The role of the wave function in the GRW matter density theory
Egg, Matthias [University of Lausanne (Switzerland)
2014-07-01
Every approach to quantum mechanics postulating some kind of primitive ontology (e.g., Bohmian particles, a mass density field or flash-like collapse events) faces the challenge of clarifying the ontological status of the wave function. More precisely, one needs to spell out in what sense the wave function ''governs'' the behaviour of the primitive ontology, such that the empirical predictions of standard quantum mechanics are recovered. For Bohmian mechanics, this challenge has been addressed in recent papers by Belot and Esfeld et al. In my talk, I do the same for the matter density version of the Ghirardi-Rimini-Weber theory (GRWm). Doing so will highlight relevant similarities and differences between Bohmian mechanics and GRWm. The differences are a crucial element in the evaluation of the relative strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches, while the similarities can shed light on general characteristics of the primitive ontology approach, as opposed to other interpretative approaches to quantum mechanics.
Tiec, Alexandre Le
2016-01-01
The existence of gravitational radiation is a natural prediction of any relativistic description of the gravitational interaction. In this chapter, we focus on gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity. First, we introduce those mathematical concepts that are necessary to properly formulate the physical theory, such as the notions of manifold, vector, tensor, metric, connection and curvature. Second, we motivate, formulate and then discuss Einstein's equation, which relates the geometry of spacetime to its matter content. Gravitational waves are later introduced as solutions of the linearized Einstein equation around flat spacetime. These waves are shown to propagate at the speed of light and to possess two polarization states. Gravitational waves can interact with matter, allowing for their direct detection by means of laser interferometers. Finally, Einstein's quadrupole formulas are derived and used to show that nonspherical compact objects moving at relativistic speeds a...
Kudriavtcev, Iurii
2015-01-01
We explore the possibility to give a classical explanation to the specifics and physical sense of de Broglie matter waves when studying the microparticle as an object of non zero size, from the point of view of the special theory of relativity. We show that the particularities of de Broglie matter waves and the results of the experimental verifications of Bell inequalities for the pairs of entangled photons are naturally interpreted as the results of implementation of the conclusions of the special theory of relativity to the microparticles. We conclude that it is appropriate to go back to the search of the new means of realistic description of the nature proposed by Einstein and his realistic worldview that states that the world studied by the science is real and every part of it at any moment of time has objective physical characteristics.
Wave Dark Matter and Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies
Parry, Alan R.
We explore a model of dark matter called wave dark matter (also known as scalar field dark matter and boson stars) which has recently been motivated by a new geometric perspective by Bray. Wave dark matter describes dark matter as a scalar field which satisfies the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations. These equations rely on a fundamental constant Upsilon (also known as the "mass term'' of the Klein-Gordon equation). Specifically, in this dissertation, we study spherically symmetric wave dark matter and compare these results with observations of dwarf spheroidal galaxies as a first attempt to compare the implications of the theory of wave dark matter with actual observations of dark matter. This includes finding a first estimate of the fundamental constant Upsilon. In the introductory Chapter 1, we present some preliminary background material to define and motivate the study of wave dark matter and describe some of the properties of dwarf spheroidal galaxies. In Chapter 2, we present several different ways of describing a spherically symmetric spacetime and the resulting metrics. We then focus our discussion on an especially useful form of the metric of a spherically symmetric spacetime in polar-areal coordinates and its properties. In particular, we show how the metric component functions chosen are extremely compatible with notions in Newtonian mechanics. We also show the monotonicity of the Hawking mass in these coordinates. Finally, we discuss how these coordinates and the metric can be used to solve the spherically symmetric Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations. In Chapter 3, we explore spherically symmetric solutions to the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations, the defining equations of wave dark matter, where the scalar field is of the form f(t, r) = eiotF(r) for some constant o ∈ R and complex-valued function F(r). We show that the corresponding metric is static if and only if F( r) = h(r)eia for some constant alpha ∈ R and real-valued function h(r). We describe the
Kemp, B. A.
2011-06-01
A century has now passed since the origins of the Abraham-Minkowski controversy pertaining to the correct form of optical momentum in media. Experiment and theory have been applied at both the classical and quantum levels in attempt to resolve the debate. The result of these efforts is the identification of Abraham's kinetic momentum as being responsible for the overall center of mass translations of a medium and Minkowski's canonical or wave momentum as being responsible for translations within or with respect to a medium. In spite of the recent theoretical developments, much confusion still exists regarding the appropriate theory required to predict experimental outcomes and to develop new applications. In this paper, the resolution of the longstanding Abraham-Minkowski controversy is reviewed. The resolution is presented using classical electromagnetic theory and logical interpretation of experiments disseminated over the previous century. Emphasis is placed on applied physics applications: modeling optical manipulation of cells and particles. Although the basic interpretation of optical momentum has been resolved, there is still some uncertainly regarding the complete form of the momentum continuity equation describing electromagnetics. Thus, while a complete picture of electrodynamics has still yet to be fully interpreted, this correspondence should help clarify the state-of-the-art view.
Avakyan, R.M.; Sarkisyan, A.V.
1987-07-01
The properties of degenerate stellar matter in the region of nuclear densities are considered. The threshold of the transition of the electron-nucleus phase to the state of continuous nuclear matter is found.
Del Nobile, Eugenio; Sannino, Francesco
2012-01-01
We organize the effective (self)interaction terms for complex scalar dark matter candidates which are either an isosinglet, isodoublet or an isotriplet with respect to the weak interactions. The classification has been performed ordering the operators in inverse powers of the dark matter cutoff...... scale. We assume Lorentz invariance, color and charge neutrality. We also introduce potentially interesting dark matter induced flavor-changing operators. Our general framework allows for model independent investigations of dark matter properties....
Frigaard, Peter; Høgedal, Michael; Christensen, Morten
The intention of this manual is to provide some formulas and techniques which can be used for generating waves in hydraulic laboratories. Both long crested waves (2-D waves) and short crested waves (3-D waves) are considered....
Frigaard, Peter; Høgedal, Michael; Christensen, Morten
1993-01-01
The intention of this manual is to provide some formulas and techniques which can be used for generating waves in hydraulic laboratories. Both long crested waves (2-D waves) and short crested waves (3-D waves) are considered.
Michelson, J
2004-01-01
The Matrix Theory that has been proposed for various pp wave backgrounds is discussed. Particular emphasis is on the existence of novel nontrivial supersymmetric solutions of the Matrix Theory. These correspond to branes of various shapes (ellipsoidal, paraboloidal, and possibly hyperboloidal) that are unexpected from previous studies of branes in pp wave geometries.
Bigravitons as dark matter and gravitational waves
Aoki, Katsuki
2016-01-01
We consider the possibility that the massive graviton is a viable candidate of dark matter in the context of bimetric gravity. We first derive the energy-momentum tensor of the massive graviton and show that it indeed behaves as that of dark matter fluid. We then discuss a production mechanism and the present abundance of massive gravitons as dark matter. Since the metric to which ordinary matter fields couple is a linear combination of the two mass eigenstates of bigravity, production of massive gravitons, i.e. the dark matter particles, is inevitably accompanied by generation of massless gravitons, i.e. the gravitational waves. Therefore, in this scenario some information about dark matter in our universe is encoded in gravitational waves. For instance, if LIGO detects gravitational waves generated by the preheating after inflation then the massive graviton with the mass of $\\sim 0.01$ GeV is a candidate of the dark matter.
Nonautonomous matter waves in a waveguide
Yan Zhenya [Key Laboratory of Mathematics Mechanization, Institute of Systems Science, AMSS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang Xiaofei [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); College of Science, Honghe University, Mengzi 661100 (China); Liu, W. M. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
2011-08-15
We present a physical model that describes the transport of Bose-Einstein-condensed atoms from a reservoir to a waveguide. By using the similarity and Moebius transformations, we study nonautonomous matter waves in Bose-Einstein condensates in the presence of an inhomogeneous source. Then, we find its various types of exact nonautonomous matter-wave solutions, including the W-shaped bright solitary waves, W-shaped and U-shaped dark solitary waves, periodic wave solutions, and rational solitary waves. The results show that these different types of matter-wave structures can be generated and effectively controlled by modulating the amplitude of the source. Our results may raise the possibility of some experiments and potential applications related to Bose-Einstein condensates in the presence of an inhomogeneous source.
Condensed Matter Theories - Volume 22
Reinholz, Heidi; Röpke, Gerd; de Llano, Manuel
2007-09-01
. Arikawa. Frustrated quantum antiferromagnets: application of high-order coupled cluster method / J. Richter ... [et al.]. Vorticity and antivorticity in submicron ferromagnetic films / H. Wang, M. Yan and C.E. Campbell -- pt. E. Conductivity. D-wave checkerboard bose condensate of mobile bipolarons / A.S. Alexandrov. Five possible reasons why high-Tc superconductivity is stalled / M. Grether and M. de Llano. Multistability and Multi 2[Pie symbol]-Kinks in the Frenkel-Kontorova model: an application to arrays of Josephson junctions / K.E. Kürten and C. Krattenthaler. Lowering of Boson-Fermion system energy with a gapped cooper resonant-pair dispersion relation / T.A. Mamedov and M. de Llano. The concept of correlated density and its application / K. Morawetz ... [et al.]. Competing local and non-local phase correlations in Fermionic systems with resonant pairing: the Boson-Fermion scenario / J. Ranninger. Superconducting order parameters in the extended Hubbard model: a simple mean-field study / J.S. Thakur and M.P. Das -- pt. F. Nuclear systems. Distribution of maxima of the antisymmetized wave function for the nucleons of a closed-shell and for the nucleons of all closed-shells in a nucleus / G.S. Anagnostatos. Pairing of strongly correlated nucleons / W.H. Dickhoff. Short range correlations in relativistic nuclear models / P.K. Panda, C. Providência and J. da Providência. Quartetting in attractive Fermi-systems and alpha particle condensation in nuclear systems / P. Schuck ... [et al.]. Alpha-alpha and Alpha-nucleus potentials: an energy-density fucntional approach / Z.F. Shehadeh ... [et al.]. -- pt. G. Density functional theory and MD simulations. Dynamics of metal clusters in rare gas clusters / M. Baer ... [et al.]. Reinhard and E. Suraud. Kohn-Sham calculations combined with an average pair-density functional theory / P. Gori-Giorgi and A. Savin. Correlations, collision frequency and optical properties in laser excited clusters / H. Reinholz, T. Raitza and G. R
Multiple scattering induced negative refraction of matter waves
Pinsker, Florian
2016-01-01
Starting from fundamental multiple scattering theory it is shown that negative refraction indices are feasible for matter waves passing a well-defined ensemble of scatterers. A simple approach to this topic is presented and explicit examples for systems of scatterers in 1D and 3D are stated that imply negative refraction for a generic incoming quantum wave packet. Essential features of the effective scattering field, densities and frequency spectrum of scatterers are considered. Additionally it is shown that negative refraction indices allow perfect transmission of the wave passing the ensemble of scatterers. Finally the concept of the superlens is discussed, since it is based on negative refraction and can be extended to matter waves utilizing the observations presented in this paper which thus paves the way to ‘untouchable’ quantum systems in analogy to cloaking devices for electromagnetic waves. PMID:26857266
On constructing purely affine theories with matter
Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L.; Liebscher, D.-E.
2016-08-01
We explore ways to obtain the very existence of a space-time metric from an action principle that does not refer to it a priori. Although there are reasons to believe that only a non-local theory can viably achieve this goal, we investigate here local theories that start with Schrödinger's purely affine theory (Schrödinger in Space-time structure. Cambridge UP, Cambridge, 1950), where he gave reasons to set the metric proportional to the Ricci curvature aposteriori. When we leave the context of unified field theory, and we couple the non-gravitational matter using some weak equivalence principle, we can show that the propagation of shock waves does not define a lightcone when the purely affine theory is local and avoids the explicit use of the Ricci tensor in realizing the weak equivalence principle. When the Ricci tensor is substituted for the metric, the equations seem to have only a very limited set of solutions. This backs the conviction that viable purely affine theories have to be non-local.
On constructing purely affine theories with matter
Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L
2016-01-01
We explore ways to obtain the very existence of a space-time metric from an action principle that does not refer to it a priori. Although there are reasons to believe that only a non-local theory can viably achieve this goal, we investigate here local theories that start with Schroedinger's purely affine theory [21], where he gave reasons to set the metric proportional to the Ricci curvature aposteriori. When we leave the context of unified field theory, and we couple the non-gravitational matter using some weak equivalence principle, we can show that the propagation of shock waves does not define a lightcone when the purely affine theory is local and avoids the explicit use of the Ricci tensor in realizing the weak equivalence principle. When the Ricci tensor is substituted for the metric, the equations seem to have only a very limited set of solutions. This backs the conviction that viable purely affine theories have to be non-local.
Effective Field Theory of Dark Matter: a Global Analysis
Liem, Sebastian; Calore, Francesca; de Austri, Roberto Ruiz; Tait, Tim M P; Trotta, Roberto; Weniger, Christoph
2016-01-01
We present global fits of an effective field theory description of real, and complex scalar dark matter candidates. We simultaneously take into account all possible dimension 6 operators consisting of dark matter bilinears and gauge invariant combinations of quark and gluon fields. We derive constraints on the free model parameters for both the real (five parameters) and complex (seven) scalar dark matter models obtained by combining Planck data on the cosmic microwave background, direct detection limits from LUX, and indirect detection limits from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We find that for real scalars indirect dark matter searches disfavour a dark matter particle mass below 100 GeV. For the complex scalar dark matter particle current data have a limited impact due to the presence of operators that lead to p-wave annihilation, and also do not contribute to the spin-independent scattering cross- section. Although current data are not informative enough to strongly constrain the theory parameter space, w...
Scalar Field (Wave) Dark Matter
Matos, T
2016-01-01
Recent high-quality observations of dwarf and low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies have shown that their dark matter (DM) halos prefer flat central density profiles. On the other hand the standard cold dark matter model simulations predict a more cuspy behavior. Feedback from star formation has been widely used to reconcile simulations with observations, this might be successful in field dwarf galaxies but its success in low mass galaxies remains uncertain. One model that have received much attention is the scalar field dark matter model. Here the dark matter is a self-interacting ultra light scalar field that forms a cosmological Bose-Einstein condensate, a mass of $10^{-22}$eV/c$^2$ is consistent with flat density profiles in the centers of dwarf spheroidal galaxies, reduces the abundance of small halos, might account for the rotation curves even to large radii in spiral galaxies and has an early galaxy formation. The next generation of telescopes will provide better constraints to the model that will help...
Leilei Jia
2014-01-01
Full Text Available By using the bifurcation theory of dynamical systems, we present the exact representation and topological classification of coherent matter waves in Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs, such as solitary waves and modulate amplitude waves (MAWs. The existence and multiplicity of such waves are determined by the parameter regions selected. The results show that the characteristic of coherent matter waves can be determined by the “angular momentum” in attractive BECs while for repulsive BECs; the waves of the coherent form are all MAWs. All exact explicit parametric representations of the above waves are exhibited and numerical simulations support the result.
Multimode interferometer for guided matter waves.
Andersson, Erika; Calarco, Tommaso; Folman, Ron; Andersson, Mauritz; Hessmo, Björn; Schmiedmayer, Jörg
2002-03-11
Atoms can be trapped and guided with electromagnetic fields, using nanofabricated structures. We describe the fundamental features of an interferometer for guided matter waves, built of two combined Y-shaped beam splitters. We find that such a device is expected to exhibit high contrast fringes even in a multimode regime, analogous to a white light interferometer.
Matter-Wave Optics of Diatomic Molecules
2012-10-23
Lima , Peru (2010). S. Singh and P. Meystre, "Atomic probe Wigner tomography of a nanomechanical system," contributed paper, APS DAMOP Annual Meeting...Triangle Park , NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS matter-wave optics, ultracold molecules, polar molecules, quantum optomechanics, quantum-degenerate
Coordinate transformations and matter waves cloaking
Mohammadi, G.R. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zanjan, Zanjan 45371-38791 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghaddam, A.G. [Department of Physics, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadkhani, R., E-mail: rmkhani@znu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zanjan, Zanjan 45371-38791 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-03-06
Transformation method provides an efficient tool to control wave propagation inside the materials. Using the coordinate transformation approach, we study invisibility cloaks with sphere, cylinder and ellipsoid structures for electronic waves propagation. The underlying physics behind this investigation is the fact that Schrödinger equation with position dependent mass tensor and potentials has a covariant form which follows the coordinate transformation. Using this technique we obtain the exact spatial form of the mass tensor and potentials for a variety of cloaks with different shapes. - Highlights: • Invisibility cloaks for matter waves with three different geometries. • Exact analytical form of the effective mass tensor and potential. • Analogy between cloaking for quantum mechanical waves with classical electromagnetic waves. • Possible experimental realization in engineered semiconducting structures.
Medicus, Heinrich A.
1974-01-01
Discusses the origin of de Broglie's concept and its influences on his contemporaries, notably on Einstein, Schrodinger, Elsasser, Davisson, and Thomson. Indicates that the theory served not only as the starting point of quantum mechanics, but also opened new experimental possibilities. Historical inaccuracies are corrected with new material…
Effective Field Theory of Dark Matter from membrane inflationary paradigm
Choudhury, Sayantan
2015-01-01
In this article, we have studied the cosmological and particle physics constraints on dark matter relic abundance from effective field theory of inflation using tensor-to-scalar ratio ($r$), in case of Randall-Sundrum single membrane (RSII) paradigm. Using semi-analytical approach we establish a direct connection between the dark matter relic abundance ($\\Omega_{DM}h^2$) and primordial gravity waves ($r$), which establishes a precise connection between inflation and generation of dark matter within the framework of effective field theory in RSII membrane. Further assuming the UV completeness of the effective field theory perfectly holds good in the prescribed framework, we have explicitly shown that the membrane tension, $\\sigma$, bulk mass scale $M_5$, and cosmological constant $\\tilde{\\Lambda}_{5}$, in RSII membrane plays the most significant role to establish the connection between dark matter and inflation, using which we have studied the features of various mediator mass scale suppressed effective field ...
Decoherence of matter waves by thermal emission of radiation
2004-01-01
Emergent quantum technologies have led to increasing interest in decoherence - the processes that limit the appearance of quantum effects and turn them into classical phenomena. One important cause of decoherence is the interaction of a quantum system with its environment, which 'entangles' the two and distributes the quantum coherence over so many degrees of freedom as to render it unobservable. Decoherence theory has been complemented by experiments using matter waves coupled to external ph...
Ghost Imaging with Matter Waves
Khakimov, Roman; Henson, Bryce; Shin, David; Hodgman, Sean; Dall, Robert; Baldwin, Kenneth; Truscott, Andrew
2016-05-01
We demonstrate, for the first time, high resolution ghost imaging of a macroscopic object using atoms. Ghost imaging is a novel technique in which the image emerges from cross-correlation of particles (usually photons)in two separate beams. One beam is detected with a single-pixel (bucket detector) after passing through the object, while the other beam does not interact with the object and is registered with high spatial resolution. Neither detector can reconstruct the image independently. In our experiment, the two beams are formed by correlated pairs of ultracold metastable helium atoms originating from thecollision of two Bose-Einstein Condensates. After s-wave scattering the atoms form a spherical shell of strongly correlated pairs with opposite momenta. We extend this technique with more than a10-foldincrease in the number of correlated pairs available for eachsingle experiment run, by using higher-order Bragg scattering in the Kapitza-Dirac regime, with multiple shells generated from different diffraction orders. Using single-atom detection, we create ghost images of a target maskwith a resolution given by the width of the cross-corrrelation function of atomic momenta. Future extensions could include ghost interference and EPR tests.
Black Hole Window into p-Wave Dark Matter Annihilation.
Shelton, Jessie; Shapiro, Stuart L; Fields, Brian D
2015-12-01
We present a new method to measure or constrain p-wave-suppressed cross sections for dark matter (DM) annihilations inside the steep density spikes induced by supermassive black holes. We demonstrate that the high DM densities, together with the increased velocity dispersion, within such spikes combine to make thermal p-wave annihilation cross sections potentially visible in γ-ray observations of the Galactic center (GC). The resulting DM signal is a bright central point source with emission originating from DM annihilations in the absence of a detectable spatially extended signal from the halo. We define two simple reference theories of DM with a thermal p-wave annihilation cross section and establish new limits on the combined particle and astrophysical parameter space of these models, demonstrating that Fermi Large Area Telescope is currently sensitive to thermal p-wave DM over a wide range of possible scenarios for the DM distribution in the GC.
Influence of conformational molecular dynamics on matter wave interferometry
Gring, Michael; Eibenberger, Sandra; Nimmrichter, Stefan; Berrada, Tarik; Arndt, Markus; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Hornberger, Klaus; Müri, Marcel; Mayor, Marcel; Böckmann, Marcus; Doltsinis, Nikos
2014-01-01
We investigate the influence of thermally activated internal molecular dynamics on the phase shifts of matter waves inside a molecule interferometer. While de Broglie physics generally describes only the center-of-mass motion of a quantum object, our experiment demonstrates that the translational quantum phase is sensitive to dynamic conformational state changes inside the diffracted molecules. The structural flexibility of tailor-made hot organic particles is sufficient to admit a mixture of strongly fluctuating dipole moments. These modify the electric susceptibility and through this the quantum interference pattern in the presence of an external electric field. Detailed molecular dynamics simulations combined with density functional theory allow us to quantify the time-dependent structural reconfigurations and to predict the ensemble-averaged square of the dipole moment which is found to be in good agreement with the interferometric result. The experiment thus opens a new perspective on matter wave interfe...
Decoherence of matter waves by thermal emission of radiation
Hackermüller, L; Brezger, B; Zeilinger, Anton; Arndt, M; Hackermueller, Lucia; Hornberger, Klaus; Brezger, Bjoern; Zeilinger, Anton; Arndt, Markus
2004-01-01
Emergent quantum technologies have led to increasing interest in decoherence - the processes that limit the appearance of quantum effects and turn them into classical phenomena. One important cause of decoherence is the interaction of a quantum system with its environment, which 'entangles' the two and distributes the quantum coherence over so many degrees of freedom as to render it unobservable. Decoherence theory has been complemented by experiments using matter waves coupled to external photons or molecules, and by investigations using coherent photon states, trapped ions and electron interferometers. Large molecules are particularly suitable for the investigation of the quantum-classical transition because they can store much energy in numerous internal degrees of freedom; the internal energy can be converted into thermal radiation and thus induce decoherence. Here we report matter wave interferometer experiments in which C70 molecules lose their quantum behaviour by thermal emission of radiation. We find...
Schroedinger's Wave Structure of Matter (WSM)
Wolff, Milo; Haselhurst, Geoff
2009-10-01
The puzzling electron is due to the belief that it is a discrete particle. Einstein deduced this structure was impossible since Nature does not allow the discrete particle. Clifford (1876) rejected discrete matter and suggested structures in `space'. Schroedinger, (1937) also eliminated discrete particles writing: What we observe as material bodies and forces are nothing but shapes and variations in the structure of space. Particles are just schaumkommen (appearances). He rejected wave-particle duality. Schroedinger's concept was developed by Milo Wolff and Geoff Haselhurst (SpaceAndMotion.com) using the Scalar Wave Equation to find spherical wave solutions in a 3D quantum space. This WSM, the origin of all the Natural Laws, contains all the electron's properties including the Schroedinger Equation. The origin of Newton's Law F=ma is no longer a puzzle; It originates from Mach's principle of inertia (1883) that depends on the space medium and the WSM. Carver Mead (1999) at CalTech used the WSM to design Intel micro-chips correcting errors of Maxwell's magnetic Equations. Applications of the WSM also describe matter at molecular dimensions: alloys, catalysts, biology and medicine, molecular computers and memories. See ``Schroedinger's Universe'' - at Amazon.com
Field theories of condensed matter physics
Fradkin, Eduardo
2013-01-01
Presenting the physics of the most challenging problems in condensed matter using the conceptual framework of quantum field theory, this book is of great interest to physicists in condensed matter and high energy and string theorists, as well as mathematicians. Revised and updated, this second edition features new chapters on the renormalization group, the Luttinger liquid, gauge theory, topological fluids, topological insulators and quantum entanglement. The book begins with the basic concepts and tools, developing them gradually to bring readers to the issues currently faced at the frontiers of research, such as topological phases of matter, quantum and classical critical phenomena, quantum Hall effects and superconductors. Other topics covered include one-dimensional strongly correlated systems, quantum ordered and disordered phases, topological structures in condensed matter and in field theory and fractional statistics.
Effective field theory of dark matter: a global analysis
Liem, Sebastian; Bertone, Gianfranco; Calore, Francesca; de Austri, Roberto Ruiz; Tait, Tim M. P.; Trotta, Roberto; Weniger, Christoph
2016-09-01
We present global fits of an effective field theory description of real, and complex scalar dark matter candidates. We simultaneously take into account all possible dimension 6 operators consisting of dark matter bilinears and gauge invariant combinations of quark and gluon fields. We derive constraints on the free model parameters for both the real (five parameters) and complex (seven) scalar dark matter models obtained by combining Planck data on the cosmic microwave background, direct detection limits from LUX, and indirect detection limits from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We find that for real scalars indirect dark matter searches disfavour a dark matter particle mass below 100 GeV. For the complex scalar dark matter particle current data have a limited impact due to the presence of operators that lead to p-wave annihilation, and also do not contribute to the spin-independent scattering cross-section. Although current data are not informative enough to strongly constrain the theory parameter space, we demonstrate the power of our formalism to reconstruct the theoretical parameters compatible with an actual dark matter detection, by assuming that the excess of gamma rays observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope towards the Galactic centre is entirely due to dark matter annihilations. Please note that the excess can very well be due to astrophysical sources such as millisecond pulsars. We find that scalar dark matter interacting via effective field theory operators can in principle explain the Galactic centre excess, but that such interpretation is in strong tension with the non-detection of gamma rays from dwarf galaxies in the real scalar case. In the complex scalar case there is enough freedom to relieve the tension.
Scalar-field theory of dark matter
Huang, Kerson; Zhao, Xiaofei
2013-01-01
We develop a theory of dark matter based on a previously proposed picture, in which a complex vacuum scalar field makes the universe a superfluid, with the energy density of the superfluid giving rise to dark energy, and variations from vacuum density giving rise to dark matter. We formulate a nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation to describe the superfluid, treating galaxies as external sources. We study the response of the superfluid to the galaxies, in particular, the emergence of the dark-matter galactic halo, contortions during galaxy collisions, and the creation of vortices due to galactic rotation.
Matter Density Perturbations in Modified Teleparallel Theories
Wu, Yi-Peng
2012-01-01
We study the matter density perturbations in modified teleparallel gravity theories, where extra degrees of freedom arise from the local Lorentz violation in the tangent space. We formulate a vierbein perturbation with variables addressing all the 16 components of the vierbein field. By assuming the perfect fluid matter source, we examine the cosmological implication of the 6 unfamiliar new degrees of freedom in modified $f(T)$ gravity theories. We find that despite the new modes in the vierbein scenario provide no explicit significant effect in the small-scale regime, they exhibit some deviation from the standard general relativity results in super-horizon scales.
Microscopic distorted wave theory of inelastic scattering
Picklesimer, A.; Tandy, P. C.; Thaler, R. M.
1982-03-01
An exact microscopic distorted wave theory of inelastic scattering is formulated which contains the physical picture usually associated with distorted wave approximations without the usual redundancy. This formulation encompasses the inelastic scattering of two fragments, elementary or composite (both with or without the full complexity of interfragment Pauli symmetries). The fact that these considerations need not be based upon elementary potential interactions is an indication of the generality of the approach and supports its applicability to inelastic meson scattering. The theory also maintains a description of inelastic scattering which is a natural extension of the description of elastic scattering and it provides a general basis for obtaining truncation models with an explicit distorted wave structure. The distorted wave impulse approximation is presented as an example of a particular truncation/approximation encompassed by this theory and the nature of the distorted waves is explicated. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Distorted wave theory, inelastic scattering, multiple scattering, spectator expansion, Pauli exclusion principle, composite particles, unitarity structure.
Water Waves The Mathematical Theory with Applications
Stoker, J J
2011-01-01
Offers an integrated account of the mathematical hypothesis of wave motion in liquids with a free surface, subjected to gravitational and other forces. Uses both potential and linear wave equation theories, together with applications such as the Laplace and Fourier transform methods, conformal mapping and complex variable techniques in general or integral equations, methods employing a Green's function. Coverage includes fundamental hydrodynamics, waves on sloping beaches, problems involving waves in shallow water, the motion of ships and much more.
Dark matter in the hidden gauge theory
Yamanaka, Nodoka; Gongyo, Shinya; Iida, Hideaki
2014-01-01
The cosmological scenario of the dark matter generated in the hidden gauge theory based on the grand unification is discussed. It is found that the stability of the dark matter halo of our Galaxy and the cosmic ray observation constrain, respectively, the dark matter mass and the unification scale between the standard model and the hidden gauge theory sectors. To obtain a phenomenologically consistent thermal evolution, the entropy of the standard model sector needs to be increased. We therefore propose a scenario where the mini-inflation is induced from the potential coupled to the Standard model sector, in particular the Higgs sector. This scenario makes consistent the current dark matter density as well as the baryon-to-photon ratio for the case of pion dark matter. For the glueball or heavy pion of hidden gauge theory, an additional mini-inflation in the standard model sector before the leptogenesis is required. We also propose the possibility to confirm this scenario by known prospective experimental app...
Decoherence of matter waves by thermal emission of radiation.
Hackermüller, Lucia; Hornberger, Klaus; Brezger, Björn; Zeilinger, Anton; Arndt, Markus
2004-02-19
Emergent quantum technologies have led to increasing interest in decoherence--the processes that limit the appearance of quantum effects and turn them into classical phenomena. One important cause of decoherence is the interaction of a quantum system with its environment, which 'entangles' the two and distributes the quantum coherence over so many degrees of freedom as to render it unobservable. Decoherence theory has been complemented by experiments using matter waves coupled to external photons or molecules, and by investigations using coherent photon states, trapped ions and electron interferometers. Large molecules are particularly suitable for the investigation of the quantum-classical transition because they can store much energy in numerous internal degrees of freedom; the internal energy can be converted into thermal radiation and thus induce decoherence. Here we report matter wave interferometer experiments in which C70 molecules lose their quantum behaviour by thermal emission of radiation. We find good quantitative agreement between our experimental observations and microscopic decoherence theory. Decoherence by emission of thermal radiation is a general mechanism that should be relevant to all macroscopic bodies.
Effective theory for electroweak doublet dark matter
Dedes, A.; Karamitros, D.; Spanos, V. C.
2016-11-01
We perform a detailed study of an effective field theory which includes the standard model particle content extended by a pair of Weyl fermionic SU(2) doublets with opposite hypercharges. A discrete symmetry guarantees that a linear combination of the doublet components is stable and can act as a candidate particle for dark matter. The dark sector fermions interact with the Higgs and gauge bosons through renormalizable d =4 operators, and nonrenormalizable d =5 operators that appear after integrating out extra degrees of freedom above the TeV scale. We study collider, cosmological and astrophysical probes for this effective theory of dark matter. We find that a weakly interacting dark matter particle with a mass nearby the electroweak scale, and thus observable at the LHC, is consistent with collider and astrophysical data only when fairly large magnetic dipole moment transition operators with the gauge bosons exist, together with moderate Yukawa interactions.
Stars defy theories of stellar matter
2002-01-01
Two bizarre objects called RXJ1856 and 3C58, found by an orbiting X-ray telescope may represent a new class of star and may contain a new form of matter, defying current particle physics theories (1/2 page).
Spheroidal Wave Functions in Electromagnetic Theory
Li, Le-Wei; Kang, Xiao-Kang; Leong, Mook-Seng
2001-11-01
The flagship monograph addressing the spheroidal wave function and its pertinence to computational electromagnetics Spheroidal Wave Functions in Electromagnetic Theory presents in detail the theory of spheroidal wave functions, its applications to the analysis of electromagnetic fields in various spheroidal structures, and provides comprehensive programming codes for those computations. The topics covered in this monograph include: Spheroidal coordinates and wave functions Dyadic Green's functions in spheroidal systems EM scattering by a conducting spheroid EM scattering by a coated dielectric spheroid Spheroid antennas SAR distributions in a spheroidal head model The programming codes and their applications are provided online and are written in Mathematica 3.0 or 4.0. Readers can also develop their own codes according to the theory or routine described in the book to find subsequent solutions of complicated structures. Spheroidal Wave Functions in Electromagnetic Theory is a fundamental reference for scientists, engineers, and graduate students practicing modern computational electromagnetics or applied physics.
Theory of inertial waves in rotating fluids
Gelash, Andrey; L'vov, Victor; Zakharov, Vladimir
2017-04-01
The inertial waves emerge in the geophysical and astrophysical flows as a result of Earth rotation [1]. The linear theory of inertial waves is known well [2] while the influence of nonlinear effects of wave interactions are subject of many recent theoretical and experimental studies. The three-wave interactions which are allowed by inertial waves dispersion law (frequency is proportional to cosine of the angle between wave direction and axes of rotation) play an exceptional role. The recent studies on similar type of waves - internal waves, have demonstrated the possibility of formation of natural wave attractors in the ocean (see [3] and references herein). This wave focusing leads to the emergence of strong three-wave interactions and subsequent flows mixing. We believe that similar phenomena can take place for inertial waves in rotating flows. In this work we present theoretical study of three-wave and four-wave interactions for inertial waves. As the main theoretical tool we suggest the complete Hamiltonian formalism for inertial waves in rotating incompressible fluids [4]. We study three-wave decay instability and then present statistical description of inertial waves in the frame of Hamiltonian formalism. We obtain kinetic equation, anisotropic wave turbulence spectra and study the problem of parametric wave turbulence. These spectra were previously found in [5] by helicity decomposition method. Taking this into account we discuss the advantages of suggested Hamiltonian formalism and its future applications. Andrey Gelash thanks support of the RFBR (Grant No.16-31-60086 mol_a_dk) and Dr. E. Ermanyuk, Dr. I. Sibgatullin for the fruitful discussions. [1] Le Gal, P. Waves and instabilities in rotating and stratified flows, Fluid Dynamics in Physics, Engineering and Environmental Applications. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 25-40, 2013. [2] Greenspan, H. P. The theory of rotating fluids. CUP Archive, 1968. [3] Brouzet, C., Sibgatullin, I. N., Scolan, H., Ermanyuk, E
Avoided-level-crossing spectroscopy with dressed matter waves.
Eckardt, André; Holthaus, Martin
2008-12-12
We devise a method for probing resonances of macroscopic matter waves in shaken optical lattices by monitoring their response to slow parameter changes, and show that such resonances can be disabled by particular choices of the driving amplitude. The theoretical analysis of this scheme reveals far-reaching analogies between dressed atoms and time periodically forced matter waves.
Noncommutative Field Theory on Homogeneous Gravitational Waves
Halliday, S; Halliday, Sam; Szabo, Richard J.
2006-01-01
We describe an algebraic approach to the time-dependent noncommutative geometry of a six-dimensional Cahen-Wallach pp-wave string background supported by a constant Neveu-Schwarz flux, and develop a general formalism to construct and analyse quantum field theories defined thereon. Various star-products are derived in closed explicit form and the Hopf algebra of twisted isometries of the plane wave is constructed. Scalar field theories are defined using explicit forms of derivative operators, traces and noncommutative frame fields for the geometry, and various physical features are described. Noncommutative worldvolume field theories of D-branes in the pp-wave background are also constructed.
Transition operators in electromagnetic-wave diffraction theory - General theory
Hahne, G. E.
1992-01-01
A formal theory is developed for the scattering of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves from impenetrable immobile obstacles with given linear, homogeneous, and generally nonlocal boundary conditions of Leontovich (impedance) type for the wave of the obstacle's surface. The theory is modeled on the complete Green's function and the transition (T) operator in time-independent formal scattering theory of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics. An expression for the differential scattering cross section for plane electromagnetic waves is derived in terms of certain matrix elements of the T operator for the obstacle.
Microscopic distorted wave theory of inelastic scattering
Picklesimer, A.; Tandy, P.C.; Thaler, R.M.
1982-03-01
An exact microscopic distorted wave theory of inelastic scattering is formulated which contains the physical picture usually associated with distorted wave approximations without the usual redundancy. This formulation encompasses the inelastic scattering of two fragments, elementary or composit (both with or without the full complexity of interfragment Pauli symmetries). The fact that these considerations need not be based upon elementary potential interactions is an indication of the generality of the approach and supports its applicability to inelastic meson scattering. This theory also maintains a description of inelastic scattering which is a natural extension of the description of elastic scattering and it provides a general basis for obtaining truncation models with an explicit distorted wave structure. This distorted wave impulse approximation is presented as an example of a particular truncation/approximation encompassed by this theory and the nature of the distorted waves is explicated.
Spin waves theory and applications
Stancil, Daniel D
2009-01-01
Magnetic materials can support propagating waves of magnetization; since these are oscillations in the magneto static properties of the material, they are called magneto static waves (sometimes 'magnons' or 'magnetic polarons'). This book discusses magnetic properties of materials, and magnetic moments of atoms and ions
Effective Theory for Electroweak Doublet Dark Matter
Dedes, Athanasios; Spanos, Vassilis C
2016-01-01
We perform a detailed study of an effective field theory which includes the Standard Model particle content extended by a pair of Weyl fermionic SU(2)-doublets with opposite hypercharges. A discrete symmetry guarantees that a linear combination of the doublet components is stable and can act as a candidate particle for Dark Matter. The dark sector fermions interact with the Higgs and gauge bosons through renormalizable $d=4$ operators, and non-renormalizable $d=5$ operators that appear after integrating out extra degrees of freedom above the TeV scale. We study collider, cosmological and astrophysical probes for this effective theory of Dark Matter. We find that a WIMP with a mass nearby to the electroweak scale, and thus observable at LHC, is consistent with collider and astrophysical data only when fairly large magnetic dipole moment transition operators with the gauge bosons exist, together with moderate Yukawa interactions.
Covariant density functional theory for nuclear matter
Badarch, U.
2007-07-01
The present thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 2 we study the Nucleon-Nucleon (NN) interaction in Dirac-Brueckner (DB) approach. We start by considering the NN interaction in free-space in terms of the Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation to the meson exchange potential model. Then we present the DB approach for nuclear matter by extending the BS equation for the in-medium NN interaction. From the solution of the three-dimensional in-medium BS equation, we derive the DB self-energies and total binding energy which are the main results of the DB approach, which we later incorporate in the field theoretical calculation of the nuclear equation of state. In Chapter 3, we introduce the basic concepts of density functional theory in the context of Quantum Hadrodynamics (QHD-I). We reach the main point of this work in Chapter 4 where we introduce the DDRH approach. In the DDRH theory, the medium dependence of the meson-nucleon vertices is expressed as functionals of the baryon field operators. Because of the complexities of the operator-valued functionals we decide to use the mean-field approximation. In Chapter 5, we contrast microscopic and phenomenological approaches to extracting density dependent meson-baryon vertices. Chapter 6 gives the results of our studies of the EOS of infinite nuclear matter in detail. Using formulas derived in Chapters 4 and 5 we calculate the properties of symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter and pure neutron matter. (orig.)
Number theory and the periodicity of matter
Boeyens, Jan C A
2008-01-01
Presents a fully scientific account of the use of the golden ratio and explores the observation that stable nucleides obey a number theory based general lawThe interest in number theory is worldwide and covers the entire spectrum of human knowledge. Those aspects covered here will not be immediately accessible to the general lay readership, but, scientists of all pursuations immediately appreciate the importance of the applications described hereThe well-known interest of engineers, medical practitioners and information technologists in popular scientific matters, should make this an attractive buy for such individuals. Undergraduate students in these disciplines should be equally interested.
Theories of Matter: Infinities and Renormalization
Kadanoff, Leo P
2010-01-01
This paper looks at the theory underlying the science of materials from the perspectives of physics, the history of science, and the philosophy of science. We are particularly concerned with the development of understanding of the thermodynamic phases of matter. The question is how can matter, ordinary matter, support a diversity of forms. We see this diversity each time we observe ice in contact with liquid water or see water vapor (steam) rise from a pot of heated water. The nature of the phases is brought into the sharpest focus in phase transitions: abrupt changes from one phase to another and hence changes from one behavior to another. This article starts with the development of mean field theory as a basis for a partial understanding of phase transition phenomena. It then goes on to the limitations of mean field theory and the development of very different supplementary understanding through the renormalization group concept. Throughout, the behavior at the phase transition is illuminated by an "extende...
Pilot-wave theory and quantum fields
Struyve, Ward
2010-10-01
Pilot-wave theories provide possible solutions to the measurement problem. In such theories, quantum systems are not only described by the state vector but also by some additional variables. These additional variables, also called beables, can be particle positions, field configurations, strings, etc. In this paper we focus our attention on pilot-wave theories in which the additional variables are field configurations. The first such theory was proposed by Bohm for the free electromagnetic field. Since Bohm, similar pilot-wave theories have been proposed for other quantum fields. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview and further development of these proposals. We discuss various bosonic quantum field theories such as the Schrödinger field, the free electromagnetic field, scalar quantum electrodynamics and the Abelian Higgs model. In particular, we compare the pilot-wave theories proposed by Bohm and by Valentini for the electromagnetic field, finding that they are equivalent. We further discuss the proposals for fermionic fields by Holland and Valentini. In the case of Holland's model we indicate that further work is required in order to show that the model is capable of reproducing the standard quantum predictions. We also consider a similar model, which does not seem to reproduce the standard quantum predictions. In the case of Valentini's model we point out a problem that seems hard to overcome.
Detecting dark matter waves with precision measurement tools
Derevianko, Andrei
2016-01-01
Virialized Ultra-Light Fields (VULFs) while being viable cold dark matter candidates can also solve the standard model hierarchy problem. Direct searches for VULFs due to their non-particle nature require low-energy precision measurement tools. Here we consider scalar VULF candidates. While the previous proposals have focused on detecting coherent oscillations of the measured signals at the VULF Compton frequencies at the device location, here we point out that VULFs also have a distinct spatial signature, forming dark matter waves. Thereby the discovery reach can be improved by using distributed networks of precision measurement tools. We find the expected dark-matter wave signal by deriving spatio-temporal two-point VULF correlation function. Based on the developed formalism for coherence properties of dark-matter fields, we propose several experiments for dark matter wave detection. In the most basic version, the modifications to already running experiments are minor and only require GPS-assisted time-stam...
A Theory of Dark Matter Superfluidity
Berezhiani, Lasha
2015-01-01
We propose a novel theory of dark matter (DM) superfluidity that matches the successes of the LambdaCDM model on cosmological scales while simultaneously reproducing the MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) phenomenology on galactic scales. The DM and MOND components have a common origin, representing different phases of a single underlying substance. DM consists of axion-like particles with mass of order eV and strong self-interactions. The condensate has a polytropic equation of state P~rho^3 giving rise to a superfluid core within galaxies. Instead of behaving as individual collisionless particles, the DM superfluid is more aptly described as collective excitations. Superfluid phonons, in particular, are assumed to be governed by a MOND-like effective action and mediate a MONDian acceleration between baryonic matter particles. Our framework naturally distinguishes between galaxies (where MOND is successful) and galaxy clusters (where MOND is not): due to the higher velocity dispersion in clusters, and corres...
Coherent matter wave optics on an atom chip
Krüger, Peter; Hofferberth, S.; Schumm, Thorsten
2006-01-01
Coherent manipulation of matter waves in microscopic trapping potentials facilitates both fundamental and technological applications. Here we focus on experiments with a microscopic integrated interferometer that demonstrate coherent operation on an atom chip.......Coherent manipulation of matter waves in microscopic trapping potentials facilitates both fundamental and technological applications. Here we focus on experiments with a microscopic integrated interferometer that demonstrate coherent operation on an atom chip....
Computational Theory of Warm Condensed Matter
Barbee, T W; Surh, M P; Benedict, L X
2001-02-25
We have developed an improved computational theory of condensed matter in the regime where T {le} T{sub Fermi}. Previous methods of calculating the equation of state (EOS) relied on interpolation between low-temperature (solid) and high-temperature (plasma) limits, or employed severe approximations. Recent theoretical and experimental developments have highlighted the need for accurate EOS and opacity data in the intermediate temperature range and offer the opportunity to test theoretical models. We describe our results for EOS and optical properties for temperatures up to 10{sup 6} K, and describe directions for future work.
Wave operator theory of quantum dynamics
Durand, Philippe; Paidarová, Ivana
1998-09-01
An energy-dependent wave operator theory of quantum dynamics is derived for time-independent and time-dependent Hamiltonians. Relationships between Green's functions, wave operators, and effective Hamiltonians are investigated. Analytical properties of these quantities are especially relevant for studying resonances. A derivation of the relationship between the Green's functions and the (t,t') method of Peskin and Moiseyev [J. Chem. Phys. 99, 4590 (1993)] is presented. The observable quantities can be derived from the wave operators determined with the use of efficient iterative procedures. As in the theory of Bloch operators for bound states, the theory is based on a partition of the full Hilbert space into three subspaces: the model space, an intermediate space, and the outer space. On the basis of this partition an alternative definition of active spaces currently considered in large scale calculations is suggested. A numerical illustration is presented for several model systems and for the Stark effect in the hydrogen atom.
Kadlecová, Hedvika; Weber, Stefan; Korn, Georg
2016-01-01
We analyze theoretical models of gravitational waves generation in the interaction of high intensity laser with matter, namely ablation and piston models. We analyse the generated gravitational waves in linear approximation of gravitational theory. We derive the analytical formulas and estimates for the metric perturbations and the radiated power of generated gravitational waves. Furthermore we investigate the characteristics of polarization and the behaviour of test particles in the presence of gravitational wave which will be important for the detection.
Scattering theory of stochastic electromagnetic light waves.
Wang, Tao; Zhao, Daomu
2010-07-15
We generalize scattering theory to stochastic electromagnetic light waves. It is shown that when a stochastic electromagnetic light wave is scattered from a medium, the properties of the scattered field can be characterized by a 3 x 3 cross-spectral density matrix. An example of scattering of a spatially coherent electromagnetic light wave from a deterministic medium is discussed. Some interesting phenomena emerge, including the changes of the spectral degree of coherence and of the spectral degree of polarization of the scattered field.
Quantum cosmology with matter in scalar-tensor theory
Lee, S.; Lim, H.
2016-11-01
The cosmological application of the low energy effective action of string theory with perfect fluid type matter (satisfying p=γ ρ ) is reconsidered. First, its isotropic and anisotropic spacetime cosmological solutions are obtained for general γ . The scale factor duality is applied and checked for our model as well as in the presence of γ of which possible extension to nonvanishing γ is pioneered before. The asymptotic behavior of the solutions is investigated because of the complexity of the solutions. Second, as a quantization, we apply the canonical quantization and the corresponding Wheeler-De Witt equation is constructed for this scalar-tensor theory. By solving the Wheeler-De Witt equation the wave function is found for general value of γ . On the basis of its wave function, the tunneling rate turns out to be just the ratio of norms of the wave function for pre- and post-big-bang phases. This result shows that the rate grows as γ gets value close to a specific value. This resolves the undetermined value for the behavior of the scale factors.
Effective field theory of dark matter from membrane inflationary paradigm
Choudhury, Sayantan; Dasgupta, Arnab
2016-09-01
In this article, we have studied the cosmological and particle physics constraints on dark matter relic abundance from effective field theory of inflation from tensor-to-scalar ratio (r), in case of Randall-Sundrum single membrane (RSII) paradigm. Using semi-analytical approach we establish a direct connection between the dark matter relic abundance (ΩDMh2) and primordial gravity waves (r), which establishes a precise connection between inflation and generation of dark matter within the framework of effective field theory in RSII membrane. Further assuming the UV completeness of the effective field theory perfectly holds good in the prescribed framework, we have explicitly shown that the membrane tension, σ ≤ O(10-9) Mp4, bulk mass scale M5 ≤ O(0.04 - 0.05) Mp, and cosmological constant Λ˜5 ≥ - O(10-15) Mp5, in RSII membrane plays the most significant role to establish the connection between dark matter and inflation, using which we have studied the features of various mediator mass scale suppressed effective field theory "relevant operators" induced from the localized s, t and u channel interactions in RSII membrane. Taking a completely model independent approach, we have studied an exhaustive list of tree-level Feynman diagrams for dark matter annihilation within the prescribed setup and to check the consistency of the obtained results, further we apply the constraints as obtained from recently observed Planck 2015 data and Planck + BICEP2 + Keck Array joint data sets. Using all of these derived results we have shown that to satisfy the bound on, ΩDMh2 = 0.1199 ± 0.0027, as from Planck 2015 data, it is possible to put further stringent constraint on r within, 0.01 ≤ r ≤ 0.12, for thermally averaged annihilation cross-section of dark matter, ≈ O(10-28 - 10-27) cm3 / s, which are very useful to constrain various membrane inflationary models.
Shock wave compression of condensed matter a primer
Forbes, Jerry W
2012-01-01
This book introduces the core concepts of the shock wave physics of condensed matter, taking a continuum mechanics approach to examine liquids and isotropic solids. The text primarily focuses on one-dimensional uniaxial compression in order to show the key features of condensed matter’s response to shock wave loading. The first four chapters are specifically designed to quickly familiarize physical scientists and engineers with how shock waves interact with other shock waves or material boundaries, as well as to allow readers to better understand shock wave literature, use basic data analysis techniques, and design simple 1-D shock wave experiments. This is achieved by first presenting the steady one-dimensional strain conservation laws using shock wave impedance matching, which insures conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Here, the initial emphasis is on the meaning of shock wave and mass velocities in a laboratory coordinate system. An overview of basic experimental techniques for measuring pressure...
Path integrals, matter waves, and the double slit
Jones, Eric R.; Bach, Roger A.; Batelaan, Herman
2015-11-01
Basic explanations of the double slit diffraction phenomenon include a description of waves that emanate from two slits and interfere. The locations of the interference minima and maxima are determined by the phase difference of the waves. An optical wave, which has a wavelength λ and propagates a distance L, accumulates a phase of 2π L/λ . A matter wave, also having wavelength λ that propagates the same distance L, accumulates a phase of π L/λ , which is a factor of two different from the optical case. Nevertheless, in most situations, the phase difference, {{Δ }}\\varphi , for interfering matter waves that propagate distances that differ by {{Δ }}L, is approximately 2π {{Δ }}L/λ , which is the same value computed in the optical case. The difference between the matter and optical case hinders conceptual explanations of diffraction from two slits based on the matter-optics analogy. In the following article we provide a path integral description for matter waves with a focus on conceptual explanation. A thought experiment is provided to illustrate the validity range of the approximation {{Δ }}\\varphi ≈ 2π {{Δ }}L/λ .
