WorldWideScience

Sample records for matters facing young

  1. Quark Matter 2017: Young Scientist Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evdokimov, Olga [University of Illinois at Chicago

    2017-07-31

    Quark Matter conference series are amongst the major scientific events for the Relativistic Heavy Ion community. With over 30 year long history, the meetings are held about every 1½ years to showcase the progress made in theoretical and experimental studies of nuclear matter under extreme conditions. The 26th International Conference on Ultra-relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (Quark Matter 2017) was held at the Hyatt Regency Hotel in downtown Chicago from Sunday, February 5th through Saturday, February 11th, 2017. The conference featured about 180 plenary and parallel presentations of the most significant recent results in the field, a poster session for additional presentations, and an evening public lecture. Following the tradition of previous Quark Matter meetings, the first day of the conference was dedicated entirely to a special program for young scientists (graduate students and postdoctoral researchers). This grant will provided financial support for 235 young physicists facilitating their attendance of the conference.

  2. Young generation network: facing the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, R.

    1997-01-01

    The future of the nuclear industry lies with the young generation. That's why in 1995, ENS supported the creation of the Young Generation Network (YGN). The YGN aims to fulfill the needs and interests of young people working in the nuclear business by organizing special programs with interesting opportunities and activities. (author)

  3. Original Research Challenges facing young African scientists in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at identifying the challenges that young African scientists face in their career development. Methods ... The research profile of Africans is relatively new, and the .... outside the country because it will support my original ideas.”.

  4. Challenges facing young African scientists in their research careers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Africa accounts for 14% of world's population, and the economies of most African countries are considered to be growing, but this is not reflected in the amount of research published by Africans. This study aimed at identifying the challenges that young African scientists face in their career development.

  5. Face age modulates gaze following in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciardo, Francesca; Marino, Barbara F M; Actis-Grosso, Rossana; Rossetti, Angela; Ricciardelli, Paola

    2014-04-22

    Gaze-following behaviour is considered crucial for social interactions which are influenced by social similarity. We investigated whether the degree of similarity, as indicated by the perceived age of another person, can modulate gaze following. Participants of three different age-groups (18-25; 35-45; over 65) performed an eye movement (a saccade) towards an instructed target while ignoring the gaze-shift of distracters of different age-ranges (6-10; 18-25; 35-45; over 70). The results show that gaze following was modulated by the distracter face age only for young adults. Particularly, the over 70 year-old distracters exerted the least interference effect. The distracters of a similar age-range as the young adults (18-25; 35-45) had the most effect, indicating a blurred own-age bias (OAB) only for the young age group. These findings suggest that face age can modulate gaze following, but this modulation could be due to factors other than just OAB (e.g., familiarity).

  6. Age-Group Differences in Interference from Young and Older Emotional Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Natalie C; Johnson, Marcia K

    2010-11-01

    Human attention is selective, focusing on some aspects of events at the expense of others. In particular, angry faces engage attention. Most studies have used pictures of young faces, even when comparing young and older age groups. Two experiments asked (1) whether task-irrelevant faces of young and older individuals with happy, angry, and neutral expressions disrupt performance on a face-unrelated task, (2) whether interference varies for faces of different ages and different facial expressions, and (3) whether young and older adults differ in this regard. Participants gave speeded responses on a number task while irrelevant faces appeared in the background. Both age groups were more distracted by own than other-age faces. In addition, young participants' responses were slower for angry than happy faces, whereas older participants' responses were slower for happy than angry faces. Factors underlying age-group differences in interference from emotional faces of different ages are discussed.

  7. Reverse correlating trustworthy faces in young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eÉthier-Majcher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how older persons determine if someone deserves their trust or not based on their facial appearance, a process referred to as facial trustworthiness. In the past few years, Todorov and colleagues have argued that, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are an extension of emotional judgments, and therefore, that trust judgments are made based on a continuum between anger and happiness (Engell, Todorov & Haxby, 2010; Todorov, 2008. Evidence from the literature on emotion processing suggest that older adults tend to be less efficient than younger adults in the recognition of negative facial expressions (Chaby & Narme, 2009; Ruffman, Henry, Livingstone et al., 2008; Firestone, Turk-Browne & Ryan, 2007; Calder, Keane, Manly et al., 2003. Based on Todorov’s theory and the fact that older adults seem to be less efficient than younger adults in identifying emotional expressions, one could expect that older individuals would have different representations of trustworthy faces and that they would use different cues than younger adults in order to make such judgments. We verified this hypothesis using a variation of Mangini and Biederman's (2004 reverse correlation method in order to test and compare classification images resulting from trustworthiness (in the context of money investment, from happiness, and from anger judgments in two groups of participants: young adults and older healthy adults. Our results show that for elderly participants, both happy and angry representations are correlated with trustworthiness judgments. However, in young adults, trustworthiness judgments are mainly correlated with happiness representations. These results suggest that young and older adults differ in their way of judging trustworthiness.

  8. Young victims of violence, tattooed faces and erasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cerbino

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to rethink the diverse modalities of gang violence, and proposes a set of causes that explain them. It explores the spiral of violence, and the opposition between victims and perpetrators. Specifically, the paper looks at the case of the Central American maras and offers an interpretation of the act of tattooing the face, as a practice that shows paradoxically how young people suffer violence in exercising of violence. Furthermore, we analyze the practice of erasing tattoos from the skin as sign of a much more intense institutional violence. The interpretation of these practices emphasizes some of the aspects related to the meanings of positions of subjectivation.

  9. Understanding how adolescents and young adults with cancer talk about needs in online and face-to-face support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Charee M; Crook, Brittani; Love, Brad; Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Johnson, Rebecca

    2015-04-27

    We compared adolescent and young adult cancer patient and survivor language between mediated and face-to-face support communities in order to understand how the use of certain words frame conversations about family, friends, health, work, achievement, and leisure. We analyzed transcripts from an online discussion board (N = 360) and face-to-face support group (N = 569) for adolescent and young adults using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count, a word-based computerized text analysis software that counts the frequency of words and word stems. There were significant differences between the online and face-to-face support groups in terms of content (e.g. friends, health) and style words (e.g. verb tense, negative emotion, and cognitive process). © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Simplified models for dark matter face their consistent completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonçalves, Dorival; Machado, Pedro A. N.; No, Jose Miguel

    2017-03-01

    Simplified dark matter models have been recently advocated as a powerful tool to exploit the complementarity between dark matter direct detection, indirect detection and LHC experimental probes. Focusing on pseudoscalar mediators between the dark and visible sectors, we show that the simplified dark matter model phenomenology departs significantly from that of consistent ${SU(2)_{\\mathrm{L}} \\times U(1)_{\\mathrm{Y}}}$ gauge invariant completions. We discuss the key physics simplified models fail to capture, and its impact on LHC searches. Notably, we show that resonant mono-Z searches provide competitive sensitivities to standard mono-jet analyses at $13$ TeV LHC.

  11. Challenges faced by young persons living with HIV: The case of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges faced by young persons living with HIV: The case of children on the ... Journal of Social Development in Africa ... to 34 randomly selected children who were beneficiaries of an initiative called the Community Outreach Programme.

  12. Intact perception but abnormal orientation towards face-like objects in young children with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillon, Quentin; Rogé, Bernadette; Afzali, Mohammad H; Baduel, Sophie; Kruck, Jeanne; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2016-02-25

    There is ample behavioral evidence of diminished orientation towards faces as well as the presence of face perception impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but the underlying mechanisms of these deficits are still unclear. We used face-like object stimuli that have been shown to evoke pareidolia in typically developing (TD) individuals to test the effect of a global face-like configuration on orientation and perceptual processes in young children with ASD and age-matched TD controls. We show that TD children were more likely to look first towards upright face-like objects than children with ASD, showing that a global face-like configuration elicit a stronger orientation bias in TD children as compared to children with ASD. However, once they were looking at the stimuli, both groups spent more time exploring the upright face-like object, suggesting that they both perceived it as a face. Our results are in agreement with abnormal social orienting in ASD, possibly due to an abnormal tuning of the subcortical pathway, leading to poor orienting and attention towards faces. Our results also indicate that young children with ASD can perceive a generic face holistically, such as face-like objects, further demonstrating holistic processing of faces in ASD.

  13. Brief Report: Face-Specific Recognition Deficits in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jessica; Shic, Frederick; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    This study used eyetracking to investigate the ability of young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to recognize social (faces) and nonsocial (simple objects and complex block patterns) stimuli using the visual paired comparison (VPC) paradigm. Typically developing (TD) children showed evidence for recognition of faces and simple…

  14. Early adversity and brain response to faces in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieslehto, Johannes; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Mäki, Pirjo; Koivukangas, Jenni; Nordström, Tanja; Miettunen, Jouko; Barnett, Jennifer H; Jones, Peter B; Murray, Graham K; Moilanen, Irma; Paus, Tomáš; Veijola, Juha

    2017-09-01

    Early stressors play a key role in shaping interindividual differences in vulnerability to various psychopathologies, which according to the diathesis-stress model might relate to the elevated glucocorticoid secretion and impaired responsiveness to stress. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that individuals exposed to early adversity have deficits in emotion processing from faces. This study aims to explore whether early adversities associate with brain response to faces and whether this association might associate with the regional variations in mRNA expression of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1). A total of 104 individuals drawn from the Northern Finland Brith Cohort 1986 participated in a face-task functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. A large independent dataset (IMAGEN, N = 1739) was utilized for reducing fMRI data-analytical space in the NFBC 1986 dataset. Early adversities were associated with deviant brain response to fearful faces (MANCOVA, P = 0.006) and with weaker performance in fearful facial expression recognition (P = 0.01). Glucocorticoid receptor gene expression (data from the Allen Human Brain Atlas) correlated with the degree of associations between early adversities and brain response to fearful faces (R 2  = 0.25, P = 0.01) across different brain regions. Our results suggest that early adversities contribute to brain response to faces and that this association is mediated in part by the glucocorticoid system. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4470-4478, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. An emotional Stroop task with faces and words. A comparison of young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustí, Ana I; Satorres, Encarnación; Pitarque, Alfonso; Meléndez, Juan C

    2017-08-01

    Given the contradictions of previous studies on the changes in attentional responses produced in aging a Stroop emotional task was proposed to compare young and older adults to words or faces with an emotional valence. The words happy or sad were superimposed on faces that express the emotion of happiness or sadness. The emotion expressed by the word and the face could agree or not (cued and uncued trials, respectively). 85 young and 66 healthy older adults had to identify both faces and words separately, and the interference between the two types of stimuli was examined. An interference effect was observed for both types of stimuli in both groups. There was more interference on positive faces and words than on negative stimuli. Older adults had more difficulty than younger in focusing on positive uncued trials, whereas there was no difference across samples on negative uncued trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder Show Early Atypical Neural Activity during Emotional Face Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. Leung

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition is impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The ability to perceive and interpret affect is integral to successful social functioning and has an extended developmental course. However, the neural mechanisms underlying emotional face processing in ASD are unclear. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG, the present study explored neural activation during implicit emotional face processing in young adults with and without ASD. Twenty-six young adults with ASD and 26 healthy controls were recruited. Participants indicated the location of a scrambled pattern (target that was presented alongside a happy or angry face. Emotion-related activation sources for each emotion were estimated using the Empirical Bayes Beamformer (pcorr ≤ 0.001 in Statistical Parametric Mapping 12 (SPM12. Emotional faces elicited elevated fusiform, amygdala and anterior insula and reduced anterior cingulate cortex (ACC activity in adults with ASD relative to controls. Within group comparisons revealed that angry vs. happy faces elicited distinct neural activity in typically developing adults; there was no distinction in young adults with ASD. Our data suggest difficulties in affect processing in ASD reflect atypical recruitment of traditional emotional processing areas. These early differences may contribute to difficulties in deriving social reward from faces, ascribing salience to faces, and an immature threat processing system, which collectively could result in deficits in emotional face processing.

  17. Holistic face perception in young and older adults: effects of feedback and attentional demand

    OpenAIRE

    Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana; Persike, Malte; Meinhardt, Günter

    2014-01-01

    Evidence exists for age-related decline in face cognition ability. However, the extents to which attentional demand and flexibility to adapt viewing strategies contribute to age-related decline in face cognition tests is poorly understood. Here, we studied holistic face perception in older (age range 65–78 years, mean age 69.9) and young adults (age range 20–32 years, mean age 23.1) using the complete design for a sequential study-test composite face task (Richler et al., 2008b). Attentional ...

  18. The Obstacles Facing Young Saudi Men and Women Getting jobs in Small Businesses Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayef Saleh Al-Ghamri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Small businesses are considered the backbone of the national economy due to their role in creating job opportunities for young men and women who seek private sector employment. However, a series of obstacles face young Saudi male and female citizens in getting jobs in small businesses sector. The present research focuses on studies which discuss the definitions of small businesses and how they are related to the creation of employment opportunities for young men and women, their effect on improving young adults’ economic and social levels by boosting their morale and kindling their entrepreneurial spirit. The research also sets out the proposed mechanisms for the removal of obstacles faced by young small business would-be entrepreneurs. Furthermore, it endeavors to develop solutions, based on hypotheses and primary assumptions, which may contribute to a better understanding of the employment issue of Saudi young men and women. Solutions are set within a comprehensive strategy framework based on the integration and encouragement of young people to initiate small businesses, raise their standard of living, reduce the unemployment phenomenon and its consequences and repercussions which can result in domestic discord and moral degeneration– which may sometimes lead to misanthropy and suicide, as is the case in some societies such as Japan.

  19. Face recognition ability matures late: evidence from individual differences in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Tirta; Germine, Laura; Duchaine, Bradley

    2013-10-01

    Does face recognition ability mature early in childhood (early maturation hypothesis) or does it continue to develop well into adulthood (late maturation hypothesis)? This fundamental issue in face recognition is typically addressed by comparing child and adult participants. However, the interpretation of such studies is complicated by children's inferior test-taking abilities and general cognitive functions. Here we examined the developmental trajectory of face recognition ability in an individual differences study of 18-33 year-olds (n = 2,032), an age interval in which participants are competent test takers with comparable general cognitive functions. We found a positive association between age and face recognition, controlling for nonface visual recognition, verbal memory, sex, and own-race bias. Our study supports the late maturation hypothesis in face recognition, and illustrates how individual differences investigations of young adults can address theoretical issues concerning the development of perceptual and cognitive abilities. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Detecting superior face recognition skills in a large sample of young British adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Katarzyna Bobak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Cambridge Face Memory Test Long Form (CFMT+ and Cambridge Face Perception Test (CFPT are typically used to assess the face processing ability of individuals who believe they have superior face recognition skills. Previous large-scale studies have presented norms for the CFPT but not the CFMT+. However, previous research has also highlighted the necessity for establishing country-specific norms for these tests, indicating that norming data is required for both tests using young British adults. The current study addressed this issue in 254 British participants. In addition to providing the first norm for performance on the CFMT+ in any large sample, we also report the first UK specific cut-off for superior face recognition on the CFPT. Further analyses identified a small advantage for females on both tests, and only small associations between objective face recognition skills and self-report measures. A secondary aim of the study was to examine the relationship between trait or social anxiety and face processing ability, and no associations were noted. The implications of these findings for the classification of super-recognisers are discussed.

  1. Holistic face perception in young and older adults: Effects of feedback and attentional demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozana eMeinhardt-Injac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence exists for age-related decline in face cognition ability. However, the extents to which attentional demand and flexibility to adapt viewing strategies contribute to age-related decline in face cognition tests is poorly understood. Here, we studied holistic face perception in older (age range 65-78 years, mean age 69.9 and young adults (age range 20-32 years, mean age 23.1 using the complete design for a sequential study-test composite face task (Richler et al., 2008. Attentional demand was varied using trials that required participants to attend to both face halves and to redirect attention to one face half during the test (high attentional demand, and trials that allowed participants to keep a pre-adjusted focus (low attentional demand. We also varied viewing time and provided trial-by-trial feedback or no feedback. We observed strongcomposite effects, which were larger for the elderly in all conditions, independent of viewing time. Composite effects were smaller for low attentional demand, and larger for high attentional demand. No age-related differences were found in this respect. Feedback also reduced the composite effects in both age groups. Young adults could benefit from feedback in conditions with low and high attentional demands. Older adults performed better with feedback only in trials with low attentional demand. When attentional demand was high, older adults could no longer use the feedback signal, and performed worse with feedback than without. These findings suggest that older adults tend to use a global focus for faces, albeit piecemeal analysis is required for the task, and have difficulties adapting their viewing strategies when task demands are high.These results are consistent with the idea that elderly rely more on holistic strategies as a means to reduce perceptual and cognitive load when processing resources are limited (Konar et al., 2013.

  2. Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler; Brotherton, Chloe

    2018-01-01

    for the face the be put into action. Based on an ethnographic study of Danish teenagers’ use of SnapChat we demonstrate how the face is used as a central medium for interaction with peers. Through the analysis of visual SnapChat messages we investigate how SnapChat requires the sender to put an ‘ugly’ face...... already secured their popular status on the heterosexual marketplace in the broad context of the school. Thus SnapChat functions both as a challenge to beauty norms of ‘flawless faces’ and as a reinscription of these same norms by further manifesting the exclusive status of the popular girl...

  3. Methodology of Young Minds Matter: The second Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafekost, Jennifer; Lawrence, David; Boterhoven de Haan, Katrina; Johnson, Sarah E; Saw, Suzy; Buckingham, William J; Sawyer, Michael G; Ainley, John; Zubrick, Stephen R

    2016-09-01

    To describe the study design of Young Minds Matter: The second Australian Child and Adolescent Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. The aims of the study, sample design, development of survey content, field procedures and final questionnaires are detailed. During 2013-2014, a national household survey of the mental health and wellbeing of young people was conducted involving a sample of 6310 families selected at random from across Australia. The survey included a face-to-face diagnostic interview with parents/carers of 4- to 17-year-olds and a self-report questionnaire completed by young people aged 11-17 years. The overall response rate to the survey was 55% with 6310 parents/carers of eligible households participating in the survey. In addition, 2967 or 89% of young people aged 11-17 years in these participating households completed a questionnaire. The survey sample was found to be broadly representative of the Australian population on major demographic characteristics when compared with data from the Census of Population and Housing. However, adjustments were made for an over-representation of younger children aged 4 to 7 years and also families with more than one eligible child in the household. Young Minds Matter provides updated national prevalence estimates of common child and adolescent mental disorders, describes patterns of service use and will help to guide future decisions in the development of policy and provision of mental health services for children and adolescents. Advancements in interviewing methodology, addition of a data linkage component and informed content development contributed to improved breadth and quality of the data collected. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  4. Recommendations on Arresting Global Health Challenges Facing Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassi, Zohra S; Salam, Rehana A; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    The health challenges faced by young people are more complex than adults and can compromise their full growth and development. Attention must be paid to the health of this age group, yet adolescents and youth remain largely invisible and often disappear from the major global datasets. The aim of this paper is to discuss the global health challenges faced by adolescents and youth, global legislations and guidelines pertaining to this particular age group, recommendations to arrest these challenges, and research priorities. Major direct and indirect global health risks faced by adolescents include early pregnancy and childbirth, femicide, honor killing, female genital mutilation, nutritional habits and choices, social media, and peer pressure. There are no standard legal age cut-offs for adulthood; rather, the age varies for different activities, such as age of consent or the minimum age that young people can legally work, leave school, drive, buy alcohol, marry, be held accountable for criminal action, and make medical decisions. This reflects the fact that the existing systems and structures are focused on either children or adults, with very few investments and interventions directed specifically to young people. Existing legislation and guidelines need transformation to bring about a specific focus on adolescents in the domains of substance use and sexual behaviors, and the capacity for adolescent learning should be exploited through graduated legal and policy frameworks. Sustainable development goals provide an opportunity to target this neglected and vulnerable age group. A multisectoral approach is needed to bring about healthy change and address the challenges faced by adolescents and youth, from modifications at a broader legislative and policy level to ground-level (community-level) implementations. Copyright © 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Marriage Matters But How Much? Marital Centrality Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Brian J; Hall, Scott S; Goff, Saige

    2015-01-01

    Marriage, once a gateway to adulthood, is no longer as widely considered a requirement for achieving adult status. With declining marriage rates and delayed marital transitions, some have wondered whether current young adults have rejected the traditional notion of marriage. Utilizing a sample of 571 young adults, the present study explored how marital centrality (the expected importance to be placed on the marital role relative to other adult roles) functioned as a unique and previously unexplored marital belief among young adults. Results suggested that marriage remains an important role for many young adults. On average, young adults expected that marriage would be more important to their life than parenting, careers, or leisure activities. Marital centrality profiles were found to significantly differ based on both gender and religiosity. Marital centrality was also associated with various outcomes including binge-drinking and sexual activity. Specifically, the more central marriage was expected to be, the less young adults engaged in risk-taking or sexual behaviors.

  6. An appreciation of Bruce and Young's (1986) serial stage model of face naming after 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J Richard

    2011-11-01

    The current status of Bruce and Young's (1986) serial model of face naming is discussed 25 years after its original publication. In the first part of the paper, evidence for and against the serial model is reviewed. It is argued that there is no compelling reason why we should abandon Bruce and Young's claim that recall of a name is contingent upon prior retrieval of semantic information about the person. The current status of the claim that people's names are more difficult to recall than the names of objects is then evaluated. Finally, an account of the anatomical location in the brain of Bruce and Young's three processing stages (face familiarity, retrieval of semantic information, retrieval of names) is suggested. In particular, there is evidence that biographical knowledge about familiar people is stored in the right anterior temporal lobes (ATL) and that the left temporal pole (TP) is heavily involved in retrieval of the names of familiar people. The issue of whether these brain areas play a similar role in object processing is also discussed. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  7. The impact of beliefs about face recognition ability on memory retrieval processes in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Joyce E; Flowe, Heather D; Hall, Louise C; Williams, Louise C; Ryder, Hannah L

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether beliefs about face recognition ability differentially influence memory retrieval in older compared to young adults. Participants evaluated their ability to recognise faces and were also given information about their ability to perceive and recognise faces. The information was ostensibly based on an objective measure of their ability, but in actuality, participants had been randomly assigned the information they received (high ability, low ability or no information control). Following this information, face recognition accuracy for a set of previously studied faces was measured using a remember-know memory paradigm. Older adults rated their ability to recognise faces as poorer compared to young adults. Additionally, negative information about face recognition ability improved only older adults' ability to recognise a previously seen face. Older adults were also found to engage in more familiarity than item-specific processing than young adults, but information about their face recognition ability did not affect face processing style. The role that older adults' memory beliefs have in the meta-cognitive strategies they employ is discussed.

  8. Resilience in the Face of Cyberbullying: An Ecological Perspective on Young People's Experiences of Online Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatraianou, Lisa H.; Levine, Diane; West, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents experience a variety of biological, psychological and social changes. While some adolescents face significant risk, the majority of young people are able to successfully navigate their way through to maintaining resilience, that is, the ability to cope and overcome adversity despite facing challenges. However, exposure to acts of…

  9. Age-Related Differences in Face Recognition: Neural Correlates of Repetition and Semantic Priming in Young and Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Holger; Komes, Jessica; Tüttenberg, Simone; Leidinger, Jana; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in person recognition are among the common complaints associated with cognitive ageing. The present series of experiments therefore investigated face and person recognition in young and older adults. The authors examined how within-domain and cross-domain repetition as well as semantic priming affect familiar face recognition and…

  10. Young children's tool innovation across culture: Affordance visibility matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neldner, Karri; Mushin, Ilana; Nielsen, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Young children typically demonstrate low rates of tool innovation. However, previous studies have limited children's performance by presenting tools with opaque affordances. In an attempt to scaffold children's understanding of what constitutes an appropriate tool within an innovation task we compared tools in which the focal affordance was visible to those in which it was opaque. To evaluate possible cultural specificity, data collection was undertaken in a Western urban population and a remote Indigenous community. As expected affordance visibility altered innovation rates: young children were more likely to innovate on a tool that had visible affordances than one with concealed affordances. Furthermore, innovation rates were higher than those reported in previous innovation studies. Cultural background did not affect children's rates of tool innovation. It is suggested that new methods for testing tool innovation in children must be developed in order to broaden our knowledge of young children's tool innovation capabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Face-to-face sharing with strangers and altruistic punishment of acquaintances for strangers: Young adolescents exhibit greater altruism than adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Young adolescents are generally considered to be self-absorbed. Studies indicate that they lack relevant general cognitive abilities, such as impulse control, that mature in early adulthood. However, their idealism may cause them to be more intolerant of unfair treatment to others and thus result in their engaging in more altruistic behavior. The present study aimed to clarify whether young adolescents are more altruistic than adults and thus indicate whether altruistic competence is domain-specific. One hundred twenty-two young adolescents and adults participated in a face-to-face, two-round, third-party punishment experiment. In each interaction group, a participant served as an allocator who could share money units with a stranger; another participant who knew the allocator could punish the acquaintance for the stranger. Participants reported their emotions after the first round, and at the end of the experiment, the participants justified their behavior in each round. The results indicated that the young adolescents both shared more and punished more than did the adults. Sharing was associated with a reference to fairness in the justifications, but altruistic punishment was associated with subsequent positive emotion. In sum, greater altruism in young adolescents compared to adults with mature cognitive abilities provides evidence of domain-specificity of altruistic competence. Moreover, sharing and altruistic punishment is related to specific cognitive and emotional mechanisms respectively.

  12. Face-to-Face Sharing with Strangers and Altruistic Punishment of Acquaintances for Strangers: Young Adolescents Exhibit Greater Altruism than Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jian; Yang, Yue; Wang, Zhiwen

    2016-01-01

    Young adolescents are generally considered to be self-absorbed. Studies indicate that they lack relevant general cognitive abilities, such as impulse control, that mature in early adulthood. However, their idealism may cause them to be more intolerant of unfair treatment to others and thus result in their engaging in more altruistic behavior. The present study aimed to clarify whether young adolescents are more altruistic than adults and thus indicate whether altruistic competence is domain-specific. One hundred 22 young adolescents and adults participated in a face-to-face, two-round, third-party punishment experiment. In each interaction group, a participant served as an allocator who could share money units with a stranger; another participant who knew the allocator could punish the acquaintance for the stranger. Participants reported their emotions after the first round, and at the end of the experiment, the participants justified their behavior in each round. The results indicated that the young adolescents both shared more and punished more than did the adults. Sharing was associated with a reference to fairness in the justifications, but altruistic punishment was associated with subsequent positive emotion. In sum, greater altruism in young adolescents compared to adults with mature cognitive abilities provides evidence of domain-specificity of altruistic competence. Moreover, sharing and altruistic punishment are related to specific cognitive and emotional mechanisms, respectively. PMID:27752246

  13. 77 FR 4389 - In the Matter of Tornado Gold International Corp., Twin Faces East Entertainment Corp., Universal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [File No. 500-1] In the Matter of Tornado Gold International Corp., Twin Faces East Entertainment Corp., Universal Ice Blast, Inc., US Farms, Inc., US Microbics... concerning the securities of Tornado Gold International Corp. because it has not filed any periodic reports...

  14. Challenges faced in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levine SR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Selena R Levine,1 Jennifer L McNeer,2 Michael S Isakoff1 1Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Connecticut Children’s Medical Center and University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Hartford, CT, 2Section of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago Comer Children's Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: The survival rate for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL has dramatically improved over the last 50 years. However, for those in the adolescent and young adult (AYA age-group of 15–30 years with ALL, there has not been the same degree of improvement. Historically, pediatric and adult providers have utilized different treatment approaches based on clinical trials. However, studies that have compared the outcome of AYA patients with ALL treated on pediatric or adult clinical trials have generally shown substantially better outcomes for this patient population treated with the pediatric trials. Additionally, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been considered as part of intensified therapy for AYA patients with ALL. Herein, we review the outcomes with chemotherapy alone and with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and explore the challenges faced in determining the ideal therapy for the AYA population of patients. Keywords: adolescent young adult oncology, leukemia, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

  15. PARTICULATE MATTER EXPOSURE IN CARS IS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS IN HEALTHY YOUNG MEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to fine airborne particulate matter (PM(2.5)) is associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in older and cardiac patients. Potential physiologic effects of in-vehicle, roadside, and ambient PM(2.5) were investigated in young, healthy, nonsmoking, male North Caro...

  16. Alcohol and the young: how does the press face the problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Concina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: alcohol is an important component of the Mediterranean diet and its moderate use is protective against cardiovascular risk. Binge drinking, i.e. the heavy consumption of alcohol over a short period of time, is the main consumption pattern of young people in Western countries and may lead to severe toxic effects in many organs. Mass media often address the issue by suggesting prevention measures; however, they may also have the unintended effect of encouraging alcohol misuse. This study aims to assess how the Italian press faces excessive alcohol consumption in young people, comparing the messages given by the press with scientific recommendations.Methods: articles published by the 6 best-selling Italian newspapers and the 4 best-selling Italian magazines were collected from October 15th to November 14th 2009. Medline database, governmental and non-governmental sources were searched for scientific recommendations regarding primary prevention of alcohol misuse. Press articles were described and analysed by filling out a predefined form.Results: fourteen newspaper articles regarding alcohol were found, 79% belonging to the news section. Six quotations of scientific recommendations were found: two about drink-driving, two about raising public awareness, one about Monitoring and Evaluation, and one about community and workplace action.Conclusions: scientific recommendations were often inadequately reported by the Italian press. The most covered recommendations, designed driver and public educational intervention, are also the least effective according to international literature. Therefore, a further effort is needed to tackle this issue in a more scientifically sound way.

  17. Abnormal brain white matter network in young smokers: a graph theory analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yajuan; Li, Min; Wang, Ruonan; Bi, Yanzhi; Li, Yangding; Yi, Zhang; Liu, Jixin; Yu, Dahua; Yuan, Kai

    2018-04-01

    Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies had investigated the white matter (WM) integrity abnormalities in some specific fiber bundles in smokers. However, little is known about the changes in topological organization of WM structural network in young smokers. In current study, we acquired DTI datasets from 58 male young smokers and 51 matched nonsmokers and constructed the WM networks by the deterministic fiber tracking approach. Graph theoretical analysis was used to compare the topological parameters of WM network (global and nodal) and the inter-regional fractional anisotropy (FA) weighted WM connections between groups. The results demonstrated that both young smokers and nonsmokers had small-world topology in WM network. Further analysis revealed that the young smokers exhibited the abnormal topological organization, i.e., increased network strength, global efficiency, and decreased shortest path length. In addition, the increased nodal efficiency predominately was located in frontal cortex, striatum and anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) in smokers. Moreover, based on network-based statistic (NBS) approach, the significant increased FA-weighted WM connections were mainly found in the PFC, ACG and supplementary motor area (SMA) regions. Meanwhile, the network parameters were correlated with the nicotine dependence severity (FTND) scores, and the nodal efficiency of orbitofrontal cortex was positive correlation with the cigarette per day (CPD) in young smokers. We revealed the abnormal topological organization of WM network in young smokers, which may improve our understanding of the neural mechanism of young smokers form WM topological organization level.

  18. Cross-modal enhancement of speech detection in young and older adults: does signal content matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Spehar, Brent; Myerson, Joel; Sommers, Mitchell S; Hale, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of age and visual content on cross-modal enhancement of auditory speech detection. Visual content consisted of three clearly distinct types of visual information: an unaltered video clip of a talker's face, a low-contrast version of the same clip, and a mouth-like Lissajous figure. It was hypothesized that both young and older adults would exhibit reduced enhancement as visual content diverged from the original clip of the talker's face, but that the decrease would be greater for older participants. Nineteen young adults and 19 older adults were asked to detect a single spoken syllable (/ba/) in speech-shaped noise, and the level of the signal was adaptively varied to establish the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at threshold. There was an auditory-only baseline condition and three audiovisual conditions in which the syllable was accompanied by one of the three visual signals (the unaltered clip of the talker's face, the low-contrast version of that clip, or the Lissajous figure). For each audiovisual condition, the SNR at threshold was compared with the SNR at threshold for the auditory-only condition to measure the amount of cross-modal enhancement. Young adults exhibited significant cross-modal enhancement with all three types of visual stimuli, with the greatest amount of enhancement observed for the unaltered clip of the talker's face. Older adults, in contrast, exhibited significant cross-modal enhancement only with the unaltered face. Results of this study suggest that visual signal content affects cross-modal enhancement of speech detection in both young and older adults. They also support a hypothesized age-related deficit in processing low-contrast visual speech stimuli, even in older adults with normal contrast sensitivity.

  19. Further insight into self-face recognition in schizophrenia patients: Why ambiguity matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolon, Catherine; Capdevielle, Delphine; Salesse, Robin N; Raffard, Stephane

    2016-03-01

    Although some studies reported specifically self-face processing deficits in patients with schizophrenia disorder (SZ), it remains unclear whether these deficits rather reflect a more global face processing deficit. Contradictory results are probably due to the different methodologies employed and the lack of control of other confounding factors. Moreover, no study has so far evaluated possible daily life self-face recognition difficulties in SZ. Therefore, our primary objective was to investigate self-face recognition in patients suffering from SZ compared to healthy controls (HC) using an "objective measure" (reaction time and accuracy) and a "subjective measure" (self-report of daily self-face recognition difficulties). Twenty-four patients with SZ and 23 HC performed a self-face recognition task and completed a questionnaire evaluating daily difficulties in self-face recognition. Recognition task material consisted in three different faces (the own, a famous and an unknown) being morphed in steps of 20%. Results showed that SZ were overall slower than HC regardless of the face identity, but less accurate only for the faces containing 60%-40% morphing. Moreover, SZ and HC reported a similar amount of daily problems with self/other face recognition. No significant correlations were found between objective and subjective measures (p > 0.05). The small sample size and relatively mild severity of psychopathology does not allow us to generalize our results. These results suggest that: (1) patients with SZ are as capable of recognizing their own face as HC, although they are susceptible to ambiguity; (2) there are far less self recognition deficits in schizophrenia patients than previously postulated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Developing young person’s Face IT: Online psychosocial support for adolescents struggling with conditions or injuries affecting their appearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Williamson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A participatory action approach with potential users and clinical experts was employed to design and evaluate the acceptability of young person’s Face IT (YP Face IT, an online intervention incorporating cognitive behavioural therapy and social skills training for adolescents with appearance-related anxiety as a result of a visible difference. Workshops with adolescents and clinicians informed a prototype YP Face IT which underwent a usability analysis by 28 multidisciplinary health professionals and 18 adolescents, before 10 adolescents completed it at home. Acceptability data obtained online and via interview were analysed using content analysis. Participants found YP Face IT acceptable and believed it would provide much needed and easy access to psychosocial support. They requested that it should be made widely available either as a self-management tool requiring minimal supervision from a health professional or to compliment therapist-led care.

  1. Visual and Cardiac Responses to Animate and Inanimate Faces by Young Term and Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany Martini

    This paper presents a study of the looking and looking away or gaze alternation behavior of both full term and preterm infants in the presence of varying degrees of facial animation. The faces used in the study included, in increasing order of animation, a Raggedy Ann doll's face, a moving and talking doll's face, a mother's less animated face…

  2. Dusty supernovae running the thermodynamics of the matter reinserted within young and massive super stellar clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Silich, Sergiy; Martínez-González, Sergio [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica, AP 51, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Palouš, Jan; Wünsch, Richard, E-mail: gtt@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cmt@ll.iac.es [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Boční II 1401, 141 31 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2013-12-01

    Following the observational and theoretical evidence that points at core-collapse supernovae (SNe) as major producers of dust, here we calculate the hydrodynamics of the matter reinserted within young and massive super stellar clusters under the assumption of gas and dust radiative cooling. The large SN rate expected in massive clusters allows for a continuous replenishment of dust immersed in the high temperature thermalized reinserted matter and warrants a stationary presence of dust within the cluster volume during the type II SN era. We first show that such a balance determines the range of the dust-to-gas-mass ratio, and thus the dust cooling law. We then search for the critical line that separates stationary cluster winds from the bimodal cases in the cluster mechanical luminosity (or cluster mass) versus cluster size parameter space. In the latter, strong radiative cooling reduces considerably the cluster wind mechanical energy output and affects particularly the cluster central regions, leading to frequent thermal instabilities that diminish the pressure and inhibit the exit of the reinserted matter. Instead, matter accumulates there and is expected to eventually lead to gravitational instabilities and to further stellar formation with the matter reinserted by former massive stars. The main outcome of the calculations is that the critical line is almost two orders of magnitude or more, depending on the assumed value of V {sub A∞}, lower than when only gas radiative cooling is applied. And thus, many massive clusters are predicted to enter the bimodal regime.

  3. Abnormal gray matter volume and impulsivity in young adults with Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deokjong; Namkoong, Kee; Lee, Junghan; Jung, Young-Chul

    2017-09-08

    Reduced executive control is one of the central components of model on the development and maintenance of Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Among the various executive control problems, high impulsivity has consistently been associated with IGD. We performed voxel-based morphometric analysis with diffeomorphic anatomical registration by using an exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL) to investigate the relationship of gray matter abnormalities to impulsivity in IGD. Thirty-one young male adults whose excessive Internet gaming began in early adolescence, and 30 age-matched male healthy controls were examined. IGD subjects showed smaller gray matter volume (GMV) in brain regions implicated in executive control, such as the anterior cingulate cortex and the supplementary motor area. The GMVs in the anterior cingulate cortex and the supplementary motor area were negatively correlated with self-reporting scales of impulsiveness. IGD subjects also exhibited smaller GMV in lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices comprising the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the left inferior parietal lobule when compared with healthy controls. The GMVs in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex were negatively correlated with lifetime usage of Internet gaming. These findings suggest that gray matter abnormalities in areas related to executive control may contribute to high impulsivity of young adults with IGD. Furthermore, alterations in the prefrontal cortex were related with long-term excessive Internet gaming during adolescence. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. 'It's always just there in your face': young people's views on porn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Shelley; Temple-Smith, Meredith; Higgs, Peter; Sanci, Lena

    2015-06-01

    Background Young people's exposure to pornography has increased, as has the violent and sexist nature of mainstream porn. Contemporary content means young people are exposed to violent porn whether they like it or not, and it is no longer a question of whether they will be exposed, but rather when. Using purposive sampling, 33 in-depth interviews were conducted with young people aged 15-20 years in 2010-11, to explore the phenomenon of sexting. During initial interviews, participants raised the topic of pornography exposure as a secondary, unexpected finding. Discussions highlighted an important link between sexting and pornography. The inductive nature of the research meant this new and important area of inquiry was able to be explored. Data was thematically coded and analysed using a grounded theory approach. Findings highlight that many young people are exposed to porn both intentionally and unintentionally. Furthermore, they are concerned about gendered norms that reinforce men's power and subordination over women. A link between porn exposure, young men's sexual expectations and young women's pressure to conform to what is being viewed, has been exposed. Results are significant given this is one of few recent qualitative Australian studies to explore the issue of pornography exposure from the perspective of young people. Important implications for educators, parents and health providers have been revealed, including the need to create opportunities for young people to challenge the messages expressed in porn, and for their views to be heard in academic and public debate.

  5. The relation between gray matter morphology and divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Cousijn

    Full Text Available Adolescence and early adulthood are developmental time periods during which creative cognition is highly important for adapting to environmental changes. Divergent thinking, which refers to generating novel and useful solutions to open-ended problems, has often been used as a measure of creative cognition. The first goal of this structural neuroimaging study was to elucidate the relationship between gray matter morphology and performance in the verbal (AUT; alternative uses task and visuo-spatial (CAT; creative ability test domain of divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. The second goal was to test if gray matter morphology is related to brain activity during AUT performance. Neural and behavioral data were combined from a cross-sectional study including 25 adolescents aged 15-17 and 20 young adults aged 25-30. Brain-behavior relationships were assessed without a priori location assumptions and within areas that were activated during an AUT-scanner task. Gray matter volume and cortical thickness were not significantly associated with verbal divergent thinking. However, visuo-spatial divergent thinking (CAT originality and fluency was positively associated with cortical thickness of the right middle temporal gyrus and left brain areas including the superior frontal gyrus and various occipital, parietal, and temporal areas, independently of age. AUT brain activity was not associated with cortical thickness. The results support an important role of a widespread brain network involved in flexible visuo-spatial divergent thinking, providing evidence for a relation between cortical thickness and visuo-spatial divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. However, studies including visuo-spatial divergent thinking tasks in the scanner are warranted.

  6. Face validity and reliability of a pictorial instrument for assessing fundamental movement skill perceived competence in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Ridgers, Nicola D; Zask, Avigdor; Salmon, Jo

    2015-01-01

    To determine reliability and face validity of an instrument to assess young children's perceived fundamental movement skill competence. Validation and reliability study. A pictorial instrument based on the Test Gross Motor Development-2 assessed perceived locomotor (six skills) and object control (six skills) competence using the format and item structure from the physical competence subscale of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Acceptance for Young Children. Sample 1 completed object control items in May (n=32) and locomotor items in October 2012 (n=23) at two time points seven days apart. Children were asked at the end of the test-retest their understanding of what was happening in each picture to determine face validity. Sample 2 (n=58) completed 12 items in November 2012 on a single occasion to test internal reliability only. Sample 1 children were aged 5-7 years (M=6.0, SD=0.8) at object control assessment and 5-8 years at locomotor assessment (M=6.5, SD=0.9). Sample 2 children were aged 6-8 years (M=7.2, SD=0.73). Intra-class correlations assessed in Sample 1 children were excellent for object control (intra-class correlation=0.78), locomotor (intra-class correlation=0.82) and all 12 skills (intra-class correlations=0.83). Face validity was acceptable. Internal consistency was adequate in both samples for each subscale and all 12 skills (alpha range 0.60-0.81). This study has provided preliminary evidence for instrument reliability and face validity. This enables future alignment between the measurement of perceived and actual fundamental movement skill competence in young children. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Obesity gene NEGR1 associated with white matter integrity in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Emily L; Jahanshad, Neda; Braskie, Meredith N; Warstadt, Nicholus M; Hibar, Derrek P; Kohannim, Omid; Nir, Talia M; McMahon, Katie L; de Zubicaray, Greig I; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Toga, Arthur W; Wright, Margaret J; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-11-15

    Obesity is a crucial public health issue in developed countries, with implications for cardiovascular and brain health as we age. A number of commonly-carried genetic variants are associated with obesity. Here we aim to see whether variants in obesity-associated genes--NEGR1, FTO, MTCH2, MC4R, LRRN6C, MAP2K5, FAIM2, SEC16B, ETV5, BDNF-AS, ATXN2L, ATP2A1, KCTD15, and TNN13K--are associated with white matter microstructural properties, assessed by high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) in young healthy adults between 20 and 30 years of age from the Queensland Twin Imaging study (QTIM). We began with a multi-locus approach testing how a number of common genetic risk factors for obesity at the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level may jointly influence white matter integrity throughout the brain and found a wide spread genetic effect. Risk allele rs2815752 in NEGR1 was most associated with lower white matter integrity across a substantial portion of the brain. Across the area of significance in the bilateral posterior corona radiata, each additional copy of the risk allele was associated with a 2.2% lower average FA. This is the first study to find an association between an obesity risk gene and differences in white matter integrity. As our subjects were young and healthy, our results suggest that NEGR1 has effects on brain structure independent of its effect on obesity. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Problems Faced By Elementary School Second Grade English Subject Matter Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belgin Bal Incebacak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of thisstudy isto determine the problems experienced by subject matter teachers while instructing English lessons in the second grade of elementary school. What are the problemsfaced by English subject matter teachers when they instruct in 2nd grade lessons? In this research the descriptive modeling, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was employed. In accordance with this objective, we worked with 8 subject matter teachers from 5 different schoolsinAtakum and Ilkadim districtslocated in downtown Samsun, through easily accessible case sampling. The semi-structured “English Course Interview Form’’was applied to the teachers. In the study, descriptive survey model was employed, since it was aimed to reveal the current status of qualitative research methods.According to the results obtained from the research, the content was configured and presented under 5 themes. They were categorized as: 1. the problems experienced in classroom management, 2. the problems in physical and cognitive readiness, 3. the problems experienced in the learning and teacher process, 4. the problems seen in counseling, 5. the problems experienced in assessment and evaluation. In conclusion, the teachers stated that they had problems with managing the classroom, especially with the second grade students, whom are younger than others. It is observed that the change for teaching English at a younger age has been appropriate. Our teachersstated that they required in-service training so as to adapt to this aforementioned change.

