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Sample records for matter production seed

  1. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  2. Organic Leek Seed Production - Securing Seed Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  3. Organic leek seed production - securing seed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    2011-01-01

    To maintain integrity in organic farming, availability of organically produced GM-free seed of varieties adapted to organic production systems is of vital impor-tance. Despite recent achievements, organic seed supply for a number of vegetable species is insufficient. Still, in many countries...... organic vegetable growers can get derogations to use non-organic seeds in their productions. Potentially, this could lead to the organic consumers’ loss of faith and interest in organic products. The pre-requisite for an organic vegetable production is the presence of organically produced high quality...... seeds. Tunnel production is a means of securing seed of high genetic purity and quality, and organic leek (Allium porrum L.) seed production was tested in tunnels in Denmark. The present trial focused on steckling size and in all years large stecklings had a positive effect on both seed yield...

  4. Seed dispersal: Size does matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Many small seed-eating rodents bury their food in an erratic manner called scatter-hoarding because they are unable to defend one large hoard. This process has a complicated influence on seed dispersal,as shown in the work by ZHANG Zhibin at the CAS Institute of Zoology and hisco-workers.

  5. Effect of Genotypes and Seed Production Environments on Seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Genotypes. plant popUlation, seed production. seed quality. sesame. ..... (68%). Greater standard gennination and EWSG occurred in seed produced in 2001 .... Table 7: Heritability (H2B) and genetic advance (GA) of seed quality ...

  6. Organic Upland Rice Seed Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raumjit Nokkoul

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The upland rice is popular for growing in southern Thailand because this area is the lowland and less area than other sectors. Upland rice is grown as alternative crops of farmers for household consumption which using organic farming method because organic rice seed can be produced by self-production in farmhouse. However, the upland rice is grown under organic farming system. The seeds must originate from plants being grown in compliance with the organic farming rules for at least one generation. There are many factors involving the production of seeds under organic farming system, making the yield low. Thus, the objective of this study on appropriate methods of upland rice seed production under organic farming system in southern Thailand. The results showed that in producing organic seeds, suitable varieties should be selected to suit each area with regular high yield quality. It can be grown in low fertile soil, resist pests and diseases and compete with weeds. The suitable season should be selected for the seed production and the growing areas ought to be in an ecological zone with at least 14-20 mm of 5-day rainfall during the growing cycle. Soil fertility: crop rotation, green manure plants, compost of rice straw and organic manures. For control of disease and insect pests use of resistant or tolerant varieties, plant extracts, natural enemies. The organic seed production of upland rice in southern Thailand, Samduen variety had suitability for recommendation to seed producer in this area because it can provide high growth, yield and seed quality.

  7. Organic matter and seed survival of Striga hermonthica - Mechanisms for seed depletion in the soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayongwa, G.C.; Stomph, T.J.; Belder, P.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2011-01-01

    Seed survival of Striga hermonthica is influenced by amendments of organic matter; however, the role of organic matter quality (C:N ratio) and mechanisms for enhanced seed decay are inadequately understood. In a field experiment, plots received a single dose of 6 t organic matter per hectare but

  8. Culling phenotypically inferior trees in seed production area enhances seed and seedling quality of Acacia auriculiformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.Sivakuma; B.Gurudevsingh; R.Anandalakshmi; R.R.Warrier; S.Sekaran; Mulualem Tigabu; P.C.Odén

    2011-01-01

    Improvement in seed and seedling quality of Acacia auriculiformis after culling phenotypically inferior trees was studied in a 6-year old seed production area (SPA). A 5-ha plantation was identified, of which 2.3 ha was converted into SPA. The initial stocking, 1 612 trees·ha-1, was thinned down to 982 trees·ha-1 based on growth characteristics. The following fruiting season, seeds were collected from 10 randomly selected trees in culled and non-culled stands, and seed physical characters, germination and seedling traits were assessed. Seed weight,seed thickness and percentage germination increased by 32.1%, 4.43% and 22.37%, respectively in the culled stand compared to the non-culled stand. Culling also increased the speed of germination, seedling dry weight and seedling vigor index. Heritability values were high for seed weight (0.974) and seed thickness (0.948) while medium values were observed for percentage germination (0.577) and total dry weight (0.534).Predicted genetic gain was 11.13% and 11.22% for seed weight and percentage germination, respectively. The actual gain was 32.1, 51.9 and 22.9% for seed weight, percentage germination and total dry matter,respectively. In conclusion, SPAs established by culling inferior trees could serve as sources of good quality seeds for reforestation programs until genetically improved seeds are made available.

  9. Dust seed production and dispersal in Swedish Pyroleae species

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Veronika A.; Müller, Gregor; Eriksson, Ove

    2014-01-01

    Dust seeds are the smallest seeds in angiosperms weighing just about a few micrograms. These seeds are characteristic of most orchids, and several studies have been performed on seed features, fecundity and dispersal of orchid dust seeds. In this study we examine seed features, seed production and seed dispersal in another plant group with dust seeds, the Pyroleae Monotropoideae, Ericaceae), focusing on six species: Pyrola chlorantha, P. minor, P. rotundifolia, Chimaphila umbellata, Moneses u...

  10. Agronomic performance of sorghum seed production lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Flores-Naveda, Antonio; Valdés-Lozano, Ciro G.S; Francisco ZAVALA-GARCÍA; Olivares-Saénz, Emilio; Gutiérrez-Díez, Adriana; Vázquez-Badillo, Mario Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of A, B isogenic lines and R grain sorghum lines which restore androfertility of sorghum for grain production. This work was performed during the spring-summer 2010 in Marin Nuevo Leon under drip irrigation. Days to flowering, seed yield per plant, brix degrees and weight of 1000 seeds were measured. The statistical analysis with the benchmark test of averages with independent samples was realized in A, B sorghum lines to da...

  11. Seeds of Cross-Media Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Petersen, Anja Bechmann

    2007-01-01

    with planning and coordination. We demonstrate how the production rhythms of the individual media collide with that of cross-media, and how product lifecycle rhythms add to the list of causes of problems that may jeopardize crossmedia production. We propose to strengthen planning and overview support elements......We present an empirical study of an organization that has recently moved from traditional newspaper production towards cross-media production involving the integrated digital production of newspaper, television, radio and web-news. The paper focuses on the daily production rhythms of the media...... separately and of cross-media production. Since cross-media production is in the making, we study the instruments currently used for planning and coordination, and analyze them as seeds that will eventually make cross-media production happen. Time and timing are important in news production in general...

  12. Technology for Hybrid Pepper Seed Production in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    History of hybrid pepper seed production, the status of annually balanced production, and innovative techniques for the large-scale seed production in China are reviewed. Helped by the technological breakthroughs in these fields, China has been the largest base for hybrid pepper seed production in the world.