Dark matter in the nonabelian hidden gauge theory
Yamanaka, Nodoka; Gongyo, Shinya; Iida, Hideaki
2015-01-01
We discuss the dark matter in the hidden gauge theory. We propose a scenario where the mini-inflation dilutes the dark matter density. This scenario is consistent with the current baryon number asymmetry.
String Theory on Parallelizable PP-Waves
Sadri, Darius J
2003-05-05
The most general parallelizable pp-wave backgrounds which are non-dilatonic solutions in the NS-NS sector of type IIA and IIB string theories are considered. We demonstrate that parallelizable pp-wave backgrounds are necessarily homogeneous plane-waves, and that a large class of homogeneous plane-waves are parallelizable, stating the necessary conditions. Such plane-waves can be classified according to the number of preserved supersymmetries. In type IIA, these include backgrounds preserving 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 supercharges, while in the IIB case they preserve 16, 20, 24 or 28 supercharges. An intriguing property of parallelizable pp-wave backgrounds is that the bosonic part of these solutions are invariant under T-duality, while the number of supercharges might change under T-duality. Due to their {alpha}{prime} exactness, they provide interesting backgrounds for studying string theory. Quantization of string modes, their compactification and behavior under T-duality are studied. In addition, we consider BPS Dp-branes, and show that these Dp-branes can be classified in terms of the locations of their world volumes with respect to the background H-field.
String Theory on Parallelizable PP-waves
Sadri, D; Sadri, Darius; Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad M.
2003-01-01
The most general parallelizable pp-wave backgrounds which are non-dilatonic solutions in the NS-NS sector of type IIA and IIB string theories are considered. We demonstrate that parallelizable pp-wave backgrounds are necessarily homogeneous plane-waves, and that a large class of homogeneous plane-waves are parallelizable, stating the necessary conditions. Such plane-waves can be classified according to the number of preserved supersymmetries. In type IIA, these include backgrounds preserving 16, 18, 20, 22 and 24 supercharges, while in the IIB case they preserve 16, 20, 24 or 28 supercharges. An intriguing property of parallelizable pp-wave backgrounds is that the bosonic part of these solutions are invariant under T-duality, while the number of supercharges might change under T-duality. Due to their $\\alpha^\\prime$ exactness, they provide interesting backgrounds for studying string theory. Quantization of string modes, their compactification and behaviour under T-duality are studied. In addition, we consider...
The theory of elastic waves and waveguides
Miklowitz, J
1984-01-01
The primary objective of this book is to give the reader a basic understanding of waves and their propagation in a linear elastic continuum. The studies of elastodynamic theory and its application to fundamental value problems should prepare the reader to tackle many physical problems of general interest in engineering and geophysics, and of particular interest in mechanics and seismology.
Leonhard Euler's Wave Theory of Light
Pedersen, Kurt Møller
2008-01-01
Euler's wave theory of light developed from a mere description of this notion based on an analogy between sound and light to a more and more mathematical elaboration on that notion. He was very successful in predicting the shape of achromatic lenses based on a new dispersion law that we now know...... is wrong. Most of his mathematical arguments were, however, guesswork without any solid physical reasoning. Guesswork is not always a bad thing in physics if it leads to new experiments or makes the theory coherent with other theories. And Euler tried to find such experiments. He saw the construction...
Colliding Plane Waves in String Theory
Chen, B; Furuta, K; Lin, F L; Chen, Bin; Chu, Chong-Sun; Furuta, Ko; Lin, Feng-Li
2004-01-01
We construct colliding plane wave solutions in higher dimensional gravity theory with dilaton and higher form flux, which appears naturally in the low energy theory of string theory. Especially, the role of the junction condition in constructing the solutions is emphasized. Our results not only include the previously known CPW solutions, but also provide a wide class of new solutions that is not known in the literature before. We find that late time curvature singularity is always developed for the solutions we obtained in this paper. This supports the generalized version of Tipler's theorem in higher dimensional supergravity.
Partial Differential Equations and Solitary Waves Theory
Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid
2009-01-01
"Partial Differential Equations and Solitary Waves Theory" is a self-contained book divided into two parts: Part I is a coherent survey bringing together newly developed methods for solving PDEs. While some traditional techniques are presented, this part does not require thorough understanding of abstract theories or compact concepts. Well-selected worked examples and exercises shall guide the reader through the text. Part II provides an extensive exposition of the solitary waves theory. This part handles nonlinear evolution equations by methods such as Hirota’s bilinear method or the tanh-coth method. A self-contained treatment is presented to discuss complete integrability of a wide class of nonlinear equations. This part presents in an accessible manner a systematic presentation of solitons, multi-soliton solutions, kinks, peakons, cuspons, and compactons. While the whole book can be used as a text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in applied mathematics, physics and engineering, Part II w...
Matters of time directionality in gravitation theory
Nickner, Christophe
2016-01-01
Several issues related to time directionality as they arise from a semi-classical perspective are discussed which are all directly or indirectly relevant to gravitation theory. Important clarifications are achieved regarding in particular the concept of negative energy and the associated notion of negative mass. Several difficulties traditionally associated with the possibility for matter to occupy negative energy states are discussed and solutions to the problems they represent are suggested. Generalized gravitational field equations which allow to fulfill the requirements set by the axioms derived from this analysis are provided. A revised formulation of the discrete symmetry operations based on the lessons learned while addressing the problem of negative energy is proposed which gives rise to an improved notion of time reversal. A symmetry operation which allows to provide the missing element needed to obtain a truly complete set of discrete symmetry operations is introduced which involves a reversal of th...
Matter, metaphors, and mechanisms: rethinking cell theories.
Müller-Strahl, Gerhard
2014-12-01
This study analyzes the logical structure of classical cell theory (CCT) by pointing out that CCT conceives the properties of organic cellular matter as supervenient to successively emerging states of quasi-crystalline atoms. This concept supports the design of a metaphorical space the intelligible components of which display an explanatory structure in accordance with the contemporary complex-systems approach of mechanisms. These findings support the thesis of an explanatory turn within the life-sciences due to a conflict between anti-classificatory (Buffon), analogous (Wolff, Reil, Weber), and causal-mechanical (Kepler) strategies of explanation. The continuous process underlying these diverse discontinuities is taken to be the immanent process of objectifying scientific concepts for the need of explanation. This process repeatedly provides concepts which are identified as nomadic concepts. The meta-analysis of their interactions reveals that concepts of matter are obtained by idealizations which entertain one process with three dimensions: atomization originating from empirical classificatory regularities (classification) and aiming at an explanation of changing phenomena (dynamization). These dimensions are successfully incorporated into the explanatory scheme of CCT. The migrations of a second group of nomadic concepts beyond this historical point of transition are made responsible for blurring the explanatory turn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Photofragmentation Beam Splitters for Matter-Wave Interferometry
Dörre, Nadine; Rodewald, Jonas; Geyer, Philipp; von Issendorff, Bernd; Haslinger, Philipp; Arndt, Markus
2014-12-01
Extending the range of quantum interferometry to a wider class of composite nanoparticles requires new tools to diffract matter waves. Recently, pulsed photoionization light gratings have demonstrated their suitability for high mass matter-wave physics. Here, we extend quantum interference experiments to a new class of particles by introducing photofragmentation beam splitters into time-domain matter-wave interferometry. We present data that demonstrate this coherent beam splitting mechanism with clusters of hexafluorobenzene and we show single-photon depletion gratings based both on fragmentation and ionization for clusters of vanillin. We propose that photofragmentation gratings can act on a large set of van der Waals clusters and biomolecules which are thermally unstable and often resilient to single-photon ionization.
Photofragmentation beam splitters for matter-wave interferometry
Dörre, Nadine; Geyer, Philipp; von Issendorff, Bernd; Haslinger, Philipp; Arndt, Markus
2014-01-01
Extending the range of quantum interferometry to a wider class of composite nanoparticles requires new tools to diffract matter-waves. Recently, pulsed photoionization light gratings have demonstrated their suitability for high mass matter-wave physics. Here we extend quantum interference experiments to a new class of particles by introducing photofragmentation beam splitters into time-domain matter-wave interferometry. Photofragmentation gratings can act on objects as different as van der Waals clusters and biomolecules which are thermally unstable and often resilient to single-photon ionization. We present data that demonstrate this coherent beam splitting mechanism with clusters of hexafluorobenzene and we show single-photon depletion gratings based both on fragmentation and ionization for clusters of vanillin.
Coordinate transformations and matter waves cloaking
Mohammadi, G. R.; Moghaddam, A. G.; Mohammadkhani, R.
2016-03-01
Transformation method provides an efficient tool to control wave propagation inside the materials. Using the coordinate transformation approach, we study invisibility cloaks with sphere, cylinder and ellipsoid structures for electronic waves propagation. The underlying physics behind this investigation is the fact that Schrödinger equation with position dependent mass tensor and potentials has a covariant form which follows the coordinate transformation. Using this technique we obtain the exact spatial form of the mass tensor and potentials for a variety of cloaks with different shapes.
Excitation of knotted vortex lines in matter waves
Maucher, F.; Gardiner, S. A.; Hughes, I. G.
2016-06-01
We study the creation of knotted ultracold matter waves in Bose-Einstein condensates via coherent two-photon Raman transitions with a Λ level configuration. The Raman transition allows an indirect transfer of atoms from the internal state | a> to the target state | b> via an excited state | e> , that would be otherwise dipole-forbidden. This setup enables us to imprint three-dimensional knotted vortex lines embedded in the probe field to the density in the target state. We elaborate on experimental feasibility as well as on subsequent dynamics of the matter wave.
Matter-wave bright solitons in effective bichromatic lattice potentials
Golam Ali Sekh
2013-08-01
Matter-wave bright solitons in bichromatic lattice potentials are considered and their dynamics for different lattice environments are studied. Bichromatic potentials are created from superpositions of (i) two linear optical lattices and (ii) a linear and a nonlinear optical lattice. Effective potentials are found for the solitons in both bichromatic lattices and a comparative study is done on the dynamics of solitons with respect to the effective potentials. The effects of dispersion on solitons in bichromatic lattices are studied and it is found that the dispersive spreading can be minimized by appropriate combinations of lattice and interaction parameters. Stability of nondispersive matter-wave solitons is checked from phase portrait analysis.
Quantum interference of molecules -- probing the wave nature of matter
Venugopalan, Anu
2012-01-01
The double slit interference experiment has been famously described by Richard Feynman as containing the "only mystery of quantum mechanics". The history of quantum mechanics is intimately linked with the discovery of the dual nature of matter and radiation. While the double slit experiment for light is easily undertsood in terms of its wave nature, the very same experiment for particles like the electron is somewhat more difficult to comprehend. By the 1920s it was firmly established that electrons have a wave nature. However, for a very long time, most discussions pertaining to interference experiments for particles were merely gedanken experiments. It took almost six decades after the establishment of its wave nature to carry out a 'double slit interference' experiment for electrons. This set the stage for interference experiments with larger particles. In the last decade there has been spectacular progress in matter-wave interefernce experiments. Today, molecules with over a hundred atoms can be made to i...
P-wave holographic superconductor/insulator phase transitions affected by dark matter sector
Rogatko, Marek
2015-01-01
The holographic approach to building the p-wave superconductors results in three different models: the Maxwell-vector, the SU(2) Yang-Mills and the helical one. In the probe limit approximation, we analytically examine the properties of the first two models in the theory with {\\it dark matter} sector. It turns out that the effect of dark matter on the Maxwell-vector p-wave model is the same as on the s-wave superconductor studied earlier. For the non-Abelian model we study the phase transitions between p-wave holographic insulator/superconductor and metal/superconductor. Studies of marginally stable modes in the theory under consideration allow us to determine features of p-wave holographic droplet in a constant magnetic field. The superconducting transition temperature increases with the growth of the {\\it dark matter} sector coupling constant $\\alpha$, while the critical chemical potential $\\mu_c$ for the quantum phase transition between insulator and metal is a decreasing function of $\\alpha$.
Asymptotic theory for spiral wave reflections
Langham, Jacob; Barkley, Dwight
2014-01-01
Resonantly forced spiral waves in excitable media drift in straight-line paths, their rotation centers behaving as point-like objects moving along trajectories with a constant velocity. Interaction with medium boundaries alters this velocity and may often result in a reflection of the drift trajectory. Such reflections have diverse characteristics and are known to be highly non-specular in general. In this context we apply the theory of response functions, which via numerically computable integrals, reduces the reaction-diffusion equations governing the whole excitable medium to the dynamics of just the rotation center and rotation phase of a spiral wave. Spiral reflection trajectories are computed by this method for both small and large-core spiral waves. Such calculations provide insight into the process of reflection as well as explanations for differences in trajectories across parameters, including the effects of incidence angle and forcing amplitude. Qualitative aspects of these results are preserved fa...
Dark matter from one-flavor SU(2) gauge theory
Francis, Anthony; Lewis, Randy; Tulin, Sean
2016-01-01
SU(2) gauge theory with a single fermion in the fundamental representation is a minimal non-Abelian candidate for the dark matter sector, which is presently missing from the standard model. Having only a single flavor provides a natural mechanism for stabilizing dark matter on cosmological timescales. Preliminary lattice results are presented and discussed in the context of dark matter phenomenology.
Approximate Stream Function wavemaker theory for highly non-linear waves in wave flumes
Zhang, H.W.; Schäffer, Hemming Andreas
2007-01-01
An approximate Stream Function wavemaker theory for highly non-linear regular waves in flumes is presented. This theory is based on an ad hoe unified wave-generation method that combines linear fully dispersive wavemaker theory and wave generation for non-linear shallow water waves. This is done...... by applying a dispersion correction to the paddle position obtained for non-linear long waves. The method is validated by a number of wave flume experiments while comparing with results of linear wavemaker theory, second-order wavemaker theory and Cnoidal wavemaker theory within its range of application....
Kaivarainen, A
2002-01-01
The short version of new quantum and quantitative Hierarchic theory, general for solids and liquids (Kaivarainen, 1989, 1995, physics/0102086) is presented. Condensed matter is considered as system of 3D standing waves (collective excitations) of different nature: thermal de Broglie waves (waves B), IR photons, related to intermolecular oscilla device is that only small part of 300 parameters, yielding by CAMP system, is possible to get, using separate experimental methods, like IR spectroscopy, sound velocimetry, densitometry and refractometry.
Wave packet dynamics of the matter wave field of a Bose-Einstein condensate
Sudheesh, C; Lakshmibala, S
2004-01-01
We show in the framework of a tractable model that revivals and fractional revivals of wave packets afford clear signatures of the extent of departure from coherence and from Poisson statistics of the matter wave field in a Bose-Einstein condensate, or of a suitably chosen initial state of the radiation field propagating in a Kerr-like medium.
Weak Nonlinear Matter Waves in a Trapped Spin-1 Condensates
CAI Hong-Qiang; YANG Shu-Rong; XUE Ju-Kui
2011-01-01
The dynamics of the weak nonlinear matter solitary waves in a spin-1 condensates with harmonic external potential are investigated analytically by a perturbation method. It is shown that, in the small amplitude limit, the dynamics of the solitary waves are governed by a variable-coefficient Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation. The reduction to the (KdV) equation may be useful to understand the dynamics of nonlinear matter waves in spinor BEGs. The analytical expressions for the evolution of soliton show that the small-amplitude vector solitons of the mixed types perform harmonic oscillations in the presence of the trap. Furthermore, the emitted radiation profiles and the soliton oscillation freauencv are also obtained.
Modal decomposition of a propagating matter wave via electron ptychography
Cao, S.; Kok, P.; Li, P.; Maiden, A. M.; Rodenburg, J. M.
2016-12-01
We employ ptychography, a phase-retrieval imaging technique, to show experimentally that a partially coherent high-energy matter (electron) wave emanating from an extended source can be decomposed into a set of mutually independent modes of minimal rank. Partial coherence significantly determines the optical transfer properties of an electron microscope and so there has been much work on this subject. However, previous studies have employed forms of interferometry to determine spatial coherence between discrete points in the wave field. Here we use the density matrix to derive a formal quantum mechanical description of electron ptychography and use it to measure a full description of the spatial coherence of a propagating matter wave field, at least within the fundamental uncertainties of the measurements we can obtain.
Multidimensional wave field signal theory: Mathematical foundations
Natalie Baddour
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Many important physical phenomena are described by wave or diffusion-wave type equations. Since these equations are linear, it would be useful to be able to use tools from the theory of linear signals and systems in solving related forward or inverse problems. In particular, the transform domain signal description from linear system theory has shown concrete promise for the solution of problems that are governed by a multidimensional wave field. The aim is to develop a unified framework for the description of wavefields via multidimensional signals. However, certain preliminary mathematical results are crucial for the development of this framework. This first paper on this topic thus introduces the mathematical foundations and proves some important mathematical results. The foundation of the framework starts with the inhomogeneous Helmholtz or pseudo-Helmholtz equation, which is the mathematical basis of a large class of wavefields. Application of the appropriate multi-dimensional Fourier transform leads to a transfer function description. To return to the physical spatial domain, certain mathematical results are necessary and these are presented and proved here as six fundamental theorems. These theorems are crucial for the evaluation of a certain class of improper integrals which arise in the evaluation of inverse multi-dimensional Fourier and Hankel transforms, upon which the framework is based. Subsequently, applications of these theorems are demonstrated, in particular for the derivation of Green's functions in different coordinate systems.
Quantum Measurement Theory in Gravitational-Wave Detectors
Danilishin, Stefan L
2012-01-01
The fast progress in improving the sensitivity of the gravitational-wave (GW) detectors, we all have witnessed in the recent years, has propelled the scientific community to the point, when quantum behaviour of such immense measurement devices as kilometer-long interferometers starts to matter. The time, when their sensitivity will be mainly limited by the quantum noise of light is round the corner, and finding the ways to reduce it will become a necessity. Therefore, the primary goal we pursued in this review was to familiarize a broad spectrum of readers with the theory of quantum measurements in the very form it finds application in the area of gravitational-wave detection. We focus on how quantum noise arises in gravitational-wave interferometers and what limitations it imposes on the achievable sensitivity. We start from the very basic concepts and gradually advance to the general linear quantum measurement theory and its application to the calculation of quantum noise in the contemporary and planned int...
Quantum Measurement Theory in Gravitational-Wave Detectors
Stefan L. Danilishin
2012-04-01
Full Text Available The fast progress in improving the sensitivity of the gravitational-wave detectors, we all have witnessed in the recent years, has propelled the scientific community to the point at which quantum behavior of such immense measurement devices as kilometer-long interferometers starts to matter. The time when their sensitivity will be mainly limited by the quantum noise of light is around the corner, and finding ways to reduce it will become a necessity. Therefore, the primary goal we pursued in this review was to familiarize a broad spectrum of readers with the theory of quantum measurements in the very form it finds application in the area of gravitational-wave detection. We focus on how quantum noise arises in gravitational-wave interferometers and what limitations it imposes on the achievable sensitivity. We start from the very basic concepts and gradually advance to the general linear quantum measurement theory and its application to the calculation of quantum noise in the contemporary and planned interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation of the first and second generation. Special attention is paid to the concept of the Standard Quantum Limit and the methods of its surmounting.
Quantum Measurement Theory in Gravitational-Wave Detectors.
Danilishin, Stefan L; Khalili, Farid Ya
2012-01-01
The fast progress in improving the sensitivity of the gravitational-wave detectors, we all have witnessed in the recent years, has propelled the scientific community to the point at which quantum behavior of such immense measurement devices as kilometer-long interferometers starts to matter. The time when their sensitivity will be mainly limited by the quantum noise of light is around the corner, and finding ways to reduce it will become a necessity. Therefore, the primary goal we pursued in this review was to familiarize a broad spectrum of readers with the theory of quantum measurements in the very form it finds application in the area of gravitational-wave detection. We focus on how quantum noise arises in gravitational-wave interferometers and what limitations it imposes on the achievable sensitivity. We start from the very basic concepts and gradually advance to the general linear quantum measurement theory and its application to the calculation of quantum noise in the contemporary and planned interferometric detectors of gravitational radiation of the first and second generation. Special attention is paid to the concept of the Standard Quantum Limit and the methods of its surmounting.
Superconformal partial waves in Grassmannian field theories
Doobary, Reza
2015-01-01
We derive superconformal partial waves for all scalar four-point functions on a super Grassmannian space Gr(m|n,2m|2n) for all m,n. This family of four-point functions includes those of all (arbitrary weight) half BPS operators in both N=4 SYM (m=n=2) and in N=2 superconformal field theories in four dimensions (m=2,n=1) on analytic superspace. It also includes four-point functions of all (arbitrary dimension) scalar fields in non-supersymmetric conformal field theories (m=2,n=0) on Minkowski space, as well as those of a certain class of representations of the compact SU(2n) coset spaces. As an application we then specialise to N=4 SYM and use these results to perform a detailed superconformal partial wave analysis of the four- point functions of arbitrary weight half BPS operators. We discuss the non-trivial separation of protected and unprotected sectors for the , and cases in an SU(N) gauge theory at finite N. The correlator predicts a non-trivial protected twist four sector for which we can completely ...
The Einstein-Klein-Gordon Equations, Wave Dark Matter, and the Tully-Fisher Relation
Goetz, Andrew S
2015-01-01
We examine the Einstein equation coupled to the Klein-Gordon equation for a complex-valued scalar field. These two equations together are known as the Einstein-Klein-Gordon system. In the low-field, non-relativistic limit, the Einstein-Klein-Gordon system reduces to the Poisson-Schr\\"odinger system. We describe the simplest solutions of these systems in spherical symmetry, the spherically symmetric static states, and some scaling properties they obey. We also describe some approximate analytic solutions for these states. The EKG system underlies a theory of wave dark matter, also known as scalar field dark matter (SFDM), boson star dark matter, and Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) dark matter. We discuss a possible connection between the theory of wave dark matter and the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation, which is a scaling relation observed to hold for disk galaxies in the universe across many decades in mass. We show how fixing boundary conditions at the edge of the spherically symmetric static states implies T...
On the Validity of Dark Matter Effective Theory
Bauer, Martin; Desai, Nishita; Gonzalez-Fraile, Juan; Plehn, Tilman
2016-01-01
An effective theory of dark matter offers an attractive framework for global analyses of dark matter. In the light of global fits we test the validity of the link between the non-relativistic dark matter annihilation, or the predicted relic density, and LHC signatures. Specifically, we study how well the effective theory describes the main features of simple models with s-channel and t-channel mediators coupling to the Standard Model at tree level or through one-loop diagrams. Our results indicate that global dark matter analyses in terms of effective Lagrangians are highly non-trivial to interpret in term of actual models.
Dark Matter in Lepto-Baryonic Left-Right Theories
Patra, Sudhanwa
2015-01-01
A Lepto-Baryonic Left-Right symmetric theory is considered where leptons and baryons are local gauge symmetries. These theories are generally anomalous and the possible gauge anomaly free solutions for these theories are presented here. This paper also shows different ways in which Lepto-Baryonic Left-Right theories are broken down to Standard Model gauge group which further breaks down to low energy by SM Higgs boson. It is found that the neutral component of fermion triplets can be a viable dark matter candidate originally introduced for gauge anomaly cancellation. The other dark matter possibilities within this Lepto-Baryonic Left-Right symmetric theories are also presented.
Theory Matters: Representation and Experimentation in Education
Edwards, Richard
2012-01-01
This article provides a material enactment of educational theory to explore how we might do educational theory differently by defamiliarising the familiar. Theory is often assumed to be abstract, located solely in the realm of ideas and separate from practice. However, this view of theory emerges from a set of ontological and epistemological…
New phase transitions in Chern–Simons matter theory
Ali Zahabi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Applying the machinery of random matrix theory and Toeplitz determinants we study the level k, U(N Chern–Simons theory coupled with fundamental matter on S2×S1 at finite temperature T. This theory admits a discrete matrix integral representation, i.e. a unitary discrete matrix model of two-dimensional Yang–Mills theory. In this study, the effective partition function and phase structure of the Chern–Simons matter theory, in a special case with an effective potential namely the Gross–Witten–Wadia potential, are investigated. We obtain an exact expression for the partition function of the Chern–Simons matter theory as a function of k, N, T, for finite values and in the asymptotic regime. In the Gross–Witten–Wadia case, we show that ratio of the Chern–Simons matter partition function and the continuous two-dimensional Yang–Mills partition function, in the asymptotic regime, is the Tracy–Widom distribution. Consequently, using the explicit results for free energy of the theory, new second-order and third-order phase transitions are observed. Depending on the phase, in the asymptotic regime, Chern–Simons matter theory is represented either by a continuous or discrete two-dimensional Yang–Mills theory, separated by a third-order domain wall.
Selective Sommerfeld Enhancement of p-wave Dark Matter Annihilation
Das, Anirban
2016-01-01
We point out a mechanism for selective Sommerfeld enhancement (suppression) of odd (even) partial waves of dark matter co/annihilation. Using this, the usually velocity-suppressed p-wave annihilation can dominate the annihilation signals in the present Universe. The selection mechanism is a manifestation of an exchange symmetry, and generic for DM with off-diagonal long-range interactions. As a consequence, the relic and late-time annihilation rates are parametrically different and a distinctive phenomenology, with large but strongly velocity-dependent annihilation rates, is predicted.
KINETIC THEORY OF PLASMA WAVES: Part II: Homogeneous Plasma
Westerhof, E.
2010-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold
Kinetic theory of plasma waves: Part II homogeneous plasma
Westerhof, E.
2000-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold
Kinetic theory of plasma waves - Part II: Homogeneous plasma
Westerhof, E.
2008-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves axe discussed in the limit of the cold
Kinetic theory of plasma waves: Part II homogeneous plasma
Westerhof, E.
2000-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold
KINETIC THEORY OF PLASMA WAVES: Part II: Homogeneous Plasma
Westerhof, E.
2010-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves are discussed in the limit of the cold
Kinetic theory of plasma waves - Part II: Homogeneous plasma
Westerhof, E.
2008-01-01
The theory of electromagnetic waves in a homogeneous plasma is reviewed. The linear response of the plasma to the waves is obtained in the form of the dielectric tensor. Waves ranging from the low frequency Alfven to the high frequency electron cyclotron waves axe discussed in the limit of the cold
Observational Confirmations of Spiral Density Wave Theory
Kennefick, Julia D.; Kennefick, Daniel; Shameer Abdeen, Mohamed; Berrier, Joel; Davis, Benjamin; Fusco, Michael; Pour Imani, Hamed; Shields, Doug; DMS, SINGS
2017-01-01
Using two techniques to reliably and accurately measure the pitch angles of spiral arms in late-type galaxies, we have compared pitch angles to directly measured black hole masses in local galaxies and demonstrated a strong correlation between them. Using the relation thus established we have developed a pitch angle distribution function of a statistically complete volume limited sample of nearby galaxies and developed a central black hole mass function for nearby spiral galaxies.We have further shown that density wave theory leads us to a three-way correlation between bulge mass, pitch angle, and disk gas density, and have used data from the Galaxy Disk Mass Survey to confirm this possible fundamental plane. Density wave theory also predicts that the pitch angle of spiral arms should change with observed waveband as each waveband is sampling a different stage in stellar population formation and evolution. We present evidence that this is indeed the case using a sample of galaxies from the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxy Survey. Furthermore, the evolved spiral arms cross at the galaxy co-rotation radius. This gives a new method for determining the co-rotation radius of spiral galaxies that is found to agree with those found using previous methods.
Mathematical problems in wave propagation theory
1970-01-01
The papers comprising this collection are directly or indirectly related to an important branch of mathematical physics - the mathematical theory of wave propagation and diffraction. The paper by V. M. Babich is concerned with the application of the parabolic-equation method (of Academician V. A. Fok and M. A, Leontovich) to the problem of the asymptotic behavior of eigenfunc tions concentrated in a neighborhood of a closed geodesie in a Riemannian space. The techniques used in this paper have been föund useful in solving certain problems in the theory of open resonators. The topic of G. P. Astrakhantsev's paper is similar to that of the paper by V. M. Babich. Here also the parabolic-equation method is used to find the asymptotic solution of the elasticity equations which describes Love waves concentrated in a neighborhood of some surface ray. The paper of T. F. Pankratova is concerned with finding the asymptotic behavior of th~ eigenfunc tions of the Laplace operator from the exact solution for the surf...
Gravitational Waves From SU(N) Glueball Dark Matter
Soni, Amarjit
2016-01-01
A hidden sector with pure non-abelian gauge symmetry is an elegant and just about the simplest model of dark matter. In this model the dark matter candidate is the lightest bound state made of the confined gauge fields, the dark glueball. In spite of its simplicity, the model has been shown to have several interesting non-standard implications in cosmology. In this work, we explore the gravitational waves from binary boson stars made of self-gravitating dark glueball fields as a natural and important consequence. We derive the dark SU($N$) star mass and radius as functions of the only two fundamental parameters in the model, the glueball mass $m$ and the number of colors $N$, and identify the regions that could be probed by the LIGO and future gravitational wave observatories.
Detecting inertial effects with airborne matter-wave interferometry
Geiger, Remi; Stern, Guillaume; Zahzam, Nassim; Cheinet, Patrick; Battelier, Baptiste; Villing, André; Moron, Frédéric; Lours, Michel; Bidel, Yannick; Bresson, Alexandre; Landragin, Arnaud; Bouyer, Philippe
2011-01-01
Inertial sensors relying on atom interferometry offer a breakthrough advance in a variety of applications, such as inertial navigation, gravimetry or ground- and space-based tests of fundamental physics. These instruments require a quiet environment to reach their performance and using them outside the laboratory remains a challenge. Here we report the first operation of an airborne matter-wave accelerometer set up aboard a 0g plane and operating during the standard gravity (1g) and microgravity (0g) phases of the flight. At 1g, the sensor can detect inertial effects more than 300 times weaker than the typical acceleration fluctuations of the aircraft. We describe the improvement of the interferometer sensitivity in 0g, which reaches 2 x 10-4 ms-2 / \\surdHz with our current setup. We finally discuss the extension of our method to airborne and spaceborne tests of the Universality of free fall with matter waves.
Detecting inertial effects with airborne matter-wave interferometry.
Geiger, R; Ménoret, V; Stern, G; Zahzam, N; Cheinet, P; Battelier, B; Villing, A; Moron, F; Lours, M; Bidel, Y; Bresson, A; Landragin, A; Bouyer, P
2011-09-20
Inertial sensors relying on atom interferometry offer a breakthrough advance in a variety of applications, such as inertial navigation, gravimetry or ground- and space-based tests of fundamental physics. These instruments require a quiet environment to reach their performance and using them outside the laboratory remains a challenge. Here we report the first operation of an airborne matter-wave accelerometer set up aboard a 0g plane and operating during the standard gravity (1g) and microgravity (0g) phases of the flight. At 1g, the sensor can detect inertial effects more than 300 times weaker than the typical acceleration fluctuations of the aircraft. We describe the improvement of the interferometer sensitivity in 0g, which reaches 2 x 10-4 ms-2 / √Hz with our current setup. We finally discuss the extension of our method to airborne and spaceborne tests of the Universality of free fall with matter waves.
Ordinary matter in nonlinear affine gauge theories of gravitation
Tiemblo, A; Tiemblo, A; Tresguerres, R
1994-01-01
We present a general framework to include ordinary fermionic matter in the metric--affine gauge theories of gravity. It is based on a nonlinear gauge realization of the affine group, with the Lorentz group as the classification subgroup of the matter and gravitational fields.
Effective field theory of dark matter: a global analysis
Liem, S.; Bertone, G.; Calore, F.; Ruiz de Austri, R.; Tait, T.M.P.; Trotta, R.; Weniger, C.
2016-01-01
We present global fits of an effective field theory description of real, and complex scalar dark matter candidates. We simultaneously take into account all possible dimension 6 operators consisting of dark matter bilinears and gauge invariant combinations of quark and gluon fields. We derive constra
Twisted Backgrounds, PP-Waves and Nonlocal Field Theories
Alishahiha, M; Alishahiha, Mohsen; Ganor, Ori J.
2003-01-01
We study partially supersymmetric plane-wave like deformations of string theories and M-theory on brane backgrounds. These deformations are dual to nonlocal field theories. We calculate various expectation values of configurations of closed as well as open Wilson loops and Wilson surfaces in those theories. We also discuss the manifestation of the nonlocality structure in the supergravity backgrounds. A plane-wave like deformation of little string theory has also been studied.
Wave functions in SUSY cosmological models with matter
Ortiz, C. [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato, A.P. E-143, C.P. 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Rosales, J.J. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica Electrica y Electronica, Universidad de Guanajuato, Prolongacion Tampico 912, Bellavista, Salamanca, Guanajuato (Mexico); Socorro, J. [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato, A.P. E-143, C.P. 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)]. E-mail: socorro@fisica.ugto.mx; Torres, J. [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato, A.P. E-143, C.P. 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Tkach, V.I. [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato, A.P. E-143, C.P. 37150, Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)
2005-06-06
In this work we consider the n=2 supersymmetric superfield approach for the FRW cosmological model and the corresponding term of matter content, perfect fluid with barotropic state equation p={gamma}{rho}. We are able to obtain a normalizable wave function (at zero energy) of the universe. Besides, the mass parameter spectrum is found for the closed FRW case in the Schrodinger picture, being similar to those obtained by other methods, using a black hole system.
New avenues for matter-wave-enhanced spectroscopy
Rodewald, Jonas; Haslinger, Philipp; Dörre, Nadine; Stickler, Benjamin A.; Shayeghi, Armin; Hornberger, Klaus; Arndt, Markus
2017-01-01
We present matter-wave interferometry as a tool to advance spectroscopy for a wide class of nanoparticles, clusters and molecules. The high sensitivity of de Broglie interference fringes to external perturbations enables measurements in the limit of an individual particle absorbing only a single photon on average, or even no photon at all. The method allows one to extract structural and electronic information from the loss of the interference contrast. It is minimally invasive and works even for dilute ensembles.
Growth of the nonbaryonic dark matter theory
Peebles, P. J. E.
2017-03-01
The evidence that has accumulated since the 1930s is that the mass of the Universe is dominated by an exotic nonbaryonic form of matter largely draped around the galaxies. This dark matter approximates an initially low-pressure gas of particles that interact only with gravity, but we know little more than that. Searches for detection thus must follow many difficult paths to a great discovery: what the Universe is made of.
Towards a matter wave interferometer on a sounding rocket
van Zoest, Tim; Peters, Achim; Ahlers, Holger; Wicht, Andreas; Vogel, Anika; Wenzlawski, Anderas; Deutsch, Christian; Kajari, Endre; Gaaloul, Naceur; Dittus, Hansjürg; Hartwig, Jonas; Herr, Waldemar; Herrmann, Sven; Reichel, Jakob; Bongs, Kai; Koenemann, Thorben; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Lewoczko-Adamczyk, Wojtek; Schiemangk, Max; Müntinga, Hauke; Meyer, Nadine; Rasel, Ernst Maria; Walser, Reinhold; Resch, Andreas; Rode, Christina; Seidel, Stephan; Sengstock, Klaus; Singh, Yeshpal; Schleich, Wolfgang; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rosenbusch, Peter; Wilken, Tobias; Goeklue, Ertan
Applications of coherent matter waves are high resolution interferometers for measuring inertial and gravitational forces as well as testing fundamental physics, for which they may serve as a laser like source with mesoscopic quantum features. Out of possible applications, the test of the principle of equivalence in the quantum domain is selected as a target with the highest scientific interest on timescales of a microgravity experiment at the ISS or on a free flyer (ATV, FOTON or other satellites). The QUANTUS project demonstrated the technological feasibil-ity of coherent matter waves in microgravity. As a next step, the consortium will prepare and procure a sounding rocket mission to demonstrate technologies for matter wave interferome-try based on the broad experience of former developments with experiments in the droptower. Therefore, the experiment has to withstand strong requirements concerning environmental con-ditions (Temperature, shock, environmental pressure, etc.) and needs to be designed to fit in a 600 l volume (diameter 35 cm, length 160 cm). It is considered as an important step towards the technology required for the ISS and other platforms. These experiments will give further insights on the potential of inertial sensors based on atom interferometers and the technology is for example of interest for applications in earth observation and geodesy. They could replace classical techniques relying on test masses and promise a further improvement in the accuracy of such devices.
Peptides and proteins in matter wave interferometry: Challenges and prospects
Sezer, Ugur; Geyer, Philipp; Mairhofer, Lukas; Brand, Christian; Doerre, Nadine; Rodewald, Jonas; Schaetti, Jonas; Koehler, Valentin; Mayor, Marcel; Arndt, Markus
2016-05-01
Recent developments in matter wave physics suggest that quantum interferometry with biologically relevant nanomaterials is becoming feasible for amino acids, peptides, proteins and RNA/DNA strands. Quantum interference of biomolecules is interesting as it can mimic Schrödinger's cat states with molecules of high mass, elevated temperature and biological functionality. Additionally, the high internal complexity can give rise to a rich variety of couplings to the environment and new handles for quantitative tests of quantum decoherence. Finally, matter wave interferometers are highly sensitive force sensors and pave the way for quantum-assisted measurements of biomolecular properties in interaction with tailored or biomimetic environments. Recent interferometer concepts such as the Kapitza-Dirac-Talbot-Lau interferometer (KDTLI) or the Optical Time-domain Matter Wave interferometer (OTIMA) have already proven their potential for quantum optics in the mass range beyond 10000 amu and for metrology. Here we show our advances in quantum interferometry with vitamins and peptides and discuss methods of realizing cold, intense and sufficiently slow beams of synthetically tailored or hydrated polypeptides with promising properties for a new generation of quantum optics.
Heavy dark matter annihilation from effective field theory.
Ovanesyan, Grigory; Slatyer, Tracy R; Stewart, Iain W
2015-05-29
We formulate an effective field theory description for SU(2)_{L} triplet fermionic dark matter by combining nonrelativistic dark matter with gauge bosons in the soft-collinear effective theory. For a given dark matter mass, the annihilation cross section to line photons is obtained with 5% precision by simultaneously including Sommerfeld enhancement and the resummation of electroweak Sudakov logarithms at next-to-leading logarithmic order. Using these results, we present more accurate and precise predictions for the gamma-ray line signal from annihilation, updating both existing constraints and the reach of future experiments.
Supersymmetric Gauge Theories with Matters, Toric Geometries and Random Partitions
Noma, Y
2006-01-01
We derive the relation between the Hilbert space of certain geometries under the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization and the perturbative prepotentials for the supersymmetric five-dimensional SU(N) gauge theories with massive fundamental matters and with one massive adjoint matter. The gauge theory with one adjoint matter shows interesting features. A five-dimensional generalization of Nekrasov's partition function can be written as a correlation function of two-dimensional chiral bosons and as a partition function of a statistical model of partitions. From a ground state of the statistical model we reproduce the polyhedron which characterizes the Hilbert space.
Six Decades of Spiral Density Wave Theory
Shu, Frank H.
2016-09-01
The theory of spiral density waves had its origin approximately six decades ago in an attempt to reconcile the winding dilemma of material spiral arms in flattened disk galaxies. We begin with the earliest calculations of linear and nonlinear spiral density waves in disk galaxies, in which the hypothesis of quasi-stationary spiral structure (QSSS) plays a central role. The earliest success was the prediction of the nonlinear compression of the interstellar medium and its embedded magnetic field; the earliest failure, seemingly, was not detecting color gradients associated with the migration of OB stars whose formation is triggered downstream from the spiral shock front. We give the reasons for this apparent failure with an update on the current status of the problem of OB star formation, including its relationship to the feathering substructure of galactic spiral arms. Infrared images can show two-armed, grand design spirals, even when the optical and UV images show flocculent structures. We suggest how the nonlinear response of the interstellar gas, coupled with overlapping subharmonic resonances, might introduce chaotic behavior in the dynamics of the interstellar medium and Population I objects, even though the underlying forces to which they are subject are regular. We then move to a discussion of resonantly forced spiral density waves in a planetary ring and their relationship to the ideas of disk truncation, and the shepherding of narrow rings by satellites orbiting nearby. The back reaction of the rings on the satellites led to the prediction of planet migration in protoplanetary disks, which has had widespread application in the exploding data sets concerning hot Jupiters and extrasolar planetary systems. We then return to the issue of global normal modes in the stellar disk of spiral galaxies and its relationship to the QSSS hypothesis, where the central theoretical concepts involve waves with negative and positive surface densities of energy and angular
Towards matter inflation in heterotic string theory
Antusch, Stefan; Erdmenger, Johanna; Halter, Sebastian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Muenchen (Germany); Dutta, Koushik [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2011-02-15
Recently, a class of inflation models in supergravity with gauge non-singlet matter fields as the inflaton has been proposed. It is based on a 'tribrid' structure in the superpotential and on a 'Heisenberg symmetry' for solving the {eta}-problem. We suggest that a generalization of this model class may be suitable for realising inflation in heterotic orbifold compactifications, where the Heisenberg symmetry is a property of the tree-level Kaehler potential of untwisted matter fields. We discuss moduli stabilization in this setup and propose a mechanism to stabilize the modulus associated to the inflaton, which respects the symmetry in the large radius limit. Inflation ends via a waterfall phase transition, as in hybrid inflation. We give conditions which have to be satisfied for realising inflation along these lines in the matter sector of heterotic orbifolds. (orig.)
Towards matter inflation in heterotic string theory
Antusch, Stefan; Erdmenger, Johanna; Halter, Sebastian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Muenchen (Germany); Dutta, Koushik [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2011-02-15
Recently, a class of inflation models in supergravity with gauge non-singlet matter fields as the inflaton has been proposed. It is based on a 'tribrid' structure in the superpotential and on a 'Heisenberg symmetry' for solving the {eta}-problem. We suggest that a generalization of this model class may be suitable for realising inflation in heterotic orbifold compactifications, where the Heisenberg symmetry is a property of the tree-level Kaehler potential of untwisted matter fields. We discuss moduli stabilization in this setup and propose a mechanism to stabilize the modulus associated to the inflaton, which respects the symmetry in the large radius limit. Inflation ends via a waterfall phase transition, as in hybrid inflation. We give conditions which have to be satisfied for realising inflation along these lines in the matter sector of heterotic orbifolds. (orig.)
Gamma Ray Line Constraints on Effective Theories of Dark Matter
Goodman, Jessica; Rajaraman, Arvind; Shepherd, William; Tait, Tim M P; Yu, Hai-Bo
2010-01-01
A monochromatic gamma ray line results when dark matter particles in the galactic halo annihilate to produce a two body final state which includes a photon. Such a signal is very distinctive from astrophysical backgrounds, and thus represents an incisive probe of theories of dark matter. We compare the recent null results of searches for gamma ray lines in the galactic center and other regions of the sky with the predictions of effective theories describing the interactions of dark matter particles with the Standard Model. We find that the null results of these searches provide constraints on the nature of dark matter interactions with ordinary matter which are complementary to constraints from other observables, and stronger than collider constraints in some cases.
Stability in higher-derivative matter fields theories
Tretyakov, Petr V.
2016-09-01
We discuss possible instabilities in higher-derivative matter field theories. These theories have two free parameters β _1 and β _4. By using a dynamical system approach we explicitly demonstrate that for the stability of Minkowski space in an expanding universe we need the condition β _4-1/3β _4, which is needed to avoid a tachyon-like instability.
Stability in higher-derivative matter fields theories
Tretyakov, Petr V
2016-01-01
We discuss possible instabilities in higher-derivative matter fields theories. These theories has two free parameters $\\beta_1$ and $\\beta_4$. By using dynamical system approach we explicitly demonstrate that for stability of Minkowski space in expanding Universe it is need condition $\\beta_4-\\frac{1}{3}\\beta_4$ which is need to avoid tachyon-like instability.
Diagrammatics lectures on selected problems in condensed matter theory
Sadovskii, Michael V
2006-01-01
The introduction of quantum field theory methods has led to a kind of "revolution" in condensed matter theory. This resulted in the increased importance of Feynman diagrams or diagram technique. It has now become imperative for professionals in condensed matter theory to have a thorough knowledge of this method.There are many good books that cover the general aspects of diagrammatic methods. At the same time, there has been a rising need for books that describe calculations and methodical "know how" of specific problems for beginners in graduate and postgraduate courses. This unique collection
Unexpected wave group behaviour challenges use of Stokes theory for ocean waves
Banner, Michael; Fedele, Francesco; Allis, Michael; Benetazzo, Alvise; Dias, Frederic; Peirson, William
2013-01-01
A key result of Stokes' water wave theory is that deep-water gravity waves of larger amplitude travel faster than those of lower amplitude at fixed wavelength. Recent observations, however, suggest that maximally-steep breaking wave crests actually travel significantly slower than expected, calling into question the predictions of Stokes' theory and its impact on diverse areas of ocean-wave physics ranging from rogue wave generation to the role of wave breaking in climate modelling. Here we report our discovery of a generic wave-crest slowdown mechanism that occurs within unsteady, propagating wave groups, which modifies the phasing of individual wave crests. Our numerical and observational studies show that just prior to reaching its maximum height, each wave crest slows down significantly. It either breaks at this reduced speed, or accelerates forward unbroken. Implications for oceanic and other natural wave systems are described.
Chiral Effective Theory of Dark Matter Direct Detection
Bishara, Fady; Grinstein, Benjamin; Zupan, Jure
2016-01-01
We present the effective field theory for dark matter interactions with the visible sector that is valid at scales of O(1 GeV). Starting with an effective theory describing the interactions of fermionic and scalar dark matter with quarks, gluons and photons via higher dimension operators that would arise from dimension-five and dimension-six operators above electroweak scale, we perform a nonperturbative matching onto a heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory that describes dark matter interactions with light mesons and nucleons. This is then used to obtain the coefficients of the nuclear response functions using a chiral effective theory description of nuclear forces. Our results consistently keep the leading contributions in chiral counting for each of the initial Wilson coefficients.
Chiral effective theory of dark matter direct detection
Bishara, Fady; Brod, Joachim; Grinstein, Benjamin; Zupan, Jure
2017-02-01
We present the effective field theory for dark matter interactions with the visible sector that is valid at scales of Script O(1 GeV). Starting with an effective theory describing the interactions of fermionic and scalar dark matter with quarks, gluons and photons via higher dimension operators that would arise from dimension-five and dimension-six operators above electroweak scale, we perform a nonperturbative matching onto a heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory that describes dark matter interactions with light mesons and nucleons. This is then used to obtain the coefficients of the nuclear response functions using a chiral effective theory description of nuclear forces. Our results consistently keep the leading contributions in chiral counting for each of the initial Wilson coefficients.
Dispersive shock waves and modulation theory
El, G. A.; Hoefer, M. A.
2016-10-01
There is growing physical and mathematical interest in the hydrodynamics of dissipationless/dispersive media. Since G.B. Whitham's seminal publication fifty years ago that ushered in the mathematical study of dispersive hydrodynamics, there has been a significant body of work in this area. However, there has been no comprehensive survey of the field of dispersive hydrodynamics. Utilizing Whitham's averaging theory as the primary mathematical tool, we review the rich mathematical developments over the past fifty years with an emphasis on physical applications. The fundamental, large scale, coherent excitation in dispersive hydrodynamic systems is an expanding, oscillatory dispersive shock wave or DSW. Both the macroscopic and microscopic properties of DSWs are analyzed in detail within the context of the universal, integrable, and foundational models for uni-directional (Korteweg-de Vries equation) and bi-directional (Nonlinear Schrödinger equation) dispersive hydrodynamics. A DSW fitting procedure that does not rely upon integrable structure yet reveals important macroscopic DSW properties is described. DSW theory is then applied to a number of physical applications: superfluids, nonlinear optics, geophysics, and fluid dynamics. Finally, we survey some of the more recent developments including non-classical DSWs, DSW interactions, DSWs in perturbed and inhomogeneous environments, and two-dimensional, oblique DSWs.
Dark Matter Reality Check: Chandra Casts Cloud On Alternative Theory
2002-10-01
New evidence from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory challenges an alternative theory of gravity that eliminates the need for dark matter. The observation also narrows the field for competing forms of dark matter, the elusive material thought to be the dominant form of matter in the universe. An observation of the galaxy NGC 720 shows it is enveloped in a slightly flattened, or ellipsoidal cloud of hot gas that has an orientation different from that of the optical image of the galaxy. The flattening is too large to be explained by theories in which stars and gas are assumed to contain most of the mass in the galaxy. "The shape and orientation of the hot gas cloud require it to be confined by an egg-shaped dark matter halo," said David Buote of the University of California, Irvine, and lead author of a report on this research in the 2002 September 20 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. "This means that dark matter is not just an illusion due to a shortcoming of the standard theory of gravity - it is real." According to the generally accepted standard theory of gravity, the hot X-ray cloud would need an additional source of gravity - a halo of dark matter - to keep the hot gas from expanding away. The mass of dark matter required would be about five to ten times the mass of the stars in the galaxy. If the dark matter tracked the optical light from the stars in the galaxy, the hot X-ray cloud would be more round than it is. The flattened shape of the hot gas cloud requires a flattened dark matter halo. An alternative theory of gravity called MOND, for Modified Newtonian Dynamics, was proposed in 1983 by Mordecai Milgrom of the Weizmann Institute in Israel, and has remained viable over the years. MOND does away with the need for dark matter by modifying the theory where the acceleration produced by gravity is very small, such as the outskirts of galaxies. However, MOND cannot explain the Chandra observation of NGC 720. This is apparently the first dynamical evidence that
A theory of gravity with preferred frame and condensed matter interpretation
Schmelzer, I
2010-01-01
Does relativistic gravity provide empirical arguments against theories with a preferred frame like de Broglie-Bohm pilot wave theory? We present here a viable metric theory of gravity with preferred frame which gives a negative answer to this question. The theory has the same equations as Logunov's "relativistic theory of gravity" (RTG) but a less restrictive causality condition. It has not only a preferred frame, but allows even a condensed matter interpretation -- a variant of the ADM decomposition splits the metric into density, velocity and stress tensor of some hypothetical medium so that continuity and Euler equations hold. The theory shares many nice properties of RTG (EEP, Einstein equations in a natural limit, no big bang and black hole singularities, local energy and momentum densities for the gravitational field and a symmetry preference for a flat universe), but is also compatible with standard $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology. We also give a first principles derivation of the Lagrangian.
Transverse multipolar light-matter couplings in evanescent waves
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Bonod, Nicolas; Rockstuhl, Carsten
2016-01-01
We present an approach to study the interaction between matter and evanescent fields. The approach is based on the decomposition of evanescent plane waves into multipoles of well-defined angular momentum transverse to both decay and propagation directions. We use the approach to identify the origin of the recently observed directional coupling of emitters into guided modes, and of the opposite Zeeman state excitation of atoms near a fiber. We explain how to rigorously quantify both effects, and show that the directionality and the difference in excitation rates grow exponentially with the multipolar order of the light-matter interaction. We also use the approach to study and maximize the transverse torque exerted by an evanescent plane wave onto a given spherical absorbing particle. The maximum occurs at the quadrupolar order of the particle, and for a particular polarization of the plane wave. All the obtained physical insights can be traced back to the two main features of the decomposition of evanescent pl...
