV and other infections that affect male sex workers (MSW) in Vietnam. We conducted behavioral and biological sexual health surveys with 300 MSW in Ho Chi Minh City. Generalized estimating equation models were built to assess factors associated with HIV, hepatitis C, and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Of 300 MSW, 19 (6.3 %) were diagnosed seropositive for HIV, 11 (3.7 %) had hepatitis C, and 26 (8.7 %) had at least one prevalent STI. In a multivariable model, opiate use was significantly associated with HIV infection (aOR 6.46, 95 % CI 1.28-32.7) and hepatitis C (aOR = 19.6, 95 % CI 2.35-163.6). Alcohol dependency was associated with increased odds of hepatitis C (aOR = 4.79, 95 % CI 1.02-22.5) and decreased odds of other STI (aOR = 0.30, 95 % CI 0.10-0.97). These findings suggest that MSW in Vietnam would benefit from regular HIV and STI testing, as well as linkage to care and substance use rehabilitation services.
Full Text Available Males have evolved a variety of behavioral, morphological, and physiological traits to manipulate their mates in order to maximize their chances of success. These traits are bound to influence how females respond to male behaviors and influence the nature of sexual selection/conflict. A common consequence of aggressive male mating strategies in Drosophila melanogaster is the reduction of female lifespan. Our study shows that this is common across members of the simulans clade. Reduced life expectancy of females implies that female contribution to a population is less than that of males per generation. Fitness differences between the sexes in every generation will invariably affect overall population fitness. How natural selection responds to the female deaths and thereby the unequal fitness of the sexes has rarely been addressed. We shed light on this issue and provide evidence, which suggests that additional gains of fitness by males due to their longevity and continued mating may provide one explanation as to why the loss of female fitness may be “invisible” (effectively neutral to natural selection. Male driven sexual selection and additional, transgenerational gains of male fitness can be an important force of evolutionary change and need to be tested with other organisms.
Tarpin, M; Bierne, J
SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed major sex-specific proteins in sexually maturing and mature Lineus sanguineus. These "egg-specific" (145, 78 and 40 kDa) and "sperm-specific" (55,52 and 28 kDa) proteins are useful for studying sex differentiation in bilaterally allophenic worms produced by asexual reproduction of bipartite male/female chimeric worms. This study was carried out on 2 symmetrical clones of bilaterally allophenic worms, derived by somatic embryogenesis from fragments transected from chimeras obtained by exchange-grafting lateral body halves of male and female specimens, and from their asexually-derived progeny. The electrophoretic patterns of proteins extracted from sexually immature, maturing and mature allophenic animals from the 5th to the 19th year of cloning, showed the presence of all female-specific markers and the absence of male-specific markers. There was also complete biochemical feminization of the male halves. The synthesis of the only egg-specific molecules in initially male lateral body halves means that the long-term cloning results in the total repression of genes encoding sperm-specific proteins, since genetically male determinant-bearing cells can randomly re-express the testis characteristic as fertile but rudimentary male gonads.
Male and female Spathius agrili Yang were tested for attraction to the synthetic male pheromone. Lures consisting of a 3-component pheromone blend were placed in the center of a white filter paper target used to activate upwind flight in the wind tunnel. When virgin males and females were tested for...
International findings indicate that there is a gap in the literacy performance of school-aged males and females, which has led to a focus on how to address this issue. Research suggests that an individual's literacy outcomes can be improved by regular recreational book reading, and therefore increasing frequency of engagement in this practice is…
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Male and female avian brood parasites are subject to different selection pressures: males compete for mates but do not provide parental care or territories and only females locate hosts to lay eggs. This sex difference may affect brain architecture in some avian brood parasites, but relatively little is known about their sensory systems and behaviors used to obtain sensory information. Our goal was to study the visual resolution and visual information gathering behavior (i.e., scanning of brown-headed cowbirds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured the density of single cone photoreceptors, associated with chromatic vision, and double cone photoreceptors, associated with motion detection and achromatic vision. We also measured head movement rates, as indicators of visual information gathering behavior, when exposed to an object. We found that females had significantly lower density of single and double cones than males around the fovea and in the periphery of the retina. Additionally, females had significantly higher head-movement rates than males. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we suggest that female cowbirds have lower chromatic and achromatic visual resolution than males (without sex differences in visual contrast perception. Females might compensate for the lower visual resolution by gazing alternatively with both foveae in quicker succession than males, increasing their head movement rates. However, other physiological factors may have influenced the behavioral differences observed. Our results bring up relevant questions about the sensory basis of sex differences in behavior. One possibility is that female and male cowbirds differentially allocate costly sensory resources, as a recent study found that females actually have greater auditory resolution than males.
Full Text Available Variation in the TGF-β signaling pathway is emerging as an important mechanism by which gonadal sex determination is controlled in teleosts. Here we show that amhy, a Y-specific duplicate of the anti-Müllerian hormone (amh gene, induces male sex determination in Nile tilapia. amhy is a tandem duplicate located immediately downstream of amhΔ-y on the Y chromosome. The coding sequence of amhy was identical to the X-linked amh (amh except a missense SNP (C/T which changes an amino acid (Ser/Leu92 in the N-terminal region. amhy lacks 5608 bp of promoter sequence that is found in the X-linked amh homolog. The amhΔ-y contains several insertions and deletions in the promoter region, and even a 5 bp insertion in exonVI that results in a premature stop codon and thus a truncated protein product lacking the TGF-β binding domain. Both amhy and amhΔ-y expression is restricted to XY gonads from 5 days after hatching (dah onwards. CRISPR/Cas9 knockout of amhy in XY fish resulted in male to female sex reversal, while mutation of amhΔ-y alone could not. In contrast, overexpression of Amhy in XX fish, using a fosmid transgene that carries the amhy/amhΔ-y haplotype or a vector containing amhy ORF under the control of CMV promoter, resulted in female to male sex reversal, while overexpression of AmhΔ-y alone in XX fish could not. Knockout of the anti-Müllerian hormone receptor type II (amhrII in XY fish also resulted in 100% complete male to female sex reversal. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the duplicated amhy with a missense SNP is the candidate sex determining gene and amhy/amhrII signal is essential for male sex determination in Nile tilapia. These findings highlight the conserved roles of TGF-β signaling pathway in fish sex determination.
Yoshizaki, Kelly; Brito, Jôse Mára; Silva, Luiz Fernando; Lino-Dos-Santos-Franco, Adriana; Frias, Daniela Perroni; E Silva, Renata Calciolari Rossi; Amato-Lourenço, Luís Fernando; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; de Fátima Lopes Calvo Tibério, Iolanda; Mauad, Thais; Macchione, Mariangela
Air pollution is known to exacerbate respiratory diseases and epidemiological studies have shown that women present more chronic respiratory symptoms than man exposed to traffic pollution, however, the reason why is unclear. This study evaluated the inflammatory differences in BALB/c mouse males (n=34) and females (n=111) in three phases of the estrous cycle that were exposed to ambient air (AA) or concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). Tracheal hyperreactivity to methacholine, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and immunohistochemical of airways and lung parenchyma were studied. Hyperreactivity increased in CAPs-exposed female mice compared with AA-exposed mice in estrus (pCAPs-exposed males compared with those exposed to AA (pCAPs exposure increased matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) (p=0.024) and isoprostane (p=0.003) expression in the airways of both, males and females. The level of substance P (SP) (p=0.001) increased in lung parenchyma in males compared with females, while IL-17 levels in airways (p=0.042) and in lung parenchyma (p=0.008) increased in females. MMP-9 levels (p=0.024) were significantly lower in the lung parenchyma of CAPs-exposed females. TGF-α (p=0.007) levels increased in the lung parenchyma of CAPs-exposed females compared to AA-exposed females. These results suggest that inflammatory markers differentially expressed in male mice were mostly linked to acute inflammation (IL-1β, IL-8Rα, COX-2), whereas in females, markers that may lead to a chronic inflammatory process such as IL-17 and remodeling (MMP-9) were increased.
Serovich, Julianne M.; Grafsky, Erika L.; Craft, Shonda M.
Most studies have indicated that friends or families of choice provide more support to HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) than members of the family of origin. The creation of families of choice by MSM has been viewed as a means of creating a support system in the absence of traditional family. The purpose of this study is to explore if HIV-positive MSM believe family of origin are important. Data was drawn from a qualitative study of HIV disclosure to family. Responses to the question “How important is family to you?” are explored. Results suggest that for many HIV-positive MSM relationships with family of origin are very important. While not definitive, data to be presented are provocative and challenge notions of the significance of family of origin to marginalized populations. PMID:21745231
Eduardo S. Cantú
Full Text Available Distorted sex ratios occur in hematologic disorders. For example, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL displays disproportionate sex ratios with a large male excess. However, the underlying genetics for these disparities are poorly understood, and gender differences for specific cytogenetic abnormalities have not been carefully investigated. We sought to provide an initial characterization of gender representation in genetic abnormalities in CLL by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. We confirm the well known skewed male-to-female (M/F sex ratio of ~1.5 in our CLL study population, but also determine the genotypic M/F sex ratio values corresponding to specific FISH DNA probes. Genetic changes in CLL detectable by four FISH probes were statistically compared with respect to gender. Initial FISH evaluations of 4698 CLL patients were retrospectively examined and new findings of the genotypic M/F sex ratios for these probes are reported. This study represents the largest CLL survey conducted in the United States using FISH probes. The CLL database demonstrated that FISH abnormalities (trisomy 12, 13q14.3 deletion and 17p13.1 deletion probes had skewed M/F ratios of ~1.5. Also, by statistical analysis it was shown that ATM gene loss (11q22.3q23.1 deletion solely or with other abnormalities was considerably higher in males with an M/F ratio of 2.5 and significantly different from M/F ratios of 1.0 or 1.5. We hypothesize that interactions involving these autosomal abnormalities (trisomy 12, and deletions of 11q22.3, 13q14.3, and 17p13.1, and the sex chromosomes may provide the genetic basis for the altered phenotypic M/F ratio in CLL.