  13. Seeds of Cross-Media Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Petersen, Anja Bechmann

    2007-01-01

    We present an empirical study of an organization that has recently moved from traditional newspaper production towards cross-media production involving the integrated digital production of newspaper, television, radio and web-news. The paper focuses on the daily production rhythms of the media...... separately and of cross-media production. Since cross-media production is in the making, we study the instruments currently used for planning and coordination, and analyze them as seeds that will eventually make cross-media production happen. Time and timing are important in news production in general......, and our analyses focus on the rhythm of the daily planning, coordination and production processes. Specifically, we analyze the temporal coordination of the activities in and around the Superdesk – the current center of coordination of the news organization, and of the persons who work specifically...

  14. Benefits of Neonicotinoid Seed Treatments to Soybean Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read about EPA’s analysis of use of the neonicotinoid seed treatments for insect control in U.S. soybean production. EPA concludes that these seed treatments provide little or no overall benefits to soybean production in most situations.

  15. Climate Change: Seed Production and Options for Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Hampton

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Food security depends on seed security and the international seed industry must be able to continue to deliver the quantities of quality seed required for this purpose. Abiotic stress resulting from climate change, particularly elevated temperature and water stress, will reduce seed yield and quality. Options for the seed industry to adapt to climate change include moving sites for seed production, changing sowing date, and the development of cultivars with traits which allow them to adapt to climate change conditions. However, the ability of seed growers to make these changes is directly linked to the seed system. In the formal seed system operating in developed countries, implementation will be reasonably straight forward. In the informal system operating in developing countries, the current seed production challenges including supply failing to meet demand and poor seed quality will increase with changing climates.

  16. FIELD PEA (PISUM SATIVUM L. BIOMASS PRODUCTION DEPENDED ON SEED AGE AND AGROECOLOGICAL GROWTH CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Rapčan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Influence of weather conditions and seed age on fresh and dry biomass production, field germination, seed yield and 1000 seed weight of field pea were investigated in field trials during two years at two locations of East Croatia (Osijek and Vinkovci. Seed of „Timo“ cultivar 9 and 21 month old was used for sowing. In the investigation of the years influence, significantly higher (p=0.01 average green mass yield (57,035 t/ha, dry matter yield (9.796 t/ha and 1000 seed weight (129.7 g was found in the first year of the investigation. On the average for years, significantly higher field germination (87.0% and seed yield (2.173 t/ha at p=0.01, and green mass yield (55.728 t/ha and 1000 seed weight (130.1 g at p=0.05 were found at location Osijek. Seed of 21 month old had higher (p=0.01 average green mass yield (64.376 t/ha, dry matter yield (10.934 t/ha and 1000 seed weight (134 g but significantly lower field germination (76.4% at location Vinkovci in the investigation of seed age and location influences during 2005 year..

  17. Soybean seeds and its by-product okara as sources of dietary fibre. Measurement by AOAC and Englyst methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redondo-Cuenca, Araceli; Villanueva-Suárez, Ma José; Mateos-Aparicio, Inmaculada

    2008-06-01

    The composition of soybean seeds and its by-product okara has been studied in this work. Dietary fibre was analysed by Englyst et al. method, by enzymatic-gravimetric methods of AOAC and by the quantification of the monomers obtained from the AOAC residues after acid hydrolysis (AOAC plus hydrolysis). Total dietary fibre by the enzymatic-gravimetric methods of AOAC in okara (55.48g/100g dry matter) is more than twice that of soybean seeds (24.37g/100g dry matter). The proportion IF/SF is 11 in okara and 6 in soybean seeds. Dietary fibre results from enzymatic-gravimetric AOAC methods are higher in okara and soybean seed samples than those from the Englyst method (okara: 41.14g/100g dry matter; soybean seeds: 15.05g/100g dry matter), and AOAC plus hydrolysis (okara: 44.91g/100g dry matter; soybean seeds: 16.38g/100g dry matter). In the case of the insoluble fibre from both samples, AOAC plus hydrolysis gives significantly (p<0.001) higher values than the Englyst method, whilst for soluble fibre the opposite occurs (p<0.001). The main monomers in soybean seeds and okara fibre are glucose, galactose, uronic acids, arabinose and xylose. The proportion of each monomer is similar in soybean seeds and okara, so the healthy properties of soybean seeds fibre are also claimed for okara. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Seed production and quality of maize in High Valleys of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Virgen-Vargas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to increase the productivity of maize in High Valleys of Mexico, at the Valley of México and Bajio Experimental Stations of the National Institute for Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock Research (INIFAP. The following activities were carried out: production of registered seed to strengthen seed micro- enterprises of national capital, quality evaluation of certified seed, and generation of production technology. Between 2005 and 2013, 46.71 tons of registered seed of the hybrids parents: H-40, H-48, H-50, H-52, H-66, H-70 and H-161, and the varieties: VS-22, V-54A and V-55A were produced and sold to 31 seed producers in the Estado de Mexico, Tlaxcala, Puebla, Hidalgo, Morelos, Guanajuato, Michoacan, and Jalisco; that satisfied 60 % of demand per year (8.68 t. In 2013 and 2014, agreements were signed between INIFAP and four micro-enterprises to produce registered seeds. The certified seed produced by companies reached certification standards, germination percentage ≥ 85, 98% pure seed and less than 2% inert matter; test weight between 72 and 78 kg/hl, thousand seed weight between 288 and 361 g and genetic quality between 96 and 98 % of the true type plants. The study identified information about locations, potential yields, population density, and planting dates for the production of parents, lines and single crosses, in the Estado de Mexico and Tlaxcala.

  19. Environmental Effects of Nanoceria on Seed Production of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): A Proteomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sanghamitra; Almeida, Igor C; Arigi, Emma A; Choi, Hyungwon; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; Trujillo-Reyes, Jesica; Flores-Margez, Juan P; White, Jason C; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-11-17

    The rapidly growing literature on the response of edible plants to nanoceria has provided evidence of its uptake and bioaccumulation, which delineates a possible route of entry into the food chain. However, little is known about how the residing organic matter in soil may affect the bioavailability and resulting impacts of nanoceria on plants. Here, we examined the effect of nanoceria exposure (62.5-500 mg/kg) on kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) productivity and seed quality as a function of soil organic matter content. Cerium accumulation in the seeds produced from plants in organic matter enriched soil showed a dose-dependent increase, unlike in low organic matter soil treatments. Seeds obtained upon nanoceria exposure in soils with higher organic matter were more susceptible to changes in nutrient quality. A quantitative proteomic analysis of the seeds produced upon nanoceria exposure provided evidence for upregulation of stress-related proteins at 62.5 and 125 mg/kg nanoceria treatments. Although the plants did not exhibit overt toxicity, the major seed proteins primarily associated with nutrient storage (phaseolin) and carbohydrate metabolism (lectins) were significantly down-regulated in a dose dependent manner upon nanoceria exposure. This study thus suggests that nanoceria exposures may negatively affect the nutritional quality of kidney beans at the cellular and molecular level. More confirmatory studies with nanoceria along different species using alternative and orthogonal "omic" tools are currently under active investigation, which will enable the identification of biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility.