New Phase Transitions in Chern-Simons Matter Theory
Zahabi, Ali
2015-01-01
Applying the machinery of random matrix theory and Toeplitz determinants we study the level $k$, $U(N)$ Chern-Simons theory coupled with fundamental matter on $S^2\\times S^1$ at finite temperature $T$. This theory admits a discrete matrix integral representation, i.e. a unitary discrete matrix model of two-dimensional Yang-Mills theory. In this study, the partition function and phase structure of the Chern-Simons matter theory in an special case with Gross-Witten-Wadia potential are investigated. We obtain an exact expression for the partition function of the Chern-Simons matter theory as a function of $k,N,T$, for finite values and in the asymptotic regime. In the Gross-Witten-Wadia case, we show that ratio of the Chern-Simons matter partition function and the continuous two-dimensional Yang-Mills partition function, in the asymptotic regime, is the Tracy-Widom distribution. Consequently, using the explicit results for free energy of the theory, new second order and third-order phase transitions are observed...
Novel Theory for Transient Light Matter Interaction
Mishina, Tomobumi
2016-01-01
A new theory is proposed for explaining the experimental results with intense short optical pulses. The theory is characterized by conjugate momentum interaction and especially large quantum enhancement factor and will unify the generation processes of coherent phonon formerly assigned as ISRS and DECP. It is applied to the instantaneous generation of lattice strain and the quantitative relation between the incident fluence and the resultant strain is shown.
Variational theory of nuclear and neutron matter
Pandharipande, V.R.; Wiringa, R.B. (Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (USA). Dept. of Physics; Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))
1989-06-01
In these lectures we will discuss attempts to solve the A = 3 to {infinity} nuclear many-body problems with the variational method. We choose the form of a variational wave function {Chi}{sub v}(1, 2{hor ellipsis}A) to describe the ground state. The {Chi}{sub v} and the ground-state energy E{sub v} are obtained by minimizing E{sub v} = {l angle}{Chi}{sub v}{vert bar}H{vert bar}{Chi}{sub v}{r angle}/{l angle}{Chi}{sub v}{vert bar}{Chi}{sub v}{r angle} with respect to variations in {Chi}{sub v}. If the form of the variational wave function is chosen properly we can expect {Chi}{sub v} {approx} {Chi}{sub 0} and E{sub v} {approx} E{sub 0} where {Chi}{sub 0} and E{sub 0} are the exact ground-state wave function and energy. In general E{sub v} {ge} E{sub 0} in variational calculations. 63 refs., 11 figs.
Discrete Wave-Packet Representation in Nuclear Matter Calculations
Müther, H; Kukulin, V I; Pomerantsev, V N
2016-01-01
The Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the nucleon-nucleon $t$-matrix as well as the corresponding Bethe-Goldstone equation to determine the Brueckner reaction matrix in nuclear matter are reformulated in terms of the resolvents for the total two-nucleon Hamiltonians defined in free space and in medium correspondingly. This allows to find solutions at many energies simultaneously by using the respective Hamiltonian matrix diagonalization in the stationary wave packet basis. Among other important advantages, this approach simplifies greatly the whole computation procedures both for coupled-channel $t$-matrix and the Brueckner reaction matrix. Therefore this principally novel scheme is expected to be especially useful for self-consistent nuclear matter calculations because it allows to accelerate in a high degree single-particle potential iterations. Furthermore the method provides direct access to the properties of possible two-nucleon bound states in the nuclear medium. The comparison between reaction matrices f...
Evanescent light-matter Interactions in Atomic Cladding Wave Guides
Stern, Liron; Goykhman, Ilya; Levy, Uriel
2012-01-01
Alkali vapors, and in particular rubidium, are being used extensively in several important fields of research such as slow and stored light non-linear optics3 and quantum computation. Additionally, the technology of alkali vapors plays a major role in realizing myriad industrial applications including for example atomic clocks magentometers8 and optical frequency stabilization. Lately, there is a growing effort towards miniaturizing traditional centimeter-size alkali vapor cells. Owing to the significant reduction in device dimensions, light matter interactions are greatly enhanced, enabling new functionalities due to the low power threshold needed for non-linear interactions. Here, taking advantage of the mature Complimentary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) compatible platform of silicon photonics, we construct an efficient and flexible platform for tailored light vapor interactions on a chip. Specifically, we demonstrate light matter interactions in an atomic cladding wave guide (ACWG), consisting of CMOS ...
Level/rank Duality and Chern-Simons-Matter Theories
Hsin, Po-Shen
2016-01-01
We discuss in detail level/rank duality in three-dimensional Chern-Simons theories and various related dualities in three-dimensional Chern-Simons-matter theories. We couple the dual Lagrangians to appropriate background fields (including gauge fields, spin$_c$ connections and the metric). The non-trivial maps between the currents and the line operators in the dual theories is accounted for by mixing of these fields. In order for the duality to be valid we must add finite counterterms depending on these background fields. This analysis allows us to resolve a number of puzzles with these dualities, to provide derivations of some of them, and to find new consistency conditions and relations between them. In addition, we find new level/rank dualities of topological Chern-Simons theories and new dualities of Chern-Simons-matter theories, including new boson/boson and fermion/fermion dualities.
Into the lair: gravitational-wave signatures of dark matter
Macedo, Caio F B; Cardoso, Vitor; Crispino, Luis C B
2013-01-01
The nature and properties of dark matter (DM) are both outstanding issues in physics. The universal character of gravity implies that self-gravitating compact DM configurations are not only possible, but likely to be spread throughout the universe. The astrophysical signature of these objects may be used to probe fundamental particle physics, or even to provide an alternative description of compact objects in active galactic nuclei. Here we discuss the most promising dissection tool of these configurations: the inspiral of a compact stellar-size object and consequent gravitational-wave emission. The inward motion of this "test probe" encodes unique information about the nature of the central, supermassive DM configuration. When the probe travels through some compact DM profile we show that, within a Newtonian approximation, the quasi-adiabatic evolution of the inspiral is mainly driven by DM accretion into the small compact object and by dynamical friction, rather than by gravitational-wave radiation-reaction...
Cosmology in ghost-free bigravity theory with twin matter fluids: The origin of "dark matter"
Aoki, Katsuki
2013-01-01
We study dynamics of Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetime based on the ghost-free bigravity theory. Assuming the coupling parameters guaranteeing the existence of de Sitter space as well as Minkowski spacetime, we find two stable attractors for spacetime with "twin" dust matter fields: One is de Sitter accelerating universe and the other is matter dominated universe. Although a considerable number of initial data leads to de Sitter universe, we also find matter dominated universe or spacetime with a future singularity for some initial data. The cosmic no-hair conjecture does not exactly hold, but the accelerating expansion can be found naturally. The $\\Lambda$-CDM model is obtained as an attractor. We also show that the dark matter component in the Friedmann equation, which originates from another twin matter, can be about 5 times larger than the baryonic matter, by choosing the appropriate coupling constants.
Coherent transport of matter waves in disordered optical potentials
Kuhn, Robert
2007-07-01
The development of modern techniques for the cooling and the manipulation of atoms in recent years, and the possibility to create Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases and to load them into regular optical lattices or disordered optical potentials, has evoked new interest for the disorder-induced localization of ultra-cold atoms. This work studies the transport properties of matter waves in disordered optical potentials, which are also known as speckle potentials. The effect of correlated disorder on localization is first studied numerically in the framework of the Anderson model. The relevant transport parameters in the configuration average over many different realizations of the speckle potential are then determined analytically, using self-consistent diagrammatic perturbation techniques. This allows to make predictions for a possible experimental observation of coherent transport phenomena for cold atoms in speckle potentials. Of particular importance are the spatial correlations of the speckle fluctuations, which are responsible for the anisotropic character of the single scattering processes in the effective medium. Coherent multiple scattering leads to quantum interference effects, which entail a renormalization of the diffusion constant as compared to the classical description. This so-called weak localization of matter waves is studied as the underlying mechanism for the disorder-driven transition to the Anderson-localization regime, explicitly taking into account the correlations of the speckle fluctuations. (orig.)
Antennas in matter: Fundamentals, theory, and applications
King, R. W. P.; Smith, G. S.; Owens, M.; Wu, T. T.
1981-01-01
The volume provides an introduction to antennas and probes embedded within or near material bodies such as the earth, the ocean, or a living organism. After a fundamental analysis of insulated and bare antennas, an advanced treatment of antennas in various media is presented, including a detailed study of the electromagnetic equations in homogeneous isotropic media, the complete theory of the bare dipole in a general medium, and a rigorous analysis of the insulated antenna as well as bare and insulated loop antennas. Finally, experimental models and measuring techniques related to antennas and probes in a general dissipative or dielectric medium are examined.
Discrete wave-packet representation in nuclear matter calculations
Müther, H.; Rubtsova, O. A.; Kukulin, V. I.; Pomerantsev, V. N.
2016-08-01
The Lippmann-Schwinger equation for the nucleon-nucleon t matrix as well as the corresponding Bethe-Goldstone equation to determine the Brueckner reaction matrix in nuclear matter are reformulated in terms of the resolvents for the total two-nucleon Hamiltonians defined in free space and in medium correspondingly. This allows one to find solutions at many energies simultaneously by using the respective Hamiltonian matrix diagonalization in the stationary wave-packet basis. Among other important advantages, this approach simplifies greatly the whole computation procedures both for the coupled-channel t matrix and the Brueckner reaction matrix. Therefore this principally novel scheme is expected to be especially useful for self-consistent nuclear matter calculations because it allows one to accelerate in a high degree single-particle potential iterations. Furthermore the method provides direct access to the properties of possible two-nucleon bound states in the nuclear medium. The comparison between reaction matrices found via the numerical solution of the Bethe-Goldstone integral equation and the straightforward Hamiltonian diagonalization shows a high accuracy of the method suggested. The proposed fully discrete approach opens a new way to an accurate treatment of two- and three-particle correlations in nuclear matter on the basis of the three-particle Bethe-Faddeev equation by an effective Hamiltonian diagonalization procedure.
Jeans Analysis for Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies in Wave Dark Matter
Chen, Shu-Rong; Chiueh, Tzihong
2016-01-01
Observations suggest that dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies exhibit large constant-density cores in the centers, which can hardly be explained by dissipationless cold dark matter simulations. Wave dark matter (${\\psi {\\rm DM}}$), characterized by a single parameter, the dark matter particle mass $m_{\\psi}$, predicts a central soliton core in every galaxy arising from quantum pressure against gravity. Here we apply Jeans analysis to the kinematic data of eight classical dSphs so as to constrain $m_{\\psi}$, and obtain $m_{\\psi}=1.18_{-0.24}^{+0.28}\\times10^{-22}{\\,\\rm eV}$ and $m_{\\psi}=1.79_{-0.33}^{+0.35}\\times10^{-22}{\\,\\rm eV}~(2\\sigma)$ using the observational data sets of Walker et al. (2007) and Walker et al. (2009b), respectively. We show that the estimate of $m_{\\psi}$ is sensitive to the dSphs kinematic data sets and is robust to various models of stellar density profile. We also consider multiple stellar subpopulations in dSphs and find consistent results. This mass range of $m_{\\psi}$ is in good agre...
A General Linear Wave Theory for Water Waves Propagating over Uneven Porous Bottoms
锁要红; 黄虎
2004-01-01
Starting from the widespread phenomena of porous bottoms in the near shore region, considering fully the diversity of bottom topography and wave number variation, and including the effect of evanescent modes, a general linear wave theory for water waves propagating over uneven porous bottoms in the near shore region is established by use of Green's second identity. This theory can be reduced to a number of the most typical mild-slope equations currently in use and provide a reliable research basis for follow-up development of nonlinear water wave theory involving porous bottoms.
Pribram-Jones, Aurora
Warm dense matter (WDM) is a high energy phase between solids and plasmas, with characteristics of both. It is present in the centers of giant planets, within the earth's core, and on the path to ignition of inertial confinement fusion. The high temperatures and pressures of warm dense matter lead to complications in its simulation, as both classical and quantum effects must be included. One of the most successful simulation methods is density functional theory-molecular dynamics (DFT-MD). Despite great success in a diverse array of applications, DFT-MD remains computationally expensive and it neglects the explicit temperature dependence of electron-electron interactions known to exist within exact DFT. Finite-temperature density functional theory (FT DFT) is an extension of the wildly successful ground-state DFT formalism via thermal ensembles, broadening its quantum mechanical treatment of electrons to include systems at non-zero temperatures. Exact mathematical conditions have been used to predict the behavior of approximations in limiting conditions and to connect FT DFT to the ground-state theory. An introduction to FT DFT is given within the context of ensemble DFT and the larger field of DFT is discussed for context. Ensemble DFT is used to describe ensembles of ground-state and excited systems. Exact conditions in ensemble DFT and the performance of approximations depend on ensemble weights. Using an inversion method, exact Kohn-Sham ensemble potentials are found and compared to approximations. The symmetry eigenstate Hartree-exchange approximation is in good agreement with exact calculations because of its inclusion of an ensemble derivative discontinuity. Since ensemble weights in FT DFT are temperature-dependent Fermi weights, this insight may help develop approximations well-suited to both ground-state and FT DFT. A novel, highly efficient approach to free energy calculations, finite-temperature potential functional theory, is derived, which has the
Excitation energy transfer processes in condensed matter theory and applications
Singh, Jai
1994-01-01
Applying a unified quantum approach, contributors offer fresh insights into the theoretical developments in the excitation energy transfer processes in condensed matter This comprehensive volume examines Frenkel and Wannier excitonic processes; rates of excitonic processes; theory of laser sputter and polymer ablation; and polarons, excitonic polarons and self-trapping
Black holes with surrounding matter in scalar-tensor theories.
Cardoso, Vitor; Carucci, Isabella P; Pani, Paolo; Sotiriou, Thomas P
2013-09-13
We uncover two mechanisms that can render Kerr black holes unstable in scalar-tensor gravity, both associated with the presence of matter in the vicinity of the black hole and the fact that this introduces an effective mass for the scalar. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the structure of spacetime in realistic, astrophysical black holes in scalar-tensor theories.
Why Theory Matters: An Examination of Contemporary Learning Time Reforms
DiGiacomo, Daniela K.; Prudhomme, Joshua J.; Jones, Hannah R.; Welner, Kevin G.; Kishner, Ben
2016-01-01
This article explores the contemporary policy reform push to extend and expand learning time in schools. In light of the potential and continued prominence of learning time reforms in today's national educational landscape, this article makes visible the ways in which theory matters for the near- and long-term success of equity-focused educational…
Bimetric gravity doubly coupled to matter: theory and cosmological implications
Akrami, Yashar; Koivisto, Tomi S.; Mota, David F.; Sandstad, Marit, E-mail: yashar.akrami@astro.uio.no, E-mail: t.s.koivisto@astro.uio.no, E-mail: d.f.mota@astro.uio.no, E-mail: marit.sandstad@astro.uio.no [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)
2013-10-01
A ghost-free theory of gravity with two dynamical metrics both coupled to matter is shown to be consistent and viable. Its cosmological implications are studied, and the models, in particular in the context of partially massless gravity, are found to explain the cosmic acceleration without resorting to dark energy.
Independent waves in complex source point theory.
Seshadri, S R
2007-11-01
The full-wave generalization of the scalar Gaussian paraxial beam is determined by an analytical continuation of the field of a point source for the Helmholtz equation. The regions of validity of the analytically continued fields are investigated for the outgoing and the incoming waves. The two independent wave functions valid for the two half-spaces separating the secondary source plane are deduced.
Cassani, W E R
2001-01-01
As a substitute for the current hypothesis of space-time continuity, we show the nature and the characteristics of a Schild's discrete space-time. With the wave perturbations of its metrical structure we formulate the working hypothesis that all subatomic particles are elementary sources of spherical waves constituting on the whole the mass fields, the electromagnetic and the nuclear field we attribute to the particles. The explicative effectiveness of the new wave unification between quantum mechanics and general relativity is shown by a wave interpretation of three experimental phenomena that lie different physics: astrophysics, optics and quantum physics. A further use of wave Compton effect leads us to discover a mechanism of wave resonance which is able to verify the possible existence of a source of elementary waves that shows a wave model of electron and all the particles. The wave nature of masses and the generalized effect of a Relative Symmetry Principle leads us to consider the inertia as a local c...
Pilot-wave approaches to quantum field theory
Struyve, Ward
2011-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of recent work on pilot-wave approaches to quantum field theory. In such approaches, systems are not only described by their wave function, as in standard quantum theory, but also by some additional variables. In the non-relativistic pilot-wave theory of de Broglie and Bohm those variables are particle positions. In the context of quantum field theory, there are two natural choices, namely particle positions and fields. The incorporation of those variables makes it possible to provide an objective description of nature in which rather ambiguous notions such as `measurement' and `observer' play no fundamental role. As such, the theory is free of the conceptual difficulties, such as the measurement problem, that plague standard quantum theory.
Stability in higher-derivative matter fields theories
Tretyakov, Petr V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kazan Federal University, Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics, Kazan (Russian Federation)
2016-09-15
We discuss possible instabilities in higher-derivative matter field theories. These theories have two free parameters β{sub 1} and β{sub 4}. By using a dynamical system approach we explicitly demonstrate that for the stability of Minkowski space in an expanding universe we need the condition β{sub 4} < 0. By using the quantum field theory approach we also find an additional restriction for the parameters, β{sub 1} > -(1)/(3)β{sub 4}, which is needed to avoid a tachyon-like instability. (orig.)
Statistical field theory description of inhomogeneous polarizable soft matter
Martin, Jonathan M.; Li, Wei; Delaney, Kris T.; Fredrickson, Glenn H.
2016-10-01
We present a new molecularly informed statistical field theory model of inhomogeneous polarizable soft matter. The model is based on fluid elements, referred to as beads, that can carry a net monopole of charge at their center of mass and a fixed or induced dipole through a Drude-type distributed charge approach. The beads are thus polarizable and naturally manifest attractive van der Waals interactions. Beyond electrostatic interactions, beads can be given soft repulsions to sustain fluid phases at arbitrary densities. Beads of different types can be mixed or linked into polymers with arbitrary chain models and sequences of charged and uncharged beads. By such an approach, it is possible to construct models suitable for describing a vast range of soft-matter systems including electrolyte and polyelectrolyte solutions, ionic liquids, polymerized ionic liquids, polymer blends, ionomers, and block copolymers, among others. These bead models can be constructed in virtually any ensemble and converted to complex-valued statistical field theories by Hubbard-Stratonovich transforms. One of the fields entering the resulting theories is a fluctuating electrostatic potential; other fields are necessary to decouple non-electrostatic interactions. We elucidate the structure of these field theories, their consistency with macroscopic electrostatic theory in the absence and presence of external electric fields, and the way in which they embed van der Waals interactions and non-uniform dielectric properties. Their suitability as a framework for computational studies of heterogeneous soft matter systems using field-theoretic simulation techniques is discussed.
Testing THEMIS wave measurements against the cold plasma theory
Taubenschuss, Ulrich; Santolik, Ondrej; Le Contel, Olivier; Bonnell, John
2016-04-01
The THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) mission records a multitude of electromagnetic waves inside Earth's magnetosphere and provides data in the form of high-resolution electric and magnetic waveforms. We use multi-component measurements of whistler mode waves and test them against the theory of wave propagation in a cold plasma. The measured ratio cB/E (c is speed of light in vacuum, B is magnetic wave amplitude, E is electric wave amplitude) is compared to the same quantity calculated from cold plasma theory over linearized Faraday's law. The aim of this study is to get estimates for measurement uncertainties, especially with regard to the electric field and the cold plasma density, as well as evaluating the validity of cold plasma theory inside Earth's radiation belts.
Millicharged dark matter in quantum gravity and string theory.
Shiu, Gary; Soler, Pablo; Ye, Fang
2013-06-14
We examine the millicharged dark matter scenario from a string theory perspective. In this scenario, kinetic and mass mixings of the photon with extra U(1) bosons are claimed to give rise to small electric charges, carried by dark matter particles, whose values are determined by continuous parameters of the theory. This seems to contradict folk theorems of quantum gravity that forbid the existence of irrational charges in theories with a single massless gauge field. By considering the underlying structure of the U(1) mass matrix that appears in type II string compactifications, we show that millicharges arise exclusively through kinetic mixing, and require the existence of at least two exactly massless gauge bosons.
Beta Value Coupled Wave Theory for Nonslanted Reflection Gratings
Cristian Neipp
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We present a modified coupled wave theory to describe the properties of nonslanted reflection volume diffraction gratings. The method is based on the beta value coupled wave theory, which will be corrected by using appropriate boundary conditions. The use of this correction allows predicting the efficiency of the reflected order for nonslanted reflection gratings embedded in two media with different refractive indices. The results obtained by using this method will be compared to those obtained using a matrix method, which gives exact solutions in terms of Mathieu functions, and also to Kogelnik’s coupled wave theory. As will be demonstrated, the technique presented in this paper means a significant improvement over Kogelnik’s coupled wave theory.
Index of refraction of molecular nitrogen for sodium matter waves
Loreau, J; Dalgarno, A
2013-01-01
We calculate the index of refraction of sodium matter waves propagating through a gas of nitrogen molecules. We use a recent ab initio potential for the ground state of the NaN_2 Van der Waals complex to perform quantal close-coupling calculations and compute the index of refraction as a function of the projectile velocity. We obtain good agreement with the available experimental data. We show that the refractive index contains glory oscillations, but that they are damped by the averaging over the thermal motion of the N_2 molecules. These oscillations appear at lower temperatures and projectile velocity. We also investigate the behavior of the refractive index at low temperature and low projectile velocity to show its dependence on the rotational state of N_2, and discuss the advantage of using diatomic molecules as projectiles.
Filtering of matter wave vibrational states via spatial adiabatic passage
Loiko, Yu; Corbalán, R; Birkl, G; Mompart, J; 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.033629
2011-01-01
We discuss the filtering of the vibrational states of a cold atom in an optical trap, by chaining this trap with two empty ones and controlling adiabatically the tunneling. Matter wave filtering is performed by selectively transferring the population of the highest populated vibrational state to the most distant trap while the population of the rest of the states remains in the initial trap. Analytical conditions for two-state filtering are derived and then applied to an arbitrary number of populated bound states. Realistic numerical simulations close to state-of-the-art experimental arrangements are performed by modeling the triple well with time dependent P\\"oschl-Teller potentials. In addition to filtering of vibrational states, we discuss applications for quantum tomography of the initial population distribution and engineering of atomic Fock states that, eventually, could be used for tunneling assisted evaporative cooling.
Synopsis of a Unified Theory for All Forces and Matter
Chen, Zeng-Bing
2016-01-01
Assuming the (9+1)-dimensional Kaluza-Klein gravity interacting with elementary matter fermions, we propose an informationally-complete unified theory for all forces. Due to entanglement-driven symmetry breaking, the SO(9,1) symmetry of the (9+1)-dimensional spacetime is reduced to SO(3,1)*SO(6), where SO(3,1) [SO(6)] is associated with (3+1)-dimensional gravity (gauge fields of matter fermions). The informational completeness demands that matter fermions must appear in three families, each having 15 independent matter fermions. After quantum compactification of six extra dimensions, a trinity---the quantized (3+1)-dimensional gravity, the three-family fermions of total number 45, and their SO(6) gauge fields---naturally arises in an effective theory for the (3+1)-dimensional spacetime. Both the fermion family state space and the compactified space are a simple three-state system equipped with an ungauging, e.g., SO(3) structure. Possible routes of our theory to the Standard Model are briefly discussed.
Nonlocal theory of longitudinal waves in thermoelastic bars
Esin Inan
1991-05-01
Full Text Available The longitudinal waves in thermoelastic bars are investigated in the context of nonlocal theory. Using integral forms of constitutive equations, balance of momenta and energy, field equations are obtained. Then the frequency equation is found in generalized form. To obtain tangible results, an approximate procedure is applied and numerical results are given for short waves.
Making Waves: The Theory and Practice of Black Feminism.
Taylor, Ula Y.
1998-01-01
Identifies crucial elements of black feminist theory as they surface in the scholarship and activism of black women at the end of the second wave of feminism in the 1970s and the beginnings of the third wave of feminism in the 1980s and 1990s. Socially constructed categories of race and power are emphasized. (SLD)
Theory of Spin Waves in Strongly Anisotropic Magnets
Lindgård, Per-Anker; Cooke, J. F.
1976-01-01
A new infinite-order perturbation approach to the theory of spin waves in strongly anisotropic magnets is introduced. The system is transformed into one with effective two-ion anisotropy and considerably reduced ground-state corrections. A general expression for the spin-wave energy, valid to any...
Experimental methods of molecular matter-wave optics.
Juffmann, Thomas; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Arndt, Markus
2013-08-01
We describe the state of the art in preparing, manipulating and detecting coherent molecular matter. We focus on experimental methods for handling the quantum motion of compound systems from diatomic molecules to clusters or biomolecules.Molecular quantum optics offers many challenges and innovative prospects: already the combination of two atoms into one molecule takes several well-established methods from atomic physics, such as for instance laser cooling, to their limits. The enormous internal complexity that arises when hundreds or thousands of atoms are bound in a single organic molecule, cluster or nanocrystal provides a richness that can only be tackled by combining methods from atomic physics, chemistry, cluster physics, nanotechnology and the life sciences.We review various molecular beam sources and their suitability for matter-wave experiments. We discuss numerous molecular detection schemes and give an overview over diffraction and interference experiments that have already been performed with molecules or clusters.Applications of de Broglie studies with composite systems range from fundamental tests of physics up to quantum-enhanced metrology in physical chemistry, biophysics and the surface sciences.Nanoparticle quantum optics is a growing field, which will intrigue researchers still for many years to come. This review can, therefore, only be a snapshot of a very dynamical process.
Slowly moving matter-wave gap soliton propagation in weak random nonlinear potential
Zhang Ming-Rui; Zhang Yong-Liang; Jiang Xun-Ya; Zi Jian
2008-01-01
We systematically investigate the motion of slowly moving matter-wave gap solitons in a nonlinear potential, produced by the weak random spatial variation of the atomic scattering length. With the weak randomness, we construct an effective-particle theory to study the motion of gap solitons. Based on the effective-particle theory, the effect of the randomness on gap solitous is obtained, and the motion of gap solitons is finally solved. Moreover, the analytic results for the general behaviours of gap soliton motion, such as the ensemble-average speed and the reflection probability depending on the weak randomness are obtained. We find that with the increase of the random strength the ensemble-average speed of gap solitons decreases slowly where the reduction is proportional to the variance of the weak randomness, and the reflection probability becomes larger. The theoretical results are in good agreement with the numerical simulations based on the Gross-Pitaevskii equation.
Warm Dark Matter in Low Scale Left-Right Theory
Nemevsek, Miha; Senjanovic, Goran; Zhang, Yue
2012-01-01
We investigate the viability of having dark matter in the minimal left-right symmetric theory. We find the lightest right-handed neutrino with a mass around keV as the only viable candidate consistent with a TeV scale of left-right symmetry. In order to account for the correct relic density with such low scales, the thermal overproduction of the dark matter in the early universe is compensated by a sufficient late entropy production due to late decay of heavier right-handed neutrinos. We poin...
The wave-particle duality in the Weyl-Dirac theory
Agop, M.; Nica, P.
2000-09-01
The solution of a static two-dimensional wave equation in the Gauss-Mainardi-Codazzi formalism of Weyl-Dirac theory is obtained in terms of the elliptic function with a complex argument. In particular, by double degenerating the elliptic function, wave-particle duality results. Associating a superconducting behaviour to matter, by means of the duality, we find some superconducting parameters: Bc2, the average carrier density, the gap energy and the pair-breaking time. The discontinuities of these parameters for sequences (1/3), (1/5), (1/7),... imply that the quantum spacetime is Cantorian.
Chala, Mikael [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Nardini, Germano [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Sobolev, Ivan [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. for Nuclear Research; Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Particle Physics and Cosmology
2016-05-15
A minimal extension of the Standard Model that provides both a dark matter candidate and a strong first-order electroweak phase transition (EWPT) consists of two additional Lorentz and gauge singlets. In this paper we work out a composite Higgs version of this scenario, based on the coset SO(7)/SO(6). We show that by embedding the elementary fermions in appropriate representations of SO(7), all dominant interactions are described by only three free effective parameters. Within the model dependencies of the embedding, the theory predicts one of the singlets to be stable and responsible for the observed dark matter abundance. At the same time, the second singlet introduces new CP-violation phases and triggers a strong first-order EWPT, making electroweak baryogenesis feasible. It turns out that this scenario does not conflict with current observations and it is promising for solving the dark matter and baryon asymmetry puzzles. The tight predictions of the model will be accessible at the forthcoming dark matter direct detection and gravitational wave experiments.
Chala, Mikael; Nardini, Germano; Sobolev, Ivan
2016-09-01
A minimal extension of the Standard Model that provides both a dark matter candidate and a strong first-order electroweak phase transition (EWPT) consists of two additional Lorentz and gauge singlets. In this paper we work out a composite Higgs version of this scenario, based on the coset S O (7 )/S O (6 ). We show that by embedding the elementary fermions in appropriate representations of S O (7 ), all dominant interactions are described by only three free effective parameters. Within the model dependencies of the embedding, the theory predicts one of the singlets to be stable and responsible for the observed dark matter abundance. At the same time, the second singlet introduces new C P -violation phases and triggers a strong first-order EWPT, making electroweak baryogenesis feasible. It turns out that this scenario does not conflict with current observations and it is promising for solving the dark matter and baryon asymmetry puzzles. The tight predictions of the model will be accessible at the forthcoming dark matter direct detection and gravitational wave experiments.
Sources of Gravitational Waves: Theory and Observations
Buonanno, Alessandra
2014-01-01
Gravitational-wave astronomy will soon become a new tool for observing the Universe. Detecting and interpreting gravitational waves will require deep theoretical insights into astronomical sources. The past three decades have seen remarkable progress in analytical and numerical computations of the source dynamics, development of search algorithms and analysis of data from detectors with unprecedented sensitivity. This Chapter is devoted to examine the advances and future challenges in understanding the dynamics of binary and isolated compact-object systems, expected cosmological sources, their amplitudes and rates, and highlights of results from gravitational-wave observations. All of this is a testament to the readiness of the community to open a new window for observing the cosmos, a century after gravitational waves were first predicted by Albert Einstein.
Matter, dark matter and gravitational waves from a GUT-scale U(1) phase transition
Domcke, Valerie
2013-09-15
The cosmological realization of the spontaneous breaking of B-L, the difference of baryon and lepton number, can generate the initial conditions for the hot early universe. In particular, we show that entropy, dark matter and a matter-antimatter asymmetry can be produced in accordance with current observations. If B-L is broken at the grand unification scale, F-term hybrid inflation can be realized in the false vacuum of unbroken B-L. The phase transition at the end of inflation, governed by tachyonic preheating, spontaneously breaks the U(1){sub B-L} symmetry and sets the initial conditions for the following perturbative reheating phase. We provide a detailed, time-resolved picture of the reheating process. The competition of cosmic expansion and entropy production leads to an intermediate plateau of constant temperature, which controls both the generated lepton asymmetry and the dark matter abundance. This enables us to establish relations between the neutrino and superparticle mass spectrum, rendering this mechanism testable. Moreover, we calculate the entire gravitational wave spectrum for this setup. This yields a promising possibility to probe cosmological B - L breaking with forthcoming gravitational wave detectors such as eLISA, advanced LIGO and BBO/DECIGO. The largest contribution is obtained from cosmic strings which is, for typical parameter values, at least eight orders of magnitude higher then the contribution from inflation. Finally, we study the possibility of realizing hybrid inflation in a superconformal framework. We find that superconformal D-term inflation is an interesting possibility generically leading to a two-field inflation model, but in its simplest version disfavoured by the recently published Planck data.
Proshyn Denys
2015-12-01
Full Text Available David Rapoport’s Wave theory of terrorism is one of the most oftencited theories in the literature on terrorist violence. Rapoport is praised for having provided researchers with a universal instrument which allows them to explain the origin and transformation of various historical types of terrorism by applying to them the concept of global waves of terrorist violence driven by universal political impulses. This article, testing the Wave theory against the recent phenomenon of homegrown jihadism in Europe, uncovers this theory’s fundamental weaknesses and questions its real academic and practical value.
Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments
Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, W.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.
2015-05-01
We examine the consequences of the effective eld theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering or current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral di*erences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.
Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments
Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, P.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.
2015-05-18
We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. Here. we demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.
Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments
Schneck, K; Cerdeno, D G; Mandic, V; Rogers, H E; Agnese, R; Anderson, A J; Asai, M; Balakishiyeva, D; Barker, D; Thakur, R Basu; Bauer, D A; Billard, J; Borgland, A; Brandt, D; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Caldwell, D O; Calkins, R; Chagani, H; Chen, Y; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Crewdson, C H; Cushman, P; Daal, M; Di Stefano, P C F; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Hall, J; Harris, H R; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jardin, D M; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kennedy, A; Leder, A; Loer, B; Asamar, E Lopez; Lukens, P; Mahapatra, R; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Mendoza, J D Morales; Oser, S M; Page, K; Page, W A; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Ricci, Y; Roberts, A; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Toback, D; Upadhyayula, S; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wilson, J S; Wright, D H; Yang, X; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Young, B A; Zhang, J
2015-01-01
We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.
Quintessence interacting dark energy from induced matter theory of gravity
Reyes, L M
2009-01-01
In the context of the induced matter theory of gravity, we investigate the possibility of deriving a 4D quintessential scenario where an interaction between dark energy and dark matter is allowed, and the dark energy component is modeled by a minimally coupled scalar field. Regarding the Ponce de Leon metric, we found that it is possible to obtain such scenario on which the energy densities of dark matter and dark energy, are both depending of the fifth extra coordinate. We obtain that the 4D induced scalar potential for the quintessence scalar field, has the same algebraic form to the one found by Zimdahl and Pavon in the context of usual 4D cosmology.
Supersymmetry and Branes in M-theory Plane-waves
Kim, N; Kim, Nakwoo; Yee, Jung-Tay
2003-01-01
We study brane embeddings in M-theory plane-waves and their supersymmetry. The relation with branes in AdS backgrounds via the Penrose limit is also explored. Longitudinal planar branes are originated from AdS branes while giant gravitons of AdS spaces become spherical branes which are realized as fuzzy spheres in the massive matrix theory.
THEORY?OF?WATER?WAVES?IN?AN?ELASTIC?VESSEL
D.Y.Hsieh
2000-01-01
Recent experiments related to the Dragon Wash phenomena showed that axisymmetric capillary waves appear first from excitation, and circumferential apillary waves appear after increase of the excitation strength. Based on this new finding, a theory of parametric resonance is developed in detail to explain the onset of the prominent circumferential capillary waves. Numerical computation is also carried out and the results agree generally with the experiments. Analysis and numerical computation are also presented to explain the generation of axisymmetric low-frequency gravity waves by the high-frequency external excitation.
Integrable multi atom matter-radiation models without rotating wave approximation
Kundu, Anjan
2004-01-01
Interacting matter-radiation models close to physical systems are proposed, which without rotating wave approximation and with matter-matter interactions are Bethe ansatz solvable. This integrable system is constructed from the elliptic Gaudin model at high spin limit, where radiative excitation can be included perturbatively.
Thermal Effects in Dense Matter Beyond Mean Field Theory
Constantinou, Constantinos; Prakash, Madappa
2016-01-01
The formalism of next-to-leading order Fermi Liquid Theory is employed to calculate the thermal properties of symmetric nuclear and pure neutron matter in a relativistic many-body theory beyond the mean field level which includes two-loop effects. For all thermal variables, the semi-analytical next-to-leading order corrections reproduce results of the exact numerical calculations for entropies per baryon up to 2. This corresponds to excellent agreement down to sub-nuclear densities for temperatures up to $20$ MeV. In addition to providing physical insights, a rapid evaluation of the equation of state in the homogeneous phase of hot and dense matter is achieved through the use of the zero-temperature Landau effective mass function and its derivatives.
Three-dimensional theory for light-matter interaction
Sørensen, Martin Westring; Sørensen, Anders Søndberg
2008-01-01
We present a full quantum mechanical three dimensional theory describing an electromagnetic field interacting with an ensemble of identical atoms. The theory is constructed such that it describes recent experiments on light-matter quantum interfaces, where the quantum fluctuations of light...... to a dressed state picture, where the light modes are solutions to the diffraction problem, and develop a perturbative expansion in the fluctuations. The fluctuations are due to quantum fluctuations as well as the random positions of the atoms. In this perturbative expansion we show how the quantum...... fluctuations are mapped between atoms and light while the random positioning of the atoms give rise to decay due to spontaneous emission. Furthermore we identify limits, where the full three dimensional theory reduce to the one dimensional theory typically used to describe the interaction....
Nucleon propagation through nuclear matter in chiral effective field theory
Mallik, S; Mishra, Hiranmaya
2007-01-01
We treat the propagation of nucleon in nuclear matter by evaluating the ensemble average of the two-point function of nucleon currents in the framework of the chiral effective field theory. We first derive the effective parameters of nucleon to one loop. The resulting formula for the effective mass was known previously and gives an absurd value at normal nuclear density. We then modify it following Weinberg's method for the two-nucleon system in the effective theory. Our results for the effective mass and the width of nucleon are compared with those in the literature.
Nucleon propagation through nuclear matter in chiral effective field theory
Mallik, S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India); Mishra, H. [Physical Research Laboratory, Theory Divison, Ahmedabad (India)
2007-05-15
We treat the propagation of a nucleon in nuclear matter by evaluating the ensemble average of the two-point function of the nucleon currents in the framework of chiral effective field theory. We first derive the effective parameters of the nucleon to one loop. The resulting formula for the effective mass has been known since before and gives an absurd value at normal nuclear density. We then modify it following Weinberg's method for the two-nucleon system in the effective theory. Our results for the effective mass and the width of the nucleon are compared with those in the literature. (orig.)
Nucleon propagation through nuclear matter in chiral effective field theory
Mallik, S.; Mishra, H.
2007-05-01
We treat the propagation of a nucleon in nuclear matter by evaluating the ensemble average of the two-point function of the nucleon currents in the framework of chiral effective field theory. We first derive the effective parameters of the nucleon to one loop. The resulting formula for the effective mass has been known since before and gives an absurd value at normal nuclear density. We then modify it following Weinberg’s method for the two-nucleon system in the effective theory. Our results for the effective mass and the width of the nucleon are compared with those in the literature.
Sound Wave in Hot Dense Matter Created in Heavy Ion Collision
Sun, X.; Yang, Z.
2005-01-01
A model to study the sound wave in hot dense matter created in heavy ion collisions by jet is proposed.The preliminary data of jet shape analysis of PHENIX Collaboration for all centralities and two directions is well explained in this model. Then the wavelength of the sound wave, the natural frequency of the hot dense matter and the speed of sound wave are estimated from the fit.
Schmid, Manfred; Kroupa, Pavel
2014-08-01
We construct an idealised universe for didactic purposes. This universe is assumed to consist of absolute Euclidean space and to be filled with a classical medium which allows for sound waves. A known solution to the wave equation describing the dynamics of the medium is a standing spherical wave. Although this is a problem of classical mechanics, we demonstrate that the Lorentz transformation is required to generate a moving solution from the stationary one. Both solutions are here collectively referred to as "spherons". These spherons exhibit properties which have analogues in the physical description of matter with rest mass, among them de Broglie like phase waves and at the same time "relativistic" effects such as contraction and a speed limit. This leads to a theory of special relativity by assuming the point of view of an observer made of such spheronic "matter". The argument made here may thus be useful as a visualisation or didactic approach to the real universe, in which matter has wave-like properties and obeys the laws of special relativity.
Schmid, Manfred
2014-01-01
We construct an idealized universe for didactic purposes. This universe is assumed to consist of absolute Euclidean space and to be filled with a classical medium which allows for sound waves. A known solution to the wave equation describing the dynamics of the medium is a standing spherical wave. Although this is a problem of classical mechanics, we demonstrate that the Lorentz transformation is required to generate a moving solution from the stationary one. Both solutions are here collectively referred to as "spherons". These spherons exhibit properties which have analogues in the physical description of matter with rest mass, among them de Broglie like phase waves and at the same time "relativistic" effects such as contraction and a speed limit. This leads to a theory of special relativity by assuming the point of view of an observer made of such spheronic "matter". The argument made here may thus be useful as a visualisation or didactic approach to the real universe, in which matter has wave-like properti...
Superconformal Chern-Simons-matter theories in N =4 superspace
Kuzenko, Sergei M.; Samsonov, Igor B.
2015-11-01
In three dimensions, every known N =4 supermultiplet has an off-shell completion. However, there is no off-shell N =4 formulation for the known extended superconformal Chern-Simons (CS) theories with eight and more supercharges. To achieve a better understanding of this issue, we provide N =4 superfield realizations for the equations of motion which correspond to various N =4 and N =6 superconformal CS theories, including the Gaiotto-Witten theory and the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory. These superfield realizations demonstrate that the superconformal CS theories with N ≥4 (except for the Gaiotto-Witten theory) require a reducible long N =4 vector multiplet, from which the standard left and right N =4 vector multiplets are obtained by constraining the field strength to be either self-dual or antiself-dual. Such a long multiplet naturally originates upon reduction of any off-shell N >4 vector multiplet to N =4 superspace. For the long N =4 vector multiplet we develop a prepotential formulation. It makes use of two prepotentials being subject to the constraint which defines the so-called hybrid projective multiplets introduced in the framework of N =4 supergravity-matter systems in arXiv:1101.4013. We also couple N =4 superconformal CS theories to N =4 conformal supergravity.
Matter-wave propagation in optical lattices: geometrical and flat-band effects
Metcalf, Mekena; Chern, Gia-Wei; Di Ventra, Massimiliano; Chien, Chih-Chun
2016-04-01
The geometry of optical lattices can be engineered, allowing the study of atomic transport along paths arranged in patterns that are otherwise difficult to probe in the solid state. A question feasible to atomic systems is related to the speed of matter-wave propagation as a function of the lattice geometry. To address this issue, we investigated, theoretically, the quantum transport of noninteracting and weakly-interacting ultracold fermionic atoms in several 2D optical lattice geometries. We find that the triangular lattice has a higher propagation velocity compared to the square lattice, and the cross-linked square lattice has an even faster propagation velocity. The increase results from the mixing of the momentum states which leads to different group velocities in quantum systems. Standard band theory provides an explanation and allows for a systematic way to search and design systems with controllable matter-wave propagation. Moreover, the presence of a flat band such as in a two-leg ladder geometry leads to a dynamical density discontinuity due to its localized atoms. Possible realizations of those dynamical phenomena are discussed.
Black holes and gravitational waves in models of minicharged dark matter
Cardoso, Vitor; Pani, Paolo; Ferrari, Valeria
2016-01-01
In viable models of minicharged dark matter, astrophysical black holes might be charged under a hidden $U(1)$ symmetry and are formally described by the same Kerr-Newman solution of Einstein-Maxwell theory. These objects are unique probes of minicharged dark matter and dark photons. We show that the recent gravitational-wave detection of a binary black-hole coalescence by aLIGO provides various observational bounds on the black hole's charge, regardless of its nature. The pre-merger inspiral phase can be used to constrain the dipolar emission of (ordinary and dark) photons, whereas the detection of the quasinormal modes set an upper limit on the final black hole's charge. By using a toy model of a point charge plunging into a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole, we also show that in dynamical processes the (hidden) electromagnetic quasinormal modes of the final object are excited to considerable amplitude in the gravitational-wave spectrum only when the black hole is nearly extremal. The coalescence produces a burs...
Dual Matter-Wave Inertial Sensors in Weightlessness
Barrett, Brynle; Chichet, Laure; Battelier, Baptiste; Lévèque, Thomas; Landragin, Arnaud; Bouyer, Philippe
2016-01-01
Quantum technology based on cold-atom interferometers is showing great promise for fields such as inertial sensing and fundamental physics. However, the best precision achievable on Earth is limited by the free-fall time of the atoms, and their full potential can only be realized in Space where interrogation times of many seconds will lead to unprecedented sensitivity. Various mission scenarios are presently being pursued which plan to implement matter-wave inertial sensors. Toward this goal, we realize the first onboard operation of simultaneous $^{87}$Rb $-$ $^{39}$K interferometers in the weightless environment produced during parabolic flight. The large vibration levels ($10^{-2}~g/\\sqrt{\\rm Hz}$), acceleration range ($0-1.8~g$) and rotation rates ($5$ deg/s) during flight present significant challenges. We demonstrate the capability of our dual-quantum sensor by measuring the E\\"{o}tv\\"{o}s parameter with systematic-limited uncertainties of $1.1 \\times 10^{-3}$ and $3.0 \\times 10^{-4}$ during standard- a...
Matter-wave diffraction at the natural limit
Brand, Christian; Sclafani, Michele; Knobloch, Christian; Lilach, Yigal; Juffmann, Thomas; Kotakoski, Jani; Mangler, Clemens; Winter, Andreas; Turchanin, Andrey; Meyer, Jannik; Cheshnovsky, Ori; Arndt, Markus
2016-05-01
The high sensitivity of matter-wave interferometry experiments to forces and perturbations makes them an essential tool for precision measurements and tests of quantum physics. While mostly grating made of laser-light are used, material gratings have the advantage that they are independent of the particle's internal properties. This makes them universally applicable. However, the molecules will experience substantial van der Waals shifts while passing the grating slits, which suggests limiting this perturbation by reducing the material thickness. In a comprehensive study we compared the van der Waals interactions for free-standing gratings made from single and double layer graphene to masks commonly used in atom interferometry. From the population of high fringe orders we deduce a surprisingly strong electrical interaction between the polarizable molecules and the nanomasks. As even for these thinnest diffraction elements which-path information is not shared with the environment, we interpret this as an experimental affirmation of Bohr's arguments in his famous debate with Einstein.
Scalar Gravitational Waves in the Effective Theory of Gravity
Mottola, Emil
2016-01-01
As a low energy effective field theory, classical General Relativity receives an infrared relevant modification from the conformal trace anomaly of the energy-momentum tensor of massless, or nearly massless, quantum fields. The local form of the effective action associated with the trace anomaly is expressed in terms of a dynamical scalar field that couples to the conformal factor of the spacetime metric, allowing it to propagate over macroscopic distances. Linearized around flat spacetime, this semi-classical EFT admits scalar gravitational wave solutions in addition to the transversely polarized tensor waves of the classical Einstein theory. The amplitude, Hamiltonian, energy flux, and quantization of the scalar wave modes are discussed. Astrophysical sources for scalar gravitational waves are considered, with the excited gluonic condensates in the interiors of neutron stars in merger events with other compact objects likely to provide the strongest burst signals.
Adiabatic theory of solitons fed by dispersive waves
Pickartz, Sabrina; Bandelow, Uwe; Amiranashvili, Shalva
2016-09-01
We consider scattering of low-amplitude dispersive waves at an intense optical soliton which constitutes a nonlinear perturbation of the refractive index. Specifically, we consider a single-mode optical fiber and a group velocity matched pair: an optical soliton and a nearly perfectly reflected dispersive wave, a fiber-optical analog of the event horizon. By combining (i) an adiabatic approach that is used in soliton perturbation theory and (ii) scattering theory from quantum mechanics, we give a quantitative account of the evolution of all soliton parameters. In particular, we quantify the increase in the soliton peak power that may result in the spontaneous appearance of an extremely large, so-called champion soliton. The presented adiabatic theory agrees well with the numerical solutions of the pulse propagation equation. Moreover, we predict the full frequency band of the scattered dispersive waves and explain an emerging caustic structure in the space-time domain.
Hot and dense matter beyond relativistic mean field theory
Zhang, Xilin
2016-01-01
Properties of hot and dense matter are calculated in the framework of quantum hadro-dynamics by including contributions from two-loop (TL) diagrams arising from the exchange of iso-scalar and iso-vector mesons between nucleons. Our extension of mean-field theory (MFT) employs the same five density-independent coupling strengths which are calibrated using the empirical properties at the equilibrium density of iso-spin symmetric matter. Results of calculations from the MFT and TL approximations are compared for conditions of density, temperature, and proton fraction encountered in astrophysics applications involving compact objects. The TL results for the equation of state (EOS) of cold pure neutron matter at sub- and near-nuclear densities agree well with those of modern quantum Monte Carlo and effective field-theoretical approaches. Although the high-density EOS in the TL approximation for neutron-star matter is substantially softer than its MFT counterpart, it is able to support a $2M_\\odot$ neutron star req...
Galiev, Sh. U.
2003-08-01
A non-linear theory of transresonant wave phenomena based on consideration of perturbed wave equations is presented. In particular, the waves in a surface layer of a porous compressible viscoelastoplastic material are considered. For such layers the 3-D equations of deformable media are reduced to 1-D or 2-D perturbed wave equations. A set of approximate, closed-form, general solutions of these equations are presented, which take into account non-linear, dissipative, dispersive, topographic and boundary effects. Then resonant, site and liquefaction effects are analysed. Resonance is considered as a global parameter. Transresonant evolution of the equations is studied. Within the resonant band, utt~a20∇2u and the perturbed wave equations transform into non-linear diffusion equations, either to a basic highly non-linear ordinary differential equation or to the basic algebraic equation for travelling waves. Resonances can destroy predictability and wave reversibility. Surface topography (valleys, islands, etc.) is considered as a series of earthquake-induced resonators. A non-linear transresonant evolution of smooth seismic waves into shock-, jet- and mushroom-like waves and vortices is studied. The amplitude of the resonant waves may be of the order of the square or cube root of the exciting amplitude. Therefore, seismic waves with a moderate amplitude can be amplified very strongly in natural resonators, whereas strong seismic waves can be attenuated. Reports of the 1835 February 20 Chilean earthquake given by Charles Darwin are qualitatively examined using the non-linear theory. The theory qualitatively describes the `shivering' of islands and ridges, volcano spouts and generation of tsunami-like waves and supports Darwin's opinion that these events were part of a single phenomenon. Same-day earthquake/eruption events and catastrophic amplification of seismic waves near the edge of sediment layers are discussed. At the same time the theory can account for recent
Use of distorted waves in the theory of inelastic scattering
Picklesimer, A.; Tandy, P.C.; Thaler, R.M.
1982-03-01
A distorted wave description of inelastic scattering of nucleons from nuclei is formulated so that the microscopic content of the various ingredients can be made explicit. Special care is taken to ensure that physical processes are not overcounted as a consequence of the use of distorted waves in both the initial and final channels. Two attitudes to applications of the theory are taken. In the first, it is assumed that phenomenological distorted waves are employed and attention is focused upon the microscopic transition potential and the final distorted wave. Theoretically based recommendations for practical calculations of both these quantities are given. Secondly, we present a completely microscopic treatment wherein the truncations of the microscopic distorting potentials and the transition potential, at the single scattering level, are consistent with the underlying theoretical framework which links them. Our approach is designed to embody the distorted wave impulse approximation as a suitable lowest order result. Again, recommendations for practical calculations are given.