Robertson, Angela M.; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Staines, Hugo S.; Morris, Martina; Patterson, Thomas L.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
Objectives To investigate the prevalence and correlates of concurrent (overlapping) sexual partnerships among female sex workers (FSWs) and their non-commercial male partners in two Mexico-U.S. border cities. Methods A cross-sectional survey of FSWs and their non-commercial male partners was conducted in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico (2010–2011). Eligible FSWs and verified non-commercial partners were aged ≥18 years; FSWs had ever used hard drugs (lifetime) and recently exchanged sex for money, drugs, or other goods (past month). Participants underwent baseline questionnaires obtaining dates of sex and condom use with ≤5 other recurring partners, including FSWs’ regular clients. These dates were compared to dates of sex with enrolled study partners to determine overlap (i.e., “recurring” concurrency). Bivariate probit regression identified recurring concurrency correlates. Results Among 428 individuals (214 couples), past-year recurring concurrency prevalence was 16% and was higher among women than their non-commercial male partners (26% vs. 6%). In 10 couples (5%), both partners reported recurring concurrency. The majority of couples (64%) always had unprotected sex, and most of the individuals (70%) with recurring concurrency “sometimes” or “never” used condoms with their concurrent partners. Recurring concurrency was positively associated with FSWs’ income, men’s caballerismo (a form of traditional masculinity), and men’s belief that their FSW-partners had STIs. Conclusions Recurring concurrency, representing sustained periods of overlapping partnerships in which unprotected sex was common, should be addressed by couple-based STI prevention interventions. PMID:23172036
Lorbeck, Meridith T; Singh, Neetu; Zervos, Ashley; Dhatta, Madhusmita; Lapchenko, Maria; Yang, Chen; Elefant, Felice
Histone methylation plays an important role in regulating chromatin-mediated gene control and epigenetic-based memory systems that direct cell fate. Enzymes termed histone demethylases directly remove the methyl marks from histones, thus contributing to a dynamically regulated histone methylated genome; however, the biological functions of these newly identified enzymes remain unclear. The JMJD2A-D family belongs to the JmjC domain-containing family of histone demethylases (JHDMs). Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of the Drosophila HDM gene Dmel\\Kdm4A that is a homolog of the human JMJD2 family. We show that homologs for three human JHDM families, JHDM1, JHDM2, and JMJD2, are present in Drosophila and that each is expressed during the Drosophila lifecycle. Disruption of Dmel\\Kdm4A results in a reduction of the male life span and a male-specific wing extension/twitching phenotype that occurs in response to other males and is reminiscent of an inter-male courtship phenotype involving the courtship song. Remarkably, certain genes associated with each of these phenotypes are significantly downregulated in response to Dmel\\Kdm4A loss, most notably the longevity associated Hsp22 gene and the male sex-determination fruitless gene. Our results have implications for the role of the epigenetic regulator Dmel\\Kdm4A in the control of genes involved in life span and male-specific sex determination in the fly.
Bar-Johnson, Michael David; Weiss, Petr
Prague, the Czech Republic, is a popular sex tourism destination where sex work is decriminalized and young men offer sexual services at low prices relative to countries in Western Europe. This quantitative survey aimed to identify some of the demographic characteristics of these young men and their experiences in the sex industry. Internet escorts (N = 20) and sex workers in bars and clubs (N = 20) completed the survey anonymously in spring 2011. The results showed that sex workers in clubs often had troubled pasts and were forced into sex work to survive. They also reported incidents of violence, serious alcohol and drug use, as well as frequent gambling. The larger group of sex workers in Prague is made up of Internet escorts who have backgrounds that are not atypical for the average Czech youth. They had fewer problems with drugs and alcohol but were twice as likely as sex workers in bars and clubs to be victims of violent crime. Plans for interventions to help those who would change their line of work, as well as the importance of sociocultural context in understanding sex workers, are discussed.
Sex determination and differentiation mean the process that the bipotential gonads develop into ovaries or testes.There are many genes involved in male(s) sex determination and differentiation.The changes of the regulating genes may lead to disorders of sex development.Sex-determining region Y (SRY) gene was the first discovered gene related to abnormal sexual development.Serval studies have found that SRY-related HMG box 9 (SOX9) and fibroblast growth factor 9 (FGF9) are associated with disorders of sex development in recent years.This article aims to provide an review of recent study of the role of SRY,SOX9 and FGF9 in sex determination and differentiation.It will provide a foundation for diagnosis and treatment of genetic disease related with male(s) sex determination and differentiation.%性别决定和分化是具有两性潜能的性腺发育为睾丸或卵巢的过程.男性性别决定与分化的过程受多个基因的调控,如果这些基因在性别决定和分化的过程中发生异常,则有可能导致性腺发育异常.男性性别决定基因是最早被发现的与性发育异常有关的基因.近些年来发现SRY同源家族基因-9和成纤维细胞生长因子-9基因与性发育异常关系密切.该文旨在对男性性别决定基因、SRY同源家族基因-9和成纤维细胞生长因子-9基因对男性性别决定和分化的作用进行综述,为进一步认识及诊治男童性发育异常疾病奠定基础.
Olver, T Dylan; Hiemstra, Jessica A; Edwards, Jenna C; Ferguson, Brian S; Laughlin, M Harold; Emter, Craig A
During cardiac surgery, specifically sternotomy, cranial hypoperfusion is linked to cerebral ischemia, increased risk of perioperative watershed stroke, and other neurocognitive complications. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the effect of sex hormones in females and exercise prehabilitation in males on median sternotomy-induced changes in cranial perfusion in a large animal model of heart failure. Cranial blood flow (CBF) before and 10 and 60 min poststernotomy was analyzed in eight groups of Yucatan mini-swine: female control, aortic banded, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized + aortic banded; male control, aortic banded, aortic banded + continuous exercise trained, and aortic banded + interval exercise trained. A median sternotomy decreased cranial perfusion during surgery in all pigs (~24 ± 2% relative to baseline; P ≤ 0.05). CBF was 30 ± 7% lower across all time points in all females vs. all males (P ≤ 0.05) and sternotomy decreased cranial perfusion (P ≤ 0.05) independent of sex (females = 34 ± 3% and males = 14 ± 3%) and aortic banding (intact control = 31 ± 5% and intact aortic banded = 31 ± 4%). CBF recovery at 60 min tended to be better in females vs. males (relative to 10 min poststernotomy, females = 23 ± 13% vs. males = -1 ± 5%) and intact aortic banded vs. control pigs (relative to 10 min poststernotomy, aortic banded = 43 ± 20% vs. control = 6 ± 16%; P ≤ 0.05) at 60 min poststernotomy. Ovariectomy impaired CBF recovery during cranial reperfusion 60 min following sternotomy (relative to baseline, all intact females = -1 ± 9% vs. all ovariectomized females = -15 ± 4%; P ≤ 0.05). Chronic exercise training completely prevented significant sternotomy-induced cranial hypoperfusion independent of aortic banding (sternotomy-induced deficit, all sedentary males = -24 ± 6% vs. all exercise-trained males = -7 ± 3%; P ≤ 0.05). Female sex hormones protected against impaired CBF recovery during reperfusion, while
Edlow, Andrea G; Guedj, Faycal; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Sverdlov, Deanna; Neri, Caterina; Bianchi, Diana W
Maternal obesity is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in children, including autism spectrum disorders, developmental delay, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We previously identified second-trimester amniotic fluid and term cord blood gene expression patterns suggesting dysregulated brain development in fetuses of obese compared with lean women. We sought to investigate the biological significance of these findings in a mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity. We evaluated sex-specific differences in fetal growth, brain gene expression signatures, and associated pathways. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a 60% high-fat diet or 10% fat control diet for 12-14 weeks prior to mating. During pregnancy, obese dams continued on the high-fat diet or transitioned to the control diet. Lean dams stayed on the control diet. On embryonic day 17.5, embryos were weighed and fetal brains were snap frozen. RNA was extracted from male and female forebrains (10 per diet group per sex) and hybridized to whole-genome expression arrays. Significantly differentially expressed genes were identified using a Welch's t test with the Benjamini-Hochberg correction. Functional analyses were performed using ingenuity pathways analysis and gene set enrichment analysis. Embryos of dams on the high-fat diet were significantly smaller than controls, with males more severely affected than females (P = .01). Maternal obesity and maternal obesity with dietary change in pregnancy resulted in significantly more dysregulated genes in male vs female fetal brains (386 vs 66, P obesity with and without dietary change in pregnancy was associated with unique brain gene expression signatures for each sex, with an overlap of only 1 gene. Changing obese dams to a control diet in pregnancy resulted in more differentially expressed genes in the fetal brain than maternal obesity alone. Functional analyses identified common dysregulated
McAdams, Tom A; Salekin, Randall T; Marti, C Nathan; Lester, Whiney S; Barker, Edward D
Delinquency and substance use (SU) are commonly comorbid during adolescence. In the present study we investigate this co-morbidity with 3 main objectives: 1. Evaluate reciprocal relationships between delinquency/SU across early adolescence. 2. Assess the impact of older male friends, low parental knowledge and friends' delinquency on subsequent development and inter-relationships of delinquency and SU. 3. Evaluate sex differences in these relationships. We applied cross-lagged structural equation models to the analysis of a longitudinal sample (n=3699). Findings demonstrated: (1) At ages 13-14 delinquency predicted SU more so than vice versa but effects became equal between ages 14 and 15. (2) Low parental knowledge and friends' delinquency predicted delinquency and SU. Older male friends predicted ASB. (3) Sex differences were present. For example, in the absence of antisocial friends low parent knowledge at age 12 indirectly predicted increased age 15 SU for girls more than boys.