  20. Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

  1. Late Jute seed production in cropland agroforestry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi Noor-E-Alam Jewel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Farmers were not self-sufficient in jute seed production and cultivation to avoid use exotic jute seed from different resources. Though the conventional method of jute seed production was not enough to meet the demand of farmers because of shrinkage of jute seed production land. So, late jute seed production technique was applied in agroforestry systems at both established and newly developed orchards. The study was conducted in the selected three sites of Rangpur, Dinajpur and Faridpur. Both White (Corchorus capsularis L.cv. CVL-1 and Tossa (two popular cultivars, eg., Corchorus olitorius L. cv. O-9897, and cv. O-72 varieties were used for to evaluate the late jute seed production in cropland agroforestry in 2011- 2013. It was observed that 600 kg ha-1 to 725 kg ha-1 of jute seed was produced in different types of orchard plantation. Seeds from Litchi orchard showed the higher fiber yield (1051.11, 2511.11 and 3555.56 kg ha-1 at Rangpur, Dinajpur and Faridpur, respectively than the mango orchard. Nutrient contents of soil in three sits were improved significantly due to the cultivation of late jute seed production. Moreover, late jute seed production in early stages of orchard plantation was more profitable and late jute can be produced economically for five to seven years depending on the plantations type and age.

  2. Nitrogen application in amenity-types of Lolium perenne L. grown for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte

    1998-01-01

    Three amenity-type perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) cultivars Elka, Taya and Pippin were undersown in 1991-93 in spring barley at Roskilde and Rnhave, Denmark, and given 0, 30 or 60 kg N ha-1 in autumn combined with 70, 100 or 130 kg N ha-1 in spring. Seed yield did not differ among cultivars...... content varied considerably among years but not cultivars. Correlation analysis of N content, yield components and seed yield revealed that autumn N application resulted in an increasing N content in shoots, fertile tiller number and seed weight. However, these two components were negatively correlated......, and total seed yield was therefore not affected. The one exception was in 1991 when at one location dry matter production in autumn was low, and autumn N application resulted in increased N content, fertile tiller number and seed yield...

  3. Farm seed opportunities : conservation, breeding and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kik, C.; Louwaars, N.P.; Burg, van der W.J.; Almekinders, C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Farm Seed Opportunities (FSO), a research project in the FP6 European Research Framework (2007-2009), was targeted to support the implementation of seed regulations on conservation varieties (directive 98/95/EC and new directives 2008/62/EC and 2009/145/CE) and to propose complementary seed

  4. THE COMPOSITION OF UNSAPONIFIABLE MATTERS IN TEA SEED OIL AND THE CONTENT OF THEM DURING SEED DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuLuqi; ZengJianzhong; 等

    2000-01-01

    The unsaponifiable matters of seed oil of Camellia sinensis L.have inhibitory effect against tumor promotion.Throughout the period of seed development,the content of oil and unsaponifiable matters were measured.The unsaponifiable matters of this oil were separated by flash chromatography into four fractions:less polar compounds,triterpene alcohols,4-methylsterols and sterols.Thin-layer chromatography on silver nitrate impregnated silica gel were used to separate triterpene acetates and steryl acetates.The β-amyrin acetates,germanicol acetate,taraxerol acetate,lupeol acetate and dammaradienyl acetate,△7-stigmastenyl acetate and α-spinasteryl acetate were isolated and identified.α-Amyrin acetate,Φ-taraxasteryl acetate,butyrospermol acetate,tirucalla-7,24-dienyl acetate and △7-Avenasteryl acetate were identified.

  5. Tunnel production enhances quality in organic carrot seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Boelt, B

    2009-01-01

    water supply and thereby introduce drought at proven optimum times, restrict geneflow through insect- and pollen-proof netting, raise the temperature to prolong the growing season and hence the crop duration, and reduce pest attack by preventing pest entrance to the tunnel. In an experiment, tunnel......In Denmark, organic vegetable seed production is possible for some of the late-maturing species when the maturing is performed in lightweight tunnels which are also relevant for the isolation of small-scale production. The tunnel system offers several advantages, e.g., it is possible to control...

  6. Early Generation Seed Production and Supply in Ethiopia: Status ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Karta K. Kalsa

    regular multiplication and supply of smaller quantities of breeder, pre-basic and basic seed. The .... There are different approaches in variety maintenance to ensure varietal purity and .... Planning EGS production: According to the certified seed demand, the actual need of .... production/marketing are some of the constraints.

  7. Potential of grass seed production for new lawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Vargas de Oliveira Maximino

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Paspalum and Axonopus genera are among the main warm season grasses used for lawns. The seed propagation contributes to the decrease of the cost of establishment, besides maintaining the exact characteristics of the mother plant genotype, because they are apomictic species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the seed production potential of seventeen grass accesses of the species Paspalum notatum, P. lepton, P. lividum and Axonopus parodii. The experiment was conducted at Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in a randomized block design, with four replications. The evaluated variables were: number of inflorescences per area, number of florets per inflorescence and seed production potential (SPP. In order to measure the seed production potential of the accesses, the equation proposed is: SPP = number of florets per inflorescence x number of inflorescences per m2 . There were year, access and interaction between years and accesses effect for the traits number of inflorescences per area and seed production potential. For the number of florets per inflorescence, there was no year effect. Potential production for the 2013/2014 harvest, ranged from 19,152.00 to 135,062.70 seeds m- ², with PN 09 of the P. notatum species standing out. In the 2014/2015 harvest, the seed production potential ranged from 9,973.75 to 81,536.75 seeds m- ², highlighting the access PN 11 of the species P. notatum. The accesses PN 11, PN 09, PN 10 and AP 01 were in the top third of the seed production potential ranking in the two harvests, and “grama-batatais” was in the lower third. There is genotype-environment interaction for all characteristics evaluated. However, there are accesses that show seed production potential consistently superior to the “grama-batatais” control, and have a greater potential for exploitation in the establishment of lawns by seeds.

  8. Water Productivity of Irrigated Rice under Transplanting, Wet Seeding and Dry Seeding Methods of Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali, NS.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Water productivity (WP of irrigated lowland rice was determined during the 1994 dry (January to May and wet (August to December seasons on a heavy clay acid sulphate soil. Treatments consisted of three cultivation methods : transplanted rice, pregerminated seeds broadcasted on puddled soil (wet seeding and dry seeds broadcasted on unpuddled soil (dry seeding. In wet and dry seeded plots, continuous standing water condition was initiated 17 days after sowing. Total water requirement for rice production was highest in transplanted plots (755 mm in wet season and 1154 mm in dry season and was lowest in dry seeded plots (505 mm in wet season and 1040 mm in dry season. Dry seeding required no water for land preparation but transplanting and wet seeding methods required 18 - 20 % of total water requirement in dry season and 27 - 29 % in wet season. Total percolation was maximum (99 mm in wet season and 215 mm in dry season in dry seeding method and was minimum (62 mm in wet season and 94 mm in dry season in transplanting method. In dry and wet seeding methods, daily percolation gradually decreased with the age of the crop. Total seepage loss did not show any significant difference between the cultivation methods in the two seasons. Grain yield was not affected by the three cultivation methods in both seasons. Water productivity (the ratio between grain yield and total amount of water used in production was 3.5 - 4.1 kg ha-1 mm-1, 3.8 - 4.4 kg ha-1 mm-1 and 4.1 - 5.5 kg ha-1 mm-1 in transplanted, wet seeded and dry seeded rice, respectively. Labour requirement for land preparation and sowing was maximum in transplanted (219 - 226 man-hours ha-1 followed by wet (104 -112 man-hours ha-1 and dry seeded (94 - 99 man-hours ha-1 methods. However, in wet season extra labour (77 man-hours ha-1 was required for weeding after crop establishment in dry and wet seeding methods. Crop maturity was 20 days earlier in wet and dry seeding methods compared to

  9. Noisy products: does appearance matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, A.; Schifferstein, H.N.J.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Noisiness is an important product experience that is not restricted to the auditory properties of products; bright colors and cluttered visual patterns can also be experienced as noisy. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent the overall product noisiness is attributed to the sounds

  10. Micropropagation technology in early phases of commercial seed potato production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruski, K.