A dual formulation of supergravity-matter theories
Butter, Daniel
2011-01-01
Generating supersymmetric AdS solutions in non-minimal supergravity in four dimensions is notoriously difficult. Indeed, it is a longstanding lore that such solutions exist only for old minimal supergravity. In this paper, we construct a dual formulation for general N=1 supergravity-matter systems that avoids the problem. In the case of pure supergravity without a cosmological constant, it coincides with the usual non-minimal (n=-1) supergravity, but in the presence of matter (or a cosmological constant) our formulation differs considerably. We also elaborate upon the framework of conformal superspace and the compensator method as applied to our theory. Finally, we show that one can encode the details of the Kahler potential and superpotential entirely within the geometry of superspace so that the general sigma-model action is encoded in a single compact term: the supervolume.
Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments
Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, P.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.
2015-05-18
We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.
10th International Workshop on Condensed Matter Theories
Kalia, Rajiv; Bishop, R
1987-01-01
The second volume of Condensed Matter Theories contains the proceedings of the 10th International Workshop held at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, U.S.A. during the week of July 21, 1986. The workshop was attended by high-energy, nuclear and condensed-matter physicists as well as materials scientists. This diverse blend of participants was in keeping with the flavor of the previous workshops. This annual series of international workshops was"started in 1977 in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Subsequent'workshops were held in Trieste (Italy), Buenos Aires (Argentina), Caracas (Venezuela), Altenberg (West Germany), Granada (Spain), and San Francisco (U.S.A.). What began as a meeting of the physicists from the Western Hemisphere has expanded in the last three years into an international conference of scientists with diverse interests and backgrounds. This diversity has promoted a healthy exchange of ideas from different branches of physics and also fruitful interactions among the participants. The present volume is...
HYDRODYNAMICS THEORY AND CALCULATION IN WATER WAVE PUMP DESIGN
LIU Ying-xue; TAO Yi; LIU Gao-lian
2005-01-01
This paper introduces the hydrodynamics theory related to water wave pump.Water wave pump is a new type pump, which uses the particular quality of water wave and re-divides the inflow energy to increase the pressure of one part of the inflow water with the rest water flowing away freely.The research and development of such a pump is of importance and significant value and profitable social interest in that it can fully utilize the residual energy of natural source in industrial and civil water circle systems.Through hydrodynamics research and calculation, a series of valid design parameters were obtained and the predicted results achieved.
Third Wave Feminism's Unhappy Marriage of Poststructuralism and Intersectionality Theory
Susan Archer Mann
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This article first traces the history of unhappy marriages of disparate theoretical perspectives in US feminism. In recent decades, US third-wave authors have arranged their own unhappy marriage in that their major publications reflect an attempt to wed poststructuralism with intersectionality theory. Although the standpoint epistemology of intersectionality theory shares some common ground with the epistemology of poststructuralism, their epistemological assumptions conflict on a number of important dimensions. This contested terrain has generated serious debates within the third wave and between second- and thirdwave feminists. The form, content, and political implications of their "unhappy marriage" are the subject of this article.
Coupled wave versus modal theory in uniform dielectric gratings
Russell, P. St. J.
1983-11-01
The philosophical bases of coupled wave and modal theories are explored and compared. For the particular case of the diffraction of light by thick, uniform dielectric gratings, they are investigated in detail. It is shown that Moharam and Gaylord's recent accurate method for solving the coupled wave equations (JOSA 71 (1981) 811) is exactly equivalent to the modal (or Floquet-Bloch) approach, and hence that their results can be interpreted in an alternative manner using the many valuable intuitional insights offered by Floquet-Bloch theory.
The effective field theory of dark matter direct detection
Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Haxton, Wick; Katz, Emanuel; Lubbers, Nicholas; Xu, Yiming
2013-02-01
We extend and explore the general non-relativistic effective theory of dark matter (DM) direct detection. We describe the basic non-relativistic building blocks of operators and discuss their symmetry properties, writing down all Galilean-invariant operators up to quadratic order in momentum transfer arising from exchange of particles of spin 1 or less. Any DM particle theory can be translated into the coefficients of an effective operator and any effective operator can be simply related to most general description of the nuclear response. We find several operators which lead to novel nuclear responses. These responses differ significantly from the standard minimal WIMP cases in their relative coupling strengths to various elements, changing how the results from different experiments should be compared against each other. Response functions are evaluated for common DM targets — F, Na, Ge, I, and Xe — using standard shell model techniques. We point out that each of the nuclear responses is familiar from past studies of semi-leptonic electroweak interactions, and thus potentially testable in weak interaction studies. We provide tables of the full set of required matrix elements at finite momentum transfer for a range of common elements, making a careful and fully model-independent analysis possible. Finally, we discuss embedding non-relativistic effective theory operators into UV models of dark matter.
Baryons, monopoles and dualities in Chern-Simons-matter theories
Aharony, Ofer [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot, 7610001 (Israel)
2016-02-15
There is significant evidence for a duality between (non-supersymmetric) U(N) Chern-Simons theories at level k coupled to fermions, and U(k) Chern-Simons theories at level N coupled to scalars. Most of the evidence comes from the large N ’t Hooft limit, where many details of the duality (such as whether the gauge group is U(N) or SU(N), the precise level of the U(1) factor, and order one shifts in the level) are not important. The main evidence for the validity of the duality at finite N comes from adding masses and flowing to pure Chern-Simons theories related by level-rank duality, and from flowing to the non-supersymmetric duality from supersymmetric dualities, whose finite N validity is well-established. In this note we clarify the implications of these flows for the precise form of the duality; in particular we argue that in its simplest form the duality maps SU(N) theories to U(k) theories, though there is also another version relating U(N) to U(k). This precise form strongly affects the mapping under the duality of baryon and monopole operators, and we show, following arguments by Radičević, that their mapping is consistent with our claims. We also discuss the implications of our results for the additional duality between these Chern-Simons matter theories and (the UV completion of) high-spin gravity theories on AdS{sub 4}. The latter theories should contain heavy particles carrying electric and/or magnetic charges under their U(1) gauge symmetry.
Modified gravity and Space-Time-Matter theory
Darabi, F
2009-01-01
The correspondence between $f(R)$ theories of gravity and model theories explaining induced dark energy in a 5D Ricci-flat universe, known as the Space-Time-Matter theory (STM), is studied. It is shown that such correspondence may be used to interpret the four dimensional expressions, induced from geometry in 5D STM theories, in terms of the extra terms appearing in $f(R)$ theories of gravity. The method is demonstrated by providing an explicit example in which a given $f(R)$ is used to predict the properties of the corresponding 5D Ricci-flat universe. The accelerated expansion and the induced dark energy in a 5D Ricci-flat universe characterized by a big bounce is studied and it is shown that an arbitrary function $\\mu(t)$ in the 5D solutions can be rewritten, in terms of the redshift $z$, as a new arbitrary function $F(z)$ which corresponds to the 4D curvature quintessence models.
Rica, Sergio
2016-01-01
The recent observation of gravitational waves, stimulates the question of the longtime evolution of the space-time fluctuations. Gravitational waves interact themselves through the nonlinear character of Einstein's equations of general relativity. This nonlinear wave interaction allows the spectral energy transfer from mode to mode. According to the wave turbulence theory, the weakly nonlinear interaction of gravitational waves leads to the existence of an irreversible kinetic regime that dominates the longtime evolution. The resulting kinetic equation suggests the existence of an equilibrium wave spectrum and the existence of a non-equilibrium Kolmogorov-Zakharov spectrum for spatio-temporal fluctuations. Evidence of these solutions extracted in the fluctuating signal of the recent observations will be discussed in the paper. Probably, the present results would be pertinent in the new age of development of gravitational astronomy, as well as, in new tests of General Relativity.
Extending geometrical optics: A Lagrangian theory for vector waves
Ruiz, D. E.
2016-10-01
Even diffraction aside, the commonly known equations of geometrical optics (GO) are not entirely accurate. GO considers wave rays as classical particles, which are completely described by their coordinates and momenta, but rays have another degree of freedom, namely, polarization. As a result, wave rays can behave as particles with spin. A well-known example of polarization dynamics is wave-mode conversion, which can be interpreted as rotation of the (classical) ``wave spin.'' However, there are other less-known manifestations of the wave spin, such as polarization precession and polarization-driven bending of ray trajectories. This talk presents recent advances in extending and reformulating GO as a first-principle Lagrangian theory, whose effective-gauge Hamiltonian governs both mentioned polarization phenomena simultaneously. Examples and numerical results are presented. When applied to classical waves, the theory correctly predicts the polarization-driven divergence of left- and right- polarized electromagnetic waves in isotropic media, such as dielectrics and nonmagnetized plasmas. In the case of particles with spin, the formalism also yields a point-particle Lagrangian model for the Dirac electron, i.e. the relativistic spin-1/2 electron, which includes both the Stern-Gerlach spin potential and the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi spin precession. Additionally, the same theory contributes, perhaps unexpectedly, to the understanding of ponderomotive effects in both wave and particle dynamics; e.g., the formalism allows to obtain the ponderomotive Hamiltonian for a Dirac electron interacting with an arbitrarily large electromagnetic laser field with spin effects included. Supported by the NNSA SSAA Program through DOE Research Grant No. DE-NA0002948, by the U.S. DOE through Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466, and by the U.S. DOD NDSEG Fellowship through Contract No. 32-CFR-168a.
Search for light scalar dark matter with atomic gravitational wave detectors
Arvanitaki, Asimina; Hogan, Jason M; Rajendran, Surjeet; Van Tilburg, Ken
2016-01-01
We show that gravitational wave detectors based on a type of atom interferometry are sensitive to ultralight scalar dark matter. Such dark matter can cause temporal oscillations in fundamental constants with a frequency set by the dark matter mass, and amplitude determined by the local dark matter density. The result is a modulation of atomic transition energies. This signal is ideally suited to a type of gravitational wave detector that compares two spatially separated atom interferometers referenced by a common laser. Such a detector can improve on current searches for electron-mass or electric-charge modulus dark matter by up to 10 orders of magnitude in coupling, in a frequency band complementary to that of other proposals. It demonstrates that this class of atomic sensors is qualitatively different from other gravitational wave detectors, including those based on laser interferometry. By using atomic-clock-like interferometers, laser noise is mitigated with only a single baseline. These atomic sensors ca...
Geometric nonlinearities in field theory, condensed matter and analytical mechanics
J.J. Sławianowski
2010-01-01
Full Text Available There are two very important subjects in physics: Symmetry of dynamical models and nonlinearity. All really fundamental models are invariant under some particular symmetry groups. There is also no true physics, no our Universe and life at all, without nonlinearity. Particularly interesting are essential, non-perturbative nonlinearities which are not described by correction terms imposed on some well-defined linear background. Our idea in this paper is that there exists some mysterious, still incomprehensible link between essential, physically relevant nonlinearity and dynamical symmetry, first of all, of large symmetry groups. In some sense the problem is known even in soliton theory, where the essential nonlinearity is often accompanied by the infinite system of integrals of motion, thus, by infinite-dimensional symmetry groups. Here we discuss some more familiar problems from the realm of field theory, condensed matter physics, and analytical mechanics, where the link between essential nonlinearity and high symmetry is obvious, although not fully understandable.
Theory of the equation of state of hot dense matter
Barbee, T W; Surh, M; Yang, L H
1999-07-23
Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations are adapted to treat dense plasmas for temperatures exceeding the electronic Fermi temperature. Extended electronic states are obtained in a plane wave basis by using pseudopotentials for the ion cores in the local density approximation to density functional theory. The method reduces to conventional first principles molecular dynamics at low temperatures with the expected high level of accuracy. The occurrence of thermally excited ion cores at high temperatures is treated by means of final state pseudopotentials. The method is applied to the shock compression Hugoniot equation of state for aluminum. Good agreement with experiment is found for temperatures ranging from zero through 105K.
Lush, David C
2016-01-01
It is investigated whether the Planck-Einstein relation between the energy and frequency of light quanta, and the de Broglie wavelength of matter can be wholly or partially explained as consequences of the relativistic Doppler shift of electromagnetic fields caused by oscillating electric dipoles within the elementary particles constituting light and matter, and their electromagnetic interaction with similarly constituted particles. Assuming the oscillation is at the zitterbewegung frequency of the Dirac electron theory, the photon energy is found to be approximately half the value expected according to the Planck-Einstein relation. The relativistically Doppler shifted time-symmetric electromagnetic field due to the particle is found to have a superluminal phase velocity equal to that of the de Broglie matter wave, a group velocity equal to the particle velocity, and a wavelength of \\(h/p\\).
Theory of superconductivity of gravitation and the dark matter enigma
Santiago-Germán, Wenceslao
2011-01-01
In this article, the question of the nature of cold dark matter is approached from a new angle. By invoking the Cauchy problem of relativity it is shown how, under very precise astrophysical conditions, the Einstein general theory of relativity is formally equivalent to the Ginzburg-Landau theory of superconductivity. This fact lead us to suspect that the superconductivity of gravitation ought to be a real physical process occurring in the outskirts of galaxies. It is found that quantum mechanically gravity can achieve a type-II superconductor state characterised by the Gizburg-Landau parameter $\\kappa=1.5$, and it is suggested that a probability flux of Cooper pairs (quantum gravitational geons charged with vacuum energy) are directly responsible for the flatness exhibited by the rotation curves in spiral galaxies, as well as the exotic behaviour observed in galactic cluster collisions. If this hypothesis proves correct, the whole phenomenon of dark matter may count, after all, as another triumph for Einstei...
On Wave Dark Matter, Shells in Elliptical Galaxies, and the Axioms of General Relativity
Bray, Hubert L
2012-01-01
This paper is a sequel to the author's paper entitled "On Dark Matter, Spiral Galaxies, and the Axioms of General Relativity" [arXiv:1004.4016] which explored a geometrically natural axiomatic definition for dark matter modeled by a scalar field satisfying the Einstein-Klein-Gordon wave equations which, after much calculation, was shown to be consistent with the observed spiral and barred spiral patterns in disk galaxies. We give an update on where things stand on this "wave dark matter" model of dark matter (aka scalar field dark matter and boson stars), an interesting alternative to the WIMP model of dark matter, and discuss how it has the potential to help explain the long-observed interleaved shell patterns, also known as ripples, in the images of elliptical galaxies.
The Ballistic Pressure Wave Theory of Handgun Bullet Incapacitation
Courtney, Michael
2008-01-01
This paper presents a summary of seven distinct chains of evidence, which, taken together, provide compelling support for the theory that a ballistic pressure wave radiating outward from the penetrating projectile can contribute to wounding and incapacitating effects of handgun bullets. These chains of evidence include the fluid percussion model of traumatic brain injury, observations of remote ballistic pressure wave injury in animal models, observations of rapid incapacitation highly correlated with pressure magnitude in animal models, epidemiological data from human shootings showing that the probability of incapacitation increases with peak pressure magnitude, case studies in humans showing remote pressure wave damage in the brain and spinal cord, and observations of blast waves causing remote brain injury.
An overview of gravitational waves theory, sources and detection
Auger, Gerard
2017-01-01
This book describes detection techniques used to search for and analyze gravitational waves (GW). It covers the whole domain of GW science, starting from the theory and ending with the experimental techniques (both present and future) used to detect them. The theoretical sections of the book address the theory of general relativity and of GW, followed by the theory of GW detection. The various sources of GW are described as well as the methods used to analyse them and to extract their physical parameters. It includes an analysis of the consequences of GW observations in terms of astrophysics as well as a description of the different detectors that exist and that are planned for the future. With the recent announcement of GW detection and the first results from LISA Pathfinder, this book will allow non-specialists to understand the present status of the field and the future of gravitational wave science
Use of distorted waves in the theory of inelastic scattering
Picklesimer, A.; Tandy, P. C.; Thaler, R. M.
1982-03-01
A distorted wave description of inelastic scattering of nucleons from nuclei is formulated so that the microscopic content of the various ingredients can be made explicit. Special care is taken to ensure that physical processes are not overcounted as a consequence of the use of distorted waves in both the initial and final channels. Two attitudes to applications of the theory are taken. In the first, it is assumed that phenomenological distorted waves are employed and attention is focused upon the microscopic transition potential and the final distorted wave. Theoretically based recommendations for practical calculations of both these quantities are given. Secondly, we present a completely microscopic treatment wherein the truncations of the microscopic distorting potentials and the transition potential, at the single scattering level, are consistent with the underlying theoretical framework which links them. Our approach is designed to embody the distorted wave impulse approximation as a suitable lowest order result. Again, recommendations for practical calculations are given. NUCLEAR REACTIONS Inelastic scattering, distorted wave Born approximation, distorted wave impulse approximation, multiple scattering.
2015-05-05
AND SUBTITLE LASER-DRIVEN ULTRA-RELATIVISTIC PLASMAS - NUCLEAR FUSION IN COULOMB SHOCK WAVES, ROUGE WAVES, AND BACKGROUND MATTER. 5a. CONTRACT...blackbody radiation on free electrons .........................9 2.vi. Proposal of ultimate test of laser nuclear fusion efficiency in clusters...domain of energies and temperatures, with applications in particular to controlled nuclear fusion . 2. Final technical report on the grant #F49620-11-1
Self-induced dipole force and filamentation instability of a matter wave
Saffman, M.
1998-01-01
The interaction of copropagating electromagnetic and matter waves is described with a set of coupled higher-order nonlinear Schrodinger equations. Optical self-focusing modulates an initially planar wave leading to the generation of dipole forces on the atoms. Atomic channeling due to the dipole...
Coherent control of light-matter interactions in polarization standing waves
Fang, Xu; MacDonald, Kevin F.; Plum, Eric; Zheludev, Nikolay I.
2016-08-01
We experimentally demonstrate that standing waves formed by two coherent counter-propagating light waves can take a variety of forms, offering new approaches to the interrogation and control of polarization-sensitive light-matter interactions in ultrathin (subwavelength thickness) media. In contrast to familiar energy standing waves, polarization standing waves have constant electric and magnetic energy densities and a periodically varying polarization state along the wave axis. counterintuitively, anisotropic ultrathin (meta)materials can be made sensitive or insensitive to such polarization variations by adjusting their azimuthal angle.
Non-perturbative String Theory from Water Waves
Iyer, Ramakrishnan; Johnson, Clifford V.; /Southern California U.; Pennington, Jeffrey S.; /SLAC
2012-06-14
We use a combination of a 't Hooft limit and numerical methods to find non-perturbative solutions of exactly solvable string theories, showing that perturbative solutions in different asymptotic regimes are connected by smooth interpolating functions. Our earlier perturbative work showed that a large class of minimal string theories arise as special limits of a Painleve IV hierarchy of string equations that can be derived by a similarity reduction of the dispersive water wave hierarchy of differential equations. The hierarchy of string equations contains new perturbative solutions, some of which were conjectured to be the type IIA and IIB string theories coupled to (4, 4k ? 2) superconformal minimal models of type (A, D). Our present paper shows that these new theories have smooth non-perturbative extensions. We also find evidence for putative new string theories that were not apparent in the perturbative analysis.
Development of a portable matter-wave gravimeter
Desruelle, B.; Menoret, V.; Bouyer, P.; Landragin, A.
2013-12-01
This paper presents the results of the research activities conducted by our company for the development of its Absolute Quantum Gravimeter. This instrument relies on the utilization of a free-falling cloud of cold rubidium atoms, whose vertical acceleration is characterized using advanced matter-wave interferometry techniques. In order to meet the tight requirements expressed by geophysicists for field utilization, we have implemented several technological innovations, which allow us to combine state-of-the-art performance with simple operation and excellent transportability. The architecture of our gravimeter is based on the following innovations: - a hollow pyramidal reflector allows us to achieve all the functions (trapping, cooling, atomic state selection, interferometry and detection) with a single laser beam [1]. This scheme leads to a drastic simplification of the sensor head, and a strong reduction of its mass and volume. - An all-fibered laser system based on the frequency doubling of a seed laser operating at 1560 nm [2]. With this approach, we are able to obtain a very compact, reliable and easy to use laser source capable of generating two optical frequencies in the 780.23 nm range with an output power in excess of 250 mW, an excellent polarization extinction ratio and a fast tunability. - a real-time system dedicated to the compensation of ground vibrations [3]. This technique is based on the operation of a low noise seismometer, whose AC acceleration signal is used to correct the atomic interferometer signal. We give a detailed presentation of the instrument architecture and summarize the experimental results we have obtained with our first generation prototype. [1] A cold atom pyramidal gravimeter with a single laser beam, Q. Bodart et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 134101 (2010) [2] "Light-pulse atom interferometry in microgravity", G. Stern et al, Eur. Phys. J. D 53, 353-357 (2009) [3]. "Limits in the sensitivity of a compact atomic interferometer ", J
Quantum Corrections on Relativistic Mean Field Theory for Nuclear Matter
ZHANG Qi-Ren; GAO Chun-Yuan
2011-01-01
We propose a quantization procedure for the nucleon-scalar meson system, in which an arbitrary mean scalar meson field Φ is introduced.The equivalence of this procedure with the usual one is proven for any given value of Φ.By use of this procedure, the scalar meson field in the Walecka's MFA and in Chin's RHA are quantized around the mean field.Its corrections on these theories are considered by perturbation up to the second order.The arbitrariness of Φ makes us free to fix it at any stage in the calculation.When we fix it in the way of Walecka's MFA, the quantum corrections are big, and the result does not converge.When we fix it in the way of Chin's RHA, the quantum correction is negligibly small, and the convergence is excellent.It shows that RHA covers the leading part of quantum field theory for nuclear systems and is an excellent zeroth order approximation for further quantum corrections, while the Walecka's MFA does not.We suggest to fix the parameter Φ at the end of the whole calculation by minimizing the total energy per-nucleon for the nuclear matter or the total energy for the finite nucleus, to make the quantized relativistic mean field theory (QRMFT) a variational method.
Matter-wave interferometry in a double well on an atom chip
Schumm, Thorsten; Hofferberth, S.; Andersson, L. M.
2005-01-01
Matter-wave interference experiments enable us to study matter at its most basic, quantum level and form the basis of high-precision sensors for applications such as inertial and gravitational field sensing. Success in both of these pursuits requires the development of atom-optical elements...... that can manipulate matter waves at the same time as preserving their coherence and phase. Here, we present an integrated interferometer based on a simple, coherent matter-wave beam splitter constructed on an atom chip. Through the use of radio-frequency-induced adiabatic double-well potentials, we...... demonstrate the splitting of Bose-Einstein condensates into two clouds separated by distances ranging from 3 to 80 μm, enabling access to both tunnelling and isolated regimes. Moreover, by analysing the interference patterns formed by combining two clouds of ultracold atoms originating from a single...
Third-order theory for multi-directional irregular waves
Madsen, Per A.; Fuhrman, David R.
2012-01-01
at the free surface are also provided, and the formulation incorporates the effect of an ambient current with the option of specifying zero net volume flux. Harmonic resonance may occur at third order for certain combinations of frequencies and wavenumber vectors, and in this situation the perturbation theory...... breaks down due to singularities in the transfer functions. We analyse harmonic resonance for the case of a monochromatic short-crested wave interacting with a plane wave having a different frequency, and make long-term simulations with a high-order Boussinesq formulation in order to study the evolution...
Hamiltonian theory of nonlinear waves in planetary rings
Stewart, G. R.
1987-01-01
The derivation of a Hamiltonian field theory for nonlinear density waves in Saturn's rings is discussed. Starting with a Hamiltonian for a discrete system of gravitating streamlines, an averaged Hamiltonian is obtained by successive applications of Lie transforms. The transformation may be carried out to any desired order in q, where q is the nonlinearity parameter defined in the work of Shu, et al (1985) and Borderies et al (1985). Subsequent application of the Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin Method approximation yields an asymptotic field Hamiltonian. Both the nonlinear dispersion relation and the wave action transport equation are easily derived from the corresponding Lagrangian by the standard variational principle.
Dynamics of Nearshore Sand Bars and Infra-gravity Waves: The Optimal Theory Point of View
Bouchette, F.; Mohammadi, B.
2016-12-01
It is well known that the dynamics of near-shore sand bars are partly controlled by the features (location of nodes, amplitude, length, period) of the so-called infra-gravity waves. Reciprocally, changes in the location, size and shape of near-shore sand bars can control wave/wave interactions which in their turn alter the infra-gravity content of the near-shore wave energy spectrum. The coupling infra-gravity / near-shore bar is thus definitely two ways. Regarding numerical modelling, several approaches have already been considered to analyze such coupled dynamics. Most of them are based on the following strategy: 1) define an energy spectrum including infra-gravity, 2) tentatively compute the radiation stresses driven by this energy spectrum, 3) compute sediment transport and changes in the seabottom elevation including sand bars, 4) loop on the computation of infra-gravity taking into account the morphological changes. In this work, we consider an alternative approach named Nearshore Optimal Theory, which is a kind of breakdown point of view for the modeling of near-shore hydro-morphodynamics and wave/ wave/ seabottom interactions. Optimal theory applied to near-shore hydro-morphodynamics arose with the design of solid coastal defense structures by shape optimization methods, and is being now extended in order to model dynamics of any near-shore system combining waves and sand. The basics are the following: the near-shore system state is through a functional J representative of the energy of the system in some way. This J is computed from a model embedding the physics to be studied only (here hydrodynamics forced by simple infra-gravity). Then the paradigm is to say that the system will evolve so that the energy J tends to minimize. No really matter the complexity of wave propagation nor wave/bottom interactions. As soon as J embeds the physics to be explored, the method does not require a comprehensive modeling. Near-shore Optimal Theory has already given
Null Aether Theory: $pp$-Wave and AdS Wave Solutions
Gurses, Metin
2016-01-01
General quantum gravity arguments predict that Lorentz symmetry might not hold exactly in nature. This has motivated much interest in Lorentz breaking gravity theories recently. Among such models are vector-tensor theories with preferred direction established at every point of spacetime by a fixed-norm vector field. The dynamical vector field defined in this way is referred to as the aether. In this work, we study plane wave metrics in such a theory. For this purpose, we assume that the aether field is a null vector field satisfying certain conditions--we refer to the theory constructed in this way as Null Aether Theory (NAT). Assuming the Kerr-Schild form for such metrics we show that the theory admits exact plane wave solutions in any dimension $D\\geq3$. The field equations are reduced to two, in general coupled, differential equations when the background metric assumes the maximally symmetric form. Specifically, when the background metric is flat, i.e. for the $pp$-wave spacetimes, these equations decouple...
Effective Field Theories for Hot and Dense Matter
Blaschke D.
2010-10-01
Full Text Available The lecture is divided in two parts. The ﬁrst one deals with an introduction to the physics of hot, dense many-particle systems in quantum ﬁeld theory [1, 2]. The basics of the path integral approach to the partition function are explained for the example of chiral quark models. The QCD phase diagram is discussed in the meanﬁeld approximation while QCD bound states in the medium are treated in the rainbow-ladder approximation (Gaussian ﬂuctuations. Special emphasis is devoted to the discussion of the Mott eﬀect, i.e. the transition of bound states to unbound, but resonant scattering states in the continnum under the inﬂuence of compression and heating of the system. Three examples are given: (1 the QCD model phase diagram with chiral symmetry ¨ restoration and color superconductivity [3], (2 the Schrodinger equation for heavy-quarkonia [4], and (2 Pions [5] as well as Kaons and D-mesons in the ﬁnite-temperature Bethe-Salpeter equation [6]. We discuss recent applications of this quantum ﬁeld theoretical approach to hot and dense quark matter for a description of anomalous J/ψ supression in heavy-ion collisions [7] and for the structure and cooling of compact stars with quark matter interiors [8]. The second part provides a detailed introduction to the Polyakov-loop Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model [9] for thermodynamics and mesonic correlations [10] in the phase diagram of quark matter. Important relationships of low-energy QCD like the Gell-Mann–Oakes–Renner relation are generalized to ﬁnite temperatures. The eﬀect of including the coupling to the Polyakov-loop potential on the phase diagram and mesonic correlations is discussed. An outlook is given to eﬀects of nonlocality of the interactions [11] and of mesonic correlations in the medium [12] which go beyond the meanﬁeld description.
The last gasp of dark matter effective theory
Bruggisser, Sebastian; Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo
2016-11-01
We discuss an interesting class of models, based on strongly coupled Dark Matter (DM), where sizable effects can be expected in LHC missing energy (MET) searches, compatibly with a large separation of scales. In this case, an effective field theory (EFT) is appropriate (and sometimes necessary) to describe the most relevant interactions at the LHC. The selection rules implied by the structure of the new strong dynamics shape the EFT in an unusual way, revealing the importance of higher-derivative interactions previously ignored. We compare indications from relic density and direct detection experiments with consistent LHC constraints, and asses the relative importance of the latter. Our analysis provides an interesting and well-motivated scenario to model MET at the LHC in terms of a handful of parameters.
The Last Gasp of Dark Matter Effective Theory
Bruggisser, Sebastian; Urbano, Alfredo
2016-01-01
We discuss an interesting class of models, based on strongly coupled Dark Matter (DM), where sizable effects can be expected in LHC missing energy (MET) searches, compatibly with a large separation of scales. In this case, an effective field theory (EFT) is appropriate (and sometimes necessary) to describe the most relevant interactions at the LHC. The selection rules implied by the structure of the new strong dynamics shape the EFT in an unusual way, revealing the importance of higher-derivative interactions previously ignored. We compare indications from relic density and direct detection experiments with consistent LHC constraints, and asses the relative importance of the latter. Our analysis provides an interesting and well-motivated scenario to model MET at the LHC in terms of a handful of parameters.
The last gasp of Dark Matter effective theory
Bruggisser, Sebastian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland). Theoretical Physics Dept.
2016-07-15
We discuss an interesting class of models, based on strongly coupled Dark Matter (DM), where sizable effects can be expected in LHC missing energy (MET) searches, compatibly with a large separation of scales. In this case, an effective field theory (EFT) is appropriate (and sometimes necessary) to describe the most relevant interactions at the LHC. The selection rules implied by the structure of the new strong dynamics shape the EFT in an unusual way, revealing the importance of higher-derivative interactions previously ignored. We compare indications from relic density and direct detection experiments with consistent LHC constraints, and asses the relative importance of the latter. Our analysis provides an interesting and well-motivated scenario to model MET at the LHC in terms of a handful of parameters.
11th International Workshop on Condensed Matter Theories
Bishop, R; Manninen, Matti; Condensed Matter Theories : Volume 3
1988-01-01
This book is the third volume in an approximately annual series which comprises the proceedings of the International Workshops on Condensed Matter Theories. The first of these meetings took place in 1977 in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and successive workshops have been held in Trieste, Italy (1978), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1979), Caracas, Venezuela (1980), Mexico City, Mexico (1981), St. Louis, USA (1982), Altenberg, Federal Republic of Germany (1983), Granada, Spain (1984), San Francisco, USA (1985), and Argonne, USA (1986). The present volume contains the proceedings of the Eleventh Workshop which took place in Qulu, Finland during the period 27 July - 1 August, 1987. The original motivation and the historical evolution of the series of Workshops have been amply described in the preface to the first volume in the present series. An important objective throughout has been to work against the ever-present trend for physics to fragment into increasingly narrow fields of specialisation, between which communication is d...
Random Matrix Theory of Rigidity in Soft Matter
Yamanaka, Masanori
2015-06-01
We study the rigidity or softness of soft matter using the characteristic scale of coupling formation developed in random matrix theory. The eigensystems of the timescale-dependent cross-correlation matrix, which are obtained from the time series data of the atomic coordinates of a protein produced by the all-atom molecular dynamics of the solvent, are analyzed. As an example, we present a result for a protein lysozyme, PDBID:1AKI. We find that there are at least three different time scales involved in the coupling formation of correlated sectors of atoms and at least two different time scales for the size of the correlated sectors. These five time scales coexist simultaneously. We compare the results with those of the normal mode analysis and find a crossover of the distribution of the dominant vibrational components.
The last gasp of dark matter effective theory
Bruggisser, Sebastian [DESY,Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Riva, Francesco; Urbano, Alfredo [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department,Geneva (Switzerland)
2016-11-10
We discuss an interesting class of models, based on strongly coupled Dark Matter (DM), where sizable effects can be expected in LHC missing energy (MET) searches, compatibly with a large separation of scales. In this case, an effective field theory (EFT) is appropriate (and sometimes necessary) to describe the most relevant interactions at the LHC. The selection rules implied by the structure of the new strong dynamics shape the EFT in an unusual way, revealing the importance of higher-derivative interactions previously ignored. We compare indications from relic density and direct detection experiments with consistent LHC constraints, and asses the relative importance of the latter. Our analysis provides an interesting and well-motivated scenario to model MET at the LHC in terms of a handful of parameters.
Fermionic impurities in Chern-Simons-matter theories
Benincasa, Paolo; Ramallo, Alfonso V.
2012-02-01
We study the addition of quantum fermionic impurities to the mathcal{N} = 6 super-symmetric Chern-Simons-matter theories in 2 + 1 spacetime dimensions. The impurities are introduced by means of Wilson loops in the antisymmetric representation of the gauge group. In a holographic setup, the system is represented by considering D6-branes probing the AdS 4 × mathbb{C}mathbb{P} 3 background of type IIA supergravity. We study the thermodynamic properties of the system and show how a Kondo lattice model with holographic dimers can be constructed. By computing the Kaluza-Klein fluctuation modes of the probe brane we determine the complete spectrum of dimensions of the impurity operators. A very rich structure is found, depending both on the Kaluza-Klein quantum numbers and on the filling fraction of the impurities.
Fermionic impurities in Chern-Simons-matter theories
Benincasa, Paolo
2011-01-01
We study the addition of quantum fermionic impurities to the N=6 supersymmetric Chern-Simons-matter theories in 2+1 spacetime dimensions. The impurities are introduced by means of Wilson loops in the antisymmetric representation of the gauge group. In a holographic setup, the system is represented by considering D6-branes probing the AdS_4 x CP^3 background of type IIA supergravity. We study the thermodynamic properties of the system and show how a Kondo lattice model with holographic dimers can be constructed. By computing the Kaluza-Klein fluctuation modes of the probe brane we determine the complete spectrum of dimensions of the impurity operators. A very rich structure is found, depending both on the Kaluza-Klein quantum numbers and on the filling fraction of the impurities.
Warm dark matter in low scale left-right theory
Nemevšek, Miha; Senjanović, Goran; Zhang, Yue, E-mail: miha@ictp.it, E-mail: goran@ictp.it, E-mail: yuezhang@ictp.it [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy)
2012-07-01
We investigate the viability of having dark matter in the minimal left-right symmetric theory. We find the lightest right-handed neutrino with a mass around keV as the only viable candidate consistent with a TeV scale of left-right symmetry. In order to account for the correct relic density with such low scales, the thermal overproduction of the dark matter in the early universe is compensated by a sufficient late entropy production due to late decay of heavier right-handed neutrinos. We point out that the presence of the right-handed charge-current interactions, operative around the QCD phase transition, has a crucial impact on the amount of dilution, as does the nature of the phase transition itself. A careful numerical study, employing the Boltzmann equations, reveals the existence of a narrow window for the right-handed gauge boson mass, possibly within the reach of LHC (in disagreement with a previous study). We also elaborate on a variety of astrophysical, cosmological and low energy constraints on this scenario.
Warm Dark Matter in Low Scale Left-Right Theory
Nemevsek, Miha; Zhang, Yue
2012-01-01
We investigate the viability of having dark matter in the minimal left-right symmetric theory. We find the lightest right-handed neutrino with a mass around keV as the only viable candidate consistent with a TeV scale of left-right symmetry. In order to account for the correct relic density with such low scales, the thermal overproduction of the dark matter in the early universe is compensated by a sufficient late entropy production due to late decay of heavier right-handed neutrinos. We point out that the presence of the right-handed charge-current interactions, operative around the QCD phase transition, has a crucial impact on the amount of dilution, as does the nature of the phase transition itself. A careful numerical study, employing the Boltzmann equations, reveals the existence of a narrow window for the right-handed gauge boson mass, possibly within the reach of LHC (in disagreement with a previous study). We also elaborate on a variety of astrophysical, cosmological and low energy constraints on this...
The bias of weighted dark matter halos from peak theory
Verde, Licia; Simpson, Fergus; Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Heavens, Alan; Matarrese, Sabino
2014-01-01
We give an analytical form for the weighted correlation function of peaks in a Gaussian random field. In a cosmological context, this approach strictly describes the formation bias and is the main result here. Nevertheless, we show its validity and applicability to the evolved cosmological density field and halo field, using Gaussian random field realisations and dark matter N-body numerical simulations. Using this result from peak theory we compute the bias of peaks (and dark matter halos) and show that it reproduces results from the simulations at the ${\\mathcal O}(10\\%)$ level. Our analytical formula for the bias predicts a scale-dependent bias with two characteristics: a broad band shape which, however, is most affected by the choice of weighting scheme and evolution bias, and a more robust, narrow feature localised at the BAO scale, an effect that is confirmed in simulations. This scale-dependent bias smooths the BAO feature but, conveniently, does not move it. We provide a simple analytic formula to des...
A unified intrinsic functional expansion theory for solitary waves
Theodore Yaotsu Wu; John Kao; Jin E. Zhang
2005-01-01
A new theory is developed here for evaluating solitary waves on water, with results of high accuracy uniformly valid for waves of all heights, from the highest wave with a corner crest of 120° down to very low ones of diminishing height. Solutions are sought for the Euler model by employing a unified expansion of the logarithmic hodograph in terms of a set of intrinsic component functions analytically determined to represent all the intrinsic properties of the wave entity from the wave crest to its outskirts. The unknown coefficients in the expansion are determined by minimization of the mean-square error of the solution, with the minimization optimized so as to take as few terms as needed to attain results as high in accuracy as attainable. In this regard, Stokes's formula, F2μπ = tanμπ, relating the wave speed (the Froude number F) and the logarithmic decrement μ of its wave field in the outskirt, is generalized to establish a new criterion requiring (for minimizing solution error) the functional expansion to contain a finite power series in M terms of Stokes's basic term (singular inμ), such that 2Mμ is just somewhat beyond unity, i.e. 2Mμ (~-) 1. This fundamental criterion is fully validated by solutions for waves Dedicated to Zhemin Zheng for celebration of his Eightieth Anniversary It gives us a great pleasure to dedicate this study to Prof. Zhemin Zheng and join our distinguished colleagues and friends for the jubilant celebration of his Eightieth Anniversary. Warmest tribute is due from us, as from many others unlimited by borders and boundaries, for his contributions of great significance to science, engineering science and engineering, his tremendous influence as a source of inspiration and unerring guide to countless workers in the field, his admirable leadership in fostering the Institute of Mechanics of world renown, as well as for his untiring endeavor in promoting international interaction and cooperation between academies of various nations
Theory and Numerics of Gravitational Waves from Preheating after Inflation
Dufaux, Jean Francois; Felder, Gary N; Kofman, Lev; Uzan, Jean-Philippe
2007-01-01
Preheating after inflation involves large, time-dependent field inhomogeneities, which act as a classical source of gravitational radiation. The resulting spectrum might be probed by direct detection experiments if inflation occurs at a low enough energy scale. In this paper, we develop a theory and algorithm to calculate, analytically and numerically, the spectrum of energy density in gravitational waves produced from an inhomogeneous background of stochastic scalar fields in an expanding universe. We derive some generic analytical results for the emission of gravity waves by stochastic media of random fields, which can test the validity/accuracy of numerical calculations. We contrast our method with other numerical methods in the literature, and then we apply it to preheating after chaotic inflation. In this case, we are able to check analytically our numerical results, which differ significantly from previous works. We discuss how the gravity wave spectrum builds up with time and find that the amplitude an...
Pilot-Wave Quantum Theory with a Single Bohm's Trajectory
Avanzini, Francesco; Fresch, Barbara; Moro, Giorgio J.
2016-05-01
The representation of a quantum system as the spatial configuration of its constituents evolving in time as a trajectory under the action of the wave-function, is the main objective of the de Broglie-Bohm theory (or pilot wave theory). However, its standard formulation is referred to the statistical ensemble of its possible trajectories. The statistical ensemble is introduced in order to establish the exact correspondence (the Born's rule) between the probability density on the spatial configurations and the quantum distribution, that is the squared modulus of the wave-function. In this work we explore the possibility of using the pilot wave theory at the level of a single Bohm's trajectory, that is a single realization of the time dependent configuration which should be representative of a single realization of the quantum system. The pilot wave theory allows a formally self-consistent representation of quantum systems as a single Bohm's trajectory, but in this case there is no room for the Born's rule at least in its standard form. We will show that a correspondence exists between the statistical distribution of configurations along the single Bohm's trajectory and the quantum distribution for a subsystem interacting with the environment in a multicomponent system. To this aim, we present the numerical results of the single Bohm's trajectory description of the model system of six confined planar rotors with random interactions. We find a rather close correspondence between the coordinate distribution of one rotor, the others representing the environment, along its trajectory and the time averaged marginal quantum distribution for the same rotor. This might be considered as the counterpart of the standard Born's rule when the pilot wave theory is applied at the level of single Bohm's trajectory. Furthermore a strongly fluctuating behavior with a fast loss of correlation is found for the evolution of each rotor coordinate. This suggests that a Markov process might
Gravitational wave polarization modes in $f(R)$ theories
Rizwana, Kausar H; Philippe, Jetzer
2016-01-01
Many studies have been carried out in the literature to evaluate the number of polarization modes of gravitational waves in modified theories, in particular in $f(R)$ theories. In the latter ones, besides the usual two transverse-traceless tensor modes present in general relativity, there are two additional scalar ones: a massive longitudinal mode and a massless transverse mode (the so-called breathing mode). This last mode has often been overlooked in the literature, due to the assumption that the application of the Lorenz gauge implies transverse-traceless wave solutions. We however show that this is in general not possible and, in particular, that the traceless condition cannot be imposed due to the fact that we no longer have a Minkowski background metric. Our findings are in agreement with the results found using the Newman-Penrose formalism, and thus clarify the inconsistencies found so far in the literature.
Global Theory to Understand Toroidal Drift Waves in Steep Gradient
Xie, Hua-Sheng
2016-01-01
Toroidal drift waves with unconventional mode structures and non-ground eigenstates, which differ from typical ballooning structure mode, are found to be important recently by large scale global gyrokinetic simulations and especially become dominant at strong gradient edge plasmas [cf., Xie and Xiao, Phys. Plasmas, 22, 090703 (2015)]. The global stability and mode structures of drift wave in this steep edge density and temperature gradients are examined by both direct numerical solutions of a model two-dimensional eigen equation and analytical theory employing WKB-ballooning approach. Theory agrees with numerical solutions quite well. Our results indicate that (i) non-ground eigenstates and unconventional mode structures generally exist and can be roughly described by two parameters `quantum number' $l$ and ballooning angle $\\vartheta_k$, (ii) local model can overestimate the growth rate largely, say, $>50\\%$, and (iii) the narrow steep equilibrium profile leads to twisting (triangle-like) radial mode structu...
A general theory of wave interactions in layered flows
Guha, Anirban
2016-01-01
Using kinematics, we propose a theory of non-modal interactions between the interfaces of a 2D, inviscid, multi-layered fluid system. Specifically, a $3$-interface problem with kinematic and geometric symmetry is explored. Repetitive, extremely short bursts of very high wave growth/decay-rates are observed in the parameter ranges where normal-mode theory predicts stability. The underlying dynamical system predicts chaotic outcomes for some initial conditions. For realistic multi-layered flows, such instabilities of finite amplitude may alter the mean flow to a noisy, unpredictable state.
Workshop on Waves and Particles in Light and Matter
Van der Merwe, Alwyn; Waves and Particles in Light and Matter
1994-01-01
The Great Veil, Reality, and Louis de Broglie (O. Costa de Beauregard). The Fallacy of the Arguments Against Local Realism in Quantum Phenomena (A.O. Barut). Restoring Locality with FasterThanLight Velocities (P.H. Eberhard). The WaveParticle Duality and the AharonovBohm Effect (M. Ferrero, E. Santos). De Broglie's Waves in Space and Time (A. Garuccio). Interferometry with De Broglie Waves (F. Hasselbach). Quantum Mechanics of Ultracold Neutrons (V.K. Ignatovich). The Physical Interpretation of Special Relativity (S.J. Prokhovnik). Quantum Neutron Optics (H. Rauch). Some Comments on th
Do Neutrino Wave Functions Overlap and Does it Matter?
Li, Cheng-Hsien
2016-01-01
Studies of neutrinos commonly ignore anti-symmetrization of their wave functions. This implicitly assumes that either spatial wave functions for neutrinos with approximately the same momentum do not overlap or their overlapping has no measurable consequences. We examine these assumptions by considering the evolution of three-dimensional neutrino wave packets (WPs). We find that it is perfectly adequate to treat accelerator and reactor neutrinos as separate WPs for typical experimental setup. While solar and supernova neutrinos correspond to overlapping WPs, they can be treated effectively as non-overlapping for analyses of their detection.
M D Sharma
2007-08-01
Anisotropic wave propagation is studied in a fluid-saturated porous medium, using two different approaches. One is the dynamic approach of Biot’s theories. The other approach known as homogenisation theory, is based on the averaging process to derive macroscopic equations from the microscopic equations of motion. The medium considered is a general anisotropic poroelastic (APE) solid with a viscous fluid saturating its pores of anisotropic permeability. The wave propagation phenomenon in a saturated porous medium is explained through two relations. One defines modified Christoffel equations for the propagation of plane harmonic waves in the medium. The other defines a matrix to relate the relative displacement of fluid particles to the displacement of solid particles. The modified Christoffel equations are solved further to get a quartic equation whose roots represent complex velocities of the four attenuating quasi-waves in the medium. These complex velocities define the phase velocities of propagation and quality factors for attenuation of all the quasi-waves propagating along a given phase direction in three-dimensional space. The derivations in the mathematical models from different theories are compared in order to work out the equivalence between them. The variations of phase velocities and attenuation factors with the direction of phase propagation are computed, for a realistic numerical model. Differences between the velocities and attenuations of quasi-waves from the two approaches are exhibited numerically.
Gravitational Waves Astronomy: a cornerstone for gravitational theories
Corda, Christian
2010-01-01
Realizing a gravitational wave (GW) astronomy in next years is a great challenge for the scientific community. By giving a significant amount of new information, GWs will be a cornerstone for a better understanding of gravitational physics. In this paper we re-discuss that the GW astronomy will permit to solve a captivating issue of gravitation. In fact, it will be the definitive test for Einstein's general relativity (GR), or, alternatively, a strong endorsement for extended theories of gravity (ETG).
Two-Flux Colliding Plane Waves in String Theory
无
2005-01-01
We construct the two-flux colliding plane wave solutions in higher-dimensional gravity theory with dilaton,and two complementary fluxes. Two kinds of solutions have been obtained: Bell-Szekeres (BS) type and homogeneous type. After imposing the junction condition, we find that only the BS type solution is physically well-defined. Furthermore, we show that the future curvature singularity is always developed for our solutions.
Study on thermal wave based on the thermal mass theory
无
2009-01-01
The conservation equations for heat conduction are established based on the concept of thermal mass.We obtain a general heat conduction law which takes into account the spatial and temporal inertia of thermal mass.The general law introduces a damped thermal wave equation.It reduces to the well-known CV model when the spatial inertia of heat flux and temperature and the temporal inertia of temperature are neglected,which indicates that the CV model only considers the temporal inertia of heat flux.Numerical simulations on the propagation and superposition of thermal waves show that for small thermal perturbation the CV model agrees with the thermal wave equation based on the thermal mass theory.For larger thermal perturbation,however,the physically impossible phenomenon pre-dicted by CV model,i.e.the negative temperature induced by the thermal wave superposition,is eliminated by the general heat conduction law,which demonstrates that the present heat conduction law based on the thermal mass theory is more reasonable.
Mathematical analogies in physics. Thin-layer wave theory
José M. Carcione
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Field theory applies to elastodynamics, electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, gravitation and other similar fields of physics, where the basic equations describing the phenomenon are based on constitutive relations and balance equations. For instance, in elastodynamics, these are the stress-strain relations and the equations of momentum conservation (Euler-Newton law. In these cases, the same mathematical theory can be used, by establishing appropriate mathematical equivalences (or analogies between material properties and field variables. For instance, the wave equation and the related mathematical developments can be used to describe anelastic and electromagnetic wave propagation, and are extensively used in quantum mechanics. In this work, we obtain the mathematical analogy for the reflection/refraction (transmission problem of a thin layer embedded between dissimilar media, considering the presence of anisotropy and attenuation/viscosity in the viscoelastic case, conductivity in the electromagnetic case and a potential barrier in quantum physics (the tunnel effect. The analogy is mainly illustrated with geophysical examples of propagation of S (shear, P (compressional, TM (transverse-magnetic and TE (transverse-electric waves. The tunnel effect is obtained as a special case of viscoelastic waves at normal incidence.
Spectral Theory for Dissipation Mechanism of Wind Waves
Polnikov, Vladislav G
2010-01-01
A systematic and full description of the theory for a dissipation mechanism of wind wave energy in a spectral representation is given. As a basis of the theory, the fundamental is stated that the most general dissipation mechanism for wind waves is provided by the viscosity due to interaction between wave motions and turbulence of the water upper layer. The latter, in turn, is supposed to be induced by the whole aggregate of dissipation processes taking place at the air-sea interface. In the frame of phenomenological constructions of nonlinear closure for Reynolds stresses, it is shown that the dissipation function is generally a power series with respect to wave spectrum, starting from a quadratic term. Attracting previous results of the author, a simplified parameterization of the general theoretical result is done. Physical meaning for parameters of the dissipation function and its compliance with the new experimental facts established in this field for the last 5-10 years is discussed. Summarized theoreti...
Study on thermal wave based on the thermal mass theory
HU RuiFeng; CAO BingYang
2009-01-01
The conservation equations for heat conduction are established based on the concept of thermal mass. We obtain a general heat conduction law which takes into account the spatial and temporal inertia of thermal mass. The general law introduces a damped thermal wave equation. It reduces to the well-known CV model when the spatial inertia of heat flux and temperature and the temporal inertia of temperature are neglected, which indicates that the CV model only considers the temporal inertia of heat flux. Numerical simulations on the propagation and superposition of thermal waves show that for small thermal perturbation the CV model agrees with the thermal wave equation based on the thermal mass theory. For larger thermal perturbation, however, the physically impossible phenomenon pre-dicted by CV model, i.e. the negative temperature induced by the thermal wave superposition, is eliminated by the general heat conduction law, which demonstrates that the present heat conduction law based on the thermal mass theory is more reasonable.
Burnett-Cattaneo continuum theory for shock waves.