  9. Acute stress influences the discrimination of complex scenes and complex faces in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M; Lech, R K; Scheil, J; Dierolf, A M; Suchan, B; Wolf, O T

    2016-04-01

    The stress-induced release of glucocorticoids has been demonstrated to influence hippocampal functions via the modulation of specific receptors. At the behavioral level stress is known to influence hippocampus dependent long-term memory. In recent years, studies have consistently associated the hippocampus with the non-mnemonic perception of scenes, while adjacent regions in the medial temporal lobe were associated with the perception of objects, and faces. So far it is not known whether and how stress influences non-mnemonic perceptual processes. In a behavioral study, fifty male participants were subjected either to the stressful socially evaluated cold-pressor test or to a non-stressful control procedure, before they completed a visual discrimination task, comprising scenes and faces. The complexity of the face and scene stimuli was manipulated in easy and difficult conditions. A significant three way interaction between stress, stimulus type and complexity was found. Stressed participants tended to commit more errors in the complex scenes condition. For complex faces a descriptive tendency in the opposite direction (fewer errors under stress) was observed. As a result the difference between the number of errors for scenes and errors for faces was significantly larger in the stress group. These results indicate that, beyond the effects of stress on long-term memory, stress influences the discrimination of spatial information, especially when the perception is characterized by a high complexity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  11. The many faces of manhood: examining masculine norms and health behaviors of young fathers across race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Derrick M; Hawes, Samuel W; Reid, Allecia E; Callands, Tamora A; Magriples, Urania; Divney, Anna; Niccolai, Linda M; Kershaw, Trace

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between the traditional masculine norms ("status," "toughness" and "antifemininity") of 296 ethnically and racially diverse, young men transitioning to fatherhood and substance use (smoking, alcohol, marijuana, hard drugs) and health behaviors (diet, exercise). Participants were recruited from urban obstetric clinics in the Northeast United States. Logistic and multiple regression equations were constructed to examine the relationship between masculine norms and health behaviors. Moderator effects were also examined. Masculine norm "status" was most endorsed and "antifemininity" was least endorsed. African American young men had higher masculine norm scores than Latino and Whites. Different masculine norms were associated with health-promoting and health-undermining behaviors. Different racial groups who had higher scores on some masculine norms were more likely to engage in either health-promoting or health-undermining behaviors when compared with other ethnic groups in this study. These results observed different relationships between the traditional masculine norms measured and the substance use and health behaviors of diverse, young men transitioning to fatherhood. This may have implications for intervention strategies and future research.

  12. Hope matters to the glycemic control of adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Fábio R M; Sigulem, Daniel; Areco, Kelsy C N; Gabbay, Monica A L; Dib, Sergio A; Bernardo, Viviane

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the association of hope and its factors with depression and glycemic control in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes. A total of 113 patients were invited to participate. Significant negative correlations were found between hope and HbA1c and also between hope and depression. Hope showed a significant association with HbA1c and depression in the stepwise regression model. Among the hope factors, "inner positive expectancy" was significantly associated with HbA1c and depression. This study supports that hope matters to glycemic control and depression. Intervention strategies focusing on hope should be further explored. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. White Matter Structural Differences in Young Children With Type 1 Diabetes: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Tandy; Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Ambler, Christian; Hoang, Sherry; Schleifer, Kristin; Park, Yaena; Drobny, Jessica; Wilson, Darrell M.; Reiss, Allan L.; Buckingham, Bruce A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To detect clinical correlates of cognitive abilities and white matter (WM) microstructural changes using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in young children with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Children, ages 3 to <10 years, with type 1 diabetes (n = 22) and age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (n = 14) completed neurocognitive testing and DTI scans. RESULTS Compared with healthy controls, children with type 1 diabetes had lower axial diffusivity (AD) values (P = 0.046) in the temporal and parietal lobe regions. There were no significant differences between groups in fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity (RD). Within the diabetes group, there was a significant, positive correlation between time-weighted HbA1c and RD (P = 0.028). A higher, time-weighted HbA1c value was significantly correlated with lower overall intellectual functioning measured by the full-scale intelligence quotient (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS Children with type 1 diabetes had significantly different WM structure (as measured by AD) when compared with controls. In addition, WM structural differences (as measured by RD) were significantly correlated with their HbA1c values. Additional studies are needed to determine if WM microstructural differences in young children with type 1 diabetes predict future neurocognitive outcome. PMID:22966090

  14. The Relationship between Processing Speed and Regional White Matter Volume in Healthy Young People.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Magistro

    Full Text Available Processing speed is considered a key cognitive resource and it has a crucial role in all types of cognitive performance. Some researchers have hypothesised the importance of white matter integrity in the brain for processing speed; however, the relationship at the whole-brain level between white matter volume (WMV and processing speed relevant to the modality or problem used in the task has never been clearly evaluated in healthy people. In this study, we used various tests of processing speed and Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM analyses, it is involves a voxel-wise comparison of the local volume of gray and white, to assess the relationship between processing speed and regional WMV (rWMV. We examined the association between processing speed and WMV in 887 healthy young adults (504 men and 383 women; mean age, 20.7 years, SD, 1.85. We performed three different multiple regression analyses: we evaluated rWMV associated with individual differences in the simple processing speed task, word-colour and colour-word tasks (processing speed tasks with words and the simple arithmetic task, after adjusting for age and sex. The results showed a positive relationship at the whole-brain level between rWMV and processing speed performance. In contrast, the processing speed performance did not correlate with rWMV in any of the regions examined. Our results support the idea that WMV is associated globally with processing speed performance regardless of the type of processing speed task.

  15. Bentonite and Gelatine Impact on the Young Red Wine Coloured Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Jović

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the impact of two fining agents (bentonite and gelatine on the coloured matters of young red wines Vranac, Pinot Noir and Gamay Noir. Both agents caused decrease in these substances. The effect is more intensive with the dose of bentonite of 1 g/L, but the variability depends on variety. Higher decrease was found in the colour intensity, coloured anthocyanins and polymers (up to 44 %, but lower in the colourless anthocyanins (up to 20 %. The intensity of red and blue colours decreases, while that of yellow colour increases. The use of bentonite in dosages higher than those recommended may cause the wine to obtain more pronounced »brick red« colour (the colour tint increases while the value of the spectrum form decreases. Fewer changes occurred in the coloured matters after treating the wine with gelatine. The colour intensity, colourless and coloured anthocyanins showed a decrease of up to 10 % and polymers of up to 16 %. The intensity of yellow colour decreases, while that of red increases as well as the ΔA/% value.

  16. Remote lower white matter integrity increases the risk of long-term cognitive impairment after ischemic stroke in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapsmeerders, P.; Tuladhar, A.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Franssen, S.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Leeuw, H.F. de

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Poststroke cognitive impairment occurs frequently in young patients with ischemic stroke (18 through 50 years of age). Accumulating data suggest that stroke is associated with lower white matter integrity remote from the stroke impact area, which might explain why some

  17. Remote lower white matter integrity increases the risk of long-term cognitive impairment after ischemic stroke in young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapsmeerders, P.; Tuladhar, A.M.; Arntz, R.M.; Franssen, S.; Maaijwee, N.A.M.M.; Rutten-Jacobs, L.C.A.; Schoonderwaldt, H.C.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Dijk, E.J. van; Kessels, R.P.C.; Leeuw, F.E. de

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Poststroke cognitive impairment occurs frequently in young patients with ischemic stroke (18 through 50 years of age). Accumulating data suggest that stroke is associated with lower white matter integrity remote from the stroke impact area, which might explain why some

  18. "What matters to someone who matters to me": using media campaigns with young people to prevent interpersonal violence and abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Nicky; Ellis, Jane; Farrelly, Nicola; Hollinghurst, Sandra; Bailey, Sue; Downe, Soo

    2017-08-01

    While media campaigns are increasingly advocated as a strategy for preventing interpersonal violence and abuse, there is little evidence available regarding their effectiveness. Consultation with experts and young people was used as part of a UK scoping review to capture current thinking and practice on the use of media campaigns to address interpersonal violence and abuse among young people. Three focus groups and 16 interviews were undertaken with UK and international experts, and three focus groups were held with young people. Participants argued that, although campaigns initially needed to target whole populations of young people, subsequently, messages should be "granulated" for subgroups including young people already exposed to interpersonal violence and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender young people. It was suggested that boys, as the most likely perpetrators of interpersonal violence and abuse, should be the primary target for campaigns. Young people and experts emphasized that drama and narrative could be used to evoke an emotional response that assisted learning. Authenticity emerged as important for young people and could be achieved by delivering messages through familiar characters and relevant stories. Involving young people themselves in creating and delivering campaigns strengthened authenticity. Practice is developing rapidly, and robust research is required to identify the key conditions for effective campaigns in this field. The emotional impact of campaigns in this field appears to be as important as the transmission of learning. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The hidden face of income transfer programs for young people in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Pontes Sposito

    Full Text Available Based on a broader analysis of the nature of recent public policies directed at youths in Brazil and on the conflicting orientations inherent in this field, this paper discusses the presuppositions contained in three public programs currently being implemented in the country: the Young Agent Project, the Voluntary Civil Service Program and the Work-Income Allowance Program. After an overview of each of these programs, including various aspects where they diverge, the analysis focuses on the paradoxes and ambiguities underlining their common format: the transfer of income linked to some kind of return commitment by the youngsters, usually a return to or continuation of schooling and the realization of socioeducational or community-type activities. While acknowledging the beneficial side of access to income, the paper warns of the possibility of disseminating new forms of domination based on the adoption of this model in public policies directed at youngsters.

  20. Psychosocial oncofertility issues faced by adolescents and young adults over their lifetime: a review of the research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Marilyn

    2013-03-01

    This review considers psychosocial oncofertility research relevant to adolescents and young adults over their lifetime. There is growing awareness of the fertility preservation needs of younger males including lowering practical barriers and attending to emotional impact. Despite decisional challenges facing females--the experimental nature of procedures, time involved and potential involvement of partners/donors (for embryo cryopreservation)--findings suggest they too benefit from fertility information at diagnosis and access to fertility specialists. Studies consistently report that fertility concerns affect well-being, relationships and life planning. Both genders thus want fertility issues to be raised proactively by professionals in the years following diagnosis: to help them make informed decisions at a time relevant to them, develop coping strategies for current and future related areas and to be referred to specialist and/or therapeutic help if needed. Little is known about why cancer survivors are less likely to marry or have children, or about their parenthood experiences.

  1. The contribution of youth work to address the challenges young people are facing, in particular the transition from education to employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louw, Arnt Vestergaard

    The findings of the expert group detail the role of youth work and its specific contribution to addressing the challenges young people face, in particular the transition from education to employment. In this context, youth work is defined as 'actions directed towards young people regarding activi...... activities where they take part voluntarily, designed for supporting their personal and social development through non-formal and informal learning'....

  2. Association of television violence exposure with executive functioning and white matter volume in young adult males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Tom A; Kronenberger, William G; Wang, Yang; Anderson, Caitlin C; Mathews, Vincent P

    2014-07-01

    Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary. Participants then completed a battery of neuropsychological laboratory tests quantifying executive functions and underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Aggregate measures of executive functioning were not associated with measures of overall television viewing (any content type) during the past week or year. However, the amount of television viewing of violent content only, as indicated by both past-year and daily diary measures, was associated with poorer scores on an aggregate score of inhibition, interference control and attention, with no relationship to a composite working memory score. In addition, violent television exposure, as measured with daily media diaries, was associated with reduced frontoparietal white matter volume. Future longitudinal work is necessary to resolve whether individuals with poor executive function and slower white matter growth are more drawn to violent programming, or if extensive media violence exposure modifies cognitive control mechanisms mediated primarily via prefrontal cortex. Impaired inhibitory mechanisms may be related to reported increases in aggression with higher media violence exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. White matter development and tobacco smoking in young adults: A systematic review with recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogliettino, Alex R; Potenza, Marc N; Yip, Sarah W

    2016-05-01

    Adolescence and young adulthood are critical vulnerability periods for initiation of tobacco smoking. White matter development is ongoing during this time and may be influenced by exposure to nicotine. Synthesis of findings from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of adolescent and young adult smokers may be helpful in understanding the relationship between neurodevelopment and initiation and progression of tobacco-use behaviors and in guiding further research. A systematic literature review was conducted to identify DTI studies comparing adolescent and young adult (mean age adult studies. Directions for further research are also discussed. All identified studies reported increases in fractional anisotropy (FA) among adolescent/young adult smokers in comparison to non-smokers. Increased FA was most frequently reported in regions of the corpus callosum (genu, body and spenium), internal capsule and superior longitudinal fasciculus. Findings of increased FA among adolescent/young adult smokers are contrary to those from most adult studies and thus raise the possibility of differential effects of nicotine on white matter across the lifespan. Further research including multiple time points is needed to test this hypothesis. Other areas warranting further research include DTI studies of e-cigarette use and studies incorporating measures of pubertal stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reduced prefrontal cortical gray matter volume in young adults exposed to harsh corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Akemi; Suzuki, Hanako; Rabi, Keren; Sheu, Yi-Shin; Polcari, Ann; Teicher, Martin H

    2009-08-01

    Harsh corporal punishment (HCP) during childhood is a chronic, developmental stressor associated with depression, aggression and addictive behaviors. Exposure to traumatic stressors, such as sexual abuse, is associated with alteration in brain structure, but nothing is known about the potential neurobiological consequences of HCP. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HCP was associated with discernible alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). 1455 young adults (18-25 years) were screened to identify 23 with exposure to HCP (minimum 3 years duration, 12 episodes per year, frequently involving objects) and 22 healthy controls. High-resolution T1-weighted MRI datasets were obtained using Siemens 3 T trio scanner. GMV was reduced by 19.1% in the right medial frontal gyrus (medial prefrontal cortex; MPFC, BA10) (P=0.037, corrected cluster level), by 14.5% in the left medial frontal gyrus (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; DLPFC, BA9) (P=0.015, uncorrected cluster level) and by 16.9% in the right anterior cingulate gyrus (BA24) (P<0.001, uncorrected cluster level) of HCP subjects. There were significant correlations between GMV in these identified regions and performance IQ on the WAIS-III. Exposing children to harsh HCP may have detrimental effects on trajectories of brain development. However, it is also conceivable that differences in prefrontal cortical development may increase risk of exposure to HCP.

  5. Facing the Maze: Young Cancer Survivors' Return to Education and Work-A Professional Expert Key Informant Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Kaspar Jessen; Boisen, Kirsten Arntz; Midtgaard, Julie; Elsbernd, Abbey; Larsen, Hanne Baekgaard

    2018-03-13

    An insufficient transition to normal life after cancer treatment in adolescent and young adults (AYAs) may lead to decreased occupational and educational opportunities throughout a survivor's lifespan. Key informant interviews were used to access unique knowledge of the healthcare, educational, and social systems. We used key informant interviews with professionals representing disciplines from healthcare, educational, and social systems (n = 15). Informants were recruited through purposive sampling and snowball sampling. Interviews were analyzed thematically using Malterud's Systematic Text Condensation and verified by member checking. We found four major themes: the impact of late effects, navigating the system, social reintegration, and the drive of youth. Although legal frameworks are often in place to assist AYA cancer survivors, navigating the public, educational, and social systems is a complex task and many AYAs do not have the required skill set or energy. Furthermore, AYA survivors often feel different from their peers and misunderstood by their surroundings, which may hinder reintegration into normal social life. In Scandinavia, healthcare and education are free of charge with equal access for all, primarily funded by government taxes. Therefore, insurance status and tuition fees should not constitute barriers for returning to education and work. However, this study finds that the public and educational systems are complex to navigate, and that AYAs face trouble mobilizing the energy to receive needed support.

  6. Remote Lower White Matter Integrity Increases the Risk of Long-Term Cognitive Impairment After Ischemic Stroke in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaapsmeerders, Pauline; Tuladhar, Anil M; Arntz, Renate M; Franssen, Sieske; Maaijwee, Noortje A M; Rutten-Jacobs, Loes C A; Schoonderwaldt, Hennie C; Dorresteijn, Lucille D A; van Dijk, Ewoud J; Kessels, Roy P C; de Leeuw, Frank-Erik

    2016-10-01

    Poststroke cognitive impairment occurs frequently in young patients with ischemic stroke (18 through 50 years of age). Accumulating data suggest that stroke is associated with lower white matter integrity remote from the stroke impact area, which might explain why some patients have good long-term cognitive outcome and others do not. Given the life expectancy of decades in young patients, we therefore investigated remote white matter in relation to long-term cognitive function. We included all consecutive first-ever ischemic stroke patients, left/right hemisphere, without recurrent stroke or transient ischemic attack during follow-up, aged 18 through 50 years, admitted to our university medical center between 1980 and 2010. One hundred seventeen patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning including a T1-weighted scan, a diffusion tensor imaging scan, and completed a neuropsychological assessment. Patients were compared with a matched stroke-free control group (age, sex, and education matched). Cognitive impairment was defined as >1.5 SD below the mean cognitive index score of controls and no cognitive impairment as ≤1 SD. Tract-Based Spatial Statistics was used to assess the white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity). About 11 years after ischemic stroke, lower remote white matter integrity was associated with a worse long-term cognitive performance. A lower remote white matter integrity, even in the contralesional hemisphere, was observed in cognitively impaired patients (n=25) compared with cognitively unimpaired patients (n=71). These findings indicate that although stroke has an acute onset, it might have long lasting effects on remote white matter integrity and thereby increases the risk of long-term cognitive impairment. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. The formation of spiral galaxies: adiabatic compression with Young's algorithm and the relation of dark matter haloes to their primordial antecedents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katz, Harley; McGaugh, Stacy S.; Sellwood, J. A.; de Blok, W. J. G.

    We utilize Young's algorithm to model the adiabatic compression of the dark matter haloes of galaxies in the THINGS survey to determine the relationship between the halo fit to the rotation curve and the corresponding primordial halo prior to compression. Young's algorithm conserves radial action

  8. Measuring outcomes that matter to face-lift patients: development and validation of FACE-Q appearance appraisal scales and adverse effects checklist for the lower face and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Anne F; Cano, Stefan J; Scott, Amie M; Pusic, Andrea L

    2014-01-01

    The FACE-Q is a new patient-reported outcome instrument to evaluate a range of outcomes for patients undergoing any type of facial cosmetic operation, minimally invasive cosmetic procedure, or facial injectable. This article describes the development and validation of FACE-Q scales relevant to face-lift patients. The FACE-Q was developed by following international guidelines for patient-reported outcome instrument development. For outcomes following a face lift, the authors developed five appearance appraisal scales (i.e., Satisfaction with Cheeks, Satisfaction with Lower Face and Jawline, Appraisal of Nasolabial Folds, Appraisal of Area Under the Chin, and Appraisal of the Neck) and an adverse effects checklist. A field test of these scales was performed in a sample of 225 face-lift patients, and were evaluated using both modern and traditional psychometric methods. The five FACE-Q appearance appraisal scales were found to be clinically meaningful, reliable, valid, and responsive to clinical change. These findings were supported by Rasch measurement theory analysis (e.g., overall chi-square values of p ≥ 0.18; Person Separation Index ≥ 0.88). Responsiveness analyses showed that patient scores for facial appearance improved significantly after treatment (p < 0.001); changes in scores were associated with moderate effect sizes (range effect size, 0.40 to 0.79; range standardized response mean, 0.37 to 0.69). Traditional psychometric statistics provided further support (e.g., Cronbach's alpha values ≥ 0.94) CONCLUSIONS:: The FACE-Q appearance appraisal scales are scientifically sound and clinically meaningful and can be used with the adverse effects checklist to measure patient-reported outcomes following a face lift.

  9. Comparing young people's experience of technology-delivered v. face-to-face mindfulness and relaxation: two-armed qualitative focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunney, Conall; Cooney, Patricia; Coyle, David; O'Reilly, Gary

    2017-04-01

    Background The current popularity of mindfulness-based practices has coincided with the increase in access to mobile technology. This has led to many mindfulness apps and programs becoming available, some specifically for children. However, little is known about the experience of engaging with mindfulness through these mediums. Aims To explore children's experience of mindfulness delivered both face-to-face and through a computer game to highlight any differences or similarities. Method A two-armed qualitative focus groups design was used to explore children's experiences. The first arm offered mindfulness exercises in a traditional face-to-face setting with guided meditations. The second arm offered mindfulness exercises through a computer game avatar. Results Themes of relaxation, engagement, awareness, thinking, practice and directing attention emerged from both arms of focus groups. Subthematic codes highlight key differences as well as similarities in the experience of mindfulness. Conclusions These results indicate that mindfulness delivered via technology can offer a rich experience. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017.

  10. Larger mid-dorsolateral prefrontal gray matter volume in young binge drinkers revealed by voxel-based morphometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Doallo

    Full Text Available Binge drinking or heavy episodic drinking is a high prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption among young people in several countries. Despite increasing evidence that binge drinking is associated with impairments in executive aspects of working memory (i.e. self-ordered working memory, processes known to depend on the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9, less is known about the impact of binge drinking on prefrontal gray matter integrity. Here, we investigated the effects of binge drinking on gray matter volume of mid- dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in youths. We used voxel-based morphometry on the structural magnetic resonance images of subjects reporting a persistent (at least three years binge drinking pattern of alcohol use (n = 11; age 22.43 ± 1.03 and control subjects (n = 21; age 22.18 ± 1.08 to measure differences in gray matter volume between both groups. In a region of interest analysis of the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, after co-varying for age and gender, we observed significantly larger gray matter volume in the left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9 in binge drinkers in comparison with control subjects. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume and Self-Ordered Pointing Test (SOPT total errors score in binge drinkers. The left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume also correlated with the quantity and speed of alcohol intake. These findings indicate that a repeated exposure to alcohol -that does not meet criteria for alcohol dependence- throughout post-adolescent years and young adulthood is linked with structural anomalies in mid-dorsolateral prefrontal regions critically involved in executive aspects of working memory.

  11. Vicarious birth experiences and childbirth fear: does it matter how young canadian women learn about birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Kathrin; Hall, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    In our secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey, we explored predictors of childbirth fear for young women (n = 2,676). Young women whose attitudes toward pregnancy and birth were shaped by the media were 1.5 times more likely to report childbirth fear. Three factors that were associated with reduced fear of birth were women's confidence in reproductive knowledge, witnessing a birth, and learning about pregnancy and birth through friends. Offering age-appropriate birth education during primary and secondary education, as an alternative to mass-mediated information about birth, can be evaluated as an approach to reduce young women's childbirth fear.

  12. Development of the Cell Population in the Brain White Matter of Young Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigaard, Rasmus Krarup; Kjær, Majken; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2014-01-01

    While brain gray matter is primarily associated with sensorimotor processing and cognition, white matter modulates the distribution of action potentials, coordinates communication between different brain regions, and acts as a relay for input/output signals. Previous studies have described......, and microglia) in the cerebral white matter of 9 infants aged 0-33 months, using design-based stereological methods to obtain quantitative data about brain development. There were linear increases with age in the numbers of oligodendrocytes (7-28 billion) and astrocytes (1.5-6.7 billion) during the first 3...

  13. White matter alterations and their associations with motor function in young adults born preterm with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Marie Husby Hollund

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Very low birth weight (VLBW: ≤1500 g individuals have an increased risk of white matter alterations and neurodevelopmental problems, including fine and gross motor problems. In this hospital-based follow-up study, the main aim was to examine white matter microstructure and its relationship to fine and gross motor function in 31 VLBW young adults without cerebral palsy compared with 31 term-born controls, at mean age 22.6 ± 0.7 years. The participants were examined with tests of fine and gross motor function (Trail Making Test-5: TMT-5, Grooved Pegboard, Triangle from Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2: MABC-2 and High-level Mobility Assessment Tool: HiMAT and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. Probabilistic tractography of motor pathways of the corticospinal tract (CST and corpus callosum (CC was performed. Fractional anisotropy (FA was calculated in non-crossing (capsula interna in CST, body of CC and crossing (centrum semiovale fibre regions along the tracts and examined for group differences. Associations between motor test scores and FA in the CST and CC were investigated with linear regression. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS was used to examine group differences in DTI metrics in all major white matter tracts. The VLBW group had lower scores on all motor tests compared with controls, however, only statistically significant for TMT-5. Based on tractography, FA in the VLBW group was lower in non-crossing fibre regions and higher in crossing fibre regions of the CST compared with controls. Within the VLBW group, poorer fine motor function was associated with higher FA in crossing fibre regions of the CST, and poorer bimanual coordination was additionally associated with lower FA in crossing fibre regions of the CC. Poorer gross motor function was associated with lower FA in crossing fibre regions of the CST and CC. There were no associations between motor function and FA in non-crossing fibre regions of the CST and CC within

  14. White matter alterations and their associations with motor function in young adults born preterm with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollund, Ingrid Marie Husby; Olsen, Alexander; Skranes, Jon; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Håberg, Asta K; Eikenes, Live; Evensen, Kari Anne I

    2018-01-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW: ≤ 1500 g) individuals have an increased risk of white matter alterations and neurodevelopmental problems, including fine and gross motor problems. In this hospital-based follow-up study, the main aim was to examine white matter microstructure and its relationship to fine and gross motor function in 31 VLBW young adults without cerebral palsy compared with 31 term-born controls, at mean age 22.6 ± 0.7 years. The participants were examined with tests of fine and gross motor function (Trail Making Test-5: TMT-5, Grooved Pegboard, Triangle from Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2: MABC-2 and High-level Mobility Assessment Tool: HiMAT) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Probabilistic tractography of motor pathways of the corticospinal tract (CST) and corpus callosum (CC) was performed. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was calculated in non-crossing (capsula interna in CST, body of CC) and crossing (centrum semiovale) fibre regions along the tracts and examined for group differences. Associations between motor test scores and FA in the CST and CC were investigated with linear regression. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to examine group differences in DTI metrics in all major white matter tracts. The VLBW group had lower scores on all motor tests compared with controls, however, only statistically significant for TMT-5. Based on tractography, FA in the VLBW group was lower in non-crossing fibre regions and higher in crossing fibre regions of the CST compared with controls. Within the VLBW group, poorer fine motor function was associated with higher FA in crossing fibre regions of the CST, and poorer bimanual coordination was additionally associated with lower FA in crossing fibre regions of the CC. Poorer gross motor function was associated with lower FA in crossing fibre regions of the CST and CC. There were no associations between motor function and FA in non-crossing fibre regions of the CST and CC within the VLBW

  15. Book Beat: A Young Adult Services Manual for Louisiana's Libraries. Face It: Read a Book: Be Somebody. [Updated Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, Gretchen, Ed.; Jaques, Thomas F., Ed.

    Libraries need to reach out to teens and enhance their skills in serving the teenage population. Through the Louisiana Young Adult Services program, it is hoped that all staff working with young adults will be reached to accomplish the following: (1) promote a better understanding of the psychology of this age group; (2) increase skills in…

  16. Abnormal white matter structural connectivity in treatment-naïve young adults with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, J; Yi, J; Zhong, M; Cao, X; Jin, X; Liu, W; Zhu, X

    2016-12-01

    The pathogenesis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is not well understood. We examined the microstructure of white matter in patients with BPD. Treatment-naïve young adult with BPD (N = 30) and young-adult healthy controls (HCs; N = 31) were subjected diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Microstructural parameters were analyzed via tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and post hoc tractography. TBSS analysis revealed that, relative to the HC group, the BPD group had significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the genu and body of the corpus callosum (CC), right superior corona radiate, right anterior corona radiate, as well as higher radial diffusivity (RD) in the left anterior thalamic radiation. Tractography showed that FA values of fiber bundles passing through the fornix were significantly reduced in BPD group relative to HCs. No significant correlations were observed between clinical symptom and DTI indices in BPD group (FDR corrected). Focal microstructural alterations were found in BPD group, mainly in the limbic system and CC. The present findings support the fronto-limbic disconnectivity hypothesis and suggest that abnormal maturation of white matter structures may play an important role in mechanism of BPD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Gender Still Matters: Effects of Workplace Discrimination on Employment Schedules of Young Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele Plickert; Joyce Sterling

    2017-01-01

    The influx of women into the legal profession has significantly changed the landscape of legal practice. Women lawyers today no longer face the challenges to entering the legal profession they encountered thirty years ago. However, despite these advancements, research continues to demonstrate that there are still gender-based issues women have to face in the legal workplace. Among these issues to date are the difficulties in combining responsibilities of work with responsibilities of families...

  18. Relationship between personality and gray matter volume in healthy young adults: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengmei Lu

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the neurostructural foundations of the human personality in young adults. High-resolution structural T1-weighted MR images of 71 healthy young individuals were processed using voxel-based morphometric (VBM approach. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify the associations between personality traits and gray matter volume (GMV. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Short Scale for Chinese was chosen to assess the personality traits. This scale includes four dimensions, namely, extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and lie. Particularly, we studied on two dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism of Eysenck's personality. Our results showed that extraversion was negatively correlated with GMV of the bilateral amygdala, the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the left superior frontal gyrus, all of which are involved in emotional and social cognitive processes. These results might suggest an association between extraversion and affective processing. In addition, a positive correlation was detected between neuroticism and GMV of the right cerebellum, a key brain region for negative affect coordination. Meanwhile, a negative association was revealed between GMV of the left superior frontal gyrus and neuroticism. These results may prove that neuroticism is related to several brain regions involved in regulating negative emotions. Based on those findings, we concluded that brain regions involved in social cognition and affective process accounted for modulation and shaping of personality traits among young individuals. Results of this study may serve as a basis for elucidating the anatomical factors of personality.

  19. Recruiting young people with a visible difference to the YP Face IT feasibility trial: a qualitative exploration of primary care staff experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Claire; Williamson, Heidi; Harcourt, Diana

    2017-11-01

    Qualitative research methods embedded within feasibility trials are of significant value as they can provide important information for a definitive trial, often unable to be fulfilled by quantitative methods alone. In addition, such information can aid researchers running other trials or evaluating interventions on a similar topic. Aim This study aimed to explore GP and nurses' experiences of recruiting to a trial exploring the feasibility of evaluating YP Face IT, a novel online psychosocial intervention to support young people with appearance-altering conditions. During the recruitment period, a focus group with participating GPs and nurses explored recruitment challenges. In addition, at the end of the recruitment period, telephone interviews were conducted with eight GPs and nurses involved in recruiting to the study, in order to inform a definitive trial of YP Face IT. Transcripts were subjected to thematic analysis. Findings Despite reporting that the study was valuable and interesting, interviewees struggled to recruit in-consultation. They appeared to lack confidence in raising the sensitive issue of a visible difference and adopted strategies to avoid mentioning the topic. Participants felt the nature of the target population, as well as pressures of the primary care environment presented challenges to recruitment, but welcomed YP Face IT as an intervention that could address unmet support needs. Primary care staff may benefit from training to help them raise the subject of a visible difference with young people in order to identify those that require additional support.

  20. Size Matters Stature Is Related to Diagnoses of Depression in Young Military Men

    OpenAIRE

    Valery Krupnik; Mariya V. Cherkasova

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary theories suggest that depression has evolved as an adaptation to insurmountable adversity or defeat. One prediction stemming from these models is that individual attributes associated with defeat in a given social environment could be risk factors for depression. We hypothesized that in young military men, where physical prowess was important, short stature might constitute a risk of depression and that th...

  1. Young Norwegian-Pakistani Women and Sport: How Does Culture and Religiosity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walseth, Kristin; Strandbu, Åse

    2014-01-01

    Studies from several countries show that girls with an immigrant background participate in organized sports to a lesser extent than other young people. Barriers related to culture and religion serve in many of these studies as explanations. In this article we suggest that the notions of culture and religion in this field of studies could be…

  2. Grey matter volume and cortical structure in Prader-Willi syndrome compared to typically developing young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E. Manning

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS is a neurodevelopmental disorder of genomic imprinting, presenting with a characteristic overeating disorder, mild to moderate intellectual disability, and a variable range of social and behavioral difficulties. Consequently, widespread alterations in neural structure and developmental and maturational trajectory would be expected. To date, there have been few quantitative and systematic studies of brain morphology in PWS, although alterations of volume and of cortical organisation have been reported. This study aimed to investigate, in detail, the structure of grey matter and cortex in the brain in a sample of young adults with PWS in a well-matched case-controlled analysis. 20 young adults with PWS, aged 19–27 years, underwent multiparameter mapping magnetic resonance imaging sequences, from which measures of grey matter volume, cortical thickness and magnetisation transfer saturation, as a proxy measure of myelination, were examined. These variables were investigated in comparison to a control group of 40 typically developing young adults, matched for age and sex. A voxel-based morphometry analysis identified large and widespread bilateral clusters of both increased and decreased grey matter volume in the brain in PWS. In particular, widespread areas of increased volume encompassed parts of the prefrontal cortex, especially medially, the majority of the cingulate cortices, from anterior to posterior aspects, insula cortices, and areas of the parietal and temporal cortices. Increased volume was also reported in the caudate, putamen and thalamus. The most ventromedial prefrontal areas, in contrast, showed reduced volume, as did the parts of the medial temporal lobe, bilateral temporal poles, and a small cluster in the right lateral prefrontal cortex. Analysis of cortical structure revealed that areas of increased volume in the PWS group were largely driven by greater cortical thickness. Conversely, analysis of

  3. Grey matter volume and cortical structure in Prader-Willi syndrome compared to typically developing young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Katherine E; Tait, Roger; Suckling, John; Holland, Anthony J

    2018-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder of genomic imprinting, presenting with a characteristic overeating disorder, mild to moderate intellectual disability, and a variable range of social and behavioral difficulties. Consequently, widespread alterations in neural structure and developmental and maturational trajectory would be expected. To date, there have been few quantitative and systematic studies of brain morphology in PWS, although alterations of volume and of cortical organisation have been reported. This study aimed to investigate, in detail, the structure of grey matter and cortex in the brain in a sample of young adults with PWS in a well-matched case-controlled analysis. 20 young adults with PWS, aged 19-27 years, underwent multiparameter mapping magnetic resonance imaging sequences, from which measures of grey matter volume, cortical thickness and magnetisation transfer saturation, as a proxy measure of myelination, were examined. These variables were investigated in comparison to a control group of 40 typically developing young adults, matched for age and sex. A voxel-based morphometry analysis identified large and widespread bilateral clusters of both increased and decreased grey matter volume in the brain in PWS. In particular, widespread areas of increased volume encompassed parts of the prefrontal cortex, especially medially, the majority of the cingulate cortices, from anterior to posterior aspects, insula cortices, and areas of the parietal and temporal cortices. Increased volume was also reported in the caudate, putamen and thalamus. The most ventromedial prefrontal areas, in contrast, showed reduced volume, as did the parts of the medial temporal lobe, bilateral temporal poles, and a small cluster in the right lateral prefrontal cortex. Analysis of cortical structure revealed that areas of increased volume in the PWS group were largely driven by greater cortical thickness. Conversely, analysis of myelin content using

  4. An Informal Discussion on Internet Matters. Moral Construction for Children and Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaoguang, Yang

    2006-01-01

    The social problems triggered by Internet are legion. Computer games and such high-tech achievements of the Internet that used to be regarded as "angels" are today frequently playing the role of "demons." As the times advance, Internet ethics have become a new challenge facing educational workers. Today, when our country is…

  5. Prosocial Conduct in Urban Middle Schools: Do Young Adolescents' Experiences of the School Context Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    White, Samantha Jane Almaraz Simmons

    2013-01-01

    Young adolescents spend the majority of their time in school, yet little is known about how the school context is associated with their prosocial conduct. The current study focused on 1) the extent to which individual students were teamed with their classmates and 2) their exposure to ethnically diverse peers, and examined the processes by which these aspects of the school context were associated with their prosocial conduct. Multilevel mediation models were fit to multiply imputed question...

  6. White matter structure in young adults with familial risk for psychosis - The Oulu Brain and Mind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivukangas, Jenni; Björnholm, Lassi; Tervonen, Osmo; Miettunen, Jouko; Nordström, Tanja; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Mäki, Pirjo; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Mukkala, Sari; Moilanen, Irma; Barnett, Jennifer H; Jones, Peter B; Nikkinen, Juha; Veijola, Juha

    2015-09-30

    According to the disconnectivity model, disruptions in neural connectivity play an essential role in the pathology of schizophrenia. The aim of this study was to determine whether these abnormalities are present in young adults with familial risk (FR) for psychosis in the general population based sample. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tract-based spatial statistics to compare whole-brain fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and axial and radial diffusion in 47 (17 males) FR subjects to 51 controls (17 males). All the participants were aged between 20 and 25 years and were members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (Oulu Brain and Mind Study). Region of interest analyses were conducted for 12 tracts. Separately, we analysed whole-brain FA for the subgroup with FR for schizophrenia (n=13) compared with 13 gender-matched controls. Contrary to our expectations there were no differences in any of the DTI measures between FR and control groups. This suggests that white matter abnormalities may not be a genetic feature for risk of psychosis and preceding the onset of a psychotic disorder. Our findings do not support the theory of disconnectivity as a primary sign of psychosis in young adults with FR for the illness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Changing Face of World Cities. Young Adult Children of Immigrants in Europe and the United States.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.J.; Mollenkopf, J.

    2012-01-01

    A seismic population shift is taking place as many formerly racially homogeneous cities in the West attract a diverse influx of newcomers seeking economic and social advancement. In The Changing Face of World Cities, a distinguished group of immigration experts presents the first systematic,

  8. Young Children in Immigrant Families Face Higher Risk of Food Insecurity. Research Brief. Publication #2009-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Randy; Horowitz, Allison; Fortuny, Karina; Bronte-Tinkew, Jacinta; Zaslow, Martha

    2009-01-01

    Children in immigrant families are more likely than children in native-born families to face a number of risk factors for poor developmental outcomes, including higher poverty rates, lower household incomes, and linguistic isolation, (for example, when older children and adults in a household have difficulty speaking English). Previous research…

  9. The effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge: An intervention study in early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, C.; de Mey, J.R.P.B.; van Kruistum, C.J.; van Oers, B.

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on the development of young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge. This study can be characterized as a quasi-experimental study with a

  10. Young athletes' awareness and monitoring of anti-doping in daily life: Does motivation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, D K C; Donovan, R J; Lentillon-Kaestner, V; Hardcastle, S J; Dimmock, J A; Keatley, D A; Hagger, M S

    2015-12-01

    This study was a preliminarily investigation into the prevention of unintentional doping on the basis of self-determination theory (SDT). Specifically, we examined the relationship between athletes' motives for doping avoidance and their behavior when offered an unfamiliar food product. Participants were young Australian athletes (n = 410) that were offered a free lollipop prior to completing a questionnaire. It was noted whether participants refused to take or eat the lollipop and whether they read the ingredients of the lollipop. The questionnaire assessed autonomous and controlled forms of motivation, amotivation, doping intentions, and adherence regarding doping avoidance behaviors. The results showed that young athletes who adopted controlled reasons to avoid doping in sport (e.g., not getting caught) tended to report higher adherence to behaviors related to avoiding and monitoring banned substances, whereas those who adopted autonomous reasons (e.g., anti-doping being consistent with life goals) appeared to be more willing to read the ingredients of the provided food. The significant interaction effect between autonomous and controlled motivation indicated that autonomous motivation was more predictive to doping intention for athletes with low controlled motivation. It is concluded that SDT may help understand the motivational processes of the prevention of unintentional doping in sport. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Emotion talk in the context of young people self?harming: facing the feelings in family therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Alice; Schmidt, Petra

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the use of emotion talk in the context of using a manualised approach to family therapy where the presenting problem is self?harm. Whilst we understand that there is an internal aspect to emotion, we also consider emotions to be socially purposeful, culturally constructed and interactional. We found that within the presenting families, negative emotions were often talked about as located within the young person. Through using ?emotion talk? (Fredman, 2004) in deconstruc...

  12. Gender Still Matters: Effects of Workplace Discrimination on Employment Schedules of Young Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Plickert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The influx of women into the legal profession has significantly changed the landscape of legal practice. Women lawyers today no longer face the challenges to entering the legal profession they encountered thirty years ago. However, despite these advancements, research continues to demonstrate that there are still gender-based issues women have to face in the legal workplace. Among these issues to date are the difficulties in combining responsibilities of work with responsibilities of families and children that underpin women’s employment and earning disadvantages. Using survey data from a national representative U.S. panel study of lawyers, we examine how work schedules, comparing full-time to part-time work, vary by personal disposition and workplace characteristics. Drawing from prominent explanations of gender inequality in the legal profession, we focus on inquiries of commitment to work, performance, ideal worker expectations, practice settings, and job satisfaction among dimensions of workplace characteristics and examine their effects on women and men lawyers’ work schedules. Logistic regression results show that work schedules significantly vary by gender, parental role, and experience of workplace discrimination. We find that, although all parents experience types of discrimination, there are still major differences in work schedules between mothers and fathers. Our study adds to the gender debate of employment and organizations by examining quantitatively experiences of workplace discrimination.

  13. Young women's consistency of contraceptive use – Does depression or stress matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Caroline; Trussell, James; Barber, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background We prospectively examined the influence of young women's depression and stress symptoms on their weekly consistency of contraceptive method use. Study Design Women ages 18-20 years (n=689) participating in a longitudinal cohort study completed weekly journals assessing reproductive, relationship and health characteristics. We used data through 12 months follow-up (n=8,877 journals) to examine relationships between baseline depression (CES-D) and stress (PSS-10) symptoms and consistency of contraceptive methods use with sexual activity each week. We analyzed data with random effects multinomial logistic regression. Results Consistent contraceptive use (72% of weeks) was 10-15 percentage points lower among women with moderate/severe baseline depression and stress symptoms than those without symptoms (p-valuescontraceptive consistency each week than those without symptoms, respectively (OR 0.53, CI 0.31-0.91 and OR 0.31, CI 0.18-0.52). Stress predicted inconsistent use of oral contraceptives (OR 0.27, CI 0.12-0.58), condoms (OR 0.40, CI 0.23-0.69) and withdrawal (OR 0.12, CI 0.03-0.50). Conclusion Women with depression and stress symptoms appear to be at increased risk for user-related contraceptive failures, especially for the most commonly used methods. Implications Our study has shown that young women with elevated depression and stress symptoms appear to be at risk for inconsistent contraceptive use patterns, especially for the most common methods that require greater user effort and diligence. Based upon these findings, clinicians should consider women's psychological and emotional status when helping patients with contraceptive decision-making and management. User-dependent contraceptive method efficacy is important to address in education and counseling sessions, and women with stress or depression may be ideal candidates for long-acting reversible methods, which offer highly effective options with less user-related burden. Ongoing research will

  14. Young women's consistency of contraceptive use--does depression or stress matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stidham Hall, Kelli; Moreau, Caroline; Trussell, James; Barber, Jennifer

    2013-11-01

    We prospectively examined the influence of young women's depression and stress symptoms on their weekly consistency of contraceptive method use. Women ages 18-20 years (n = 689) participating in a longitudinal cohort study completed weekly journals assessing reproductive, relationship and health characteristics. We used data through 12 months of follow-up (n = 8877 journals) to examine relationships between baseline depression (CES-D) and stress (PSS-10) symptoms and consistency of contraceptive methods use with sexual activity each week. We analyzed data with random effects multivarible logistic regression. Consistent contraceptive use (72% of weeks) was 10-15 percentage points lower among women with moderate/severe baseline depression and stress symptoms than those without symptoms (p contraceptive consistency each week than those without symptoms, respectively (OR 0.53, CI 0.31-0.91 and OR 0.31, CI 0.18-0.52). Stress predicted inconsistent use of oral contraceptives (OR 0.27, CI 0.12-0.58), condoms (OR 0.40, CI 0.23-0.69) and withdrawal (OR 0.12, CI 0.03-0.50). Women with depression and stress symptoms appear to be at increased risk for user-related contraceptive failures, especially for the most commonly used methods. Our study has shown that young women with elevated depression and stress symptoms appear to be at risk for inconsistent contraceptive use patterns, especially for the most common methods that require greater user effort and diligence. Based upon these findings, clinicians should consider women's psychological and emotional status when helping patients with contraceptive decision-making and management. User-dependent contraceptive method efficacy is important to address in education and counseling sessions, and women with stress or depression may be ideal candidates for long-acting reversible methods, which offer highly effective options with less user-related burden. Ongoing research will provide a greater understanding of how young women

  15. Size Matters Stature Is Related to Diagnoses of Depression in Young Military Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Krupnik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theories suggest that depression has evolved as an adaptation to insurmountable adversity or defeat. One prediction stemming from these models is that individual attributes associated with defeat in a given social environment could be risk factors for depression. We hypothesized that in young military men, where physical prowess was important, short stature might constitute a risk of depression and that this risk would be specific to depression and not to other prevalent mental disorders such as anxiety. A preliminary analysis of the diagnostic profile of a sample of male military personnel treated for mental health indicates that men both shorter and taller than average by 1 standard deviation may be predisposed to higher rates of depressive but not anxiety disorders. Practical and theoretical implications of our findings are discussed.