    2001-01-01

    Key words:Solanum tuberosum L., in vitro plantlet, in vitro tuberization, microtubers, minitubers, tuber bulking, photoperiod, in vitro storage, jasmonates, micropropagation, seed production. Micropropagation ( in vitro propagation) has been introduced to seed potato productio

  11. Irrigation to enhance native seed production for Great Basin restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton C. Shock; Erik B. G. Feibert; Nancy L. Shaw; Myrtle P. Shock; Lamont D. Saunders

    2015-01-01

    Native shrublands and their associated grasses and forbs have been disappearing from the Great Basin as a result of grazing practices, exotic weed invasions, altered fire regimes, climate change and other human impacts. Native forb seed is needed to restore these areas. The irrigation requirements for maximum seed production of four key native forb species (Eriogonum...

  12. Seed production of native forbs shows little response to irrigation in a wet year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton C. Shock; Erik B. G. Feibert; Lamont D. Saunders; Nancy Shaw; Ann DeBolt

    2007-01-01

    Native forb seed is needed to restore rangelands of the Intermountain West. Commercial seed production is necessary to provide the quantity of seed needed for restoration efforts. A major limitation to economically viable commercial production of native forb seed is stable and consistent seed productivity over years. Variations in spring rainfall and soil moisture...

  13. Biodiesel Production from Rubber Seed Oil via Esterification Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Widayat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available One promise source of alternative energy is biodiesel from rubber seed oil, because the raw materials available in plentiful quantities and can be renewed. In addition, the rubber seed is still lack of utilization, and Indonesia is one of the largest rubbers producing country in the world. The objective of this research is to studied on biodiesel production by esterification process. Parameters used in this study are the ratio of catalyst and temperature and its influence on the characteristics of the resulting biodiesel product. Characterization of rubber seed include acid content number analysis, saponification numbers, density, viscosity, iodine number, type of free fatty acids and triglyceride oils. The results of analysis showed that rubber seed oil content obtained is 50.5%. The results of the GCMS analysis showed that a free fatty acid level in rubber seed is very high. Conversion into bio-diesel oil is obtained by at most 59.91% and lowest 48.24%.

  14. Amaranth Seeds and Products – The Source of Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogrodowska Dorota

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, new products obtained from amaranth seeds have entered the food market including expanded “popping” seeds and flakes. Lipids and biologically-active substances dissolved in these products are susceptible to changes. Additionally, due to the fact that fat quality has high dietary importance, there is a need to conduct detailed quality and quantity studies on the lipid composition of Amaranthus cruentus.

  15. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change.

  16. Dark matter seeding and the kinematics and rotation of neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Garcia, M. Angeles, E-mail: mperezga@usal.es [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental and IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de la Merced s/n, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Silk, Joseph, E-mail: j.silk1@physics.ox.ac.uk [Institut d' Astrophysique, UPMC, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, Paris 75014 (France); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Homewood Campus, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Beecroft Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-01

    Self-annihilation of dark matter accreted from the galactic halo in the inner regions of neutron stars may significantly affect their kinematical properties, namely velocity kicks and rotation patterns. We find that if a stable long-lived single or multiple strangelet off-center seed forms leading to an asymmetric ejection of matter and radiation, there is a significant modification in linear and angular momentum observables of the star.

  17. Impacts of farmer-based training in seed production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tin Huynh Quang,

    2009-01-01

    Key words: farmer seed production school, farm-saved seed, formal seed sector, impact assessment, improved practice, local practice, rice (Oryza sativa), seed production, seed quality, Vietnam Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most important food and cash crop of Vietnam. It is cultivated in all

  18. Pollen- and seed-mediated transgene flow in commercial cotton seed production fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Heuberger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterizing the spatial patterns of gene flow from transgenic crops is challenging, making it difficult to design containment strategies for markets that regulate the adventitious presence of transgenes. Insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt cotton is planted on millions of hectares annually and is a potential source of transgene flow. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we monitored 15 non-Bt cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L. seed production fields (some transgenic for herbicide resistance, some not for gene flow of the Bt cotton cry1Ac transgene. We investigated seed-mediated gene flow, which yields adventitious Bt cotton plants, and pollen-mediated gene flow, which generates outcrossed seeds. A spatially-explicit statistical analysis was used to quantify the effects of nearby Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at various spatial scales, along with the effects of pollinator abundance and adventitious Bt plants in fields, on pollen-mediated gene flow. Adventitious Bt cotton plants, resulting from seed bags and planting error, comprised over 15% of plants sampled from the edges of three seed production fields. In contrast, pollen-mediated gene flow affected less than 1% of the seed sampled from field edges. Variation in outcrossing was better explained by the area of Bt cotton fields within 750 m of the seed production fields than by the area of Bt cotton within larger or smaller spatial scales. Variation in outcrossing was also positively associated with the abundance of honey bees. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A comparison of statistical methods showed that our spatially-explicit analysis was more powerful for understanding the effects of surrounding fields than customary models based on distance. Given the low rates of pollen-mediated gene flow observed in this study, we conclude that careful planting and screening of seeds could be more important than field spacing for limiting gene flow.

  19. Broccoli production depending on the seed production system and organic and mineral fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    LOPES, José Carlos; Mauri,Janaína; Ferreira,Adésio; Alexandre,Rodrigo S.; Freitas,Allan R de

    2012-01-01

    The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, in Alegre, Espirito Santo state, Brazil, to evaluate the broccoli production depending on the seed production system and organic and mineral fertilization. Seeds of the broccoli cultivar Ramoso Piracicaba were originated from lots of seed obtained in an organic and conventional production system. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with four replications in a factorial arrangement combina...

  20. Topology of large-scale structure in seeded hot dark matter models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaky, Matthew M.; Scherrer, Robert J.; Villumsen, Jens V.

    1992-01-01

    The topology of the isodensity surfaces in seeded hot dark matter models, in which static seed masses provide the density perturbations in a universe dominated by massive neutrinos is examined. When smoothed with a Gaussian window, the linear initial conditions in these models show no trace of non-Gaussian behavior for r0 equal to or greater than 5 Mpc (h = 1/2), except for very low seed densities, which show a shift toward isolated peaks. An approximate analytic expression is given for the genus curve expected in linear density fields from randomly distributed seed masses. The evolved models have a Gaussian topology for r0 = 10 Mpc, but show a shift toward a cellular topology with r0 = 5 Mpc; Gaussian models with an identical power spectrum show the same behavior.