Holian, Brad Lee; Mareschal, Michel; Ravelo, Ramon
2011-02-01
We model strong shock-wave propagation, both in the ideal gas and in the dense Lennard-Jones fluid, using a refinement of earlier work, which accounts for the cold compression in the early stages of the shock rise by a nonlinear, Burnett-like, strain-rate dependence of the thermal conductivity, and relaxation of kinetic-temperature components on the hot, compressed side of the shock front. The relaxation of the disequilibrium among the three components of the kinetic temperature, namely, the difference between the component in the direction of a planar shock wave and those in the transverse directions, particularly in the region near the shock front, is accomplished at a much more quantitative level by a rigorous application of the Cattaneo-Maxwell relaxation equation to a reference solution, namely, the steady shock-wave solution of linear Navier-Stokes-Fourier theory, along with the nonlinear Burnett heat-flux term. Our new continuum theory is in nearly quantitative agreement with nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations under strong shock-wave conditions, using relaxation parameters obtained from the reference solution.
Precision Higgs Physics, Effective Field Theory, and Dark Matter
Henning, Brian Quinn
The recent discovery of the Higgs boson calls for detailed studies of its properties. As precision measurements are indirect probes of new physics, the appropriate theoretical framework is effective field theory. In the first part of this thesis, we present a practical three-step procedure of using the Standard Model effective field theory (SM EFT) to connect ultraviolet (UV) models of new physics with weak scale precision observables. With this procedure, one can interpret precision measurements as constraints on the UV model concerned. We give a detailed explanation for calculating the effective action up to one-loop order in a manifestly gauge covariant fashion. The covariant derivative expansion dramatically simplifies the process of matching a UV model with the SM EFT, and also makes available a universal formalism that is easy to use for a variety of UV models. A few general aspects of renormalization group running effects and choosing operator bases are discussed. Finally, we provide mapping results between the bosonic sector of the SM EFT and a complete set of precision electroweak and Higgs observables to which present and near future experiments are sensitive. With a detailed understanding of how to use the SM EFT, we then turn to applications and study in detail two well-motivated test cases. The first is singlet scalar field that enables the first-order electroweak phase transition for baryogenesis; the second example is due to scalar tops in the MSSM. We find both Higgs and electroweak measurements are sensitive probes of these cases. The second part of this thesis centers around dark matter, and consists of two studies. In the first, we examine the effects of relic dark matter annihilations on big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The magnitude of these effects scale simply with the dark matter mass and annihilation cross-section, which we derive. Estimates based on these scaling behaviors indicate that BBN severely constrains hadronic and radiative dark
Kinetic theory molecular dynamics and hot dense matter: theoretical foundations.
Graziani, F R; Bauer, J D; Murillo, M S
2014-09-01
Electrons are weakly coupled in hot, dense matter that is created in high-energy-density experiments. They are also mildly quantum mechanical and the ions associated with them are classical and may be strongly coupled. In addition, the dynamical evolution of plasmas under these hot, dense matter conditions involve a variety of transport and energy exchange processes. Quantum kinetic theory is an ideal tool for treating the electrons but it is not adequate for treating the ions. Molecular dynamics is perfectly suited to describe the classical, strongly coupled ions but not the electrons. We develop a method that combines a Wigner kinetic treatment of the electrons with classical molecular dynamics for the ions. We refer to this hybrid method as "kinetic theory molecular dynamics," or KTMD. The purpose of this paper is to derive KTMD from first principles and place it on a firm theoretical foundation. The framework that KTMD provides for simulating plasmas in the hot, dense regime is particularly useful since current computational methods are generally limited by their inability to treat the dynamical quantum evolution of the electronic component. Using the N-body von Neumann equation for the electron-proton plasma, three variations of KTMD are obtained. Each variant is determined by the physical state of the plasma (e.g., collisional versus collisionless). The first variant of KTMD yields a closed set of equations consisting of a mean-field quantum kinetic equation for the electron one-particle distribution function coupled to a classical Liouville equation for the protons. The latter equation includes both proton-proton Coulombic interactions and an effective electron-proton interaction that involves the convolution of the electron density with the electron-proton Coulomb potential. The mean-field approach is then extended to incorporate equilibrium electron-proton correlations through the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjolander (STLS) ansatz. This is the second variant of KTMD
Dark matter directional detection in non-relativistic effective theories
Catena, Riccardo
2015-01-01
We extend the formalism of dark matter directional detection to arbitrary one-body dark matter-nucleon interactions. The new theoretical framework generalizes the one currently used, which is based on 2 types of dark matter-nucleon interaction only. It includes 14 dark matter-nucleon interaction operators, 8 isotope-dependent nuclear response functions, and the Radon transform of the first 2 moments of the dark matter velocity distribution. We calculate the recoil energy spectra at dark matter directional detectors made of CF$_4$, CS$_2$ and $^{3}$He for the 14 dark matter-nucleon interactions, using nuclear response functions recently obtained through numerical nuclear structure calculations. We highlight the new features of the proposed theoretical framework, and present our results for a spherical dark matter halo and for a stream of dark matter particles. This study lays the foundations for model independent analyses of dark matter directional detection experiments.
Quantum Theory of Conducting Matter Newtonian Equations of Motion for a Bloch Electron
Fujita, Shigeji
2007-01-01
Quantum Theory of Conducting Matter: Newtonian Equations of Motion for a Bloch Electron targets scientists, researchers and graduate-level students focused on experimentation in the fields of physics, chemistry, electrical engineering, and material sciences. It is important that the reader have an understanding of dynamics, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, electromagnetism and solid-state physics. Many worked-out problems are included in the book to aid the reader's comprehension of the subject. The Bloch electron (wave packet) moves by following the Newtonian equation of motion. Under an applied magnetic field B the electron circulates around the field B counterclockwise or clockwise depending on the curvature of the Fermi surface. The signs of the Hall coefficient and the Seebeck coefficient are known to give the sign of the major carrier charge. For alkali metals, both are negative, indicating that the carriers are "electrons." These features arise from the Fermi surface difference...
Chen Yong-Qiang; Tang Xiong-Xin; Xu Jian-Jun
2009-01-01
Dendritic pattern formation at the interface between liquid and solid is a commonly observed phenomenon in crystal growth and solidification process. The theoretical investigation of dendritic growth is one of the most profound and highly challenging subjects in the broad areas of intcrfacial pattern formation, condensed matter physics and materials science, preoccupying many researchers from various areas. Some longstanding key issues on this subject finally gained a breakthrough in the late of last century, via the 'Interracial Wave (IFW) Theory' on the ground of systematical global stability analysis of the basic state of dendritic growth. The original form of the IFW theory mainly focus on the investigation of various axi-symmetric unsteady perturbed modes solutions around the axi-symmctric basic state of system of dendritic growth. In reality, the system may allow various non-axi-symmctric, unsteady perturbed states. Whether or not the system of dendritic growth allows some growing non-axi-symmetric modes? Will the stationary dendritic pattern be destroyed by some of such non-axi-symmetric modes? Or, in one word, what is the stability property of the system, once the non-axi-symmetric modes can be evoked? The answers for these questions are important for the solid foundation of IFW theory. The present work attempts to settle down these issues and develop a three-dimensional (3D) interracial wave theory of dendritic growth. Our investigations verify that dendritic growth indeed allows a discrete set of non-axi-symmetric unstable global wave modes, which gives rise to a set of multiple arms spiral waves propagating along the Ivantsov's paraboloid.
Modulation theory, dispersive shock waves and Gerald Beresford Whitham
Minzoni, A. A.; Smyth, Noel F.
2016-10-01
Gerald Beresford (GB) Whitham, FRS, (13th December, 1927-26th January, 2014) was one of the leading applied mathematicians of the twentieth century whose work over forty years had a profound, formative impact on research on wave motion across a broad range of areas. Many of the ideas and techniques he developed have now become the standard tools used to analyse and understand wave motion, as the papers of this special issue of Physica D testify. Many of the techniques pioneered by GB Whitham have spread beyond wave propagation into other applied mathematics areas, such as reaction-diffusion, and even into theoretical physics and pure mathematics, in which Whitham modulation theory is an active area of research. GB Whitham's classic textbook Linear and Nonlinear Waves, published in 1974, is still the standard reference for the applied mathematics of wave motion. In honour of his scientific achievements, GB Whitham was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1959 and a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1965. He was awarded the Norbert Wiener Prize for Applied Mathematics in 1980.
The theory of interaction between wave and basic flow
Ran Ling-Kun; John P.Boyd
2008-01-01
This paper investigates the interaction between transient wave and non-stationary and non-conservative basic flow.An interaction equation is derived from the zonally symmetric and non-hydrostatic primitive equations in Cartesian coordinates by using the Momentum-Casimir method. In the derivation, it is assumed that the transient disturbances satisfy the linear perturbation equations and the basic states are non-conservative and slowly vary in time and space.The diabatic heating composed of basic-state heating and perturbation heating is also introduced. Since the theory of wave-flow interaction is constructed in non-hydrostatic and ageostrophic dynamical framework, it is applicable to diagnosing the interaction between the meso-scale convective system in front and the background flow.It follows from the local interaction equation that the local tendency of pseudomomentum wave-activity density depends on the combination of the perturbation flux divergence second-order in disturbance amplitude, the local change of basic-state pseudomomentum density, the basic-state flux divergence and the forcing effect of diabatic heating. Furthermore, the tendency of pseudomomentum wave-activity density is opposite to that of basic-state pseudomomentum density.The globally integrated basic-state pseudomomentum equation and wave-activity equation reveal that the global development of basic-state pseudomomentum is only dominated by the basic-state diabatic heating while it is the forcing effect of total diabatic heating from which the global evolution of pseudomomentum wave activity results.Therefore, the interaction between the transient wave and the non-stationary and non-conservative basic flow is realized in virtue of the basic-state diabatic heating.
BOOK REVIEW: Gravitational Waves, Volume 1: Theory and Experiments
Poisson, Eric
2008-10-01
discussion is helpful, as it clarifies some of the puzzling aspects of general covariance. Next the treatment becomes more sophisticated: the waves are allowed to propagate in an arbitrary background spacetime, and the energy momentum carried by the wave is identified by the second-order perturbation of the Einstein tensor. In chapter 2 the waves are given a field-theoretic foundation that is less familiar (but refreshing) to a relativist, but would appeal to a practitioner of effective field theories. In an interesting section of chapter 2, the author gives a mass to the (classical) graviton and explores the physical consequences of this proposal. In chapter 3 the author returns to the standard linearized theory and develops the multipolar expansion of the gravitational-wave field in the context of slowly-moving sources; at leading order he obtains the famous quadrupole formula. His treatment is very detailed, and it includes a complete account of symmetric-tracefree tensors and tensorial spherical harmonics. It is, however, necessarily limited to sources with negligible internal gravity. Unfortunately (and this is a familiar complaint of relativists) the author omits to warn the reader of this important limitation. In fact, the chapter opens with a statement of the virial theorem of Newtonian gravity, which may well mislead the reader to believe that the linearized theory can be applied to a system bound by gravitational forces. This misconception is confirmed when, in chapter 4, the author applies the quadrupole formula to gravitationally-bound systems such as an inspiraling compact binary, a rigidly rotating body, and a mass falling toward a black hole. This said, the presentation of these main sources of gravitational waves is otherwise irreproachable, and a wealth of useful information is presented in a clear and lucid manner. For example, the discussion of inspiraling compact binaries includes a derivation of the orbital evolution of circular and eccentric orbits
A note on Kahler potential of charged matter in F-theory
Kawano, Teruhiko, E-mail: kawano@hep-th.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Yoichi [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Watari, Taizan [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa-no-ha 5-1-5, 277-8583 (Japan)
2012-03-19
We study the Kahler potential of charged matter fields, whose profiles have a peak on their matter curve - on an 'intersection' of 7-branes, in an F-theory compactification. It is shown that the Kahler potential is exactly given by the integral over the matter curve, but not by the integral over the whole GUT surface of 7-branes.
Identifying the theory of dark matter with direct detection
Gluscevic, Vera [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Einstein Drive, Princeton NJ 08540 (United States); Gresham, Moira I. [Whitman College,Walla Walla, WA 99362 (United States); McDermott, Samuel D. [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics,Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Peter, Annika H.G. [CCAPP and Department of Physics, The Ohio State University,191 W. Woodruff Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University,140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Zurek, Kathryn M. [Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, University of California,erkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2015-12-29
Identifying the true theory of dark matter depends crucially on accurately characterizing interactions of dark matter (DM) with other species. In the context of DM direct detection, we present a study of the prospects for correctly identifying the low-energy effective DM-nucleus scattering operators connected to UV-complete models of DM-quark interactions. We take a census of plausible UV-complete interaction models with different low-energy leading-order DM-nuclear responses. For each model (corresponding to different spin–, momentum–, and velocity-dependent responses), we create a large number of realizations of recoil-energy spectra, and use Bayesian methods to investigate the probability that experiments will be able to select the correct scattering model within a broad set of competing scattering hypotheses. We conclude that agnostic analysis of a strong signal (such as Generation-2 would see if cross sections are just below the current limits) seen on xenon and germanium experiments is likely to correctly identify momentum dependence of the dominant response, ruling out models with either “heavy” or “light” mediators, and enabling downselection of allowed models. However, a unique determination of the correct UV completion will critically depend on the availability of measurements from a wider variety of nuclear targets, including iodine or fluorine. We investigate how model-selection prospects depend on the energy window available for the analysis. In addition, we discuss accuracy of the DM particle mass determination under a wide variety of scattering models, and investigate impact of the specific types of particle-physics uncertainties on prospects for model selection.
On the Validity of the Effective Field Theory for Dark Matter Searches at the LHC
Busoni, Giorgio; Morgante, Enrico; Riotto, Antonio
2014-01-01
We discuss the limitations to the use of the effective field theory approach to study dark matter at the LHC. We introduce and study a few quantities, some of them independent of the ultraviolet completion of the dark matter theory, which quantify the error made when using effective operators to describe processes with very high momentum transfer. Our criteria indicate up to what cutoff energy scale, and with what precision, the effective description is valid, depending on the dark matter mass and couplings.
Compact dark matter objects, asteroseismology, and gravitational waves radiated by sun
Pokrovsky, Yu. E., E-mail: Pokrovskiy-YE@nrcki.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)
2015-12-15
The solar surface oscillations observed by Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and Solar Helioseismic Observatory are considered to be excited by a small fraction of Dark Matter in form of Compact Dark Matter Objects (CDMO) in the solar structure. Gravitational Waves (GW) radiated by these CDMO are predicted to be the strongest at the Earth and are easily detectable by European Laser Interferometer Space Antenna or by Gravitational-Wave Observatory “Dulkyn” which can solve two the most challenging tasks in the modern physics: direct detection of GW and DM.
Long-living BLOCH oscillations of matter waves in periodic potentials.
Salerno, M; Konotop, V V; Bludov, Yu V
2008-07-18
The dynamics of matter waves in linear and nonlinear optical lattices subject to a spatially uniform linear force is studied both analytically and numerically. It is shown that by properly designing the spatial dependence of the scattering length it is possible to induce long-living Bloch oscillations of gap-soliton matter waves in optical lattices. This occurs when the effective nonlinearity and the effective mass of the soliton have opposite signs for all values of the crystal momentum in the Brillouin zone. The results apply to all systems modeled by the periodic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, including propagation of light in photonic and photorefractive crystals with tilted band structures.
Compact dark matter objects, asteroseismology, and gravitational waves radiated by sun
Pokrovsky, Yu. E.
2015-12-01
The solar surface oscillations observed by Crimean Astrophysical Observatory and Solar Helioseismic Observatory are considered to be excited by a small fraction of Dark Matter in form of Compact Dark Matter Objects (CDMO) in the solar structure. Gravitational Waves (GW) radiated by these CDMO are predicted to be the strongest at the Earth and are easily detectable by European Laser Interferometer Space Antenna or by Gravitational-Wave Observatory "Dulkyn" which can solve two the most challenging tasks in the modern physics: direct detection of GW and DM.
On gravitational wave-Cherenkov radiation from photons when passing through diffused dark matters
Yi, Shu-Xu
2017-03-01
Analogous to Cherenkov radiation, when a particle moves faster than the propagation velocity of gravitational wave in matter (v > cg), we expect gravitational wave-Cherenkov radiation (GWCR). In the situation that a photon travels across diffuse dark matters, the GWCR condition is always satisfied, photon will thence lose its energy all along the path. This effect has long been ignored in the practice of astrophysics and cosmology without justification with serious calculation. We study this effect for the first time, and shows that this energy loss time of the photon is far longer than the Hubble time and therefore justify the practice of ignoring this effect in the context of astrophysics.
Concept of an ionizing time-domain matter-wave interferometer
Nimmrichter, Stefan; Haslinger, Philipp; Hornberger, Klaus; ARNDT, Markus
2011-01-01
We discuss the concept of an all-optical and ionizing matter-wave interferometer in the time domain. The proposed setup aims at testing the wave nature of highly massive clusters and molecules, and it will enable new precision experiments with a broad class of atoms, using the same laser system. The propagating particles are illuminated by three pulses of a standing ultraviolet laser beam, which detaches an electron via efficient single photon-absorption. Optical gratings may have periods as ...
De Broglie-Bohm Pilot-Wave Theory: Many Worlds in Denial?
Valentini, Antony
2008-01-01
We reply to claims (by Deutsch, Zeh, Brown and Wallace) that the pilot-wave theory of de Broglie and Bohm is really a many-worlds theory with a superfluous configuration appended to one of the worlds. Assuming that pilot-wave theory does contain an ontological pilot wave (a complex-valued field in configuration space), we show that such claims arise from not interpreting pilot-wave theory on its own terms. Specifically, the theory has its own ('subquantum') theory of measurement, and in gener...
Density-Wave Spiral Theories in the 1960s. I
Pasha, I I
2004-01-01
With the arrival of computers, plasma physics and several fresh investigators by the early 1960s, understanding the spiral structure of galaxies entered a new stage of unusually vigorous activity broadly grouped under the umbrella marked "density-wave theory". Paper I starts with acknowledging B. Lindblad, rightly regarded the main father of this whole subject, and then describes the early contributions by Lynden-Bell, Toomre, Hunter and Kalnajs, who had formulated and applied such notions as the stability of flat galaxies, the regenerative spiral phenomenon, the shearing density waves and the global spiral modes. But the foremost enthusiast and proponent of the density-wave picture was undoubtedly C.C. Lin whose 1964 and 1966 papers with Shu, written in support of his working hypothesis of the quasi-stationary wave-mode spiral structure, had a big and immediate impact upon astronomers, at least as a welcome sign that genuine understanding of the spiral phenomenon seemed in some sense to be just around the co...
Quantum corrections to the generalized Proca theory via a matter field
Amado, André; Haghani, Zahra; Mohammadi, Azadeh; Shahidi, Shahab
2017-09-01
We study the quantum corrections to the generalized Proca theory via matter loops. We consider two types of interactions, linear and nonlinear in the vector field. Calculating the one-loop correction to the vector field propagator, three- and four-point functions, we show that the non-linear interactions are harmless, although they renormalize the theory. The linear matter-vector field interactions introduce ghost degrees of freedom to the generalized Proca theory. Treating the theory as an effective theory, we calculate the energy scale up to which the theory remains healthy.
Tiny graviton matrix theory: DLCQ of IIB plane-wave string theory, a conjecture
Sheikh-Jabbari, Mohammad M. [Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 via Pueblo Mall, Stanford CA 94305-4060 (United States)]. E-mail: jabbari@itp.stanford.edu
2004-09-01
We conjecture that the discrete light-cone quantization (DLCQ) of strings on the maximally supersymmetric type IIB plane-wave background in the sector with J units of light-cone momentum is a supersymmetric 0+1 dimensional U(J) gauge theory (quantum mechanics) with PSU(2|2) x PSU(2|2) x U(1) superalgebra. The conjectured hamiltonian for the plane-wave matrix (string) theory, the tiny graviton matrix theory, is the quantized (regularized) three brane action on the same background. We present some pieces of evidence for this conjecture through analysis of the hamiltonian , its vacua, spectrum and coupling constant. Moreover, we discuss an extension of our conjecture to the DLCQ of type IIB strings on AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} geometry. (author)
Measuring the Gouy Phase of Matter Waves using Singular Atom Optics with Spinor BECs
Schultz, Justin T.; Hansen, Azure; Murphree, Joseph D.; Jayaseelan, Maitreyi; Bigelow, Nicholas P.
2016-05-01
The Gouy phase is a propagation-dependent geometric phase found in confined waves as they propagate through a focus. Although it has been observed and studied extensively both in scalar and vector optical beams as well as in electron vortex beams, it has not yet been directly observed in ultracold matter waves. The Schrödinger equation has the same form as the paraxial wave equation from electromagnetism; expansion of a BEC upon release from a trap has the same mathematical form as a beam propagating away from a focus. We employ and extend this analogy between coherent optical beams and coherent matter waves to include spin angular momentum (polarization), which enables us measure the matter wave Gouy phase using coreless vortex spin textures in spinor BECs. Because the Gouy phase is dependent on the orbital angular momentum of the wave, the vortex and core states acquire different Gouy phase shifts. Parameters that are sensitive to the relative phase such as two-dimensional maps of the Stokes parameters rotate during evolution due to this phase difference. Using atom-optic polarimetry we can access the evolution of the atomic Stokes parameters and observe this rotation.
Thermodynamic transport theory of spin waves in ferromagnetic insulators
Basso, Vittorio; Ferraro, Elena; Piazzi, Marco
2016-10-01
We use the Boltzmann transport theory in the relaxation time approximation to describe the thermal transport of spin waves in a ferromagnet. By treating spin waves as magnon excitations we are able to compute analytically and numerically the coefficients of the constitutive thermomagnetic transport equations. As a main result, we find that the absolute thermomagnetic power coefficient ɛM, relating the gradient of the potential of the magnetization current and the gradient of the temperature, in the limit of low temperature and low field, is a constant ɛM=-0.6419 kB/μB . The theory correctly describes the low-temperature and magnetic-field dependencies of spin Seebeck experiments. Furthermore, the theory predicts that in the limit of very low temperatures the spin Peltier coefficient ΠM, relating the heat and the magnetization currents, tends to a finite value which depends on the amplitude of the magnetic field. This indicates the possibility to exploit the spin Peltier effect as an efficient cooling mechanism in cryogenics.
Global theory to understand toroidal drift waves in steep gradient
Xie, Hua-sheng; Li, Bo
2016-08-01
Toroidal drift waves with unconventional mode structures and non-ground eigenstates, which differ from a typical ballooning structure mode, are found to be important recently by large scale global gyrokinetic simulations and especially become dominant at strong gradient edge plasmas [cf. H. S. Xie and Y. Xiao, Phys. Plasmas 22, 090703 (2015)]. The global stability and mode structures of drift wave in this steep edge density and temperature gradients are examined by both direct numerical solutions of a model two-dimensional eigen equation and analytical theory employing WKB-ballooning approach. Theory agrees with numerical solutions quite well. Our results indicate that (i) non-ground eigenstates and unconventional mode structures generally exist and can be roughly described by two parameters "quantum number" l and ballooning angle ϑk , (ii) local model can overestimate the growth rate largely, say, >50 % , and (iii) the narrow steep equilibrium profile leads to twisting (triangle-like) radial mode structures. With velocity space integral, semi-local theory predicts that the critical jump gradient of the most unstable ion temperature gradient mode from ground state l = 0 to non-ground state l = 1 is LT-1R ˜50 . These features can have important consequences to turbulent transport.
13th International Workshop on Condensed Matter Theories
1990-01-01
This volume gathers the invited talks of the XIII International Work shop on Condensed Matter Theories which took place in Campos do Jordao near Sao Paulo, Brazil, August 6-12, 1989. It contains contributions in a wide variety of fields including neutral quantum and classical fluids, electronic systems, composite materials, plasmas, atoms, molecules and nuclei, and as this year's workshop reflected the natural preoccupation in materials science with its spectacular prospect for mankind, room tempera ture super-conductivity. All topics are treated from a common viewpoint: that of many-body physics, whether theoretical or simu1ational. Since the very first workshop, held at the prestigious Instituto de Fisica Teorica in Sao Paulo, and organized by the same organizer of the 1989 workshop, Professor Valdir Casaca Aguilera-Navarro, the meeting has taken place annually six times in Latin America, four in Europe and three in the United States. Its principal objective has been to innitiate and nurture collaborati...
Study on pile drivability with one dimensional wave propagation theory
陈仁朋; 王仕方; 陈云敏
2003-01-01
Pile drivability is a key problem during the stage of design and construction installation of pile foundations. The solution to the one dimensional wave equation was used to determine the impact force at the top of a concrete pile for a given ram mass, cushion stiffness, and pile impedance. The kinematic equation of pile toe was established and solved based on wave equation theory. The movements of the pile top and pile toe were presented, which clearly showed the dynamic displacement, including rebound and penetration of pile top and toe. A parametric study was made with a full range of practical values of ram weight, cushion stiffness, dropheight, and pile impedance. Suggestions for optimizing the parameters were also presented. Comparisons between the results obtained by the present solution and in-situ measurements indicated the reliability and validity of the method.
Shock Wave Attenuation Using Foam Obstacles: Does Geometry Matter?
Hongjoo Jeon
2015-06-01
Full Text Available A shock wave impact study on open and closed cell foam obstacles was completed to assess attenuation effects with respect to different front face geometries of the foam obstacles. Five different types of geometries were investigated, while keeping the mass of the foam obstacle constant. The front face, i.e., the side where the incident shock wave impacts, were cut in geometries with one, two, three or four convergent shapes, and the results were compared to a foam block with a flat front face. Results were obtained by pressure sensors located upstream and downstream of the foam obstacle, in addition to high-speed schlieren photography. Results from the experiments show no significant difference between the five geometries, nor the two types of foam.
Pietrow, M
2016-01-01
Considerable similarity between positronium atom and an exciton in a quantum dot is indicated. Following this, we apply the calculation regime from the theory of excitons to describe some aspects of formation of a positronium in matter. We consider the possibility of photonic deexcitation during Ps formation and show the way of calculation of its probability. The photonic transitions speculated here, if detected, allows improving experimental studies of solid matter with positron techniques.
Halter, Sebastian
2012-07-09
This thesis is concerned with aspects of inflation both from a field theory and a string theory perspective. It aims at exploring new approaches to address the problem of moduli destabilization and the η-problem and to realize inflation in the matter sector. The first part is devoted to studying models of inflation in the framework of four-dimensional N=1 supergravity. We begin with investigating a new proposal to solve the problem of moduli destabilization, which seems to force us to choose between low-energy supersymmetry and high-scale inflation. This new approach is based on a particular way to couple the modulus to the F-term driving inflation. Using chaotic inflation with a shift symmetry as an example, we show that we can successfully combine low-energy supersymmetry and high-scale inflation. We construct a class of inflation models in N=1 supergravity where the inflaton resides in gauge non-singlet matter fields. These are extensions of a special class of hybrid inflation models, so-called tribrid inflation, where the η-problem can be solved by a Heisenberg symmetry. Compared to previously studied models, we have generalized our models with some inspiration from string theory. We investigate moduli stabilization during inflation and identify situations in which the inflaton slope is dominated by radiative corrections. We outline under which conditions this class of matter inflation models could be embedded into heterotic orbifold compactifications. In doing so, we suggest a new mechanism to stabilize some Kaehler moduli by F-terms for matter fields. In the second part, we consider models of warped D-brane inflation on a family of ten-dimensional supergravity backgrounds. We consider inflation along the radial direction near the tip of the warped throat and show that generically an inflection point arises for the inflaton potential, which is related to an inflection point of the dilaton profile. A universal scaling behaviour with the parameters of the
Cosmic Wave Functions with the Brans-Dicke Theory
ZHU Zong-Hong
2000-01-01
Using the standard Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method, the Wheeler-De Witt equation for the Brans-Dicke theory is solved under three kinds of boundary conditions (proposed by Hattie-Hawking, Vilenkin and Linde, respectively). It is found that, although the gravitational and cosmological"constants" are dynamical and timedependent in the classical models, they will acquire constant values when the universe comes from the quantum creation, and that in particular, the amplitude of the resulting wave function under Linde or Vilenkin boundary conditions reaches its maximum if the cosmological constant is the minimum.
The role of Mie scattering in the seeding of matter-wave superradiance
Bachelard, Romain; Courteille, Philippe W; Piovella, Nicola; Stehle, Christian; Zimmermann, Claus; Slama, Sebastian
2012-01-01
Matter-wave superradiance is based on the interplay between ultracold atoms coherently organized in momentum space and a backscattered wave. Here, we show that this mechanism may be triggered by Mie scattering from the atomic cloud. We show that the system evolves into a superposition of states, where the scattering process imprints a {\\it phase grating} on the atomic dipoles. This grating generates coherent emission even when there is at most one excited atom in the system at a time, contributing to the backward light wave onset. The atomic recoil 'halos' created by the scattered light exhibit a strong anisotropy, in contrast to single-atom scattering.
On solitary waves. Part 2 A unified perturbation theory for higher-order waves
Theodore Yaotsu Wu; Xinlong Wang; Wendong Qu
2005-01-01
A unified perturbation theory is developed here for calculating solitary waves of all heights by series expansion of base flow variables in powers of a small base parameter to eighteenth order for the one-parameter family of solutions in exact form, with all the coefficients determined in rational numbers. Comparative studies are pursued to investigate the effects due to changes of base parameters on (i) the accuracy of the theoretically predicted wave properties and (ii) the rate of convergence of perturbation expansion. Two important results are found by comparisons between the theoretical predictions based on a set of parameters separately adopted for expansion in turn. First, the accuracy and the convergence of the perturbation expansions, appraised versus the exact solution provided by an earlier paper [1] as the standard reference, are found to depend, quite sensitively, on changes in base parameter. The resulting variations in the solution are physically displayed in various wave properties with differences found dependent on which property (e.g.the wave amplitude, speed, its profile, excess mass, momentum, and energy), on what range in value of the base, and on the rank of the order n in the expansion being addressed.Secondly, regarding convergence, the present perturbation series is found definitely asymptotic in nature, with the relative error δ (n) (the relative mean-square difference between successive orders n of wave elevations) reaching a minimum,δm, at a specific order, n = nm, both depending on the base adopted, e.g. n = 11-12 based on parameter α (wave amplitude), nm,β = 15 onβ (amplitude-speed square ratio),and nm.∈ = 17 on ∈ ( wave number squared). The asymptotic range is brought to completion by the highest order of n = 18 reached in this work.
Investigation of water wave breaking phenomena: experiment and theory
Chybicki, W.; Staroszczyk, R.
2009-09-01
The phenomenon of water wave breaking and the link between the wave breaking and the velocities of water particles on the free surface are investigated. Results of experiments carried out in a laboratory flume are presented, and then compared with predictions of a theoretical model that has also been outlined in the paper. The experiments have been conducted in a 64 m long water channel at the Institute of Hydro-Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Gdansk, Poland. The experiments have been focused on measurements of Lagrangian velocities of fluid particles on the free surface of water. The motion of the fluid was induced by a piston-type wave maker that generated short trains of mono- and bi-chromatic waves propagating in water of a mean-level depth of 40 cm, in which an underwater inclined ramp, of a slope of 10 per cent and a height of 30 cm, was mounted. The height of a generated wave was adjusted in such a way that the wave breaking occurred in a chosen location over the ramp. The wave breaking was of a spilling type. The fluid particle velocities were measured by putting floating markers (small plastic beads of densities very close to that of water) on the free surface of water, and then by recording their movements by means of a camera during the process of wave breaking. The displacements of the markers in time were determined from the analysis of their positions in successive frames of the film. In the paper also a theoretical model describing the propagation of waves over an uneven bottom is presented. The model is formulated in the Lagrangian variables. A key simplification on which the proposed theory is based is that the vertical displacements of fluid particles are related to an assumed variation of the horizontal displacements, the continuity equation, and the boundary condition at the bottom. The momentum equation, derived by applying a variational principle and making use of the latter assumptions, is equivalent to the Boussinesq
Kampel, Nir Shlomo; Griesmaier, Axel Rudolf; Steenstrup, Mads Peter Hornbak;
2012-01-01
We investigate experimentally the effects of light assisted collisions on the coherence between momentum states in Bose-Einstein condensates. The onset of superradiant Rayleigh scattering serves as a sensitive monitor for matter-wave coherence. A subtle interplay of binary and collective effects...
Parametric amplification of matter waves in dipolar spinor Bose-Einstein condensates
Deuretzbacher, F.; Gebreyesus, G.; Topic, O.;
2010-01-01
Spin-changing collisions may lead under proper conditions to the parametric amplification of matter waves in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. Magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, although typically very weak in alkali-metal atoms, are shown to play a very relevant role in the amplification process...
Decay of Langmuir wave in dense plasmas and warm dense matter
Son, S; Moon, Sung Joon
2010-01-01
The decays of the Langmuir waves in dense plasmas are computed using the dielectric function theory widely used in the solid state physics. Four cases are considered: a classical plasma, a Maxwellian plasma, a degenerate quantum plasma, and a partially degenerate plasma. The result is considerably different from the conventional Landau damping theory.
Many-body theory of nuclear and neutron star matter
Pandharipande, V.R.; Akmal, A.; Ravenhall, D.G. [Dept. of Physics, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States)
1998-06-01
We present results obtained for nuclei, nuclear and neutron star matter, and neutron star structure obtained with the recent Argonne v{sub 18} two- nucleon and Urbana IX three-nucleon interactions including relativistic boost corrections. These interactions predict that matter will undergo a transition to a spin layered phase with neutral pion condensation. We also consider the possibility of a transition to quark matter. (orig.)
A general theory of two-wave mixing in nonlinear media
Chi, Mingjun; Huignard, Jean-Pierre; Petersen, Paul Michael
2009-01-01
A general theory of two-wave mixing in nonlinear media is presented. Assuming a gain (or absorption) grating and a refractive index grating are generated because of the nonlinear process in a nonlinear medium, the coupled-wave equations of two-wave mixing are derived based on the Maxwell’s wave e...
On the spectrum of pp-wave matrix theory
Kim, Nakwoo E-mail: kim@aei.mpg.de; Plefka, Jan E-mail: plefka@aei.mpg.de
2002-11-04
We study the spectrum of the recently proposed matrix model of DLCQ M-theory in a parallel plane (pp)-wave background. In contrast to matrix theory in a flat background this model contains mass terms, which lift the flat directions of the potential and renders its spectrum discrete. The supersymmetry algebra of the model groups the energy eigenstates into supermultiplets, whose members differ by fixed amounts of energy in great similarity to the representation of supersymmetry in AdS spaces. There is a unique and exact zero-energy ground state along with a multitude of long and short multiplets of excited states. For large masses the quantum mechanical model may be treated perturbatively and we study the leading order energy shifts of the first excited states up to level two. Most interestingly we uncover a protected short multiplet at level two, whose energies do not receive perturbative corrections. Moreover, we conjecture the existence of an infinite series of similar protected multiplets in the pp-wave matrix model.
Detecting the gravitational wave background from primordial black hole dark matter
Clesse, Sebastien
2016-01-01
The black hole merging rates inferred after the gravitational-wave detection by Advanced LIGO/VIRGO and the relatively high mass of the progenitors are consistent with models of dark matter made of massive primordial black holes (PBH). PBH binaries emit gravitational waves in a broad range of frequencies that will be probed by future space interferometers (LISA) and pulsar timing arrays (PTA). The amplitude of the stochastic gravitational-wave background expected for PBH dark matter is calculated taking into account various effects such as initial eccentricity of binaries, PBH velocities, mass distribution and clustering. It allows a detection by the LISA space interferometer, and possibly by the PTA of the SKA radio-telescope. Interestingly, one can distinguish this background from the one of non-primordial massive binaries through a specific frequency dependence, resulting from the maximal impact parameter of binaries formed by PBH capture, depending on the PBH velocity distribution and their clustering pro...
Matter-wave dark solitons in box-like traps
Sciacca, M; Parker, N G
2016-01-01
Motivated by the experimental development of quasi-homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensates confined in box-like traps, we study numerically the dynamics of dark solitons in such traps at zero temperature. We consider the cases where the side walls of the box potential rise either as a power-law or a Gaussian. While the soliton propagates through the homogeneous interior of the box without dissipation, it typically dissipates energy during a reflection from a wall through the emission of sound waves, causing a slight increase in the soliton's speed. We characterise this energy loss as a function of the wall parameters. Moreover, over multiple oscillations and reflections in the box-like trap, the energy loss and speed increase of the soliton can be significant, although the decay eventually becomes stabilized when the soliton equilibrates with the ambient sound field.
Can dark matter be an artifact of extended theories of gravity?
Choudhury, Sayantan; Sen, Manibrata [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Theoretical Physics, Mumbai (India); Sadhukhan, Soumya [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, C.I.T Campus, Chennai (India)
2016-09-15
In this article, we propose different background models of extended theories of gravity, which are minimally coupled to the SM fields, to explain the possibility of genesis of dark matter without affecting the SM particle sector. We modify the gravity sector by allowing quantum corrections motivated from (1) local f(R) gravity and (2) non-minimally coupled gravity with SM sector and dilaton field. Next we apply a conformal transformation on the metric to transform the action back to the Einstein frame. We also show that an effective theory constructed from these extended theories of gravity and SM sector looks exactly the same. Using the relic constraint observed by Planck 2015, we constrain the scale of the effective field theory (Λ{sub UV}) as well as the dark matter mass (M). We consider two cases: (1) light dark matter (LDM) and (2) heavy dark matter (HDM), and we deduce upper bounds on thermally averaged cross section of dark matter annihilating to SM particles. Further we show that our model naturally incorporates self-interactions of dark matter. Using these self-interactions, we derive the constraints on the parameters of (1) local f(R) gravity and (2) non-minimally coupled gravity from a dark matter self-interaction. Finally, we propose some different UV complete models from a particle physics point of view, which can give rise to the same effective theory that we have deduced from extended theories of gravity. (orig.)
Can dark matter be an artifact of extended theories of gravity?
Choudhury, Sayantan; Sen, Manibrata; Sadhukhan, Soumya
2016-09-01
In this article, we propose different background models of extended theories of gravity, which are minimally coupled to the SM fields, to explain the possibility of genesis of dark matter without affecting the SM particle sector. We modify the gravity sector by allowing quantum corrections motivated from (1) local f( R) gravity and (2) non-minimally coupled gravity with SM sector and dilaton field. Next we apply a conformal transformation on the metric to transform the action back to the Einstein frame. We also show that an effective theory constructed from these extended theories of gravity and SM sector looks exactly the same. Using the relic constraint observed by Planck 2015, we constrain the scale of the effective field theory (Λ _{UV}) as well as the dark matter mass ( M). We consider two cases: (1) light dark matter (LDM) and (2) heavy dark matter (HDM), and we deduce upper bounds on thermally averaged cross section of dark matter annihilating to SM particles. Further we show that our model naturally incorporates self-interactions of dark matter. Using these self-interactions, we derive the constraints on the parameters of (1) local f( R) gravity and (2) non-minimally coupled gravity from a dark matter self-interaction. Finally, we propose some different UV complete models from a particle physics point of view, which can give rise to the same effective theory that we have deduced from extended theories of gravity.
Gravitational waves from dark matter collapse in a star
Kurita, Yasunari
2016-01-01
We investigate the collapse of clusters of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in the core of a Sun-like star and the possible formation of mini-black holes and the emission of gravity waves. When the number of WIMPs is small, thermal pressure balances the WIMP cluster's self gravity. If the number of WIMPs is larger than a critical number, thermal pressure cannot balance gravity and the cluster contracts. If WIMPs are collisionless and bosonic, the cluster collapses directly to form a mini-black hole. For fermionic WIMPs, the cluster contracts until it is sustained by Fermi pressure, forming a small compact object. If the fermionic WIMP mass is smaller than $4\\times 10^2$ GeV, the radius of the compact object is larger than its Schwarzschild radius and Fermi pressure temporally sustains its self gravity, halting the formation of a black hole. If the fermionic WIMP mass is larger than $4\\times 10^2$ GeV, the radius is smaller than its Schwarzschild radius and the compact object becomes a mini-black h...
Quantum Field Theory of Interacting Dark Matter/Dark Energy: Dark Monodromies
D'Amico, Guido; Hamill, Teresa; Kaloper, Nemanja
2016-01-01
We discuss how to formulate a quantum field theory of dark energy interacting with dark matter. We show that the proposals based on the assumption that dark matter is made up of heavy particles with masses which are very sensitive to the value of dark energy are strongly constrained. Quintessence-generated long range forces and radiative stability of the quintessence potential require that such dark matter and dark energy are completely decoupled. However, if dark energy and a fraction of dar...
Theory of travelling wave antenna for ICRH and fast wave current drive in tokamaks
Vdovin, V.L. [NFI RNC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
1993-12-31
Tokamaks` FWCD antennae require many loops with significant difficulties of location of large coaxes in a region of first wall and their matching with a generator due to mutual coupling between loops (LMC) (mainly through the plasma). It is natural to convert LMC from a defect into advantage by feeding a periodical structure at the edge loop creating the travelling wave. In this work we will give the self consistent theory of poloidal loop antennae with a Faraday screen (FS) loaded at the edges by lumped capacitances. (author) 2 refs.
Non-isentropic layers in matter behind shock and ramp compression waves
Khishchenko, Konstantin V
2014-01-01
According to the ideal fluid dynamics approach, the temperature and entropy values of a medium undergo a jump increase in the shock front as well as on contact interface between different materials after the shock wave propagation, but remain constant behind the shock front out of the contact interface. In the real condensed matter, the shock fronts and transition regions near the interfaces have finite thicknesses; therefore, the temperature field is disturbed around the interfaces. In this work, such disturbances are numerically analyzed for the problems of formation of the steady shock wave at impact and ramp loading of metals, reflection of the steady shock wave from a free surface, and the shock wave passing through the interface between two different materials. Theoretical analysis and computations show that the non-isentropic layers (the high-entropy ones with the increased temperature and the low-entropy ones with the decreased temperature) arise near the interfaces in the above problems of shock and ...
A discussion on the double wave theory and its applications to description of radiation atoms
无
2001-01-01
The double wave theory (DWT), sometimes called the“non_statistical quantum mechanics” by its proposer, describes the state of each single particle in an ensemble with two wave functions which have a parameter corresponding to the particle. However the basic postulates of the DWT show that this theory can hardly describe any quantum rules of the microscopic world. In the double wave descriptions, the wave feature of the behavior of microscopic particles and the discontinuity characteristic of energy almost disappear. The discussions on several problems of the radiation atoms made by the DWT's proposer on the basis of this theory are either mathematically incorrect or inconsistent with experiments and the usual theory.
Wormholes and time-machines in nonminimally coupled matter-curvature theories of gravity
Bertolami, O.; Ferreira, R. Z.
2013-01-01
In this work we show the existence of traversable wormhole and time-machine solutions in a modified theory of gravity where matter and curvature are nonminimally coupled. Those solutions present a nontrivial redshift function and exist even in the presence of ordinary matter which satisfies...
Wormholes and Time-Machines in Nonminimally Coupled Matter-Curvature Theories of Gravity
Bertolami Orfeu
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this work we show the existence of traversable wormhole and time-machine solutions in a modified theory of gravity where matter and curvature are nonminimally coupled. Those solutions present a nontrivial redshift function and exist even in the presence of ordinary matter which satisfies the dominant energy condition.
Wormholes and time-machines in nonminimally coupled matter-curvature theories of gravity
Bertolami, O.; Ferreira, R. Z.
2013-01-01
In this work we show the existence of traversable wormhole and time-machine solutions in a modified theory of gravity where matter and curvature are nonminimally coupled. Those solutions present a nontrivial redshift function and exist even in the presence of ordinary matter which satisfies...
Nucleon effective masses in field theories of dense matter
Lee, C.H.; Reddy, S.; Prakash, M. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY (United States)
1998-06-01
We point out some generic trends of effective masses in commonly used field-theoretical descriptions of stellar matter in which several species of strongly interacting particles of dissimilar masses may be present. (orig.)
M. I. Baranov
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Implementation of brief analytical review of the basic distinguished scientific achievements of the world scientists-physicists in area of discovery and study of quantum-wave nature of physical processes and phenomena flowing in the microscopic world of circumferential people matter. Methodology. Scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of scientific and technical information in area of theoretical and experimental physics, devoted the results of researches| of quantum and physical processes flowing in nature on atomic and subatomic levels. Results. The brief scientific and technical review of the basic scientific discovery and achievements of scientists-physicists is resulted in area of structure of atom of matter, generation, radiation, distribution and absorption of physical bodies of short-wave hertzian waves, indicative on a dominating role in the microscopic financial world of positions and conformities to the law of wave (by quantum mechanics, carrying especially probabilistic character a microstructure. Originality. Systematization is executed with exposition in the short concentrated form| of the known materials| on the quantum theory (electromagnetic of caloradiance, quantum theory of atom, electronic waves, quantum theory of actinoelectricity, quantum statistics of microparticless, quantum theory of the phenomenon superfluidity of liquid helium, quantum electronics and quantum-wave nature of drift of lone electrons in the metal of explorers with an electric current. Practical value. Popularization and deepening of fundamental physical and technical knowledges for students and engineer and technical specialists in area of classic and quantum physics, extending their scientific range of interests, and also support a further scientific study by them surrounding nature and to development of scientific and technical progress in society.
Studies on Nematic Liquid Crystal Using Spin Wave Theory
LIUJian-Jun; LIUXiao-Jing; SHENMan; YANGGuo-Chen
2004-01-01
A spin wave theory is proposed to study nematic liquid crystals. Since the orientation of the molecular long axis and the angular momentum of the molecule rotating around its long axis have the same direction, operators can be introduced to research the nematic liquid crystal. By transforming the intermolecular interaction potential,the Hamiltonian of the system has the same form as that of the ferromagnetic substance. The relation of the order parameters to the reduced temperature can be obtained. It is in good agreement with the experimental results in the low temperature region. In the high temperature region close to the transition point, by using the Hamiltonian, the transition point can be obtained, which is near to the Maier-Saupe's result.
Gravitational Wave Signatures of Dark Matter Sub-Millimeter Primordial Black Holes
Davoudiasl, Hooman
2016-01-01
We entertain the possibility that primordial black holes of mass $\\sim (10^{24} - 10^{26})$ g, with sub-millimeter Schwarzschild radii, constitute all or a significant fraction of cosmic dark matter, as allowed by various constraints. In case such primordial black holes get captured in orbits around neutron stars or astrophysical black holes in our galactic neighborhood, gravitational waves from the resulting "David & Goliath" binaries could be detectable at Advanced LIGO or Advanced Virgo from days to years, for a range of possible parameters. The proposed Einstein Telescope would further expand the reach for dark matter primordial black holes in this search mode.
Evolutions of matter-wave bright soliton with spatially modulated nonlinearity
Yongshan Cheng; Fei Liu
2009-01-01
The evolution characteristics of a matter-wave bright soliton are investigated by means of the variational approach in the presence of spatially varying nonlinearity.It is found that the atom density envelope of the soliton is changed as a result of the spatial variation of the s-wave scattering length.The stable soliton can exist in appropriate initial conditions.The movement of the soliton depends on the sign and value of the coefficient of spatially modulated nonlinearity.These theoretical predictions are confirmed by the full numerical simulations of the one-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation.
Cox, Kevin C; Wu, Baochen; Thompson, James K
2016-01-01
We demonstrate a method to generate spatially homogeneous entangled, spin-squeezed states of atoms appropriate for maintaining a large amount of squeezing even after release into the arm of a matter-wave interferometer or other free space quantum sensor. Using an effective intracavity dipole trap, we allow atoms to move along the cavity axis and time average their coupling to the standing wave used to generate entanglement via collective measurements, demonstrating 11(1) dB of directly observed spin squeezing. Our results show that time averaging in collective measurements can greatly reduce the impact of spatially inhomogeneous coupling to the measurement apparatus.
Zero-order filter for diffractive focusing of de Broglie matter waves
Eder, S. D.; Ravn, A. K.; Samelin, B.
2017-01-01
conditions the atom focusing at lower source stagnation pressures (broader velocity distributions) is better than what has previously been predicted. We present simulations with the software ray-tracing simulation package MCSTAS using a realistic helium source configuration, which gives very good agreement......The manipulation of neutral atoms and molecules via their de Broglie wave properties, also referred to asde Broglie matter wave optics, is relevant for several fields ranging from fundamental quantum mechanics testsand quantum metrology to measurements of interaction potentials and new imaging...
Constraining the MIT Bag Model of Quark Matter with Gravitational Wave Observations
Benhar, O; Gualtieri, L; Marassi, S; Benhar, Omar; Ferrari, Valeria; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Marassi, Stefania
2006-01-01
Most theoretical studies of strange stars are based on the MIT bag model of quark matter, whose main parameter, the bag constant B, is only loosely constrained by phenomenology. We discuss the possibility that detection of gravitational waves emitted by a compact star may provide information on both the nature of the source and the value of B. Our results show that the combined knowledge of the frequency of the emitted gravitational wave and of the mass or the radiation radius of the source allows one to discriminate between strange stars and neutron stars and set stringent bounds on the bag constants.
Localization of Matter Fields in the 5D Standing Wave Braneworld
Gogberashvili, Merab
2012-01-01
We investigate the localization problem of matter fields within the 5D standing wave braneworld. In this model the brane emits anisotropic waves into the bulk with different amplitudes along different spatial dimensions. We show that in the case of increasing warp factor there exist the pure gravitational localization of all kinds of quantum and classical particles on the brane. For classical particles the anisotropy of the background metric is hidden, brane fields exhibit standard Lorentz symmetry in spite of anisotropic nature of the primordial 5D metric.
Canuel B.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We are building a hybrid detector of new concept that couples laser and matter-wave interferometry to study sub Hertz variations of the strain tensor of space-time and gravitation. Using a set of atomic interferometers simultaneously manipulated by the resonant optical field of a 200 m cavity, the MIGA instrument will allow the monitoring of the evolution of the gravitational field at unprecedented sensitivity, which will be exploited both for geophysical studies and for Gravitational Waves (GWs detection. This new infrastructure will be embedded into the LSBB underground laboratory, ideally located away from major anthropogenic disturbances and benefitting from very low background noise.
Ochi, Masayuki; Arita, Ryotaro; Tsuneyuki, Shinji
2017-01-13
Obtaining accurate band structures of correlated solids has been one of the most important and challenging problems in first-principles electronic structure calculation. There have been promising recent active developments of wave function theory for condensed matter, but its application to band-structure calculation remains computationally expensive. In this Letter, we report the first application of the biorthogonal transcorrelated (BITC) method: self-consistent, free from adjustable parameters, and systematically improvable many-body wave function theory, to solid-state calculations with d electrons: wurtzite ZnO. We find that the BITC band structure better reproduces the experimental values of the gaps between the bands with different characters than several other conventional methods. This study paves the way for reliable first-principles calculations of the properties of strongly correlated materials.