Vanston, John E; Strother, Lars
This Mini-Review summarizes a wide range of sex differences in the human visual system, with a primary focus on sex differences in visual perception and its neural basis. We highlight sex differences in both basic and high-level visual processing, with evidence from behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies. We argue that sex differences in human visual processing, no matter how small or subtle, support the view that females and males truly see the world differently. We acknowledge some of the controversy regarding sex differences in human vision and propose that such controversy should be interpreted as a source of motivation for continued efforts to assess the validity and reliability of published sex differences and for continued research on sex differences in human vision and the nervous system in general. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hull, Laura; Mandy, William; Petrides, K. V.
Studies assessing sex/gender differences in autism spectrum conditions often fail to include typically developing control groups. It is, therefore, unclear whether observed sex/gender differences reflect those found in the general population or are particular to autism spectrum conditions. A systematic search identified articles comparing…
Patterson, Aldrich M., Jr.; Sedlacek, William E.
Identifying the variables which influence student attitudes, perceptions, and behavior patterns in regard to religion, sex, and alcohol has been a major source of investigation. To determine the dimensions underlying the relationship among religion, sex, alcohol use, and alcohol knowledge among university students, 376 University of Maryland…
Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this article is to present the rationale and baseline results for a randomized controlled pilot trial using economic incentives to reduce HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI risk among male sex workers (MSWs in Mexico City. Methods: Participants (n=267 were tested and treated for STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and HIV and viral hepatitis (hepatitis B and C, received HIV and STI prevention education and were randomized into four groups: (1 control, (2 medium conditional incentive ($50/six months, (3 high conditional incentive ($75/six months and (4 unconditional incentive ($50/six months. In the conditional arms, incentives were contingent upon testing free of new curable STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis at follow-up assessments. Results: Participants’ mean age was 25 years; 8% were homeless or lived in a shelter, 16% were unemployed and 21% lived in Mexico City less than 5 years. At baseline, 38% were living with HIV, and 32% tested positive for viral hepatitis or at least one STI (other than HIV. Participants had a mean of five male clients in the previous week; 18% reported condomless sex with their last client. For 37%, sex work was their main occupation and was conducted mainly on the streets (51% or in bars/discotheques (24% and hotels (24%. The average price for a sex transaction was $25 with a 35% higher payment for condomless sex. Conclusions: The findings suggest that economic incentives are a relevant approach for HIV prevention among MSWs, given the market-based inducements for unprotected sex. This type of targeted intervention seems to be justified and should continue to be explored in the context of combination prevention efforts.
Nikolaidis, P T; Ingebrigtsen, J; Póvoas, S C; Moss, S; Torres-Luque, G
The purpose of this study was to examine the variation in physical and physiological characteristics according to playing position in adolescent and adult male team handball (TH) players. Adolescent (N.=57, aged 14.9±1.4 yr) and adult (N.=39, 26.6±5.7 yr) players were examined for anthropometric characteristics, somatotype and body composition, and performed the physical working capacity test, a force-velocity test, the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), sit-and-reach test, handgrip strength test, squat jump (SJ), countermovement vertical jump without (CMJ) and with arm-swing, and a 30-s Bosco test. Eccentric utilization ratio (EUR) was calculated as the ratio CMJ to SJ. In adult players, there were significant differences between wings and the other positions with regard to anthropometric and body composition parameters (body mass, -17.9% to -13.2%; height, -5.3% to -4.3%; and fat-free mass, -13.7% to -9.9%) and anaerobic power assessed by WAnT (peak power, -20.5% to -15.2%; and mean power, -20% to -14.8%); however, these characteristics did not differ significantly in adolescents, in which the only statistically significant difference was found between goalkeepers and the other positions in EUR (+8.1%). Therefore, the differences in physical and physiological characteristics between playing positions are age-dependent. As adult players in this study were taken from players competing in the top Greek league, findings could serve as a base for talent identification and development for future studies. Moreover, knowledge about positional differences might enhance the ability to make tailored position-specific training programs among adult and adolescent players in the future.
Swartzendruber, Andrea; Brown, Jennifer L; Sales, Jessica M; Murray, Colleen C; DiClemente, Ralph J
Social networks directly and indirectly influence sexually transmitted infections (STIs) risk. The objective was to explore associations between sex with a male recently released from incarceration and sexual risk and intimate partner violence (IPV) among African American adolescent females. Sociodemographic, psychosocial, and sexual behavior data were collected at baseline, 6, and 12 months from African American females, aged 15-21 years, participating in an HIV/STI prevention trial. Among 653 participants with ≥1 follow-up assessments, generalized estimating equations tested associations during follow-up between having a recently released partner and STI acquisition, sexual risk behaviors, and IPV, adjusting for age, treatment assignment, and corresponding baseline measure. Eighty-three (13.6%) participants had a recently released partner at 6 months and 56 (9.3%) at 12 months. Participants with a recently released partner were more likely to have the following: vaginal (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 5.48), anal (AOR: 2.43), and oral (AOR: 1.51) sex, a casual partner (AOR: 1.66), sex while high/drunk (AOR: 1.57) or with a high/drunk partner (AOR: 2.27); use condoms inconsistently (AOR: .58); acquire Chlamydia (AOR: 1.80), and experience emotional (AOR: 4.09), physical (AOR: 2.59), or sexual abuse (AOR: 4.10) by a boyfriend. They had a greater number of sex partners, lower partner communication and refusal self-efficacy, were high/drunk during sex more frequently, and used condoms during oral sex less frequently. A recently released sex partner is associated with sexual risk and IPV among African American adolescent females. Prevention programs should inform adolescents about potential risks associated with recently released partners as well as provide adolescents with skills to establish and maintain healthy sexual relationships. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Changes in testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels in male rat accessory sex organs, serum, and seminal fluid after castration: establishment of a new highly sensitive simultaneous androgen measurement method.