  1. Biodiesel Production by Enzymatic Transesterification of Papaya Seed Oil and Rambutan Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Wong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel production from vegetable oil has gained attention as an alternative fuel to minimize the usage of fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gases pollution. In Malaysia, oils from local fruit seeds of papaya and rambutan are potential feedstock for biodiesel production due to their high lipid contents and easily available. In the present study, papaya and rambutan seed oils were extracted via soxhlet apparatus using n-hexane and the oil yields were in between 34–40%. The extracted oils were subjected to enzymatic transesterification by the immobilized Candida rugosa lipase as a catalyst under room temperature with varies molar ratios of methanol to oil. The highest biodiesel yield for papaya seed oil and rambutan seed oil was found to be 96% and 89% at methanol-to-oil ratios of 6:1 and 8:1, respectively. Results also showed a higher biodiesel yield using lipase immobilized on the magnetic particles as the heterogeneous catalyst compared to the yield obtained using free enzyme as the homogeneous catalyst. The properties of biodiesel such as density, acid value, iodine value and cetane number were analyzed and found to meet the European Standard of Biodiesel. The study shows that papaya and rambutan seed oils have the potential to be used as alternative feedstock for biodiesel production than the full dependence on palm oil in Malaysia.

  2. Efeito da aplicação de zinco em sementes sobre a nutrição e a produção de massa seca de plantas de milho = Effect of zinc application in seeds on the nutrition and production of dry matter of maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi o de avaliar o efeito do tratamento de sementes à aplicação de zinco sobre a nutrição e a produção de massa seca de plantas de milho. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, utilizando o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de híbridos de milho (BRS 1001 e PZ 677, e cinco doses de zinco (0, 25, 50, 100 e 200 g de Zn por 20 kg de sementes, aplicados na forma de sulfato de zinco. Foi avaliado o efeito dos tratamentos sobre o índice de velocidade de emergência dasplântulas e, após 28 dias da semeadura, avaliou-se a produção de massa seca e o teor de zinco na parte aérea e nas raízes. O aumento das doses promoveu elevação do teor de zinco na parte aérea e nas raízes das plântulas de milho, mesmo não existindo aumento significativo na produção da massa seca. Os níveis de zinco utilizados não proporcionaram sintomas de toxicidade nas plântulas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of seeding treatment to zinc application as regards the nutrition and production of dry matter in maize plants. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions, with completely randomized design, arranged in a 2 x 5 factorial and three replications. The treatments corresponded to two maize cultivars, the BRS 1001 and the PZ 677 and fiverates of zinc (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 g of Zn to 20 kg of seeds as zinc sulfate. The effect on the outgrowth speed was followed after 28 days of sowing and the dry matter production and the zinc level in the leaves and roots were evaluated. There was accumulation in thelevel of zinc in the leaves and roots with an increase of the rates. However, a significant increase in the dry matter production was not observed. The plants did not present toxicity symptoms with the rates used.

  3. Impact of tropical forage seed development in villages in Thailand and Laos: Research to village farmer production to seed export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed of 6 forage varieties, Mulato II hybrid brachiaria, Cayman hybrid brachiaria, Mombasa guinea, Tanzania guinea, Ubon stylo and Ubon paspalum, are currently being produced by more than 1000 smallholder farmers in villages in northeast Thailand and northern Laos, under contract to Ubon Forage Seeds, Faculty of Agriculture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Thailand. The seed is mainly exported overseas (95% and the remainder is sold within Thailand. Tropical Seeds LLC, a subsidiary of the Mexican seed company, Grupo Papalotla, employs the seed producing and seed research group, Ubon Forage Seeds, to manage seed production, seed sales and export, and to conduct research on new forage species. This paper discusses in detail how the development in villages of a smallholder farmer seed production program has had positive social and economic outcomes for the village seed growers and enabled farmers in other countries to receive high quality forage seeds. The strong emphasis on seed quality, high purity, high vigor and high germination, has had a large impact on tropical pastures in more than 20 tropical countries in Asia, Africa, the Pacific and Central and South America.

  4. Seed production in the first eight years and frequency of natural selfing in a simulated jack pine seedling seed orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Rudolph

    1977-01-01

    Seed production and percent of natural selfing were determined in an 8 x 8-foot, 1200-tree plantation. Actual seed production was determined through age 6; production through age 8 was projected based on first-year cone counts at age 7. The percent of natural self-pollination, production of seedlings from natural selfing, and percent of selfs that were lethal were...

  5. Manipulation of microtubers for direct field utilization in seed production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruski, K.; Astatkie, T.; Duplessis, P.; Stewart, L.; Nowak, J.; Struik, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    A two-year field study was conducted to determine the effects of jasmonic acid (JA), light (during in vitro explant production and in vitro tuberization phases), and dormancy-breaking treatment on performance of microtubers in the production of seed tubers (pre-elite) in five potato cultivars. Micro

  6. Produção de sementes de feijão-vagem em função de fontes e doses de matéria orgânica Snap-bean seeds production accordingly to levels and sources of organic matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna U. Alves

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar fontes e doses de matéria orgânica sobre a produção de sementes de feijão-vagem, cultivar Macarrão Trepador, instalou-se um ensaio na Universidade Federal da Paraíba no período de abril a setembro de 1998. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, em arranjo fatorial de 4 x 5, compreendendo quatro fontes (esterco de bovino, de caprino, de galinha e húmus de minhoca e cinco doses (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40 t/ha de esterco bovino e caprino e 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20 t/ha de esterco de galinha e húmus de minhoca, em quatro repetições. A produção máxima de sementes foi obtida com as doses de 27,66 t/ha de esterco bovino (3.555,10 kg, 20,85 t/ha de esterco caprino (3.259,56 kg e 9,87 t/ha de esterco de galinha (2.919,00 kg/ha e de húmus de minhoca (3.270 kg/ha. A dose mais econômica de esterco bovino foi de 25,57 t/ha, com uma receita de 1.442,55 kg de sementes/ha (R$ 4.616,16, de esterco caprino foi de 19,11 t/ha, com uma receita de 1.164,00 kg de sementes/ha (R$ 3.724,80 e de esterco de galinha foi de 5,17 t/ha, com uma receita de 177,86 kg de sementes/ha (R$ 569,15. Sob o ponto de vista da produção de sementes, a aplicação de húmus de minhoca propiciou produções acima da média nacional, mas seu emprego na produção de sementes em feijão-vagem, não é economicamente viável. A análise econômica indicou o esterco bovino como a fonte de matéria orgânica mais viável economicamente para adubação orgânica em feijão-vagem para produção de sementes.With the objective of evaluating sources and levels of organic matter on the production of snap-bean seeds, cv. Macarrão Trepador, there was set up an experiment in the Federal University of Paraíba, Brasil, from April to September/1998. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, in the factorial scheme 4 x 5, testing four sources of organic matter (cattle, goat and chicken manure and earthworm humus in five levels (0, 10, 20, 30