Ochi, Masayuki; Arita, Ryotaro; Tsuneyuki, Shinji
2017-01-01
Obtaining accurate band structures of correlated solids has been one of the most important and challenging problems in first-principles electronic structure calculation. There have been promising recent active developments of wave function theory for condensed matter, but its application to band-structure calculation remains computationally expensive. In this Letter, we report the first application of the biorthogonal transcorrelated (BITC) method: self-consistent, free from adjustable parameters, and systematically improvable many-body wave function theory, to solid-state calculations with d electrons: wurtzite ZnO. We find that the BITC band structure better reproduces the experimental values of the gaps between the bands with different characters than several other conventional methods. This study paves the way for reliable first-principles calculations of the properties of strongly correlated materials.
The Fock-Kemmer approach to precursor shock waves in relativistic field theory
Abdullah, Rawand H
2016-01-01
We use distribution theory (generalized functions) to extend and justify the Fock-Kemmer approach to the propagation of precursor shock wave discontinuities in classical and quantum field theory. We apply lightcone causality arguments to propose that shock wave singularities in non-linear classical field theories and in Maxwell's equations for responsive media require a form of classical renormalization analogous to Wilson operator product expansions in quantum field theories.
CHIRAL FIELD IDEAS FOR A THEORY OF MATTER IDEAS DE CAMPO QUIRAL PARA UNA TEORÍA DE LA MATERIA
Héctor Torres-Silva
2008-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a chiral approach is used for developing a unified theory of electromagnetic and gravity fields. The photons which satisfy Maxwell's equations for an electromagnetic wave are taken as the basic physical components. The goal of the theory is to unify the phenomena of relativistic invariance, wave mechanics and pair creation with Maxwell's equation to obtain an electromagnetic field theory of matter. With this theory some aspects of GPS (Global Positioning Systems systems are discussed.En este trabajo, para el desarrollo de una teoría unificada de campos electromagnéticos y gravitacionales se usa un método quiral. Los fotones que satisfacen las ecuaciones de Maxwell, para una onda electromagnética se consideran como componentes físicos básicos. El objetivo de esta teoría es unificar el fenómeno de la invarianza relativística, mecánica de onda y la creación del par electrón positrón, con las ecuaciones de Maxwell, para obtener una teoría de la materia totalmente electromagnética. Considerando esta teoría se discuten algunos aspectos de los sistemas GPS (Global Positioning Systems.
Let's Twist Again: N=2 Super Yang Mills Theory Coupled To Matter
Maggiore, Nicola
2010-01-01
We give the twisted version of N=2 Super Yang Mills theory coupled to matter, including quantum fields, supersymmetry transformations, action and algebraic structure. We show that the whole action, coupled to matter, can be written as the variation of a nilpotent operator, modulo field equations. An extended Slavnov-Taylor identity, collecting gauge symmetry and supersymmetry, is written, which allows to define the web of algebraic constraints, in view of the algebraic renormalization and of the extension of the non-renormalization theorems holding for N=2 SYM theory without matter.
Matter-wave beam splitter on an atom chip for a portable atom interferometer
Kim, S. J.; Yu, H.; Gang, S. T.; Kim, J. B.
2017-05-01
We constructed a matter-wave beam splitter on an atom chip using a 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensate. Using radio-frequency-induced double-well potentials, we were able to coherently split a BEC into two clouds separated by distances ranging from 2.8 to 57 μm. Interference between these two freely expanding BECs was observed, confirming the coherence of the matter-wave beam splitter. We are able to control the distance and the angle between the split BECs by varying the rf-field's amplitude, frequency, or polarization. From the perspective of practical use, our BEC manipulation system is suitable for application to interferometry. It is compact, and by anodic bonding the atom chip to the vacuum cell, the repetition rate is kept high. The portable system occupies a volume of 0.5 m3 and operates at a repetition rate as high as 0.2 Hz using a commercial vacuum product.
$Z$ boson mediated dark matter beyond the effective theory
Kearney, John; Pierce, Aaron
2016-01-01
Direct detection bounds are beginning to constrain a very simple model of weakly-interacting dark matter---a Majorana fermion with a coupling to the $Z$ boson. In a particularly straightforward gauge-invariant realization, this coupling is introduced via a higher dimensional operator. While attractive in its simplicity, this model generically induces a large $\\rho$ parameter. An ultraviolet completion that avoids an overly large contribution to $\\rho$ is the singlet-doublet model. We revisit this model, focusing on the Higgs blind spot region of parameter space where spin-independent interactions are absent. This model successfully reproduces dark matter with direct detection mediated by the $Z$ boson, but whose cosmology may depend on additional couplings and states. Future direct detection experiments should effectively probe a significant portion of this parameter space, aside from a small coannihilating region. As such, $Z$-mediated thermal dark matter as realized in the singlet-doublet model represents a...
Gravitational waves in Fully Constrained Formulation in a dynamical spacetime with matter content
Cordero-Carrion, Isabel; Cerda-Duran, Pablo [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85741, Garching (Germany); Ibanez, Jose MarIa, E-mail: chabela@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: cerda@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: jose.m.ibanez@uv.es [Departamento de AstronomIa y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, C/ Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)
2011-09-22
We analyze numerically the behaviour of the hyperbolic sector of the Fully Constrained Formulation (FCF) (Bonazzola et al. 2004). The numerical experiments allow us to be confident in the performances of the upgraded version of the CoCoNuT code (Dimmelmeier et al. 2005) by replacing the Conformally Flat Condition (CFC), an approximation of Einstein equations, by FCF. First gravitational waves in FCF in a dynamical spacetime with matter content will be shown.
Dark matter relics and the expansion rate in scalar-tensor theories
Dutta, Bhaskar; Jimenez, Esteban; Zavala, Ivonne
2017-06-01
We study the impact of a modified expansion rate on the dark matter relic abundance in a class of scalar-tensor theories. The scalar-tensor theories we consider are motivated from string theory constructions, which have conformal as well as disformally coupled matter to the scalar. We investigate the effects of such a conformal coupling to the dark matter relic abundance for a wide range of initial conditions, masses and cross-sections. We find that exploiting all possible initial conditions, the annihilation cross-section required to satisfy the dark matter content can differ from the thermal average cross-section in the standard case. We also study the expansion rate in the disformal case and find that physically relevant solutions require a nontrivial relation between the conformal and disformal functions. We study the effects of the disformal coupling in an explicit example where the disformal function is quadratic.
How Zwicky already ruled out modified gravity theories without dark matter
Nieuwenhuizen, Theodorus Maria
2016-01-01
Various theories, such as MOND, MOG, Emergent Gravity and $f(R)$ theories avoid dark matter by assuming a change in General Relativity and/or in Newton's law. Galactic rotation curves are typically described well. Here the application to galaxy clusters is considered, focussed on the good lensing and X-ray data for A1689. As a start, the no-dark-matter case is confirmed to work badly: the need for dark matter starts near the cluster centre, where Newton's law is still supposed to be valid. This leads to the conundrum discovered by Zwicky, which is likely only solvable if the theories assume additional (dark) matter. Neutrinos with eV masses serve well without altering the successes in (dwarf) galaxies.
Fortov, Vladimir E.
2007-04-01
The physical properties of hot dense matter over a broad domain of the phase diagram are of immediate interest in astrophysics, planetary physics, power engineering, controlled thermonuclear fusion, impulse technologies, enginery, and several special applications. The use of intense shock waves in dynamic physics and high-pressure chemistry has made the exotic high-energy-density states of matter a subject of laboratory experiments and enabled advancing by many orders of magnitude along the pressure scale to range into the megabars and even gigabars. The present report reviews the latest experimental research involving shock waves in nonideal plasmas under conditions of strong collective interparticle interaction. The results of investigations into the thermodynamic, transport, and optical properties of strongly compressed hot matter, as well as into its composition and conductivity, are discussed. Experimental techniques for high energy density cumulation, the drivers of intense shock waves, and methods for the fast diagnostics of high-energy plasma are considered. Also discussed are compression-stimulated physical effects: pressure-induced ionization, plasma phase transitions, the deformation of bound states, plasma blooming ('transparentization' of plasma), etc. Suggestions for future research are put forward.
From quantum turbulence to statistical atom optics: new perspectives in speckle matter wave
Tavares, P E S; Telles, G D; Impens, F; Kaiser, R; Bagnato, V S
2016-01-01
Quantum Turbulence, the chaotic configuration of tangled quantized vortex lines, can be analyzed from the matter wave perspective in instead of the traditional fluid perspective. We report the observation of a remarkable similarity in between the dynamics of a freely expanding turbulent Bose-Einstein condensate and the propagation of an optical speckle pattern. Both follow very similar basic propagation characteristics. The second-order correlation is calculated and the typical correlation length of the two phenomena is used to substantiate the observations. The analogy between an expanding turbulent atomic condensate and a traveling optical speckle creates exciting prospects to investigate disordered quantum matter including the possibilities of a 3D speckle matter field.
Primitive ontology and quantum state in the GRW matter density theory
Egg, Matthias
2014-01-01
The paper explains in what sense the GRW matter density theory (GRWm) is a primitive ontology theory of quantum mechanics and why, thus conceived, the standard objections against the GRW formalism do not apply to GRWm. We consider the different options for conceiving the quantum state in GRWm and argue that dispositionalism is the most attractive one.
Gravitational wave signals of electroweak phase transition triggered by dark matter
Chao, Wei; Guo, Huai-Ke; Shu, Jing
2017-09-01
We study in this work a scenario that the universe undergoes a two step phase transition with the first step happened to the dark matter sector and the second step being the transition between the dark matter and the electroweak vacuums, where the barrier between the two vacuums, that is necessary for a strongly first order electroweak phase transition (EWPT) as required by the electroweak baryogenesis mechanism, arises at the tree-level. We illustrate this idea by working with the standard model (SM) augmented by a scalar singlet dark matter and an extra scalar singlet which mixes with the SM Higgs boson. We study the conditions for such pattern of phase transition to occur and especially for the strongly first order EWPT to take place, as well as its compatibility with the basic requirements of a successful dark matter, such as observed relic density and constraints of direct detections. We further explore the discovery possibility of this pattern EWPT by searching for the gravitational waves generated during this process in spaced based interferometer, by showing a representative benchmark point of the parameter space that the generated gravitational waves fall within the sensitivity of eLISA, DECIGO and BBO.
Dynamic properties of interfaces in soft matter: Experiments and theory
Sagis, L.M.C.
2011-01-01
The dynamic properties of interfaces often play a crucial role in the macroscopic dynamics of multiphase soft condensed matter systems. These properties affect the dynamics of emulsions, of dispersions of vesicles, of biological fluids, of coatings, of free surface flows, of immiscible polymer
Massless and Massive Gauge-Invariant Fields in the Theory of Relativistic Wave Equations
Pletyukhov, V A
2010-01-01
In this work consideration is given to massless and massive gauge-invariant spin 0 and spin 1 fields (particles) within the scope of a theory of the generalized relativistic wave equations with an extended set of the Lorentz group representations. The results obtained may be useful as regards the application of a relativistic wave-equation theory in modern field models.
P-wave Annihilating Dark Matter from a Decaying Predecessor and the Galactic Center Excess
Choquette, Jeremie; Cornell, Jonathan M
2016-01-01
Dark matter (DM) annihilations have been widely studied as a possible explanation of excess gamma rays from the galactic center seen by Fermi/LAT. However most such models are in conflict with constraints from dwarf spheroidals. Motivated by this tension, we show that p-wave annihilating dark matter can easily accommodate both sets of observations due to the lower DM velocity dispersion in dwarf galaxies. Explaining the DM relic abundance is then challenging. We outline a scenario in which the usual thermal abundance is obtained through s-wave annihilations of a metastable particle, that eventually decays into the p-wave annihilating DM of the present epoch. The couplings and lifetime of the decaying particle are constrained by big bang nucleosynthesis, the cosmic microwave background and direct detection, but significant regions of parameter space are viable. A sufficiently large p-wave cross section can be found by annihilation into light mediators, that also give rise to Sommerfeld enhancement. A predictio...
Nuclear Matter in Relativistic Mean Field Theory with Isovector Scalar Meson
Kubis, S
1997-01-01
Relativistic mean field (RMF) theory of nuclear matter with the isovector scalar mean field corresponding to the delta-meson [a_0(980)] is studied. While the delta-meson mean field vanishes in symmetric nuclear matter, it can influence properties of asymmetric nuclear matter in neutron stars. The RMF contribution due to delta-field to the nuclear symmetry energy is negative. To fit the empirical value, E_s=30 MeV, a stronger rho-meson coupling is required than in the absence of the delta-field. The energy per particle of neutron matter is then larger at high densities than the one with no delta-field included. Also, the proton fraction of beta-stable matter increases. Splitting of proton and neutron effective masses due to the delta-field can affect transport properties of neutron star matter.
Fourth American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter
Shock Waves in Condensed Matter
1986-01-01
The Fourth American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter was held in Spokane, Washington, July 22-25, 1985. Two hundred and fifty scientists and engineers representing thirteen countries registered at the conference. The countries represented included the United States of America, Australia, Canada, The People's Repub lic of China, France, India, Israel, Japan, Republic of China (Taiwan), United Kingdom, U. S. S. R, Switzerland and West Germany. One hundred and sixty-two technical papers, cov ering recent developments in shock wave and high pressure physics, were presented. All of the abstracts have been published in the September 1985 issue of the Bulletin of the American Physical Society. The topical conferences, held every two years since 1979, have become the principal forum for shock wave studies in condensed materials. Both formal and informal technical discussions regarding recent developments conveyed a sense of excitement. Consistent with the past conferences, th...
Exotic matter on singular divisors in F-theory arXiv
Klevers, Denis; Raghuram, Nikhil; Taylor, Washington
We analyze exotic matter representations that arise on singular seven-brane configurations in F-theory. We develop a general framework for analyzing such representations, and work out explicit descriptions for models with matter in the 2-index and 3-index symmetric representations of SU($N$) and SU(2) respectively, associated with double and triple point singularities in the seven-brane locus. These matter representations are associated with Weierstrass models whose discriminants vanish to high order thanks to nontrivial cancellations possible only in the presence of a non-UFD algebraic structure. This structure can be described using the normalization of the ring of intrinsic local functions on a singular divisor. We consider the connection between geometric constraints on singular curves and corresponding constraints on the low-energy spectrum of 6D theories, identifying some new examples of apparent "swampland" theories that cannot be realized in F-theory but have no apparent low-energy inconsistency.
Wavemaker theories for acoustic-gravity waves over a finite depth
Tian, Miao
2016-01-01
Acoustic-gravity waves (hereafter AGWs) in ocean have received much interest recently, mainly with respect to early detection of tsunamis as they travel at near the speed of sound in water which makes them ideal candidates for early detection of tsunamis. While the generation mechanisms of AGWs have been studied from the perspective of vertical oscillations of seafloor and triad wave-wave interaction, in the current study we are interested in their generation by wave-structure interaction with possible implication to the energy sector. Here, we develop two wavemaker theories to analyze different wave modes generated by impermeable (the classic Havelock's theory) and porous (porous wavemaker theory) plates in weakly compressible fluids. Slight modification has been made to the porous theory so that, unlike the previous theory, the new solution depends on the geometry of the plate. The expressions for three different types of plates (piston, flap, delta-function) are introduced. Analytical solutions are also de...
Theory of simple liquids with applications to soft matter
Hansen, Jean-Pierre
2013-01-01
Comprehensive coverage of topics in the theory of classical liquids Widely regarded as the standard text in its field, Theory of Simple Liquids gives an advanced but self-contained account of liquid state theory within the unifying framework provided by classical statistical mechanics. The structure of this revised and updated Fourth Edition is similar to that of the previous one but there are significant shifts in emphasis and much new material has been added. Major changes and Key Features in content include: Expansion of existing sections on simulation methods, liquid-vapour coexisten
Electromagnetic wave theory for boundary-value problems an advanced course on analytical methods
Eom, Hyo J
2004-01-01
Electromagnetic wave theory is based on Maxwell's equations, and electromagnetic boundary-value problems must be solved to understand electromagnetic scattering, propagation, and radiation. Electromagnetic theory finds practical applications in wireless telecommunications and microwave engineering. This book is written as a text for a two-semester graduate course on electromagnetic wave theory. As such, Electromagnetic Wave Theory for Boundary-Value Problems is intended to help students enhance analytic skills by solving pertinent boundary-value problems. In particular, the techniques of Fourier transform, mode matching, and residue calculus are utilized to solve some canonical scattering and radiation problems.
Integrability: mathematical methods for studying solitary waves theory
Wazwaz, Abdul-Majid
2014-03-01
In recent decades, substantial experimental research efforts have been devoted to linear and nonlinear physical phenomena. In particular, studies of integrable nonlinear equations in solitary waves theory have attracted intensive interest from mathematicians, with the principal goal of fostering the development of new methods, and physicists, who are seeking solutions that represent physical phenomena and to form a bridge between mathematical results and scientific structures. The aim for both groups is to build up our current understanding and facilitate future developments, develop more creative results and create new trends in the rapidly developing field of solitary waves. The notion of the integrability of certain partial differential equations occupies an important role in current and future trends, but a unified rigorous definition of the integrability of differential equations still does not exist. For example, an integrable model in the Painlevé sense may not be integrable in the Lax sense. The Painlevé sense indicates that the solution can be represented as a Laurent series in powers of some function that vanishes on an arbitrary surface with the possibility of truncating the Laurent series at finite powers of this function. The concept of Lax pairs introduces another meaning of the notion of integrability. The Lax pair formulates the integrability of nonlinear equation as the compatibility condition of two linear equations. However, it was shown by many researchers that the necessary integrability conditions are the existence of an infinite series of generalized symmetries or conservation laws for the given equation. The existence of multiple soliton solutions often indicates the integrability of the equation but other tests, such as the Painlevé test or the Lax pair, are necessary to confirm the integrability for any equation. In the context of completely integrable equations, studies are flourishing because these equations are able to describe the
Z boson mediated dark matter beyond the effective theory
Kearney, John; Orlofsky, Nicholas; Pierce, Aaron
2017-02-01
Direct detection bounds are beginning to constrain a very simple model of weakly interacting dark matter—a Majorana fermion with a coupling to the Z boson. In a particularly straightforward gauge-invariant realization, this coupling is introduced via a higher-dimensional operator. While attractive in its simplicity, this model generically induces a large ρ parameter. An ultraviolet completion that avoids an overly large contribution to ρ is the singlet-doublet model. We revisit this model, focusing on the Higgs blind spot region of parameter space where spin-independent interactions are absent. This model successfully reproduces dark matter with direct detection mediated by the Z boson but whose cosmology may depend on additional couplings and states. Future direct detection experiments should effectively probe a significant portion of this parameter space, aside from a small coannihilating region. As such, Z -mediated thermal dark matter as realized in the singlet-doublet model represents an interesting target for future searches.
Dynamic Theory: a new view of space, time, and matter
Williams, P.E.
1980-12-01
The theory presented represents a different approach toward unification of the various branches of physics. The foundation of the theory rests upon generalizations of the classical laws of thermodynamics, particularly Caratheodory's abstract statement of the second law. These adopted laws are shown to produce, as special cases, current theories such as Einstein's General and Special Relativity, Maxwell's electromagnetism, classical thermodynamics, and quantum principles. In addition to this unification, the theory provides predictions that may be experimentally investigated. Some of the predictions are a limiting rate of mass conversion, reduced pressures in electromagnetically contained plasmas, increased viscous effects in shocked materials, a finite self-energy for a charged particle, and the possible creation of particles with velocities greater than the speed of light. 8 figures.
BCS Theory of Hadronic Matter at High Densities
Bohr, Henrik; Panda, Prafulla K.; Providencia, Constanca
2012-01-01
The equilibrium between the so-called 2SC and CFL phases of strange quark matter at high densities is investigated in the framework of a simple schematic model of the NJL type. Equal densities are assumed for quarks u, d and s. The 2SC phase is here described by a color-flavor symmetric state...... than is usual in NJL type models. This should be adequate if the relevant chemical potential does not exceed 0.6 GeV....
New extended standard model, dark matters and relativity theory
Hwang, Jae-Kwang
2016-03-01
Three-dimensional quantized space model is newly introduced as the extended standard model. Four three-dimensional quantized spaces with total 12 dimensions are used to explain the universes including ours. Electric (EC), lepton (LC) and color (CC) charges are defined to be the charges of the x1x2x3, x4x5x6 and x7x8x9 warped spaces, respectively. Then, the lepton is the xi(EC) - xj(LC) correlated state which makes 3x3 = 9 leptons and the quark is the xi(EC) - xj(LC) - xk(CC) correlated state which makes 3x3x3 = 27 quarks. The new three bastons with the xi(EC) state are proposed as the dark matters seen in the x1x2x3 space, too. The matter universe question, three generations of the leptons and quarks, dark matter and dark energy, hadronization, the big bang, quantum entanglement, quantum mechanics and general relativity are briefly discussed in terms of this new model. The details can be found in the article titled as ``journey into the universe; three-dimensional quantized spaces, elementary particles and quantum mechanics at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/J_Hwang2''.
Direct and Indirect Dark Matter Detection in Gauge Theories
Queiroz, Farinaldo [Federal Univ. of Paraba (Brazil)
2013-01-01
The Dark matter (DM) problem constitutes a key question at the interface among Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. The observational data which have been accumulated in the last years point to an existence of non baryonic amount of DM. Since the Standard Model (SM) does not provide any candidate for such non-baryonic DM, the evidence of DM is a major indication for new physics beyond the SM. We will study in this work one of the most popular DM candidates, the so called WIMPs (Weakly Interacting Massive Particles) from a direct and indirect detection perspective. In order to approach the direct and indirect dection of DM in the context of Particle Physics in a more pedagogic way, we will begin our discussion talking about a minimal extension of the SM. Later we will work on the subject in a 3-3-1 model. Next, we will study the role of WIMPs in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Lastly, we will look for indirect DM signals in the center of our galaxy using the NASA Satellite, called Fermi-LAT. Through a comprehensive analysis of the data events observed by Fermi-LAT and some background models, we will constrain the dark matter annihilation cross section for several annihilation channels and dark matter halo profiles.
Can Dark Matter be an artifact of extended theories of gravity?
Choudhury, Sayantan; Sadhukhan, Soumya
2015-01-01
In this article, we propose different background models of extended theories of gravity, which are minimally coupled to the SM fields, to explain the possibility of genesis of dark matter without affecting the SM particle sector. We modify the gravity sector by allowing quantum corrections motivated from (1) local $f(R)$ gravity, (2) non local ghost free theory of gravity, and (3) non-minimally coupled gravity with SM sector and dilaton field. Next we apply conformal transformation on the metric to transform the action back to the Einstein frame. We also show that an effective theory constructed from these extended theories of gravity and SM sector looks exactly the same. Using the relic constraint observed by Planck 2015, we constrain the scale of the effective field theory ($\\Lambda_{UV}$) as well as the dark matter mass ($M$). We consider two cases- (1) light dark matter (LDM) and (2) heavy dark matter (HDM), and deduce upper bounds on thermally averaged cross section of dark matter annihilating to SM part...
Density-Wave Spiral Theories in the 1960s. II
Pasha, I I
2004-01-01
By the 1970s the spiral subject was in considerable disarray. The semiempirical theory by Lin and Shu was confronted with serious problems. They were put on the defensive over their tightly wrapped steady modes on two principal fronts: from the radial propagation at the group velocity that would tend to wind them almost at the material rate, and from the tendencies of galaxy disks toward a strong global instability that appeared likely to overwhelm them. Of course, one might claim that such threats were imaginary and only of academic interest, on the ground that nature itself had overcome them. One might also be confident that the QSSS hypothesis must be correct as illuminated by the everlasting truth of Hubble's classification. One might even take pride in the fact that a very promising concept developed, although not connected to the wave steadiness, on spiral shocks in interstellar gas and their induced star formation. But such a heuristic approach did not stimulate very strong progress in understanding dy...
Multidimensional Wave Field Signal Theory: Transfer Function Relationships
Natalie Baddour
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The transmission of information by propagating or diffusive waves is common to many fields of engineering and physics. Such physical phenomena are governed by a Helmholtz (real wavenumber or pseudo-Helmholtz (complex wavenumber equation. Since these equations are linear, it would be useful to be able to use tools from signal theory in solving related problems. The aim of this paper is to derive multidimensional input/output transfer function relationships in the spatial domain for these equations in order to permit such a signal theoretic approach to problem solving. This paper presents such transfer function relationships for the spatial (not Fourier domain within appropriate coordinate systems. It is shown that the relationships assume particularly simple and computationally useful forms once the appropriate curvilinear version of a multidimensional spatial Fourier transform is used. These results are shown for both real and complex wavenumbers. Fourier inversion of these formulas would have applications for tomographic problems in various modalities. In the case of real wavenumbers, these inversion formulas are presented in closed form, whereby an input can be calculated from a given or measured wavefield.
Linear theory of plasma filled backward wave oscillator
Preeti Vyas; Arti Gokhale; Y Choyal; K P Maheshwari
2001-05-01
An analytical and numerical study of backward wave oscillator (BWO) in linear regime is presented to get an insight into the excitation of electromagnetic waves as a result of the interaction of the relativistic electron beam with a slow wave structure. The effect of background plasma on the BWO instability is also presented.
How Zwicky already ruled out modified gravity theories without dark matter
Nieuwenhuizen, Theodorus Maria [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam (Netherlands); International Institute of Physics, UFRG, Natal (Brazil)
2017-06-15
Various theories, such as MOND, MOG, Emergent Gravity and f(R) theories avoid dark matter by assuming a change in General Relativity and/or in Newton's law. Galactic rotation curves are typically described well. Here the application to galaxy clusters is considered, focussed on the good lensing and X-ray data for A1689. As a start, the no-dark-matter case is confirmed to work badly: the need for dark matter starts near the cluster centre, where Newton's law is still supposed to be valid. This leads to the conundrum discovered by Zwicky, which is likely only solvable in his way, namely by assuming additional (dark) matter. Neutrinos with eV masses serve well without altering the successes in (dwarf) galaxies. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Quantum field theory of interacting dark matter and dark energy: Dark monodromies
D'Amico, Guido; Hamill, Teresa; Kaloper, Nemanja
2016-11-01
We discuss how to formulate a quantum field theory of dark energy interacting with dark matter. We show that the proposals based on the assumption that dark matter is made up of heavy particles with masses which are very sensitive to the value of dark energy are strongly constrained. Quintessence-generated long-range forces and radiative stability of the quintessence potential require that such dark matter and dark energy are completely decoupled. However, if dark energy and a fraction of dark matter are very light axions, they can have significant mixings which are radiatively stable and perfectly consistent with quantum field theory. Such models can naturally occur in multi-axion realizations of monodromies. The mixings yield interesting signatures which are observable and are within current cosmological limits but could be constrained further by future observations.
Quantum Field Theory of Interacting Dark Matter/Dark Energy: Dark Monodromies
D'Amico, Guido; Kaloper, Nemanja
2016-01-01
We discuss how to formulate a quantum field theory of dark energy interacting with dark matter. We show that the proposals based on the assumption that dark matter is made up of heavy particles with masses which are very sensitive to the value of dark energy are strongly constrained. Quintessence-generated long range forces and radiative stability of the quintessence potential require that such dark matter and dark energy are completely decoupled. However, if dark energy and a fraction of dark matter are very light axions, they can have significant mixings which are radiatively stable and perfectly consistent with quantum field theory. Such models can naturally occur in multi-axion realizations of monodromies. The mixings yield interesting signatures which are observable and are within current cosmological limits but could be constrained further by future observations.
Martín, C. P.; Tamarit, C.
2008-01-01
We consider noncommutative gauge theory defined by means of Seiberg-Witten maps for an arbitrary semisimple gauge group. We compute the one-loop UV divergent matter contributions to the gauge field effective action to all orders in the noncommutative parameters θ. We do this for Dirac fermions and complex scalars carrying arbitrary representations of the gauge group. We use path-integral methods in the framework of dimensional regularisation and consider arbitrary invertible Seiberg-Witten maps that are linear in the matter fields. Surprisingly, it turns out that the UV divergent parts of the matter contributions are proportional to the noncommutative Yang-Mills action where traces are taken over the representation of the matter fields; this result supports the need to include such traces in the classical action of the gauge sector of the noncommutative theory.
Martín, C P
2008-01-01
We consider noncommutative gauge theory defined by means of Seiberg-Witten maps for an arbitrary semisimple gauge group. We compute the one-loop UV divergent matter contributions to the gauge field effective action to all orders in the noncommutative parameters $\\theta$. We do this for Dirac fermions and complex scalars carrying arbitrary representations of the gauge group. We use path-integral methods in the framework of dimensional regularisation and consider arbitrary invertible Seiberg-Witten maps that are linear in the matter fields. Surprisingly, it turns out that the UV divergent parts of the matter contributions are proportional to the noncommutative Yang-Mills action where traces are taken over the representation of the matter fields; this result supports the need to include such traces in the classical action of the gauge sector of the noncommutative theory.
DAMA confronts null searches in the effective theory of dark matter-nucleon interactions
Catena, Riccardo [Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology,Kemigården 1, Gothenburg (Sweden); Ibarra, Alejandro; Wild, Sebastian [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München,James-Franck-Straße, 85748 Garching (Germany)
2016-05-17
We examine the dark matter interpretation of the modulation signal reported by the DAMA experiment from the perspective of effective field theories displaying Galilean invariance. We consider the most general effective coupling leading to the elastic scattering of a dark matter particle with spin 0 or 1/2 off a nucleon, and we analyze the compatibility of the DAMA signal with the null results from other direct detection experiments, as well as with the non-observation of a high energy neutrino flux in the direction of the Sun from dark matter annihilation. To this end, we develop a novel semi-analytical approach for comparing experimental results in the high-dimensional parameter space of the non-relativistic effective theory. Assuming the standard halo model, we find a strong tension between the dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal and the null result experiments. We also list possible ways-out of this conclusion.
Group theory Application to the physics of condensed matter
Dresselhauss, M S; Jorio, A
2007-01-01
Every process in physics is governed by selection rules that are the consequence of symmetry requirements. The beauty and strength of group theory resides in the transformation of many complex symmetry operations into a very simple linear algebra. This concise and class-tested book has been pedagogically tailored over 30 years MIT and 2 years at the University Federal of Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Brazil. The approach centers on the conviction that teaching group theory in close connection with applications helps students to learn, understand and use it for their own needs. For this reason, the theoretical background is confined to the first 4 introductory chapters (6-8 classroom hours). From there, each chapter develops new theory while introducing applications so that the students can best retain new concepts, build on concepts learned the previous week, and see interrelations between topics as presented. Essential problem sets between the chapters also aid the retention of the new material and for the consolid...
Framing and localization in Chern-Simons theories with matter
Bianchi, Marco S. [Center for Research in String Theory - School of Physics and Astronomy,Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Griguolo, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università di Parma andINFN Gruppo Collegato di Parma,Viale G.P. Usberti 7/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Leoni, Matias [Physics Department, FCEyN-UBA & IFIBA-CONICET,Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón I, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mauri, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli studi di Milano-Bicocca,Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Penati, Silvia [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli studi di Milano-Bicocca,Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca,Piazza della Scienza 3, I-20126 Milano (Italy); Seminara, Domenico [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Firenze and INFN Sezione di Firenze,via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)
2016-06-22
Supersymmetric localization provides exact results that should match QFT computations in some regularization scheme. The agreement is particularly subtle in three dimensions where complex answers from localization procedure sometimes arise. We investigate this problem by studying the expectation value of the 1/6 BPS Wilson loop in planar ABJ(M) theory at three loops in perturbation theory. We reproduce the corresponding term in the localization result and argue that it originates entirely from a non-trivial framing of the circular contour. Contrary to pure Chern-Simons theory, we point out that for ABJ(M) the framing phase is a non-trivial function of the couplings and that it potentially receives contributions from vertex-like diagrams. Finally, we briefly discuss the intimate link between the exact framing factor and the Bremsstrahlung function of the 1/2-BPS cusp.
Theories relating baryon asymmetry and dark matter: a Mini review
Stefano eMorisi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The nature of dark matter and the origin of the baryon asymmetry are two of the deepest mysteries of modern particle physics. In the absence of hints regarding a possible solution to these mysteries, many approaches have been developed to tackle them simultaneously { leading to very diverse and rich models}. We give a short review where we describe the general features of some of these models and an overview on the general problem. We also propose a diagrammatic notation to label the different models.
Nilpotent Symmetries for Matter Fields in Non-Abelian Gauge Theory: Superfield Formalism
Malik, R P
2004-01-01
The derivation of the (anti-)BRST nilpotent symmetries for the matter fields in any arbitrary interacting gauge theory has been a long-standing problem in the framework of superfield approach to BRST formalism. In the present paper, the local, covariant, continuous and off-shell nilpotent (anti-)BRST symmetries for the Dirac fields $(\\psi, \\bar\\psi)$ are derived in the framework of superfield formulation where the four $(3 + 1)$-dimensional (4D) interacting non-Abelian gauge theory is considered on the six $(4 + 2)$-dimensional supermanifold parametrized by the four even spacetime coordinates $x^\\mu$ and a couple of odd elements ($\\theta$ and $\\bar\\theta$) of the Grassmann algebra. The invariance of the matter (super)currents and the horizontality condition on the (super)manifolds lead to the derivation of the nilpotent symmetries for the matter fields as well as the gauge and (anti-)ghost fields of the theory.
About empty waves, their effect, and the quantum theory
Wechsler, Sofia
2010-01-01
When a quantum object -- a particle as we call it in a non-rigorous way -- is described by a multi-branched wave- function, with the corresponding wave-packets occupying separated regions of the time-space, a frequently asked question is whether the quantum object is actually contained in only one of these wave-packets. If the answer is positive, then the other wave-packets are called in literature empty waves. The wave-packet containing the object is called a full wave, and is the only one that would produce a recording in a detector. A question immediately arising is whether the empty waves may also have an observable effect. Different works were dedicated to the elucidation of this question. None of them proved that the hypothesis of full/empty waves is correct - it may be that the Nature is indeed non-deterministic and the quantum object is not confined to one region of the space-time. All the works that proved that the empty waves have an effect, in fact, proved that if there exist full and empty waves, ...
Witten index in N=1 and N=2 SYMCS theories with matter
Smilga, A. V.
2014-06-01
We calculate the Witten index for 3d supersymmetric Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theories with matter. For N=2 theories, our results coincide with the results of recent [1]. We compare the situation in 3d to that in 4d N=1 theories with massive matter. In both cases, extra Higgs vacuum states may appear when the Lagrangian involves nontrivial Yukawa interactions between the matter superfields. In addition, in 3d theories, massive fermion loops affect the index via renormalization of the Chern-Simons level k. Put the theory in the large spatial box, g2L≫1. The problem of counting the vacuum states in the theory (1) can then be reduced to the problem of counting the states in the pure CS theory with the level renormalized by the fermion loop [2], krenN=1=ktree-sgn(ktree). Put the theory in small box, g2L≪1 and count carefully the vacuum states in the effective Born-Oppenheimer (BO) Hamiltonian [4,5]. In Section 4, we will describe this method in more details. A similar result for the N=2 theory involving, compared to (1), an extra adjoint matter multiplet is [3] IN=2SYMCS=|k|-1. In recent [1], the index for N=2 theories involving extra matter multiplets was calculated. In the present note, we explain how to do it for generic N=1 theories with matter, when working in the language of N=1 3d superfields. For N=2 theories, we reproduce the results of [1]. We give detailed pedagogical explanations concerning their accurate derivation (our method is based on the deformation N=2→N=1 and is somewhat different from that in Ref. [1]) and compare the vacuum dynamics of 3d theories with the more familiar 4d situation.In Section 2, we make a brief review of the vacuum dynamics of 4d SYM theories with matter and explain why the index may differ from its value in the pure SYM theory even if the matter is nonchiral and massive. In Section 3, we describe the 3d SYMCS theories in interest in the N=1 superspace approach. Section 4 is devoted to index calculations.Before going further
A three-dimensional time-dependent theory for helix traveling wave tubes in beam-wave interaction
Peng Wei-Feng; Hu Yu-Lu; Yang Zhong-Hai; Li Jian-Qing; Lu Qi-Ru; Li Bin
2011-01-01
This paper presents a three-dimensional time-dependent nonlinear theory of helix traveling wave tubes for beam-wave interaction. The radio frequency electromagnetic fields are represented as the superposition of azimuthally symmetric Waves in a vacuum sheath helix. Coupling impedance is introduced to the electromagnetic field equations' stimulating sources, which makes the theory easier and more flexible to realize. The space charge fields are calculated by electron beam space-charge waves expressed as the superposition solutions of Helmholtz equations. The focusing forces due to either a solenoidal field or a periodic permanent magnetic field is also included. The dynamical equations of electrons are Lorentz equations associating with electromagnetic fields, focusing fields and space-charge fields. The numerically simulated results of a tube are presented.
Theory of Microwave 3-WAVE Mixing of Chiral Molecules
Lehmann, Kevin
2016-06-01
The traditional spectroscopic methods to measure enantiomeric excess, based upon optical rotation or circular dichroism arise from an interference of electric and magnetic dipole contributions of an optical transitions. The later is relativisitic and gets smaller with decreasing frequency and thus these effects have not been previously observed in pure rotational spectroscopy. First introduced by the group at Harvard^1, it is possible to use a 3-wave mixing method (with one of the fields potentially a Stark Field) to distinguish enantiomers if the three wave are nonplaner. In the conceptually simplest form of this experiment, a molecule is polarized with X polarization on a a → b transition, and then the resulting ρab molecular coherence is transferred to a ρac coherence by application of a π pulse on the b → c transition. For a chiral molecule with nonzero dipole projections on the three inertial axes, this ρac coherence can radiate Z polarized emission at the frequency of the a → c transition. In this talk, I will present the full theory of such experiments, including accounting for dirrection cosine matrix elements and M degeneracy. The resulting expressions can be used to calculate the expected size of the signal as a function of the specific transitions used in the a → b → c → a cycle.^2 It will be demonstrated that the maximum size of the ρac coherence is nearly that generated by a ``π/2'' pulse on the a → c transition. However, it is not possible to phase match the emission generated by this polarization due to the requirement that the three fields be orthogonal. Given that in rotational spectroscopy the physical size of the sample produced in a pulsed supersonic jet is comparable to the wavelengths of the microwave fields, the lack of phase matching produces a substantial but not catastrophic loss in the amplitude of the emitted free induction decay field. I will present a proposal to realize an analogy of quasiphase matching to
Non-Linear Wave Loads and Ship responses by a time-domain Strip Theory
Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
1998-01-01
A non-linear time-domain strip theory for vertical wave loads and ship responses is presented. The theory is generalized from a rigorous linear time-domain strip theory representaton. The hydrodynamic memory effect due to the free surface is approximated by a higher order differential equation...
Kovtun, Pavel; Ünsal, Mithat; Yaffe, Laurence G.
2003-12-01
We prove an equivalence, in the large N limit, between certain U(N) gauge theories containing adjoint representation matter fields and their orbifold projections. Lattice regularization is used to provide a non-perturbative definition of these theories; our proof applies in the strong coupling, large mass phase of the theories. Equivalence is demonstrated by constructing and comparing the loop equations for a parent theory and its orbifold projections. Loop equations for both expectation values of single-trace observables, and for connected correlators of such observables, are considered; hence the demonstrated non-perturbative equivalence applies to the large N limits of both string tensions and particle spectra.
Inflation in non-minimal matter-curvature coupling theories
Gomes, Cláudio; Bertolami, Orfeu
2016-01-01
We study inflationary scenarios driven by a scalar field in the presence of a non-minimal coupling between matter and curvature. We show that the Friedmann equation can be significantly modified when the energy density during inflation exceeds a critical value determined by the non-minimal coupling, which in turn may considerably modify the spectrum of primordial perturbations and the inflationary dynamics. In particular, we show that these models are characterised by a consistency relation between the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the tensor spectral index that can differ significantly from the predictions of general relativity. We also give examples of observational predictions for some of the most commonly considered potentials and use the results of the Planck collaboration to set limits on the scale of the non-minimal coupling.
Nanostructured Soft Matter Experiment, Theory, Simulation and Perspectives
Zvelindovsky, Andrei V
2007-01-01
This book provides an interdisciplinary overview of a new and broad class of materials under the unifying name Nanostructured Soft Matter. It covers materials ranging from short amphiphilic molecules to block copolymers, proteins, colloids and their composites, microemulsions and bio-inspired systems such as vesicles. The book considers several fundamental questions, including: how self-assembly of various soft materials with internal structure at the nanoscale can be understood, controlled and in future used in the newly emerging field of soft nanotechnology. The book offers readers a view on the subject from different perspectives, combining modern experimental approaches from physical chemistry and physics with various theoretical techniques from physics, mathematics and the most advanced computer modelling. It is the first book of this sort in the field. All chapters are written by leading international experts, bringing together experience from Canada, Germany, Great Britain, Japan, the Netherlands, Russ...
Dark Matter searches using gravitational wave bar detectors: quark nuggets and newtorites
Bassan, M; D'Antonio, S.; Fafone, V.; Giordano, G.; Marini, A.; Minenkov, Y.; Modena, I.; Pallottino, G.V.; Pizzella, G.; Rocchi, A.; Ronga, F.; Visco, M.
2016-01-01
Many experiments have searched for supersymmetric WIMP dark matter, with null results. This may suggest to look for more exotic possibilities, for example compact ultra-dense quark nuggets, widely discussed in literature with several different names. Nuclearites are an example of candidate compact objects with atomic size cross section. After a short discussion on nuclearites, the result of a nuclearite search with the gravitational wave bar detectors Nautilus and Explorer is reported. The geometrical acceptance of the bar detectors is 19.5 $\\rm m^2$ sr, that is smaller than that of other detectors used for similar searches. However, the detection mechanism is completely different and is more straightforward than in other detectors. The experimental limits we obtain are of interest because, for nuclearites of mass less than $10^{-5}$ g, we find a flux smaller than that one predicted considering nuclearites as dark matter candidates. Particles with gravitational only interactions (newtorites) are another examp...
QED the strange theory of light and matter
Feynman, Richard Phillips
2006-01-01
Celebrated for his brilliantly quirky insights into the physical world, Nobel laureate Richard Feynman also possessed an extraordinary talent for explaining difficult concepts to the general public. Here Feynman provides a classic and definitive introduction to QED (namely quantum electrodynamics), that part of quantum field theory describing the interactions of light with charged particles. Using everyday language, spatial concepts, visualizations, and his renowned ""Feynman diagrams"" instead of advanced mathematics, Feynman clearly and humorously communicates both the substance and spiri
WANG Zhong; LU Xiao-ping
2011-01-01
Up to now, there are no satisfactory numerical methods for simulating wave resistance of trimarans, mainly due to the difficulty related with the strong nonlinear features of the piece hull wave making and their interference. This article proposes a numerical method for quick and effective calculation of wave resistance of trimarans to be used in engineering applications. Based on Wyatt's work、 the nonlinear free surface boundary condition, the time domain concept, and the full nonlinear wave making theory,using the Rankine source Green function, the 3-D surface panel method is expanded to solve the trimaran wave making problems,with high order nonlinear factors being taken into account, such as the influence of the sinking and trim, transom, and ship wave immersed hull surface. And the software is successfully developed to implement the method, which is validated. Several trimaran models, including a practical trimaran with a sonar dome and the transom, are used as numerical calculation samples, their wave making resistance is calculated both by the present method and some other methods such as linear (Dawson) methods. Moreover,sample model resistance tests were carried out to provide data for comparison, validation and analysis. Through the validation by model experiments, it is concluded that present method can well predict the wave making resistance, sinking and trim, and the accuracy of wave making resistance calculation is significantly improved by taking the trim and sinking into account, especially at high speeds.
Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Zavala, Jesus; Bringmann, Torsten; Vogelsberger, Mark; Pfrommer, Christoph
2015-01-01
We formulate an effective theory of structure formation (ETHOS) that enables cosmological structure formation to be computed in almost any microphysical model of dark matter physics. This framework maps the detailed microphysical theories of particle dark matter interactions into the physical effective parameters that shape the linear matter power spectrum and the self-interaction transfer cross section of non-relativistic dark matter. These are the input to structure formation simulations, which follow the evolution of the cosmological and galactic dark matter distributions. Models with similar effective parameters in ETHOS but with different dark particle physics would nevertheless result in similar dark matter distributions. We present a general method to map an ultraviolet complete or effective field theory of low energy dark matter physics into parameters that affect the linear matter power spectrum and carry out this mapping for several representative particle models. We further propose a simple but use...
The Sagnac effect: 20 years of development in matter-wave interferometry
Barrett, Brynle; Dutta, Indranil; Meunier, Matthieu; Canuel, Benjamin; Gauguet, Alexandre; Bouyer, Philippe; Landragin, Arnaud
2014-01-01
Since the first atom interferometry experiments in 1991, measurements of rotation through the Sagnac effect in open-area atom interferometers has been studied. These studies have demonstrated very high sensitivity which can compete with state-of-the-art optical Sagnac interferometers. Since the early 2000s, these developments have been motivated by possible applications in inertial guidance and geophysics. Most matter-wave interferometers that have been investigated since then are based on two-photon Raman transitions for the manipulation of atomic wave packets. Results from the two most studied configurations, a space-domain interferometer with atomic beams and a time-domain interferometer with cold atoms, are presented and compared. Finally, the latest generation of cold atom interferometers and their preliminary results are presented.
Gravitational Waves as a New Probe of Bose-Einstein Condensate Dark Matter
Dev, P S Bhupal; Ohmer, Sebastian
2016-01-01
There exists a class of ultralight Dark Matter (DM) models which could form a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in the early universe and behave as a single coherent wave instead of individual particles in galaxies. We show that a generic BEC DM halo intervening along the line of sight of a gravitational wave (GW) signal could induce an observable change in the speed of GW, with the effective refractive index depending only on the mass and self-interaction of the constituent DM particles and the GW frequency. Hence, we propose to use the deviation in the speed of GW as a new probe of the BEC DM parameter space. With a multi-messenger approach to GW astronomy and/or with extended sensitivity to lower GW frequencies, the entire BEC DM parameter space can be effectively probed by our new method in the near future.
Canuel, B; Amand, L; Bertoldi, A; Cormier, E; Fang, B; Gaffet, S; Geiger, R; Harms, J; Holleville, D; Landragin, A; Lefèvre, G; Lhermite, J; Mielec, N; Prevedelli, M; Riou, I; Bouyer, P
2016-01-01
The Matter-Wave laser Interferometer Gravitation Antenna, MIGA, will be a hybrid instrument composed of a network of atom interferometers horizontally aligned and interrogated by the resonant field of an optical cavity. This detector will provide measurements of sub Hertz variations of the gravitational strain tensor. MIGA will bring new methods for geophysics for the characterization of spatial and temporal variations of the local gravity field and will also be a demonstrator for future low frequency Gravitational Wave (GW) detections. MIGA will enable a better understanding of the coupling at low frequency between these different signals. The detector will be installed underground in Rustrel (FR), at the "Laboratoire Souterrain Bas Bruit" (LSBB), a facility with exceptionally low environmental noise and located far away from major sources of anthropogenic disturbances. We give in this paper an overview of the operating mode and status of the instrument before detailing simulations of the gravitational backg...
Canuel, B.; Pelisson, S.; Amand, L.; Bertoldi, A.; Cormier, E.; Fang, B.; Gaffet, S.; Geiger, R.; Harms, J.; Holleville, D.; Landragin, A.; Lefèvre, G.; Lhermite, J.; Mielec, N.; Prevedelli, M.; Riou, I.; Bouyer, P.
2016-04-01
The Matter-Wave laser Interferometer Gravitation Antenna, MIGA, will be a hybrid instrument composed of a network of atom interferometers horizontally aligned and interrogated by the resonant field of an optical cavity. This detector will provide measurements of sub Hertz variations of the gravitational strain tensor. MIGA will bring new methods for geophysics for the characterization of spatial and temporal variations of the local gravity field and will also be a demonstrator for future low frequency Gravitational Wave (GW) detections. MIGA will enable a better understanding of the coupling at low frequency between these different signals. The detector will be installed underground in Rustrel (FR), at the "Laboratoire Souterrain Bas Bruit" (LSBB), a facility with exceptionally low environmental noise and located far away from major sources of anthropogenic disturbances. We give in this paper an overview of the operating mode and status of the instrument before detailing simulations of the gravitational background noise at the MIGA installation site.
Collisional-inhomogeneity-induced generation of matter-wave dark solitons
Wang, C. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-4515 (United States); Kevrekidis, P.G., E-mail: kevrekid@gmail.co [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003-4515 (United States); Horikis, T.P. [Department of Mathematics, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Frantzeskakis, D.J. [Department of Physics, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos, Athens 15784 (Greece)
2010-08-16
We propose an experimentally relevant protocol for the controlled generation of matter-wave dark solitons in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs). In particular, using direct numerical simulations, we show that by switching-on a spatially inhomogeneous (step-like) change of the s-wave scattering length, it is possible to generate a controllable number of dark solitons in a quasi-one-dimensional BEC. A similar phenomenology is also found in the two-dimensional setting of 'disk-shaped' BECs but, as the solitons are subject to the snaking instability, they decay into vortex structures. A detailed investigation of how the parameters involved affect the emergence and evolution of solitons and vortices is provided.
Les Houches Summer School of Theoretical Physics : Session 72, Coherent Atomic Matter Waves
Westbrook, C; David, F; Coherent Atomic Matter Waves
2001-01-01
Progress in atomic physics has been so vigorous during the past decade that one is hard pressed to follow all the new developments. In the early 1990s the first atom interferometers opened a new field in which we have been able to use the wave nature of atoms to probe fundamental quantum me chanics questions as well as to make precision measurements. Coming fast on the heels of this development was the demonstration of Bose Einstein condensation in dilute atomic vapors which intensified research interest in studying the wave nature of matter, especially in a domain in which "macro scopic" quantum effects (vortices, stimulated scattering of atomic beams) are visible. At the same time there has been much progress in our understanding of the behavior of waves (notably electromagnetic) in complex media, both periodic and disordered. An obvious topic of speculation and probably of future research is whether any new insight or applications will develop if one examines the behavior of de Broglie waves in ana...
Matrix Model of Chern-Simons Matter Theories Beyond The Spherical Limit
Yokoyama, Shuichi
2016-01-01
A general class of matrix models which arises as partition function in U(N) Chern-Simons matter theories on three sphere is investigated. Employing the standard technique of the 1/N expansion we solve the system beyond the planar limit. We confirm that the subleading correction in the free energy correctly reproduces the one obtained by expanding the past exact result in the case of pure Chern-Simons theory.
The structure of dark matter halos in hierarchical clustering theories
Subramanian, K; Ostriker, J P; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Cen, Renyue; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.