Kashiwagi, Bunzo; Shibata, Yasuhiro; Ono, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Ryota; Honma, Seijiro; Suzuki, Kazuhiro
It is known that abnormal androgen dynamics in the tissues is a cause of androgen-dependent disorders. Investigation of tissue androgen levels could provide a clue to the elucidation of disorders. However, it is difficult to measure a trace amount of androgen in the tissues. We established a highly sensitive simultaneous quantification method of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which play the most important roles in the body among androgenic steroids in trace amounts, and investigated time course changes in testosterone and DHT levels in male accessory sex organs, serum, and seminal fluid after castration in rat models. In addition, changes in the testosterone/DHT ratio of male accessory sex organs and seminal fluid were observed. The simultaneous testosterone and DHT measurement method established by us was validated. Intra-assay variation and interassay precision and accuracy were all within +/-20%, and the quantification limits of testosterone and DHT were both 15.6 pg/g. With the use of this method, the testosterone and DHT levels in the prostate, seminal vesicles, and serum immediately after castration were similar to those previously reported. The testosterone and DHT levels were 350 pg/g and 605 pg/g, respectively; which showed dominance of DHT in seminal fluid, although it was not as marked as that in the male accessory sex organs. Androgens decreased with time after castration in the accessory sex organs, serum, and seminal fluid. In the prostate and seminal vesicles, testosterone and DHT decreased to about 50% and about 2% of the normal levels, respectively, 72 hours after castration. The serum levels were under the quantification limits 6 hours after castration and thereafter. In seminal fluid, the testosterone and DHT levels decreased to 49% and 35% of normal levels, respectively, 72 hours after castration. The testosterone/DHT ratio in the male accessory sex organs was lower in the prostate (0.06) than in the seminal vesicles (0
Kumaran, Nagalingam; Hayes, R Andrew; Clarke, Anthony R
In tephritid fruit flies of the genus Bactrocera Macquart, a group of plant derived compounds (sensu amplo 'male lures') enhance the mating success of males that have consumed them. For flies responding to the male lure methyl eugenol, this is due to the accumulation of chemicals derived from the male lure in the male rectal gland (site of pheromone synthesis) and the subsequent release of an attractive pheromone. Cuelure, raspberry ketone and zingerone are a second, related group of male lures to which many Bactrocera species respond. Raspberry ketone and cuelure are both known to accumulate in the rectal gland of males as raspberry ketone, but it is not known if the emitted male pheromone is subsequently altered in complexity or is more attractive to females. Using Bactrocera tryoni as our test insect, and cuelure and zingerone as our test chemicals, we assess: (i) lure accumulation in the rectal gland; (ii) if the lures are released exclusively in association with the male pheromone; and (iii) if the pheromone of lure-fed males is more attractive to females than the pheromone of lure-unfed males. As previously documented, we found cuelure was stored in its hydroxyl form of raspberry ketone, while zingerone was stored largely in an unaltered state. Small but consistent amounts of raspberry ketone and β-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-propionic acid were also detected in zingerone-fed flies. Males released the ingested lures or their analogues, along with endogenous pheromone chemicals, only during the dusk courtship period. More females responded to squashed rectal glands extracted from flies fed on cuelure than to glands from control flies, while more females responded to the pheromone of calling cuelure-fed males than to control males. The response to zingerone treatments in both cases was not different from the control. The results show that male B. tryoni release ingested lures as part of their pheromone blend and, at least for cuelure, this attracts more
Robertson, Angela M; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M Gudelia; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Stockman, Jamila K; Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A
Female sex workers (FSWs) may benefit from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) including microbicides for HIV prevention. Since adherence is a key factor in PrEP efficacy, we explored microbicide acceptability and potential barriers to use within FSWs' intimate relationships in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, where HIV prevalence is increasing. FSWs and their verified intimate (non-commercial) male partners completed quantitative and qualitative interviews from 2010 to 2012. Our complementary mixed methods design followed an iterative process to assess microbicide acceptability, explore related relationship dynamics and identify factors associated with concern about male partners' anger regarding microbicide use. Among 185 couples (n=370 individuals), interest in microbicides was high. In qualitative interviews with 28 couples, most participants were enthusiastic about microbicides for sex work contexts but some explained that microbicides could imply mistrust/infidelity within their intimate relationships. In the overall sample, nearly one in six participants (16%) worried that male partners would become angry about microbicides, which was associated with higher self-esteem among FSWs and lower self-esteem and past year conflicts causing injury within relationships among men. HIV prevention interventions should consider intimate relationship dynamics posing potential barriers to PrEP acceptability and adherence, involve male partners and promote risk communication skills.
Robertson, Angela M.; Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Martinez, Gustavo; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Stockman, Jamila K.; Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
Background Female sex workers (FSWs) may benefit from pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) including microbicides for HIV prevention. Since adherence is a key factor in PrEP efficacy, we explored microbicide acceptability and potential barriers to use within FSWs’ intimate relationships in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, where HIV prevalence is increasing. Methods FSWs and their verified intimate (non-commercial) male partners completed quantitative and qualitative interviews from 2010–2012. Our complementary mixed methods design followed an iterative process to assess microbicide acceptability, explore related relationship dynamics, and identify factors associated with concern about male partners’ anger regarding microbicide use. Results Among 185 couples (n=370 individuals), interest in microbicides was high. In qualitative interviews with 28 couples, most participants were enthusiastic about microbicides for sex work contexts but some explained that microbicides could imply mistrust/infidelity within their intimate relationships. In the overall sample, nearly 1 in 6 participants (16%) worried that male partners would become angry about microbicides, which was associated with higher self-esteem among FSWs and lower self-esteem and past year conflict causing injury within relationships among men. Conclusions HIV prevention interventions should consider intimate relationship dynamics posing potential barriers to PrEP acceptability and adherence, involve male partners, and promote risk communication skills. PMID:23398385
Afonso-Pereira, Francisco; Murdan, Sudaxshina; Sousa, Joao; Veiga, Francisco; Basit, Abdul W
Males and females respond differently to drugs: indeed, sex plays a crucial role in determining drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Excipients have also been shown to enhance the biovailability of drugs differently in men and women. The aim of this work was to investigate whether rodents are a good model in which to study sex-specific effects of polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) on the bioavailability of ranitidine. Ranitidine (50mg/kg) was dissolved in water with different amounts of PEG 400-0 (control), 13, 26, 51, 77, 103, and 154mg/kg; these solutions were dosed orally by gavage to male and female Wistar rats. Blood samples were withdrawn over 480min and assayed via HPLC-UV. Individual ranitidine plasma profiles were constructed for each rat, and standard pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. In the male rats, the change in the area under the plasma ranitidine curve (AUC0-480) compared to the control group, was +18%; +49% (pranitidine in male, but not female, rats. These findings are in agreement with previously published human data, therefore confirming the validity of the rodent model, and highlight the unusual and clinically significant phenomenon that an excipient can influence drug bioavailability in one gender and not the other.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A comprehensive analysis of sex-specific differences in the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of individuals with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis might reveal treatment inequalities and targets to improve sex-specific patient care. Here we describe hemodialysis prevalence and patient characteristics by sex, compare the adult male-to-female mortality rate with data from the general population, and evaluate sex interactions with mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed the Human Mortality Database and 206,374 patients receiving hemodialysis from 12 countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden, the UK, and the US participating in the international, prospective Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS between June 1996 and March 2012. Among 35,964 sampled DOPPS patients with full data collection, we studied patient characteristics (descriptively and mortality (via Cox regression by sex. In all age groups, more men than women were on hemodialysis (59% versus 41% overall, with large differences observed between countries. The average estimated glomerular filtration rate at hemodialysis initiation was higher in men than women. The male-to-female mortality rate ratio in the general population varied from 1.5 to 2.6 for age groups <75 y, but in hemodialysis patients was close to one. Compared to women, men were younger (mean = 61.9 ± standard deviation 14.6 versus 63.1 ± 14.5 y, were less frequently obese, were more frequently married and recipients of a kidney transplant, more frequently had coronary artery disease, and were less frequently depressed. Interaction analyses showed that the mortality risk associated with several comorbidities and hemodialysis catheter use was lower for men (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.11 than women (HR = 1.33, interaction p<0.001. This study is limited by its inability to establish causality for the observed sex
Elisabeth M van der Elst
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI may elicit more frequent reporting of socially sensitive behaviours than face-to-face (FtF-interview. However, no study compared responses to both methods in female and male sex workers (FSW; MSW in Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We sequentially enrolled adults recruited for an HIV-1 intervention trial into a comparative study of ACASI and FtF-interview, in a clinic near Mombasa, Kenya. Feasibility and acceptability of ACASI, and a comparative analysis of enrolment responses between ACASI and FtF on an identical risk assessment questionnaire were evaluated. In total, 139 women and 259 men, 81% of eligible cohort participants, completed both interviews. ACASI captured a higher median number of regular (2 vs. 1, p<0.001, both genders and casual partners in the last week (3 vs. 2, p = 0.04 in women; 2 vs. 1, p<0.001 in men. Group sex (21.6 vs. 13.5%, p<0.001, in men, intravenous drug use (IDU; 10.8 vs. 2.3%, p<0.001 in men; 4.4 vs. 0%, p = 0.03 in women, and rape (8.9 vs. 3.9%, p = 0.002, in men were reported more frequently in ACASI. A surprisingly high number of women reported in ACASI that they had paid for sex (49.3 vs. 5.8%, p<0.001. Behaviours for recruitment (i.e. anal sex, sex work, sex between males were reported less frequently in ACASI. The majority of women (79.2% and men (69.7% felt that answers given in ACASI were more honest. Volunteers who were not able to take ACASI (84 men, and 37 women mostly lacked reading skills. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: About 1 in 5 cohort participants was not able to complete ACASI, mostly for lack of reading skills. Participants who completed ACASI were more likely to report IDU, rape, group sex, and payment for sex by women than when asked in FtF interview. ACASI appears to be a useful tool for high risk behaviour assessments in the African context.
Yu-Bing Huang, Kevin; Atlihan, Remzi; Gökçe, Ayhan; Yu-Bing Huang, Joyce; Chi, Hsin
The life table data for the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), at different adult sex ratios (1♀: 1♂, 1♀: 50♂, 50♀: 1♂ free-choice mating, and 50♀: 1♂ no-choice mating) were collected to determine the effects of sex-ratio manipulation on current pest control procedures. At 1♀: 1♂, females mated, on average, 2.3 times during their lifetime with a mean fecundity (F) of 1,122 eggs. The net reproductive rate (R0), intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate (λ), and mean generation time (T) were 561.0 offspring, 0.1693 d(-) (1), 1.1844 d(-) (1), and 37.4 d, respectively. At 50♀: 1♂ free-choice mating, males mated 46.7 times during their lifetime, while at 50♀: 1♂ no-choice mating, males mated on average 50 times during their lifetime, and all females mating only once in both treatments. The values for F, r, and λ were significantly lower for both 50♀: 1♂ treatments than those in the 1♀: 1♂ group; the R0 values, however, were either equal to or even higher than those in the 1♀: 1♂ treatment. In the male-biased sex ratio (1♀: 50♂), fecundity was the highest (1,610 eggs) and female average life span the longest (166 d), while the R0 was the lowest (31.6 offspring) among all treatments. Population projections showed that even at a sex ratio of 50♀: 1♂, B. dorsalis could still produce a large number of offspring. These findings demonstrate that management strategies for controlling B. dorsalis could be properly evaluated by using demographic methods. Because female annihilation appears to be a more effective control strategy, it should be considered as a viable alternative.