  7. Indirect Effects of Field Management on Pollination Service and Seed Set in Hybrid Onion Seed Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Sandra; Long, Rachael; Williams, Neal

    2015-12-01

    Pollination in crops, as in native ecosystems, is a stepwise process that can be disrupted at any stage. Healthy pollinator populations are critical for adequate visitation, but pollination still might fail if crop management interferes with the attraction and retention of pollinators. Farmers must balance the direct benefits of applying insecticide and managing irrigation rates against their potential to indirectly interfere with the pollination process. We investigated these issues in hybrid onion seed production, where previous research has shown that high insecticide use reduces pollinator attraction. We conducted field surveys of soil moisture, nectar production, pollinator visitation, pollen-stigma interactions, and seed set at multiple commercial fields across 2 yr. We then examined how management actions, such as irrigation rate (approximated by soil moisture), or insecticide use could affect the pollination process. Onions produced maximum nectar at intermediate soil moisture, and high nectar production attracted more pollinators. Insecticide use weakly affected pollinator visitation, but when applied close to bloom reduced pollen germination and pollen tube growth. Ultimately, neither soil moisture nor insecticide use directly affected seed set, but the high correlation between pollinator visitation and seed set suggests that crop management will ultimately affect yields via indirect effects on the pollination process. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. 7 CFR 201.72 - Production of all classes of certified seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production of all classes of certified seed. 201.72... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Certified Seed § 201.72 Production of all classes of certified...

  9. Methanolysis of Carica papaya Seed Oil for Production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foluso O. Agunbiade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The future of fossil fuel sources of energy has necessitated the need to search for renewable alternatives. Thus, Carica papaya seed oil (CPSO was employed as feedstock for the production of biodiesel by methanolysis. The seed was obtained locally, dried, and extracted with n-hexane. The CPSO was analyzed for specific gravity, viscosity, iodine value, and saponification value, among others using standard methods. The oil was transesterified by two-stage catalysis with oil to methanol mole ratio of 1 : 9. The biodiesel produced was subjected to standard fuel tests. The seed has an oil yield of 31.2% which is commercially viable. The kinematic viscosity of the oil at 313 K was 27.4 mm2s−1 while that of Carica papaya oil methylester (CPOME was reduced to 3.57 mm2s−1 and the specific gravity was 0.84 comparable with other seed-oil biodiesels and number 2 diesel. Other oil properties were compared favourably with seed oils already documented for biodiesel synthesis. CPOME’s cloud and pour points were 275 K and 274 K, respectively, and relatively higher than other biodiesels and number 2 diesel. CPOME exhibits moderate corrosion of copper strip. The methanolysis improved the fuel properties of the CPOME similar to other biodiesels. CPSO therefore exhibits a potential for biodiesel production.

  10. Axino dark matter from thermal production

    CERN Document Server

    Brandenburg, Arnd; Brandenburg, Arnd; Steffen, Frank Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The axino is a promising candidate for dark matter in the Universe. It is electrically and color neutral, very weakly interacting, and could be - as assumed in this study - the lightest supersymmetric particle, which is stable for unbroken R-parity. In supersymmetric extensions of the standard model, in which the strong CP problem is solved via the Peccei-Quinn mechanism, the axino arises naturally as the fermionic superpartner of the axion. We compute the thermal production rate of axinos in supersymmetric QCD. Using hard thermal loop resummation, we obtain a finite result in a gauge-invariant way, which takes into account Debye screening in the hot quark-gluon-squark-gluino plasma. The relic axino abundance from thermal scatterings after inflation is evaluated. We find that thermally produced axinos could provide the dominant part of cold dark matter, for example, for an axino mass of 100 keV and a reheating temperature of 10^6 GeV.

  11. The potential of residues of furfural and biogas as calcareous soil amendments for corn seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunchen; Yan, Zhibin; Qin, Jiahai; Ma, Zhijun; Zhang, Youfu; Zhang, Li

    2016-04-01

    Intensive corn seed production in Northwest of China produced large amounts of furfural residues, which represents higher treatment cost and environmental issue. The broad calcareous soils in the Northwest of China exhibit low organic matter content and high pH, which led to lower fertility and lower productivity. Recycling furfural residues as soil organic and nutrient amendment might be a promising agricultural practice to calcareous soils. A 3-year field study was conducted to evaluate the effects of furfural as a soil amendment on corn seed production on calcareous soil with compared to biogas residues. Soil physical-chemical properties, soil enzyme activities, and soil heavy metal concentrations were assessed in the last year after the last application. Corn yield was determined in each year. Furfural residue amendments significantly decreased soil pH and soil bulk density. Furfural residues combined with commercial fertilizers resulted in the greater cumulative on soil organic matter, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, available potassium, and cation exchange capacity than that of biogas residue. Simultaneously, urease, invertase, catalase, and alkaline phosphatase increased even at the higher furfural application rates. Maize seed yield increased even with lower furfural residue application rates. Furfural residues resulted in lower Zn concentration and higher Cd concentration than that of biogas residues. Amendment of furfural residues led to higher soil electrical conductivity (EC) than that of biogas residues. The addition of furfural residues to maize seed production may be considered to be a good strategy for recycling the waste, converting it into a potential resource as organic amendment in arid and semi-arid calcareous soils, and may help to reduce the use of mineral chemical fertilizers in these soils. However, the impact of its application on soil health needs to be established in long-term basis.

  12. Article original Animal production Effect of Garcinia kola seed Meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hilaire

    Animal production. Effect of Garcinia kola seed Meal on Egg Quality of the African Catfish (Clarias ... In view of this, medicinal plants that can enhance the fertility of ..... based diet. Sule and .... Erythropoietic and Anti- Obesity effects of. Garcinia ...

  13. Perfusion seed cultures improve biopharmaceutical fed-batch production capacity and product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, William C; Lu, Jiuyi; Kwiatkowski, Chris; Yuan, Hang; Kshirsagar, Rashmi; Ryll, Thomas; Huang, Yao-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Volumetric productivity and product quality are two key performance indicators for any biopharmaceutical cell culture process. In this work, we showed proof-of-concept for improving both through the use of alternating tangential flow perfusion seed cultures coupled with high-seed fed-batch production cultures. First, we optimized the perfusion N-1 stage, the seed train bioreactor stage immediately prior to the production bioreactor stage, to minimize the consumption of perfusion media for one CHO cell line and then successfully applied the optimized perfusion process to a different CHO cell line. Exponential growth was observed throughout the N-1 duration, reaching >40 × 10(6) vc/mL at the end of the perfusion N-1 stage. The cultures were subsequently split into high-seed (10 × 10(6) vc/mL) fed-batch production cultures. This strategy significantly shortened the culture duration. The high-seed fed-batch production processes for cell lines A and B reached 5 g/L titer in 12 days, while their respective low-seed processes reached the same titer in 17 days. The shortened production culture duration potentially generates a 30% increase in manufacturing capacity while yielding comparable product quality. When perfusion N-1 and high-seed fed-batch production were applied to cell line C, higher levels of the active protein were obtained, compared to the low-seed process. This, combined with correspondingly lower levels of the inactive species, can enhance the overall process yield for the active species. Using three different CHO cell lines, we showed that perfusion seed cultures can optimize capacity utilization and improve process efficiency by increasing volumetric productivity while maintaining or improving product quality. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-01-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life c...