  16. Because Political Knowledge Matters: The Impact of Deliberation on Young Citizens’ Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Deligiaouri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the importance of “knowledge” and “access to information” in the formation of young citizens’ opinion through deliberative procedures. The research presented in this paper is grounded in the theoretical framework of deliberative democracy as a democratic model and procedure that allows participants to be engaged in a rational and open dialogue before deciding on a particular issue. Our research draws empirically upon a deliberative event that took place in October 2014 at the Western Macedonia University of Applied Sciences in Greece. The topic of deliberation was “Political Public Opinion Polls.” The results of this study are commensurate with the dominant thesis in the relevant literature, which underlines that the deliberative procedure enriches the knowledge of citizens and thus enables them to participate effectively in the decision making process.

  17. The Cedar Project: resilience in the face of HIV vulnerability within a cohort study involving young Indigenous people who use drugs in three Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Margo E; Jongbloed, Kate A; Richardson, Chris G; Henderson, Earl W; Pooyak, Sherri D; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Christian, Wunuxtsin M; Schechter, Martin T; Spittal, Patricia M

    2015-10-29

    Indigenous scholars have long argued that it is critical for researchers to identify factors related to cultural connectedness that may protect against HIV and hepatitis C infection and buffer the effects of historical and lifetime trauma among young Indigenous peoples. To our knowledge, no previous epidemiological studies have explored the effect of historical and lifetime traumas, cultural connectedness, and risk factors on resilience among young, urban Indigenous people who use drugs. This study explored risk and protective factors associated with resilience among participants of the Cedar Project, a cohort study involving young Indigenous peoples who use illicit drugs in three cities in British Columbia, Canada. We utilized the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale to measure resilience, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire to measure childhood maltreatment, and the Symptom-Checklist 90-Revised to measure psychological distress among study participants. Multivariate linear mixed effects models (LME) estimated the effect of study variables on mean change in resilience scores between 2011-2012. Among 191 participants, 92 % had experienced any form of childhood maltreatment, 48 % had a parent who attended residential school, and 71 % had been in foster care. The overall mean resilience score was 62.04, with no differences between the young men and women (p = 0.871). Adjusted factors associated with higher mean resilience scores included having grown up in a family that often/always lived by traditional culture (B = 7.70, p = 0.004) and had often/always spoken their traditional language at home (B = 10.52, p resilience scores. Adjusted factors associated with diminished mean resilience scores included severe childhood emotional neglect (B = -13.34, p = 0.001), smoking crack daily (B = -5.42, p = 0.044), having been sexual assaulted (B =  14.42, p = 0.041), and blackout drinking (B = -6.19, p = 0.027). Young people in this study have faced multiple complex challenges to

  18. Gender matters in the transition to employment for young adults with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Cagliostro, Elaine; Albarico, Mikhaela; Mortaji, Neda; Srikanthan, Dilakshan

    2017-10-17

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of gender in the transition to employment for young adults with physical disabilities. This study drew on in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 33 participants (23 youth and 10 clinicians). The youth in our sample included 13 females (mean age 22.9) and 10 males (mean age 21.3) who had various types of physical disabilities. The person-environment-occupation (PEO) model informed our analysis. Our research showed several similarities and some differences between young males and females with physical disabilities as they transition to employment and adulthood at the person, environment, and occupational level. At the person level, issues included managing their condition, self-advocacy, and willingness to ask for help. At the environment level, themes focused on parental and social support, accommodations, stigma and discrimination, and transportation challenges. Finally, in the occupation component of the PEO model, we found that males and females with disabilities had different levels of engagement in employment. Although most clinicians commented on gender differences, many reported that they did not tailor their clinical practice accordingly. Gender sensitive vocational approaches are needed for youth with disabilities as they transition to employment. Implications for rehabilitation Clinicians, educators, and parents should encourage independence and self-advocacy skills among youth so that they are prepared to ask for accommodations that they need to succeed in a work environment. Clinicians and educators should present a variety of career and job options to youth, including science, technology, engineering, and math disciplines, an area where youth with disabilities, particularly females, are under-represented. Males may feel less able to self-advocate and seek support and may need additional assistance from clinicians, educators, and parents. Clinicians should tailor their vocational rehabilitation

  19. Altered white matter microstructure associated with mild and moderate depressive symptoms in young adults, a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi Sherbaf, Farzaneh; Same, Kaveh; Ashraf-Ganjouei, Amir; Aarabi, Mohammad H

    2018-05-23

    In the context of growing evidence supporting disturbed neural connectivity in the pathogenesis of depressive symptoms, we used the diffusion tensor imaging technique to investigate white matter disruptions in previously undiagnosed and hence treatment-naive young adults with mild and moderate depressive symptoms screened by Beck's Depression Inventory test compared with age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls. This is the first diffusion tensor imaging study to assess minor forms of depression. We hypothesized that subthreshold depressive symptoms share the same neural disruptions as major depressive disorder (MDD). Each group included 47 participants with a mean age of 20.1±1.1 years. The exploratory region of interest method was used to assess integrity (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity) in 48 regions of the brain based on Mori atlas. Data were recruited from the Southwest University Longitudinal Imaging Multimodal Brain Data Repository. The following pathways showed significant microstructural changes by means of reduced fractional anisotropy in the group with depressive symptoms compared with normal participants: pontine crossing tract; genu of the corpus callosum; posterior limb of the internal capsule (bilaterally); and anterior, posterior, and superior corona radiata (bilaterally). None of the above regions, but the middle cerebellar peduncle and the right superior fronto-occipital fasciculus were shown to differ significantly in the mean diffusivity values between the two groups. On the basis of the current results, our findings provide evidence that the white matter impairments in the interhemispheric connections and frontal-subcortical neural circuits may play a key role in the pathogenesis of depression in young adults. The similarity of neural underpinnings in MDD and minor depressive disorder in this study further proves that these two mood disorders exist in a continuum, and milder depressive symptoms can herald a major episode

  20. White matter abnormalities in young males with antisocial personality disorder Evidence from voxel-based morphometry-diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daxing Wu; Ying Zhao; Jian Liao; Huifang Yin; Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry-diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra analysis was used to investigate the structural characteristics of white matter in young males with antisocial personality disorder (APD) and healthy controls without APD. The results revealed that APD subjects, relative to healthy subjects, exhibited increased white matter volume in the bilateral prefrontal lobe, right insula, precentral gyrus, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right precuneus, right middle occipital lobe, right parahippocampal gyrus and bilateral cingulate, and decreased volume in the middle temporal cortex and right cerebellum. The white matter volume in the medial frontal gyrus was significantly correlated with antisocial type scores on the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire in APD subjects. These experimental findings indicate that white matter abnormalities in several brain areas may contribute to antisocial behaviors in APD subjects.

  1. Examining gray matter structures associated with individual differences in global life satisfaction in a large sample of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Ding, Ke; Yang, Zetian; Dang, Xiaobin; Hu, Siyuan; Song, Yiying; Liu, Jia

    2015-07-01

    Although much attention has been directed towards life satisfaction that refers to an individual's general cognitive evaluations of his or her life as a whole, little is known about the neural basis underlying global life satisfaction. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the structural neural correlates of life satisfaction in a large sample of young healthy adults (n = 299). We showed that individuals' life satisfaction was positively correlated with the regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and negatively correlated with the rGMV in the left precuneus and left ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This pattern of results remained significant even after controlling for the effect of general positive and negative affect, suggesting a unique structural correlates of life satisfaction. Furthermore, we found that self-esteem partially mediated the association between the PHG volume and life satisfaction as well as that between the precuneus volume and global life satisfaction. Taken together, we provide the first evidence for the structural neural basis of life satisfaction, and highlight that self-esteem might play a crucial role in cultivating an individual's life satisfaction. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Examining gray matter structures associated with individual differences in global life satisfaction in a large sample of young adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Feng; Ding, Ke; Yang, Zetian; Dang, Xiaobin; Hu, Siyuan; Song, Yiying

    2015-01-01

    Although much attention has been directed towards life satisfaction that refers to an individual’s general cognitive evaluations of his or her life as a whole, little is known about the neural basis underlying global life satisfaction. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate the structural neural correlates of life satisfaction in a large sample of young healthy adults (n = 299). We showed that individuals’ life satisfaction was positively correlated with the regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the right parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), and negatively correlated with the rGMV in the left precuneus and left ventromedial prefrontal cortex. This pattern of results remained significant even after controlling for the effect of general positive and negative affect, suggesting a unique structural correlates of life satisfaction. Furthermore, we found that self-esteem partially mediated the association between the PHG volume and life satisfaction as well as that between the precuneus volume and global life satisfaction. Taken together, we provide the first evidence for the structural neural basis of life satisfaction, and highlight that self-esteem might play a crucial role in cultivating an individual’s life satisfaction. PMID:25406366

  3. Associations between autistic traits and fractional anisotropy values in white matter tracts in a nonclinical sample of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradstreet, Lauren E; Hecht, Erin E; King, Tricia Z; Turner, Jessica L; Robins, Diana L

    2017-01-01

    Whereas a number of studies have examined relationships among brain activity, social cognitive skills, and autistic traits, fewer studies have evaluated whether structural connections among brain regions relate to these traits and skills. Uncinate fasciculus (UF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) are white matter tracts that may underpin the behavioral expression of these skills because they connect regions within or provide sensory information to brain areas implicated in social cognition, and structural differences in these tracts have been associated with autistic traits. We examined relationships among self-reported autistic traits, mentalizing, and water diffusivity in UF and ILF in a nonclinical sample of 24 young adults (mean age = 21.92 years, SD = 4.72 years; 15 women). We measured autistic traits using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient, and we measured mentalizing using the Dynamic Interactive Shapes Clips task. We used Tract-Based Spatial Statistics and randomize to examine relationships among fractional anisotropy (FA) values in bilateral ILF and UF, age, cognitive abilities, autistic traits, and mentalizing. Autistic traits were positively related to FA values in left ILF. No other relationships between FA values and other variables were significant. Results suggest that left ILF may be involved in the expression of autistic traits in individuals without clinical diagnoses.

  4. Comparison of particulate matter exposure estimates in young children from personal sampling equipment and a robotic sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagona, Jessica A; Shalat, Stuart L; Wang, Zuocheng; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Hernandez, Marta; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2017-05-01

    Accurate characterization of particulate matter (PM) exposure in young children is difficult, because personal samplers are often too heavy, bulky or impractical to be used. The Pretoddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER) sampler was developed to help address this problem. In this study, we measured inhalable PM exposures in 2-year-olds via a lightweight personal sampler worn in a small backpack and evaluated the use of a robotic sampler with an identical sampling train for estimating PM exposure in this age group. PM mass concentrations measured by the personal sampler ranged from 100 to almost 1,200 μg/m 3 , with a median value of 331 μg/m 3 . PM concentrations measured by PIPER were considerably lower, ranging from 14 to 513 μg/m 3 with a median value of 56 μg/m 3 . Floor cleaning habits and activity patterns of the 2-year-olds varied widely by home; vigorous play and recent floor cleaning were most associated with higher personal exposure. Our findings highlight the need for additional characterization of children's activity patterns and their effect on personal exposures.

  5. Stories of HERMES: An Analysis of the Issues Faced by Young European Researchers in Migration and Ethnic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maren Borkert

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces contemporary migration research from the perspective of a cross-section of itinerant European academics at the early stages of their research career. Specifically, it examines self-reflexivity as an effective tool to support qualitative data analysis in light of the multiple dimensions of migration and ethnic research in Europe. As part of this reflexivity, the paper considers the complex relations and relationships that shape researcher-participant interaction. It shows how these are made even more intricate and confusing by research conducted outside ones home country and/ or with national communities to which one does not "naturally" belong. Over recent years, the European Commission has sought to foster inter-academic exchange, especially amongst new European researchers. Emphasis has been placed on the need to build up effective international and inter-disciplinary research networks but, we argue, very little attention has been directed towards how the processes of up-rooting and re-grouping facilitate and/ or restrict the research experience. Using self-reflexivity, and in light of the particular complexities of carrying out international migration research, the paper will review these issues and seek to increase our understanding of how young European academics become successful transnational researchers. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060397

  6. Emotion talk in the context of young people self‐harming: facing the feelings in family therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Petra

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the use of emotion talk in the context of using a manualised approach to family therapy where the presenting problem is self‐harm. Whilst we understand that there is an internal aspect to emotion, we also consider emotions to be socially purposeful, culturally constructed and interactional. We found that within the presenting families, negative emotions were often talked about as located within the young person. Through using ‘emotion talk’ (Fredman, 2004) in deconstructing and tracking emotions and exploring how emotions connected to family‐of‐origin and cultural contexts, we developed an interactional understanding of these emotions. This led to better emotional regulation within the family and offered alternative ways of relating. The article discusses the use of relational reflexivity, and using the therapist and team's emotions to enable the therapeutic process, encouraging reflexivity on the self of the therapist in relation to work with emotions. Practitioner points Emotions can be seen as both a reflection of feelings experienced by the individual and as a communication.An interactional understanding of emotions can be used therapeutically.Therapists should explore emotional displays and track the interactional patterns within the therapeutic system.Therapists should self‐reflexive about ways of doing emotions and use this awareness in practice. PMID:27667879

  7. Emotion talk in the context of young people self-harming: facing the feelings in family therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Alice; Schmidt, Petra

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the use of emotion talk in the context of using a manualised approach to family therapy where the presenting problem is self-harm. Whilst we understand that there is an internal aspect to emotion, we also consider emotions to be socially purposeful, culturally constructed and interactional. We found that within the presenting families, negative emotions were often talked about as located within the young person. Through using 'emotion talk' (Fredman, 2004) in deconstructing and tracking emotions and exploring how emotions connected to family-of-origin and cultural contexts, we developed an interactional understanding of these emotions. This led to better emotional regulation within the family and offered alternative ways of relating. The article discusses the use of relational reflexivity, and using the therapist and team's emotions to enable the therapeutic process, encouraging reflexivity on the self of the therapist in relation to work with emotions. Emotions can be seen as both a reflection of feelings experienced by the individual and as a communication.An interactional understanding of emotions can be used therapeutically.Therapists should explore emotional displays and track the interactional patterns within the therapeutic system.Therapists should self-reflexive about ways of doing emotions and use this awareness in practice.

  8. An isotopic investigation of the temperature response of young and old soil organic matter respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Nancy; Cloy, Joanna; Garnett, Mark; Reay, David; Smith, Keith; Otten, Wilfred

    2010-05-01

    The effect of temperature on rates of soil respiration is critical to our understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle and potential feedbacks to climate change. The relative temperature sensitivity of labile and recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM) is still controversial; different studies have produced contrasting results, indicating limited understanding of the underlying relationships between stabilisation processes and temperature. Current global carbon cycle models still rely on the assumption that SOM pools with different decay rates have the same temperature response, yet small differences in temperature response between pools could lead to very different climate feedbacks. This study examined the temperature response of soil respiration and the age of soil carbon respired from radiocarbon dated fractions of SOM (free, intra-aggregate and mineral-bound) and whole soils (organic and mineral layers). Samples were collected from a peaty gley soil from Harwood Forest, Northumberland, UK. SOM fractions were isolated from organic layer (5 - 17 cm) material using high density flotation and ultrasonic disaggregation - designated as free (aggregate (aggregates > 1.8 g cm-3) and mineral-bound (> 1.8 g cm-3) SOM. Fractions were analysed for chemical composition (FTIR, CHN analysis, ICP-OES), 14C (AMS), δ13C and δ15N (MS) and thermal properties (DSC). SOM fractions and bulk soil from the organic layer and the mineral layer (20 - 30 cm) were incubated in sealed vessels at 30 ° C and 10 ° C for 3 or 9 months to allow accumulation of CO2 sufficient for sampling. Accumulated respired CO2 samples were collected on zeolite molecular sieve cartridges and used for AMS radiocarbon dating. In parallel, material from the same fractions and layers were incubated at 10 ° C, 15 ° C, 25 ° C and 30 ° C for 6 months and sampled weekly for CO2 flux measurements using GC chromatography. Initial data have shown radiocarbon ages ranging from modern to 219 y BP in bulk soil from

  9. Application of 3.0T magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging in the evaluation on the development of normal brain white matter in infants and young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-li XU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To calculate the radios of peak area of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy metabolites in brain white matter of normal infants and young children, to observe the features of metabolite spectra, and to explore the relations between their ratio with age. Methods The peak areas of metabolites, including N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline (Cho, creatine (Cr, and their ratio of NAA/Cho, NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, in paraventricular white matter of 180 normal infants and young children with different ages as evaluated by multi-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results In paraventricular white matter, spectrum of NAA increased, and that of Cho decreased gradually, while both of them were stabilized at 2 years old. Cr was increased obviously within 3 months, and stabilized after 4 months. Significant differences were found in ratio of different metabolites in paraventricular white matter in different ages (P<0.05. The ratios of NAA/Cho and NAA/Cr in paraventricular white mater were positively correlated with age (r=0.741, r=0.625, while that of Cho/Cr was negatively correlated with age (r=–0.552, P<0.05. Conclusion The ratios of different metabolites are different in brain white matter in infants of different ages. Metabolites concentrations in brain white matter are correlated to some extent with age, which may provide a diagnostic criterion for evaluation of normal brain development and abnormal brain metabolism. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.12.05

  10. On Being Disrupted: Youth Work and Black Lives Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Marie Bonfiglio

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Youth workers are constantly figuring out how to respond to their young people, especially in times of disruption. The Black Lives Matter movement came close to home in the aftermath of the shooting by police of Jamar Clark, a young black man in north Minneapolis. This article is a reflection on the tensions that six area youth workers faced and the variety of roles that they played in working with their young people. The goal of this paper is to inspire other youth workers to be bold to act in times of disruption in order to support their young people and challenge the systems that impact them.

  11. Potential gray matter unpruned in adolescents and young adults dependent on dextromethorphan-containing cough syrups: evidence from cortical and subcortical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Ying-Wei; Lv, Xiao-Fei; Jiang, Gui-Hua; Su, Huan-Huan; Ma, Xiao-Fen; Tian, Jun-Zhang; Zhuo, Fu-Zhen

    2017-10-01

    Adolescence is a unique period in neurodevelopment. Dextromethorphan (DXM)-containing cough syrups are new addictive drugs used by adolescents and young adults. The effects of chronic DXM abuse on neurodevelopment in adolescents and young adults are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in cortical thickness and subcortical gray matter volumes between DXM-dependent adolescents and young adults and healthy controls, and to explore relationships between alternations in cortical thickness/subcortical volume and DXM duration, initial age of DXM use, as well as impulsive behavior in DXM-dependent adolescents and young adults. Thirty-eight DXM-dependent adolescents and young adults and 18 healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance imaging scanning, and cortical thickness across the continuous cortical surface was compared between the groups. Subcortical volumes were compared on a structure-by-structure basis. DXM-dependent adolescents and young adults exhibited significantly increased cortical thickness in the bilateral precuneus (PreC), left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. L), left inferior parietal lobe (IPL. L), right precentral gyrus (PreCG. R), right lateral occipital cortex (LOC. R), right inferior temporal cortex (ITC. R), right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC. R) and right transverse temporal gyrus (TTG. R) (all p < 0.05, multiple comparison corrected) and increased subcortical volumes of the right thalamus and right pallidum. There was a significant correlation between initial age of DXM use and cortical thickness of the DLPFC. L and PreCG. R. A significant correlation was also found between cortical thickness of the DLPFC. L and impulsive behavior in patients. This was the first study to explore relationships between cortical thickness/subcortical volume and impulsive behavior in adolescents dependent on DXM. These structural changes might explain the neurobiological mechanism of impulsive behavior in

  12. No Matter How I Think, It Already Hurts: Self-Stigmatized Feelings and Face Concern of Chinese Caregivers of People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue

    2015-01-01

    This study used mixed-methods design to explore internalized self-stigma among family caregivers (ISFC) of people with intellectual disability (ID) in China, where face culture and collective emotions are emphasized. A total of 120 primary caregivers of people with ID were assessed for ISFC, face concern and psychological distress at the survey…

  13. Face to Face

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Leckey

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowabl...

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging of normal-appearing white matter in children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arulrajah, Sahayini; Ertan, Gulhan; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.; Jordan, Lori; Khaykin, Elizabeth; Izbudak, Izlem

    2009-01-01

    Patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) frequently present with neurocognitive deficits which may be related to impaired white matter maturation. The purposes of our study were (a) to evaluate the white matter maturation in children and young adults with TSC by comparing the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) with age-matched healthy controls and (b) to determine the association of NAWM-ADC values with the severity of neurological symptoms in TSC patients. Twenty-three TSC patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion-weighted imaging between January 2000 and January 2009 were studied. ADC values of NAWM were measured in the frontal, parietal, occipital lobes, and in the pons. ADC data were compared with age-matched normative data derived from healthy controls. Patients were neurologically scored by a pediatric neurologist. Two-sample t tests and linear regression were conducted using STATA software. ADC values of NAWM were higher in TSC patients compared with healthy controls; the increase, however, only reached statistical significance in the frontal white matter and pons in the age group between 96 and 144 months and in the right parietal and occipital white matter in the age group above 144 months. There was no significant change in neurological severity score per unit increase in ADC measurement. ADC values of NAWM appear increased in TSC patients. The abnormal ADC values suggest that myelination may be delayed/impaired in TSC patients, which could explain global neurocognitive deficits. Larger prospective studies, including diffusion tensor imaging, are necessary to validate our results. (orig.)

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging of normal-appearing white matter in children and young adults with tuberous sclerosis complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arulrajah, Sahayini; Ertan, Gulhan; Tekes, Aylin; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Jordan, Lori [Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Division of Pediatric Neurology, Baltimore, MD (United States); Khaykin, Elizabeth [Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Department of Mental Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Izbudak, Izlem [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) frequently present with neurocognitive deficits which may be related to impaired white matter maturation. The purposes of our study were (a) to evaluate the white matter maturation in children and young adults with TSC by comparing the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) with age-matched healthy controls and (b) to determine the association of NAWM-ADC values with the severity of neurological symptoms in TSC patients. Twenty-three TSC patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging/diffusion-weighted imaging between January 2000 and January 2009 were studied. ADC values of NAWM were measured in the frontal, parietal, occipital lobes, and in the pons. ADC data were compared with age-matched normative data derived from healthy controls. Patients were neurologically scored by a pediatric neurologist. Two-sample t tests and linear regression were conducted using STATA software. ADC values of NAWM were higher in TSC patients compared with healthy controls; the increase, however, only reached statistical significance in the frontal white matter and pons in the age group between 96 and 144 months and in the right parietal and occipital white matter in the age group above 144 months. There was no significant change in neurological severity score per unit increase in ADC measurement. ADC values of NAWM appear increased in TSC patients. The abnormal ADC values suggest that myelination may be delayed/impaired in TSC patients, which could explain global neurocognitive deficits. Larger prospective studies, including diffusion tensor imaging, are necessary to validate our results. (orig.)

  16. Use of social media to encourage face to face communication

    OpenAIRE

    Čufer, Matija; Knežević, Anja

    2017-01-01

    Face-to-face communication is of key importance for successful socialization of a person into a society. Social media makes a good complement to such form of communication. Parents and pedagogical workers must be aware of children not replacing face-to-face communication for communication through the social media in the process of education and growing up. Young people nevertheless frequently communicate through the social media. For this reason, we tried to extract positive features of those...

  17. Families' Social Backgrounds Matter: Socio-Economic Factors, Home Learning and Young Children's Language, Literacy and Social Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartas, Dimitra

    2011-01-01

    Parental support with children's learning is considered to be one pathway through which socio-economic factors influence child competencies. Utilising a national longitudinal sample from the Millennium Cohort Study, this study examined the relationship between home learning and parents' socio-economic status and their impact on young children's…

  18. Self-Regulation and Metacognition in Young Children: Does It Matter if Adults Are Present or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Sue

    2016-01-01

    This paper brings together two areas of considerable interest to researchers, practitioners and policy makers: young children's developing self-regulation and metacognition, and the impact of adult (practitioner) presence or absence on their behaviour and learning. One hundred and twenty-eight observations of 29 children aged 4-5 years in a…

  19. Face to Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Leckey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowable. As with contradictory propositions about homosexuality, contradiction does not undermine discourse but makes it stronger and more agile. Este artículo utiliza la teoría Queer, más concretamente la literatura sobre Bowers vs. Hardwick, para analizar los debates sobre la legislación propuesta en Quebec en relación al velo. La teoría Queer arroja luz sobre las respuestas legales al velo. Los debates parlamentarios en Quebec reconstituyen la forma de gobierno, especialmente como secular y unido. El documento pone de relieve el carácter contradictorio e inestable de cuatro binarios: texto legislativo frente a las prácticas sociales; legislación frente a estado; mayoría versus minoría; y conocible frente a incognoscible. Al igual que con las proposiciones contradictorias acerca de la homosexualidad, la contradicción no socava el discurso, sino que lo hace más fuerte y más ágil.

  20. Pre-SMA gray-matter density predicts individual differences in action selection in the face of conscious and unconscious response conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gaal, S.; Scholte, H.S.; Lamme, V.A.F.; Fahrenfort, J.J.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    The presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) is considered key in contributing to voluntary action selection during response conflict. Here we test whether individual differences in the ability to select appropriate actions in the face of strong (conscious) and weak (virtually unconscious) distracting

  1. Forever Young(er: Potential Age-defying Effects of Long-term Meditation on Gray Matter Atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen eLuders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While overall life expectancy has been increasing, the human brain still begins deteriorating after the first two decades of life and continues degrading further with increasing age. Thus, techniques that diminish the negative impact of aging on the brain are desirable. Existing research, although scarce, suggests meditation to be an attractive candidate in the quest for an accessible and inexpensive, efficacious remedy. Here, we examined the link between age and cerebral gray matter re-analyzing a large sample (n=100 of long-term meditators and control subjects aged between 24 and 77 years. When correlating global and local gray matter with age, we detected negative correlations within both controls and meditators, suggesting a decline over time. However, the slopes of the regression lines were steeper and the correlation coefficients were stronger in controls than in meditators. Moreover, the age-affected brain regions were much more extended in controls than in meditators, with significant group-by-age interactions in numerous clusters throughout the brain. Altogether, these findings seem to suggest less age-related gray matter atrophy in long-term meditation practitioners.

  2. Forever Young(er): potential age-defying effects of long-term meditation on gray matter atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Kurth, Florian

    2015-01-01

    While overall life expectancy has been increasing, the human brain still begins deteriorating after the first two decades of life and continues degrading further with increasing age. Thus, techniques that diminish the negative impact of aging on the brain are desirable. Existing research, although scarce, suggests meditation to be an attractive candidate in the quest for an accessible and inexpensive, efficacious remedy. Here, we examined the link between age and cerebral gray matter re-analyzing a large sample (n = 100) of long-term meditators and control subjects aged between 24 and 77 years. When correlating global and local gray matter with age, we detected negative correlations within both controls and meditators, suggesting a decline over time. However, the slopes of the regression lines were steeper and the correlation coefficients were stronger in controls than in meditators. Moreover, the age-affected brain regions were much more extended in controls than in meditators, with significant group-by-age interactions in numerous clusters throughout the brain. Altogether, these findings seem to suggest less age-related gray matter atrophy in long-term meditation practitioners. PMID:25653628

  3. Responses of young tea (Camellia sinensis) clones to drought and temperature. II. Dry matter production and partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.J.; Carr, M.K.V.

    1996-01-01

    The physiological basis for differences in yields from well-watered and draughted plants of four contrasting clones of tea was studied in terms of light interception, dry matter production and partitioning at a high altitude site in Southern Tanzania where there are marked seasonal variations in rainfall and temperature. The plant dry weights, including roots, were measured eight months after field planting and subsequently at intervals of three to four months, corresponding to the different seasons, during the following two years. Fully irrigated plants of one clone (S15/10) were also harvested after four years in the field. Clones differed in the rates of canopy spread and hence in their capacity to intercept solar radiation. The ‘radiation use efficiency’ (the net total dry matter production per unit of intercepted short-wave radiation) was similar for the four well-watered clones and ranged from 0.40 to 0.66 g MJ −1 , which corresponds closely to values reported for other woody tropical plants. A 16-week drought treatment imposed two years after planting reduced the mean light interception of the four clones by about 25% and the mean radiation use efficiency by 78% to 0.09 g MJ −1 . Clone S15/10, a cultivar from Kenya which produces large yields, partitioned a greater proportion of dry matter to leaves and harvested shoots than the other clones, and correspondingly less to large structural roots. This resulted in a maximum harvest index of 24%, substantially greater than other values reported in the literature. There were seasonal differences in partitioning, with more dry matter being diverted to roots and less to shoots during the cool season. Although the drought treatments had no significant effect on root growth, the amount of dry matter partitioned to leaves, stems and harvested shoots declined by 80–95%. The roots of all four clones extended in depth at similar rates (about 2 mm d −1 ), those of Clone S15/10 reaching 2.8m after four years

  4. Facing Diabetes: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Facing Diabetes: What You Need to Know Past Issues / Fall ... your loved ones. Photos: AP The Faces of Diabetes Diabetes strikes millions of Americans, young and old, ...

  5. White Matter Fractional Anisotropy Correlates With Speed of Processing and Motor Speed in Young Childhood Cancer Survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aukema, Eline J.; Caan, Matthan W.A.; Oudhuis, Nienke; Majoie, Charles; Vos, Frans M.; Reneman, Liesbeth; Last, Bob F.; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y.N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether childhood medulloblastoma and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors have decreased white matter fractional anisotropy (WMFA) and whether WMFA is related to the speed of processing and motor speed. Methods and Materials: For this study, 17 patients (6 medulloblastoma, 5 ALL treated with high-dose methotrexate (MTX) (4 x 5 g/m 2 ) and 6 with low-dose MTX (3 x 2 g/m 2 )) and 17 age-matched controls participated. On a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed, and WMFA values were calculated, including specific regions of interest (ROIs), and correlated with the speed of processing and motor speed. Results: Mean WMFA in the patient group, mean age 14 years (range 8.9 - 16.9), was decreased compared with the control group (p = 0.01), as well as WMFA in the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciliculus (IFO) (p = 0.03) and in the genu of the corpus callosum (gCC) (p = 0.01). Based on neurocognitive results, significant positive correlations were present between processing speed and WMFA in the splenium (sCC) (r = 0.53, p = 0.03) and the body of the corpus callosum (bCC) (r = 0.52, p = 0.03), whereas the right IFO WMFA was related to motor speed (r = 0.49, p < 0.05). Conclusions: White matter tracts, using a 3.0-T MRI scanner, show impairment in childhood cancer survivors, medulloblastoma survivors, and also those treated with high doses of MTX. In particular, white matter tracts in the sCC, bCC and right IFO are positively correlated with speed of processing and motor speed.

  6. The Caledonian face test: A new test of face discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Andrew J; Wilkinson, Frances; Wilson, Hugh R; Gordon, Gael E; Loffler, Gunter

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to develop a clinical test of face perception which is applicable to a wide range of patients and can capture normal variability. The Caledonian face test utilises synthetic faces which combine simplicity with sufficient realism to permit individual identification. Face discrimination thresholds (i.e. minimum difference between faces required for accurate discrimination) were determined in an "odd-one-out" task. The difference between faces was controlled by an adaptive QUEST procedure. A broad range of face discrimination sensitivity was determined from a group (N=52) of young adults (mean 5.75%; SD 1.18; range 3.33-8.84%). The test is fast (3-4 min), repeatable (test-re-test r(2)=0.795) and demonstrates a significant inversion effect. The potential to identify impairments of face discrimination was evaluated by testing LM who reported a lifelong difficulty with face perception. While LM's impairment for two established face tests was close to the criterion for significance (Z-scores of -2.20 and -2.27) for the Caledonian face test, her Z-score was -7.26, implying a more than threefold higher sensitivity. The new face test provides a quantifiable and repeatable assessment of face discrimination ability. The enhanced sensitivity suggests that the Caledonian face test may be capable of detecting more subtle impairments of face perception than available tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Research-based Reflections on How the Educational, Economic and Social Circumstances Faced by Some Children and Young People Can Lead to Significant Disadvantage and Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker Stanley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides detailed reflections on the educational, economic and social circumstances that impact on the lives of many disadvantaged and vulnerable children and young people. Drawing largely on primary research data collected in Romania, Germany and the United Kingdom, three illustrative case studies are presented for consideration focusing on: life in residential care and youth offending institutions; experiences of educational vulnerability; and human trafficking. The methodological approach adopted across the research projects explored, was shaped by the demands and expectations of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC. All of the reported data reflects the views of children and young people who were interviewed as part of three research projects. It is argued that the difficult and challenging circumstances that many children and young people find themselves in, place them at significant disadvantage and increased vulnerability in terms of their social and educational development and life chances.

  8. Seeing the Talker's Face Improves Free Recall of Speech for Young Adults With Normal Hearing but Not Older Adults With Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Mary; Mishra, Sushmit; Stenfelt, Stefan; Lunner, Thomas; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-06-01

    Seeing the talker's face improves speech understanding in noise, possibly releasing resources for cognitive processing. We investigated whether it improves free recall of spoken two-digit numbers. Twenty younger adults with normal hearing and 24 older adults with hearing loss listened to and subsequently recalled lists of 13 two-digit numbers, with alternating male and female talkers. Lists were presented in quiet as well as in stationary and speech-like noise at a signal-to-noise ratio giving approximately 90% intelligibility. Amplification compensated for loss of audibility. Seeing the talker's face improved free recall performance for the younger but not the older group. Poorer performance in background noise was contingent on individual differences in working memory capacity. The effect of seeing the talker's face did not differ in quiet and noise. We have argued that the absence of an effect of seeing the talker's face for older adults with hearing loss may be due to modulation of audiovisual integration mechanisms caused by an interaction between task demands and participant characteristics. In particular, we suggest that executive task demands and interindividual executive skills may play a key role in determining the benefit of seeing the talker's face during a speech-based cognitive task.

  9. A matter of prior knowledge: Canadian young children’s conceptions about the future in the global community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottilia Chareka

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Young Canadian boys and girls aged nine to eleven were asked to consider their personal futures, the future of their community and the future of the world. Mixed methods were employed for data collection and analysis. Responses were compared with those given by children in eight countries and the discussion focused on the importance prior knowledge, in this case, prior knowledge of global issues, holds for effective teaching and learning about global issues. Canadian children were optimistic about the future for themselves and their community but less so for the globe. More so than other children, Canadian children were concerned with issues of social justice, issues such as discrimination and racism, and with improving the environment, which might be attributed to the emphasis that is placed on these issues in their school curriculum. Assessing prior knowledge should be a priority for those considering development and implementation of global education curricula.

  10. A matter of prior knowledge: Canadian young children’s conceptions about the future in the global community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottilia CHAREKA

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Young Canadian boys and girls aged nine to eleven were asked to consider their personal futures, the future of their community and the future of the world. Mixed methods were employed for data collection and analysis. Responses were compared with those given bychildren in eight countries and the discussion focused on the importance prior knowledge, in this case, prior knowledge of global issues, holds for effective teaching and learning about global issues. Canadian children were optimistic about the future for themselves and their community but less so for the globe. More so than other children, Canadian children were concerned with issues of social justice, issues such as discrimination and racism, and withimproving the environment, which might be attributed to the emphasis that is placed on these issues in their school curriculum. Assessing prior knowledge should be a priority for those considering development and implementation of global education curricula.

  11. A panel study of airborne particulate matter concentration and impaired cardiopulmonary function in young adults by two different exposure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Wen; Qian, Zhengmin (Min); Bloom, Michael S.; Nelson, Erik J.; Liu, Echu; Han, Bin; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Yimin; Ma, Huimin; Chen, Duo-Hong; Yang, Bo-Yi; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Chen, Wen; Komppula, Mika; Leskinen, Ari; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Roponen, Marjut; Jalava, Pasi; Bai, Zhipeng; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2018-05-01

    This study sought to clarify the correlation of individual exposure measurements and PM2.5 measurements collected at regulatory monitoring sites in short-term panel study settings. To achieve this goal, 30 young, healthy adult participants were assigned to three groups with 4 samplers in each group to collect individual exposures during four weekends in March 2016. Participants also completed cardiopulmonary function tests during the same periods. For comparison, ambient air pollution data were obtained from the Air Pollution Surveillance Network in Guangzhou, China. The 8-h ambient pollutant averages and group sampler concentrations were used as separate indicators of air pollution exposure. Results showed that the 8-h mean concentration of personal PM2.5 exposure was 65.09 ± 22.18 μg/m3, which was 24.34 μg/m3 statistically higher than the ambient concentrations over the same period (p < 0.05). However, these concentrations were strongly correlated (Spearman's r = 0.937, p < 0.01). Separate mixed-effect models were fit for ambient and personal exposures to estimate their associations with cardiopulmonary outcomes. Higher PM2.5 and PM10 exposures were related to lower lung function of maximal mid-expiratory flow (MMEF). A 10 μg/m3 higher PM was associated with 0.11 L/S to 0.52 L/S lower MMEF. No effects on cardiovascular function were found. In conclusion, personal PM2.5 exposure might be higher than ambient concentrations. Young, healthy adults in urban areas may experience reduced lung function (lower MMEF), even after just 8 h of exposure to PM2.5 and PM10.

  12. Longitudinal associations between binge eating and overeating and adverse outcomes among adolescents and young adults: does loss of control matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneville, Kendrin R; Horton, Nicholas J; Micali, Nadia; Crosby, Ross D; Swanson, Sonja A; Solmi, Francesca; Field, Alison E

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the association between overeating (without loss of control) and binge eating (overeating with loss of control) and adverse outcomes. Prospective cohort study. Adolescents and young adults living throughout the United States. Sixteen thousand eight hundred eighty-two males and females participating in the Growing Up Today Study who were 9 to 15 years old at enrollment in 1996. Overeating and binge eating assessed via questionnaire every 12 to 24 months between 1996 and 2005. Risk of becoming overweight or obese, starting to binge drink frequently, starting to use marijuana, starting to use other drugs, and developing high levels of depressive symptoms. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate associations. All models controlled for age and sex; additional covariates varied by outcome. Among this large cohort of adolescents and young adults, binge eating was more common among females than males. In fully adjusted models, binge eating, but not overeating, was associated with incident overweight/obesity (odds ratio, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.11-2.69) and the onset of high depressive symptoms (odds ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.40-3.45). Neither overeating nor binge eating was associated with starting to binge drink frequently, while both overeating and binge eating predicted starting to use marijuana and other drugs. Although any overeating, with or without loss of control, predicted the onset of marijuana and other drug use, we found that binge eating is uniquely predictive of incident overweight/obesity and the onset of high depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that loss of control is an important indicator of severity of overeating episodes.

  13. Seeing the Talker's Face Improves Free Recall of Speech for Young Adults with Normal Hearing but Not Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Mary; Mishra, Sushmit; Stenfelt, Stefan; Lunner, Thomas; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Seeing the talker's face improves speech understanding in noise, possibly releasing resources for cognitive processing. We investigated whether it improves free recall of spoken two-digit numbers. Method: Twenty younger adults with normal hearing and 24 older adults with hearing loss listened to and subsequently recalled lists of 13…

  14. Prediction of manure nitrogen and organic matter excretion for young Holstein cattle fed on grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, H P; Yan, T; McDowell, D A

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of sex (steers vs. heifers) of young Holstein cattle on N and OM excretion in feces and urine and to use these data to develop prediction models for N and OM excretion. Data used were derived from a study with 20 autumn-born Holstein cattle (10 steers and 10 heifers) with N and OM intake and output measured at age of 6, 12, 18, and 22 mo, respectively. The cattle were offered a typical diet used on U.K. commercial farms containing a single grass silage mixed with concentrates. In each period, the cattle were housed as a single group in cubicle accommodation for the first 20 d, individually in metabolism units for the next 3 d, and then in calorimeter chambers for the final 5 d with feed intake, feces, and urine excretion measured during the final 4 d. Within each period, sex had no effect (P > 0.05) on N or OM intake or excretion or N utilization efficiency, with exceptions of steers having a greater intake of N (P = 0.036) and OM (P = 0.018) at age of 18 mo and a lower ratio of fecal N:N intake (P = 0.023) at age of 6 mo. A range of regression relationships (P 0.05) on accumulated N or OM intake or N or OM excretion in feces and urine or retained N and OM during the first or second year of life. On average for the 2 sexes at first and second year of age, the accumulated N excretions in feces were 11.4 and 21.1 kg and in urine 11.6 and 30.6 kg, respectively, and the corresponding values for accumulated OM excretions were respectively 241.5, 565.7, 30.3 and 81.5 kg. A number of equations were developed to predict accumulated N and OM excretion in feces and urine (kg) using BW (kg; P r(2) = 0.95 to 0.97). The accurate prediction of N and OM excretion in feces and urine is essential for reducing N pollution to ground and surface water and calculating methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure management of dairy and beef production systems. These data can add novel information to the scientific

  15. Male and female experiences of having fertility matters raised alongside a cancer diagnosis during the teenage and young adult years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, M A; Glaser, A W; Hale, J P; Sloper, P

    2009-07-01

    Discussion and management of potential reproductive health sequelae of adolescent cancer are essential and challenging components of care for the multidisciplinary team. Despite this, research has been limited to specific experiences (e.g. sperm banking) or fertility-related concerns of adult survivors. This grounded theory study of 38 male and female survivors of adolescent cancer aged 16-30 years drew on in-depth single interviews to map the range of experiences of being advised that treatment might affect fertility. Strong support for being told at around diagnosis was found regardless of gender, age, incapacity or availability of fertility preservation services. Age and life stage appeared less significant for impact than the perceived level of threat to personal and social well-being. Women were more likely to achieve lower levels of comprehension about the physiological impact, to report later distress from lack of fertility preservation services and to revisit more frequently those decisions made by the few offered fertility preservation. Men found decision making about sperm banking straightforward on the whole and reported satisfaction with having the choice regardless of outcome. Findings suggest that young people can cope with this information alongside diagnosis especially when professional and parental support is proportionate to the particular impact on them.