1999-01-01
During hierarchical clustering, smaller masses generally collapse earlier than larger masses and so are denser on the average. The core of a small mass halo could be dense enough to resist disruption and survive undigested, when it is incorporated into a bigger object. We explore the possibility that a nested sequence of undigested cores in the center of the halo, which have survived the hierarchical, inhomogeneous collapse to form larger and larger objects, determines the halo structure in the inner regions. For a flat universe with $P(k) \\propto k^n$, scaling arguments then suggest that the core density profile is, $\\rho \\propto r^{-\\alpha}$ with $\\alpha = (9+3n)/(5+n)$. But whether such behaviour obtains depends on detailed dynamics. We first examine the dynamics using a fluid approach to the self-similar collapse solutions for the dark matter phase space density, including the effect of velocity dispersions. We highlight the importance of tangential velocity dispersions to obtain density profiles shallowe...
Cultural evolutionary theory: How culture evolves and why it matters.
Creanza, Nicole; Kolodny, Oren; Feldman, Marcus W
2017-07-24
Human cultural traits-behaviors, ideas, and technologies that can be learned from other individuals-can exhibit complex patterns of transmission and evolution, and researchers have developed theoretical models, both verbal and mathematical, to facilitate our understanding of these patterns. Many of the first quantitative models of cultural evolution were modified from existing concepts in theoretical population genetics because cultural evolution has many parallels with, as well as clear differences from, genetic evolution. Furthermore, cultural and genetic evolution can interact with one another and influence both transmission and selection. This interaction requires theoretical treatments of gene-culture coevolution and dual inheritance, in addition to purely cultural evolution. In addition, cultural evolutionary theory is a natural component of studies in demography, human ecology, and many other disciplines. Here, we review the core concepts in cultural evolutionary theory as they pertain to the extension of biology through culture, focusing on cultural evolutionary applications in population genetics, ecology, and demography. For each of these disciplines, we review the theoretical literature and highlight relevant empirical studies. We also discuss the societal implications of the study of cultural evolution and of the interactions of humans with one another and with their environment.
Dilute neutron matter on the lattice at next-to-leading order in chiral effective field theory
Borasoy, Bugra; Krebs, Hermann; Lee, Dean; Meißner, Ulf-G
2007-01-01
We discuss lattice simulations of the ground state of dilute neutron matter at next-to-leading order in chiral effective field theory. In a previous paper the coefficients of the next-to-leading-order lattice action were determined by matching nucleon-nucleon scattering data for momenta up to the pion mass. Here the same lattice action is used to simulate the ground state of up to 12 neutrons in a periodic cube using Monte Carlo. We explore the density range from 2% to 8% of normal nuclear density and analyze the ground state energy as an expansion about the unitarity limit with corrections due to finite scattering length, effective range, and P-wave interactions.
Spin half fermions with mass dimension one: Theory, phenomenology, and dark matter
Ahluwalia-Khalilova, D V
2004-01-01
We provide the first details on the unexpected theoretical discovery of a spin one half matter field with mass dimension one. It is based upon a complete set of dual-helicity eigenspinors of the charge conjugation operator. Due to its unusual properties with respect to charge conjugation and parity it belongs to a non standard Wigner class. Consequently, the theory exhibits non-locality with (CPT)^2 = - I. Because the introduced fermionic field is endowed with mass dimension one, it can carry a quartic self interaction. Its dominant interaction with known forms of matter is via Higgs, and with gravity. This aspect leads us to contemplate the new fermion as a prime dark matter candidate. Taking this suggestion seriously we study a supernova-like explosion of a galactic-mass dark matter cloud to set limits on the mass of the new particle. Similarities and differences with the mirror matter proposal for dark matter are enumerated. In a critique of the theory we bare a hint on non-commutative aspects of spacetime...
Wavemaker theories for acoustic-gravity waves over a finite depth
Tian, Miao; Kadri, Usama
2016-04-01
Acoustic-gravity waves (hereafter AGWs) in ocean have received much interest recently, mainly with respect to early detection of tsunamis as they travel at near the speed of sound in water which makes them ideal candidates for early detection of tsunamis. While the generation mechanisms of AGWs have been studied from the perspective of vertical oscillations of seafloor (Yamamoto, 1982; Stiassnie, 2010) and triad wave-wave interaction (Longuet-Higgins 1950; Kadri and Stiassnie 2013; Kadri and Akylas 2016), in the current study we are interested in their generation by wave-structure interaction with possible application to the energy sector. Here, we develop two wavemaker theories to analyze different wave modes generated by impermeable (the classic Havelock's theory) and porous (porous wavemaker theory) plates in weakly compressible fluids. Slight modification has been made to the porous theory so that, unlike the previous theory (Chwang, 1983), the new solution depends on the geometry of the plate. The expressions for three different types of plates (piston, flap, delta-function) are introduced. Analytical solutions are also derived for the potential amplitude of the gravity, evanescent, and acoustic-gravity waves, as well as the surface elevation, velocity distribution, and pressure for AGWs. Both theories reduce to previous results for incompressible flow when the compressibility is negligible. We also show numerical examples for AGW generated in a wave flume as well as in deep ocean. Our current study sets the theoretical background towards remote sensing by AGWs, for optimized deep ocean wave-power harnessing, among others. References Chwang, A.T. 1983 A porous-wavemaker theory. Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 132, 395- 406. Kadri, U., Stiassnie, M. 2013 Generation of an acoustic-gravity wave by two gravity waves, and their subsequent mutual interaction. J. Fluid Mech. 735, R6. Kadri U., Akylas T.R. 2016 On resonant triad interactions of acoustic-gravity waves. J
A New Look at the Landau's Theory of Spreading and Damping of Waves in Collisionless Plasmas
Soshnikov, V N
2008-01-01
The theory of plasma waves and Landau damping in Maxwellian plasmas, Landau's ``rule of pass around poles'' include doubtful statements, particularly related to an artificial ``constructing'' of the dispersion equation, what should allow the possibility of its solution otherwise not existing at all, and the possibility of analytical continuations of corresponding very specific ruptured functions in the one-dimensional Laplace transformation, used by Landau, what is the base of his theory. We represent, as an accessible variant, a more general alternative theory based on a two-dimensional Laplace transformation, leading to an asymptotical in time and space solution as a complicated superposition of coupled damping and {\\em non-damping \\/} plane waves and oscillations with different dispersion laws for every constituent mode. This theory naturally and very simply explains paradoxes of the phenomenon of plasma echo. We propose for discussion a new ideology of plasma waves (both electron and ion-acoustic waves) q...
Amplification of Gravitational Waves During Inflation in Brans-Dicke Theory
Berman, M S; Berman, Marcelo S.; Trevisan, Luis A.
2001-01-01
We show that Gravitational Waves are exponetially amplified in the inflationary phase in Brans-Dicke theory, so that it would be possible to detect them and in this way verify several features of physical reality.
When matching matters: Loop effects in Higgs effective theory
Freitas, Ayres; López-Val, David; Plehn, Tilman
2016-11-01
Effective Lagrangians are a useful tool for a data-driven approach to physics beyond the Standard Model at the LHC. However, for the new physics scales accessible at the LHC, the effective operator expansion is only relatively slowly converging at best. For tree-level processes, it has been found that the agreement between the effective Lagrangian and a range of UV-complete models depends sensitively on the appropriate definition of the matching. We extend this analysis to the one-loop level, which is relevant for electroweak precision data and Higgs decay to photons. We show that near the scale of electroweak symmetry breaking the validity of the effective theory description can be systematically improved through an appropriate matching procedure. In particular, we find a significant increase in accuracy when including suitable terms suppressed by the Higgs vacuum expectation value in the matching.
Density dependent hadron field theory for asymmetric nuclear matter and exotic nuclei
Hofmann, F. Keil; Lenske, H.
2001-01-01
Published in: Phys. Rev. C 64 (2001) , pp.034314 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: The density dependent relativistic hadron field (DDRH) theory is applied to strongly asymmetric nuclear matter and finite nuclei far off stability. A new set of in-medium meson-nucleon vertices
Cosmological Evolution in f(R,T) theory with Collisional Matter
Baffou, E H; Kpadonou, A V; Rodrigues, M E; Tossa, J
2015-01-01
We study the evolution of the cosmological parameters, namely, the deceleration parameter $q(z)$ and the parameter of effective equation of state in a universe contains, besides the ordinary matter and dark energy, a self-interacting (collisional matter), in the generalized $f(R,T)$ theory of gravity, where $R$ and $T$ are the curvature scalar and the trace of the energy-momentum tensor, respectively. We use the generalized FRW equations the equation of continuity and obtain a differential equation of second order in $H(z)$, and solve it numerically for studying the evolution of the cosmological parameters. Two $f(R,T)$ models are considered and the results with collisional matter are compared with the ones of the $\\Lambda$CDM model, and also with the model where there exists only non-collisional matter. The curves show that the models are acceptable because the values found for $w_{eff}$ are consistent with the observational data.
DAMA confronts null searches in the effective theory of dark matter-nucleon interactions
Catena, Riccardo; Wild, Sebastian
2016-01-01
We examine the dark matter interpretation of the modulation signal reported by the DAMA experiment from the perspective of effective field theories displaying Galilean invariance. We consider the most general effective coupling leading to the elastic scattering of a dark matter particle with a nucleon, and we analyze the compatibility of the DAMA signal with the null results from other direct detection experiments, as well as with the non-observation of a high energy neutrino flux in the direction of the Sun from dark matter annihilation. Assuming the standard halo model, we find a strong tension between the dark matter interpretation of the DAMA modulation signal and the null result experiments. We also list possible ways-out to this conclusion.
Surface wave scattering theory : with applications to forward and inverse problems in seismology
Snieder, R.K.
1987-01-01
Scattering of surface waves in a three dimensional layered elastic medium with embedded heterogeneities is described in this thesis with the Born approximation. The dyadic decomposition of the surface wave Green's function provides the crucial element for an efficient application of Born theory to s
Two-graviton interaction in pp-wave background in Matrix theory and Supergravity
Lee, Hok Kong E-mail: hok@theory.caltech.edu; Wu Xinkai E-mail: xinkaiwu@theory.caltech.edu
2003-08-18
We compute the two-body one-loop effective action for the Matrix theory in the pp-wave background, and compare it to the effective action on the Supergravity side in the same background. Agreement is found for the effective actions on both sides. This points to the existence of a supersymmetric nonrenormalization theorem in the pp-wave background.
Milli-Charged Dark Matter in Quantum Gravity and String Theory
Shiu, Gary; Ye, Fang
2013-01-01
We examine the milli-charged dark matter scenario from a string theory perspective. In this scenario, kinetic and mass mixings of the photon with extra U(1) bosons are claimed to give rise to small electric charges, carried by dark matter particles, whose values are determined by continuous parameters of the theory. This seems to contradict folk theorems of quantum gravity that forbid the existence of irrational charges in theories with a single massless gauge field. By considering the underlying structure of the U(1) mass matrix that appears in type II string compactifications, we show that milli-charges arise exclusively through kinetic mixing, and require the existence of at least two exactly massless gauge bosons.
The Hilbert series of 3d N=2 Yang-Mills theories with vectorlike matter
Cremonesi, Stefano
2015-01-01
This paper presents a formula for the Hilbert series that counts gauge invariant chiral operators in 3d N=2 Yang-Mills theories with vectorlike matter and no Chern-Simons interactions. The formula counts 't Hooft monopole operators dressed by gauge invariants of a residual gauge theory of massless fields in the monopole background, which is determined by the Higgs mechanism. The sum over magnetic charges is restricted due to instanton effects that partially lift the classical Coulomb branch. The formalism is applied to unitary and symplectic gauge theories with fundamental matter, reproducing old results for the moduli space of vacua and the chiral ring, without resorting to any further effective superpotential on the moduli space.
Kobyli Ska, Dorota Korte; Bukowski, Roman J; Burak, Boguslaw; Bodzenta, Jerzy; Kochowski, Stanislaw
2007-08-01
A comparison is made of three methods for modeling the interaction of a laser probe beam with the temperature field of a thermal wave. The three methods include: (1) a new method based on complex ray theory, which allows us to take into account the disturbance of the amplitude and phase of the electric field of the probe beam, (2) the ray deflection averaging theory of Aamodt and Murphy, and (3) the wave theory (WT) of Glazov and Muratikov. To carry out this comparison, it is necessary to reformulate the description of the photodeflection signal in either the WT or the ray deflection averaging theory. It is shown that the differences between calculated signals using the different theories are most pronounced when the radius of the probe beam is comparable with the length of the thermal wave in the region of their interaction. Predictions of the theories are compared with experimental results. A few parameters of the experimental setup are determined through multiparameter fitting of the theoretical curves to the experimental data. A least-squares procedure was chosen as a fitting method. The conclusion is that the calculation of the photodeflection signal in the framework of the complex ray theory is a more accurate approach than the ray deflection averaging theory or the wave one.
3d N = 1 Chern-Simons-matter theory and localization
Tsimpis, Dimitrios; Zhu, Yaodong
2016-10-01
We consider the most general, classically-conformal, three-dimensional N = 1 Chern-Simons-matter theory with global symmetry Sp (2) and gauge group U (N) × U (N). We show that the Lagrangian in the on-shell formulation of the theory admits one more free parameter as compared to the theory formulated in off-shell N = 1 superspace. The theory on T3 can be formally localized. We partially carry out the localization procedure for the theory on T3 with periodic boundary conditions. In particular we show that restricting to the saddle points with vanishing gauge connection gives a trivial contribution to the partition function, i.e. the bosonic and fermionic contributions exactly cancel each other.
Newtonian semiclassical gravity in the Ghirardi–Rimini–Weber theory with matter density ontology
Derakhshani, Maaneli, E-mail: maanelid@yahoo.com
2014-03-01
We propose a Newtonian semiclassical gravity theory based on the GRW collapse theory with matter density ontology (GRWm), which we term GRWmN. The theory is proposed because, as we show from previous arguments in the literature, the standard Newtonian semiclassical gravity theory based on the Schroedinger–Newton equations does not have a consistent Born rule probability interpretation for gravitationally self-interacting particles and implies gravitational cat states for macroscopic mass superpositions. By contrast, we show that GRWmN has a consistent statistical description of gravitationally self-interacting particles and adequately suppresses the cat states for macroscopic superpositions. Two possible routes to experimentally testing GRWmN are also considered. We conclude with a discussion of possible variants of GRWmN, what a general relativistic extension would involve, and various objections that might be raised against semiclassical gravity theories like GRWmN.
Construction of novel BPS Wilson loops in three-dimensional quiver Chern-Simons-matter theories
Ouyang, Hao; Zhang, Jia-ju
2015-01-01
In this paper, we construct novel Drukker-Trancanelli (DT) type BPS Wilson loops along infinite straight lines in $\\mathcal N=2,3$ quiver super Chern-Simons-matter (CSM) theories, Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory, and $\\mathcal N=4$ orbifold ABJM theory. There are several free complex parameters in the DT type BPS Wilson loops, and for Wilson loops in ABJM theory and $\\mathcal N=4$ orbifold ABJM theory there are supersymmetry enhancements at special values of the parameters. We check that the differences of the DT type and Gaiotto-Yin (GY) type Wilson loops are $Q$-exact with $Q$ being some supercharges preserved by both the DT type and GY type Wilson loops. The results would be useful to calculate vacuum expectation values of the Wilson loops in matrix models if they are still BPS quantum mechanically.
Kanemura, Shinya; Machida, Naoki [Department of Physics, University of Toyama, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Shindou, Tetsuo [Division of Liberal-Arts, Kogakuin University, 1-24-2 Nishi-Shinjuku, Tokyo 163-8677 (Japan)
2014-11-10
We propose a simple model to explain neutrino mass, dark matter and baryogenesis based on the extended Higgs sector which appears in the low-energy effective theory of a supersymmetric gauge theory with confinement. We here consider the SU(2){sub H} gauge symmetry with three flavours of fundamental representations which are charged under the standard SU(3){sub C}×SU(2){sub L}×U(1){sub Y} symmetry and a new discrete Z{sub 2} symmetry. We also introduce a Z{sub 2}-odd right-handed neutrino superfield in addition to the standard model matter superfields. The low-energy effective theory below the confinement scale contains the Higgs sector with fifteen composite superfields, some of which are Z{sub 2}-odd. When the confinement scale is of the order of ten TeV, electroweak phase transition can be sufficiently of first order, which is required for successful electroweak baryogenesis. The lightest Z{sub 2}-odd particle can be a new candidate for dark matter, in addition to the lightest R-parity odd particle. Neutrino masses and mixings can be explained by the quantum effects of Z{sub 2}-odd fields via the one-loop and three-loop diagrams. We find a benchmark scenario of the model, where all the constraints from the current neutrino, dark matter, lepton flavour violation and LHC data are satisfied. Predictions of the model are shortly discussed.
A matter of timing: developmental theories of romantic involvement and psychosocial adjustment.
Furman, Wyndol; Collibee, Charlene
2014-11-01
The present study compared two theories of the association between romantic involvement and adjustment: a social timetable theory and a developmental task theory. We examined seven waves of longitudinal data on a community based sample of 200 participants (Wave 1 mean age = 15 years, 10 months). In each wave, multiple measures of substance use, externalizing symptoms, and internalizing symptoms were gathered, typically from multiple reporters. Multilevel modeling revealed that greater levels of romantic involvement in adolescence were associated with higher levels of substance use and externalizing symptoms but became associated with lower levels in adulthood. Having a romantic partner was associated with greater levels of substance use, externalizing symptoms, and internalizing symptoms in adolescence but was associated with lower levels in young adulthood. The findings were not consistent with a social timetable theory, which predicts that nonnormative involvement is associated with poor adjustment. Instead, the findings are consistent with a developmental task theory, which predicts that precocious romantic involvement undermines development and adaptation, but when romantic involvement becomes a salient developmental task in adulthood, it is associated with positive adjustment. Discussion focuses on the processes that may underlie the changing nature of the association between romantic involvement and adjustment.
A non-axisymmetric linearized supersonic wave drag analysis: Mathematical theory
Barnhart, Paul J.
1996-01-01
A Mathematical theory is developed to perform the calculations necessary to determine the wave drag for slender bodies of non-circular cross section. The derivations presented in this report are based on extensions to supersonic linearized small perturbation theory. A numerical scheme is presented utilizing Fourier decomposition to compute the pressure coefficient on and about a slender body of arbitrary cross section.
LISA sensitivities to gravitational waves from relativistic metric theories of gravity
Tinto, Massimo; Alves, Márcio Eduardo Da Silva
2010-12-01
The direct observation of gravitational waves will provide a unique tool for probing the dynamical properties of highly compact astrophysical objects, mapping ultrarelativistic regions of space-time, and testing Einstein’s general theory of relativity. LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna), a joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration and European Space Agency mission to be launched in the next decade, will perform these scientific tasks by detecting and studying low-frequency cosmic gravitational waves through their influence on the phases of six modulated laser beams exchanged between three remote spacecraft. By directly measuring the polarization components of the waves LISA will detect, we will be able to test Einstein’s theory of relativity with good sensitivity. Since a gravitational wave signal predicted by the most general relativistic metric theory of gravity accounts for six polarization modes (the usual two Einstein’s tensor polarizations as well as two vector and two scalar wave components), we have derived the LISA time-delay interferometric responses and estimated their sensitivities to vector- and scalar-type waves. We find that (i) at frequencies larger than roughly the inverse of the one-way light time (≈6×10-2Hz), LISA is more than ten times sensitive to scalar-longitudinal and vector signals than to tensor and scalar-transverse waves, and (ii) in the low part of its frequency band is equally sensitive to tensor and vector waves and somewhat less sensitive to scalar signals.
Gurbatov, S N; Saichev, A I
2012-01-01
"Waves and Structures in Nonlinear Nondispersive Media: General Theory and Applications to Nonlinear Acoustics” is devoted completely to nonlinear structures. The general theory is given here in parallel with mathematical models. Many concrete examples illustrate the general analysis of Part I. Part II is devoted to applications to nonlinear acoustics, including specific nonlinear models and exact solutions, physical mechanisms of nonlinearity, sawtooth-shaped wave propagation, self-action phenomena, nonlinear resonances and engineering application (medicine, nondestructive testing, geophysics, etc.). This book is designed for graduate and postgraduate students studying the theory of nonlinear waves of various physical nature. It may also be useful as a handbook for engineers and researchers who encounter the necessity of taking nonlinear wave effects into account of their work. Dr. Gurbatov S.N. is the head of Department, and Vice Rector for Research of Nizhny Novgorod State University. Dr. Rudenko O.V. is...
Theory of reflection reflection and transmission of electromagnetic, particle and acoustic waves
Lekner, John
2016-01-01
This book deals with the reflection of electromagnetic and particle waves by interfaces. The interfaces can be sharp or diffuse. The topics of the book contain absorption, inverse problems, anisotropy, pulses and finite beams, rough surfaces, matrix methods, numerical methods, reflection of particle waves and neutron reflection. Exact general results are presented, followed by long wave reflection, variational theory, reflection amplitude equations of the Riccati type, and reflection of short waves. The Second Edition of the Theory of Reflection is an updated and much enlarged revision of the 1987 monograph. There are new chapters on periodically stratified media, ellipsometry, chiral media, neutron reflection and reflection of acoustic waves. The chapter on anisotropy is much extended, with a complete treatment of the reflection and transmission properties of arbitrarily oriented uniaxial crystals. The book gives a systematic and unified treatment reflection and transmission of electromagnetic and particle...
Simplified models vs. effective field theory approaches in dark matter searches
De Simone, Andrea; Jacques, Thomas
2016-07-01
In this review we discuss and compare the usage of simplified models and Effective Field Theory (EFT) approaches in dark matter searches. We provide a state of the art description on the subject of EFTs and simplified models, especially in the context of collider searches for dark matter, but also with implications for direct and indirect detection searches, with the aim of constituting a common language for future comparisons between different strategies. The material is presented in a form that is as self-contained as possible, so that it may serve as an introductory review for the newcomer as well as a reference guide for the practitioner.
Simplified Models vs. Effective Field Theory Approaches in Dark Matter Searches
De Simone, Andrea
2016-01-01
In this review we discuss and compare the usage of simplified models and Effective Field Theory (EFT) approaches in dark matter searches. We provide a state of the art description on the subject of EFTs and simplified models, especially in the context of collider searches for dark matter, but also with implications for direct and indirect detection searches, with the aim of constituting a common language for future comparisons between different strategies. The material is presented in a form that is as self-contained as possible, so that it may serve as an introductory review for the newcomer as well as a reference guide for the practitioner.
A Wave Scattering Theory of Solar Seismic Power Haloes
Hanasoge, Shravan M
2009-01-01
Spatial maps of the high-pass frequency filtered time-averaged root-mean-squared (RMS) Doppler velocities tend to show substantial decrements within regions of strong field and curiously, randomly distributed patches of enhancement in the vicinity. We propose that these haloes or enhancements are a consequence of magnetic-field-induced mode mixing (scattering), resulting in the preferential powering of waves that possess strong surface velocity signatures (i.e. scattering from low to high wavenumbers). Evidently, this process can occur in the reverse, and therefore in order to determine if the haloes are indeed caused by mode mixing, we must answer the question: {\\it how are acoustic waves scattered by magnetic fields?} Through simulations of the interactions between waves and sunspots and models of plage, we demonstrate that the high to low modal order scattering channels are favoured. With increasing frequency and consequently, decreasing wavelength, a growing number of modes are scattered by the sunspot, t...
Exact Theory to a Gravitational Wave Detector. New Experiments Proposed
Rabounski D.
2006-04-01
Full Text Available We deduce exact solutions to the deviation equation in the cases of both free and spring-connected particles. The solutions show that gravitational waves may displace particles in a two-particle system only if they are in motion with respect to each other or the local space (there is no effect if they are at rest. We therefore propose a new experimental statement for the detection of gravitational waves: use a suspended solid-body detector self-vibrating so that there are relative oscillations of its butt-ends. Or, in another way: use a free-mass detector fitted with suspended, vibrating mirrors. Such systems may have a relative displacement of the butt-ends and a time shift in the butt-ends, produced by a falling gravitational wave.
Barenboim, Gabriela, E-mail: Gabriela.Barenboim@uv.es; Park, Wan-Il, E-mail: Wanil.Park@uv.es
2016-08-10
We investigate the gravitational wave background from a first order phase transition in a matter-dominated universe, and show that it has a unique feature from which important information about the properties of the phase transition and thermal history of the universe can be easily extracted. Also, we discuss the inverse problem of such a gravitational wave background in view of the degeneracy among macroscopic parameters governing the signal.
Sound waves in strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma
Benincasa, Paolo; Buchel, Alex; Starinets, Andrei O.
2006-01-01
Using gauge theory/gravity duality we study sound wave propagation in strongly coupled non-conformal gauge theory plasma. We compute the speed of sound and the bulk viscosity of N=2 supersymmetric SU(N) Yang-Mills plasma at a temperature much larger than the mass scale of the theory in the limit of large N and large 't Hooft coupling. The speed of sound is computed both from the equation of state and the hydrodynamic pole in the stress-energy tensor two-point correlation function. Both computations lead to the same result. Bulk viscosity is determined by computing the attenuation constant of the sound wave mode.
Introduction to the theory of soft matter from ideal gases to liquid crystals
Selinger, Jonathan V
2016-01-01
This book presents the theory of soft matter to students at the advanced undergraduate or beginning graduate level. It provides a basic introduction to theoretical physics as applied to soft matter, explaining the concepts of symmetry, broken symmetry, and order parameters; phases and phase transitions; mean-field theory; and the mathematics of variational calculus and tensors. It is written in an informal, conversational style, which is accessible to students from a diverse range of backgrounds. The book begins with a simple “toy model” to demonstrate the physical significance of free energy. It then introduces two standard theories of phase transitions—the Ising model for ferromagnetism and van der Waals theory of gases and liquids—and uses them to illustrate principles of statistical mechanics. From those examples, it moves on to discuss order, disorder, and broken symmetry in many states of matter, and to explain the theoretical methods that are used to model the phenomena. It concludes with a cha...
On the stability conditions for theories of modified gravity in the presence of matter fields
De Felice, Antonio; Frusciante, Noemi; Papadomanolakis, Georgios
2017-03-01
We present a thorough stability analysis of modified gravity theories in the presence of matter fields. We use the Effective Field Theory framework for Dark Energy and Modified Gravity to retain a general approach for the gravity sector and a Sorkin-Schutz action for the matter one. Then, we work out the proper viability conditions to guarantee in the scalar sector the absence of ghosts, gradient and tachyonic instabilities. The absence of ghosts can be achieved by demanding a positive kinetic matrix, while the lack of a gradient instability is ensured by imposing a positive speed of propagation for all the scalar modes. In case of tachyonic instability, the mass eigenvalues have been studied and we work out the appropriate expressions. For the latter, an instability occurs only when the negative mass eigenvalue is much larger, in absolute value, than the Hubble parameter. We discuss the results for the minimally coupled quintessence model showing for a particular set of parameters two typical behaviours which in turn lead to a stable and an unstable configuration. Moreover, we find that the speeds of propagation of the scalar modes strongly depend on matter densities, for the beyond Horndeski theories. Our findings can be directly employed when testing modified gravity theories as they allow to identify the correct viability space.
Bouyer, P.
2015-12-01
Since its first demonstration in 1991, Atomic Interferometry (AI) has shown to be an extremely performing probe of inertial forces. More recently, AI has revealed sensitivities to acceleration or rotation competing with or even beating state-of-the art sensors based on other technologies. The high stability and accuracy of AI sensors relying on cold atoms is at the basis of several applications ranging from fundamental physics (e.g. tests of general relativity and measurements of fundamental constants), geophysics (gravimetry, gradiometry) and inertial navigation. We are currently building a large scale matter-wave detector which will open new applications in geoscience and fundamental physics. In contrast to standard AI based sensors, our matter-wave laser interferometer gravitation antenna (MIGA) exploits the superb seismic environment of a low noise underground laboratory. This new infrastructure is embedded into the LSBB underground laboratory, in France, ideally located away from major anthropogenic disturbances and benefitting from very low background noise. MIGA combines atom and laser interferometry techniques, manipulating an array of atomic ensembles distributed along the antenna to simultanously read out seismic effects, inertial effects and eventually the passage of a gravity wave. The first version uses a set of three atomic sensors placed along an optical cavity. The spatial resolution obtained with this configuration will enable the separation of the seismic, inertial and GW contributions. This technique will bring unprecedented sensitivities to gravity gradients variations and open new perspectives for sub Hertz gravity wave and geodesic detection. MIGA will provide measurements of gravity gradients variations limited only by the AI shot noise, which will allow sensitivities of about 10-13 s-2Hz-1/2@ 2Hz. This instrument will then be capable to spatially resolve 1 m3 of water a distances of about 100 m, which opens important potential applications
Comparison between two models of absorption of matter waves by a thin time-dependent barrier
Barbier, Maximilien; Beau, Mathieu; Goussev, Arseni
2015-11-01
We report a quantitative, analytical, and numerical comparison between two models of the interaction of a nonrelativistic quantum particle with a thin time-dependent absorbing barrier. The first model represents the barrier by a set of time-dependent discontinuous matching conditions, which are closely related to Kottler boundary conditions used in stationary-wave optics as a mathematical basis for Kirchhoff diffraction theory. The second model mimics the absorbing barrier with an off-diagonal δ potential with a time-dependent amplitude. We show that the two models of absorption agree in their predictions in a semiclassical regime, the regime readily accessible in modern experiments with ultracold atoms.
Mehrkash, Milad; Azhari, Mojtaba; Mirdamadi, Hamid Reza
2014-01-01
The importance of elastic wave propagation problem in plates arises from the application of ultrasonic elastic waves in non-destructive evaluation of plate-like structures. However, precise study and analysis of acoustic guided waves especially in non-homogeneous waveguides such as functionally graded plates are so complicated that exact elastodynamic methods are rarely employed in practical applications. Thus, the simple approximate plate theories have attracted much interest for the calculation of wave fields in FGM plates. Therefore, in the current research, the classical plate theory (CPT), first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and third-order shear deformation theory (TSDT) are used to obtain the transient responses of flexural waves in FGM plates subjected to transverse impulsive loadings. Moreover, comparing the results with those based on a well recognized hybrid numerical method (HNM), we examine the accuracy of the plate theories for several plates of various thicknesses under excitations of different frequencies. The material properties of the plate are assumed to vary across the plate thickness according to a simple power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of constituents. In all analyses, spatial Fourier transform together with modal analysis are applied to compute displacement responses of the plates. A comparison of the results demonstrates the reliability ranges of the approximate plate theories for elastic wave propagation analysis in FGM plates. Furthermore, based on various examples, it is shown that whenever the plate theories are used within the appropriate ranges of plate thickness and frequency content, solution process in wave number-time domain based on modal analysis approach is not only sufficient but also efficient for finding the transient waveforms in FGM plates.
A SIMPLIFIED THEORY FOR UNSTEADY AERODYNAMIC FORCES ACTING ON AN AIRFOIL FLYING ABOVE SEA-WAVES
SHENG Qi-hu; WU De-ming; ZHANG Liang
2004-01-01
A simplified theoretical method based on the quasi-steady wing theory was proposed to study the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on an airfoil flying in non-uniform flow. Comparison between the theoretical results and the numerical results based on nonlinear theory was made. It shows that the simplified theory is a good approximation for the investigation of the aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil flying above sea-waves. From on the simplified theory it is also found that an airfoil can get thrust from a wave-disturbed airflow and thus the total drag is reduced. And the relationship among the thrust, the flying altitude, the flying speed and the wave parameters was worked out and discussed.
Gravitational Wave Spectrums from Pole-like Inflations based on Generalized Gravity Theories
Hwang, J
1998-01-01
We present a general and unified formulation which can handle the classical evolution and quantum generation processes of the cosmological gravitational wave in a broad class of generalized gravity theories. Applications are made in several inflation models based on the scalar-tensor theory, the induced gravity, and the low energy effective action of string theory. The gravitational wave power spectrums based on the vacuum expectation value of the quantized fluctuating metric during the pole-like inflation stages are derived in analytic forms. Assuming that the gravity theory transits to Einstein one while the relevant scales remain in the superhorizon scale, we derive the consequent power spectrums and the directional fluctuations of the relic radiation produced by the gravitational wave. The spectrums seeded by the vacuum fluctuations in the pole-like inflation models based on the generalized gravity show a distinguished common feature which differs from the scale invariant spectrum generated in an exponent...
Chala, Mikael; Sobolev, Ivan
2016-01-01
A minimal extension of the Standard Model that provides both a dark matter candidate and a strong first-order electroweak phase transition (EWPT) consists of two additional Lorentz and gauge singlets. In this paper we work out a composite Higgs version of this scenario, based on the coset $SO(7)/SO(6)$. We show that by embedding the elementary fermions in appropriate representations of $SO(7)$, all dominant interactions are described by only three free effective parameters. Within the model dependencies of the embedding, the theory predicts one of the singlets to be stable and responsible for the observed dark matter abundance. At the same time, the second singlet introduces new $CP$-violation phases and triggers a strong first-order EWPT, making electroweak baryogenesis feasible. It turns out that this scenario does not conflict with current observations and it is promising for solving the dark matter and baryon asymmetry puzzles. The tight predictions of the model will be accessible at the forthcoming dark ...
Observation of atomic speckle and Hanbury Brown-Twiss correlations in guided matter waves.
Dall, R G; Hodgman, S S; Manning, A G; Johnsson, M T; Baldwin, K G H; Truscott, A G
2011-01-01
Speckle patterns produced by multiple independent light sources are a manifestation of the coherence of the light field. Second-order correlations exhibited in phenomena such as photon bunching, termed the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect, are a measure of quantum coherence. Here we observe for the first time atomic speckle produced by atoms transmitted through an optical waveguide, and link this to second-order correlations of the atomic arrival times. We show that multimode matter-wave guiding, which is directly analogous to multimode light guiding in optical fibres, produces a speckled transverse intensity pattern and atom bunching, whereas single-mode guiding of atoms that are output-coupled from a Bose-Einstein condensate yields a smooth intensity profile and a second-order correlation value of unity. Both first- and second-order coherence are important for applications requiring a fully coherent atomic source, such as squeezed-atom interferometry.
Evolution of Matter Wave Interference of Bose-Condensed Gas in a 1D Optical Lattice
XU Zhi-Jun; ZHANG Dong-Mei
2007-01-01
For a Bose-condensed gas in a combined potential consisting of an axially-symmetric harmonic magnetic trap and one-dimensional (1D) optical lattice, using the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii (G-P) equation and the propagator method, we obtain the analytical result of the order parameter for matter wave interference at any time. The evolution of the interference pattern under a variation of the relative phase △φ between successive subcondensates trapped on an optical lattices is also studied. For △φ = π, the interference pattern is symmetric with two sharp peaks, which are symmetrically located on a straight line on both sides of a vacant central peak and moving apart from each other. This work is in agreement with available experimental results.
Matter-wave beam splitter on an atom chip for a portable atom-interferometer
Kim, S J; Gang, S T; Kim, J B
2016-01-01
We construct a matter-wave beam splitter using 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensate on an atom chip. Through the use of radio-frequency-induced double-well potentials, we were able to split a BEC into two clouds separated by distances ranging from 2.8 {\\mu}m to 57 {\\mu}m. Interference between these two freely expanding BECs has been observed. By varying the rf-field amplitude, frequency, or polarization, we investigate behaviors of the beam-splitter. From the perspective of practical use, our BEC manipulation system is suitable for application to interferometry since it is compact and the repetition rate is high due to the anodic bonded atom chip on the vacuum cell. The portable system occupies a volume of 0.5 m3 and operates at a repetition rate as high as ~0.2 Hz.
Matter-wave soliton bouncing on a reflecting surface under the effect of gravity
Benseghir, A.; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Baizakov, B. B.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.
2014-08-01
The dynamics of a matter-wave soliton bouncing on the reflecting surface (atomic mirror) under the effect of gravity has been studied by analytical and numerical means. The analytical description is based on the variational approach. Resonant oscillations of the soliton's center of mass and width, induced by appropriate modulation of the atomic scattering length and the slope of the linear potential, are analyzed. In numerical experiments we observe the Fermi-type acceleration of the soliton when the vertical position of the reflecting surface is periodically varied in time. Analytical predictions are compared to the results of numerical simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and qualitative agreement between them is found.
Quantum reflection of bright solitary matter-waves from a narrow attractive potential
Marchant, A L; Yu, M M H; Rakonjac, A; Helm, J L; Polo, J; Weiss, C; Gardiner, S A; Cornish, S L
2015-01-01
We report the observation of quantum reflection from a narrow, attractive, potential using bright solitary matter-waves formed from a 85Rb Bose-Einstein condensate. We create narrow potentials using a tightly focused, red-detuned laser beam, and observe reflection of up to 25% of the atoms, along with the trapping of atoms at the position of the beam. We show that the observed reflected fraction is much larger than theoretical predictions for a narrow Gaussian potential well; a more detailed model of bright soliton propagation, accounting for the generic presence of small subsidiary intensity maxima in the red-detuned beam, suggests that these small intensity maxima are the cause of this enhanced reflection.
Escape of a vector matter-wave soliton from a parabolic trap
Bludov, Yuliy V.; García-Ñustes, Monica A.
2017-07-01
We show that a vector matter-wave soliton in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) loaded into an optical lattice can escape from a trap formed by a parabolic potential, resembling a Hawking emission. The particle-antiparticle pair is emulated by a low-amplitude bright-bright soliton in a two-component BEC with effective masses of opposite signs. It is shown that the parabolic potential leads to a spatial separation of BEC components. One component with chemical potential in a semi-infinite gap exerts periodical oscillations, while the other BEC component, with negative effective mass, escapes from the trap. The mechanism of atom transfer from one BEC component to another by spatially periodic linear coupling term is also discussed.
On the Ground State Wave Function of Matrix Theory
Lin, Ying-Hsuan
2014-01-01
We propose an explicit construction of the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the ground state wave function of BFSS SU(N) matrix quantum mechanics. Our proposal is consistent with the expected factorization property in various limits of the Coulomb branch, and involves a different scaling behavior from previous suggestions. We comment on some possible physical implications.
On the ground state wave function of matrix theory
Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Yin, Xi
2015-11-01
We propose an explicit construction of the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the ground state wave function of BFSS SU( N ) matrix quantum mechanics. Our proposal is consistent with the expected factorization property in various limits of the Coulomb branch, and involves a different scaling behavior from previous suggestions. We comment on some possible physical implications.
Square wave voltammetry at the dropping mercury electrode: Theory
Christie, J.H.; Turner, J.A.; Osteryoung, R.A.
1977-01-01
The theoretical aspects of square wave voltammetry at the dropping mercury electrode are presented. The technique involves scanning the entire potential range of interest on a single drop of a DME. Asymmetries in the waveform as well as variations in current measurement parameters are discussed. Indications are that previous uses of the waveform may not have utilized all its capabilities.
A theory for scattering by density fluctuations based on three-wave interaction
Harker, K. J.; Crawford, F. W.
1973-01-01
The theory of scattering by charged particle fluctuations of a plasma is developed for the case of zero magnetic field. The source current is derived on the basis of: (1) a three wave interaction between the incident and scattered electromagnetic waves and one electrostatic plasma wave (either Langmuir or ion acoustic), and (2) a synchronous interaction between the same two electromagnetic waves and the discrete components of the charged particle fluctuations. Previous work is generalized by no longer making the assumption that the frequency of the electromagnetic waves in large compared to the plasma frequency. The general result is then applied to incoherent scatter, and to scatter by strongly driven plasma waves. An expansion is carried out for each of those cases to determine the lower order corrections to the usual high frequency scattering formulas.
Self-consistent theory of capillarity-wave generation by small moving objects
Chepelianskii, A D; Chevy, F; Raphaël, E
2009-01-01
We investigate theoretically the onset of capillary-gravity waves created by a small object moving at the water-air interface. It is well established that, for straight uniform motion, no steady waves appear at velocities below the minimum phase velocity $c_\\text{min} = 23 {\\rm cm/s}$. At higher velocities the emission of capillary-gravity waves creates an additional drag force. The behavior of this force near the critical velocity is still poorly understood. A linear response theory where the object is replaced by an effective pressure source predicts a singular behavior for the wave drag. However, experimental data tends to indicate a more continuous transition. In this article, we show that a proper treatment of the flow equations around the obstacle can regularize wave emission, even in the linear wave approximation, thereby ensuring a continuous behavior of the drag force.
Time-domain Hydroelasticity Theory of Ships Responding to Waves
Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui
1997-01-01
is represented by a non-uniform beam, while the generalized hydrodynamic coefficients can be obtained from two-dimensional potential flow theory. The linear slender body theory is generalized to treat the non-linear loading effects of rigid motion and structural response of ships travelling in rough seas....... The non-linear hydrostatic restoring force and hydrodynamic momentum action are considered. A numerical solution is presented for the slender body theory. Numerical examples are given for two ship cases with different geometry features, a warship hull and the S175 containership with two different bow...
Eady Solitary Waves: A Theory of Type B Cyclogenesis.
Mitsudera, Humio
1994-11-01
Localized baroclinic instability in a weakly nonlinear, long-wave limit using an Eady model is studied. The resulting evolution equations have a form of the KdV type, including extra terms representing linear coupling. Baroclinic instability is triggered locally by the collision between two neutral solitary waves (one trapped at the upper boundary and the other at the lower boundary) if their incident amplitudes are sufficiently large. This characteristic is explained from the viewpoint of resonance when the relative phase speed, which depends on the amplitudes, is less than a critical value. The upper and lower disturbances grow in a coupled manner (resembling a normal-mode structure) initially, but they reverse direction slowly as the amplitudes increase, and eventually separate from each other.The motivation of this study is to investigate a type of extratropical cyclogenesis that involves a preexisting upper trough (termed as Type B development) from the viewpoint of resonant solitary waves. Two cases are of particular interest. First, the author examines a case where an upper disturbance preexists over an undisturbed low-level waveguide. The solitary waves exhibit behavior similar to that conceived by Hoskins et al. for Type B development; the lower disturbance is forced one sidedly by a preexisting upper disturbance initially, but in turn forces the latter once the former attains a sufficient amplitude, thus resulting in mutual reinforcement. Second, if a weak perturbation exists at the surface ahead of the preexisting strong upper disturbance, baroclinic instability is triggered when the two waves interact. Even though the amplitude of the lower disturbance is initially much weaker, it is intensified quickly and catches up with the amplitude of the upper disturbance, so that the coupled vertical structure resembles that of an unstable normal mode eventually. These results describe the observed behavior in Type B atmospheric cyclogenesis quite well.
Subtraction of power counting breaking terms in chiral perturbation theory: spinless matter fields
Du, Meng-Lin; Meißner, Ulf-G
2016-01-01
When matter fields are included in chiral perturbation theory, the nonvanishing mass in the chiral limit introduces a new energy scale so that the loop diagrams including such matter field propagators spoil the usual power counting. However, the power counting breaking terms can be absorbed into counterterms in the chiral Lagrangian. In this paper, we systematically derive these terms to leading one-loop order (next-to-next-to leading order in the chiral expansion) at once by calculating the generating functional using the path integral. They are then absorbed by counterterms in the next-to-leading order Lagrangian. The method can be extended to calculating power counting breaking terms for other matter fields.
Cosmology in bimetric theory with an effective composite coupling to matter
Gümrükçüoğlu, A. Emir; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tanahashi, Norihiro
2015-04-01
We study the cosmology of bimetric theory with a composite matter coupling. We find two possible branches of background evolution. We investigate the question of stability of cosmological perturbations. For the tensor and vector perturbations, we derive conditions on the absence of ghost and gradient instabilities. For the scalar modes, we obtain conditions for avoiding ghost degrees. In the first branch, we find that one of the scalar modes becomes a ghost at the late stages of the evolution. Conversely, this problem can be avoided in the second branch. However, we also find that the constraint for the second branch prevents the doubly coupled matter fields from being the standard ingredients of cosmology. We thus conclude that a realistic and stable cosmological model requires additional minimally coupled matter fields.
Cosmology in bimetric theory with an effective composite coupling to matter
Gumrukcuoglu, A Emir; Mukohyama, Shinji; Tanahashi, Norihiro
2015-01-01
We study the cosmology of bimetric theory with a composite matter coupling. We find two possible branches of background evolution. We investigate the question of stability of cosmological perturbations. For the tensor and vector perturbations, we derive conditions on the absence of ghost and gradient instabilities. For the scalar modes, we obtain conditions for avoiding ghost degrees. In the first branch, we find that one of the scalar modes becomes a ghost at the late stages of the evolution. Conversely, this problem can be avoided in the second branch. However, we also find that the constraint for the second branch prevents the doubly coupled matter fields from being the standard ingredients of cosmology. We thus conclude that a realistic and stable cosmological model requires additional minimally coupled matter fields.
Torsion Wave Solutions in Yang-Mielke Theory of Gravity
Pasic, Vedad
2015-01-01
The approach of metric-affine gravity initially distinguishes it from Einstein's general relativity. Using an independent affine connection produces a theory with 10+64 unknowns. We write down the Yang-Mills action for the affine connection and produce the Yang-Mills equation and the so called complementary Yang-Mills equation by independently varying with respect to the connection and the metric respectively. We call this theory the Yang-Mielke theory of gravity. We construct explicit spacetimes with pp-metric and purely axial torsion and show that they represent a solution of Yang-Mills theory. Finally we compare these spacetimes to existing solutions of metric-affine gravity and present future research possibilities.
Pressure wave propagation in fluid-filled co-axial elastic tubes. Part 1: Basic theory.
Berkouk, K; Carpenter, P W; Lucey, A D
2003-12-01
Our work is motivated by ideas about the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. This is a serious disease characterized by the appearance of longitudinal cavities within the spinal cord. Its causes are unknown, but pressure propagation is probably implicated. We have developed an inviscid theory for the propagation of pressure waves in co-axial, fluid-filled, elastic tubes. This is intended as a simple model of the intraspinal cerebrospinal-fluid system. Our approach is based on the classic theory for the propagation of longitudinal waves in single, fluid-filled, elastic tubes. We show that for small-amplitude waves the governing equations reduce to the classic wave equation. The wave speed is found to be a strong function of the ratio of the tubes' cross-sectional areas. It is found that the leading edge of a transmural pressure pulse tends to generate compressive waves with converging wave fronts. Consequently, the leading edge of the pressure pulse steepens to form a shock-like elastic jump. A weakly nonlinear theory is developed for such an elastic jump.
Converted-wave Seismology in Anisotropic Media Revisited, Part I： Basic Theory
XiangyangLi; JianxinYuan
2005-01-01
We have developed new basic theories for calculating the conversion point and the travel time of the P-SV converted wave (C-wave) in anisotropic, inhomogeneous media. This enables the use of conventional procedures such as semblance analysis, Dix-type model building and Kirchhoff summation, to implement anisotropic processing, and makes anisotropic processing affordable. Here we present these new developments in two parts: basic theory and application to velocity analysis and parameter estimation. This part deals with the basic theory, including both conversion-point calculation and moveout analysis.Existing equations for calculating the PS-wave (C-wave) conversion point in layered media with vertical transverse isotropy (VTI) are strictly limited to offsets about half the reflector depth (an offset-depth ratio, x/z, of 0.5), and those for calculating the C-wave traveltimes are limited to offsets equal to the reflector depth (x/z=1.0). In contrast, the new equations for calculating the conversion-point extend into offsets about three-times the reflector depth (x/z=3.0), those for calculating the C-wave traveltimes extend into offsets twice the reflector depth (x/z=2.0). With the improved accuracy, the equations can help in C-wave data processing and parameter estimation in anisotropic, inhomogeneous media.
Unified theory to describe and engineer conservation laws in light-matter interactions
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Rockstuhl, Carsten
2017-05-01
The effects of the electromagnetic field on material systems are governed by joint light-matter conservation laws. An increasing number of these balance equations are currently being considered both theoretically and with an eye to their practical applicability. We present a unified theory to treat conservation laws in light-matter interactions. It can be used to describe and engineer the transfer of any measurable property from the electromagnetic field to any object. The theory allows one to explicitly characterize and separately compute the transfer due to asymmetry of the object and the transfer due to field absorption by the object. It also allows one to compute the upper bound of the transfer rate of any given property to any given object, together with the corresponding most efficient illumination which achieves the bound. Due to its algebraic nature, the approach is inherently suited for computer implementation.
Albright, M
2016-01-01
We develop a flexible quasiparticle theory of transport coefficients of hot hadronic matter at finite baryon density. We begin with a hadronic quasiparticle model which includes a scalar and a vector mean field. Quasiparticle energies and the mean fields depend on temperature and baryon chemical potential. Starting with the quasiparticle dispersion relation, we derive the Boltzmann equation and use the Chapman-Enskog expansion to derive formulas for the shear and bulk viscosities and thermal conductivity. We obtain both relaxation time approximation formulas and more general integral equations. Throughout the work, we explicitly enforce the Landau-Lifshitz conditions of fit and ensure the theory is thermodynamically self-consistent. The derived formulas should be useful for predicting the transport coefficients of the hadronic phase of matter produced in heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and at other accelerators.
A unified theory to describe and engineer conservation laws in light-matter interactions
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan
2016-01-01
The effects of the electromagnetic field on material systems are governed by joint light-matter conservation laws. An increasing number of these balance equations are currently being considered both theoretically and with an eye to their practical applicability. We present a unified theory to treat conservation laws in light-matter interactions. It can be used to describe and engineer the transfer of any measurable property from the electromagnetic field to any object. The theory allows to explicitly characterize and separately compute the transfer due to asymmetry of the object and the transfer due to field absorption by the object. It also allows to compute the upper bound of the transfer rate of any given property to any given object, together with the corresponding most efficient illumination which achieves the bound. Due to its algebraic nature, the approach is inherently suited for computer implementation.
Connection dynamics of a gauge theory of gravity coupled with matter
Yang, Jian; Ma, Yongge
2013-01-01
We study the coupling of the gravitational action, which is a linear combination of the Hilbert-Palatini term and the quadratic torsion term, to the action of Dirac fermions. The system possesses local Poincare invariance and hence belongs to Poincare gauge theory with matter. The complete Hamiltonian analysis of the theory is carried out without gauge fixing, which leads to a consistent geometrical dynamics with second-class constraints and torsion. After performing a partial gauge fixing, all second-class constraints can be solved, and a connection dynamical formalism of the theory can be obtained by a canonical transformation. Hence, the techniques of loop quantum gravity can be employed to quantize this Poincare gauge theory with non-zero torsion.
Stroescu, Ionut Emanuel; Sørensen, Lasse; Frigaard, Peter Bak
2016-01-01
A non-linear stretching method was implemented for stream function theory to solve wave kinematics for physical conditions close to breaking waves in shallow waters, with wave heights limited by the water depth. The non-linear stretching method proves itself robust, efficient and fast, showing good...