Sweeting, Helen; Maycock, Matthew William; Walker, Laura; Hunt, Kate
Despite academic feminist debate over several decades, the binary nature of sex as a (perhaps the) primary social classification is often taken for granted, as is the assumption that individuals can be unproblematically assigned a biological sex at birth. This article presents analysis of online debate on the BBC news website in November 2013, comprising 864 readers' responses to an article entitled 'Germany allows 'indeterminate' gender at birth'. It explores how discourse reflecting Western essentialist beliefs about people having one sex or 'the other' is maintained in debates conducted in this online public space. Comments were coded thematically and are presented under five sub-headings: overall evaluation of the German law; discussing and disputing statistics and 'facts'; binary categorisations; religion and politics; and 'conversations' and threads. Although for many the mapping of binary sex onto gender was unquestionable, this view was strongly disputed by commentators who questioned the meanings of 'natural' and 'normal', raised the possibility of removing societal binary male-female distinctions or saw maleness-femaleness as a continuum. While recognising that online commentators are anonymous and can control their self-presentation, this animated discussion suggests that social classifications as male or female, even if questioned, remain fundamental in public debate in the early 21(st) century.
Premi, Sanjay; Srivastava, Jyoti; Chandy, Sebastian Padinjarel; Ahmad, Jamal; Ali, Sher
Mutations in the SRY gene encompassing the HMG box have been well characterized in gonadal dysgenesis, male infertility and other types of sex chromosome related anomalies (SCRA). However, no information is available on copy number status of this gene under such abnormal conditions. Employing 'Taqman Probe Assay' specific to the SRY gene, we screened 16 DNA samples from patients with SCRA and 36 samples from males exposed to high levels of natural background radiation (HNBR). Patients with SCRA showed 2-16 copies of the SRY gene of which, one, Oxen (49, XYYYY) had eight copies with sequences different from one another. Of the 36 HNBR samples, 12 had one copy whereas 24 harboured 2-8 copies of the SRY gene. A HNBR male 33F had one normal and one mutated copy of this gene. Analysis of 25 DNA samples from blood and semen of normal males showed only one copy of this gene. Despite multiple copies in affected males, fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) with SRY probe detected a single signal on the Y chromosome in HNBR males suggesting its possible localized tandem duplication. Copy number status of the other Y-linked loci is envisaged to augment DNA diagnostics facilitating genetic counselling to affected patients.
Jones, A G; Avise, J C
Highly variable microsatellite loci were employed to study the mating system of the sexually dimorphic Gulf pipefish Syngnathus scovelli. In this species, like others in the family Syngnathidae, 'pregnant' males provide all parental care. Gulf pipefish were collected from one locale in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and internally carried broods of 40 pregnant males were analysed genetically. By comparing multilocus microsatellite fingerprints for the inferred mothers against expected genotypic distributions from the population sample, it was determined that: (i) only one male had received eggs from more than a single female; and (ii) on two separate occasions, two different males had received eggs from the same female. Given the high power to detect multiple matings by males, the first finding indicates that only rarely are individual males impregnated by multiple females during the course of a pregnancy. Conversely, given the lower power to detect multiple matings by females due to sampling constraints, the second finding suggests a high frequency of multiple successful matings by females. Thus, this population of Gulf pipefish displays a polyandrous genetic mating system. The relevance of these genetic findings is discussed with regard to the evolution of secondary sex traits in this species, and in other syngnathids.
Hulshoff Pol, HE; Schnack, HG; Mandl, RC
best reflect the genetic and environmental risk factors in the brains of patients with schizophrenia remains unresolved. 1.5-T MRI brain scans of 11 monozygotic and 11 same-sex dizygotic twin-pairs discordant for schizophrenia were compared to 11 monozygotic and 11 same-sex dizygotic healthy control...... twin-pairs using voxel-based morphometry. Linear regression analysis was done in each voxel for the average and difference in gray and white matter density separately, in each twin-pair, with group (discordant, healthy) and zygosity (monozygotic, dizygotic) as between subject variables, and age, sex...... and handedness as covariates. The t-maps (critical threshold value mid R:tmid R: > 6.0, P
Mcguire, B.; Parker, E.; Bemis, W.E.
Little is known about sex differences in parental behavior of biparental mammals and if mates in such species coordinate care of young. We studied parental care displayed by prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) under seminatural laboratory conditions during the first 3 d of life of their offspring. Through direct observations and videotaping, we monitored members of male-female pairs to determine if sex differences in early parental behavior exist and if mothers and fathers coordinate visits to the nest. To assess the impact of fathers on survival of pups and behavior of mothers, we also examined parental care displayed by single females toward their young. Male and female members of breeding pairs differed dramatically in degree of parental care. Females spent more time in the nest with young and licked them more frequently than did males. Additionally, females maintained the nest more frequently than did males, whereas they maintained runways less frequently. Although coordination of visits to the nest was not perfect between members of pairs, pups of pairs were left alone for less time than were pups of single females. Parental behavior displayed by paired and single females did not differ, nor did survival of their young to day 3 or 15. We suggest that provision of ample space and cover to vole parents rearing young in captivity promotes expression of sex differences in parental behavior, but that even seminatural conditions are not sufficient to yield benefits of father presence to survival of young. Under more challenging conditions, such as cold temperatures or presence of predators, benefits of father presence might emerge.
Hecking, Manfred; Bieber, Brian A; Ethier, Jean; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Sunder-Plassmann, Gere; Säemann, Marcus D; Ramirez, Sylvia P B; Gillespie, Brenda W; Pisoni, Ronald L; Robinson, Bruce M; Port, Friedrich K
A comprehensive analysis of sex-specific differences in the characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of individuals with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis might reveal treatment inequalities and targets to improve sex-specific patient care. Here we describe hemodialysis prevalence and patient characteristics by sex, compare the adult male-to-female mortality rate with data from the general population, and evaluate sex interactions with mortality. We assessed the Human Mortality Database and 206,374 patients receiving hemodialysis from 12 countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Spain, Sweden, the UK, and the US) participating in the international, prospective Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) between June 1996 and March 2012. Among 35,964 sampled DOPPS patients with full data collection, we studied patient characteristics (descriptively) and mortality (via Cox regression) by sex. In all age groups, more men than women were on hemodialysis (59% versus 41% overall), with large differences observed between countries. The average estimated glomerular filtration rate at hemodialysis initiation was higher in men than women. The male-to-female mortality rate ratio in the general population varied from 1.5 to 2.6 for age groups hemodialysis patients was close to one. Compared to women, men were younger (mean = 61.9 ± standard deviation 14.6 versus 63.1 ± 14.5 y), were less frequently obese, were more frequently married and recipients of a kidney transplant, more frequently had coronary artery disease, and were less frequently depressed. Interaction analyses showed that the mortality risk associated with several comorbidities and hemodialysis catheter use was lower for men (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.11) than women (HR = 1.33, interaction pdialysis or dying prior to a planned start of dialysis. Women's survival advantage was markedly diminished in hemodialysis patients. The finding that fewer women than
Full Text Available Clients of female sex workers (FSWs possess a high potential of transmitting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections from high risk FSWs to the general population. Promotion of safer sex practices among the clients is essential to limit the spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of consistent condom use (CCU among clients of FSWs and to assess the factors associated with CCU in Tamil Nadu. 146 male respondents were recruited from the hotspots who reportedly had sex with FSWs in exchange for cash at least once in the past one month. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate methods. Overall, 48.6 and 0.8 percent clients consistently used condoms in the past 12 months with FSWs and regular partners, respectively. Logistic regression showed that factors such as education, peers’ use of condoms, and alcohol consumption significantly influenced clients’ CCU with FSWs. Strategies for safe sex-behaviour are needed among clients of FSWs in order to limit the spread of HIV/AIDS epidemic in the general population. The role of peer-educators in experience sharing and awareness generation must also be emphasized.