  16. Reduced visual cortex gray matter volume and thickness in young adults who witnessed domestic violence during childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Tomoda

    Full Text Available Exposure to interparental violence is associated with negative outcomes, such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and reduced cognitive abilities. However, little is known about the potential effects of witnessing domestic violence during childhood on gray matter volume (GMV or cortical thickness. High-resolution 3.0 T volumetric scans (Siemens Trio Scanner were obtained on 52 subjects (18-25 years including 22 (6 males/16 females with a history of visually witnessing episodes of domestic violence, and 30 (8 males/22 females unexposed control subjects, with neither a current nor past DSM-IV Axis I or II disorder. Potential confounding effects of age, gender, level of parental verbal aggression, parental education, financial stress, full scale IQ, and total GMV, or average thickness were modeled using voxel based morphometry and FreeSurfer. Witnessing domestic violence subjects had a 6.1% GMV reduction in the right lingual gyrus (BA18 (P = 0.029, False Discovery Rate corrected peak level. Thickness in this region was also reduced, as was thickness in V2 bilaterally and left occipital pole. Theses regions were maximally sensitive to exposure to witnessing domestic violence between 11-13 years of age. Regional reductions in GMV and thickness were observed in both susceptible and resilient witnessing domestic violence subjects. Results in subjects witnessing domestic violence were similar to previously reported results in subjects with childhood sexual abuse, as the primary region affected was visual cortex. Brain regions that process and convey the adverse sensory input of the abuse may be specifically modified by this experience, particularly in subjects exposed to a single type of maltreatment. Exposure to multiple types of maltreatment is more commonly associated with morphological alterations in corticolimbic regions. These findings fit with preclinical studies showing that visual cortex is a highly plastic structure.

  17. Never forget a name: white matter connectivity predicts person memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metoki, Athanasia; Alm, Kylie H.; Wang, Yin; Ngo, Chi T.; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2018-01-01

    Through learning and practice, we can acquire numerous skills, ranging from the simple (whistling) to the complex (memorizing operettas in a foreign language). It has been proposed that complex learning requires a network of brain regions that interact with one another via white matter pathways. One candidate white matter pathway, the uncinate fasciculus (UF), has exhibited mixed results for this hypothesis: some studies have shown UF involvement across a range of memory tasks, while other studies report null results. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the UF supports associative memory processes and that this tract can be parcellated into subtracts that support specific types of memory. Healthy young adults performed behavioral tasks (two face-name learning tasks, one word pair memory task) and underwent a diffusion-weighted imaging scan. Our results revealed that variation in UF microstructure was significantly associated with individual differences in performance on both face-name tasks, as well as the word association memory task. A UF sub-tract, functionally defined by its connectivity between face-selective regions in the anterior temporal lobe and orbitofrontal cortex, selectively predicted face-name learning. In contrast, connectivity between the fusiform face patch and both anterior face patches had no predictive validity. These findings suggest that there is a robust and replicable relationship between the UF and associative learning and memory. Moreover, this large white matter pathway can be subdivided to reveal discrete functional profiles. PMID:28646241

  18. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos ... Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD We've been there. After ...

  19. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type ... Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD We've been there. After a traumatic ...

  20. Constraining dark matter halo profiles and galaxy formation models using spiral arm morphology. II. Dark and stellar mass concentrations for 13 nearby face-on galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigar, Marc S.; Davis, Benjamin L.; Berrier, Joel; Kennefick, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the use of spiral arm pitch angles as a probe of disk galaxy mass profiles. We confirm our previous result that spiral arm pitch angles (P) are well correlated with the rate of shear (S) in disk galaxy rotation curves. We use this correlation to argue that imaging data alone can provide a powerful probe of galactic mass distributions out to large look-back times. We then use a sample of 13 galaxies, with Spitzer 3.6 μm imaging data and observed Hα rotation curves, to demonstrate how an inferred shear rate coupled with a bulge-disk decomposition model and a Tully-Fisher-derived velocity normalization can be used to place constraints on a galaxy's baryon fraction and dark matter halo profile. Finally, we show that there appears to be a trend (albeit a weak correlation) between spiral arm pitch angle and halo concentration. We discuss implications for the suggested link between supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and dark halo concentration, using pitch angle as a proxy for SMBH mass.

  1. Highlights from a Literature Review Prepared for the Face to Face Research Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Literacy Trust, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Between March 2009 and March 2011, Talk To Your Baby has been engaged in a research project, under the title of Face to Face, to identify key messages for parents and carers in relation to communicating with babies and young children, and has examined the most effective ways to promote these messages to parents and carers. The Face to Face project…

  2. Moodle: A Way for Blending VLE and Face-to-Face Instruction in the ELT Context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilin, Gulden

    2013-01-01

    This classroom research explores the probable consequences of a blended Teaching English to Young Learners (TEYLs) course comprised of Moodle applications and face to face instruction in the English Language Teaching (ELT) context. Contrary to previous face to face only procedure, the course was divided into two segments: traditional classroom…

  3. “We want to show our face, man”: hip hop helping to build identity, awareness and social participation of young people in a socialy vulnerable situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heliana Castro Alves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hip Hop is considered an artistic movement of social protest, which forms a symbolic guiding system of cultural practices and youth attitudes, enabling citizenship and social recognition. This study aimed to describe and analyze the use of hip hop as a strategy for the construction of identity, awareness, participation and social inclusion of young people in the daily life of peripheral communities from the perspective of cultural rights. This is a case study with a qualitative approach. Data collection took place over a year using 10 semi-structured interviews and footage of artistic and cultural workshops in the occupational therapeutic context, working at the interface between the social, the cultural field and the field of non-formal education. The thematic content analysis created three themes: Identity Construction and rescue the life course; Hip Hop as an expression of social reality; Social inclusion and participation. This research suggests that Hip Hop can be a useful resource in socio-educational practices, enabling critical reflection of young people in social vulnerability on their contexts, the rescue of the life course, identity construction and social participation.

  4. Quantified Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette-Marie Zacher

    2016-01-01

    artist Marnix de Nijs' Physiognomic Scrutinizer is an interactive installation whereby the viewer's face is scanned and identified with historical figures. The American artist Zach Blas' project Fag Face Mask consists of three-dimensional portraits that blend biometric facial data from 30 gay men's faces...... and critically examine bias in surveillance technologies, as well as scientific investigations, regarding the stereotyping mode of the human gaze. The American artist Heather Dewey-Hagborg creates three-dimensional portraits of persons she has “identified” from their garbage. Her project from 2013 entitled...

  5. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    unilateral lesions, we found no patient with a selective deficit in either reading or face processing. Rather, the patients showing a deficit in processing either words or faces were also impaired with the other category. One patient performed within the normal range on all tasks. In addition, all patients......It has long been argued that perceptual processing of faces and words is largely independent, highly specialised and strongly lateralised. Studies of patients with either pure alexia or prosopagnosia have strongly contributed to this view. The aim of our study was to investigate how visual...... perception of faces and words is affected by unilateral posterior stroke. Two patients with lesions in their dominant hemisphere and two with lesions in their non-dominant hemisphere were tested on sensitive tests of face and word perception during the stable phase of recovery. Despite all patients having...

  6. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Interviews Our Stories Search All Videos PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Interviews Our ...

  7. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, and clinicians share their experiences with PTSD ...

  8. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search ...

  9. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Interviews Our Stories Search All Videos PTSD Basics ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Interviews Our Stories Search All Videos Learn ...

  10. Adverse Effects of the Apolipoprotein E ε4 Allele on Episodic Memory, Task Switching and Gray Matter Volume in Healthy Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfei Nao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that healthy elderly subjects and patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD who carry the apolipoprotein E (ApoE ε4 allele have worse cognitive function and more severe brain atrophy than non-carriers. However, it remains unclear whether this ApoE polymorphism leads to changes of cognition and brain morphology in healthy young adults. In this study, we used an established model to measure verbal episodic memory and core executive function (EF components (response inhibition, working memory and task switching in 32 ApoE ε4 carriers and 40 non-carriers between 20 years and 40 years of age. To do this, we carried out an adapted auditory verbal learning test and three computerized EF tasks. High-resolution head magnetic resonance scans were performed in all participants and voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used for image processing and analysis. Multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA performed on memory measures showed that the overall verbal episodic memory of ApoE ε4 carriers was significantly worse than non-carriers (Wilk’s λ = 4.884, P = 0.004. No significant differences were detected in overall EF between the two groups. Post hoc analyses revealed group differences in terms of immediate recall, recognition and task switching, which favored non-carriers. VBM analysis showed gray matter (GM bilateral reductions in the medial and dorsolateral frontal, parietal and left temporal cortices in the carrier group relative to the non-carrier group, which were most significant in the bilateral anterior and middle cingulate gyri. However, these changes in GM volume were not directly associated with changes in cognitive function. Our data show that the ApoE ε4 allele is associated with poorer performance in verbal episodic memory and task switching, and a reduction in GM volume in healthy young adults, suggesting that the effects of ApoE ε4 upon cognition and brain morphology exist long before the possible occurrence of AD.

  11. Increased Gray Matter Volume and Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Somatosensory Cortex and their Relationship with Autistic Symptoms in Young Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD has been widely recognized as a complex neurodevelopmental disorder. A large number of neuroimaging studies suggest abnormalities in brain structure and function of patients with ASD, but there is still no consistent conclusion. We sought to investigate both of the structural and functional brain changes in 3–7-year-old children with ASD compared with typically developing controls (TDs, and to assess whether these alterations are associated with autistic behavioral symptoms. Firstly, we applied an optimized method of voxel-based morphometry (VBM analysis on structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI data to assess the differences of gray matter volume (GMV between 31 autistic boys aged 3–7 and 31 age- and handness-matched male TDs. Secondly, we used clusters with between-group differences as seed regions to generate intrinsic functional connectivity maps based on resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI in order to evaluate the functional impairments induced by structural alterations. Brain-behavior correlations were assessed among GMV, functional connectivity and symptom severity in children with ASD. VBM analyses revealed increased GMV in left superior temporal gyrus (STG and left postcentral gyrus (PCG in ASD children, comparing with TDs. Using left PCG as a seed region, ASD children displayed significantly higher positive connectivity with right angular gyrus (AG and greater negative connectivity with right superior parietal gyrus (SPG and right superior occipital gyrus (SOG, which were associated with the severity of symptoms in social interaction, communication and self-care ability. We suggest that stronger functional connectivity between left PCG and right AG, SPG, and SOG detected in young boys with ASD may serve as important indicators of disease severity. Our study provided preliminary functional evidence that may underlie impaired higher-order multisensory

  12. Increased Gray Matter Volume and Resting-State Functional Connectivity in Somatosensory Cortex and their Relationship with Autistic Symptoms in Young Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Fu, Kuang; Chen, Lei; Duan, Xujun; Guo, Xiaonan; Chen, Heng; Wu, Qiong; Xia, Wei; Wu, Lijie; Chen, Huafu

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been widely recognized as a complex neurodevelopmental disorder. A large number of neuroimaging studies suggest abnormalities in brain structure and function of patients with ASD, but there is still no consistent conclusion. We sought to investigate both of the structural and functional brain changes in 3-7-year-old children with ASD compared with typically developing controls (TDs), and to assess whether these alterations are associated with autistic behavioral symptoms. Firstly, we applied an optimized method of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis on structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) data to assess the differences of gray matter volume (GMV) between 31 autistic boys aged 3-7 and 31 age- and handness-matched male TDs. Secondly, we used clusters with between-group differences as seed regions to generate intrinsic functional connectivity maps based on resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) in order to evaluate the functional impairments induced by structural alterations. Brain-behavior correlations were assessed among GMV, functional connectivity and symptom severity in children with ASD. VBM analyses revealed increased GMV in left superior temporal gyrus (STG) and left postcentral gyrus (PCG) in ASD children, comparing with TDs. Using left PCG as a seed region, ASD children displayed significantly higher positive connectivity with right angular gyrus (AG) and greater negative connectivity with right superior parietal gyrus (SPG) and right superior occipital gyrus (SOG), which were associated with the severity of symptoms in social interaction, communication and self-care ability. We suggest that stronger functional connectivity between left PCG and right AG, SPG, and SOG detected in young boys with ASD may serve as important indicators of disease severity. Our study provided preliminary functional evidence that may underlie impaired higher-order multisensory integration in ASD

  13. Prefrontal white matter pathology in air pollution exposed Mexico City young urbanites and their potential impact on neurovascular unit dysfunction and the development of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Vargas- Martínez, Javier; Gómez-Maqueo-Chew, Aline; Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz; Mukherjee, Partha S.; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Perry, George; Gónzalez-Maciel, Angélica

    2016-01-01

    Millions of urban children are chronically exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants, i.e., fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ozone, associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease. Compared with children living with clear air those in Mexico City (MC) exhibit systemic, brain and intrathecal inflammation, low CSF Aβ 42, breakdown of the BBB, attention and short-term memory deficits, prefrontal white matter hyperintensities, damage to epithelial and endothelial barriers, tight junction and neural autoantibodies, and Alzheimer and Parkinson's hallmarks. The prefrontal white matter is a target of air pollution. We examined by light and electron microscopy the prefrontal white matter of MC dogs (n: 15, age 3.17±0.74 years), children and teens (n: 34, age: 12.64±4.2 years) versus controls. Major findings in MC residents included leaking capillaries and small arterioles with extravascular lipids and erythrocytes, lipofuscin in pericytes, smooth muscle and endothelial cells (EC), thickening of cerebrovascular basement membranes with small deposits of amyloid, patchy absence of the perivascular glial sheet, enlarged Virchow–Robin spaces and nanosize particles (20–48 nm) in EC, basement membranes, axons and dendrites. Tight junctions, a key component of the neurovascular unit (NVU) were abnormal in MC versus control dogs (χ 2 <0.0001), and white matter perivascular damage was significantly worse in MC dogs (p=0.002). The integrity of the NVU, an interactive network of vascular, glial and neuronal cells is compromised in MC young residents. Characterizing the early NVU damage and identifying biomarkers of neurovascular dysfunction may provide a fresh insight into Alzheimer pathogenesis and open opportunities for pediatric neuroprotection. - Highlights: • The prefrontal white matter is a target of air pollution. • Tight junctions, key neurovascular unit elements, are abnormal in young urbanites. • Identifying neurovascular dysfunction

  14. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at first. But if it's been months or years since the trauma and you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, ...

  15. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD We've been there. After a traumatic event — ... you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is ...

  16. Reintegration of young mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Worthen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Young mothers seeking reintegration after periods of time spent livingwith fighting forces and armed groups face exclusion and stigmarather than the support they and their children badly need.

  17. The Functional Neuroanatomy of Human Face Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill-Spector, Kalanit; Weiner, Kevin S; Kay, Kendrick; Gomez, Jesse

    2017-09-15

    Face perception is critical for normal social functioning and is mediated by a network of regions in the ventral visual stream. In this review, we describe recent neuroimaging findings regarding the macro- and microscopic anatomical features of the ventral face network, the characteristics of white matter connections, and basic computations performed by population receptive fields within face-selective regions composing this network. We emphasize the importance of the neural tissue properties and white matter connections of each region, as these anatomical properties may be tightly linked to the functional characteristics of the ventral face network. We end by considering how empirical investigations of the neural architecture of the face network may inform the development of computational models and shed light on how computations in the face network enable efficient face perception.

  18. Prefrontal white matter pathology in air pollution exposed Mexico City young urbanites and their potential impact on neurovascular unit dysfunction and the development of Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian, E-mail: lilian.calderon-garciduenas@umontana.edu [The University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 (United States); Universidad del Valle de México, Mexico City 04850, México (Mexico); Reynoso-Robles, Rafael [Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Mexico City 04530 México (Mexico); Vargas- Martínez, Javier [Universidad del Valle de México, Mexico City 04850, México (Mexico); Gómez-Maqueo-Chew, Aline [Universidad del Valle de México, Hermosillo, Sonora 83299, México (Mexico); Pérez-Guillé, Beatriz [Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Mexico City 04530 México (Mexico); Mukherjee, Partha S. [Mathematics Department, Boise State University, Boise, ID (United States); Torres-Jardón, Ricardo [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmósfera, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City 04310, México (Mexico); Perry, George [College of Sciences, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX (United States); Gónzalez-Maciel, Angélica [Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Mexico City 04530 México (Mexico)

    2016-04-15

    Millions of urban children are chronically exposed to high concentrations of air pollutants, i.e., fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) and ozone, associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease. Compared with children living with clear air those in Mexico City (MC) exhibit systemic, brain and intrathecal inflammation, low CSF Aβ{sub 42,} breakdown of the BBB, attention and short-term memory deficits, prefrontal white matter hyperintensities, damage to epithelial and endothelial barriers, tight junction and neural autoantibodies, and Alzheimer and Parkinson's hallmarks. The prefrontal white matter is a target of air pollution. We examined by light and electron microscopy the prefrontal white matter of MC dogs (n: 15, age 3.17±0.74 years), children and teens (n: 34, age: 12.64±4.2 years) versus controls. Major findings in MC residents included leaking capillaries and small arterioles with extravascular lipids and erythrocytes, lipofuscin in pericytes, smooth muscle and endothelial cells (EC), thickening of cerebrovascular basement membranes with small deposits of amyloid, patchy absence of the perivascular glial sheet, enlarged Virchow–Robin spaces and nanosize particles (20–48 nm) in EC, basement membranes, axons and dendrites. Tight junctions, a key component of the neurovascular unit (NVU) were abnormal in MC versus control dogs (χ{sup 2}<0.0001), and white matter perivascular damage was significantly worse in MC dogs (p=0.002). The integrity of the NVU, an interactive network of vascular, glial and neuronal cells is compromised in MC young residents. Characterizing the early NVU damage and identifying biomarkers of neurovascular dysfunction may provide a fresh insight into Alzheimer pathogenesis and open opportunities for pediatric neuroprotection. - Highlights: • The prefrontal white matter is a target of air pollution. • Tight junctions, key neurovascular unit elements, are abnormal in young urbanites. • Identifying

  19. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  20. The own-age face recognition bias is task dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Valentina; Macchi Cassia, Viola; Mondloch, Catherine J

    2015-08-01

    The own-age bias (OAB) in face recognition (more accurate recognition of own-age than other-age faces) is robust among young adults but not older adults. We investigated the OAB under two different task conditions. In Experiment 1 young and older adults (who reported more recent experience with own than other-age faces) completed a match-to-sample task with young and older adult faces; only young adults showed an OAB. In Experiment 2 young and older adults completed an identity detection task in which we manipulated the identity strength of target and distracter identities by morphing each face with an average face in 20% steps. Accuracy increased with identity strength and facial age influenced older adults' (but not younger adults') strategy, but there was no evidence of an OAB. Collectively, these results suggest that the OAB depends on task demands and may be absent when searching for one identity. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Neonatal face-to-face interactions promote later social behaviour in infant rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due to physical contact alone: monkeys randomly assigned to receive additional neonatal face-to-face interactions (mutual gaze and intermittent lip-smacking) with human caregivers display increased social interest at 2 months, compared with monkeys who received only additional handling. These studies suggest that face-to-face interactions from birth promote young primate social interest and competency. PMID:27300086

  2. Environmental Inversion Effects in Face Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidenko, Nicolas; Flusberg, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Visual processing is highly sensitive to stimulus orientation; for example, face perception is drastically worse when faces are oriented inverted vs. upright. However, stimulus orientation must be established in relation to a particular reference frame, and in most studies, several reference frames are conflated. Which reference frame(s) matter in…

  3. Face Age and Eye Gaze Influence Older Adults' Emotion Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Anna; Murray, Janice E; Atkinson, Lianne; Ruffman, Ted

    2017-07-01

    Eye gaze has been shown to influence emotion recognition. In addition, older adults (over 65 years) are not as influenced by gaze direction cues as young adults (18-30 years). Nevertheless, these differences might stem from the use of young to middle-aged faces in emotion recognition research because older adults have an attention bias toward old-age faces. Therefore, using older face stimuli might allow older adults to process gaze direction cues to influence emotion recognition. To investigate this idea, young and older adults completed an emotion recognition task with young and older face stimuli displaying direct and averted gaze, assessing labeling accuracy for angry, disgusted, fearful, happy, and sad faces. Direct gaze rather than averted gaze improved young adults' recognition of emotions in young and older faces, but for older adults this was true only for older faces. The current study highlights the impact of stimulus face age and gaze direction on emotion recognition in young and older adults. The use of young face stimuli with direct gaze in most research might contribute to age-related emotion recognition differences. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi

    2015-01-01

    It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.

  5. Hope Matters: Developing and Validating a Measure of Future Expectations Among Young Women in a High HIV Prevalence Setting in Rural South Africa (HPTN 068).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abler, Laurie; Hill, Lauren; Maman, Suzanne; DeVellis, Robert; Twine, Rhian; Kahn, Kathleen; MacPhail, Catherine; Pettifor, Audrey

    2017-07-01

    Hope is a future expectancy characterized by an individual's perception that a desirable future outcome can be achieved. Though scales exist to measure hope, they may have limited relevance in low resource, high HIV prevalence settings. We developed and validated a hope scale among young women living in rural South Africa. We conducted formative interviews to identify the key elements of hope. Using items developed from these interviews, we administered the hope scale to 2533 young women enrolled in an HIV-prevention trial. Women endorsed scale items highly and the scale proved to be unidimensional in the sample. Hope scores were significantly correlated with hypothesized psycholosocial correlates with the exception of life stressors. Overall, our hope measure was found to have excellent reliability and to show encouraging preliminary indications of validity in this population. This study presents a promising measure to assess hope among young women in South Africa.

  6. Children at Risk: Global Views on Challenges Facing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Members of the World Forum community were invited to respond to the question: "What is the most urgent challenge facing young children in your country?" Here are some of their responses. Jamils Richard Achunji Anguaseh mentions that in Cameroon, young children face lots of insecurity, both from health hazards and poor parenting practices. There…

  7. Virtual & Real Face to Face Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teneqexhi, Romeo; Kuneshka, Loreta

    2016-01-01

    In traditional "face to face" lessons, during the time the teacher writes on a black or white board, the students are always behind the teacher. Sometimes, this happens even in the recorded lesson in videos. Most of the time during the lesson, the teacher shows to the students his back not his face. We do not think the term "face to…

  8. Does Europe Matter? A Comparative Study of Young People's Identifications with Europe at a State School and a European School in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvides, Nicola; Faas, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which young people in predominantly middle-class environments identify with Europe and considers the influence of European education policy, school ethos and curricula. We compare data drawn from individual and focus group interviews with students aged 15-17 at a state school and a European School in England.…

  9. Poorer frontolimbic white matter integrity is associated with chronic cannabis use, FAAH genotype, and increased depressive and apathy symptoms in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skyler G. Shollenbarger

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Consistent with prior findings, cannabis use was associated with reduced frontolimbic WM integrity. WM integrity was also moderated by FAAH genotype, in that cannabis-using FAAH C/C carriers and A carrying controls had reduced WM integrity compared to control C/C carriers. Observed frontolimbic white matter abnormalities were linked with increased depressive and apathy symptoms in the cannabis users.

  10. Brief Report: Do Peer Relationships Matter to Vietnamese Adolescents' and Young Adults' Development of Identity? Towards a Working Theory of Identity Development in a Changing Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong; Cohen, Edward; Hines, Alice

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, using data from the first nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of more than 7000 Vietnamese adolescents, we explore how peers, compared to family, matter to Vietnamese adolescents' development of their independent identity as an adult. We use future hopes and aspirations as proxies for identity development, arguing that…

  11. Quantifying Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying Matter explains how scientists learned to measure matter and quantify some of its most fascinating and useful properties. It presents many of the most important intellectual achievements and technical developments that led to the scientific interpretation of substance. Complete with full-color photographs, this exciting new volume describes the basic characteristics and properties of matter. Chapters include:. -Exploring the Nature of Matter. -The Origin of Matter. -The Search for Substance. -Quantifying Matter During the Scientific Revolution. -Understanding Matter's Electromagnet

  12. Why ethnicity and gender matters for fertility intention among married young people: a baseline evaluation from a gender transformative intervention in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Tina; Chandra, Murari; Singh, Ajay; Mehra, Sunil

    2018-04-13

    Social inequities in early child bearing persist among young married people, especially among tribal populations in India. Rural women belonging to tribal groups and those coming from poor households are more likely to give birth before age 18. This paper explores the connection between ethnicity, gender and early fertility intention among young married people in rural India. The data is drawn from a cross sectional baseline evaluation of an intervention programme in rural India. A sample of 273 married young people was taken. Respondents were selected using systematic random sampling. Logistic Regression was used to assess the effect of being a tribal on early fertility intention and also to determine if covariates associated with early fertility intention differed by tribal status. Qualitative data was analysed using deductive content analysis approach. Bivariate and logistic regression results indicated that young married people from tribal communities had higher odds of planning a child within one year of marriage than non-tribals (OR = 1.47, p-value-0.079). Findings further suggest that early fertility intention among tribals is driven by gender factors and higher education and among non-tribals, higher education and awareness on contraception are key predictors. Among tribals, the odds of planning a child within one year of marriage was strongly associated with inequitable gender norms (OR = 1.94, p-value-0.002). Higher education showed significant positive association with non-tribals (OR = 0.19, p-value-0.014) and positive association with tribals (OR = 0.56, p-value-0.416). Qualitative investigation confirms that fertility desires of young married people are strongly influenced by gender norms especially among tribal populations. Early child bearing was underpinned by complex ethnic factors and gender norms. Preference for early child bearing was seen most among tribal communities. Gender attitudes were a cause of concern especially among

  13. No Laughing Matter: Presence, Consumption Trends, Drug Awareness, and Perceptions of “Hippy Crack” (Nitrous Oxide among Young Adults in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther M. Ehirim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In clinical settings, nitrous oxide gas is a safe anesthetic used during childbirth, in dentistry, and to relieve anxiety in emergencies. Colloquially known as “hippy crack”’ or “laughing gas,” it is increasingly taken recreationally for its euphoric and relaxing effects and hallucinogenic properties. Using a self-reported survey, we gathered quantitative and qualitative information on users and non-users of hippy crack among a young population regarding: consumption patterns, knowledge, risk awareness and intentions toward future abuse. Quantitative responses from a total of 140 participants were analyzed for frequencies and relationships, whereas qualitative data were evaluated via identifying the reoccurring themes. Overall, 77.1% (n = 108 had heard of hippy crack and 27.9% (n = 39 admitted to past-year use. Prior users mostly indicated intended future use, had an average low number of past-year uses but some with > 20 occasions, had a varied number of inhalations per occasion (often 1–10 with an effect lasting up to 5 min, and a majority preferred social rather than lone use. For non-users, 79.2% said they would take hippy crack with the vast majority (94% preferring a social setting. The results show a concerning gap between available evidence and awareness of side effects. Despite serious reported side effects, including psychosis and myeloneuropathy—especially on the young developing brain—only a minority (29.3% was aware of any side effects. In contrast, in a hypothetical scenario depicting a first social encounter with hippy crack, the qualitative responses were in contrast to qualitative outcomes revealing that participants would try (n = 30/not try (n = 25 it, would feel under pressure to try it (n = 6 with only 11 opting to exit the situation. In summary, this first report of trends and perceptions of the use of hippy crack among young adults in the England highlights a lack of concern with

  14. Interaction between Social Categories in the Composite Face Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenfeng; Ren, Naixin; Young, Andrew W.; Liu, Chang Hong

    2018-01-01

    The composite face paradigm (Young, Hellawell, & Hay, 1987) is widely used to demonstrate holistic perception of faces (Rossion, 2013). In the paradigm, parts from different faces (usually the top and bottom halves) are recombined. The principal criterion for holistic perception is that responses involving the component parts of composites in…

  15. Development of Infants' Attention to Faces during the First Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Michael C.; Vul, Edward; Johnson, Scott P.

    2009-01-01

    In simple tests of preference, infants as young as newborns prefer faces and face-like stimuli over distractors. Little is known, however, about the development of attention to faces in complex scenes. We recorded eye-movements of 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old infants and adults during free-viewing of clips from "A Charlie Brown Christmas" (an animated…

  16. European cinema: face to face with Hollywood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, T.

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  17. A Face Inversion Effect without a Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…

  18. Does Drinking Location Matter? Profiles of Risky Single-Occasion Drinking by Location and Alcohol-Related Harm among Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähler, Caroline; Dey, Michelle; Dermota, Petra; Foster, Simon; Gmel, Gerhard; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun

    2014-01-01

    In adolescents and young adults, acute consequences like injuries account for a substantial proportion of alcohol-related harm, especially in risky single-occasion (RSO) drinkers. The primary aim of the study was to characterize different drinking profiles in RSO drinkers according to drinking locations and their relationship to negative, alcohol-related consequences. The sample consisted of 2746 young men from the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors who had reported drinking six or more drinks on a single-occasion at least monthly over the preceding 12 months. Principal component analysis on the frequency and amount of drinking at 11 different locations was conducted, and 2 distinguishable components emerged: a non-party-dimension (loading high on theater/cinema, sport clubs, other clubs/societies, restaurants, and sport events) and a party-dimension (loading high on someone else's home, pubs/bars, discos/nightclubs, outdoor public places, special events, and home). Differential impacts of drinking location profiles were observed on severe negative alcohol-related consequences (SAC). Relative to those classified as low or intermediate in both dimensions, no significant difference experiencing SAC was found among those who were classified as high in the non-party-dimension only. However, those who were classified as high in the party-dimension alone or in both dimensions were more likely to experience SAC. These differential effects remained after adjusting for alcohol consumption (volume and risky single-occasion drinking), personality traits, and peer-influence [adjusted OR = 0.83 (0.68-1.02), 1.57 (1.27-1.96), and 1.72 (1.23-2.41), respectively], indicating independent effects of drinking location on SAC. The inclusion of sociodemographic factors did not alter this association. The fact that this cluster of party-dimension locations seems to predispose young men to experiencing SAC has important implications for alcohol control policies.

  19. Does drinking location matter? Profiles of risky single-occasion drinking by location and alcohol-related harm among young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eBähler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In adolescents and young adults, acute consequences like injuries account for a substantial proportion of alcohol-related harm, especially in risky single-occasion (RSO drinkers. The primary aim of the study was to characterize different drinking profiles in RSO drinkers according to drinking locations and their relationship to negative, alcohol-related consequences. The sample consisted of 2746 young men from the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF who had reported drinking 6 or more drinks on a single occasion at least monthly over the preceding 12 months. Principal component analysis on the frequency and amount of drinking at 11 different locations was conducted, and two distinguishable components emerged: a non-party-dimension (loading high on theatre/cinema, sport clubs, other clubs/societies, restaurants, and sport events and a party-dimension (loading high on someone else’s home, pubs/bars, discos/nightclubs, outdoor public places, special events, and home. Differential impacts of drinking location profiles were observed on severe negative alcohol-related consequences (SAC. Relative to those classified as low or intermediate in both dimensions, no significant difference experiencing SAC was found among those who were classified as high in the non-party-dimension only. However, those who were classified as high in the party-dimension alone or in both dimensions were more likely to experience SAC. These differential effects remained after adjusting for alcohol consumption (volume and RSOD, personality traits, and peer-influence (adjusted OR=0.83 [0.68-1.02], 1.57 [1.27-1.96] and 1.72 [1.23-2.41], respectively, indicating independent effects of drinking location on SAC. The inclusion of sociodemographic factors did not alter this association. The fact that this cluster of party-dimension locations seems to predispose young men to experiencing SAC has important implications for alcohol control policies.

  20. Brief report: do peer relationships matter to Vietnamese adolescents' and young adults' development of identity? Towards a working theory of identity development in a changing culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong; Cohen, Edward; Hines, Alice

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, using data from the first nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of more than 7000 Vietnamese adolescents, we explore how peers, compared to family, matter to Vietnamese adolescents' development of their independent identity as an adult. We use future hopes and aspirations as proxies for identity development, arguing that an individual's development of future hopes and aspirations is a correlate to the emergence of an independent identity. Our analyses show that peers have a positive and consistent influence on adolescents' hopes to have a happy family, good job, good income, and opportunities to do what they want. Regarding career and economic aspirations, the importance of peer relationships appears to have dropped away. It may be that when youth consider their realistic economic alternatives, the role of peers that was important for identity development in adolescence gives way to pragmatism about the attainment of a career identity. Copyright © 2011 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. All rights reserved.

  1. Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einasto J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, thus properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic web.

  2. Many Faces of Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Antić Gaber

    2013-12-01

    We believe that in the present thematic issue we have succeeded in capturing an important part of the modern European research dynamic in the field of migration. In addition to well-known scholars in this field several young authors at the beginning their research careers have been shortlisted for the publication. We are glad of their success as it bodes a vibrancy of this research area in the future. At the same time, we were pleased to receive responses to the invitation from representatives of so many disciplines, and that the number of papers received significantly exceeded the maximum volume of the journal. Recognising and understanding of the many faces of migration are important steps towards the comprehensive knowledge needed to successfully meet the challenges of migration issues today and even more so in the future. It is therefore of utmost importance that researchers find ways of transferring their academic knowledge into practice – to all levels of education, the media, the wider public and, of course, the decision makers in local, national and international institutions. The call also applies to all authors in this issue of the journal.

  3. Attention Capture by Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  4. Familiar face + novel face = familiar face? Representational bias in the perception of morphed faces in chimpanzees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshi-Taka Matsuda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee’s facial–recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1 familiar faces, (2 novel faces and (3 intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity.

  5. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  6. [Effects of nitrogen deposition on the concentration and spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter in soil solution in a young Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiao Chun; Chen, Yue Min; Yuan, Shuo; Zheng, Wei; Si, You Tao; Yuan, Zhi Peng; Lin, Wei Sheng; Yang, Yu Sheng

    2017-01-01

    To study the effects of nitrogen deposition on the concentration and spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the forest soil solution from the subtropical Cunninghamia lanceolata plantation, using negative pressure sampling method, the dynamics of DOM in soil solutions from 0-15 and 15-30 cm soil layer was monitored for two years and the spectroscopic features of DOM were analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen deposition significantly reduced the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and increased the aromatic index (AI) and the humic index (HIX), but had no significant effect on dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) concentration in both soil layers. There was obvious seasonal variation in DOM concentration of the soil solution, which was prominently higher in summer and autumn than in spring and winter.Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectrometry indicated that the DOM in forest soil solution had absorption peaks in the similar position of six regions, being the highest in wave number of 1145-1149 cm -1 . Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra indicated that DOM was mainly consisted of protein-like substances (Ex/Em=230 nm/300 nm) and microbial degradation products (Ex/Em=275 nm/300 nm). The availability of protein-like substances from 0-15 cm soil layer was reduced in the nitrogen treatments. Nitrogen deposition significantly reduced the concentration of DOC in soil solution, maybe largely by reducing soil pH, inhibiting soil carbon mineralization and stimulating plant growth. In particular, the decline of DOC concentration in the surface layer was due to the production inhibition of the protein-like substances and carboxylic acids. Short-term nitrogen deposition might be beneficial to the maintenance of soil fertility, while the long-term accumulation of nitrogen deposition might lead to the hard utilization of soil nutrients.

  7. Face shape and face identity processing in behavioral variant fronto-temporal dementia: A specific deficit for familiarity and name recognition of famous faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Timmers, Dorien; de Gelder, Beatrice; Van Orshoven, Marc; Vieren, Marleen; Bouckaert, Miriam; Cypers, Gert; Caekebeke, Jo; Van de Vliet, Laura; Goffin, Karolien; Van Laere, Koen; Sunaert, Stefan; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Van den Stock, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Deficits in face processing have been described in the behavioral variant of fronto-temporal dementia (bvFTD), primarily regarding the recognition of facial expressions. Less is known about face shape and face identity processing. Here we used a hierarchical strategy targeting face shape and face identity recognition in bvFTD and matched healthy controls. Participants performed 3 psychophysical experiments targeting face shape detection (Experiment 1), unfamiliar face identity matching (Experiment 2), familiarity categorization and famous face-name matching (Experiment 3). The results revealed group differences only in Experiment 3, with a deficit in the bvFTD group for both familiarity categorization and famous face-name matching. Voxel-based morphometry regression analyses in the bvFTD group revealed an association between grey matter volume of the left ventral anterior temporal lobe and familiarity recognition, while face-name matching correlated with grey matter volume of the bilateral ventral anterior temporal lobes. Subsequently, we quantified familiarity-specific and name-specific recognition deficits as the sum of the celebrities of which respectively only the name or only the familiarity was accurately recognized. Both indices were associated with grey matter volume of the bilateral anterior temporal cortices. These findings extent previous results by documenting the involvement of the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in familiarity detection and the right ATL in name recognition deficits in fronto-temporal lobar degeneration.

  8. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  9. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Memory Matters KidsHealth / For Kids / Memory Matters What's in ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  10. Disruption of Accumbens and Thalamic White Matter Connectivity Revealed by Diffusion Tensor Tractography in Young Men with Genetic Risk for Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaia Olivo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neurovascular coupling is associated with white matter (WM structural integrity, and it is regulated by specific subtypes of dopaminergic receptors. An altered activity of such receptors, highly expressed in reward-related regions, has been reported in carriers of obesity-risk alleles of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO gene. Among the reward-related regions, the thalamus and the nucleus accumbens are particularly vulnerable to blood pressure dysregulation due to their peculiar anatomo-vascular characteristics, and have been consistently reported to be altered in early-stage obesity. We have thus hypothesized that a disruption in thalamus and nucleus accumbens WM microstructure, possibly on neurovascular basis, could potentially be a predisposing factor underlying the enhanced risk for obesity in the risk-allele carriers.Methods: We have tested WM integrity in 21 male participants genotyped on the FTO risk single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP rs9939609, through a deterministic tractography analysis. Only homozygous participants (9 AA, 12 TT were included. 11 tracts were selected and categorized as following according to our hypothesis: “risk tracts”, “obesity-associated tracts”, and a control tract (forcpes major. We investigated whether an association existed between genotype, body mass index (BMI and WM microstructural integrity in the “risk-tracts” (anterior thalamic radiation and accumbofrontal fasciculus compared to other tracts. Moreover, we explored whether WM diffusivity could be related to specific personality traits in terms of punishment and reward sensitivity, as measure by the BIS/BAS questionnaire.Results: An effect of the genotype and an interaction effect of genotype and BMI were detected on the fractional anisotropy (FA of the “risk tracts”. Correlations between WM diffusivity parameters and measures of punishment and reward sensitivity were also detected in many WM tracts of both networks

  11. Editing faces in videos

    OpenAIRE

    Amberg, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Editing faces in movies is of interest in the special effects industry. We aim at producing effects such as the addition of accessories interacting correctly with the face or replacing the face of a stuntman with the face of the main actor. The system introduced in this thesis is based on a 3D generative face model. Using a 3D model makes it possible to edit the face in the semantic space of pose, expression, and identity instead of pixel space, and due to its 3D nature allows...

  12. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What You See Ain't What. You Got, Resonance, Vol.4,. No.9,1999. Dark Matter. 2. Dark Matter in the Universe. Bikram Phookun and Biman Nath. In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this.

  13. Impaired face recognition is associated with social inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Suzanne N; VanDerKlok, Ross M; Heckers, Stephan; Blackford, Jennifer U

    2016-02-28

    Face recognition is fundamental to successful social interaction. Individuals with deficits in face recognition are likely to have social functioning impairments that may lead to heightened risk for social anxiety. A critical component of social interaction is how quickly a face is learned during initial exposure to a new individual. Here, we used a novel Repeated Faces task to assess how quickly memory for faces is established. Face recognition was measured over multiple exposures in 52 young adults ranging from low to high in social inhibition, a core dimension of social anxiety. High social inhibition was associated with a smaller slope of change in recognition memory over repeated face exposure, indicating participants with higher social inhibition showed smaller improvements in recognition memory after seeing faces multiple times. We propose that impaired face learning is an important mechanism underlying social inhibition and may contribute to, or maintain, social anxiety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Series 'Facing Radiation'. 2 Facing radiation is facing residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzawa, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    The series is to report how general people, who are not at all radiological experts, have faced and understood the problems and tasks of radiation given by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011). The section 2 is reported by an officer of Date City, which localizes at 60 km northern west of the Plant, borders on Iitate Village of Fukushima prefecture, and is indicated as the important area of contamination search (IACS), which the reporter has been conducted for as responsible personnel. In July 2011, the ambient dose was as high as 3.0-3.5 mc-Sv/h and the tentative storage place of contaminated materials was decided by own initiative of residents of a small community, from which the real decontamination started in the City. The target dose after decontamination was defined to be 1.0 mc-Sv/h: however, 28/32 IACS municipalities in the prefecture had not defined the target although they had worked for 2 years after the Accident for their areas exceeding the standard 0.23 mc-Sv/h. At the moment of decontamination of the reporter's own house, he noticed that resident's concerns had directed toward its work itself, not toward the target dose, and wondered if these figures had obstructed to correctly face the radiation. At present that about 2.5 years have passed since the Accident, all of Date citizens have personal accumulated glass dosimeters for seeing the effective external dose and it seems that their dose will not exceed 1 mSv/y if the ambient dose estimated is 0.3-5 mc-Sv/h. Media run to popularity not to face radiation, experts tend to hesitate to face media and residents, and radiation dose will be hardly reduced to zero, despite that correct understanding of radiation is a shorter way for residents' own ease: facing radiation is facing residents. (T.T.)

  15. How "community" matters for how people interact with information: mixed methods study of young men who have sex with other men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinot, Tiffany Christine; Meadowbrooke, Chrysta Cathleen; Loveluck, Jimena; Hickok, Andrew; Bauermeister, Jose Artruro

    2013-02-21

    We lack a systematic portrait of the relationship between community involvement and how people interact with information. Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) are a population for which these relationships are especially salient: their gay community involvement varies and their information technology use is high. YMSM under age 24 are also one of the US populations with the highest risk of HIV/AIDS. To develop, test, and refine a model of gay community involvement (GCI) factors in human-information interaction (HII) as applied to HIV/AIDS information among YMSM, specifically examining the role of Internet use in GCI and HII. Mixed methods included: 1) online questionnaire with 194 YMSM; and 2) qualitative interviews with 19 YMSM with high GCI levels. Recruitment utilized social media, dating websites, health clinics, bars/clubs, and public postings. The survey included questions regarding HIV/AIDS-related information acquisition and use patterns, gay community involvement, risk behaviors, and technology use. For survey data, we tested multiple linear regression models using a series of community- and information-related variables as dependent variables. Independent variables included community- and information-related variables and demographic covariates. We then conducted a recursive path analysis in order to estimate a final model, which we refined through a grounded theory analysis of qualitative interview data. Four community-related variables significantly predicted how people interact with information (HII variables): 1) gay community involvement (GCI), 2) social costs of information seeking, 3) network expertise accessibility, and 4) community relevance. GCI was associated with significantly lower perceived social costs of HIV/AIDS information seeking (R(2)=0.07). GCI and social costs significantly predicted network expertise accessibility (R(2)=0.14). GCI predicted 14% of the variance in community relevance and 9% of the variance in information seeking

  16. Face Detection and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K

    2004-01-01

    .... Specifically, the report addresses the problem of detecting faces in color images in the presence of various lighting conditions and complex backgrounds as well as recognizing faces under variations...

  17. Measuring External Face Appearance for Face Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Masip, David; Lapedriza, Agata; Vitria, Jordi

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we introduce the importance of the external features in face classification problems, and propose a methodology to extract the external features obtaining an aligned feature set. The extracted features can be used as input to any standard pattern recognition classifier, as the classic feature extraction approaches dealing with internal face regions in the literature. The resulting scheme follows a top-down segmentation approach to deal with the diversity inherent to the extern...