  15. Gravitino dark matter production at finite temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Dalianis, Iannis

    2013-01-01

    The production and the final abundance of gravitino dark matter appear to depend crucially on the restoration of the global U(1) $R$-symmetry of GMSB sectors in a threefold way. An $R$-symmetric phase effectively suppresses the production of goldstinos from scatterings with the supersymmetric Standard Model particles and it generically initiates the goldstino production from the thermalized messenger particles. In addition, the GMSB spurion gets displaced from the zero temperature minimum and under certain conditions it dominates the energy density of the universe producing late entropy. We show that it is possible to have high enough reheating temperatures that thermal leptogenesis and thermal vacuum selection can be realized without gravitino overproduction. The gravitino dark matter can be produced either thermally or non-thermally. In the former case the messenger scale has to be less than about $10^6$ GeV with the gravitino relatively heavy, $m_{3/2}\\geq {\\cal O}(10)$ GeV. In the later case, the gravitin...

  16. Ketocarotenoid Production in Soybean Seeds through Metabolic Engineering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C Pierce

    Full Text Available The pink or red ketocarotenoids, canthaxanthin and astaxanthin, are used as feed additives in the poultry and aquaculture industries as a source of egg yolk and flesh pigmentation, as farmed animals do not have access to the carotenoid sources of their wild counterparts. Because soybean is already an important component in animal feed, production of these carotenoids in soybean could be a cost-effective means of delivery. In order to characterize the ability of soybean seed to produce carotenoids, soybean cv. Jack was transformed with the crtB gene from Pantoea ananatis, which codes for phytoene synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the first committed step in the carotenoid pathway. The crtB gene was engineered together in combinations with ketolase genes (crtW from Brevundimonas sp. strain SD212 and bkt1 from Haematococcus pluvialis to produce ketocarotenoids; all genes were placed under the control of seed-specific promoters. HPLC results showed that canthaxanthin is present in the transgenic seeds at levels up to 52 μg/g dry weight. Transgenic seeds also accumulated other compounds in the carotenoid pathway, such as astaxanthin, lutein, β-carotene, phytoene, α-carotene, lycopene, and β-cryptoxanthin, whereas lutein was the only one of these detected in non-transgenic seeds. The accumulation of astaxanthin, which requires a β-carotene hydroxylase in addition to a β-carotene ketolase, in the transgenic seeds suggests that an endogenous soybean enzyme is able to work in combination with the ketolase transgene. Soybean seeds that accumulate ketocarotenoids could potentially be used in animal feed to reduce or eliminate the need for the costly addition of these compounds.

  17. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  18. Strangeness production in high density baryon matter

    CERN Document Server

    Ganz, R E

    1999-01-01

    Strangeness production in heavy-ion collisions, when compared to proton proton collisions, is potentially a sensitive probe for collective energy deposition and therefore for reaction mechanisms in general. It may therefore provide insight into possible QGP formation in dense nuclear matter. To establish an understanding of the observed yields, a systematic study of high density baryon matter at different beam energies is essential. This might also reveal possible discontinuities in the energy dependence of the reaction mechanism. We present preliminary results for kaon production in Au+Au collisions at beam kinetic energies of 6, 8, and 10.7 GeV/u obtained by the E917 experiment at the AGS (BNL). These measurements complement those carried out by the E866 collaboration at 2, 4, and 10.7 GeV/u with a significantly enlarged data sample. In both experiments a large range of rapidities was covered by taking data at different angular settings of the magnetic spectrometer.

  19. Estimating seed production of common plants in seasonally flooded wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubhan, Murray K.; Fredrickson, Leigh H.

    1992-01-01

    We developed a technique to quickly estimate seed production of common moist-soil plants because previously reported methods were too time consuming to be of value to waterfowl resource managers. Eleven regression equations were developed for 13 plant species in the upper Mississippi Alluvial Valley and the Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico. Estimated time to collect a sample was 1.5 minutes. Easily measured vegetation characteristics such as inflorescence number, inflorescence length, and plant height were used as independent variables to estimate seed mass of known mass samples. Coefficients of determination (R2) ranged from 0.79 for rice flatsedge (Cyperus iria) to 0.96 for smartweeds (Polygonum spp.). The accuracy and precision of equations tested using independent data indicate that the technique can be used to detect changes in seed mass of moist-soil plants in seasonally flooded impoundments. Because of the small sample area per plot used (0.0625 m2) and changes in the density of plants within an impoundment, we recommend that as many samples as economically feasible be collected to reliably estimate seed production.

  20. Characterization of volatile production during storage of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The duration that seeds stay vigorous during storage is difficult to predict but critical to seed industry and conservation communities. Production of volatile compounds from lettuce seeds during storage was investigated as a non-invasive and early detection method of seed aging rates. Over thirty...

  1. Biological control of Alternaria radicina in seed production of carrots with Ulocladium atrum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhl, J.; Langerak, C.J.; Meekes, E.T.M.; Molhoek, W.M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Black rot of carrots is caused by seed-borne Alternaria radicina. Biological control of seed infestation by treatments applied to plants in flower during seed production with the fungal antagonist Ulocladium atrum was investigated in laboratory and field experiments resulting in a reduction of seed

  2. Studies on statistical optimization of sulforaphane production from broccoli seed

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yuanfeng; Mao, Jianwei; Mei,Lehe; Liu, Shiwang

    2013-01-01

    Background: Natural sulforaphane (SF) has been of increasing interest for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries due to its anti-cancer effect. The main objective of the present work was to optimize the production of SF from broccoli seed using response surface methodology. Results: Three major factors (hydrolysis time, water volume and ethyl acetate volume) were screened out through Plackett-Burman (PB) factorial design. The methods of steepest ascent combined with central composite des...

  3. Matter under extreme conditions probed by a seeded free-electron-laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencivenga, F.; Principi, E.; Cucini, R.; Danailov, M. B.; Demidovich, A.; D’Amico, F.; Di Fonzo, S.; Gessini, A.; Kurdi, N.; Mahne, N.; Raimondi, L.; Zangrando, M.; Masciovecchio, C. [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S. 14 km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza (Italy); Giangrisostomi, E.; Battistoni, A.; Svetina, C. [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., S.S. 14 km 163,5 in AREA Science Park, 34149 Basovizza (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trieste, Piazzale Europa, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Di Cicco, A.; Gunnella, R.; Hatada, K. [CNISM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita' di Camerino, Via Madonna delle Carceri, 62032 Camerino (Italy); Filipponi, A. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, Universita' dell’Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); and others

    2015-08-17

    FERMI is the first user dedicated seeded free-electron-laser (FEL) working in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and soft x-ray range. The EIS-TIMEX experimental end-station was availabe to external users since from the beginning of the user operation of the facility, in Dicember 2012. EIS-TIMEX has been conceived to exploit the unique properties of the FERMI source to study matter under extreme and metastable thermodynamic conditions. We hereby report on its basic parameters and applications, which includes very low jitter (i.e., high time resolution) pump-probe measurements.