Weiss, Dana A.; Rodriguez, Esequiel; Cunha, Tristan; Menshenina, Julia; Barcellos, Dale; Chan, Lok Yun; Risbridger, Gail; Baskin, Laurence; Cunha, Gerald
Adult external genitalia (ExG) are the endpoints of normal sex differentiation. Detailed morphometric analysis and comparison of adult mouse ExG has revealed 10 homologous features distinguishing the penis and clitoris that define masculine vs. feminine sex differentiation. These features have enabled the construction of a simple metric to evaluate various intersex conditions in mutant or hormonally manipulated mice. This review focuses on the morphology of the adult mouse penis and clitoris through detailed analysis of histologic sections, scanning electron microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstruction. We also present previous results from evaluation of “non-traditional” mammals, such as the spotted hyena and wallaby to demonstrate the complex process of sex differentiation that involves not only androgen-dependent processes, but also estrogen-dependent and hormone-independent mechanisms. PMID:21893161
Modzelewski, Andrew J; Holmes, Rebecca J; Hilz, Stephanie; Grimson, Andrew; Cohen, Paula E
The four mammalian Argonaute family members are thought to share redundant functions in the microRNA pathway, yet only AGO2 possesses the catalytic "slicer" function required for RNAi. Whether AGO1, AGO3, or AGO4 possesses specialized functions remains unclear. Here we show that AGO4 localizes to spermatocyte nuclei during meiotic prophase I, specifically at sites of asynapsis and the transcriptionally silenced XY subdomain, the sex body. We generated Ago4 knockout mice and show that Ago4(-/-) spermatogonia initiate meiosis early, resulting from premature induction of retinoic acid-response genes. During prophase I, the sex body assembles incorrectly in Ago4(-/-) mice, leading to disrupted meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). This is associated with a dramatic loss of microRNAs, >20% of which arises from the X chromosome. Thus, AGO4 regulates meiotic entry and MSCI in mammalian germ cells, implicating small RNA pathways in these processes.
Alissa R. Ackerman
Full Text Available This article assesses whether deported Latino immigrant sex offenders have similar offense types as each other (by country and as deported non-Latino immigrants, and how they differ in terms of crimes committed and dispositions. To do so, the authors analyzed data available from the state of Florida, a state with one of the largest Latino populations in the United States. It situates the results of research within the current sociopolitical climate related to immigrants, fear of immigrants and sex offenders, and the nature of transnational migration.
Isola, Mark John
Recalibrating the critical consideration of popular memory, this essay rehabilitates the erotic narrative as an object of critical study and as a political practice via an examination of John Preston's (1985b) print collection, Hot Living: Erotic Stories About Safer Sex. It considers this collection as a use of the erotic genre to produce a popular memory within its reading community to support safer sex practices in the "Age of AIDS." It examines this collection as a communitarian project that articulates a new erotic rhetoric in response to HIV and considers its individual epistemological and epidemiological implications.
Bing HAN; Xiao-Fan WANG; Shuang-Quan HUANG
It has been proposed that relative allocation to female function increases with plant size in animalpollinated species.Previous investigations in several monoecious Sagittaria species seem to run contrary to the prediction of size-dependent sex allocation (SDS),throwing doubt on the generalization of SDS.Plant size,phenotypic gender,and flower production were measured in experimental populations of an aquatic,insect-pollinated herb Sagittaria trifolia (Alismataceae) under highly different densities.The comparison of ramets produced clonally can reduce confounding effects from genetic and environmental factors.In the high-density population,48％ of ramets were male without female flowers,but in the low-density population all ramets were monoecious.We observed allometric growth in reproductive allocation with ramet size,as evident in biomass of reproductive structures and number of flowers.However,within both populations female and male flower production were isometric with ramet size,in contrast to an allometric growth in femaleness as predicted by SDS.Phenotypic gender was not related to ramet size in either population.The results indicated that large plants may increase both female and male function even in animal-pollinated plants,pointing towards further studies to test the hypothesis of size-dependent sex allocation using different allocation currencies.
Daxing Wu; Ying Zhao; Jian Liao; Huifang Yin; Wei Wang
Voxel-based morphometry-diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra analysis was used to investigate the structural characteristics of white matter in young males with antisocial personality disorder (APD) and healthy controls without APD. The results revealed that APD subjects, relative to healthy subjects, exhibited increased white matter volume in the bilateral prefrontal lobe, right insula, precentral gyrus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right precuneus, right middle occipital lobe, right parahippocampal gyrus and bilateral cingulate, and decreased volume in the middle temporal cortex and right cerebellum. The white matter volume in the medial frontal gyrus was significantly correlated with antisocial type scores on the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire in APD subjects. These experimental findings indicate that white matter abnormalities in several brain areas may contribute to antisocial behaviors in APD subjects.
Garcia, L Rene; Sternberg, Paul W
During mating behavior the Caenorhabditis elegans male must regulate periodic and prolonged protractor muscle contractions to insert his copulatory spicules into his mate. The protractors undergo periodic contractions to allow the spicules to reattempt insertion if a previous thrust failed to breach the vulva. When the spicule tips penetrate the vulva, the protractors undergo prolonged contraction to keep the spicules inside the hermaphrodite until sperm transfer is complete. To understand how these contractions are regulated, we isolated EMS-induced mutations that cause males to execute prolonged contraction inappropriately. Loss-of-function mutations in the unc-103 ERG-like K(+) channel gene cause the protractor muscles to contract in the absence of mating stimulation. unc-103-induced spicule protraction can be suppressed by killing the SPC motor neurons and the anal depressor muscle: cells that directly contact the protractors. Also, reduction in acetylcholine suppresses unc-103-induced protraction, suggesting that UNC-103 keeps cholinergic neurons from stimulating the protractors before mating behavior. UNC-103 also regulates the timing of spicule protraction during mating behavior. unc-103 males that do not display mating-independent spicule protraction show abnormal spicule insertion behavior during sex. In contrast to wild-type males, unc-103 mutants execute prolonged contractions spontaneously within sequences of periodic protractor contractions. The premature prolonged contractions cause the spicules to extend from the male tail before the spicule tips penetrate the vulva. These observations demonstrate that unc-103 controls various aspects of spicule function.
Colindres, Johanna Viau; Axelrad, Marni; McCullough, Laurence; Smith, E O'Brian; Huang, Gene O; Tu, Duong D; Bercaw-Pratt, Jennifer L; Cheni, Min-Jye; Mendiratta, Meenal; Gunn, Sheila; Sutton, Reid; Macias, Charles; Karaviti, Lefkothea P
45,X/46,XY gonadal dysgenesis is a disorder of sexual differentiation with a wide clinical presentation, ranging from Turner-like females to individuals with genital ambiguity to azoospermic but otherwise normal-appearing males. Hence, patients can be assigned female or male sex. Female patients are managed according to the Turner Syndrome Guidelines, whereas males are managed on a case-by-case basis. Male patients present with multiple medical challenges: undervirilization, hypogonadism, gonadoblastoma risk, and short stature. Many require surgeries and hormonal treatments that are time-sensitive and irreversible. Nonetheless, these therapeutic decisions are made without evidence-based guidelines. This review describes the medical concerns and possible interventions in male patients with 45,X/46,XY dysgenesis for each stage of development. Interventions should be addressed within a patient-centered framework by a multidisciplinary team and after thorough discussion with the family. We use the GRADE system to appraise the existing evidence and provide recommendations based on the available evidence.
In sexually dimorphic birds, morphological characteristics are assumed to play an important role in conspecific sex recognition. In spite of the limited evidence, most studies done so far support this assumption. Less attention has been given to the question of how adult birds may have acquired the
Conclusion: The incidence of ED in Calabar, Nigeria, increases with increasing age. Although the respondents between the ages of 15–34 years had the least incidence of ED, this age group used sex stimulants the most following their perceived beneficial effect in increasing genital size.
Glick, Sara Nelson; Golden, Matthew R
Few data exist on the early sexual behavior patterns of contemporary young men who have sex with men (YMSM), the social context of these patterns, and which of these factors influence risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). We enrolled 94 YMSM (age 16-30) into a 1-year cohort study with serial online retrospective surveys and HIV/STI testing. The first three partnerships of YMSM were characterized by relatively high rates of unprotected anal sex and a rapidly expanding sexual repertoire, but also increasing rates of HIV status disclosure. During follow-up, 17 % of YMSM reported any nonconcordant unprotected anal intercourse (NCUAI) and 15 % were newly diagnosed with HIV/STI. Sex education in high school and current maternal support were protective against HIV/STI, while isolation from family and friends was associated with recent NCUAI. Social support-including from parents, peers, and school-based sex education-may help mitigate HIV/STI risk in this population.
Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Perngparn, Usaneya; Areesantichai, Chitlada; Kamitani, Emiko; Sakata, Maria
Based on combined methods, this study investigated substance use and HIV risk behaviors among kathoey sex workers (KSWs) in Bangkok, Thailand. The study found that only half of the KSW participants reported having been tested for HIV, and that except for one participant, all others had not seen health care providers in the past 12 months. About one third of the participants reported having engaged in unprotected anal sex with customers in the past six months. Almost all participants reported alcohol use, as well as having had sex with customers under the influence of alcohol. The prevalence of marijuana and ecstasy use in the past 12 months was high (32 and 36%, respectively); as was for ketamine (20%) and non-injecting methamphetamine (yaba) use (10%). A multiple regression analysis showed that the participants who were post-operative status, had used illicit drugs, or had been abused by their father and brothers were less likely to use condoms for anal sex with customers. Three quarters of the participants sent money to their families and 35% of the participants expressed their willingness to engage in unsafe sex when customers offer extra money. The qualitative interviews revealed that many identified as girl or kathoey in early age and had been exposed to transphobia and violence from father and brothers. Some reported support for gender transition from their mothers. More than half of the participants currently had difficulties in living as kathoey, such as challenges in the job market and relationship with family members. Family obligation for sending money and the Buddhist concept of karma were discussed in relation to risk behaviors among KSWs. The study provided implications for facilitating HIV testing and developing future HIV prevention intervention programs for KSWs in Thailand.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of novel fertilization treatments, including in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic injection, has made pregnancy possible regardless of the level of activity of the spermatozoa; however, the etiology of male-factor infertility is poorly understood. Multiple studies, primarily through the use of transgenic animals, have contributed to a list of candidate genes that may affect male infertility in humans. We examined single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs as a cause of male infertility in an analysis of spermatogenesis-specific genes. METHODS AND FINDING: We carried out the prevalence of SNPs in the coding region of phosphoglycerate mutase 4 (PGAM4 on the X chromosome by the direct sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA from male patients. Using RT-PCR and western blot analyses, we identified that PGAM4 is a functional retrogene that is expressed predominantly in the testes and is associated with male infertility. PGAM4 is expressed in post-meiotic stages, including spermatids and spermatozoa in the testes, and the principal piece of the flagellum and acrosome in ejaculated spermatozoa. A case-control study revealed that 4.5% of infertile patients carry the G75C polymorphism, which causes an amino acid substitution in the encoded protein. Furthermore, an assay for enzymatic activity demonstrated that this polymorphism decreases the enzyme's activity both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that PGAM4, an X-linked retrogene, is a fundamental gene in human male reproduction and may escape meiotic sex chromosome inactivation. These findings provide fresh insight into elucidating the mechanisms of male infertility.
Meijer, L.; Martijn, A.; Melessen, J.; Brouwer, A.; Weiss, J.; de Jong, F. H.; Sauer, P. J. J.
Prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors, like organohalogen compounds (OHCs), might be responsible for the increased aberrations in human male sexual development (hypospadias, cryptorchidism, testicular cancer and fall in sperm count) observed over the past decades. This development is established
Meijer, L.; Martijn, A.; Melessen, J.; Brouwer, A.; Weiss, J.; de Jong, F. H.; Sauer, P. J. J.
Prenatal exposure to endocrine disruptors, like organohalogen compounds (OHCs), might be responsible for the increased aberrations in human male sexual development (hypospadias, cryptorchidism, testicular cancer and fall in sperm count) observed over the past decades. This development is established
Thomas, Beena; Closson, Elizabeth F; Biello, Katie; Menon, Sunil; Navakodi, Pandiaraja; Dhanalakshmi, A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A; Mimiaga, Matthew J
In India men who have sex with men and engage in sex work (i.e., male sex workers; MSW) have a high risk of transmitting HIV. Globally, sex workers have become more spatially mobile due to advances in mobile-phone technology. In 2012 in-depth qualitative feedback was garnered from 40 interviews with MSW and four focus groups with 35 key informants (KIs) who had expert knowledge of the local MSW community to inform the design of an HIV-prevention intervention among MSW in Chennai, India. All MSW were recruited during outreach by employees of a Chennai-based organization for MSM (men who have sex with men). The data were analyzed using a descriptive qualitative approach. MSW and KIs discussed the need for intervention content that went beyond basic HIV psychoeducation. They emphasized the importance of addressing psychological distress, alcohol-related risk, and sexual communication skills. Concerns were raised about confidentiality, privacy, and scheduling. Participants endorsed a combination of in-person and mobile-phone-delivered sessions as well as the integration of mobile-phone messaging. These findings served as the basis for the development of a theoretically driven, manual-based intervention incorporating mobile phones. An open pilot assessed the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention with eight MSW. Assessments and HIV testing were administered at baseline, 3, and 6 months post-baseline. Exit interviews were conducted at the conclusion of the intervention. Retention for session attendance and assessment follow-up was 100 %. There was a high level of acceptability for the format, structure, and content. These data show initial promise, feasibility, and acceptability of the intervention.
Symmes, Emily J; Dewhirst, Sarah Y; Birkett, Michael A; Campbell, Colin A M; Chamberlain, Keith; Pickett, John A; Zalom, Frank G
Mealy plum, Hyalopterus pruni, and leaf-curl plum, Brachycaudus helichrysi, aphids are the primary arthropod pests in orchards that produce dried plums (i.e., prunes). The sexual stage of their respective lifecycles occurs on prune trees in the fall, during which time males respond to sex pheromones produced by oviparous females. Air-entrainment collections confirmed that oviparous H. pruni and B. helichrysi emitted combinations of (4aS, 7S, 7aR)-nepetalactone and (1R, 4aS, 7S, 7aR)-nepetalactol. The responses of H. pruni and B. helichrysi to these compounds in ratios of 1:0, 0:1, 1:1, 2.6:1, 3.4:1, 5:1, 7:1, and 0:0 (no-pheromone control) using water traps were determined in field experiments conducted in prune orchards during the fall. The greatest number of male H. pruni was caught in traps releasing a 1:1 ratio of (4aS, 7S, 7aR)-nepetalactone and (1R, 4aS, 7S, 7aR)-nepetalactol, while male B. helichrysi were caught in similar numbers in traps releasing any of the two-component ratios tested. There was no evidence that any of the pheromone treatments influenced trap catches of gynoparae of either species. Results suggest that addition of sex pheromone lures increases trap catches of male H. pruni and B. helichrysi, and that this approach may improve monitoring and management of these pests in prune orchards. Knowledge gained from this study contributes to the understanding of the ecology of insect pests in prune orchards.
Full Text Available Rising HIV infection rates have been observed among elderly people in Guangxi, China. Inexpensive aphrodisiacs are available for purchase in suburban and rural areas. This study aims to investigate the association between aphrodisiac use and increased HIV risk for middle-aged and elderly men in Guangxi.A matched case-control study of aphrodisiac use-associated HIV infection was performed among male subjects over 50 years old who were clients of low-cost commercial sex venues in Guangxi. The cases were defined as clients who were HIV-positive and two controls were selected for each case. The cases and the controls were matched on the visited sex venue, age (±3 years, number of years of purchasing sex (±3 years, and educational attainment. Subjects were interviewed and tested for HIV. Paired t-test or McNemar Chi-squared test were used to compare the characteristics between the cases and controls. A stepwise conditional logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with HIV infection.This study enrolled 103 cases and 206 controls. Aphrodisiac use (P = 0.02, odds ratio (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = 1.08-3.04, never using condom during commercial sex encounter (P = 0.03, odds ratio (OR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.08-3.07, and lacking a stable partner (P = 0.03, odds ratio (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.05-2.98 were found to be risk factors for HIV infection among the study groups. For subjects reporting aphrodisiac use, the frequency of purchasing sex was positively correlated with the frequency of aphrodisiac use (r = 0.3; p = 0.02.Aphrodisiac use was significantly associated with increased HIV infection risk in men over 50 years old who purchased commercial sex in the suburban and rural areas of Guangxi. Further research and interventions should address the links between aphrodisiac use, commercial sex work, condom use, and increased HIV transmission.
Checchi, Paula M.; JoAnne Engebrecht
Meiosis is a specialized form of cellular division that results in the precise halving of the genome to produce gametes for sexual reproduction. Checkpoints function during meiosis to detect errors and subsequently to activate a signaling cascade that prevents the formation of aneuploid gametes. Indeed, asynapsis of a homologous chromosome pair elicits a checkpoint response that can in turn trigger germline apoptosis. In a heterogametic germ line, however, sex chromosomes proceed through meio...
Moore, F. R.; Coetzee, V.; Contreras-Garduño, J.; Debruine, L. M.; Kleisner, K.; Krams, I.; Marcinkowska, U.; Nord, A.; Perrett, D. I.; Rantala, M. J.; Schaum, N.; Suzuki, T. N.
Women in the UK prefer the faces of men with low levels of the stress hormone cortisol, and the relationship is moderated by the sex hormone testosterone. In a Latvian sample, however, women's preferences were not affected by cortisol, and the interaction with testosterone differed from that of the UK. To further explore cross-cultural variation in preferences for facial cues to sex- and stress-hormones, we tested the preferences of women from 13 countries for facial composites constructed to differ in combinations of the hormones. We found significant relationships between a measure of societal development (the United Nations human development index 2011) and preferences for cues to testosterone in the face, and the interaction between preferences for cues to testosterone and cortisol. We also found a significant relationship between preferences for cues to testosterone and a societal-level measure of parasite stress. We conclude that societal-level ecological factors influence the relative value of traits revealed by combinations of sex- and stress-hormones. PMID:23536442
The purpose of this study was to focus on the context of stereotypes of gay men, and how sex differences and social contact influence the stereotypic and counter-stereotypic attributes of them. To do that, 77 female and 106 male heterosexual undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants filled out a rating scale. The findings of the study demonstrated that male participants defined male homosexuals by using more stereotypic, less counter-stereotypic attributes, while female participants used less stereotypic and more counter-stereotypic attributes to define gay men. In the same way, participants who hadn't had any social contact with any homosexuals used more stereotypic and less counter-stereotypic attributes, while others who had had social contact with at least a homosexual defined gay men by using less stereotypic and more counter-stereotypic attributes. Both male participants and participants who hadn't had social contact with any homosexuals used more negative stereotypes than both females and participants who at least had had social contact with a homosexual. The findings were discussed in terms of gender-based judgments of gay men.