  18. Face time: educating face transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparello, Brooke M; Bueno, Ericka M; Diaz-Siso, Jesus Rodrigo; Sisk, Geoffroy C; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2013-01-01

    Face transplantation is the innovative application of microsurgery and immunology to restore appearance and function to those with severe facial disfigurements. Our group aims to establish a multidisciplinary education program that can facilitate informed consent and build a strong knowledge base in patients to enhance adherence to medication regimes, recovery, and quality of life. We analyzed handbooks from our institution's solid organ transplant programs to identify topics applicable to face transplant patients. The team identified unique features of face transplantation that warrant comprehensive patient education. We created a 181-page handbook to provide subjects interested in pursuing transplantation with a written source of information on the process and team members and to address concerns they may have. While the handbook covers a wide range of topics, it is easy to understand and visually appealing. Face transplantation has many unique aspects that must be relayed to the patients pursuing this novel therapy. Since candidates lack third-party support groups and programs, the transplant team must provide an extensive educational component to enhance this complex process. As face transplantation continues to develop, programs must create sound education programs that address patients' needs and concerns to facilitate optimal care.

  19. Every Child Mattered in England: But What Matters to Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    "Every Child Matters" under New Labour provided a framework for services for young children's care and education. It was pushed aside by the Conservative-led coalition and replaced by "More Great Childcare". The UK as a signatory to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, therefore has obligations for…

  20. D matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, Gary; Wang Liantao

    2004-01-01

    We study the properties and phenomenology of particlelike states originating from D branes whose spatial dimensions are all compactified. They are nonperturbative states in string theory and we refer to them as D matter. In contrast to other nonperturbative objects such as 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles, D-matter states could have perturbative couplings among themselves and with ordinary matter. The lightest D particle (LDP) could be stable because it is the lightest state carrying certain (integer or discrete) quantum numbers. Depending on the string scale, they could be cold dark matter candidates with properties similar to that of WIMPs or wimpzillas. The spectrum of excited states of D matter exhibits an interesting pattern which could be distinguished from that of Kaluza-Klein modes, winding states, and string resonances. We speculate about possible signatures of D matter from ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and colliders

  1. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S. S.; Bennett, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Astrophysics conference in Maryland, organized by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland. The topics covered included low mass stars as dark matter, dark matter in galaxies and clusters, cosmic microwave background anisotropy, cold and hot dark matter, and the large scale distribution and motions of galaxies. There were eighty five papers presented. Out of these, 10 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  2. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Cotti, U.; De Leon, C. L.; Raya, A; Villasenor, L.

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest scientific mysteries of our time resides in the identification of the particles that constitute a large fraction of the mass of our Universe, generically known as dark matter. We review the observations and the experimental data that imply the existence of dark matter. We briefly discuss the properties of the two best dark-matter candidate particles and the experimental techniques presently used to try to discover them. Finally, we mention a proposed project that has recently emerged within the Mexican community to look for dark matter

  3. Perceiving Age and Gender in Unfamiliar Faces: An fMRI Study on Face Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Holger; Kloth, Nadine; Gullmar, Daniel; Reichenbach, Jurgen R.; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient processing of unfamiliar faces typically involves their categorization (e.g., into old vs. young or male vs. female). However, age and gender categorization may pose different perceptual demands. In the present study, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the activity evoked during age vs. gender…

  4. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Wheeler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37 have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.

  5. Facing My Fears (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Glynn

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available I’m scared. I’m nervous. In a few short weeks the contractors and electricians will take over my library for several months. They will drill huge gouges in the concrete floor, hammer, saw, scrape,move, wire, etc. No doubt they may have to be asked to keep their voices down once or twice. Half of the print journal collection will be relocated to accommodate a new teaching lab that will also double as an information commons. The planning has been going on for many months. We have consulted with other libraries, reviewed the literature, identified the needs of our various user groups, measured space,tested technical possibilities, and met with architects and engineers. Up until now the new lab was an organic idea on paper, discussed over coffee and in meetings. That’s fairly easy to deal with. But just around the corner it becomes a reality and I’m a bag of nerves. Have we made the right decisions? Will it address all our needs? Is there anything I forgot to consider? What if our users don’t like it? What if it is a complete failure?!Theoretically, it should be ok. I’ve followed the right steps and worked with a creative, talented and dedicated team. This is different from trying out a new instructional technique or reorganizing the information desk. This is big. I talk the evidence based talk regularly, but now I am walking the walk in a bigger way than I had ever imagined. Change can be frightening. Moving out of comfort zones is not easy. Having said that, the challenge can be invigorating and the change, refreshing. I find myself welcoming the change as much as I dread it. I’ll face my fears and see it through to the implementation and evaluations and beyond. And hey, no matter what the outcome, it should make for a good paper. If anyone else out there is going through a similar process, I’d be interested in comparing notes. I invite you to try something new this year in your work environment or in your professional activities

  6. The Secrets of Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano

    1998-01-01

    This is a comment on an article by Perrett et al., on the same issue of Nature, investigating face perception. With computer graphics, Perrett and colleagues have produced exaggerated male and female faces, and asked people to rate them with respect to femininity or masculinity, and personality traits such as intelligence, emotionality and so on. The key question is: what informations do faces (and sexual signals in general) convey? One view, supported by Perrett and colleagues, is that all a...

  7. Learning discriminant face descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhen; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z

    2014-02-01

    Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is predefined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different people. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. Discriminative learning is incorporated to extract effective and robust features. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. The DFD improves POEM and LQP by about 4.5 percent on LFW database and the C-DFD enhances the heterogeneous face recognition performance of LBP by over 25 percent.

  8. Oracle ADF Faces cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gawish, Amr

    2014-01-01

    This is a cookbook that covers more than 80 different recipes to teach you about different aspects of Oracle ADF Faces. It follows a practical approach and covers how to build your components for reuse in different applications. This book will also help you in tuning the performance of your ADF Faces application. If you are an ADF developer who wants to harness the power of Oracle ADF Faces to create exceptional user interfaces and reactive applications, this book will provide you with the recipes needed to do just that. You will not need to be familiar with Oracle ADF Faces, but you should be

  9. Face inversion increases attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Helmut; Goller, Juergen; Forster, Michael; Schlageter, Lena; Paul, Matthew A

    2017-07-01

    Assessing facial attractiveness is a ubiquitous, inherent, and hard-wired phenomenon in everyday interactions. As such, it has highly adapted to the default way that faces are typically processed: viewing faces in upright orientation. By inverting faces, we can disrupt this default mode, and study how facial attractiveness is assessed. Faces, rotated at 90 (tilting to either side) and 180°, were rated on attractiveness and distinctiveness scales. For both orientations, we found that faces were rated more attractive and less distinctive than upright faces. Importantly, these effects were more pronounced for faces rated low in upright orientation, and smaller for highly attractive faces. In other words, the less attractive a face was, the more it gained in attractiveness by inversion or rotation. Based on these findings, we argue that facial attractiveness assessments might not rely on the presence of attractive facial characteristics, but on the absence of distinctive, unattractive characteristics. These unattractive characteristics are potentially weighed against an individual, attractive prototype in assessing facial attractiveness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Money Matters for the Young Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew T.

    2010-01-01

    Children's economic reasoning follows a developmental sequence in which their ideas about money and other basic economic concepts are forming. Even children in the early primary grades can learn some basic economics and retain understanding of economic concepts if they are taught in developmentally appropriate ways. Given how important economic…

  11. Young physicists' forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T.

    2001-01-01

    The Young Physicists' Forum was an opportunity for the younger members of the particle-physics community to gather at Snowmass 2001 and to study and debate major issues that face the field over the next twenty years. Discussions were organized around three major topics: outreach and education, the impact of globalization, and building a robust and balanced field. We report on the results of these discussions, as presented on July 17, 2001

  12. Morphing morphing faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, R.J. van

    2009-01-01

    We have made cyclic morphing animations using two different faces. The morphing animations gradually evolved from one face to the other, and vice versa. When free viewing, the perceived changes were not very large, but the changes could easily be observed. Observers were asked to fixate on a dot

  13. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  14. The dark side of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.

    2003-01-01

    The number of baryons (protons and neutrons) of the universe can be deduced from the relative abundances of light elements (deuterium, helium and lithium) that were generated during the very first minutes of the cosmic history. This calculation has shown that the baryonic matter represents only 5% of the total mass of the universe. As for neutrinos (hot dark matter), their very low mass restraints their contribution to only 0,3%. The spinning movement of galaxies requires the existence of huge quantity of matter that seems invisible (black matter). Astrophysicists have recently discovered that the universal expansion is accelerating and that the space geometry is euclidean, from these 2 facts they have deduced a value of the mass-energy density that implies the existence of something different from dark matter called dark energy and that is expected to represent about 70% of the mass of the universe. Physicists face the challenge of detecting black matter and black energy. The first attempt for detecting black matter began in 1997 when the UKDMC detector entered into service. Now more than half a dozen of detectors are searching for dark matter but till now in vain. A new generation of detectors (CDMS-2, ZEPLIN-2, CRESST-2 and Edelweiss-2) combining detection, new methods of particle discrimination and the study of the evolution of the signal over very long periods of time are progressively entering into operation. (A.C.)

  15. Dark matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark. That is, not only is the night sky dark, but also most of the matter and the energy in the universe is dark. For every atom visible in planets, stars and galaxies today there exists at least five or six times as much 'Dark Matter' in the universe. Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious but pervasive dark matter, which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe. Dark energy remains even more elusive, as we lack candidate fields that emerge from well established physics. I will describe various attempts to measure dark matter by direct and indirect means, and discuss the prospects for progress in unravelling dark energy.

  16. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel

    2017-01-01

    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  17. Confidence Matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China’s economy passed over a bumpy road last year. Influenced by the global economic crisis, China faces many uncertainties in 2009. Yao Jingyuan, Chief Economist of the National Bureau of Statistics, gave a speech at the 2009 China Mining Merger and Acquisition Forum at Tsinghua University on January 10 about the risks the country faces and the positive factors that still exist in China’s economic development. Excerpts follow.

  18. Gaze Cueing by Pareidolia Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske Takahashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon. While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cueing effect was comparable between the face-like objects and a cartoon face. However, the cueing effect was eliminated when the observer did not perceive the objects as faces. These results demonstrated that pareidolia faces do more than give the impression of the presence of faces; indeed, they trigger an additional face-specific attentional process.

  19. Gaze cueing by pareidolia faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon). While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cueing effect was comparable between the face-like objects and a cartoon face. However, the cueing effect was eliminated when the observer did not perceive the objects as faces. These results demonstrated that pareidolia faces do more than give the impression of the presence of faces; indeed, they trigger an additional face-specific attentional process.

  20. Face Detection and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K

    2004-01-01

    This report describes research efforts towards developing algorithms for a robust face recognition system to overcome many of the limitations found in existing two-dimensional facial recognition systems...

  1. The Development of Sex Category Representation in Infancy: Matching of Faces and Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Alyson; Kangas, Ashley; Zieber, Nicole; Bhatt, Ramesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a significant social category, and adults derive information about it from both faces and bodies. Research indicates that young infants process sex category information in faces. However, no prior study has examined whether infants derive sex categories from bodies and match faces and bodies in terms of sex. In the current study,…

  2. Toddlers with Williams Syndrome Process Upright but Not Inverted Faces Holistically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashon, Cara H.; Ha, Oh-Ryeong; DeNicola, Christopher A.; Mervis, Carolyn B.

    2013-01-01

    Holistic processing of upright, but not inverted, faces is a marker of perceptual expertise for faces. This pattern is shown by typically developing individuals beginning at age 7 months. Williams syndrome (WS) is a rare neurogenetic developmental disorder characterized by extreme interest in faces from a very young age. Research on the effects of…

  3. Buzz: Face-to-Face Contact and the Urban Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Storper; Anthony J. Venables

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that existing models of urban concentrations are incomplete unless grounded in the most fundamental aspect of proximity; face-to-face contact. Face-to-face contact has four main features; it is an efficient communication technology; it can help solve incentive problems; it can facilitate socialization and learning; and it provides psychological motivation. We discuss each of these features in turn, and develop formal economic models of two of them. Face-to-face is particular...

  4. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carr?, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judge...

  5. Quark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csernai, L.; Kampert, K. H.

    1994-10-15

    Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June.

  6. Transformações contemporâneas do trabalho e processos de subjetivação: os jovens face à nova economia e à economia solidária Contemporary work changes and subjectification processes: young workers facing new economy and social economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Caetano Nardi

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O mercado de trabalho contemporâneo aprofundou o fosso social que separa a população inserida no mercado daquela que sobrevive de forma precária. A economia solidária surgiu como contraponto à fratura social daí decorrente. Utilizando a abordagem biográfica, discutimos as trajetórias de trabalho de 30 jovens divididos em dois grupos. O primeiro grupo é composto por 15 jovens empregados no setor da nova economia (informática, telecomunicações e Internet e 5 jovens empregados no setor bancário pós-reestruturação; o segundo grupo é composto por 5 jovens ligados a um projeto de economia solidária e 5 jovens vinculados a um projeto comunitário. As entrevistas dos jovens inseridos no primeiro grupo revelam a adesão ao discurso gerencial e a constituição de uma ética individualista. Para os jovens do segundo grupo, a economia solidária e o associativismo constituem somente uma alternativa ao desemprego. Frente a essa constatação, perguntamos se estes projetos se constituem efetivamente como um contraponto à lógica de adesão ao discurso de gestão contemporâneo.Contemporary labor market increased society's social gap between those inserted in the labor market and those surviving in a precarious way. Social economy emerged in opposition to this social fracture. Using the biographical approach, we discuss work's trajectories of 30 young workers divided in two groups. The first group is formed by 15 workers employed in the new economy sector (telecommunications, Internet and software and 5 workers employed in reengineered banks. The second group is composed by 5 workers involved in social economy projects and 5 workers involved in a communitarian association. The analysis of the first group's workers' interviews point to the creation/foundation of a highly individualistic ethics and behavior. The workers belonging to the second group seem to explain their experience just as an alternative to unemployment. Due to this

  7. Vertical vector face lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoano, Brian; Chan, Joanna; Morganroth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation using local anesthesia has evolved in the past decade as a safer option for patients seeking fewer complications and minimal downtime. Mini- and short-scar face lifts using more conservative incision lengths and extent of undermining can be effective in the younger patient with lower face laxity and minimal loose, elastotic neck skin. By incorporating both an anterior and posterior approach and using an incision length between the mini and more traditional face lift, the Vertical Vector Face Lift can achieve longer-lasting and natural results with lesser cost and risk. Submentoplasty and liposuction of the neck and jawline, fundamental components of the vertical vector face lift, act synergistically with superficial musculoaponeurotic system plication to reestablish a more youthful, sculpted cervicomental angle, even in patients with prominent jowls. Dramatic results can be achieved in the right patient by combining with other procedures such as injectable fillers, chin implants, laser resurfacing, or upper and lower blepharoplasties. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Successful decoding of famous faces in the fusiform face area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Axelrod

    Full Text Available What are the neural mechanisms of face recognition? It is believed that the network of face-selective areas, which spans the occipital, temporal, and frontal cortices, is important in face recognition. A number of previous studies indeed reported that face identity could be discriminated based on patterns of multivoxel activity in the fusiform face area and the anterior temporal lobe. However, given the difficulty in localizing the face-selective area in the anterior temporal lobe, its role in face recognition is still unknown. Furthermore, previous studies limited their analysis to occipito-temporal regions without testing identity decoding in more anterior face-selective regions, such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In the current high-resolution functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study, we systematically examined the decoding of the identity of famous faces in the temporo-frontal network of face-selective and adjacent non-face-selective regions. A special focus has been put on the face-area in the anterior temporal lobe, which was reliably localized using an optimized scanning protocol. We found that face-identity could be discriminated above chance level only in the fusiform face area. Our results corroborate the role of the fusiform face area in face recognition. Future studies are needed to further explore the role of the more recently discovered anterior face-selective areas in face recognition.

  9. How Does Culture Matter in the Face of Globalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ying-Yi; Cheon, Bobby K

    2017-09-01

    Globalization has made exposure to multiple cultures not only possible, but often necessary and unavoidable. This article focuses on how people react and adapt to increasing globalization and multiculturalism. We posit that reactions to multiculturalism and intercultural contact are not universal and are themselves shaped by cultural experiences. That is, culture provides a frame of reference for reconciling and negotiating the inflow of foreign cultures and peoples. Although exposure to foreign cultures can widen one's worldview, thereby enhancing creativity and reducing prejudice, intercultural contact can also bring about negative exclusionary responses such as aversion, disgust, and defensiveness. We explore how culture and individual differences, such as a belief in racial essentialism, critically shape reactions to intercultural contact. Our discussion sheds light on recent geopolitical and societal shifts that reflect an increased backlash against rising globalization and cultural diversity.

  10. In Schools that Face the Future: Libraries Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This address will provide an overview of the societal and economic pressures that are driving change in post industrial economies and their schools, review the characteristics of selected societies such as Australia, USA and Hong Kong, summarise the current trends in information and communication technologies (ICTs) and their impacts on learning…

  11. How Well Do Computer-Generated Faces Tap Face Expertise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Crookes

    Full Text Available The use of computer-generated (CG stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE-the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces.

  12. Predicting mortality from human faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykiert, Dominika; Bates, Timothy C; Gow, Alan J; Penke, Lars; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether and to what extent mortality is predictable from facial photographs of older people. High-quality facial photographs of 292 members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921, taken at the age of about 83 years, were rated in terms of apparent age, health, attractiveness, facial symmetry, intelligence, and well-being by 12 young-adult raters. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to study associations between these ratings and mortality during a 7-year follow-up period. All ratings had adequate reliability. Concurrent validity was found for facial symmetry and intelligence (as determined by correlations with actual measures of fluctuating asymmetry in the faces and Raven Standard Progressive Matrices score, respectively), but not for the other traits. Age as rated from facial photographs, adjusted for sex and chronological age, was a significant predictor of mortality (hazard ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval = 1.12-1.65) and remained significant even after controlling for concurrent, objectively measured health and cognitive ability, and the other ratings. Health as rated from facial photographs, adjusted for sex and chronological age, significantly predicted mortality (hazard ratio = 0.81, 95% confidence interval = 0.67-0.99) but not after adjusting for rated age or objectively measured health and cognition. Rated attractiveness, symmetry, intelligence, and well-being were not significantly associated with mortality risk. Rated age of the face is a significant predictor of mortality risk among older people, with predictive value over and above that of objective or rated health status and cognitive ability.

  13. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As if this was not enough, it turns out that if our knowledge of ... are thought to contain dark matter, although the evidences from them are the .... protons, electrons, neutrons ... ratio of protons to neutrons was close to unity then as they were in ...

  14. Quantum matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechler, Hans Peter; Calcarco, Tommaso; Dressel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Artificial atoms and molecules, tailored from solids, fractional flux quanta, molecular magnets, controlled interaction in quantum gases, the theory of quantum correlations in mott matter, cold gases, and mesoscopic systems, Bose-Einstein condensates on the chip, on the route to the quantum computer, a quantum computer in diamond. (HSI)

  15. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 4. Molecule Matters – van der Waals Molecules - History and Some Perspectives on Intermolecular Forces. E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 4 April 2009 pp 346-356 ...

  16. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Molecule Matters - Dinitrogen. A G Samuelson J Jabadurai. Volume 16 Issue 12 ... Author Affiliations. A G Samuelson1 J Jabadurai1. Department of Inroganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  17. Interstellar matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezger, P.G.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the formation of our galaxy is presented followed by a summary of recent work in star formation and related topics. Selected discussions are given on interstellar matter including absorption characteristics of dust, the fully ionised component of the ISM and the energy density of lyc-photons in the solar neighbourhood and the diffuse galactic IR radiation

  18. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of gas clouds orbiting in the outer regions of spiral galaxies has revealed that their gravitational at- traction is much larger than the stars alone can provide. Over the last twenty years, astronomers have been forced to postulate the presence of large quantities of 'dark matter' to explain their observations. They are ...

  19. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Molecule Matters - A Chromium Compound with a Quintuple Bond. K C Kumara Swamy. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 72-75. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience´s...... interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  1. Measuring What Matters Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Measuring What Matters Workshop Report Katie Stewart Julia Allen Michelle Valdez Lisa Young January 2015 TECHNICAL NOTE CMU/SEI-2015-TN...the approach using a simple objective: teaching a child to properly brush his/her teeth. Next, we demonstrate the approach using a cybersecurity...Ensure you child’s teeth are healthy. G1: Ensure your child has everything needed to brush his/her teeth. G2: Ensure your child is brushing his

  2. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carré, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as “honest signals”. PMID:22276184

  3. Facing aggression: cues differ for female versus male faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn N Geniole

    Full Text Available The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio, is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F(1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01. In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively and masculinity (negatively ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as "honest signals".

  4. Facing aggression: cues differ for female versus male faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniole, Shawn N; Keyes, Amanda E; Mondloch, Catherine J; Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F(1,36) = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as "honest signals".

  5. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.; Tran Thanh Van, J.

    1988-01-01

    The book begins with the papers devoted to the experimental search of signatures of the dark matter which governs the evolution of the Universe as a whole. A series of contributions describe the presently considered experimental techniques (cryogenic detectors, supraconducting detectors...). A real dialogue concerning these techniques has been instaured between particle physicists and astrophysicists. After the progress report of the particle physicists, the book provides the reader with an updated situation concerning the research in cosmology. The second part of the book is devoted to the analysis of the backgrounds at different energies such as the possible role of the cooling flows in the constitution of massive galactic halos. Any search of dark matter implies necessarily the analysis of the spatial distributions of the large scale structures of the Universe. This report is followed by a series of statistical analyses of these distributions. These analyses concern mainly universes filled up with cold dark matter. The last paper of this third part concerns the search of clustering in the spatial distribution of QSOs. The presence of dark matter should affect the solar neighborhood and related to the existence of galactic haloes. The contributions are devoted to the search of such local dark matter. Primordial nucleosynthesis provides a very powerful tool to set up quite constraining limitations on the overall baryonic density. Even if on takes into account the inhomogeneities in density possibly induced by the Quark-Hadron transition, this baryonic density should be much lower than the overall density deduced from the dynamical models of Universe or the inflationary theories

  6. Gaze Cueing by Pareidolia Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Kohske Takahashi; Katsumi Watanabe

    2013-01-01

    Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon). While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cuei...

  7. The Facial Appearance of CEOs: Faces Signal Selection but Not Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garretsen, Harry; Spreeuwers, Luuk J.

    2016-01-01

    Research overwhelmingly shows that facial appearance predicts leader selection. However, the evidence on the relevance of faces for actual leader ability and consequently performance is inconclusive. By using a state-of-the-art, objective measure for face recognition, we test the predictive value of CEOs’ faces for firm performance in a large sample of faces. We first compare the faces of Fortune500 CEOs with those of US citizens and professors. We find clear confirmation that CEOs do look different when compared to citizens or professors, replicating the finding that faces matter for selection. More importantly, we also find that faces of CEOs of top performing firms do not differ from other CEOs. Based on our advanced face recognition method, our results suggest that facial appearance matters for leader selection but that it does not do so for leader performance. PMID:27462986

  8. Robust Statistical Face Frontalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagonas, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that excellent results can be achieved in both facial landmark localization and pose-invariant face recognition. These breakthroughs are attributed to the efforts of the community to manually annotate facial images in many different poses and to collect 3D facial data. In

  9. PrimeFaces blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Jonna, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with experience of frontend UI development, and want to take the plunge to develop stunning UI applications with the most popular JSF framework, PrimeFaces, then this book is for you. For those with entrepreneurial aspirations, this book will provide valuable insights into how to utilize successful business models.

  10. Face-Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or sun damage, you might also consider a skin-resurfacing procedure. A face-lift can be done in combination with some other cosmetic procedures, such as a brow lift or eyelid surgery. Why it's done As you get older, your facial skin changes — sagging and becoming loose. This can make ...

  11. Facing competitive pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinrich, H.

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the problems facing the electric power industry and professional personnel as a result of economic downturn and the resulting down sizing of individual companies and utilities. The author proposes that the most efficient use of technology will have greater impact in making a utility more competitive than reducing the head count

  12. Mechanical Face Seal Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    1473, 83 APR EDITION OF I JAN 73 IS OBSOLETE. UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE -,1 - " P V 7 V - • ... f -N- PRE FACE This final...dimensionless mass m and support damping 1), ~ at-e aisas M"= -1,,i -4 4) y positive. ’he damping D is Ihe tinplete system of momeints acting on tile

  13. Sensual expressions on faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.W.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Roek, M.A.E.

    2009-01-01

    We explored the possibility that an emotional facial expression exists specifically for signalling sexual interest. We selected photographs of twenty-eight fashion models (male and female) with large portfolios (range 81 - 1593), choosing only face photographs in which the model was looking into the

  14. Problems Facing Rural Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, C. E.; And Others

    Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…

  15. Problems facing developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Financing, above all political and technical considerations, remains the major obstacle faced by developing countries who wish to embark on a nuclear power programme. According to the IAEA, the support of the official lending agencies of the suppliers is essential. (author)

  16. Neural synchronization during face-to-face communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jing; Dai, Bohan; Peng, Danling; Zhu, Chaozhe; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming

    2012-11-07

    Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-face dialog between partners but none during a back-to-back dialog, a face-to-face monologue, or a back-to-back monologue. Moreover, the neural synchronization between partners during the face-to-face dialog resulted primarily from the direct interactions between the partners, including multimodal sensory information integration and turn-taking behavior. The communicating behavior during the face-to-face dialog could be predicted accurately based on the neural synchronization level. These results suggest that face-to-face communication, particularly dialog, has special neural features that other types of communication do not have and that the neural synchronization between partners may underlie successful face-to-face communication.

  17. Voicing on Virtual and Face to Face Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamat, Hamidah

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses findings of a study conducted on pre-service teachers' experiences in virtual and face to face discussions. Technology has brought learning nowadays beyond the classroom context or time zone. The learning context and process no longer rely solely on face to face communications in the presence of a teacher.…

  18. Bayesian Face Recognition and Perceptual Narrowing in Face-Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to "perceptual narrowing", the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in…

  19. Disposal Of Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Seung Mu

    1989-02-01

    This book deals with disposal of waste matter management of soiled waste matter in city with introduction, definition of waste matter, meaning of management of waste matter, management system of waste matter, current condition in the country, collect and transportation of waste matter disposal liquid waste matter, industrial waste matter like plastic, waste gas sludge, pulp and sulfuric acid, recycling technology of waste matter such as recycling system of Black clawson, Monroe and Rome.

  20. Telephone Consultation as a Substitute for Routine Out-patient Face-to-face Consultation for Children With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Randomised Controlled Trial and Economic Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Akobeng, Anthony K.; O'Leary, Neil; Vail, Andy; Brown, Nailah; Widiatmoko, Dono; Fagbemi, Andrew; Thomas, Adrian G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence for the use of telephone consultation in childhood inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is lacking. We aimed to assess the effectiveness and cost consequences of telephone consultation compared with the usual out-patient face-to-face consultation for young people with IBD. Methods: We conducted a randomised-controlled trial in Manchester, UK, between July 12, 2010 and June 30, 2013. Young people (aged 8–16 years) with IBD were randomized to receive telephone consultation o...

  1. Real Time Face Quality Assessment for Face Log Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Summarizing a long surveillance video to just a few best quality face images of each subject, a face-log, is of great importance in surveillance systems. Face quality assessment is the back-bone for face log generation and improving the quality assessment makes the face logs more reliable....... Developing a real time face quality assessment system using the most important facial features and employing it for face logs generation are the concerns of this paper. Extensive tests using four databases are carried out to validate the usability of the system....

  2. Young Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard Obling, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Book review of: Kevin Roose: "Young Money: Inside the Hidden World of Wall Street's Post-Crash Recruits". New York: Grand Central Publishing, 2014. 320 pp.......Book review of: Kevin Roose: "Young Money: Inside the Hidden World of Wall Street's Post-Crash Recruits". New York: Grand Central Publishing, 2014. 320 pp....

  3. Face-to-Face Activities in Blended Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Annemette

    While blended learning combines online and face-to-face teaching, research on blended learning has primarily focused on the role of technology and the opportunities it creates for engaging students. Less focus has been put on face-to-face activities in blended learning. This paper argues...... that it is not only the online activities in blended learning that provide new opportunities for rethinking pedagogy in higher education, it is also imperative to reconsider the face-to-face activities when part of the learning is provided online. Based on a review of blended learning in business and management...... education, we identify what forms of teaching and learning are suggested to take place face-to-face when other activities are moved online. We draw from the Community of Inquiry framework to analyze how face-to-face activities contribute to a blended learning pedagogy and discuss the implications...

  4. Human faces are slower than chimpanzee faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Burrows

    Full Text Available While humans (like other primates communicate with facial expressions, the evolution of speech added a new function to the facial muscles (facial expression muscles. The evolution of speech required the development of a coordinated action between visual (movement of the lips and auditory signals in a rhythmic fashion to produce "visemes" (visual movements of the lips that correspond to specific sounds. Visemes depend upon facial muscles to regulate shape of the lips, which themselves act as speech articulators. This movement necessitates a more controlled, sustained muscle contraction than that produced during spontaneous facial expressions which occur rapidly and last only a short period of time. Recently, it was found that human tongue musculature contains a higher proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers than in rhesus macaques, which is related to the slower, more controlled movements of the human tongue in the production of speech. Are there similar unique, evolutionary physiologic biases found in human facial musculature related to the evolution of speech?Using myosin immunohistochemistry, we tested the hypothesis that human facial musculature has a higher percentage of slow-twitch myosin fibers relative to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. We sampled the orbicularis oris and zygomaticus major muscles from three cadavers of each species and compared proportions of fiber-types. Results confirmed our hypothesis: humans had the highest proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers while chimpanzees had the highest proportion of fast-twitch fibers.These findings demonstrate that the human face is slower than that of rhesus macaques and our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. They also support the assertion that human facial musculature and speech co-evolved. Further, these results suggest a unique set of evolutionary selective pressures on human facial musculature to slow down while the function of this muscle

  5. Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-12-23

    The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

  6. Neural synchronization during face-to-face communication

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, J.; Dai, B.; Peng, D.; Zhu, C.; Liu, L.; Lu, C.

    2012-01-01

    Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-...

  7. Quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csernai, L.; Kampert, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June

  8. The relationship between visual search and categorization of own- and other-age faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Belinda M; Lipp, Ottmar V

    2018-03-13

    Young adult participants are faster to detect young adult faces in crowds of infant and child faces than vice versa. These findings have been interpreted as evidence for more efficient attentional capture by own-age than other-age faces, but could alternatively reflect faster rejection of other-age than own-age distractors, consistent with the previously reported other-age categorization advantage: faster categorization of other-age than own-age faces. Participants searched for own-age faces in other-age backgrounds or vice versa. Extending the finding to different other-age groups, young adult participants were faster to detect young adult faces in both early adolescent (Experiment 1) and older adult backgrounds (Experiment 2). To investigate whether the own-age detection advantage could be explained by faster categorization and rejection of other-age background faces, participants in experiments 3 and 4 also completed an age categorization task. Relatively faster categorization of other-age faces was related to relatively faster search through other-age backgrounds on target absent trials but not target present trials. These results confirm that other-age faces are more quickly categorized and searched through and that categorization and search processes are related; however, this correlational approach could not confirm or reject the contribution of background face processing to the own-age detection advantage. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Anatomy of ageing face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilankovan, V

    2014-03-01

    Ageing is a biological process that results from changes at a cellular level, particularly modification of mRNA. The face is affected by the same physiological process and results in skeletal, muscular, and cutaneous ageing; ligamentous attenuation, descent of fat, and ageing of the appendages. I describe these changes on a structural and clinical basis and summarise possible solutions for a rejuvenation surgeon. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. IntraFace

    OpenAIRE

    De la Torre, Fernando; Chu, Wen-Sheng; Xiong, Xuehan; Vicente, Francisco; Ding, Xiaoyu; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Within the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in the computer vision community in automated facial image analysis algorithms. This has been driven by applications in animation, market research, autonomous-driving, surveillance, and facial editing among others. To date, there exist several commercial packages for specific facial image analysis tasks such as facial expression recognition, facial attribute analysis or face tracking. However, free and easy-to-use software that i...

  11. Beyond Faces and Expertise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Holistic processing—the tendency to perceive objects as indecomposable wholes—has long been viewed as a process specific to faces or objects of expertise. Although current theories differ in what causes holistic processing, they share a fundamental constraint for its generalization: Nonface objects cannot elicit facelike holistic processing in the absence of expertise. Contrary to this prevailing view, here we show that line patterns with salient Gestalt information (i.e., connectedness, closure, and continuity between parts) can be processed as holistically as faces without any training. Moreover, weakening the saliency of Gestalt information in these patterns reduced holistic processing of them, which indicates that Gestalt information plays a crucial role in holistic processing. Therefore, holistic processing can be achieved not only via a top-down route based on expertise, but also via a bottom-up route relying merely on object-based information. The finding that facelike holistic processing can extend beyond the domains of faces and objects of expertise poses a challenge to current dominant theories. PMID:26674129

  12. Peer review - Why does it matter for your academic career?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Kalz, M. (2012, 8 March). Peer review - Why does it matter for your academic career? Presentation provided in the context of the Young Researchers Special Issue 2012 of the International Journal of Technology-Enhanced Learning (IJTEL).

  13. Young Love

    OpenAIRE

    Regmi, Pramod; Simkhada, Padam; Van Teijlingen, Edwin

    2010-01-01

    Your article on love and relationship deals with a very important issue (“Love makes the world go round,” Feb. 15, Page 1).It is now widely accepted that romantic relationships and dating are normative among adolescents and young people in Nepal. In our qualitative study of urban and rural young males and females using same sex researchers — in perhaps the first study of dating practice among Nepali youth — almost all of our respondents reported that young people in Nepal form partnerships wi...

  14. Emotion regulation in mothers and young children faced with trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Cohen, S; Ziv, Y; Achituv, M; Asulin-Peretz, L; Blanchard, T R; Schiff, M; Brom, D

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated maternal emotion regulation as mediating the association between maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms and children's emotional dysregulation in a community sample of 431 Israeli mothers and children exposed to trauma. Little is known about the specific pathways through which maternal posttraumatic symptoms and deficits in emotion regulation contribute to emotional dysregulation. Inspired by the intergenerational process of relational posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), in which posttraumatic distress is transmitted from mothers to children, we suggest an analogous concept of relational emotion regulation, by which maternal emotion regulation problems may contribute to child emotion regulation deficits. Child emotion regulation problems were measured using the Child Behavior Checklist-Dysregulation Profile (CBCL-DP; T.M. Achenbach & I. Rescorla, 2000), which is comprised of three subscales of the CBCL: Attention, Aggression, and Anxiety/Depression. Maternal PTSD symptoms were assessed by the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (E.B. Foa, L. Cashman, L. Jaycox, & K. Perry, 1997) and maternal emotion regulation by the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (K.L. Gratz & L. Roemer, 2004). Results showed that the child's emotion regulation problems were associated with both maternal posttraumatic symptoms and maternal emotion dysregulation. Further, maternal emotion regulation mediated the association between maternal posttraumatic symptoms and the child's regulation deficits. These findings highlight the central role of mothers' emotion regulation skills in the aftermath of trauma as it relates to children's emotion regulation skills. The degree of mothers' regulatory skills in the context of posttraumatic stress symptoms reflects a key process through which the intergenerational transmission of trauma may occur. Study results have critical implications for planning and developing clinical interventions geared toward the treatment of families in the aftermath of trauma and, in particular, the enhancement of mothers' emotion regulation skills after trauma. © 2015 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  15. The new young face of the Pension Fund

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    Matthew Eyton-Jones is the new Chief Executive Officer of the CERN Pension Fund. He joined the Organization in July and will meet with CERN pensioners for the first time on 15 September. Here he speaks with the Bulletin about himself, his vision and the challenges that lie ahead.   Matthew Eyton-Jones joined CERN on 1 July as the new Chief Executive Officer of the CERN Pension Fund. Before coming to CERN, Matthew held pension management and consultancy positions at a number of international organisations, including the John Lewis Partnership, Goldman Sachs, the Bank of America and Mercer Consulting. In his role as Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of the CERN Pension Fund, he is responsible for the day-to-day management of the fund on behalf of and under the supervision of the Governing Board. “In my career, I have been involved in the operation and running of various pension funds around the world,” he says. “However, in the case of CERN, I am not ...

  16. Face age modulates gaze following in young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Ciardo; Barbara F. M. Marino; Rossana Actis-Grosso; Angela Rossetti; Paola Ricciardelli

    2014-01-01

    Gaze-following behaviour is considered crucial for social interactions which are influenced by social similarity. We investigated whether the degree of similarity, as indicated by the perceived age of another person, can modulate gaze following. Participants of three different age-groups (18–25; 35–45; over 65) performed an eye movement (a saccade) towards an instructed target while ignoring the gaze-shift of distracters of different age-ranges (6–10; 18–25; 35–45; over 70). The results show ...

  17. Visual search of Mooney faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Emeline Goold

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Faces spontaneously capture attention. However, which special attributes of a face underlie this effect are unclear. To address this question, we investigate how gist information, specific visual properties and differing amounts of experience with faces affect the time required to detect a face. Three visual search experiments were conducted investigating the rapidness of human observers to detect Mooney face images. Mooney images are two-toned, ambiguous images. They were used in order to have stimuli that maintain gist information but limit low-level image properties. Results from the experiments show: 1 although upright Mooney faces were searched inefficiently, they were detected more rapidly than inverted Mooney face targets, demonstrating the important role of gist information in guiding attention towards a face. 2 Several specific Mooney face identities were searched efficiently while others were not, suggesting the involvement of specific visual properties in face detection. 3 By providing participants with unambiguous gray-scale versions of the Mooney face targets prior to the visual search task, the targets were detected significantly more efficiently, suggesting that prior experience with Mooney faces improves the ability to extract gist information for rapid face detection. However, a week of training with Mooney face categorization did not lead to even more efficient visual search of Mooney face targets. In summary, these results reveal that specific local image properties cannot account for how faces capture attention. On the other hand, gist information alone cannot account for how faces capture attention either. Prior experience facilitates the effect of gist on visual search of faces, making faces a special object category for guiding attention.

  18. Decoding of faces and face components in face-sensitive human visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Nichols

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A great challenge to the field of visual neuroscience is to understand how faces are encoded and represented within the human brain. Here we show evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for spatially distributed processing of the whole face and its components in face-sensitive human visual cortex. We used multi-class linear pattern classifiers constructed with a leave-one-scan-out verification procedure to discriminate brain activation patterns elicited by whole faces, the internal features alone, and the external head outline alone. Furthermore, our results suggest that whole faces are represented disproportionately in the fusiform cortex (FFA whereas the building blocks of faces are represented disproportionately in occipitotemporal cortex (OFA. Faces and face components may therefore be organized with functional clustering within both the FFA and OFA, but with specialization for face components in the OFA and the whole face in the FFA.

  19. Media Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Pötzsch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution maps materialist advances in media studies. Based on the assumption that matter and materiality constitute significant aspects of communication processes and practices, I introduce four fields of inquiry - technology, political economy, ecology, and the body - and argue that these perspectives enable a more comprehensive understanding of the implications of contemporary technologically afforded forms of interaction. The article shows how each perspective can balance apologetic and apocalyptic approaches to the impact of in particular digital technologies, before it demonstrates the applicability of an integrated framework with reference to the techno-politics of NSA surveillance and the counter-practices of WikiLeaks.

  20. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    ? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  1. Own-race and own-age biases facilitate visual awareness of faces under interocular suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo eStein

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The detection of a face in a visual scene is the first stage in the face processing hierarchy. Although all subsequent, more elaborate face processing depends on the initial detection of a face, surprisingly little is known about the perceptual mechanisms underlying face detection. Recent evidence suggests that relatively hard-wired face detection mechanisms are broadly tuned to all face-like visual patterns as long as they respect the typical spatial configuration of the eyes above the mouth. Here, we qualify this notion by showing that face detection mechanisms are also sensitive to face shape and facial surface reflectance properties. We used continuous flash suppression (CFS to render faces invisible at the beginning of a trial and measured the time upright and inverted faces needed to break into awareness. Young Caucasian adult observers were presented with faces from their own race or from another race (race experiment and with faces from their own age group or from another age group (age experiment. Faces matching the observers’ own race and age group were detected more quickly. Moreover, the advantage of upright over inverted faces in overcoming CFS, i.e. the face inversion effect, was larger for own-race and own-age faces. These results demonstrate that differences in face shape and surface reflectance influence access to awareness and configural face processing at the initial detection stage. Although we did not collect data from observers of another race or age group, these findings are a first indication that face detection mechanisms are shaped by visual experience with faces from one’s own social group. Such experience-based fine-tuning of face detection mechanisms may equip in-group faces with a competitive advantage for access to conscious awareness.

  2. Challenges facing production grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  3. Mining face equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G, Litvinskiy G; Babyuk, G V; Yakovenko, V A

    1981-01-07

    Mining face equipment includes drilling advance wells, drilling using explosives on the contour bore holes, loading and transporting the crushed mass, drilling reinforcement shafts, injecting reinforcement compounds and moving the timber. Camouflet explosives are used to form relaxed rock stress beyond the mining area to decrease costs of reinforcing the mining area by using nonstressed rock in the advance well as support. The strengthening solution is injected through advanced cementing wells before drilling the contour bores as well as through radial cementing wells beyond the timbers following loading and transport of the mining debris. The advance well is 50-80 m.

  4. Face the voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2014-01-01

    will be based on a reception aesthetic and phenomenological approach, the latter as presented by Don Ihde in his book Listening and Voice. Phenomenologies of Sound , and my analytical sketches will be related to theoretical statements concerning the understanding of voice and media (Cavarero, Dolar, La......Belle, Neumark). Finally, the article will discuss the specific artistic combination and our auditory experience of mediated human voices and sculpturally projected faces in an art museum context under the general conditions of the societal panophonia of disembodied and mediated voices, as promoted by Steven...

  5. Dark matter candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    One of the simplest, yet most profound, questions we can ask about the Universe is, how much stuff is in it, and further what is that stuff composed of? Needless to say, the answer to this question has very important implications for the evolution of the Universe, determining both the ultimate fate and the course of structure formation. Remarkably, at this late date in the history of the Universe we still do not have a definitive answer to this simplest of questions---although we have some very intriguing clues. It is known with certainty that most of the material in the Universe is dark, and we have the strong suspicion that the dominant component of material in the Cosmos is not baryons, but rather is exotic relic elementary particles left over from the earliest, very hot epoch of the Universe. If true, the Dark Matter question is a most fundamental one facing both particle physics and cosmology. The leading particle dark matter candidates are: the axion, the neutralino, and a light neutrino species. All three candidates are accessible to experimental tests, and experiments are now in progress. In addition, there are several dark horse, long shot, candidates, including the superheavy magnetic monopole and soliton stars. 13 refs

  6. Detection of dark matter particles with low temperature phonon sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadoulet, B.