Lectures on localization and matrix models in supersymmetric Chern-Simons-matter theories
Marino, Marcos
2011-01-01
In these lectures I give a pedagogical presentation of some of the recent progress in supersymmetric Chern-Simons-matter theories, coming from the use of localization and matrix model techniques. The goal is to provide a simple derivation of the exact interpolating function for the free energy of ABJM theory on the three-sphere, which implies in particular the N^{3/2} behavior at strong coupling. I explain in detail part of the background needed to understand this derivation, like holographic renormalization, localization of path integrals, and large N techniques in matrix models
Lectures on localization and matrix models in supersymmetric Chern-Simons-matter theories
Mariño, Marcos
2011-11-01
In these lectures, I give a pedagogical presentation of some of the recent progress in supersymmetric Chern-Simons-matter theories, coming from the use of localization and matrix model techniques. The goal is to provide a simple derivation of the exact interpolating function for the free energy of ABJM theory on the three-sphere, which implies in particular the N3/2 behavior at strong coupling. I explain in detail part of the background needed to understand this derivation, like holographic renormalization, localization of path integrals and large N techniques in matrix models.
On residual stresses and homeostasis: an elastic theory of functional adaptation in living matter
Ciarletta, P.; Destrade, M.; Gower, A. L.
2016-04-01
Living matter can functionally adapt to external physical factors by developing internal tensions, easily revealed by cutting experiments. Nonetheless, residual stresses intrinsically have a complex spatial distribution, and destructive techniques cannot be used to identify a natural stress-free configuration. This work proposes a novel elastic theory of pre-stressed materials. Imposing physical compatibility and symmetry arguments, we define a new class of free energies explicitly depending on the internal stresses. This theory is finally applied to the study of arterial remodelling, proving its potential for the non-destructive determination of the residual tensions within biological materials.
Baryonic forces and hyperons in nuclear matter from SU(3) chiral effective field theory
Petschauer, Stefan Karl
2016-02-12
In this work the baryon-baryon interaction is studied at next-to-leading order in SU(3) chiral effective field theory and applied to hyperon-nucleon scattering. The properties of hyperons in isospin-symmetric as well as asymmetric nuclear matter are calculated within the Bruecker-Hartree-Fock formalism. Moreover, the leading three-baryon interaction is derived and its low-energy constants are estimated from decuplet intermediate states. We conclude, that chiral effective field theory is a well-suited tool to describe the baryonic forces.
Novel BPS Wilson loops in three-dimensional quiver Chern-Simons-matter theories
Ouyang, Hao; Wu, Jun-Bao; Zhang, Jia-ju
2016-02-01
We show that generic three-dimensional N = 2 quiver super Chern-Simons-matter theories admit Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) Drukker-Trancanelli (DT) type Wilson loops. We investigate both Wilson loops along timelike infinite straight lines in Minkowski spacetime and circular Wilson loops in Euclidean space. In Aharnoy-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena theory, we find that generic BPS DT type Wilson loops preserve the same number of supersymmetries as Gaiotto-Yin type Wilson loops. There are several free parameters for generic BPS DT type Wilson loops in the construction, and supersymmetry enhancement for Wilson loops happens for special values of the parameters.
Novel BPS Wilson loops in three-dimensional quiver Chern–Simons-matter theories
Hao Ouyang
2016-02-01
Full Text Available We show that generic three-dimensional N=2 quiver super Chern–Simons-matter theories admit Bogomol'nyi–Prasad–Sommerfield (BPS Drukker–Trancanelli (DT type Wilson loops. We investigate both Wilson loops along timelike infinite straight lines in Minkowski spacetime and circular Wilson loops in Euclidean space. In Aharnoy–Bergman–Jafferis–Maldacena theory, we find that generic BPS DT type Wilson loops preserve the same number of supersymmetries as Gaiotto–Yin type Wilson loops. There are several free parameters for generic BPS DT type Wilson loops in the construction, and supersymmetry enhancement for Wilson loops happens for special values of the parameters.
De Broglie's matter-waves are based on a logical bug
Giese, Albrecht
2016-07-01
The postulation of matter waves by Louis de Broglie in 1923 was one of the basic starting points in the development of quantum mechanics. However, his deduction contains a serious logical error. De Broglie deduced his central formula from considerations about the relativistic behaviour of a particle. He saw a conflict in the fact that a particle set into motion increases its internal frequency, f, according to E=h.f, whereas on the other hand its frequency has to decrease due to dilation. To solve this, he assigned a new ''de Broglie wave'' to a particle, which is related to the momentum of the particle. Scattering experiments seemed to confirm this approach. However, if such a scattering process is observed from a moving system, it turns out that the relationship between the wavelength and the momentum yields nonsensical results. - De Broglie's deduction is based on an incorrect understanding of relativity with respect to dilation. We show which results are achieved if a correct understanding is applied. And we show why, in a normal scattering experiment, de Broglie's incorrect formula nevertheless yields the expected results. We will further explain some of the impacts of this error on the equations of Schroedinger and Dirac, who used de Broglie's formula as a starting point. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is also affected.
Dipolar matter-wave solitons in two-dimensional anisotropic discrete lattices
Chen, Huaiyu; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Qiang; Shi, Yuhan; Pang, Wei; Li, Yongyao
2016-05-01
We numerically demonstrate two-dimensional (2D) matter-wave solitons in the disk-shaped dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) trapped in strongly anisotropic optical lattices (OLs) in a disk's plane. The considered OLs are square lattices which can be formed by interfering two pairs of plane waves with different intensities. The hopping rates of the condensates between two adjacent lattices in the orthogonal directions are different, which gives rise to a linearly anisotropic system. We find that when the polarized orientation of the dipoles is parallel to disk's plane with the same direction, the combined effects of the linearly anisotropy and the nonlocal nonlinear anisotropy strongly influence the formations, as well as the dynamics of the lattice solitons. Particularly, the isotropy-pattern solitons (IPSs) are found when these combined effects reach a balance. Motion, collision, and rotation of the IPSs are also studied in detail by means of systematic simulations. We further find that these IPSs can move freely in the 2D anisotropic discrete system, hence giving rise to an anisotropic effective mass. Four types of collisions between the IPSs are identified. By rotating an external magnetic field up to a critical angular velocity, the IPSs can still remain localized and play as a breather. Finally, the influences from the combined effects between the linear and the nonlocal nonlinear anisotropy with consideration of the contact and/or local nonlinearity are discussed too.
Statics and dynamics of a self-bound matter-wave quantum ball
Adhikari, S. K.
2017-02-01
We study the statics and dynamics of a stable, mobile, three-dimensional matter-wave spherical quantum ball created in the presence of an attractive two-body and a very small repulsive three-body interaction. The quantum ball can propagate with a constant velocity in any direction in free space and its stability under a small perturbation is established numerically and variationally. In frontal head-on and angular collisions at large velocities two quantum balls behave like quantum solitons. Such collision is found to be quasielastic and the quantum balls emerge after collision without any change of direction of motion and velocity and with practically no deformation in shape. When reflected by a hard impenetrable plane, the quantum ball bounces off like a wave obeying the law of reflection without any change of shape or speed. However, in a collision at small velocities two quantum balls coalesce to form a larger ball which we call a quantum-ball breather. We point out the similarity and difference between the collision of two quantum and classical balls. The present study is based on an analytic variational approximation and a full numerical solution of the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii equation using the parameters of 7Li atoms.
Dynamical analysis of mesoscale eddy-induced ocean internal waves using linear theories
XU Qing; ZHENG Quanan; LIN Hui; LIU Yuguang; SONG YTony; YUAN Yeli
2008-01-01
This study aims to explore generation mechanisms of the ocean internal wave using the dynamical analysis methods based on linear theories. Historical cruise measurements and recent synthetic aperture radar (SAR) observations of mesoscale eddies with diame-ter of several tens of kilometers to hundreds of kilometers show that the internal wave packets with wavelength of hundreds of me-ters to kilometer exist inside the mesoscale eddies. This coexistence phenomenon and inherent links between the two different scale processes are revealed in the solutions of governing equations and boundary conditions for the internal wave disturbance with a horizontally slowly variable amplitude in a cylindrical coordinate system. The theoretical solutions indicate that the instability of eddy current field provides the dynamical mechanism to internal wave generation. The derived dispersion relation indicates that the internal wave propagation is modified by the eddy current field structure. The energy equation of the internal waves clearly shows the internal wave energy increment comes from the eddy. The theoretical models are used to explain the observation of the mesoscale ed-dy-induced internal waves off the Norwegian coast. The two-dimensional waveform solution of the anticyclonic eddy-induced internal wave packet appears as ring-shaped curves, which contains the typical features of eddy stream lines. The comparison of theoretical solutions to the structure of the internal wave packets on SAR image shows a good agreement on the major features.
Spectral Equations-Of-State Theory for Dense, Partially Ionized Matter
Ritchie, A B
2004-05-14
The Schroedinger equation is solved in time and space to implement a finite-temperature equation-of-state theory for dense, partially ionized matter. The time-dependent calculation generates a spectrum of quantum states. Eigenfunctions are calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and used to calculate the electronic pressure and energy. Results are given for LID and compared with results from the INFERNO model.
Neutron-star matter within the energy-density functional theory and neutron-star structure
Fantina, A. F.; Chamel, N.; Goriely, S. [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, CP226, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Pearson, J. M. [Dépt. de Physique, Université de Montréal, Montréal (Québec), H3C 3J7 (Canada)
2015-02-24
In this lecture, we will present some nucleonic equations of state of neutron-star matter calculated within the nuclear energy-density functional theory using generalized Skyrme functionals developed by the Brussels-Montreal collaboration. These equations of state provide a consistent description of all regions of a neutron star. The global structure of neutron stars predicted by these equations of state will be discussed in connection with recent astrophysical observations.
Strange quark matter attached to string cloud in general scalar tensor theory of gravitation
V U M Rao
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Bianchi type-VI0 space time with strange quark matter attached to string cloud in Nordtvedt [1] general scalar tensor theory of gravitation with the help of a special case proposed by Schwinger [2] is obtained. The field equations have been solved by using the anisotropy feature of the universe in the Bianchi type-VI0 space time. Some important features of the model, thus obtained, have been discussed
Template Composite Dark Matter : SU(2) gauge theory with 2 fundamental flavours
Drach, Vincent; Pica, Claudio; Rantaharju, Jarno; Sannino, Francesco
2016-01-01
We present a non perturbative study of SU(2) gauge theory with two fundamental Dirac flavours. We discuss how the model can be used as a template for composite Dark Matter (DM). We estimate one particular interaction of the DM candidate with the Standard Model : the interaction through photon exchange computing the electric polarizability of the DM candidate. Finally, we briefly discuss the viability of the model given the present experimental constraints.
Nilpotent Symmetries for Matter Fields in Non-Abelian Gauge Theory:
Malik, R. P.
In the framework of superfield approach to Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism, the derivation of the BRST and anti-BRST nilpotent symmetry transformations for the matter fields, present in any arbitrary interacting gauge theory, has been a long-standing problem. In our present investigation, the local, covariant, continuous and off-shell nilpotent (anti-)BRST symmetry transformations for the Dirac fields (ψ ,bar ψ ) are derived in the framework of the augmented superfield formulation where the four (3 + 1)-dimensional (4D) interacting non-Abelian gauge theory is considered on the six (4 + 2)-dimensional supermanifold parametrized by the four even space-time coordinates xμ and a couple of odd elements (θ and bar θ ) of the Grassmann algebra. The requirement of the invariance of the matter (super)currents and the horizontality condition on the (super)manifolds leads to the derivation of the nilpotent symmetries for the matter fields as well as the gauge and the (anti)ghost fields of the theory in the general scheme of augmented superfield formalism.
Kanemura, Shinya; Shindou, Tetsuo
2014-01-01
We propose a simple model to explain neutrino mass, dark matter and baryogenesis based on the extended Higgs sector which appears in the low-energy effective theory of a supersymmetric gauge theory with confinement. We here consider the SU(2)$_H$ gauge symmetry with three flavours of fundamental representations which are charged under the standard SU(3)$_C\\times$ SU(2)$_L\\times$U(1)$_Y$ symmetry and a new discrete $Z_2$ symmetry. We also introduce $Z_2$-odd right-handed neutrino superfields in addition to the standard model matter superfields. The low-energy effective theory below the confinement scale contains the Higgs sector with fifteen composite superfields, some of which are $Z_2$-odd. When the confinement scale is of the order of ten TeV, electroweak phase transition can be sufficiently of first order, which is required for successful electroweak baryogenesis. The lightest $Z_2$-odd particle can be a new candidate for dark matter, in addition to the lightest $R$-parity odd particle. Neutrino masses and...
Millimeter-wave photonic downconvertors: theory and demonstrations
Logan, Ronald T., Jr.; Gertel, Eitan
1995-10-01
In this paper, theoretical and experimental results for wideband photonic downconversion systems operating from microwave frequencies through millimeter-wave frequencies are presented. The system consists of a low phase-noise optical heterodyne local oscillator (LO) generator derived froma two-frequency diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser, a millimeter-wave Mach-Zehnder modulator, and a high-speed photodiode. The sum and difference frequency products between the optical LO and the input RF signal are generated upon photodetection. An analysis of photonic heterodyne downconversion is presented, and preliminary experimental downconversion results at Ka-band are presented that are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction of 6 dB conversion loss. Due to the high degree of correlation between the phase fluctuations of the laser modes, the phase noise is much lower than that of previous heterodyne sources, which were typically too noisy for many applications. The free- running optical LO has measured phase noise better than L(1 kHz) equals -90 dBc/Hz at X-band, limited by the measuring system. Finally, novel microwave and millimeter-wave system architectures with enhanced performance and flexibility are discussed, and compared to conventional downlink systems employing electronic mixers.
On the integrability of large N plane-wave matrix theory
Klose, Thomas E-mail: thklose@aei.mpg.de; Plefka, Jan E-mail: plefka@aei.mpg.de
2004-02-16
We show the three-loop integrability of large N plane-wave matrix theory in a subsector of states comprised of two complex light scalar fields. This is done by diagonalizing the theory's Hamiltonian in perturbation theory and taking the large N limit. At one-loop level the result is known to be equal to the Heisenberg spin-1/2 chain, which is a well-known integrable system. Here, integrability implies the existence of hidden conserved charges and results in a degeneracy of parity pairs in the spectrum. In order to confirm integrability at higher loops, we show that this degeneracy is not lifted and that (corrected) conserved charges exist. Plane-wave matrix theory is intricately connected to N=4 super-Yang-Mills, as it arises as a consistent reduction of the gauge theory on a three-sphere. We find that after appropriately renormalizing the mass parameter of the plane-wave matrix theory the effective Hamiltonian is identical to the dilatation operator of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory in the considered subsector. Our results therefore represent a strong support for the conjectured three-loop integrability of planar N=4 SYM and are in disagreement with a recent dual string theory finding. Finally, we study the stability of the large N integrability against nonsupersymmetric deformations of the model.
Roy, Sudipto
2016-01-01
In the framework of Brans-Dicke theory, a cosmological model regarding the expanding universe has been formulated by considering an inter-conversion of matter and dark energy. A function of time has been incorporated into the expression of the density of matter to account for the non-conservation of the matter content of the universe. This function is proportional to the matter content of the universe. Its functional form is determined by using empirical expressions of the scale factor and the scalar field in field equations. This scale factor has been chosen to generate a signature flip of the deceleration parameter with time. The matter content is found to decrease with time monotonically, indicating a conversion of matter into dark energy. This study leads us to the expressions of the proportions of matter and dark energy of the universe. Dependence of various cosmological parameters upon the matter content has been explored.
Second-Order Perturbation Theory for Generalized Active Space Self-Consistent-Field Wave Functions.
Ma, Dongxia; Li Manni, Giovanni; Olsen, Jeppe; Gagliardi, Laura
2016-07-12
A multireference second-order perturbation theory approach based on the generalized active space self-consistent-field (GASSCF) wave function is presented. Compared with the complete active space (CAS) and restricted active space (RAS) wave functions, GAS wave functions are more flexible and can employ larger active spaces and/or different truncations of the configuration interaction expansion. With GASSCF, one can explore chemical systems that are not affordable with either CASSCF or RASSCF. Perturbation theory to second order on top of GAS wave functions (GASPT2) has been implemented to recover the remaining electron correlation. The method has been benchmarked by computing the chromium dimer ground-state potential energy curve. These calculations show that GASPT2 gives results similar to CASPT2 even with a configuration interaction expansion much smaller than the corresponding CAS expansion.
Effective-medium theory of elastic waves in random networks of rods.
Katz, J I; Hoffman, J J; Conradi, M S; Miller, J G
2012-06-01
We formulate an effective medium (mean field) theory of a material consisting of randomly distributed nodes connected by straight slender rods, hinged at the nodes. Defining wavelength-dependent effective elastic moduli, we calculate both the static moduli and the dispersion relations of ultrasonic longitudinal and transverse elastic waves. At finite wave vector k the waves are dispersive, with phase and group velocities decreasing with increasing wave vector. These results are directly applicable to networks with empty pore space. They also describe the solid matrix in two-component (Biot) theories of fluid-filled porous media. We suggest the possibility of low density materials with higher ratios of stiffness and strength to density than those of foams, aerogels, or trabecular bone.
Bastos, Catarina
2016-01-01
In flat spacetime, quantum fluctuations in dark matter, as described as a Bose-Einstein condensate, are stable and display a relativistic Bogoliubov dispersion relation. In the weak gravitational field limit, both relativistic and nonrelativistic models self-gravitating dark matter suggest the formation of structures as the result of a dynamical (Jeans) instability. Here, we show that in the presence of spontaneous symmetry breaking of the dark matter field, the gravitational wave is damped for wave-lengths larger than the Jeans length. Such energy is converted to the Bogoliubov modes of the BEC that in their turn become unstable and grow, leading to the formation of structures even in the absence of expansion. Remarkably, this compensated attenuation/amplification mechanism is the signature of a discrete PT-symmetry-breaking of the system.
Theory of a ring laser. [electromagnetic field and wave equations
Menegozzi, L. N.; Lamb, W. E., Jr.
1973-01-01
Development of a systematic formulation of the theory of a ring laser which is based on first principles and uses a well-known model for laser operation. A simple physical derivation of the electromagnetic field equations for a noninertial reference frame in uniform rotation is presented, and an attempt is made to clarify the nature of the Fox-Li modes for an open polygonal resonator. The polarization of the active medium is obtained by using a Fourier-series method which permits the formulation of a strong-signal theory, and solutions are given in terms of continued fractions. It is shown that when such a continued fraction is expanded to third order in the fields, the familiar small-signal ring-laser theory is obtained.
Gravitational-wave emission in shift-symmetric Horndeski theories
Barausse, Enrico
2015-01-01
Gravity theories beyond General Relativity typically predict dipolar gravitational emission by compact-star binaries. This emission is sourced by "sensitivity" parameters depending on the stellar compactness. We introduce a general formalism to calculate these parameters, and show that in shift-symmetric Horndeski theories stellar sensitivities and dipolar radiation vanish, provided that the binary's dynamics is perturbative (i.e. the post-Newtonian formalism is applicable) and cosmological-expansion effects can be neglected. This allows reproducing the binary-pulsar observed orbital decay.
Analysis of Origin of Multi-Ring Basins by Theory of Deep Water Waves
SHI Jian-Chun; MA Yue-Hua; CHEN Dao-Han; BAO Gang
2008-01-01
The tsunami model of the origin of multi-ring basins is analysed with the theory of deep water waves generated by an initial surface deformation,which is set as a parabolic crater.We obtain an approximate formula for calculating the ring radius.The formula applied to some multi-ring basins on the Moon,Mercury and Mars gives almost equidistant spacing of the rings within the main ring (the IV ring); this agrees with the previous conclusion that the IV ring marks the end of the fluidized region.Besides this,the theory of deep water waves does not require similar crustal structure at each basin-impact site on all three planets which is required in the theory of shallow water waves.
New theory of diffusive and coherent nature of optical wave via a quantum walk
Ide, Yusuke; Konno, Norio; Matsutani, Shigeki; Mitsuhashi, Hideo
2017-08-01
We propose a new theory on a relation between diffusive and coherent nature in one dimensional wave mechanics based on a quantum walk. It is known that the quantum walk in homogeneous matrices provides the coherent property of wave mechanics. Using the recent result of a localization phenomenon in a one-dimensional quantum walk (Konno, 2010), we numerically show that the randomized localized matrices suppress the coherence and give diffusive nature.
The roads not taken: empty waves, wavefunction collapse and protective measurement in quantum theory
Holland, Peter
2014-01-01
Within the class of ontological interpretations of quantum theory where a physical system comprises a particle and a field (wavefunction) guiding it, an empty wave is a segment of the wavefunction not containing the particle. We examine the impact of this concept on the debate between the epistemological and ontological viewpoints. The theoretical merits of the empty wave in avoiding the wavefunction collapse hypothesis, and in supplying conceptual precision in the application of quantum mech...
Yang, Zhiwen; Liu, Shuxue; Bingham, Harry B.
2013-01-01
of regular waves, and the re-reflection control on the wave paddle is also not included. In order to validate the solution methodology further, a series of nonlinear, periodic waves based on stream function theory are generated in a physical wave tank using a piston-type wavemaker. These experiments show......A full second-order theory for coupling numerical and physical wave tanks is presented. The ad hoc unified wave generation approach developed by Zhang et al. [Zhang, H., Schäffer, H.A., Jakobsen, K.P., 2007. Deterministic combination of numerical and physical coastal wave models. Coast. Eng. 54...... nonlinear wave generation in the physical wave tank based on target numerical solutions. The performance and efficiency of the new model is first evaluated theoretically based on second order Stokes waves. Due to the complexity of the problem, the proposed method has been truncated at 2D and the treatment...
Semi-classical description of matter wave interferometers and hybrid quantum systems
Schneider, Mathias
2015-02-16
This work considers the semi-classical description of two applications involving cold atoms. This is, on one hand, the behavior of a BOSE-EINSTEIN condensate in hybrid systems, i.e. in contact with a microscopic object (carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, etc.). On the other, the evolution of phase space distributions in matter wave interferometers utilizing ray tracing methods was discussed. For describing condensates in hybrid systems, one can map the GROSS-PITAEVSKII equation, a differential equation in the complex-valued macroscopic wave function, onto a system of two differential equations in density and phase. Neglecting quantum dispersion, one obtains a semiclassical description which is easily modified to incorporate interactions between condensate and microscopical object. In our model, these interactions comprise attractive forces (CASIMIR-POLDER forces) and loss of condensed atoms due to inelastic collisions at the surface of the object. Our model exhibited the excitation of sound waves that are triggered by the object's rapid immersion, and spread across the condensate thereafter. Moreover, local particle loss leads to a shrinking of the bulk condensate. We showed that the total number of condensed particles is decreasing potentially in the beginning (large condensate, strong mean field interaction), while it decays exponentially in the long-time limit (small condensate, mean field inetraction negligible). For representing the physics of matter wave interferometers in phase space, we utilized the WIGNER function. In semi-classical approximation, which again consists in ignoring the quantum dispersion, this representation is subject to the same equation of motion as classical phase space distributions, i.e. the LIOUVILLE equation. This implies that time evolution of theWIGNER function follows a phase space flow that consists of classical trajectories (classical transport). This means, for calculating a time-evolved distribution, one has know the initial
River channel bars and dunes - Theory of kinematic waves
Langbein, Walter Basil; Leopold, Luna Bergere
1968-01-01
A kinematic wave is a grouping cf moving objects in zones along a flow path and through which the objects pass. These concentrations may be characterized by a simple relation between the speed of the moving objects and their spacing as a result of interaction between them.Vehicular traffic has long been known to have such properties. Data are introduced to show that beads carried by flowing water in a narrow flume behave in an analogous way. The flux or transport of objects in a single lane of traffic is greatest when the objects are spaced about two diameters apart; beads in a single-lane flume as well as highway traffic conform to this property.By considering the sand in a pipe or flume to a depth affected by dune movement, it is shown that flux-concentration curves similar to the previously known cases can be constructed from experimental data. From the kinematic point of view, concentration of particles in dunes and other wave bed forms results when particles in transport become more numerous or closely spaced and interact to reduce the effectiveness of the ambient water to move them.Field observations over a 5-year period are reported in which individual rocks were painted for identification and placed at various spacings on the bed of ephemeral stream in New Mexico, to study the effect of storm flows on rock movement. The data on about 14,000 rocks so observed show the effect of variable spacing which is quantitatively as well as qualitatively comparable to the spacing effect on small glass beads in a flume. Dunes and gravel bars may be considered kinematic waves caused by particle interaction, and certain of their properties can be related to the characteristics of the flux-concentration curve.
Theories of Everything and Hawking's Wave Function of the Universe
Hartle, J B
2002-01-01
If a cat, a cannonball, and an economics textbook are all dropped from the same height, they fall to the ground with exactly the same acceleration under the influence of gravity. This equality of gravitational accelerations of different things is one of the most accurately tested laws of physics. That law, however, tells us little about cats, cannonballs, or economics. This lecture expands on this theme to address the question of what features of our world are predicted by a fundamental ``theory of everything'' governing the regularities exhibited universally by all physical systems. This may consist of two parts: a dynamical law governing regularities in time (e.g superstring theory) and a law of cosmological initial condition governing mostly regularities in space (e.g. Hawking's no-boundary initial condition). The lecture concludes that: (1) ``A theory of everything'' is not a theory of everything in a quantum mechanical universe. (2) If the laws are short enough to be discoverable then they are probably t...
Lim, C. W.; Zhang, G.; Reddy, J. N.
2015-05-01
approach. Two additional kinds of parameters, the higher-order nonlocal parameters and the nonlocal gradient length coefficients are introduced to account for the size-dependent characteristics of nonlocal gradient materials at nanoscale. To illustrate its application values, the theory is applied for wave propagation in a nonlocal strain gradient system and the new dispersion relations derived are presented through examples for wave propagating in Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko nanobeams. The numerical results based on the new nonlocal strain gradient theory reveal some new findings with respect to lattice dynamics and wave propagation experiment that could not be matched by both the classical nonlocal stress model and the contemporary strain gradient theory. Thus, this higher-order nonlocal strain gradient model provides an explanation to some observations in the classical and nonlocal stress theories as well as the strain gradient theory in these aspects.
Stochastic regulator theory for a class of abstract wave equations
Balakrishnan, A. V.
1991-01-01
A class of steady-state stochastic regulator problems for abstract wave equations in a Hilbert space - of relevance to the problem of feedback control of large space structures using co-located controls/sensors - is studied. Both the control operator, as well as the observation operator, are finite-dimensional. As a result, the usual condition of exponential stabilizability invoked for existence of solutions to the steady-state Riccati equations is not valid. Fortunately, for the problems considered it turns out that strong stabilizability suffices. In particular, a closed form expression is obtained for the minimal (asymptotic) performance criterion as the control effort is allowed to grow without bound.
Generalized Mean-Flow Theory of Wave-Current-Bottom Interactions
无
2006-01-01
The interaction between waves, currents and bottoms in estuarine and coastal regions is ubiquitious, in particular the dynamic mechanism of waves on large-scale slowly varying currents. The wave action concept may be extended and applicated to the study of the mechanism. Considering the effects of moving bottoms and starting from the Navier-Stokes equation of motion of a viscous fluid including the Coriolis force, a generalized mean-flow model theory for the nearshore region, that is, a set of mean-flow equations and their generalized wave action equation involving the three new kinds of actions termed respectively as the current wave action, the bottom wave action and the dissipative wave action which can be applied to arbitrary depth over moving bottoms and ambient currents with a typical vertical structure, is developed by vertical integration and time-averaging over a wave period, thus extending the classical concept, wave action, from the ideal averaged flow conservative system to the real averaged flow dissipative dynamical system, and having a large range of application.
Arun, K G
2013-01-01
Gravitational Wave (GW) observations of coalescing compact binaries will be unique probes of strong-field, dynamical aspects of relativistic gravity. We present a short review of various schemes proposed in the literature to test General Relativity (GR) and alternative theories of gravity using inspiral waveforms. Broadly these schemes may be classified into two types: model dependent and model independent. In the model dependent category, GW observations are compared against a specific waveform model representative of a particular theory or a class of theories like Scalar-Tensor theories, Dynamical Chern-Simons theory and Massive graviton theories. Model independent tests are attempts to write down a parametrised gravitational waveform where the free parameters take different values for different theories and (at least some of) which can be constrained by GW observations. We revisit some of the proposed bounds in the case of downscaled LISA configuration (eLISA) and compare them with the original LISA config...
On wave propagation characteristics in fluid saturated porous materials by a nonlocal Biot theory
Tong, Lihong; Yu, Yang; Hu, Wentao; Shi, Yufeng; Xu, Changjie
2016-09-01
A nonlocal Biot theory is developed by combing Biot theory and nonlocal elasticity theory for fluid saturated porous material. The nonlocal parameter is introduced as an independent variable for describing wave propagation characteristics in poroelastic material. A physical insight on nonlocal term demonstrates that the nonlocal term is a superposition of two effects, one is inertia force effect generated by fluctuation of porosity and the other is pore size effect inherited from nonlocal constitutive relation. Models for situations of excluding fluid nonlocal effect and including fluid nonlocal effect are proposed. Comparison with experiment confirms that model without fluid nonlocal effect is more reasonable for predicting wave characteristics in saturated porous materials. The negative dispersion is observed theoretically which agrees well with the published experimental data. Both wave velocities and quality factors as functions of frequency and nonlocal parameter are examined in practical cases. A few new physical phenomena such as backward propagation and disappearance of slow wave when exceeding critical frequency and disappearing shear wave in high frequency range, which were not predicted by Biot theory, are demonstrated.
Biktasheva, I V; Dierckx, H; Biktashev, V N
2015-02-13
A scroll wave in a very thin layer of excitable medium is similar to a spiral wave, but its behavior is affected by the layer geometry. We identify the effect of sharp variations of the layer thickness, which is separate from filament tension and curvature-induced drifts described earlier. We outline a two-step asymptotic theory describing this effect, including asymptotics in the layer thickness and calculation of the drift of so-perturbed spiral waves using response functions. As specific examples, we consider drift of scrolls along thickness steps, ridges, ditches, and disk-shaped thickness variations. Asymptotic predictions agree with numerical simulations.
Haataja, Mikko; Gránásy, László; Löwen, Hartmut
2010-08-01
Herein we provide a brief summary of the background, events and results/outcome of the CECAM workshop 'Classical density functional theory methods in soft and hard matter held in Lausanne between October 21 and October 23 2009, which brought together two largely separately working communities, both of whom employ classical density functional techniques: the soft-matter community and the theoretical materials science community with interests in phase transformations and evolving microstructures in engineering materials. After outlining the motivation for the workshop, we first provide a brief overview of the articles submitted by the invited speakers for this special issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, followed by a collection of outstanding problems identified and discussed during the workshop. 1. Introduction Classical density functional theory (DFT) is a theoretical framework, which has been extensively employed in the past to study inhomogeneous complex fluids (CF) [1-4] and freezing transitions for simple fluids, amongst other things. Furthermore, classical DFT has been extended to include dynamics of the density field, thereby opening a new avenue to study phase transformation kinetics in colloidal systems via dynamical DFT (DDFT) [5]. While DDFT is highly accurate, the computations are numerically rather demanding, and cannot easily access the mesoscopic temporal and spatial scales where diffusional instabilities lead to complex solidification morphologies. Adaptation of more efficient numerical methods would extend the domain of DDFT towards this regime of particular interest to materials scientists. In recent years, DFT has re-emerged in the form of the so-called 'phase-field crystal' (PFC) method for solid-state systems [6, 7], and it has been successfully employed to study a broad variety of interesting materials phenomena in both atomic and colloidal systems, including elastic and plastic deformations, grain growth, thin film growth, solid
Isotriplet Dark Matter on the Lattice: SO(4)-gauge theory with two Vector Wilson fermions
Hietanen, Ari; Sannino, Francesco; Søndergaard, Ulrik Ishøj
2012-01-01
We present preliminary results for simulations of SO(4)-gauge theory with two Dirac Wilson fermions transforming according to the vector representation. We map out the phase diagram including the strong coupling bulk phase transition line as well as the zero PCAC-mass line. In addition, we measure the pseudo scalar and vector meson masses, and investigate whether the theory features chiral symmetry breaking. If the theory is used for breaking the electroweak symmetry dynamically it is the orthogonal group equivalent of the Minimal Walking Technicolor model but with the following distinctive features: a] It provides a natural complex weak isotriplet of Goldstone bosons of which the neutral component can be identified with a light composite dark matter state; b] It is expected to break the global symmetry spontaneously; c] It is free from fermionic composite states made by a techniglue and a technifermion.
Theory of Multiwave Mixing within the Superconducting Kinetic-Inductance Traveling-Wave Amplifier
Erickson, Robert P
2016-01-01
We present a theory of parametric mixing within the coplanar waveguide (CPW) of a superconducting nonlinear kinetic-inductance traveling-wave (KIT) amplifier engineered with periodic dispersion loadings. This is done by first developing a metamaterial band theory of the dispersion-engineered KIT using a Floquet-Bloch construction and then applying it to the description of mixing of the nonlinear RF traveling waves. Our theory allows us to calculate signal gain vs. signal frequency in the presence of a frequency stop gap, based solely on loading design. We present results for both three-wave mixing (3WM), with applied DC bias, and four-wave mixing (4WM), without DC. Our theory predicts an intrinsic and deterministic origin to undulations of 4WM signal gain with signal frequency, apart from extrinsic sources, such as impedance mismatch, and shows that such undulations are absent from 3WM signal gain achievable with DC. Our theory is extensible to amplifiers based on Josephson junctions in a lumped LC transmissi...
Can weakly nonlinear theory explain Faraday wave patterns near onset?
Skeldon, A C
2015-01-01
The Faraday problem is an important pattern-forming system that provides some middle ground between systems where the initial instability involves just a single mode and in which complexity then results from mode interactions or secondary bifurcations, and cases where a system is highly turbulent and many spatial and temporal modes are excited. It has been a rich source of novel patterns and of theoretical work aimed at understanding how and why such patterns occur. Yet it is particularly challenging to tie theory to experiment: the experiments are difficult to perform; the parameter regime of interest (large box, moderate viscosity) along with the technical difficulties of solving the free boundary Navier--Stokes equations make numerical solution of the problem hard; and the fact that the instabilities result in an entire circle of unstable wavevectors presents considerable theoretical difficulties. In principle, weakly nonlinear theory should be able to predict which patterns are stable near pattern onset. ...
Current Issues in Finite-T Density-Functional Theory and Warm-Correlated Matter †
M. W. C. Dharma-wardana
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Finite-temperature density functional theory (DFT has become of topical interest, partly due to the increasing ability to create novel states of warm-correlated matter (WCM.Warm-dense matter (WDM, ultra-fast matter (UFM, and high-energy density matter (HEDM may all be regarded as subclasses of WCM. Strong electron-electron, ion-ion and electron-ion correlation effects and partial degeneracies are found in these systems where the electron temperature Te is comparable to the electron Fermi energy EF. Thus, many electrons are in continuum states which are partially occupied. The ion subsystem may be solid, liquid or plasma, with many states of ionization with ionic charge Zj. Quasi-equilibria with the ion temperature Ti ≠ Te are common. The ion subsystem in WCM can no longer be treated as a passive “external potential”, as is customary in T = 0 DFT dominated by solid-state theory or quantum chemistry. Many basic questions arise in trying to implement DFT for WCM. Hohenberg-Kohn-Mermin theory can be adapted for treating these systems if suitable finite-T exchange-correlation (XC functionals can be constructed. They are functionals of both the one-body electron density ne and the one-body ion densities ρj. Here, j counts many species of nuclei or charge states. A method of approximately but accurately mapping the quantum electrons to a classical Coulomb gas enables one to treat electron-ion systems entirely classically at any temperature and arbitrary spin polarization, using exchange-correlation effects calculated in situ, directly from the pair-distribution functions. This eliminates the need for any XC-functionals. This classical map has been used to calculate the equation of state of WDM systems, and construct a finite-T XC functional that is found to be in close agreement with recent quantum path-integral simulation data. In this review, current developments and concerns in finite-T DFT, especially in the context of non-relativistic warm
Klevers, Denis; Taylor, Washington
2016-06-01
We give an explicit construction of a class of F-theory models with matter in the three-index symmetric (4) representation of SU(2). This matter is realized at codimen-sion two loci in the F-theory base where the divisor carrying the gauge group is singular; the associated Weierstrass model does not have the form associated with a generic SU(2) Tate model. For 6D theories, the matter is localized at a triple point singularity of arithmetic genus g = 3 in the curve supporting the SU(2) group. This is the first explicit realization of matter in F-theory in a representation corresponding to a genus contribution greater than one. The construction is realized by "unHiggsing" a model with a U(1) gauge factor under which there is matter with charge q = 3. The resulting SU(2) models can be further unHiggsed to realize non-Abelian G 2 × SU(2) models with more conventional matter content or SU(2)3 models with trifundamental matter. The U(1) models used as the basis for this construction do not seem to have a Weierstrass realization in the general form found by Morrison-Park, suggesting that a generalization of that form may be needed to incorporate models with arbitrary matter representations and gauge groups localized on singular divisors.
Klevers, Denis [Theoretical Physics Department, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Taylor, Washington [Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)
2016-06-29
We give an explicit construction of a class of F-theory models with matter in the three-index symmetric (4) representation of SU(2). This matter is realized at codimension two loci in the F-theory base where the divisor carrying the gauge group is singular; the associated Weierstrass model does not have the form associated with a generic SU(2) Tate model. For 6D theories, the matter is localized at a triple point singularity of arithmetic genus g=3 in the curve supporting the SU(2) group. This is the first explicit realization of matter in F-theory in a representation corresponding to a genus contribution greater than one. The construction is realized by “unHiggsing” a model with a U(1) gauge factor under which there is matter with charge q=3. The resulting SU(2) models can be further unHiggsed to realize non-Abelian G{sub 2}×SU(2) models with more conventional matter content or SU(2){sup 3} models with trifundamental matter. The U(1) models used as the basis for this construction do not seem to have a Weierstrass realization in the general form found by Morrison-Park, suggesting that a generalization of that form may be needed to incorporate models with arbitrary matter representations and gauge groups localized on singular divisors.
Hu, Jinniu; Shen, Hong
2016-01-01
We study the properties of nuclear matter with lattice nucleon-nucleon ($NN$) potential in the relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (RBHF) theory. To use this potential in such a microscopic many-body theory, we firstly have to construct a one-boson-exchange potential (OBEP) based on the latest lattice $NN$ potential. Three mesons, pion, $\\sigma$ meson, and $\\omega$ meson, are considered. Their coupling constants and cut-off momenta are determined by fitting the on-shell behaviors and phase shifts of the lattice force, respectively. Therefore, we obtain two parameter sets of the OBEP potential (named as LOBEP1 and LOBEP2) with these two fitting ways. We calculate the properties of symmetric and pure neutron matter with LOBEP1 and LOBEP2. In non-relativistic Brueckner-Hartree-Fock case, the binding energies of symmetric nuclear matter are around $-3$ and $-5$ MeV at saturation densities, while it becomes $-8$ and $-12$ MeV in relativistic framework with $^1S_0,~^3S_1,$ and $^3D_1$ channels using our two paramet...
Leadership in applied psychology: Three waves of theory and research.
Lord, Robert G; Day, David V; Zaccaro, Stephen J; Avolio, Bruce J; Eagly, Alice H
2017-03-01
Although in the early years of the Journal leadership research was rare and focused primarily on traits differentiating leaders from nonleaders, subsequent to World War II the research area developed in 3 major waves of conceptual, empirical, and methodological advances: (a) behavioral and attitude research; (b) behavioral, social-cognitive, and contingency research; and (c) transformational, social exchange, team, and gender-related research. Our review of this work shows dramatic increases in sophistication from early research focusing on personnel issues associated with World War I to contemporary multilevel models and meta-analyses on teams, shared leadership, leader-member exchange, gender, ethical, abusive, charismatic, and transformational leadership. Yet, many of the themes that characterize contemporary leadership research were also present in earlier research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Massive Primordial Black Holes as Dark Matter and their detection with Gravitational Waves
García-Bellido, Juan
2017-05-01
Massive Primordial Black Holes (MPBH) can be formed after inflation due to broad peaks in the primordial curvature power spectrum that collapse gravitationally during the radiation era, to form clusters of black holes that merge and increase in mass after recombination, generating today a broad mass-spectrum of black holes with masses ranging from 0.01 to 105 M⊙ . These MPBH could act as seeds for galaxies and quick-start structure formation, initiating reionization, forming galaxies at redshift z > 10 and clusters at z > 1. They may also be the seeds on which SMBH and IMBH form, by accreting gas onto them and forming the centers of galaxies and quasars at high redshift. They form at rest with zero spin and have negligible cross-section with ordinary matter. If there are enough of these MPBH, they could constitute the bulk of the Dark Matter today. Such PBH could be responsible for the observed fluctuations in the CIB and X-ray backgrounds. MPBH could be directly detected by the gravitational waves emitted when they merge to form more massive black holes, as recently reported by LIGO. Their continuous merging since recombination could have generated a stochastic background of gravitational waves that could eventually be detected by LISA and PTA. MPBH may actually be responsible for the unidentified point sources seen by Fermi, Magic and Chandra. Furthermore, the ejection of stars from shallow potential wells like those of Dwarf Spheroidals (DSph), via the gravitational slingshot effect, could be due to MPBH, thus alleviating the substructure and too-big-to-fail problems of standard collisionless CDM. Their mass distribution peaks at a few tens of M⊙ today, and could therefore be detected also with long-duration microlensing events, as well as by the anomalous motion of stars in the field of GAIA. Their presence as CDM in the Universe could be seen in the time-dilation of strong-lensing images of quasars. The hierarchical large scale structure behaviour of MPBH
Kengne, E; Lakhssassi, A
2015-03-01
We consider a lossless one-dimensional nonlinear discrete bi-inductance electrical transmission line made of N identical unit cells. When lattice effects are considered, we use the reductive perturbation method in the semidiscrete limit to show that the dynamics of modulated waves can be modeled by the classical nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS) equation, which describes the modulational instability and the propagation of bright and dark solitons on a continuous-wave background. Our theoretical analysis based on the CNLS equation predicts either two or four frequency regions with different behavior concerning the modulational instability of a plane wave. With the help of the analytical solutions of the CNLS equation, we investigate analytically the effects of the linear capacitance CS on the dynamics of matter-wave solitons in the network. Our results reveal that the linear parameter CS can be used to manipulate the motion of bright, dark, and kink soliton in the network.
D. L. Hysell
Full Text Available Large-scale (l ~ 1 km waves in the daytime and night-time equatorial electrojet are studied using coherent scatter radar data from Jicamarca. Images of plasma irregularities within the main beam of the radar are formed using interferometry with multiple baselines. These images are analyzed according to nonlocal gradient drift instability theory and are also compared to nonlinear computer simulations carried out recently by Ronchi et al. (1991 and Hu and Bhattacharjee (1999. In the daytime, the large-scale waves assume a non-steady dynamical equilibrium state characterized by the straining and destruction of the waves by shear and diffusion followed by spontaneous regeneration as predicted by Ronchi et al. (1991. At night, when steep plasma density gradients emerge, slowly propagating large-scale vertically extended waves predominate. Eikonal analysis suggests that these waves are trapped (absolutely unstable or are nearly trapped (convectively unstable and are able to tunnel between altitude regions which are locally unstable. Intermediate-scale waves are mainly transient (convectively stable but can become absolutely unstable in narrow altitude bands determined by the background density profile. These characteristics are mainly consistent with the simulations presented by Hu and Bhattacharjee (1999. A new class of large-scale primary waves is found to occur along bands that sweep westward and downward from high altitudes through the E-region at twilight.
Key words. Ionosphere (equatorial ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities; plasma waves and instabilities
Indoor propagation and assessment of blast waves from weapons using the alternative image theory
Kong, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.; Jung, S.; Song, K. H.
2016-03-01
Blast waves generated from the muzzles of various weapons might have significant effects on the human body, and these effects are recognized as being more severe when weapons are fired indoors. The risk can be assessed by various criteria, such as waveform, exposed energy, and model-based types. This study introduces a prediction model of blast wave propagation for estimating waveform parameters related to damage risk assessment. To simulate indoor multiple reflections in a simple way, the model is based on the alternative image theory and discrete wavefront method. The alternative theory is a kind of modified image theory, but it uses the image space concept from a receiver's perspective, so that it shows improved efficiency for indoor problems. Further, the discrete wavefront method interprets wave propagation as the forward movement of a finite number of wavefronts. Even though the predicted results show slight differences from the measured data, the locations of significant shock waves indicate a high degree of correlation between them. Since the disagreement results not from the proposed techniques but from the assumptions used, it is concluded that the model is appropriate for analysis of blast wave propagation in interior spaces.
Unquenched flavor and tropical geometry in strongly coupled Chern-Simons-matter theories
Santamaria, Ricardo Couso; Putrov, Pavel
2010-01-01
We study various aspects of the matrix models calculating free energies and Wilson loop observables in supersymmetric Chern-Simons-matter theories on the three-sphere. We first develop techniques to extract strong coupling results directly from the spectral curve describing the large N master field. We show that the strong coupling limit of the gauge theory corresponds to the so-called tropical limit of the spectral curve. In this limit, the curve degenerates to a planar graph, and matrix model calculations reduce to elementary line integrals along the graph. As an important physical application of these tropical techniques, we study N=3 theories with fundamental matter, both in the quenched and in the unquenched regimes. We calculate the exact spectral curve in the Veneziano limit, and we evaluate the planar free energy and Wilson loop observables at strong coupling by using tropical geometry. The results are in agreement with the predictions of the AdS duals involving tri-Sasakian manifolds
Unquenched flavor and tropical geometry in strongly coupled Chern-Simons-matter theories
Couso Santamaría, Ricardo; Mariño, Marcos; Putrov, Pavel
2011-10-01
We study various aspects of the matrix models calculating free energies and Wilson loop observables in supersymmetric Chern-Simons-matter theories on the three-sphere. We first develop techniques to extract strong coupling results directly from the spectral curve describing the large N master field. We show that the strong coupling limit of the gauge theory corresponds to the so-called tropical limit of the spectral curve. In this limit, the curve degenerates to a planar graph, and matrix model calculations reduce to elementary line integrals along the graph. As an important physical application of these tropical techniques, we study mathcal{N} = 3 theories with fundamental matter, both in the quenched and in the unquenched regimes. We calculate the exact spectral curve in the Veneziano limit, and we evaluate the planar free energy and Wilson loop observables at strong coupling by using tropical geometry. The results are in agreement with the predictions of the AdS duals involving tri-Sasakian manifolds.
Analysis of supercritical vapor explosions using thermal detonation wave theory
Shamoun, B.I.; Corradini, M.L. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
1995-09-01
The interaction of certain materials such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with water results in vapor explosions with very high (supercritical) pressures and propagation velocities. A quasi-steady state analysis of supercritical detonation in one-dimensional multiphase flow was applied to analyze experimental data of the KROTOS (26-30) set of experiments conducted at the Joint Research Center at Ispra, Italy. In this work we have applied a new method of solution which allows for partial fragmentation of the fuel in the shock adiabatic thermodynamic model. This method uses known experiment values of the shock pressure and propagation velocity to estimate the initial mixing conditions of the experiment. The fuel and coolant were both considered compressible in this analysis. In KROTOS 26, 28, 29, and 30 the measured values of the shock pressure by the experiment were found to be higher than 25, 50, 100, and 100 Mpa respectively. Using the above data for the wave velocity and our best estimate for the values of the pressure, the predicted minimum values of the fragmented mass of the fuel were found to be 0.026. 0.04, 0.057, and 0.068 kg respectively. The predicted values of the work output corresponding to the above fragmented masses of the fuel were found to be 40, 84, 126, and 150 kJ respectively, with predicted initial void fractions of 112%, 12.5%, 8%, and 6% respectively.
Contested Waterlines: The Wave-Line Theory and Shipbuilding in the Nineteenth Century.
Ferreiro, Larrie D; Pollara, Alexander
2016-04-01
Ship hydrodynamics in the nineteenth century was dominated by John Scott Russell's wave-line theory. Russell, a prominent British shipbuilder and scientist, argued that wavemaking was the primary source of resistance for ships, and that by designing ships according to trigonometric curves and proportions (the wave line) this resistance could effectively be eliminated. From the 1840s to the 1880s, shipbuilders such as John Willis Griffiths, Donald McKay and George Steers designed their clipper ships (like Sea Witch and Flying Cloud) and yachts (America) with wave-line hulls, while authors like Jules Verne referenced Russell's theory. The wave line slowly faded after William Froude developed his laws of ship resistance. The article examines how Russell's theory became accepted by technical experts and the wider public to become the most widely known ship hydrodynamic theory of the 1800s-a reminder of how a persuasive idea can take hold of an entire profession, and even the public, for a long time.
Absurd Results from the Expression of Expectation Values of "Double-Wave Theory"
ZHU Zhen-He
2003-01-01
Two of the four fundamental hypotheses of the double-wave theory (DWT) are criticized. It is expounded that the hypothesis of two wavefunctions is unreasonable and the hypothesized expression of measured values or expectation values of mechanical quantities is incorrect and does not express the measured values or expectation values at all. This expression can lead to some absurd results.
Time-dependent density-functional theory in the projector augmented-wave method
Walter, Michael; Häkkinen, Hannu; Lehtovaara, Lauri
2008-01-01
We present the implementation of the time-dependent density-functional theory both in linear-response and in time-propagation formalisms using the projector augmented-wave method in real-space grids. The two technically very different methods are compared in the linear-response regime where we...
Theory of wave propagation along waveguide filled with plasma in finite magnetic field
刘盛纲; J.K.Lee; 祝大军
1996-01-01
Rigorous analytical theory of wave propagation along a cylindrical waveguide filled with plasmas in a dielectric tube immersed in finite magnetic field is presented.The field components’ expressions,eigenvalues,dispersion equations and complex wave power transmission equations have been obtained rigorously and discussed in detail.It is shown analytically that there is no disruption of the wave propagationin the ECR (ω=ωa) case,although the electrical permittivities approach to infinite in the case,and it hasbeen found that a real resonance takes place in this case while ω=(ωa2+ωpc2)1/2,in which the wave propagationof any mode is broken.The effective collisions are taken into consideration in the theory.Based on the above theory,the analytical theory of corrugated plasma waveguide immersed in finite axial magnetic field is also presented.The Floquet’s expansion of field components,the dispersion equations,and the coupling coefficients of the corrugated plasma waveguide have been derived rigorously a
Time resolved four- and six-wave mixing in liquids .1. Theory
Steffen, T; Fourkas, J.T.; Duppen, K.
1996-01-01
Low-frequency intermolecular dynamics in liquids is studied by ultrafast four- and six-wave mixing. The theory of these nonlinear optical processes is given for electronically nonresonant optical interactions up to fifth order in the electric field. The Born-Oppenheimer approximation is used to sepa