Most organisms reproduce sexually, but the evolution of sexual reproduction is not yet well understood. Sexual reproduction leads to new variation and adaptations to the environment, but sex is also costly. Some insects reproduce without sex through parthenogenesis or paedogenesis. Almost all sexual insects have two separate sexes, male and female. There are many mechanisms of sex determination. Most insects have male heterogamety (males XY, females XX). Female heterogamety and haplodiploidy ...
van der Elst, Elisabeth M; Okuku, Haile Selassie; Nakamya, Phellister; Muhaari, Allan; Davies, Alun; McClelland, R Scott; Price, Matthew A; Smith, Adrian D; Graham, Susan M; Sanders, Eduard J
Audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI) may elicit more frequent reporting of socially sensitive behaviours than face-to-face (FtF)-interview. However, no study compared responses to both methods in female and male sex workers (FSW; MSW) in Africa. We sequentially enrolled adults recruited for an HIV-1 intervention trial into a comparative study of ACASI and FtF-interview, in a clinic near Mombasa, Kenya. Feasibility and acceptability of ACASI, and a comparative analysis of enrolment responses between ACASI and FtF on an identical risk assessment questionnaire were evaluated. In total, 139 women and 259 men, 81% of eligible cohort participants, completed both interviews. ACASI captured a higher median number of regular (2 vs. 1, pgenders) and casual partners in the last week (3 vs. 2, p = 0.04 in women; 2 vs. 1, preading skills. About 1 in 5 cohort participants was not able to complete ACASI, mostly for lack of reading skills. Participants who completed ACASI were more likely to report IDU, rape, group sex, and payment for sex by women than when asked in FtF interview. ACASI appears to be a useful tool for high risk behaviour assessments in the African context.
Chevret, E; Rousseaux, S; Monteil, M; Usson, Y; Cozzi, J; Pelletier, R; Sele, B
Meiotic segregation of sex chromosomes from two fertile 47,XYY men was analysed by a three-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation procedure. This method allows the identification of hyperhaploidies (spermatozoa with 24 chromosomes) and diploidies (spermatozoa with 46 chromosomes), and their meiotic origin (meiosis I or II). Alpha-satellite probes specific for chromosomes X, Y and 1 were observed simultaneously in 35,142 sperm nuclei. For both 47,XYY men (24,315 sperm nuclei analysed from one male and 10,827 from the other one) the sex ratio differs from the expected 1:1 ratio (P XYY men compared with control sperm (142,050 sperm nuclei analysed from five control men), whereas the rates of hyperhaploidy XY, disomy X and disomy 1 were not significantly different from those of control sperm. These results support the hypothesis that the extra Y chromosome is lost before meiosis with a proliferative advantage of the resulting 46,XY germ cells. Our observations also suggest that a few primary spermatocytes with two Y chromosomes are able to progress through meiosis and to produce Y-bearing sperm cells. A theoretical pairing of the three gonosomes in primary spermatocytes with an extra sex chromosome, compatible with active spermatogenesis, is proposed.
Mohandas, T.K.; Passage, M.B.; Yen, P.H.; Speed, R.M.; Chandley, A.C.; Shapiro, L.J. (Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States))
Meiotic studies were undertaken in a 24-year-old male patient with short stature, chondrodysplasia punctata, ichthyosis, steroid sulfatase deficiency, and mild mental retardation with an inherited cytologically visible deletion of distal Xp. Molecular investigations showed that the pseudoautosomal region as well as the steroid sulfatase gene were deleted, but telomeric sequences were present at the pter on the deleted X chromosome. A complete failure of sex-chromosome pairing was observed in the primary spermatocytes of the patient. Telomeric approaches between the sex chromosomes were made at zygotene in some cells, but XY synaptonemal complex was formed. The sex chromosomes were present as univalents at metaphase I, and germ-cell development was arrested between metaphase I and metaphase II in the vast majority of cells, consistent with the azoospermia observed in the patient. The failure of XY pairing in this individual indicates that the pseudoautosomal sequences play an important role in initiating XY pairing and formation of synaptonemal complex at meiosis. 36 refs., 6 figs.
this investigation on five minority men male population sex survey in guizhou as respond- ents, by stratified cluster sampling method, Including 585 married men and 271 unmarried youth male （15 --23） ： Concluded students relatively conservative sexual concept in minority regions; Teenage sex and reproductive health education is still lack; Married people sexual and reproductive health level should be further enhanced.%文章以贵州五个少数民族男性为对象，进行男性人口性行为现状进行研究。通过分层整群抽样法抽取苗族、侗族、布依族、仡佬族和水族男性人口，认为少数民族地区学生性观念相对保守；青少年性与生殖健康教育仍然是空白；而已婚人群性与生殖健康水平也有待提高。
Caanen, Mirte R.; Soleman, Remi S.; Kuijper, Esther A. M.; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C.; De Roo, Chloe; Tilleman, Kelly; De Sutter, Petra; van Trotsenburg, Mick A. A.; Broekmans, Frank J.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.
Objective: To investigate the effect of hormonal androgenic treatment on antimullerian hormone (AMH) serum levels in female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with elevated AMH levels. Some hypothesize that the high AMH level is a consequence of androgen-induc
Kimura, Ken-ichi; Sato, Chiaki; Yamamoto, Kana; Yamamoto, Daisuke
During courtship, Drosophila melanogaster males usually position themselves behind the target female. To decipher the sensory cues that guide the males to the courting position, we quantitatively analyzed male locomotion traces within a circular observation chamber, at the center of which an immobilized virgin female was placed as a courtship target. Wild-type males preferentially stayed behind the female under not only daylight but also dark conditions, indicating that vision is dispensable for orientation by males. By contrast, olfaction-defective Or83b2 homozygous males often positioned themselves in front of a female to court under dark but not daylight conditions. We conclude that vision and olfaction redundantly guide the male fly to move behind the female to perform courtship actions. The visual and olfactory features that provide a male with cues for differentiating between the front and back end of a female are yet to be determined.
Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...
Jung, Yoon Suk; Yun, Kyung Eun; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Park, Dong Il
Recently, many studies have reported that male sex, smoking, fatty liver, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and obesity are risk factors for colorectal neoplasia (CRN). However, current guidelines recommend that persons at average risk of colorectal cancer begin screening colonoscopy at age 50 years without consideration of those risk factors. To investigate an appropriate time to start screening colonoscopies in persons with risk factors for CRN. We performed a cross-sectional study on 27,894 Korean aged ≥30 years who underwent a first colonoscopy as part of a health screening program. To compare the efficacy of colonoscopic screening for the detection of advanced CRN among age groups with risk factors, we calculated the number needed to screen (NNS) to identify 1 patient with advanced CRN. The NNS for those 30-39 years old with all risk factors, male gender, smoking (≥10 pack-years), MetS, obesity, and fatty liver, was higher than that for ≥50-year-old female subjects (55.4 vs. 26.4). The NNS for those 40-44 years old with all risk factors (37.1) was also higher than that for ≥50-year-old female subjects. However, the NNS for those 45-49 years old with risk factors (16.9-22.9) was lower than that for ≥50-year-old women. The efficacy of colonoscopic screening in people 30-44 years old with multiple risk factors is lower than that in ≥50-year-old women. Risk factors such as male sex, smoking, MetS, obesity, and fatty liver do not justify starting screening colonoscopies before age 45.
Yamada, Hanano; Jandric, Zora; Chhem-Kieth, Sorivan; Vreysen, Marc J B; Rathor, Mohammad N; Gilles, Jeremie R L; Cannavan, Andrew
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a biological control tactic that is used as a component of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs. The SIT can only be applied against disease-transmitting mosquitoes when only sterile male mosquitoes are released, and the blood-sucking and potentially disease-transmitting females are eliminated from the production line. For Anopheles arabiensis, a potent vector of malaria, a genetic sexing strain was developed whereby females can be eliminated by treating the eggs or larvae with the insecticide dieldrin. To evaluate the presence of dieldrin residues in male mosquitoes designated for SIT releases, a simple, sensitive, and accurate gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) method was developed. In addition, bioaccumulation and food chain transfer of these residues to fish after feeding with treated mosquitoes was demonstrated. The overall recovery from method validation studies was 77.3 ± 2.2% (mean ± relative standard deviation [RSD]) for the mosquitoes, and 99.1 ± 4.4% (mean ± RSD) for the fish. The average dieldrin concentration found in adult male An. arabiensis was 28.1 ± 2.9 µg/kg (mean ± standard deviation [SD]). A range of 23.9 ± 1.1 µg/kg to 73.9 ± 5.2 µg/kg (mean ± SD) of dieldrin was found in the fish samples. These findings indicate the need to reassess the environmental and health implications of control operations with a SIT component against An. arabiensis that involves using persistent organochlorines in the sexing process. © 2013 SETAC.