    1988-03-01

    Taking as an example the development effort in Berkeley, the author discusses for nonspecialists (Astronomers and Particle Physicists) the promises of phonon sensing at low temperature for the detection of dark matter particles and the difficulties faced. 31 refs

  7. Aging effects on selective attention-related electroencephalographic patterns during face encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiber, M-P; Rodriguez, C; Jaques, D; Missonnier, P; Emch, J; Millet, P; Gold, G; Giannakopoulos, P; Ibañez, V

    2010-11-24

    Previous electrophysiological studies revealed that human faces elicit an early visual event-related potential (ERP) within the occipito-temporal cortex, the N170 component. Although face perception has been proposed to rely on automatic processing, the impact of selective attention on N170 remains controversial both in young and elderly individuals. Using early visual ERP and alpha power analysis, we assessed the influence of aging on selective attention to faces during delayed-recognition tasks for face and letter stimuli, examining 36 elderly and 20 young adults with preserved cognition. Face recognition performance worsened with age. Aging induced a latency delay of the N1 component for faces and letters, as well as of the face N170 component. Contrasting with letters, ignored faces elicited larger N1 and N170 components than attended faces in both age groups. This counterintuitive attention effect on face processing persisted when scenes replaced letters. In contrast with young, elderly subjects failed to suppress irrelevant letters when attending faces. Whereas attended stimuli induced a parietal alpha band desynchronization within 300-1000 ms post-stimulus with bilateral-to-right distribution for faces and left lateralization for letters, ignored and passively viewed stimuli elicited a central alpha synchronization larger on the right hemisphere. Aging delayed the latency of this alpha synchronization for both face and letter stimuli, and reduced its amplitude for ignored letters. These results suggest that due to their social relevance, human faces may cause paradoxical attention effects on early visual ERP components, but they still undergo classical top-down control as a function of endogenous selective attention. Aging does not affect the face bottom-up alerting mechanism but reduces the top-down suppression of distracting letters, possibly impinging upon face recognition, and more generally delays the top-down suppression of task-irrelevant information

  8. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  9. Assessing Students Perceptions on Intensive Face to Face in Open ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, this study assessed students‟ perception on Intensive Face to Face sessions. The study specifically aimed at identifying students‟ perception on quality of interaction between tutors and students and between students on the other hand. It also explored the nature of challenges students meet in attending face to ...

  10. Face recognition : implementation of face recognition on AMIGO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, M.J.A.J.; Molengraft, van de M.J.G.; Elfring, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this (traineeship)report two possible methods of face recognition were presented. The first method describes how to detect and recognize faces by using the SURF algorithm. This algorithm finally was not used for recognizing faces, with the reason that the Eigenface algorithm was an already tested

  11. IntraFace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Torre, Fernando; Chu, Wen-Sheng; Xiong, Xuehan; Vicente, Francisco; Ding, Xiaoyu; Cohn, Jeffrey

    2015-05-01

    Within the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in the computer vision community in automated facial image analysis algorithms. This has been driven by applications in animation, market research, autonomous-driving, surveillance, and facial editing among others. To date, there exist several commercial packages for specific facial image analysis tasks such as facial expression recognition, facial attribute analysis or face tracking. However, free and easy-to-use software that incorporates all these functionalities is unavailable. This paper presents IntraFace (IF), a publicly-available software package for automated facial feature tracking, head pose estimation, facial attribute recognition, and facial expression analysis from video. In addition, IFincludes a newly develop technique for unsupervised synchrony detection to discover correlated facial behavior between two or more persons, a relatively unexplored problem in facial image analysis. In tests, IF achieved state-of-the-art results for emotion expression and action unit detection in three databases, FERA, CK+ and RU-FACS; measured audience reaction to a talk given by one of the authors; and discovered synchrony for smiling in videos of parent-infant interaction. IF is free of charge for academic use at http://www.humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/intraface/.

  12. ITER plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, T.; Vieider, G.; Akiba, M.

    1991-01-01

    This document summarizes results of the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, namely those that pertain to the plasma facing components of the reactor vessel, of which the main components are the first wall and the divertor plates. After an introduction and an executive summary, the principal functions of the plasma-facing components are delineated, i.e., (i) define the low-impurity region within which the plasma is produced, (ii) absorb the electromagnetic radiation and charged-particle flux from the plasma, and (iii) protect the blanket/shield components from the plasma. A list of critical design issues for the divertor plates and the first wall is given, followed by discussions of the divertor plate design (including the issues of material selection, erosion lifetime, design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, operating limits and overall lifetime, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, and advanced divertor concepts) and the first wall design (armor material and design, erosion lifetime, overall design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, lifetime and operating limits, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, an alternative first wall design, and the limiters used instead of the divertor plates during start-up). Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Aging changes in the face

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004004.htm Aging changes in the face To use the sharing ... face with age References Brodie SE, Francis JH. Aging and disorders of the eye. In: Fillit HM, ...

  14. Marginal Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hecke, Martin

    2013-03-01

    All around us, things are falling apart. The foam on our cappuccinos appears solid, but gentle stirring irreversibly changes its shape. Skin, a biological fiber network, is firm when you pinch it, but soft under light touch. Sand mimics a solid when we walk on the beach but a liquid when we pour it out of our shoes. Crucially, a marginal point separates the rigid or jammed state from the mechanical vacuum (freely flowing) state - at their marginal points, soft materials are neither solid nor liquid. Here I will show how the marginal point gives birth to a third sector of soft matter physics: intrinsically nonlinear mechanics. I will illustrate this with shock waves in weakly compressed granular media, the nonlinear rheology of foams, and the nonlinear mechanics of weakly connected elastic networks.

  15. "Grey matters".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Katie

    2014-01-01

    It's common in this world, for diagnoses to be confused. This grey, oblique world is the "World of Brain Tumors" from which these narratives are written, a world I entered when a tangerine-sized tumor was found on my temporal lobe. Each narrative illustrates this world in which everything is covered in a thick film rendering things once obvious, now unknown. Parents are asked to choose treatment plans for their children, plans that will inevitably alter their child's quality of life but in ways they cannot determine or even imagine. Parents are asked to play God. Most of the parents who share their stories in this collection, parents of PBT (pediatric brain tumor) patients have to walk the line of trying to not disrupt their relationships with their physicians, wanting the best for their child, and facing the decision to follow their gut or go with advised treatment plans.

  16. Hvidoere Smiley Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoey, Hilary; Lange, Karin; Skinner, Tc

    2017-01-01

    Background: Few diabetes-specific quality of life (QOL) tools are available for young children. Objectives: To design and evaluate, a new age-specific QOL questionnaire and its associations with treatment regimens and metabolic control. Methods: Clinical, demographic data and centrally analyzed Hb...... item measures separate aspects of children's satisfaction construct. Convergent validity assessed by comparison to the HrQOL KIDSCREEN-10 Index showed moderate correlation coefficient 0.501. Factor analysis revealed 3 factors explaining 51% of the variance. Children reported good QOL with most items...... positive, mean values between 1 and 2 on a 5-point scale (lower scores indicating greater QOL). Diabetes satisfaction was unrelated to age, diabetes duration, HbA1c, or severe hypoglycemia. Girls were more satisfied than boys. Children on intensive regimens reported better QOL (P

  17. Soil and water characteristics of a young surface mine wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Cole, C.; Lefebvre, Eugene A.

    1991-05-01

    Coal companies are reluctant to include wetland development in reclamation plans partly due to a lack of information on the resulting characteristics of such sites. It is easier for coal companies to recreate terrestrial habitats than to attempt experimental methods and possibly face significant regulatory disapproval. Therefore, we studied a young (10 years) wetland on a reclaimed surface coal mine in southern Illinois so as to ascertain soil and water characteristics such that the site might serve as a model for wetland development on surface mines. Water pH was not measured because of equipment problems, but evidence (plant life, fish, herpetofauna) suggests suitable pH levels. Other water parameters (conductivity, salinity, alkalinity, chloride, copper, total hardness, iron, manganese, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and sulfate) were measured, and only copper was seen in potentially high concentrations (but with no obvious toxic effects). Soil variables measured included pH, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, potassium, calcium, magnesium, manganese, aluminum, iron, sulfate, chloride, and percent organic matter. Soils were slightly alkaline and most parameters fell within levels reported for other studies on both natural and manmade wetlands. Aluminum was high, but this might be indicative more of large amounts complexed with soils and therefore unavailable, than amounts actually accessible to plants. Organic matter was moderate, somewhat surprising given the age of the system.

  18. Enabling dynamics in face analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibeklioğlu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Most of the approaches in automatic face analysis rely solely on static appearance. However, temporal analysis of expressions reveals interesting patterns. For a better understanding of the human face, this thesis focuses on temporal changes in the face, and dynamic patterns of expressions. In

  19. Matching score based face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Beumer, G.M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate face registration is of vital importance to the performance of a face recognition algorithm. We propose a new method: matching score based face registration, which searches for optimal alignment by maximizing the matching score output of a classifier as a function of the different

  20. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2010-01-01

    Side-view face recognition is a challenging problem with many applications. Especially in real-life scenarios where the environment is uncontrolled, coping with pose variations up to side-view positions is an important task for face recognition. In this paper we discuss the use of side view face

  1. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.

    2012-01-01

    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  2. Facing up to disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Shakespeare

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ways of thinking about and responding to disability have radically changed in recent decades. Traditionally, disability was regarded in terms of sin, karma, or divine punishment. More recently, disability was made a medical issue and defined in terms of shortcomings of body or mind, which had to be prevented or cured at all costs. In the late 20th century, people with disabilities worldwide became more organised and created national and international disabled people’s organisations. They successfully demanded that disability be seen as a matter of equal opportunities and human rights, a shift which has now been described in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. This is a global treaty which has so far been signed by 155 states and passed into law by 127.

  3. Facing the Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2014-01-01

    China's rise signifies a gradual transformation of the international system from unipolarity to a non-unipolar world. ,4s an organization of small and middle powers, ASEAN faces strategic uncertainties brought about by the power transition in the system. Deepening economic interdependence between...... Summit (EAS), the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), and the ASEAN Community, to constrain and shape China's behaviour in the region in the post-Cold War era. It argues that due to globalization and economic interdependence, the power transition in the 21st century is different from...... the previous ones. ASEAN can potentially make a great contribution to a peaceful transformation of the international system. How to resolve the South China Sea disputes peacefully will be a critical task for both the ASEAN and Chinese leaders in the next decade or two....

  4. Faced with a dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Christiansen, Anne Hjøllund; Petersson, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    's legal right to choose TOP and considerations about the foetus' right to live were suppressed. Midwives experienced a dilemma when faced with aborted foetuses that looked like newborns and when aborted foetuses showed signs of life after a termination. Furthermore, they were critical of how physicians......: A qualitative study consisting of ten individual interviews with Danish midwives, all of whom had taken part in late TOP. RESULTS: Current practice of late TOP resembles the practice of normal deliveries and is influenced by a growing personalisation of the aborted foetus. The midwives strongly supported women...... counsel women/couples after prenatal diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The midwives' practice in relation to late TOP was characterised by an acknowledgement of the growing ethical status of the foetus and the emotional reactions of the women/couples going through late TOP. Other professions as well as structural...

  5. Wet granular matter a truly complex fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Herminghaus, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    This is a monograph written for the young and advanced researcher who is entering the field of wet granular matter and keen to understand the basic physical principles governing this state of soft matter. It treats wet granulates as an instance of a ternary system, consisting of the grains, a primary, and a secondary fluid. After addressing wetting phenomena in general and outlining the basic facts on dry granular systems, a chapter on basic mechanisms and their effects is dedicated to every region of the ternary phase diagram. Effects of grain shape and roughness are considered as well. Rather than addressing engineering aspects such as existing books on this topic do, the book aims to provide a generalized framework suitable for those who want to understand these systems on a more fundamental basis. Readership: For the young and advanced researcher entering the field of wet granular matter.

  6. Evaluation of diesel particulate matter sampling techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated diesel particulate matter (DPM) sampling methods used in the South African mining industry. The three-piece cassette respirable, open face and stopper sampling methods were compared with the SKC DPM cassette method to find a...

  7. Exploring the unconscious using faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Vadim; Bar, Moshe; Rees, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of unconscious processing is one of the most substantial endeavors of cognitive science. While there are many different empirical ways to address this question, the use of faces in such research has proven exceptionally fruitful. We review here what has been learned about unconscious processing through the use of faces and face-selective neural correlates. A large number of cognitive systems can be explored with faces, including emotions, social cueing and evaluation, attention, multisensory integration, and various aspects of face processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Face Attention Network: An Effective Face Detector for the Occluded Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jianfeng; Yuan, Ye; Yu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    The performance of face detection has been largely improved with the development of convolutional neural network. However, the occlusion issue due to mask and sunglasses, is still a challenging problem. The improvement on the recall of these occluded cases usually brings the risk of high false positives. In this paper, we present a novel face detector called Face Attention Network (FAN), which can significantly improve the recall of the face detection problem in the occluded case without comp...

  9. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-01-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA

  10. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo, E-mail: send007@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Qian, Ruo-Bing, E-mail: rehomail@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Fu, Xian-Ming, E-mail: 506537677@qq.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Lin, Bin, E-mail: 274722758@qq.com [School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Han, Xiao-Peng, E-mail: hanxiaopeng@163.com [Department of Psychology, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Niu, Chao-Shi, E-mail: niuchaoshi@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Wang, Ye-Han, E-mail: wangyehan@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA.

  11. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-08-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Energy conservation using face detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deotale, Nilesh T.; Kalbande, Dhananjay R.; Mishra, Akassh A.

    2011-10-01

    Computerized Face Detection, is concerned with the difficult task of converting a video signal of a person to written text. It has several applications like face recognition, simultaneous multiple face processing, biometrics, security, video surveillance, human computer interface, image database management, digital cameras use face detection for autofocus, selecting regions of interest in photo slideshows that use a pan-and-scale and The Present Paper deals with energy conservation using face detection. Automating the process to a computer requires the use of various image processing techniques. There are various methods that can be used for Face Detection such as Contour tracking methods, Template matching, Controlled background, Model based, Motion based and color based. Basically, the video of the subject are converted into images are further selected manually for processing. However, several factors like poor illumination, movement of face, viewpoint-dependent Physical appearance, Acquisition geometry, Imaging conditions, Compression artifacts makes Face detection difficult. This paper reports an algorithm for conservation of energy using face detection for various devices. The present paper suggests Energy Conservation can be done by Detecting the Face and reducing the brightness of complete image and then adjusting the brightness of the particular area of an image where the face is located using histogram equalization.

  13. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  14. Family Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel de Riquer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The scene is at the court of James I of Aragon in the mid-13th c., the place is the royal palace of Barcelona or any of the crown's other possessions, and the dramatis personae include the heir to the throne, prince Peire (future king Peire the Great, and the court's most famous troubadour, Cerverí de Girona (fl. 1259-85. Author of the largest corpus of any Occitan troubadour (114 poems, Cerverì distinguishes himself by the surprises and challenges he presents to his audience: an alba (the most openly erotic genre to the Virgin Mary, the Cobla in sis lengatges (Cobla in Six Languages, the apparently nonsensical Vers estrayn. Cerverì borrows equally from the folk-inspired Galician-Portuguese poetry and from the French tradition, including the chanson de malmariée, where a young woman bemoans being sold off by her family to an old man (gilos, "Jealous" and separated from her youthful doulz amis, some even praying for the death of their husband. Both within that tradition and among Cerverì's three chansons de malmariée, the Gelosesca stands out as "especially determined" to lose her husband, using every "solution" (prayer, black magic, potion or experimenta.

  15. An own-age bias in recognizing faces with horizontal information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schaich

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal information, as a result of a selective filtering process, are essential in younger adults’ (YA ability to recognize human faces. Obermeyer, Kolling, Schaich, and Knopf (2012 recently reported impaired recognition of faces with horizontal information in older adults (OA suggesting age-variant processing. Two yet unconsidered factors (stimulus age and exposure duration that may have influenced previous results, were investigated in this study. Forty-seven YA (18-35yrs and 49 OA (62-83yrs were tested in a 2x2x2x2 mixed design with the between-subjects factors age group (YA vs OA and stimulus age (young faces vs older faces and the within-subjects factors filter (filtered (HF faces vs unfiltered faces (UF and exposure duration (0.8s vs 8s. Subjects were presented morph videos between pairs of faces: A starting face gradually merged into either the previously encoded target face or a control face. As expected, results showed an increase in recognition sensitivity (d’ with longer exposure duration in YA with both younger and older HF faces. OA however were unable to recognize filtered young faces not even with increased exposure duration. Furthermore, only elderly participants showed more accurate recognition with faces of their own age relative to other-age faces (own-age bias, OAB. For YA no OAB was observed. Filtered face recognition was significantly correlated with unfiltered recognition in YA but not in OA. It is concluded, that processing of horizontal information changes at a higher age. Presenting filtered or unfiltered faces both targets convergent face-specific processing only in YA but not in OA.

  16. The face and person perception: insights from social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Kimberly A; Macrae, C Neil

    2011-11-01

    Social-cognitive investigations of face perception have tended to be motivated by different goals than cognitive and neuropsychological studies-namely, to understand the dynamics of social categorization rather than identity recognition-and the result has been a lack of cross-pollination of insights and ideas between the disciplines. We review the evidence from social cognition, with an eye to discussing how this work aligns with the Bruce and Young (1986) model of face recognition. Acknowledging the invaluable impact the model has exerted on our understanding of face recognition, we suggest that considering the bottom-up constraints of visual processing and the top-down influences of semantic knowledge will contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of face perception. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Young Murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, James

    1999-01-01

    Reflects on the moral world of children who have committed acts of lethal violence. Young killers do not see any positive alternatives at the moment of violence. When they kill, they are seeking justice--as they see it. Emphasizes the importance of adults stimulating the development of empathy and spirituality. (SLD)

  18. The construction FACE database - Codifying the NIOSH FACE reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Largay, Julie A; Wang, Xuanwen; Cain, Chris Trahan; Romano, Nancy

    2017-09-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has published reports detailing the results of investigations on selected work-related fatalities through the Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) program since 1982. Information from construction-related FACE reports was coded into the Construction FACE Database (CFD). Use of the CFD was illustrated by analyzing major CFD variables. A total of 768 construction fatalities were included in the CFD. Information on decedents, safety training, use of PPE, and FACE recommendations were coded. Analysis shows that one in five decedents in the CFD died within the first two months on the job; 75% and 43% of reports recommended having safety training or installing protection equipment, respectively. Comprehensive research using FACE reports may improve understanding of work-related fatalities and provide much-needed information on injury prevention. The CFD allows researchers to analyze the FACE reports quantitatively and efficiently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  19. Baryonic matter and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We summarize recent developments in identifying the ground state of dense baryonic matter and beyond. The topics include deconfinement from baryonic matter to quark matter, a diquark mixture, topological effect coupled with chirality and density, and inhomogeneous chiral condensates.

  20. Unlocking the potential of Africa's young entrepreneurs | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... A new report launched by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) ... as millions of young Africans faced with bleak employment prospects turn to set up ... The Open African Innovation Research and Training (Open A.I.R.) ...

  1. Online Scientific Dissemination of Knowledge Blended with Face-to-Face Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tveden-Nyborg, Svend

    2013-01-01

    is experienced differently throughout a society due to fast and slow adopters. Blending online learning with face-to-face experience will strengthen the learning curve among the targeted users and ensure a faster dissemination of knowledge and thus learning to the entire community....... between the seed scientists, seed consultants, and the seed growers, and the requirements for a knowledge website for learning new seed science. This paper describes the specification requirements set for the required website including taxonomized hierarchical meta-tagging, RSS, legal matters, together...... with limitations and potentials. However, selecting online communication media as a dissemination tool for a community comes with a challenge – among other things it risks creating a learning divide between fast and slow learners. According to the theoretical framework “Diffusion of Innovation”[1] innovation...

  2. Elektronická komunikace vs. komunikace face to face

    OpenAIRE

    Pipková, Zuzana

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with new forms of communication particularly electronic ones. The main goal is to distinguish electronic communication from face to face communication in a way that differs from traditional media theories. By using examples of the most important medium in electronic communication, Internet, it is shown that nowadays we have such forms of electronic communication that surpass the traditional classification of oral/written communication, immediate/mediate communication, face t...

  3. Face au risque

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse, Christian; November, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Ce volume collectif sur le risque inaugure la collection L'ÉQUINOXE. Ancré dans l'histoire pour mesurer les continuités et les ruptures, il illustre la manière dont les sciences humaines évaluent et mesurent les enjeux collectifs du risque sur les plans politiques, scientifiques, énergétiques, juridiques et éthiques. Puisse-t-il nourrir la réflexion sur la culture et la prévention du risque. Ses formes épidémiques, écologiques, sociales, terroristes et militaires nourrissent les peurs actuelles, structurent les projets sécuritaires et constituent - sans doute - les défis majeurs à notre modernité. Dans la foulée de la richesse scientifique d'Equinoxe, L'ÉQUINOXE hérite de son esprit en prenant à son tour le pari de contribuer - non sans risque - à enrichir en Suisse romande et ailleurs le champ éditorial des sciences humaines dont notre société a besoin pour forger ses repères. Après Face au risque suivra cet automne Du sens des Lumières. (MICHEL PORRET Professeur Ordinaire à la F...

  4. Facing the Crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Baker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely, provocative, and theoretically sophisticated, the essays comprising In the Face of Crises: Anglophone Literature in the Postmodern World situate their work amid several critical global concerns: the devastation wreaked by global capitalism following the worldwide financial crash, the financial sector’s totalizing grip upon the world economy, the challenge to traditional definitions of “human nature” and identity posed by technologies of the body and of warfare, the quest of indigenous communities for healing from the continuing traumatic effects of colonization, and the increasing corporatization of the academy as an apparatus of the neo-liberal state – to specify only a few. Edited by Professors Ljubica Matek and Jasna Poljak Rehlicki, these essays deploy a broad range of contemporary theories, representing recent developments in cultural studies, the new economic criticism, postcolonial film studies, feminism and gender studies, and the new historicism. The eleven essays selected by Matek and Rehlicki offer convincing support for their claim that humanistic research delving into Anglophone literature, far from being a “non-profitable” pursuit in an increasingly technologized society, affords clarifying insights into contemporary “economic, cultural, and social processes in the globalizing and globalized culture of the West” (ix.

  5. Personal familiarity influences the processing of upright and inverted faces in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Balas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Infant face processing becomes more selective during the first year of life as a function of varying experience with distinct face categories defined by species, race, and age. Given that any individual face belongs to many such categories (e.g. A young Caucasian man’s face we asked how the neural selectivity for one aspect of facial appearance was affected by category membership along another dimension of variability. 6-month-old infants were shown upright and inverted pictures of either their own mother or a stranger while event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded. We found that the amplitude of the P400 (a face-sensitive ERP component was only sensitive to the orientation of the mother’s face, suggesting that “tuning” of the neural response to faces is realized jointly across multiple dimensions of face appearance. .

  6. Adaptation improves face trustworthiness discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce D Keefe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted to an untrustworthy face, a trustworthy face, or did not adapt. In the second experiment, the three conditions were identical, except that JNDs were calculated for a trustworthy face. In the third experiment we examined whether adapting to an untrustworthy male face improved discrimination to an untrustworthy female face. In all experiments, participants completed a two-interval forced-choice adaptive staircase procedure, in which they judged which face was more untrustworthy. JNDs were derived from a psychometric function fitted to the data. Adaptation improved sensitivity to faces conveying the same level of trustworthiness when compared to no adaptation. When adapting to and discriminating around a different level of face trustworthiness there was no improvement in sensitivity and JNDs were equivalent to those in the no adaptation condition. The improvement in sensitivity was found to occur even when adapting to a face with different gender and identity. These results suggest that adaptation to facial trustworthiness can selectively enhance mechanisms underlying the coding of facial trustworthiness to improve perceptual sensitivity. These findings have implications for the role of our visual experience in the decisions we make about the trustworthiness of other individuals.

  7. About-face on face recognition ability and holistic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J; Floyd, R Jackie; Gauthier, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Previous work found a small but significant relationship between holistic processing measured with the composite task and face recognition ability measured by the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006). Surprisingly, recent work using a different measure of holistic processing (Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test [VHPT-F]; Richler, Floyd, & Gauthier, 2014) and a larger sample found no evidence for such a relationship. In Experiment 1 we replicate this unexpected result, finding no relationship between holistic processing (VHPT-F) and face recognition ability (CFMT). A key difference between the VHPT-F and other holistic processing measures is that unique face parts are used on each trial in the VHPT-F, unlike in other tasks where a small set of face parts repeat across the experiment. In Experiment 2, we test the hypothesis that correlations between the CFMT and holistic processing tasks are driven by stimulus repetition that allows for learning during the composite task. Consistent with our predictions, CFMT performance was correlated with holistic processing in the composite task when a small set of face parts repeated over trials, but not when face parts did not repeat. A meta-analysis confirms that relationships between the CFMT and holistic processing depend on stimulus repetition. These results raise important questions about what is being measured by the CFMT, and challenge current assumptions about why faces are processed holistically.

  8. Front Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HLRC Editor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher Learning Research Communications (HLRC, ISSN: 2157-6254 [Online] is published collaboratively by Walden University (USA, Universidad Andrés Bello (Chile, Universidad Europea de Madrid (Spain and Istanbul Bilgi University (Turkey. Written communication to HLRC should be addressed to the office of the Executive Director at Laureate Education, Inc. 701 Brickell Ave Ste. 1700, Miami, FL 33131, USA. HLRC is designed for open access and online distribution through www.hlrcjournal.com. The views and statements expressed in this journal do not necessarily reflect the views of Laureate Education, Inc. or any of its affiliates (collectively “Laureate”. Laureate does not warrant the accuracy, reliability, currency or completeness of those views or statements and does not accept any legal liability arising from any reliance on the views, statements and subject matter of the journal. Acknowledgements The Guest Editors gratefully acknowledge the substantial contribution of the readers for the blind peer review of essays submitted for this special issue as exemplars of individuals from around the world who have come together in a collective endeavor for the common good: Robert Bringle (Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, US, Linda Buckley (University of the Pacific, US, Guillermo Calleja (Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain, Eva Egron-Polak (International Association of Universities, France, Heather Friesen (Abu Dhabi University, UAE, Saran Gill (National University of Malaysia, Malaysia, Chester Haskell (higher education consultant, US, Kanokkarn Kaewnuch (National Institute for Development Administration, Thailand, Gil Latz (Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, US, Molly Lee (higher education consultant, Malaysia, Deane Neubauer (East-West Center at University of Hawaii, US, Susan Sutton (Bryn Mawr College, US, Francis Wambalaba (United States International University, Kenya, and Richard Winn (higher education

  9. Comparing Face Detection and Recognition Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Korra, Jyothi

    2016-01-01

    This paper implements and compares different techniques for face detection and recognition. One is find where the face is located in the images that is face detection and second is face recognition that is identifying the person. We study three techniques in this paper: Face detection using self organizing map (SOM), Face recognition by projection and nearest neighbor and Face recognition using SVM.

  10. Face adaptation improves gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Shen, Jianhong; Chen, Juan; Fang, Fang

    2011-01-01

    Adaptation to a visual pattern can alter the sensitivities of neuronal populations encoding the pattern. However, the functional roles of adaptation, especially in high-level vision, are still equivocal. In the present study, we performed three experiments to investigate if face gender adaptation could affect gender discrimination. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that adapting to a male/female face could selectively enhance discrimination for male/female faces. Experiment 3 showed that the discrimination enhancement induced by face adaptation could transfer across a substantial change in three-dimensional face viewpoint. These results provide further evidence suggesting that, similar to low-level vision, adaptation in high-level vision could calibrate the visual system to current inputs of complex shapes (i.e. face) and improve discrimination at the adapted characteristic. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cognitive demands of face monitoring: evidence for visuospatial overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty-Sneddon, G; Bonner, L; Bruce, V

    2001-10-01

    Young children perform difficult communication tasks better face to face than when they cannot see one another (e.g., Doherty-Sneddon & Kent, 1996). However, in recent studies, it was found that children aged 6 and 10 years, describing abstract shapes, showed evidence of face-to-face interference rather than facilitation. For some communication tasks, access to visual signals (such as facial expression and eye gaze) may hinder rather than help children's communication. In new research we have pursued this interference effect. Five studies are described with adults and 10- and 6-year-old participants. It was found that looking at a face interfered with children's abilities to listen to descriptions of abstract shapes. Children also performed visuospatial memory tasks worse when they looked at someone's face prior to responding than when they looked at a visuospatial pattern or at the floor. It was concluded that performance on certain tasks was hindered by monitoring another person's face. It is suggested that processing of visual communication signals shares certain processing resources with the processing of other visuospatial information.

  12. Emotion Words: Adding Face Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugate, Jennifer M B; Gendron, Maria; Nakashima, Satoshi F; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2017-06-12

    Despite a growing number of studies suggesting that emotion words affect perceptual judgments of emotional stimuli, little is known about how emotion words affect perceptual memory for emotional faces. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tested how emotion words (compared with control words) affected participants' abilities to select a target emotional face from among distractor faces. Participants were generally more likely to false alarm to distractor emotional faces when primed with an emotion word congruent with the face (compared with a control word). Moreover, participants showed both decreased sensitivity (d') to discriminate between target and distractor faces, as well as altered response biases (c; more likely to answer "yes") when primed with an emotion word (compared with a control word). In Experiment 3 we showed that emotion words had more of an effect on perceptual memory judgments when the structural information in the target face was limited, as well as when participants were only able to categorize the face with a partially congruent emotion word. The overall results are consistent with the idea that emotion words affect the encoding of emotional faces in perceptual memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Matching faces with emotional expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng eChen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available There is some evidence that faces with a happy expression are recognized better than faces with other expressions. However, little is known about whether this happy face advantage also applies to perceptual face matching, and whether similar differences exist among other expressions. Using a sequential matching paradigm, we systematically compared the effects of seven basic facial expressions on identity recognition. Identity matching was quickest when a pair of faces had an identical happy/sad/neutral expression, poorer when they had a fearful/surprise/angry expression, and poorest when they had a disgust expression. Faces with a happy/sad/fear/surprise expression were matched faster than those with an anger/disgust expression when the second face in a pair had a neutral expression. These results demonstrate that effects of facial expression on identity recognition are not limited to happy faces when a learned face is immediately tested. The results suggest different influences of expression in perceptual matching and long-term recognition memory.

  14. Face Recognition using Approximate Arithmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marso, Karol

    Face recognition is image processing technique which aims to identify human faces and found its use in various different fields for example in security. Throughout the years this field evolved and there are many approaches and many different algorithms which aim to make the face recognition as effective...... processing applications the results do not need to be completely precise and use of the approximate arithmetic can lead to reduction in terms of delay, space and power consumption. In this paper we examine possible use of approximate arithmetic in face recognition using Eigenfaces algorithm....

  15. The Kent Face Matching Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fysh, Matthew C; Bindemann, Markus

    2018-05-01

    This study presents the Kent Face Matching Test (KFMT), which comprises 200 same-identity and 20 different-identity pairs of unfamiliar faces. Each face pair consists of a photograph from a student ID card and a high-quality portrait that was taken at least three months later. The test is designed to complement existing resources for face-matching research, by providing a more ecologically valid stimulus set that captures the natural variability that can arise in a person's appearance over time. Two experiments are presented to demonstrate that the KFMT provides a challenging measure of face matching but correlates with established tests. Experiment 1 compares a short version of this test with the optimized Glasgow Face Matching Test (GFMT). In Experiment 2, a longer version of the KFMT, with infrequent identity mismatches, is correlated with performance on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) and the Cambridge Face Perception Test (CFPT). The KFMT is freely available for use in face-matching research. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  16. At face value : categorization goals modulate vigilance for angry faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dillen, L.F.; Lakens, D.; Bos, van den K.

    2010-01-01

    The present research demonstrates that the attention bias to angry faces is modulated by how people categorize these faces. Since facial expressions contain psychologically meaningful information for social categorizations (i.e., gender, personality) but not for non-social categorizations (i.e.,

  17. Alternative face models for 3D face registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Albert Ali; Alyüz, Neşe; Akarun, Lale

    2007-01-01

    3D has become an important modality for face biometrics. The accuracy of a 3D face recognition system depends on a correct registration that aligns the facial surfaces and makes a comparison possible. The best results obtained so far use a one-to-all registration approach, which means each new facial surface is registered to all faces in the gallery, at a great computational cost. We explore the approach of registering the new facial surface to an average face model (AFM), which automatically establishes correspondence to the pre-registered gallery faces. Going one step further, we propose that using a couple of well-selected AFMs can trade-off computation time with accuracy. Drawing on cognitive justifications, we propose to employ category-specific alternative average face models for registration, which is shown to increase the accuracy of the subsequent recognition. We inspect thin-plate spline (TPS) and iterative closest point (ICP) based registration schemes under realistic assumptions on manual or automatic landmark detection prior to registration. We evaluate several approaches for the coarse initialization of ICP. We propose a new algorithm for constructing an AFM, and show that it works better than a recent approach. Finally, we perform simulations with multiple AFMs that correspond to different clusters in the face shape space and compare these with gender and morphology based groupings. We report our results on the FRGC 3D face database.

  18. Cyber- and Face-to-Face Bullying: Who Crosses Over?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hwayeon Helene; Braithwaite, Valerie; Ahmed, Eliza

    2016-01-01

    A total of 3956 children aged 12-13 years who completed the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC Wave 5) were studied about their experiences of traditional face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying in the last month. In terms of prevalence, sixty percent of the sample had been involved in traditional bullying as the victim and/or the…

  19. Attention to internal face features in unfamiliar face matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kingsley I; Butavicius, Marcus A; Lee, Michael D

    2008-08-01

    Accurate matching of unfamiliar faces is vital in security and forensic applications, yet previous research has suggested that humans often perform poorly when matching unfamiliar faces. Hairstyle and facial hair can strongly influence unfamiliar face matching but are potentially unreliable cues. This study investigated whether increased attention to the more stable internal face features of eyes, nose, and mouth was associated with more accurate face-matching performance. Forty-three first-year psychology students decided whether two simultaneously presented faces were of the same person or not. The faces were displayed for either 2 or 6 seconds, and had either similar or dissimilar hairstyles. The level of attention to internal features was measured by the proportion of fixation time spent on the internal face features and the sensitivity of discrimination to changes in external feature similarity. Increased attention to internal features was associated with increased discrimination in the 2-second display-time condition, but no significant relationship was found in the 6-second condition. Individual differences in eye-movements were highly stable across the experimental conditions.

  20. MAGMADIM: Young Explainers Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paltiel, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:Physics teachers and educators constantly face the problem of inspiring their students to major in physics. On the other hand, science museums are designed to provide a pleasant environment which will stimulate and encourage a science associated experience to the general public. Typically, there is no intention to teach science as such in science museums. One may, however, use the science museum to teach and inspire certain groups of students in a much deeper sense. In fact they may actually enthusiastically learn much of the school physics curriculum at the museum. This report discusses the Magmadim program through which 10th graders are trained to be young explainers at the Weizmann Institutes Clore Garden of Science. To this end they study the physics underlying its exhibits in an after-school course. The ultimate goal is for the 'magmadim' to become the best possible explainers and be able to face all sorts of museum visitors. Along with learning how to instruct visitors, they must learn the physics behind the exhibits to give a full explanation of the exhibit and be able to answer any question that may arise. Our 5 year experience with the program shows that its self-selected participants not only study a lot of science, but also like it and learn how to explain the content to other people. This program, along with similar programs at the Bloomfield Science Museum and the Madatzim (young physics tutors) program of Ort, help in promoting the interest in science in general and physics in particular among school students. Various ways to expand the programs will also be discussed

  1. Computadoras y ninos pequenos (Computers and Young Children). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Susan W.

    Whether we use technology with young children--and if so, how--are critical issues facing early childhood educators and parents. This Spanish-language digest points out that many researchers do not recommend that children under 3 years old use computers. The digest also notes that many educators use computers with young children in ways that are…

  2. Conducting compositions of matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides conductive compositions of matter, as well as methods for the preparation of the conductive compositions of matter, solutions comprising the conductive compositions of matter, and methods of preparing fibers or fabrics having improved anti-static properties employing the conductive compositions of matter.

  3. Side-View Face Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; van den Biggelaar, Olivier

    As a widely used biometrics, face recognition has many advantages such as being non-intrusive, natural and passive. On the other hand, in real-life scenarios with uncontrolled environment, pose variation up to side-view positions makes face recognition a challenging work. In this paper we discuss

  4. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    2010-01-01

    Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is

  5. PrimeFaces beginner's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, K Siva Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A guide for beginner's with step-by-step instructions and an easy-to-follow approach.PrimeFaces Beginners Guide is a simple and effective guide for beginners, wanting to learn and implement PrimeFaces in their JSF-based applications. Some basic JSF and jQuery skills are required before you start working through the book.

  6. Critical Thinking of Young Citizens towards News Headlines in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernier, Matthieu; Cárcamo, Luis; Scheihing, Eliana

    2018-01-01

    Strengthening critical thinking abilities of citizens in the face of news published on the web represents a key challenge for education. Young citizens appear to be vulnerable in the face of poor quality news or those containing non-explicit ideologies. In the field of data science, computational and statistical techniques have been developed to…

  7. Genetic specificity of face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert

    2015-10-13

    Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.

  8. Face-Lift Satisfaction Using the FACE-Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinno, Sammy; Schwitzer, Jonathan; Anzai, Lavinia; Thorne, Charles H

    2015-08-01

    Face lifting is one of the most common operative procedures for facial aging and perhaps the procedure most synonymous with plastic surgery in the minds of the lay public, but no verifiable documentation of patient satisfaction exists in the literature. This study is the first to examine face-lift outcomes and patient satisfaction using a validated questionnaire. One hundred five patients undergoing a face lift performed by the senior author (C.H.T.) using a high, extended-superficial musculoaponeurotic system with submental platysma approximation technique were asked to complete anonymously the FACE-Q by e-mail. FACE-Q scores were assessed for each domain (range, 0 to 100), with higher scores indicating greater satisfaction with appearance or superior quality of life. Fifty-three patients completed the FACE-Q (50.5 percent response rate). Patients demonstrated high satisfaction with facial appearance (mean ± SD, 80.7 ± 22.3), and quality of life, including social confidence (90.4 ± 16.6), psychological well-being (92.8 ± 14.3), and early life impact (92.2 ± 16.4). Patients also reported extremely high satisfaction with their decision to undergo face lifting (90.5 ± 15.9). On average, patients felt they appeared 6.9 years younger than their actual age. Patients were most satisfied with the appearance of their nasolabial folds (86.2 ± 18.5), cheeks (86.1 ± 25.4), and lower face/jawline (86.0 ± 20.6), compared with their necks (78.1 ± 25.6) and area under the chin (67.9 ± 32.3). Patients who responded in this study were extremely satisfied with their decision to undergo face lifting and the outcomes and quality of life following the procedure.

  9. Condensed elementary particle matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajantie, K.

    1996-01-01

    Quark matter is a special case of condensed elementary particle matter, matter governed by the laws of particle physics. The talk discusses how far one can get in the study of particle matter by reducing the problem to computations based on the action. As an example the computation of the phase diagram of electroweak matter is presented. It is quite possible that ultimately an antireductionist attitude will prevail: experiments will reveal unpredicted phenomena not obviously reducible to the study of the action. (orig.)

  10. Emotional Faces Capture Spatial Attention in 5-Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit K. Elam

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotional facial expressions are important social cues that convey salient affective information. Infants, younger children, and adults all appear to orient spatial attention to emotional faces with a particularly strong bias to fearful faces. Yet in young children it is unclear whether or not both happy and fearful faces extract attention. Given that the processing of emotional faces is believed by some to serve an evolutionarily adaptive purpose, attentional biases to both fearful and happy expressions would be expected in younger children. However, the extent to which this ability is present in young children and whether or not this ability is genetically mediated is untested. Therefore, the aims of the current study were to assess the spatial-attentional properties of emotional faces in young children, with a preliminary test of whether this effect was influenced by genetics. Five-year-old twin pairs performed a dot-probe task. The results suggest that children preferentially direct spatial attention to emotional faces, particularly right visual field faces. The results provide support for the notion that the direction of spatial attention to emotional faces serves an evolutionarily adaptive function and may be mediated by genetic mechanisms.

  11. Priorities for children and young people - opportunities and challenges for children and young people's nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Fiona

    2016-05-09

    Across Europe children's nurses today face many challenges, including rising childhood obesity, the soaring incidence of issues with the mental health of children and young people, the effects of social media, child maltreatment and the impact of poverty, war and conflict on children and families. There are opportunities for children's nurses to undertake new roles and to influence both policy and practice to improve the health outcomes of children and young people, and thereby the future health of the population.

  12. Altered organization of face processing networks in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Jeffrey D.; Fling, Brett W.; Cramer, Steven C.; Lin, Jack J.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Deficits in social cognition are common and significant in people with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but the functional and structural underpinnings remain unclear. The present study investigated how the side of seizure focus impacts face processing networks in temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of a face processing paradigm to identify face responsive regions in 24 individuals with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (Left = 15; Right = 9) and 19 healthy controls. fMRI signals of face responsive regions ispilateral and contralateral to the side of seizure onset were delineated in TLE and compared to the healthy controls with right and left side combined. Diffusion tensor images were acquired to investigate structural connectivity between face regions that differed in fMRI signals between the two groups. Results In temporal lobe epilepsy, activation of the cortical face processing networks varied according to side of seizure onset. In temporal lobe epilepsy, the laterality of amygdala activation was shifted to the side contralateral to the seizure focus while controls showed no significant asymmetry. Furthermore, compared to controls, patients with TLE showed decreased activation of the occipital face responsive region in the ipsilateral side and an increased activity of the anterior temporal lobe in the contralateral side to the seizure focus. Probabilistic tractography revealed that the occipital face area and anterior temporal lobe are connected via the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, which in individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy showed reduced integrity. Significance Taken together, these findings suggest that brain function and white matter integrity of networks subserving face processing are impaired on the side of seizure onset, accompanied by altered responses on the side contralateral to the seizure. PMID:25823855

  13. Mental rotation of faces in healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra A Adduri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD develop visuospatial difficulties that affect their ability to mentally rotate objects. Surprisingly, the existing literature has generally ignored the impact of this mental rotation deficit on the ability of AD patients to recognize faces from different angles. Instead, the devastating loss of the ability to recognize friends and family members in AD has primarily been attributed to memory loss and agnosia in later stages of the disorder. The impact of AD on areas of the brain important for mental rotation should not be overlooked by face processing investigations -- even in early stages of the disorder. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study investigated the sensitivity of face processing in AD, young controls and older non-neurological controls to two changes of the stimuli -- a rotation in depth and an inversion. The control groups showed a systematic effect of depth rotation, with errors increasing with the angle of rotation, and with inversion. The majority of the AD group was not impaired when faces were presented upright and no transformation in depth was required, and were most accurate when all faces were presented in frontal views, but accuracy was severely impaired with any rotation or inversion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that with the onset of AD, mental rotation difficulties arise that affect the ability to recognize faces presented at different angles. The finding that a frontal view is "preferred" by these patients provides a valuable communication strategy for health care workers.

  14. Holistic face processing can inhibit recognition of forensic facial composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Alex H; Hancock, Peter J B; Frowd, Charlie D; Langton, Stephen R H

    2016-04-01

    Facial composite systems help eyewitnesses to show the appearance of criminals. However, likenesses created by unfamiliar witnesses will not be completely accurate, and people familiar with the target can find them difficult to identify. Faces are processed holistically; we explore whether this impairs identification of inaccurate composite images and whether recognition can be improved. In Experiment 1 (n = 64) an imaging technique was used to make composites of celebrity faces more accurate and identification was contrasted with the original composite images. Corrected composites were better recognized, confirming that errors in production of the likenesses impair identification. The influence of holistic face processing was explored by misaligning the top and bottom parts of the composites (cf. Young, Hellawell, & Hay, 1987). Misalignment impaired recognition of corrected composites but identification of the original, inaccurate composites significantly improved. This effect was replicated with facial composites of noncelebrities in Experiment 2 (n = 57). We conclude that, like real faces, facial composites are processed holistically: recognition is impaired because unlike real faces, composites contain inaccuracies and holistic face processing makes it difficult to perceive identifiable features. This effect was consistent across composites of celebrities and composites of people who are personally familiar. Our findings suggest that identification of forensic facial composites can be enhanced by presenting composites in a misaligned format. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Can Faces Prime a Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woumans, Evy; Martin, Clara D; Vanden Bulcke, Charlotte; Van Assche, Eva; Costa, Albert; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-09-01

    Bilinguals have two languages that are activated in parallel. During speech production, one of these languages must be selected on the basis of some cue. The present study investigated whether the face of an interlocutor can serve as such a cue. Spanish-Catalan and Dutch-French bilinguals were first familiarized with certain faces, each of which was associated with only one language, during simulated Skype conversations. Afterward, these participants performed a language production task in which they generated words associated with the words produced by familiar and unfamiliar faces displayed on-screen. When responding to familiar faces, participants produced words faster if the faces were speaking the same language as in the previous Skype simulation than if the same faces were speaking a different language. Furthermore, this language priming effect disappeared when it became clear that the interlocutors were actually bilingual. These findings suggest that faces can prime a language, but their cuing effect disappears when it turns out that they are unreliable as language cues. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Multithread Face Recognition in Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakshina Ranjan Kisku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Faces are highly challenging and dynamic objects that are employed as biometrics evidence in identity verification. Recently, biometrics systems have proven to be an essential security tools, in which bulk matching of enrolled people and watch lists is performed every day. To facilitate this process, organizations with large computing facilities need to maintain these facilities. To minimize the burden of maintaining these costly facilities for enrollment and recognition, multinational companies can transfer this responsibility to third-party vendors who can maintain cloud computing infrastructures for recognition. In this paper, we showcase cloud computing-enabled face recognition, which utilizes PCA-characterized face instances and reduces the number of invariant SIFT points that are extracted from each face. To achieve high interclass and low intraclass variances, a set of six PCA-characterized face instances is computed on columns of each face image by varying the number of principal components. Extracted SIFT keypoints are fused using sum and max fusion rules. A novel cohort selection technique is applied to increase the total performance. The proposed protomodel is tested on BioID and FEI face databases, and the efficacy of the system is proven based on the obtained results. We also compare the proposed method with other well-known methods.

  17. Modeling human dynamics of face-to-face interaction networks

    OpenAIRE

    Starnini, Michele; Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo

    2013-01-01

    Face-to-face interaction networks describe social interactions in human gatherings, and are the substrate for processes such as epidemic spreading and gossip propagation. The bursty nature of human behavior characterizes many aspects of empirical data, such as the distribution of conversation lengths, of conversations per person, or of inter-conversation times. Despite several recent attempts, a general theoretical understanding of the global picture emerging from data is still lacking. Here ...

  18. Subject Matter Expert Workshop to Identify Cybersecurity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report In recognition of the growing need to better address cyber risk and cyber management, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) held a Subject Matter Expert Workshop to Identify Cybersecurity Research Gaps and Needs of the Nation’s Water and Wastewater Systems Sector on March 30th and 31st, 2016, at the Ronald Reagan Building in Washington, D.C. The workshop was designed to create a forum for subject matter experts (SMEs) to exchange ideas and address important cybersecurity challenges facing the water sector.

  19. Are Face and Object Recognition Independent? A Neurocomputational Modeling Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Panqu; Gauthier, Isabel; Cottrell, Garrison

    2016-04-01

    generalizes to objects that must be individuated. Interestingly, when the task of the network is basic level categorization, no increase in the correlation between domains is observed. Hence, our model predicts that it is the type of experience that matters and that the source of the correlation is in the fusiform face area, rather than in cortical areas that subserve basic level categorization. This result is consistent with our previous modeling elucidating why the FFA is recruited for novel domains of expertise [Tong, M. H., Joyce, C. A., & Cottrell, G. W. Why is the fusiform face area recruited for novel categories of expertise? A neurocomputational investigation. Brain Research, 1202, 14-24, 2008].

  20. Faces in the Mist: Illusory Face and Letter Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cory A. Rieth

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We report three behavioral experiments on the spatial characteristics evoking illusory face and letter detection. False detections made to pure noise images were analyzed using a modified reverse correlation method in which hundreds of observers rated a modest number of noise images (480 during a single session. This method was originally developed for brain imaging research, and has been used in a number of fMRI publications, but this is the first report of the behavioral classification images. In Experiment 1 illusory face detection occurred in response to scattered dark patches throughout the images, with a bias to the left visual field. This occurred despite the use of a fixation cross and expectations that faces would be centered. In contrast, illusory letter detection (Experiment 2 occurred in response to centrally positioned dark patches. Experiment 3 included an oval in all displays to spatially constrain illusory face detection. With the addition of this oval the classification image revealed an eyes/nose/mouth pattern. These results suggest that face detection is triggered by a minimal face-like pattern even when these features are not centered in visual focus.

  1. Navigating complex lives: a longitudinal, comparative perspective on young people's trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyn, Johanna; Andres, Lesley

    2011-02-01

    Drawing on a sociological analysis that brings the prevailing social and economic policies into the frame of this analysis, this article focuses on the relationship between the social conditions faced by young people in the 1990s and early 2000s, the opportunities and constraints that these conditions presented to them, and patterns of mental health. The article presents an analysis of selected data from two longitudinal cohort studies. One is the Paths on Life's Way cohort study by Andres, based in British Columbia, Canada, and the other is the Life-Patterns cohort by Wyn, based in Victoria, Australia. These cohort studies have tracked the lives of young people who entered the labour market in the early 1990s. The longitudinal analysis is based on the data available for 733 participants in the Canadian study in 2003, and 625 participants in the Australian study in 2004, which remains representative of the larger original samples. The data were collected through a mixed-method approach of surveys and interviews. As part of the study, education and employment policies in Australia and Canada during the 1990 s were also analysed. The data reveal that it took 14 years from the time of leaving secondary school for the majority of Australians and Canadians to find a degree of employment security. Young Australians had lower rates of marriage and fertility, and assessed their mental health as being worse than their Canadian peers. Education and labour market policies aimed to increase human capital to ensure global competitiveness and to increase the flexibility of labour for employers. Social policies matter. In both countries, the creation of higher levels of human capital through increasing young people's participation in education, combined with labour market policies that increased job uncertainty and labour market precariousness meant that young people found it difficult to achieve their goals of modest affluence and security. The policies had an impact on young

  2. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 37 are included in this Volume II. The topics covered in this volume include: biochemical transformation of organic matter in soils; bitumens in soil organic matter; characterization of humic acids; carbon dating of organic matter in soils; use of modern techniques in soil organic matter research; use of municipal sludge with special reference to heavy metals constituents, soil nitrogen, and physical and chemical properties of soils; relationship of soil organic matter and plant metabolism; interaction between agrochemicals and organic matter; and peat. Separate entries have been prepared for those 20 papers which discuss the use of nuclear techniques in these studies

  3. Age differences in conscious versus subconscious social perception: The influence of face age and valence on gaze following.

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, P.E.; Slessor, G.; Rendell, P.G.; Bennetts, Rachel; Campbell, A.; Ruffman, T.

    2014-01-01

    Gaze following is the primary means of establishing joint attention with others and is subject to age-related decline. In addition, young but not older adults experience an own-age bias in gaze following. The current research assessed the effects of subconscious processing on these age-related differences. Participants responded to targets that were either congruent or incongruent with the direction of gaze displayed in supraliminal and subliminal images of young and older faces. These faces ...

  4. Similarity measures for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vezzetti, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.

  5. 3D Face Apperance Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K

    2006-01-01

    We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...

  6. Enhanced attention amplifies face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Evangelista, Emma; Ewing, Louise; Peters, Marianne; Taylor, Libby

    2011-08-15

    Perceptual adaptation not only produces striking perceptual aftereffects, but also enhances coding efficiency and discrimination by calibrating coding mechanisms to prevailing inputs. Attention to simple stimuli increases adaptation, potentially enhancing its functional benefits. Here we show that attention also increases adaptation to faces. In Experiment 1, face identity aftereffects increased when attention to adapting faces was increased using a change detection task. In Experiment 2, figural (distortion) face aftereffects increased when attention was increased using a snap game (detecting immediate repeats) during adaptation. Both were large effects. Contributions of low-level adaptation were reduced using free viewing (both experiments) and a size change between adapt and test faces (Experiment 2). We suggest that attention may enhance adaptation throughout the entire cortical visual pathway, with functional benefits well beyond the immediate advantages of selective processing of potentially important stimuli. These results highlight the potential to facilitate adaptive updating of face-coding mechanisms by strategic deployment of attentional resources. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiological findings of granulocytic sarcoma in the face and skull of children and young persons: report of five cases and literature review Aspectos imaginológicos del sarcoma granulocítico en la cara y el cráneo de niños y jóvenes: informe de cinco casos y revisión de la literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcy Medina Medina

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduction: Granulocytic sarcoma (GS is a rare malignant neoplasia, with an incidence rate of 2.9% to 3.1% in patients with myeloid leukemia or myeloproliferative diseases. Usually it affects males, of African, Asian and South American populations.

    Objetive: To describe the radiological characteristics of GS in the face and skull of children and young people.

    Patients and methods: We report five patients with GS in the face and skull. Computerized tomography (CT was carried out in four and orbital and brain magnetic

  8. Nutrition for Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Aging Nutrition for Young Men Print Email Nutrition for Young Men Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, ... 2017 XiXinXing/iStock/Thinkstock For many young men, nutrition isn't always a focus. There are many ...

  9. Discrimination between smiling faces: Human observers vs. automated face analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Líbano, Mario; Calvo, Manuel G; Fernández-Martín, Andrés; Recio, Guillermo

    2018-05-11

    This study investigated (a) how prototypical happy faces (with happy eyes and a smile) can be discriminated from blended expressions with a smile but non-happy eyes, depending on type and intensity of the eye expression; and (b) how smile discrimination differs for human perceivers versus automated face analysis, depending on affective valence and morphological facial features. Human observers categorized faces as happy or non-happy, or rated their valence. Automated analysis (FACET software) computed seven expressions (including joy/happiness) and 20 facial action units (AUs). Physical properties (low-level image statistics and visual saliency) of the face stimuli were controlled. Results revealed, first, that some blended expressions (especially, with angry eyes) had lower discrimination thresholds (i.e., they were identified as "non-happy" at lower non-happy eye intensities) than others (especially, with neutral eyes). Second, discrimination sensitivity was better for human perceivers than for automated FACET analysis. As an additional finding, affective valence predicted human discrimination performance, whereas morphological AUs predicted FACET discrimination. FACET can be a valid tool for categorizing prototypical expressions, but is currently more limited than human observers for discrimination of blended expressions. Configural processing facilitates detection of in/congruence(s) across regions, and thus detection of non-genuine smiling faces (due to non-happy eyes). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Baryonic Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    In the first two of these lectures, I present the evidence for baryonic dark matter and describe possible forms that it may take. The final lecture discusses formation of baryonic dark matter, and sets the cosmological context.

  11. Grammar of the matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the author describes the structure of the matter and presents the families of elementary particles (fermions) and the interaction messengers (bosons) with their properties. He presents the actual status and future trends of research on nuclear matter

  12. Dark matter detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, G.

    1995-01-01

    A fundamental question of astrophysics and cosmology is the nature of dark matter. Astrophysical observations show clearly the existence of some kind of dark matter, though they cannot yet reveal its nature. Dark matter can consist of baryonic particles, or of other (known or unknown) elementary particles. Baryonic dark matter probably exists in the form of dust, gas, or small stars. Other elementary particles constituting the dark matter can possibly be measured in terrestrial experiments. Possibilities for dark matter particles are neutrinos, axions and weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). While a direct detection of relic neutrinos seems at the moment impossible, there are experiments looking for baryonic dark matter in the form of Massive Compact Halo Objects, and for particle dark matter in the form of axions and WIMPS. (orig.)

  13. Dence Cold Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavinskiy Alexey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Possible way to create dense cold baryonic matter in the laboratory is discussed. The density of this matter is comparable or even larger than the density of neutron star core. The properties of this matter can be controlled by trigger conditions. Experimental program for the study of properties of dense cold matter for light and heavy ion collisions at initial energy range √sNN~2-3GeV is proposed..

  14. Dark Matter Effective Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We organize the effective (self)interaction terms for complex scalar dark matter candidates which are either an isosinglet, isodoublet or an isotriplet with respect to the weak interactions. The classification has been performed ordering the operators in inverse powers of the dark matter cutoff...... scale. We assume Lorentz invariance, color and charge neutrality. We also introduce potentially interesting dark matter induced flavor-changing operators. Our general framework allows for model independent investigations of dark matter properties....

  15. Empowering young people/ young adults to action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Birgitte Gade

    Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?......Research questions: How do the young students relate to their community? How do young students position themselves as agents in their own lives and in the places they live – which discourse is used?...

  16. Statistical Model-Based Face Pose Estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Xinliang; YANG Jie; LI Feng; WANG Huahua

    2007-01-01

    A robust face pose estimation approach is proposed by using face shape statistical model approach and pose parameters are represented by trigonometric functions. The face shape statistical model is firstly built by analyzing the face shapes from different people under varying poses. The shape alignment is vital in the process of building the statistical model. Then, six trigonometric functions are employed to represent the face pose parameters. Lastly, the mapping function is constructed between face image and face pose by linearly relating different parameters. The proposed approach is able to estimate different face poses using a few face training samples. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy.

  17. Ratcheting Up The Search for Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDermott, Samuel Dylan [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The last several years have included remarkable advances in two of the primary areas of fundamental particle physics: the search for dark matter and the discovery of the Higgs boson. This dissertation will highlight some contributions made on the forefront of these exciting fields. Although the circumstantial evidence supporting the dark matter hypothesis is now almost undeniably significant, indisputable direct proof is still lacking. As the direct searches for dark matter continue, we can maximize our prospects of discovery by using theoretical techniques complementary to the observational searches to rule out additional, otherwise accessible parameter space. In this dissertation, I report bounds on a wide range of dark matter theories. The models considered here cover the spectrum from the canonical case of self-conjugate dark matter with weak-scale interactions, to electrically charged dark matter, to non-annihilating, non-fermionic dark matter. These bounds are obtained from considerations of astrophysical and cosmological data, including, respectively: diffuse gamma ray photon observations; structure formation considerations, along with an explication of the novel local dark matter structure due to galactic astrophysics; and the existence of old pulsars in dark-matter-rich environments. I also consider the prospects for a model of neutrino dark matter which has been motivated by a wide set of seemingly contradictory experimental results. In addition, I include a study that provides the tools to begin solving the speculative ``inverse'' problem of extracting dark matter properties solely from hypothetical nuclear energy spectra, which we may face if dark matter is discovered with multiple direct detection experiments. In contrast to the null searches for dark matter, we have the example of the recent discovery of the Higgs boson. The Higgs boson is the first fundamental scalar particle ever observed, and precision measurements of the production and

  18. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may he elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should ma be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.

  19. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.J.; Chung, D.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Kolb, E.W.; Riotto, A.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may be elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should not be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  20. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may be elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should not be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.

  1. Matter and Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In Matter and Energy, readers will learn about the many forms of energy, the wide variety of particles in nature, and Albert Einstein's world-changing realization of how matter can be changed into pure energy. The book also examines the recent discoveries of dark matter and dark energy and the future of the universe.

  2. Face-name learning in older adults: a benefit of hyper-binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jennifer C; Biss, Renée K; Murphy, Kelly J; Hasher, Lynn

    2016-10-01

    Difficulty remembering faces and corresponding names is a hallmark of cognitive aging, as is increased susceptibility to distraction. Given evidence that older adults spontaneously encode relationships between target pictures and simultaneously occurring distractors (a hyper-binding phenomenon), we asked whether memory for face-name pairs could be improved through prior exposure to faces presented with distractor names. In three experiments, young and older adults performed a selective attention task on faces while ignoring superimposed names. After a delay, they learned and were tested on face-name pairs that were either maintained or rearranged from the initial task but were not told of the connection between tasks. In each experiment, older but not younger participants showed better memory for maintained than for rearranged pairs, indicating that older adults' natural propensity to tacitly encode and bind relevant and irrelevant information can be employed to aid face-name memory performance.

  3. Attentional prioritization of infant faces is limited to own-race infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hodsoll

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence indicates that infant faces capture attention automatically, presumably to elicit caregiving behavior from adults and leading to greater probability of progeny survival. Elsewhere, evidence demonstrates that people show deficiencies in the processing of other-race relative to own-race faces. We ask whether this other-race effect impacts on attentional attraction to infant faces. Using a dot-probe task to reveal the spatial allocation of attention, we investigate whether other-race infants capture attention.South Asian and White participants (young adults aged 18-23 years responded to a probe shape appearing in a location previously occupied by either an infant face or an adult face; across trials, the race (South Asian/White of the faces was manipulated. Results indicated that participants were faster to respond to probes that appeared in the same location as infant faces than adult faces, but only on own-race trials.Own-race infant faces attract attention, but other-race infant faces do not. Sensitivity to face-specific care-seeking cues in other-race kindenschema may be constrained by interracial contact and experience.

  4. Secretly asymmetric dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Kilic, Can; Swaminathan, Sivaramakrishnan; Trendafilova, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    We study a mechanism where the dark matter number density today arises from asymmetries generated in the dark sector in the early Universe, even though the total dark matter number remains zero throughout the history of the Universe. The dark matter population today can be completely symmetric, with annihilation rates above those expected from thermal weakly interacting massive particles. We give a simple example of this mechanism using a benchmark model of flavored dark matter. We discuss the experimental signatures of this setup, which arise mainly from the sector that annihilates the symmetric component of dark matter.

  5. Dark Matter Caustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, Aravind

    2010-01-01

    The continuous infall of dark matter with low velocity dispersion in galactic halos leads to the formation of high density structures called caustics. Dark matter caustics are of two kinds : outer and inner. Outer caustics are thin spherical shells surrounding galaxies while inner caustics have a more complicated structure that depends on the dark matter angular momentum distribution. The presence of a dark matter caustic in the plane of the galaxy modifies the gas density in its neighborhood which may lead to observable effects. Caustics are also relevant to direct and indirect dark matter searches.

  6. Dark Matter Searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Shigetaka

    2008-01-01

    Recent cosmological as well as historical observations of rotational curves of galaxies strongly suggest the existence of dark matter. It is also widely believed that dark matter consists of unknown elementary particles. However, astrophysical observations based on gravitational effects alone do not provide sufficient information on the properties of dark matter. In this study, the status of dark matter searches is investigated by observing high-energy neutrinos from the sun and the earth and by observing nuclear recoils in laboratory targets. The successful detection of dark matter by these methods facilitates systematic studies of its properties. Finally, the XMASS experiment, which is due to start at the Kamioka Observatory, is introduced

  7. The role of temporal context in norm-based encoding of faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rensbergen, Bram; Op de Beeck, Hans P

    2014-02-01

    Research shows that the human brain encodes faces in terms of how they relate to a prototypical face, a phenomenon referred to as norm-based encoding. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of short-term exposure on the development of the norm, independently of global, long-term exposure. We achieved this by varying the sequence of presentation of the stimuli while keeping global exposure constant. We found that a systematic manipulation of the average face in a set of 10 preceding trials can shift this norm toward that average. However, there was no effect of order or recency among these trials; thus, there was no evidence that the last faces mattered more than the first. This suggests that the position of the face norm is modified by information that is integrated across multiple recent faces.

  8. [Treatment goals in FACE philosophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Domingo; Maté, Amaia; Zabalegui, Paula; Valenzuela, Jaime

    2017-03-01

    The FACE philosophy is characterized by clearly defined treatment goals: facial esthetics, dental esthetics, periodontal health, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The purpose is to establish ideal occlusion with good facial esthetics and an orthopedic stable joint position. The authors present all the concepts of FACE philosophy and illustrate them through one case report. Taking into account all the FACE philosophy concepts increases diagnostic ability and improves the quality and stability of treatment outcomes. The goal of this philosophy is to harmonize the facial profile, tooth alignment, periodontium, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The evaluation and treatment approach to vertical problems are unique to the philosophy. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.

  9. Impeded Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Slatyer, Tracy R. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wang, Xiao-Ping [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Xue, Wei [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-12

    We consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario “Impeded Dark Matter”. We demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  10. Impeded Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Xue, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario “Impeded Dark Matter”. We demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  11. Sourcing dark matter and dark energy from α-attractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Swagat S.; Sahni, Varun; Shtanov, Yuri

    2017-01-01

    In [1], Kallosh and Linde drew attention to a new family of superconformal inflationary potentials, subsequently called α-attractors [2]. The α-attractor family can interpolate between a large class of inflationary models. It also has an important theoretical underpinning within the framework of supergravity. We demonstrate that the α-attractors have an even wider appeal since they may describe dark matter and perhaps even dark energy. The dark matter associated with the α-attractors, which we call α-dark matter (αDM), shares many of the attractive features of fuzzy dark matter, with V (φ) = ½ m 2 φ 2 , while having none of its drawbacks. Like fuzzy dark matter, αDM can have a large Jeans length which could resolve the cusp-core and substructure problems faced by standard cold dark matter. αDM also has an appealing tracker property which enables it to converge to the late-time dark matter asymptote, ( w ) ≅ 0, from a wide range of initial conditions. It thus avoids the enormous fine-tuning problems faced by the m 2 φ 2 potential in describing dark matter.

  12. Sourcing dark matter and dark energy from α-attractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Swagat S.; Sahni, Varun [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Shtanov, Yuri, E-mail: swagat@iucaa.in, E-mail: varun@iucaa.in, E-mail: shtanov@bitp.kiev.ua [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine)

    2017-06-01

    In [1], Kallosh and Linde drew attention to a new family of superconformal inflationary potentials, subsequently called α-attractors [2]. The α-attractor family can interpolate between a large class of inflationary models. It also has an important theoretical underpinning within the framework of supergravity. We demonstrate that the α-attractors have an even wider appeal since they may describe dark matter and perhaps even dark energy. The dark matter associated with the α-attractors, which we call α-dark matter (αDM), shares many of the attractive features of fuzzy dark matter, with V (φ) = ½ m {sup 2}φ{sup 2}, while having none of its drawbacks. Like fuzzy dark matter, αDM can have a large Jeans length which could resolve the cusp-core and substructure problems faced by standard cold dark matter. αDM also has an appealing tracker property which enables it to converge to the late-time dark matter asymptote, ( w ) ≅ 0, from a wide range of initial conditions. It thus avoids the enormous fine-tuning problems faced by the m {sup 2}φ{sup 2} potential in describing dark matter.

  13. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-02

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  14. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R.; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-01

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  15. Sterile neutrino dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Merle, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This book is a new look at one of the hottest topics in contemporary science, Dark Matter. It is the pioneering text dedicated to sterile neutrinos as candidate particles for Dark Matter, challenging some of the standard assumptions which may be true for some Dark Matter candidates but not for all. So, this can be seen either as an introduction to a specialized topic or an out-of-the-box introduction to the field of Dark Matter in general. No matter if you are a theoretical particle physicist, an observational astronomer, or a ground based experimentalist, no matter if you are a grad student or an active researcher, you can benefit from this text, for a simple reason: a non-standard candidate for Dark Matter can teach you a lot about what we truly know about our standard picture of how the Universe works.

  16. 'Pale Face'/'Pointy Face: SA Criminology in Denial | Henkeman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper responds to key aspects of Bill Dixon's article, Understanding 'Pointy Face': What is criminology for?1 It suggests that criminology should unambiguously be 'for' social justice in South Africa's transhistorically unequal context. South African prison statistics are used as a conceptual shortcut to briefly highlight ...

  17. Registration of 3D Face Scans with Average Face Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A. Salah (Albert Ali); N. Alyuz; L. Akarun

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractThe accuracy of a 3D face recognition system depends on a correct registration that aligns the facial surfaces and makes a comparison possible. The best results obtained so far use a costly one-to-all registration approach, which requires the registration of each facial surface to all

  18. Hydro-energy production and water works face to face with environmental flow approach in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihailescu, Neculai; Varduca, Aurel; Popescu, Liviu N.; Varduca, Ioana Cristina

    2007-01-01

    In order to achieve an equilibrium between the requirements of 'environmental flow' and other needs like energy in this case studies are presented in the paper concerning: (i) Iron Gate Hydroelectric Complex on the lower Danube river and (ii) Dambovita river complex hydrotehnical works within and downstream Bucharest. For the first case the most relevant impacts are related with: (i) nutrient 'pump' particular properties; (ii) contamination of sediments with heavy metals and other associated pollutants; (iii) decrease of solid (suspended matter) loads - hydromorphological alterations; (iv) cutting the fish migration and other related issues. In the second case study the environmental flow issues practically do not exist. The case of Dambovita river downstream Bucharest faces increased organic loads, nitrates and especially hazardous substances contamination. (authors)

  19. Respirators. Does your face fit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, N M; Else, D

    1981-04-01

    The authors carried out a survey of face sizes of men and women of four different ethnic origins and carried out face-seal leakage trials on four corresponding test panels. No single respirator design is likely to fit all members of the workforce, and it may be necessary to stock respirators from more than one manufacturers.Three or four different respirators or size of respirator may be needed. However, the use of lossely-fitting respirators such as Airsteam helmets could remove the necessity for exhaustive fitting procedures.

  20. Instant PrimeFaces starter

    CERN Document Server

    Hlavats, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),

  1. Embedded Face Detection and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göksel Günlü

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The need to increase security in open or public spaces has in turn given rise to the requirement to monitor these spaces and analyse those images on-site and on-time. At this point, the use of smart cameras – of which the popularity has been increasing – is one step ahead. With sensors and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs, smart cameras generate ad hoc results by analysing the numeric images transmitted from the sensor by means of a variety of image-processing algorithms. Since the images are not transmitted to a distance processing unit but rather are processed inside the camera, it does not necessitate high-bandwidth networks or high processor powered systems; it can instantaneously decide on the required access. Nonetheless, on account of restricted memory, processing power and overall power, image processing algorithms need to be developed and optimized for embedded processors. Among these algorithms, one of the most important is for face detection and recognition. A number of face detection and recognition methods have been proposed recently and many of these methods have been tested on general-purpose processors. In smart cameras – which are real-life applications of such methods – the widest use is on DSPs. In the present study, the Viola-Jones face detection method – which was reported to run faster on PCs – was optimized for DSPs; the face recognition method was combined with the developed sub-region and mask-based DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform. As the employed DSP is a fixed-point processor, the processes were performed with integers insofar as it was possible. To enable face recognition, the image was divided into sub-regions and from each sub-region the robust coefficients against disruptive elements – like face expression, illumination, etc. – were selected as the features. The discrimination of the selected features was enhanced via LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis and then employed for recognition. Thanks to its

  2. Saving Face and Group Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor; Mao, Lei; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    2015-01-01

    their self- but also other group members' image. This behavior is frequent even in the absence of group identity. When group identity is more salient, individuals help regardless of whether the least performer is an in-group or an out-group. This suggests that saving others' face is a strong social norm.......Are people willing to sacrifice resources to save one's and others' face? In a laboratory experiment, we study whether individuals forego resources to avoid the public exposure of the least performer in their group. We show that a majority of individuals are willing to pay to preserve not only...

  3. Markerless 3D Face Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...

  4. Detecting dark matter with imploding pulsars in the galactic center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramante, Joseph; Linden, Tim

    2014-11-07

    The paucity of old millisecond pulsars observed at the galactic center of the Milky Way could be the result of dark matter accumulating in and destroying neutron stars. In regions of high dark matter density, dark matter clumped in a pulsar can exceed the Schwarzschild limit and collapse into a natal black hole which destroys the pulsar. We examine what dark matter models are consistent with this hypothesis and find regions of parameter space where dark matter accumulation can significantly degrade the neutron star population within the galactic center while remaining consistent with observations of old millisecond pulsars in globular clusters and near the solar position. We identify what dark matter couplings and masses might cause a young pulsar at the galactic center to unexpectedly extinguish. Finally, we find that pulsar collapse age scales inversely with the dark matter density and linearly with the dark matter velocity dispersion. This implies that maximum pulsar age is spatially dependent on position within the dark matter halo of the Milky Way. In turn, this pulsar age spatial dependence will be dark matter model dependent.

  5. Age differences in accuracy and choosing in eyewitness identification and face recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searcy, J H; Bartlett, J C; Memon, A

    1999-05-01

    Studies of aging and face recognition show age-related increases in false recognitions of new faces. To explore implications of this false alarm effect, we had young and senior adults perform (1) three eye-witness identification tasks, using both target present and target absent lineups, and (2) and old/new recognition task in which a study list of faces was followed by a test including old and new faces, along with conjunctions of old faces. Compared with the young, seniors had lower accuracy and higher choosing rates on the lineups, and they also falsely recognized more new faces on the recognition test. However, after screening for perceptual processing deficits, there was no age difference in false recognition of conjunctions, or in discriminating old faces from conjunctions. We conclude that the false alarm effect generalizes to lineup identification, but does not extend to conjunction faces. The findings are consistent with age-related deficits in recollection of context and relative age invariance in perceptual integrative processes underlying the experience of familiarity.

  6. The Many Faces of Censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Richard

    1999-01-01

    An author of 26 books for young adults writes about different forms of censorship including rewriting history textbooks and parents who censor themselves by not staying in touch with their children. Citing Cormier's "The Chocolate War" and Golding's "Lord of the Flies" and making reference to the Colulmbine school murders, he illustrates the…

  7. Encouraging Participation in Face-to-Face Lectures: The Index Card Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daws, Laura Beth

    2018-01-01

    Courses: This activity will work in any face-to-face communication lecture course. Objectives: By the end of the semester in a face-to-face lecture class, every student will have engaged in verbal discussion.

  8. Calaveras reversed: westward younging is indicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, P.C.; Harris, A.G.; Kistler, R.W.; Krauskopf, K.B.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of limestone collected from strata in the southern part of the western metamorphic belt of the Sierra Nevada, which traditionally have been assigned to the Calaveras Formation, have yielded Early Triassic conodonts, and samples of metavolcanic rock indicate an Early Jurassic Rb-Sr age. These ages, together with general westward younging of units rather than with eastward younging as has been assumed until recently by many workers, chiefly on the basis of sparse oservations of bedding facings. The rocks are strongly deformed, and the possibility that tectonism rather than stratigraphic succession accounts for the age pattern cannot be dismissed.-Authors

  9. Strategies for dark matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1988-01-01

    The present status of alternative forms of dark matter, both baryonic and nonbaryonic, is reviewed. Alternative arguments are presented for the predominance of either cold dark matter (CDM) or of baryonic dark matter (BDM). Strategies are described for dark matter detection, both for dark matter that consists of weakly interacting relic particles and for dark matter that consists of dark stellar remnants

  10. Stars of strange matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, H.A.; Brown, G.E.; Cooperstein, J.

    1987-01-01

    We investigate suggestions that quark matter with strangeness per baryon of order unity may be stable. We model this matter at nuclear matter densities as a gas of close packed Λ-particles. From the known mass of the Λ-particle we obtain an estimate of the energy and chemical potential of strange matter at nuclear densities. These are sufficiently high to preclude any phase transition from neutron matter to strange matter in the region near nucleon matter density. Including effects from gluon exchange phenomenologically, we investigate higher densities, consistently making approximations which underestimate the density of transition. In this way we find a transition density ρ tr > or approx.7ρ 0 , where ρ 0 is nuclear matter density. This is not far from the maximum density in the center of the most massive neutron stars that can be constructed. Since we have underestimated ρ tr and still find it to be ∝7ρ 0 , we do not believe that the transition from neutron to quark matter is likely in neutron stars. Moreover, measured masses of observed neutron stars are ≅1.4 M sun , where M sun is the solar mass. For such masses, the central (maximum) density is ρ c 0 . Transition to quark matter is certainly excluded for these densities. (orig.)

  11. Staying Connected: Computer-Mediated and Face-to-Face Communication in College Students' Dating Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Andrea M; O'Sullivan, Lucia F

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the features, depth, and quality of communication in heterosexual dating relationships that include computer-mediated communication (CMC). This study examined these features as well as CMC's potential to facilitate self-disclosure and information-seeking. It also evaluated whether partner CMC interactions play a role in partner intimacy and communication quality. Young adults (N = 359; 18-24) attending postsecondary education institutions completed an online survey about their CMC use. To be included in the study, all participants were in established dating relationships at the time of the study and reported daily communication with their partner. CMC was linked to partners' disclosure of nonintimate information. This personal self-disclosure was linked positively to relationship intimacy and communication quality, beyond contributions from face-to-face interactions. Breadth (not depth) of self-disclosure and positively valenced interactions, in particular, proved key to understanding greater levels of intimacy in dating relationships and better communication quality as a function of CMC. CMC provides opportunities for partners to stay connected and to improve the overall quality of their intimacy and communication.

  12. Yards face up to future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bru, Jan Gunnar

    1997-01-01

    The article puts the attention to market relations in connection with the Norwegian petroleum industry. The paradox facing Norwegian yards involved in the offshore industry is that while the sector is now experiencing a market boom, within two years contractors could find themselves scrambling for work in a reduced market. 1 tab

  13. Face recognition, a landmarks tale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beumer, G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Face recognition is a technology that appeals to the imagination of many people. This is particularly reflected in the popularity of science-fiction films and forensic detective series such as CSI, CSI New York, CSI Miami, Bones and NCIS. Although these series tend to be set in the present, their

  14. Managers facing the climatic risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This colloquium aimed to analyze the relations between the climatic changes and extreme meteorological events and on the associated risks. It provides information and knowledge on the state of the art concerning the today scientific knowledge, the prevention measures and the adaptation facing the risks and the difficult estimation of the climatic damages costs. (A.L.B.)

  15. Families Facing the Nuclear Taboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Judith Bula

    1988-01-01

    Discusses attitudes of 12 families participating in group which was formed to focus on issues related to the possibility of a nuclear disaster. Why and how these families are facing the nuclear taboo plus various outcomes of doing so are discussed as well as the role of the professional in encouraging such openness about these difficult issues.…

  16. The IMM Frontal Face Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2005-01-01

    This note describes a data set consisting of 120 annotated monocular images of 12 different frontal human faces. Points of correspondence are placed on each image so the data set can be readily used for building statistical models of shape. Format specifications and terms of use are also given...

  17. Towards automatic forensic face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology and experimental results for evidence evaluation in the context of forensic face recognition. In forensic applications, the matching score (hereafter referred to as similarity score) from a biometric system must be represented as a Likelihood Ratio (LR). In our

  18. Face-Sealing Butterfly Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervo, John N.

    1992-01-01

    Valve plate made to translate as well as rotate. Valve opened and closed by turning shaft and lever. Interactions among lever, spring, valve plate, and face seal cause plate to undergo combination of translation and rotation so valve plate clears seal during parts of opening and closing motions.

  19. Face Liveness Detection Using Defocus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooyeon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop security systems for identity authentication, face recognition (FR technology has been applied. One of the main problems of applying FR technology is that the systems are especially vulnerable to attacks with spoofing faces (e.g., 2D pictures. To defend from these attacks and to enhance the reliability of FR systems, many anti-spoofing approaches have been recently developed. In this paper, we propose a method for face liveness detection using the effect of defocus. From two images sequentially taken at different focuses, three features, focus, power histogram and gradient location and orientation histogram (GLOH, are extracted. Afterwards, we detect forged faces through the feature-level fusion approach. For reliable performance verification, we develop two databases with a handheld digital camera and a webcam. The proposed method achieves a 3.29% half total error rate (HTER at a given depth of field (DoF and can be extended to camera-equipped devices, like smartphones.

  20. Hidden charged dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Tu, Huitzu; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2009-01-01

    Can dark matter be stabilized by charge conservation, just as the electron is in the standard model? We examine the possibility that dark matter is hidden, that is, neutral under all standard model gauge interactions, but charged under an exact (\\rm U)(1) gauge symmetry of the hidden sector. Such candidates are predicted in WIMPless models, supersymmetric models in which hidden dark matter has the desired thermal relic density for a wide range of masses. Hidden charged dark matter has many novel properties not shared by neutral dark matter: (1) bound state formation and Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation after chemical freeze out may reduce its relic density, (2) similar effects greatly enhance dark matter annihilation in protohalos at redshifts of z ∼ 30, (3) Compton scattering off hidden photons delays kinetic decoupling, suppressing small scale structure, and (4) Rutherford scattering makes such dark matter self-interacting and collisional, potentially impacting properties of the Bullet Cluster and the observed morphology of galactic halos. We analyze all of these effects in a WIMPless model in which the hidden sector is a simplified version of the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the dark matter is a hidden sector stau. We find that charged hidden dark matter is viable and consistent with the correct relic density for reasonable model parameters and dark matter masses in the range 1 GeV ∼ X ∼< 10 TeV. At the same time, in the preferred range of parameters, this model predicts cores in the dark matter halos of small galaxies and other halo properties that may be within the reach of future observations. These models therefore provide a viable and well-motivated framework for collisional dark matter with Sommerfeld enhancement, with novel implications for astrophysics and dark matter searches

  1. Developmental Changes in Mother-Infant Face-to-Face Communication: Birth to 3 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelli, Manuela; Fogel, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Investigated development of face-to-face communication in infants between 1 and 14 weeks old and their mothers. Found a curvilinear development of early face-to-face communication, with increases occurring between weeks 4 and 9. When placed on a sofa, infants' face-to-face communication was longer than when they were held. Girls spent a longer…

  2. A Comparison of Online and Face-to-Face Approaches to Teaching Introduction to American Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolsen, Toby; Evans, Michael; Fleming, Anna McCaghren

    2016-01-01

    This article reports results from a large study comparing four different approaches to teaching Introduction to American Government: (1) traditional, a paper textbook with 100% face-to-face lecture-style teaching; (2) breakout, a paper textbook with 50% face-to-face lecture-style teaching and 50% face-to-face small-group breakout discussion…

  3. The Online and Face-to-Face Counseling Attitudes Scales: A Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochlen, Aaron B.; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Zack, Jason S.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on the development of measures of attitudes toward online and face-to-face counseling. Overall, participants expressed more favorable evaluations of face-to-face counseling than of online counseling. Significant correlations were found between online and face-to-face counseling with traditional help-seeking attitudes, comfort…

  4. Social cognition in autism: Face tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Guerreschi, Michele; Tagliavento, Lucia; Gitti, Filippo; Sokolov, Alexander N; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Fazzi, Elisa

    2017-05-26

    Faces convey valuable information for social cognition, effective interpersonal interaction, and non-verbal communication. Face perception is believed to be atypical in autism, but the origin of this deficit is controversial. Dominant featural face encoding is suggested to be responsible for face tuning scarcity. Here we used a recently developed Face-n-Food paradigm for studying face tuning in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). The key benefit of these images is that single components do not explicitly trigger face processing. In a spontaneous recognition task, adolescents with autism and typically developing matched controls were presented with a set of Face-n-Food images in different degree resembling a face (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). The set of images was shown in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Thresholds for recognition of the Face-n-Food images as a face in ASD individuals were substantially higher than in typically developing controls: they did not report seeing a face on the images, which controls easily recognized as a face, and gave overall fewer face responses. This outcome not only lends support to atypical face tuning, but provides novel insights into the origin of face encoding deficits in autism.

  5. Codecaying Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Jeff Asaf; Kuflik, Eric; Ng, Wee Hao

    2016-11-18

    We propose a new mechanism for thermal dark matter freeze-out, called codecaying dark matter. Multicomponent dark sectors with degenerate particles and out-of-equilibrium decays can codecay to obtain the observed relic density. The dark matter density is exponentially depleted through the decay of nearly degenerate particles rather than from Boltzmann suppression. The relic abundance is set by the dark matter annihilation cross section, which is predicted to be boosted, and the decay rate of the dark sector particles. The mechanism is viable in a broad range of dark matter parameter space, with a robust prediction of an enhanced indirect detection signal. Finally, we present a simple model that realizes codecaying dark matter.

  6. Diseases of white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnosis of white matter abnormalities was revolutionized by the advent of computed tomography (CT), which provided a noninvasive method of detection and assessment of progression of a variety of white matter processes. However, the inadequacies of CT were recognized early, including its relative insensitivity to small foci of abnormal myelin in the brain when correlated with autopsy findings and its inability to image directly white matter diseases of the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on the other hand, sensitive to the slight difference in tissue composition of normal gray and white matter and to subtle increase in water content associated with myelin disorders, is uniquely suited for the examination of white matter pathology. Its clinical applications include the evaluation of the normal process of myelination in childhood and the various white matter diseases, including disorders of demyelination and dysmyelination

  7. Detecting dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Roger L.

    2000-01-01

    Dark matter is one of the most pressing problems in modern cosmology and particle physic research. This talk will motivate the existence of dark matter by reviewing the main experimental evidence for its existence, the rotation curves of galaxies and the motions of galaxies about one another. It will then go on to review the corroborating theoretical motivations before combining all the supporting evidence to explore some of the possibilities for dark matter along with its expected properties. This will lay the ground work for dark matter detection. A number of differing techniques are being developed and used to detect dark matter. These will be briefly discussed before the focus turns to cryogenic detection techniques. Finally, some preliminary results and expectations will be given for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment

  8. Age Differences in Face Processing: The Role of Perceptual Degradation and Holistic Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Isabelle; Meinhardt-Injac, Bozana

    2018-01-24

    We simultaneously investigated the role of three hypotheses regarding age-related differences in face processing: perceptual degradation, impaired holistic processing, and an interaction between the two. Young adults (YA) aged 20-33-year olds, middle-age adults (MA) aged 50-64-year olds, and older adults (OA) aged 65-82-year olds were tested on the context congruency paradigm, which allows measurement of face-specific holistic processing across the life span (Meinhardt-Injac, Persike & Meinhardt, 2014. Acta Psychologica, 151, 155-163). Perceptual degradation was examined by measuring performance with faces that were not filtered (FSF), with faces filtered to preserve low spatial frequencies (LSF), and with faces filtered to preserve high spatial frequencies (HSF). We found that reducing perceptual signal strength had a greater impact on MA and OA for HSF faces, but not LSF faces. Context congruency effects were significant and of comparable magnitude across ages for FSF, LSF, and HSF faces. By using watches as control objects, we show that these holistic effects reflect face-specific mechanisms in all age groups. Our results support the perceptual degradation hypothesis for faces containing only HSF and suggest that holistic processing is preserved in aging even under conditions of reduced signal strength. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Face Detection and Face Recognition in Android Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian DOSPINESCU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of the smartphone’s camera enables us to capture high quality pictures at a high resolution, so we can perform different types of recognition on these images. Face detection is one of these types of recognition that is very common in our society. We use it every day on Facebook to tag friends in our pictures. It is also used in video games alongside Kinect concept, or in security to allow the access to private places only to authorized persons. These are just some examples of using facial recognition, because in modern society, detection and facial recognition tend to surround us everywhere. The aim of this article is to create an appli-cation for smartphones that can recognize human faces. The main goal of this application is to grant access to certain areas or rooms only to certain authorized persons. For example, we can speak here of hospitals or educational institutions where there are rooms where only certain employees can enter. Of course, this type of application can cover a wide range of uses, such as helping people suffering from Alzheimer's to recognize the people they loved, to fill gaps persons who can’t remember the names of their relatives or for example to automatically capture the face of our own children when they smile.

  10. Clumpy cold dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  11. Design Methods for Young Sustainable Architecture Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Jauslin, D.; Drexler, H.; Curiel, F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces landscape aesthetics as an innovative design method for sustainable architecture. It is based on the framework of a recent paper where the young and unfamous authors criticized three of the most prominent? architects today in regard to sustainable architecture and its aesthetics. Leading architects expressed their skepticism as to whether there is such a thing as aesthetics in sustainable architecture, or for that matter, if architecture can indeed be sustainable at all....

  12. The Face-to-Face Light Detection Paradigm: A New Methodology for Investigating Visuospatial Attention Across Different Face Regions in Live Face-to-Face Communication Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Laura A; Malloy, Daniel M; Cone, John M; Hendrickson, David L

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a novel paradigm for studying the cognitive processes used by listeners within interactive settings. This paradigm places the talker and the listener in the same physical space, creating opportunities for investigations of attention and comprehension processes taking place during interactive discourse situations. An experiment was conducted to compare results from previous research using videotaped stimuli to those obtained within the live face-to-face task paradigm. A headworn apparatus is used to briefly display LEDs on the talker's face in four locations as the talker communicates with the participant. In addition to the primary task of comprehending speeches, participants make a secondary task light detection response. In the present experiment, the talker gave non-emotionally-expressive speeches that were used in past research with videotaped stimuli. Signal detection analysis was employed to determine which areas of the face received the greatest focus of attention. Results replicate previous findings using videotaped methods.

  13. Handedness is related to neural mechanisms underlying hemispheric lateralization of face processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frässle, Stefan; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Jansen, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    While the right-hemispheric lateralization of the face perception network is well established, recent evidence suggests that handedness affects the cerebral lateralization of face processing at the hierarchical level of the fusiform face area (FFA). However, the neural mechanisms underlying differential hemispheric lateralization of face perception in right- and left-handers are largely unknown. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for fMRI, we aimed to unravel the putative processes that mediate handedness-related differences by investigating the effective connectivity in the bilateral core face perception network. Our results reveal an enhanced recruitment of the left FFA in left-handers compared to right-handers, as evidenced by more pronounced face-specific modulatory influences on both intra- and interhemispheric connections. As structural and physiological correlates of handedness-related differences in face processing, right- and left-handers varied with regard to their gray matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus and their pupil responses to face stimuli. Overall, these results describe how handedness is related to the lateralization of the core face perception network, and point to different neural mechanisms underlying face processing in right- and left-handers. In a wider context, this demonstrates the entanglement of structurally and functionally remote brain networks, suggesting a broader underlying process regulating brain lateralization.

  14. Interdependent mechanisms for processing gender and emotion:The special status of angry male faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Harris

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available While some models of how various attributes of a face are processed have posited that face features, invariant physical cues such as gender or ethnicity as well as variant social cues such as emotion, may be processed independently (e.g., Bruce & Young, 1986, other models suggest a more distributed representation and interdependent processing (e.g., Haxby, Hoffman, & Gobbini, 2000. Here we use a contingent adaptation paradigm to investigate if mechanisms for processing the gender and emotion of a face are interdependent and symmetric across the happy-angry emotional continuum and regardless of the gender of the face. We simultaneously adapted participants to angry female faces and happy male faces (Experiment 1 or to happy female faces and angry male faces (Experiment 2. In Experiment 1 we found evidence for contingent adaptation, with simultaneous aftereffects in opposite directions: male faces were biased towards angry while female faces were biased towards happy. Interestingly, in the complementary Experiment 2 we did not find evidence for contingent adaptation, with both male and female faces biased towards angry. Our results highlight that evidence for contingent adaptation and the underlying interdependent face processing mechanisms that would allow for contingent adaptation may only be evident for certain combinations of face features. Such limits may be especially important in the case of social cues given how maladaptive it may be to stop responding to threatening information, with male angry faces considered to be the most threatening. The underlying neuronal mechanisms that could account for such asymmetric effects in contingent adaptation remain to be elucidated.

  15. Search for pseudoscalar cold dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Bibber, K.; Stoeffl, W.; LLNL Collaborators

    1992-05-29

    AH dynamical evidence points to the conclusion that the predominant form of matter in the universe is in a non-luminous form. Furthermore, large scale deviations from uniform Hubble flow, and the recent COBE reports of inhomogeneities in the cosmic microwave background strongly suggest that we live in an exactly closed universe. If this is true, then ordinary baryonic matter could only be a minority component (10% at most) of the missing mass, and that what constitutes the majority of the dark matter must involve new physics. The axion is one of very few well motivated candidates which may comprise the dark matter. Additionally it is a `cold` dark-matter candidate which is preferred by the COBE data. We propose to construct and operate an experiment to search for axions which may constitute the dark matter of our own galaxy. As proposed by Sikivie, dark-matter axions may be detected by their stimulated conversion into monochromatic microwave photons in a tunable high-Q cavity inside a strong magnetic field. Our ability to mount an experiment quickly and take data within one year is due to a confluence of three factors. The first is the availability of a compact high field superconducting magnet and a local industrial partner, Wang NMR, who can make a very thermally efficient and economical cryostat for it. The second is an ongoing joint venture with the Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences to do R&D on metalized precision-formed ceramic microwave cavities for the axion search, and INR has commited to providing all the microwave cavity arrays for this experiment, should this proposal be approved. The third is a commitment of very substantial startup capital monies from MIT for all of the state-of-the-art ultra-low noise microwave electronics, to one of our outstanding young collaborators who is joining their faculty.

  16. Telephone Consultation as a Substitute for Routine Out-patient Face-to-face Consultation for Children With Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Randomised Controlled Trial and Economic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akobeng, Anthony K; O'Leary, Neil; Vail, Andy; Brown, Nailah; Widiatmoko, Dono; Fagbemi, Andrew; Thomas, Adrian G

    2015-09-01

    Evidence for the use of telephone consultation in childhood inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is lacking. We aimed to assess the effectiveness and cost consequences of telephone consultation compared with the usual out-patient face-to-face consultation for young people with IBD. We conducted a randomised-controlled trial in Manchester, UK, between July 12, 2010 and June 30, 2013. Young people (aged 8-16 years) with IBD were randomized to receive telephone consultation or face-to-face consultation for 24 months. The primary outcome measure was the paediatric IBD-specific IMPACT quality of life (QOL) score at 12 months. Secondary outcome measures included patient satisfaction with consultations, disease course, anthropometric measures, proportion of consultations attended, duration of consultations, and costs to the UK National Health Service (NHS). Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02319798. Eighty six patients were randomised to receive either telephone consultation (n = 44) or face-to-face consultation (n = 42). Baseline characteristics of the two groups were well balanced. At 12 months, there was no evidence of difference in QOL scores (estimated treatment effect in favour of the telephone consultation group was 5.7 points, 95% CI - 2.9 to 14.3; p = 0.19). Mean consultation times were 9.8 min (IQR 8 to 12.3) for telephone consultation, and 14.3 min (11.6 to 17.0) for face-to-face consultation with an estimated reduction (95% CI) of 4.3 (2.8 to 5.7) min in consultation times (p consultation had a mean cost of UK£35.41 per patient consultation compared with £51.12 for face-face consultation, difference £15.71 (95% CI 11.8-19.6; P consultation compared with face-to-face consultation with regard to improvements in QOL scores, and telephone consultation reduced consultation time and NHS costs. Telephone consultation is a cost-effective alternative to face-to-face consultation for the

  17. Hybrid Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Dark matter can be produced in the early universe via the freeze-in or freeze-out mechanisms. Both scenarios were investigated in references, but the production of dark matters via the combination of these two mechanisms are not addressed. In this paper we propose a hybrid dark matter model where dark matters have two components with one component produced thermally and the other one produced non-thermally. We present for the first time the analytical calculation for the relic abundance of th...

  18. The quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Mannque.

    1980-04-01

    The present status of our understanding of the physics of hadronic (nuclear or neutron) matter under extreme conditions, in particular at high densities is discussed. This is a problem which challenges three disciplines of physics: nuclear physics, astrophysics and particle physics. It is generally believed that we now have a correct and perhaps ultimate theory of the strong interactions, namely quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The constituents of this theory are quarks and gluons, so highly dense matters should be describable in terms of these constituents alone. This is a question that addresses directly to the phenomenon of quark confinement, one of the least understood aspects in particle physics. For nuclear physics, the possibility of a phase change between nuclear matter and quark matter introduces entirely new degrees of freedom in the description of nuclei and will bring perhaps a deeper understanding of nuclear dynamics. In astrophysics, the properties of neutron stars will be properly understood only when the equation of state of 'neutron' matter at densities exceeding that of nuclear matter can be realiably calculated. Most fascinating is the possibility of quark stars existing in nature, not entirely an absurd idea. Finally the quark matter - nuclear matter phase transition must have occured in the early stage of universe when matter expanded from high temperature and density; this could be an essential ingredient in the big-bang cosmology

  19. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  20. Searching for dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Mario

    1994-01-01

    Three teams of astronomers believe they have independently found evidence for dark matter in our galaxy. A brief history of the search for dark matter is presented. The use of microlensing-event observation for spotting dark matter is described. The equipment required to observe microlensing events and three groups working on dark matter detection are discussed. The three groups are the Massive Compact Halo Objects (MACHO) Project team, the Experience de Recherche d'Objets Sombres (EROS) team, and the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) team. The first apparent detections of microlensing events by the three teams are briefly reported.

  1. Holistic Processing of Static and Moving Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Humans' face ability develops and matures with extensive experience in perceiving, recognizing, and interacting with faces that move most of the time. However, how facial movements affect 1 core aspect of face ability--holistic face processing--remains unclear. Here we investigated the influence of rigid facial motion on holistic and part-based…

  2. Face and Mask: A Double History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saramifar, Y.

    2017-01-01

    How often have you read an article and then Googled the author to see him or her? How often have you swiped right or left just looking at the faces without reading the profile on Tinder? Seeking faces and trying to put faces to names happens every day but Hans Belting has brought together Face and

  3. Yes, research matters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari L Shinohara

    2017-08-01

    3 inflammasome [2]. Another recent study from our laboratory demonstrated that a protein, termed osteopontin (OPN, skews the balance of population sizes between myeloid cells (i.e., innate immunity and lymphoid cells (i.e., adaptive immunity during infections and other biological insults [3]. An intracellular isoform of OPN (iOPN negatively regulates emergency myelopoiesis. Thus, OPN attenuates host resistance by limiting neutrophil supply at the early stage of systemic Candida infection. In contrast, a secreted OPN (sOPN isoform positively regulates the expansion of T lymphocytes and ends up triggering autoimmune colitis. I am an immunologist but obtained my PhD in mycology. Nevertheless, it took some time for me to appreciate that research enables us to connect the dots placed far apart. This is a truly exciting time to connect seemingly unrelated biological phenomena, because scientists are exponentially increasing our understanding of nature. This is particularly true in innate immunity, which is not only the central alarming system in host-microbe interactions but also relates to almost any human disease we can imagine. However, we are facing a dark age for science and research, in which certain interests wrongfully discredit some research fields. There are things that can be achieved only by research. I am always ready to tell anyone, "Yes, research matters!".

  4. WHAT PREDICTS THE OWN-AGE BIAS IN FACE RECOGNITION MEMORY?

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yi; Ebner, Natalie C.; Johnson, Marcia K.

    2011-01-01

    Younger and older adults’ visual scan patterns were examined as they passively viewed younger and older neutral faces. Both participant age groups tended to look longer at their own-age as compared to other-age faces. In addition, both age groups reported more exposure to own-age than other-age individuals. Importantly, the own-age bias in visual inspection of faces and the own-age bias in self-reported amount of exposure to young and older individuals in everyday life, but not explicit age s...

  5. My Journey with Peter: Moving Ideas that Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Dale A.

    2012-01-01

    Youth development lost a pioneer and a champion, Peter Benson, in October. Benson was a pioneer whose ideas mattered and a champion of approaches to research and its use in the community that has made a difference around the world. Benson's work, life, and spirit have helped transform people's understanding of young people, what it takes to…

  6. Making Feminism Matter: The Revitalization of a Campus Women's Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alice

    1988-01-01

    Describes the revitalization of the Brooklyn College Women's Center, a 10-year-old women's center experiencing the effects of the conservative 1980s. Discusses the challenge of making feminism matter to young women who may be suspicious or indifferent, or who may not have identified their needs as "women's issues." (NB)

  7. Face pareidolia in the rhesus monkey

    OpenAIRE

    Taubert, Jessica; Wardle, Susan G.; Flessert, Molly; Leopold, David A.; Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    2017-01-01

    Face perception in humans and non-human primates is rapid and accurate[1–4]. In the human brain, a network of visual processing regions is specialized for faces[5–7]. Although face processing is a priority of the primate visual system, face detection is not infallible. Face pareidolia is the compelling illusion of perceiving facial features on inanimate objects, such as the illusory face on the surface of the moon. Although face pareidolia is commonly experienced by humans, its presence in ot...

  8. Kernel learning algorithms for face recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jun-Bao; Pan, Jeng-Shyang

    2013-01-01

    Kernel Learning Algorithms for Face Recognition covers the framework of kernel based face recognition. This book discusses the advanced kernel learning algorithms and its application on face recognition. This book also focuses on the theoretical deviation, the system framework and experiments involving kernel based face recognition. Included within are algorithms of kernel based face recognition, and also the feasibility of the kernel based face recognition method. This book provides researchers in pattern recognition and machine learning area with advanced face recognition methods and its new

  9. Human Face as human single identity

    OpenAIRE

    Warnars, Spits

    2014-01-01

    Human face as a physical human recognition can be used as a unique identity for computer to recognize human by transforming human face with face algorithm as simple text number which can be primary key for human. Human face as single identity for human will be done by making a huge and large world centre human face database, where the human face around the world will be recorded from time to time and from generation to generation. Architecture database will be divided become human face image ...

  10. The wide window of face detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershler, Orit; Golan, Tal; Bentin, Shlomo; Hochstein, Shaul

    2010-08-20

    Faces are detected more rapidly than other objects in visual scenes and search arrays, but the cause for this face advantage has been contested. In the present study, we found that under conditions of spatial uncertainty, faces were easier to detect than control targets (dog faces, clocks and cars) even in the absence of surrounding stimuli, making an explanation based only on low-level differences unlikely. This advantage improved with eccentricity in the visual field, enabling face detection in wider visual windows, and pointing to selective sparing of face detection at greater eccentricities. This face advantage might be due to perceptual factors favoring face detection. In addition, the relative face advantage is greater under flanked than non-flanked conditions, suggesting an additional, possibly attention-related benefit enabling face detection in groups of distracters.

  11. Contrast between white and grey matter: MRI appearance with ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnaldi, S.; Ukmar, M.; Vasciaveo, A.; Longo, R.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    MRI contrast between white and grey matter appears to be higher in young normal subjects than in older patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible relationships between these changes in contrast and ageing. It consisted of two parts. In the first part we retrospectively evaluated 140 MRI brain examinations of healthy subjects, 20 per decade (age range 20-90 years), in whom the contrast was subjectively scored. In the second part we prospectively measured the actual T1, spin density (SD) and T2 values of white and grey matter in another 22 healthy subjects (age range 20-80 years). In the first group of subjects a progressive decrease in white/grey matter contrast was observed with ageing. In the second group of subjects the T1, SD and T2 values of white matter were always shorter than those of grey matter. There is a close relation among T1, SD and T2 values of white and grey matter with ageing. We suggest that there is a progressive loss of white/grey matter contrast with ageing. Such a phenomenon is possibly due to an increased water content in the white matter and the progressive neuronal loss in the grey matter that occurs with age. (orig.)

  12. Young Researchers Advancing Computational Science: Perspectives of the Young Scientists Conference 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Boukhanovsky, Alexander V; Krzhizhanovskaya, Valeria V; Athanassoulis, Gerassimos A; Klimentov, Alexei A; Sloot, Peter M A

    2015-01-01

    We present an annual international Young Scientists Conference (YSC) on computational science http://ysc.escience.ifmo.ru/, which brings together renowned experts and young researchers working in high-performance computing, data-driven modeling, and simulation of large-scale complex systems. The first YSC event was organized in 2012 by the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands and ITMO University, Russia with the goal of opening a dialogue on the present and the future of computational science and its applications. We believe that the YSC conferences will strengthen the ties between young scientists in different countries, thus promoting future collaboration. In this paper we briefly introduce the challenges the millennial generation is facing; describe the YSC conference history and topics; and list the keynote speakers and program committee members. This volume of Procedia Computer Science presents selected papers from the 4th International Young Scientists Conference on Computational Science held on 25 ...

  13. Vulnerability and Agency: Beyond an Irreconcilable Dichotomy for Social Service Providers Working with Young Refugees in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Higgins, Aoife

    2012-01-01

    Many young refugees face significant difficulties in securing support from social services providers. This study invited 21 young refugees aged 16 to 21 to take part in focus groups and follow-up interviews about their experiences of accessing this support. The findings reveal that young refugees may deliberately conform to expectations about…

  14. Mutual information, perceptual independence, and holistic face perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitousi, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    The concept of perceptual independence is ubiquitous in psychology. It addresses the question of whether two (or more) dimensions are perceived independently. Several authors have proposed perceptual independence (or its lack thereof) as a viable measure of holistic face perception (Loftus, Oberg, & Dillon, Psychological Review 111:835-863, 2004; Wenger & Ingvalson, Learning, Memory, and Cognition 28:872-892, 2002). According to this notion, the processing of facial features occurs in an interactive manner. Here, I examine this idea from the perspective of two theories of perceptual independence: the multivariate uncertainty analysis (MUA; Garner & Morton, Definitions, models, and experimental paradigms. Psychological Bulletin 72:233-259, 1969), and the general recognition theory (GRT; Ashby & Townsend, Psychological Review 93:154-179, 1986). The goals of the study were to (1) introduce the MUA, (2) examine various possible relations between MUA and GRT using numerical simulations, and (3) apply the MUA to two consensual markers of holistic face perception(-)recognition of facial features (Farah, Wilson, Drain, & Tanaka, Psychological Review 105:482-498, 1998) and the composite face effect (Young, Hellawell, & Hay, Perception 16:747-759, 1987). The results suggest that facial holism is generated by violations of several types of perceptual independence. They highlight the important theoretical role played by converging operations in the study of holistic face perception.

  15. Transformation of soil organic matter in a Japanese larch forest. Radiocarbon and stable carbon isotope compositions versus soil depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei; Moriizumi, Jun; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Iida, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Soil organic matter at a depth of 0-55 cm, collected from a Japanese larch forest area, was separated into particulate organic matter (size >53 μm), particulate organic matter (size 14 C and δ 13 C values were determined. The Δ 14 C values of particulate matters decreased greatly from 128 per mille to -278 per mille, indicating a relative increase of resistant organic components in particulate matters. That of humic acid matter decreased from 183 per mille to -139 per mille. For these of organic matter fractions at the same depth, the Δ 14 C values of particulate matter (size >53μm) are smallest and those of humic acid matter are the largest. That indicates that a high contribution of young organic matter to the humic acid matter exists and transformation tendency of particulate matter may be from coarse to small in the particulate size. Positive Δ 14 C values appeared at a depth of 10 cm, 25 cm, and 35 cm for the particulate organic matter (size >53μm), particulate organic matter (size 14 C values of the humic acid matter also infects that the bomb carbon has reached the depth of 35 cm. Additionally, the Δ 14 C values of these three kinds of organic matters ranged from 50 per mille to 183 per mille at a depth of 0-7 cm, which were not smaller than that of litter in the forest area, indicating high proportion of modern, plants-derived soil organic matter in this depth ranges. The δ 13 C values increased from -28 per mille to -23 per mille with the increase depth of 0-55 cm. The δ 13 C values of humic acid matter are approximately less than that of particulate matters at the same depth, which may be explained as a high contribution of young organic matter to the humic acid matter. (author)

  16. A Matter of Location

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Keld; Masciarelli, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    External knowledge acquisition represents a precondition for firms’ competitive advantage. However, young firms find it particularly difficult to gain access to external sources of knowledge: young firms suffer from a liability of newness by exhibiting significantly lower propensities to invest i...

  17. Young men, mental health, and technology: implications for service design and delivery in the digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Louise A; Collin, Philippa; Davenport, Tracey A; Hurley, Patrick J; Burns, Jane M; Hickie, Ian B

    2012-11-22

    Young men are particularly vulnerable to suicide, drug, and alcohol problems and yet fail to seek appropriate help. An alternative or adjunct to face-to-face services has emerged with widespread uptake of the Internet and related communication technologies, yet very little evidence exists that examines the capacity of the Internet to engage young men and promote help seeking. To explore young people's attitudes and behaviors in relation to mental health and technology use. The aim was to identify key gender differences to inform the development of online mental health interventions for young men. A cross-sectional online survey of 1038 young people (aged 16 to 24 years) was used. Young men are more likely than young women to play computer games, access online video/music content, and visit online forums. More than half of young men and women reported that they sought help for a problem online, and the majority were satisfied with the help they received. Significant gender differences were identified in relation to how young people would respond to a friend in need, with young men being less likely than young women to confront the issue directly. Online interventions for young men need to be action-oriented, informed by young men's views and everyday technology practices, and leverage the important role that peers play in the help-seeking process.

  18. Why Does Gender Matter? Counteracting Stereotypes with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, Olaiya E.; Cameron, Petronella A.

    2011-01-01

    The early gender bias experiences that children encounter can shape their attitudes and beliefs related to their development of interpersonal and intrapersonal relationships, access to education equality, participation in the corporate work world, as well as stifling their physical and psychological well being. For early childhood educators, being…

  19. Young Adults Seeking Medical Care: Do Race and Ethnicity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the day of the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) interview. Private insurance: Private insurance is indicated when ... and methods Data from the 2008 and 2009 NHIS were used for this analysis. NHIS data are ...

  20. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  1. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske Takahashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  2. Social Cognition in Williams Syndrome: Face Tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Heiz, Julie; Sokolov, Alexander N; Barisnikov, Koviljka

    2016-01-01

    Many neurological, neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and psychosomatic disorders are characterized by impairments in visual social cognition, body language reading, and facial assessment of a social counterpart. Yet a wealth of research indicates that individuals with Williams syndrome exhibit remarkable concern for social stimuli and face fascination. Here individuals with Williams syndrome were presented with a set of Face-n-Food images composed of food ingredients and in different degree resembling a face (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). The primary advantage of these images is that single components do not explicitly trigger face-specific processing, whereas in face images commonly used for investigating face perception (such as photographs or depictions), the mere occurrence of typical cues already implicates face presence. In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Strikingly, individuals with Williams syndrome exhibited profound deficits in recognition of the Face-n-Food images as a face: they did not report seeing a face on the images, which typically developing controls effortlessly recognized as a face, and gave overall fewer face responses. This suggests atypical face tuning in Williams syndrome. The outcome is discussed in the light of a general pattern of social cognition in Williams syndrome and brain mechanisms underpinning face processing.

  3. Visual Processing of Faces in Individuals with Fragile X Syndrome: An Eye Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzin, Faraz; Rivera, Susan M.; Hessl, David

    2009-01-01

    Gaze avoidance is a hallmark behavioral feature of fragile X syndrome (FXS), but little is known about whether abnormalities in the visual processing of faces, including disrupted autonomic reactivity, may underlie this behavior. Eye tracking was used to record fixations and pupil diameter while adolescents and young adults with FXS and sex- and…

  4. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ``cold`` and ``hot`` non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ``seeds`` that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  5. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between cold'' and hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  6. Superball dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kusenko, A

    1999-01-01

    Supersymmetric models predict a natural dark-matter candidate, stable baryonic Q-balls. They could be copiously produced in the early Universe as a by-product of the Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. I review the cosmological and astrophysical implications, methods of detection, and the present limits on this form of dark matter.

  7. Baryonic Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    De Paolis, F.; Jetzer, Ph.; Ingrosso, G.; Roncadelli, M.

    1997-01-01

    Reasons supporting the idea that most of the dark matter in galaxies and clusters of galaxies is baryonic are discussed. Moreover, it is argued that most of the dark matter in galactic halos should be in the form of MACHOs and cold molecular clouds.

  8. Dark matter detection - II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The quest for the mysterious missing mass of the universe has become one of the big challenges of today's particle physics and cosmology. Astronomical observations show that only 1% of the matter of the universe is luminous. Moreover there is now convincing evidence that 85% of all gravitationally observable matter in the universe is of a new exotic kind, different from the 'ordinary' matter surrounding us. In a series of three lectures we discuss past, recent and future efforts made world-wide to detect and/or decipher the nature of Dark Matter. In Lecture I we review our present knowledge of the Dark Matter content of the Universe and how experimenters search for it's candidates; In Lecture II we discuss so-called 'direct detection' techniques which allow to search for scattering of galactic dark matter particles with detectors in deep-underground laboratories; we discuss the interpretation of experimental results and the challenges posed by different backgrounds; In Lecture III we take a look at the 'indirect detection' of the annihilation of dark matter candidates in astrophysical objects, such as our sun or the center of the Milky Way; In addition we will have a look at efforts to produce Dark Matter particles directly at accelerators and we shall close with a look at alternative nonparticle searches and future prospects. (author)

  9. Dark matter and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the Ω = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ''cold'' and ''hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ''seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed

  10. Matter in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Lara B.; Gray, James; Raghuram, Nikhil; Taylor, Washington

    2016-01-01

    We explore a novel type of transition in certain 6D and 4D quantum field theories, in which the matter content of the theory changes while the gauge group and other parts of the spectrum remain invariant. Such transitions can occur, for example, for SU(6) and SU(7) gauge groups, where matter fields in a three-index antisymmetric representation and the fundamental representation are exchanged in the transition for matter in the two-index antisymmetric representation. These matter transitions are realized by passing through superconformal theories at the transition point. We explore these transitions in dual F-theory and heterotic descriptions, where a number of novel features arise. For example, in the heterotic description the relevant 6D SU(7) theories are described by bundles on K3 surfaces where the geometry of the K3 is constrained in addition to the bundle structure. On the F-theory side, non-standard representations such as the three-index antisymmetric representation of SU(N) require Weierstrass models that cannot be realized from the standard SU(N) Tate form. We also briefly describe some other situations, with groups such as Sp(3), SO(12), and SU(3), where analogous matter transitions can occur between different representations. For SU(3), in particular, we find a matter transition between adjoint matter and matter in the symmetric representation, giving an explicit Weierstrass model for the F-theory description of the symmetric representation that complements another recent analogous construction.

  11. CONFERENCE: Quark matter 88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Maurice

    1988-01-01

    The 'Quark Matter' Conference caters for physicists studying nuclear matter under extreme conditions. The hope is that relativistic (high energy) heavy ion collisions allow formation of the long-awaited quark-gluon plasma, where the inter-quark 'colour' force is no longer confined inside nucleon-like dimensions

  12. Dark matter detection - I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The quest for the mysterious missing mass of the universe has become one of the big challenges of today's particle physics and cosmology. Astronomical observations show that only 1% of the matter of the universe is luminous. Moreover there is now convincing evidence that 85% of all gravitationally observable matter in the universe is of a new exotic kind, different from the 'ordinary' matter surrounding us. In a series of three lectures we discuss past, recent and future efforts made world-wide to detect and/or decipher the nature of Dark Matter. In Lecture I we review our present knowledge of the Dark Matter content of the Universe and how experimenters search for it's candidates; In Lecture II we discuss so-called 'direct detection' techniques which allow to search for scattering of galactic dark matter particles with detectors in deep-underground laboratories; we discuss the interpretation of experimental results and the challenges posed by different backgrounds; In Lecture III we take a look at the 'indirect detection' of the annihilation of dark matter candidates in astrophysical objects, such as our sun or the center of the Milky Way; In addition we will have a look at efforts to produce Dark Matter particles directly at accelerators and we shall close with a look at alternative nonparticle searches and future prospects. (author)

  13. Dark matter detection - III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The quest for the missing mass of the universe has become one of the big challenges of todays particle physics and cosmology. Astronomical observations show that only 1% of the matter of the Universe is luminous. Moreover there is now convincing evidence that 85% of all gravitationally observable matter in the Universe is of a new exotic kind, different from the 'ordinary' matter surrounding us. In a series of three lectures we discuss past, recent and future efforts made world- wide to detect and/or decipher the nature of Dark Matter. In Lecture I we review our present knowledge of the Dark Matter content of the Universe and how experimenters search for it's candidates; In Lecture II we discuss so-called 'direct detection' techniques which allow to search for scattering of galactic dark matter particles with detectors in deep-underground laboratories; we discuss the interpretation of experimental results and the challenges posed by different backgrounds; In Lecture III we take a look at the 'indirect detection' of the annihilation of dark matter candidates in astrophysical objects, such as our sun or the center of the Milky Way; In addition we will have a look at efforts to produce Dark Matter particles directly at accelerators and we shall close with a look at alternative nonparticle searches and future prospects. (author)

  14. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  15. Asymmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, David E.; Luty, Markus A.; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a simple class of models in which the relic density of dark matter is determined by the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. In these models a B-L asymmetry generated at high temperatures is transferred to the dark matter, which is charged under B-L. The interactions that transfer the asymmetry decouple at temperatures above the dark matter mass, freezing in a dark matter asymmetry of order the baryon asymmetry. This explains the observed relation between the baryon and dark matter densities for the dark matter mass in the range 5-15 GeV. The symmetric component of the dark matter can annihilate efficiently to light pseudoscalar Higgs particles a or via t-channel exchange of new scalar doublets. The first possibility allows for h 0 →aa decays, while the second predicts a light charged Higgs-like scalar decaying to τν. Direct detection can arise from Higgs exchange in the first model or a nonzero magnetic moment in the second. In supersymmetric models, the would-be lightest supersymmetric partner can decay into pairs of dark matter particles plus standard model particles, possibly with displaced vertices.

  16. Mapping brain development during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Li, Yao

    2009-02-01

    Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and young adults, aged 7.26 to 22.80 years old, were included in this study. Using the customized brain template together with the gray matter/white matter/cerebrospinal fluid prior probability maps, we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during childhood, but more in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala and left fusiform gyrus during adolescence and young adulthood. There were more age-related negative changes near to central sulcus during childhood, but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young adulthood, and more in the prefrontal lobe during young adulthood. So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young adulthood. These findings may aid in understanding the age-related differences in cognitive function.

  17. The consumer competence of young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice

    2007-01-01

    of consumer competence in actual consumption decisions, however more competent approaches were reported when respondents were faced with hypothetical purchase situations. The young consumers' own understanding of what consumer competence requires showed some degree of correspondence with traditional notions...... of 'desirable consumer socialization', but also added a fundamental consumer competence to the list: to carefully consider one's need to make a purchase. Research limitations/implications The study included only a certain segment of young consumers. Future studies of consumer competence may include consumers......, particularly with respect to how new, complex buying decisions are managed. Findings Guidance from family and friends was found to be of major significance as regards complex consumer decisions made in the transition period from home to first household. The young adults did not display very high levels...

  18. Inelastic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David; Weiner, Neal

    2001-01-01

    Many observations suggest that much of the matter of the universe is nonbaryonic. Recently, the DAMA NaI dark matter direct detection experiment reported an annual modulation in their event rate consistent with a WIMP relic. However, the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) Ge experiment excludes most of the region preferred by DAMA. We demonstrate that if the dark matter can only scatter by making a transition to a slightly heavier state (Δm∼100 keV), the experiments are no longer in conflict. Moreover, differences in the energy spectrum of nuclear recoil events could distinguish such a scenario from the standard WIMP scenario. Finally, we discuss the sneutrino as a candidate for inelastic dark matter in supersymmetric theories

  19. Baryonic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uson, Juan M.

    2000-01-01

    Many searches for baryonic dark matter have been conducted but, so far, all have been unsuccessful. Indeed, no more than 1% of the dark matter can be in the form of hydrogen burning stars. It has recently been suggested that most of the baryons in the universe are still in the form of ionized gas so that it is possible that there is no baryonic dark matter. Although it is likely that a significant fraction of the dark matter in the Milky Way is in a halo of non-baryonic matter, the data do not exclude the possibility that a considerable amount, perhaps most of it, could be in a tenuous halo of diffuse ionized gas

  20. Macro Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, David M; Lynn, Bryan W.

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter is a vital component of the current best model of our universe, $\\Lambda$CDM. There are leading candidates for what the dark matter could be (e.g. weakly-interacting massive particles, or axions), but no compelling observational or experimental evidence exists to support these particular candidates, nor any beyond-the-Standard-Model physics that might produce such candidates. This suggests that other dark matter candidates, including ones that might arise in the Standard Model, should receive increased attention. Here we consider a general class of dark matter candidates with characteristic masses and interaction cross-sections characterized in units of grams and cm$^2$, respectively -- we therefore dub these macroscopic objects as Macros. Such dark matter candidates could potentially be assembled out of Standard Model particles (quarks and leptons) in the early universe. A combination of earth-based, astrophysical, and cosmological observations constrain a portion of the Macro parameter space; ho...

  1. Pleasant and unpleasant odors influence hedonic evaluations of human faces: an event-related potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Jane Cook

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Odors can alter hedonic evaluations of human faces, but the neural mechanisms of such effects are poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze the neural underpinning of odor-induced changes in evaluations of human faces in an odor-priming paradigm, using event-related potentials (ERPs. Healthy, young participants (N = 20 rated neutral faces presented after a three second pulse of a pleasant odor (jasmine, unpleasant odor (methylmercaptan, or no-odor control (clean air. Neutral faces presented in the pleasant odor condition were rated more pleasant than the same faces presented in the no-odor control condition, which in turn were rated more pleasant than faces in the unpleasant odor condition. Analysis of face-related potentials revealed four clusters of electrodes significantly affected by odor condition at specific time points during long-latency epochs (600−950 ms. In the 620−640 ms interval, two scalp-time clusters showed greater negative potential in the right parietal electrodes in response to faces in the pleasant odor condition, compared to those in the no-odor and unpleasant odor conditions. At 926 ms, face-related potentials showed greater positivity in response to faces in the pleasant and unpleasant odor conditions at the left and right lateral frontal-temporal electrodes, respectively. Our data shows that odor-induced shifts in evaluations of faces were associated with amplitude changes in the late (> 600 and ultra-late (> 900 ms latency epochs. The observed amplitude changes during the ultra-late epoch are consistent with a left/right hemisphere bias towards pleasant/unpleasant odor effects. Odors alter evaluations of human faces, even when there is a temporal lag between presentation of odors and faces. Our results provide an initial understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying effects of odors on hedonic evaluations.

  2. Face-to-face or not-to-face: A technology preference for communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Noor Ismawati; Darmawan, Bobby; Mohamed Ariffin, Mohd Yahya

    2014-11-01

    This study employed the Model of Technology Preference (MTP) to explain the relationship of the variables as the antecedents of behavioral intention to adopt a social networking site (SNS) for communication. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to SNS account users using paper-based and web-based surveys that led to 514 valid responses. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that two out of three attributes of the attribute-based preference (ATRP) affect attitude-based preference (ATTP). The data support the hypotheses that perceived enjoyment and social presence are predictors of ATTP. In this study, the findings further indicated that ATTP has no relationship with the behavioral intention of using SNS, but it has a relationship with the attitude of using SNS. SNS development should provide features that ensure enjoyment and social presence for users to communicate instead of using the traditional face-to-face method of communication.

  3. Face-to-Face or Not-to-Face: A Technology Preference for Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmawan, Bobby; Mohamed Ariffin, Mohd Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This study employed the Model of Technology Preference (MTP) to explain the relationship of the variables as the antecedents of behavioral intention to adopt a social networking site (SNS) for communication. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to SNS account users using paper-based and web-based surveys that led to 514 valid responses. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that two out of three attributes of the attribute-based preference (ATRP) affect attitude-based preference (ATTP). The data support the hypotheses that perceived enjoyment and social presence are predictors of ATTP. In this study, the findings further indicated that ATTP has no relationship with the behavioral intention of using SNS, but it has a relationship with the attitude of using SNS. SNS development should provide features that ensure enjoyment and social presence for users to communicate instead of using the traditional face-to-face method of communication. PMID:25405782

  4. Dark matter universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, Neta A

    2015-10-06

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter--a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations--from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology--a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)--fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle.

  5. Letting Our Hearts Break: On Facing the "Hidden Wound" of Human Supremacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martusewicz, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I argue that education must be defined by our willingness to experience compassion in the face of others' suffering and thus by an ethical imperative, and seek to expose psycho-social processes of shame as dark matters that inferiorize and subjugate those expressing such compassion for the more-than-human world. Beginning with…

  6. Distal joint contractures, mental retardation, characteristic face and growth retardation: Chitayat syndrome revisited.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortmann, S.B.; Rodenburg, R.J.T.; Schwahn, B.; Smeitink, J.A.M.; Morava, E.

    2007-01-01

    We report on a patient with congenital distal limb contractures, characteristic face, prominent metopic sutures, narrow forehead, severe psychomotor and growth retardation, white matter lesions and failure to thrive. The child has many overlapping features with those reported previously by Chitayat.

  7. Science That Matters: Exploring Science Learning and Teaching in Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Angela; Smith, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    To help support primary school students to better understand why science matters, teachers must first be supported to teach science in ways that matter. In moving to this point, this paper identifies the dilemmas and tensions primary school teachers face in the teaching of science. The balance is then readdressed through a research-based…

  8. Crossing the “Uncanny Valley”: adaptation to cartoon faces can influence perception of human faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiwen; Russell, Richard; Nakayama, Ken; Livingstone, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation can shift what individuals identify to be a prototypical or attractive face. Past work suggests that low-level shape adaptation can affect high-level face processing but is position dependent. Adaptation to distorted images of faces can also affect face processing but only within sub-categories of faces, such as gender, age, and race/ethnicity. This study assesses whether there is a representation of face that is specific to faces (as opposed to all shapes) but general to all kinds of faces (as opposed to subcategories) by testing whether adaptation to one type of face can affect perception of another. Participants were shown cartoon videos containing faces with abnormally large eyes. Using animated videos allowed us to simulate naturalistic exposure and avoid positional shape adaptation. Results suggest that adaptation to cartoon faces with large eyes shifts preferences for human faces toward larger eyes, supporting the existence of general face representations. PMID:20465173

  9. ADHD in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips ADHD in Young Children Use recommended treatment first Language: ... The recommended first treatment for young children with ADHD is underused. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends ...

  10. Face recognition increases during saccade preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hai; Rizak, Joshua D; Ma, Yuan-ye; Yang, Shang-chuan; Chen, Lin; Hu, Xin-tian

    2014-01-01

    Face perception is integral to human perception system as it underlies social interactions. Saccadic eye movements are frequently made to bring interesting visual information, such as faces, onto the fovea for detailed processing. Just before eye movement onset, the processing of some basic features, such as the orientation, of an object improves at the saccade landing point. Interestingly, there is also evidence that indicates faces are processed in early visual processing stages similar to basic features. However, it is not known whether this early enhancement of processing includes face recognition. In this study, three experiments were performed to map the timing of face presentation to the beginning of the eye movement in order to evaluate pre-saccadic face recognition. Faces were found to be similarly processed as simple objects immediately prior to saccadic movements. Starting ∼ 120 ms before a saccade to a target face, independent of whether or not the face was surrounded by other faces, the face recognition gradually improved and the critical spacing of the crowding decreased as saccade onset was approaching. These results suggest that an upcoming saccade prepares the visual system for new information about faces at the saccade landing site and may reduce the background in a crowd to target the intended face. This indicates an important role of pre-saccadic eye movement signals in human face recognition.

  11. Issues and Strategies Involved in Helping Homeless Parents of Young Children Strengthen Their Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless parents of young children face many stressors that erode their self-esteem. This article articulates these stressors and how they negatively impact homeless parents and their children. Strategies for helping parents empower themselves and their children are explained.

  12. Familiar Face Recognition in Children with Autism: The Differential Use of Inner and Outer Face Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rebecca; Pascalis, Olivier; Blades, Mark

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) have a deficit in recognising familiar faces. Children with ASD were given a forced choice familiar face recognition task with three conditions: full faces, inner face parts and outer face parts. Control groups were children with developmental delay (DD) and typically…

  13. A robust human face detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raviteja, Thaluru; Karanam, Srikrishna; Yeduguru, Dinesh Reddy V.

    2012-01-01

    Human face detection plays a vital role in many applications like video surveillance, managing a face image database, human computer interface among others. This paper proposes a robust algorithm for face detection in still color images that works well even in a crowded environment. The algorithm uses conjunction of skin color histogram, morphological processing and geometrical analysis for detecting human faces. To reinforce the accuracy of face detection, we further identify mouth and eye regions to establish the presence/absence of face in a particular region of interest.

  14. Advanced Face Gear Surface Durability Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, David G.; Heath, Gregory F.

    2016-01-01

    The surface durability life of helical face gears and isotropic super-finished (ISF) face gears was investigated. Experimental fatigue tests were performed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Endurance tests were performed on 10 sets of helical face gears in mesh with tapered involute helical pinions, and 10 sets of ISF-enhanced straight face gears in mesh with tapered involute spur pinions. The results were compared to previous tests on straight face gears. The life of the ISF configuration was slightly less than that of previous tests on straight face gears. The life of the ISF configuration was slightly greater than that of the helical configuration.

  15. Grand Challenges facing Storage Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    In this talk, we will discuss the future of storage systems. In particular, we will focus on several big challenges which we are facing in storage, such as being able to build, manage and backup really massive storage systems, being able to find information of interest, being able to do long-term archival of data, and so on. We also present ideas and research being done to address these challenges, and provide a perspective on how we expect these challenges to be resolved as we go forward.

  16. Comparing word and face recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Ro Julia; Starrfelt, Randi

    2017-01-01

    included, as a control, which makes designing experiments all the more challenging. Three main strategies have been used to overcome this problem, each of which has limitations: 1) Compare performances on typical tests of the three stimulus types (e.g., a Face Memory Test, an Object recognition test...... this framework to classify tests and experiments aiming to compare processing across these categories, it becomes apparent that core differences in characteristics (visual and semantic) between the stimuli make the problem of designing comparable tests an insoluble conundrum. By analyzing the experimental...

  17. Facing Tomorrow's Challenges - An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed a science strategy outlining the major natural-science issues facing the Nation in the next decade. The science strategy consists of six science directions of critical importance, focusing on areas where natural science can make a substantial contribution to the well-being of the Nation and the world. This fact sheet is an overview of the science strategy and describes how USGS research can strengthen the Nation with information needed to meet the challenges of the 21st century.

  18. Interpretative challenges in face analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing...... in Spanish and address forms in European Portuguese, we view P1 and P2 as being far more complex than the literature suggests, with subgroups (different types of laypersons and researchers, respectively). At the micro-level we will describe the roles each subgroup plays in the interpretative process...

  19. Face Recognition using Gabor Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad MOHSIN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An Elastic Bunch Graph Map (EBGM algorithm is being proposed in this research paper that successfully implements face recognition using Gabor filters. The proposed system applies 40 different Gabor filters on an image. As aresult of which 40 images with different angles and orientation are received. Next, maximum intensity points in each filtered image are calculated and mark them as Fiducial points. The system reduces these points in accordance to distance between them. The next step is calculating the distances between the reduced points using distance formula. At last, the distances are compared with database. If match occurs, it means that the image is recognized.

  20. Exothermic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, Peter W.; Saraswat, Prashant; Harnik, Roni; Rajendran, Surjeet

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel mechanism for dark matter to explain the observed annual modulation signal at DAMA/LIBRA which avoids existing constraints from every other dark matter direct detection experiment including CRESST, CDMS, and XENON10. The dark matter consists of at least two light states with mass ∼few GeV and splittings ∼5 keV. It is natural for the heavier states to be cosmologically long-lived and to make up an O(1) fraction of the dark matter. Direct detection rates are dominated by the exothermic reactions in which an excited dark matter state downscatters off of a nucleus, becoming a lower energy state. In contrast to (endothermic) inelastic dark matter, the most sensitive experiments for exothermic dark matter are those with light nuclei and low threshold energies. Interestingly, this model can also naturally account for the observed low-energy events at CoGeNT. The only significant constraint on the model arises from the DAMA/LIBRA unmodulated spectrum but it can be tested in the near future by a low-threshold analysis of CDMS-Si and possibly other experiments including CRESST, COUPP, and XENON100.