  4. Efficacy of potato seeds disinfection products to control Erwinia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, B; Garcia, N; Boels, G

    2008-01-01

    Erwinia spp. provokes soft rot on potato tubers during storage. No disinfection products are available on the market in the European Union to control these bacteria. We tested 3 products presented as good candidates to cure potato tubers from bacterial diseases. First, Anthium 500 (Du Pont de Nemours) a product based on chlorine dioxyde, then Phostrol (Nufarm) with phosphoric acid as a.i. and finally Solucuivre (Proval), a copper based product. We firstly managed disinfection trials: high Erwinia contaminated potato seed samples were treated by immersion and were then incubated, we observed the percentage of tubers rotting. Secondly, we managed protection trials: protected healthy tubers were incubated during 23 days in contact with rotting tubers. We evaluated weight loss after symptoms development. No tested product was effective to control Erwinia spp. on seed tubers in our trials conditions. Furthermore, we observed more rot development after Phostrol and Solucuivre application. We suppose that the product couldn't reach the latent bacteria and weakened the tubers. No protection effect was observed.

  5. Biodiesel production from seed oil of Cleome viscosa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Rashmi; Jain, Vinod Kumar; Kumar, Sushil

    2012-07-01

    Edible oil seed crops, such as rapeseed, sunflower, soyabean and safflower and non-edible seed oil plantation crops Jatropha and Pongamia have proved to be internationally viable commercial sources of vegetable oils for biodiesel production. Considering the paucity of edible oils and unsustainability of arable land under perennial plantation of Jatropha and Pongamia in countries such as India, the prospects of seed oil producing Cleome viscosa, an annual wild short duration plant species of the Indogangetic plains, were evaluated for it to serve as a resource for biodiesel. The seeds of C. viscosa resourced from its natural populations growing in Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi areas of Aravali range were solvent extracted to obtain the seed oil. The oil was observed to be similar in fatty acid composition to the non-edible oils of rubber, Jatropha and Pongamia plantation crops and soybean, sunflower, safflower, linseed and rapeseed edible oil plants in richness of unsaturated fatty acids. The Cleome oil shared the properties of viscosity, density, saponification and calorific values with the Jatropha and Pongamia oils, except that it was comparatively acidic. The C. viscosa biodiesel had the properties of standard biodiesel specified by ASTM and Indian Standard Bureau, except that it had low oxidation stability. It proved to be similar to Jatropha biodiesel except in cloud point, pour point, cold filter plugging point and oxidation stability. In view of the annual habit of species and biodiesel quality, it can be concluded that C. viscosa has prospects to be developed into a short-duration biodiesel crop.

  6. Use of biotechnological methods in the potato seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Igarza Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potato crop has a large economic importance. Worldwide, propagation of potato by in vitro culture of axillary buds is commonly used in the production of in vitro plants and microtubers. These constitute the core plant material of a production program of potatoes seeds. This study aimed to present a review of scientific literature on the potato propagation by biotechnological methods. This also describes the main characteristics of this crop and the tuberization processes under natural and in vitro conditions. Key words: in vitro plants, microtubers, minitubers, Temporary Inmmersion System.

  7. Seed production in fens and fen meadows along a disturbance gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimkowska, A.; van Diggelen, R.; den Held, S.; Brienen, R.; Verbeek, S.; Vegelin, K.

    2009-01-01

    Question: The seed production in several wetland communities across Europe was investigated and differences in seed output in relation to disturbance intensity were tested. The relationship between the vegetation composition and the seed production profile was examined and the results are discussed

  8. economic performance of community based bean seed production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    seed multiplication and marketing enterprises (CBSME) model, as an alternative to the formal seed .... assets), type and sources of seed planted in ..... represent a form of social capital for members ..... Pricing, profitability, and adoption,.

  9. Assessment of the environmental exposure of honeybees to particulate matter containing neonicotinoid insecticides coming from corn coated seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapparo, Andrea; Marton, Daniele; Giorio, Chiara; Zanella, Alessandro; Soldà, Lidia; Marzaro, Matteo; Vivan, Linda; Girolami, Vincenzo

    2012-03-06

    Since seed coating with neonicotinoid insecticides was introduced in the late 1990s, European beekeepers have reported severe colony losses in the period of corn sowing (spring). As a consequence, seed-coating neonicotinoid insecticides that are used worldwide on corn crops have been blamed for honeybee decline. In view of the currently increasing crop production, and also of corn as a renewable energy source, the correct use of these insecticides within sustainable agriculture is a cause of concern. In this paper, a probable--but so far underestimated--route of environmental exposure of honeybees to and intoxication with neonicotinoid insecticides, namely, the atmospheric emission of particulate matter containing the insecticide by drilling machines, has been quantitatively studied. Using optimized analytical procedures, quantitative measurements of both the emitted particulate and the consequent direct contamination of single bees approaching the drilling machine during the foraging activity have been determined. Experimental results show that the environmental release of particles containing neonicotinoids can produce high exposure levels for bees, with lethal effects compatible with colony losses phenomena observed by beekeepers.

  10. Adubação NPK e calagem na produção de massa verde e sementes de crotalária Effect of NPK fertilization and liming on the green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luiz de Barros Salgado

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available São relatados dois experimentos de campo visando avaliar o efeito de nitrogênio, fósforo e potássio na presença e na ausência de calcário, na produção de massa verde e de sementes de crotalária. Os experimentos foram realizados no Centro Experimental de Campinas e na Estação Experimental de Tatuí, em Latossolo Roxo, no ano agrícola de 1969/70. Os resultados obtidos mostram claramente que o efeito para a utilização do fósforo foi significativo em solos com menor teor deste elemento e que houve efeito altamente positivo para o emprego do calcário na localidade de Tatuí.Two field experiments were conducted in order to evaluate the effect of N, P, K fertilization, with and without liming, on the total green matter and seed production of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.. The experiments were done in the experimental stations of the Instituto Agronômico of State of São Paulo, Brazil, located in Campinas and Tatuí, during the years of 1969/1970, in soils of the group Latosol >. The results obtained indicated a positive effect of P fertilization on the sunn hemp yield, in the soils that presented less soil P content. Significant increases in yield were obtained with the application of dolomitic lime, specially in the experimental station of Tatuí.

  11. Dark matter from gravitational particle production at reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markkanen, Tommi; Nurmi, Sami

    2017-02-01

    We show that curvature induced particle production at reheating generates adiabatic dark matter if there are non-minimally coupled spectator scalars weakly coupled to visible matter. The observed dark matter abundance implies an upper bound on spectator masses m and non-minimal coupling values ξ. For example, assuming quadratic inflation, instant reheating and a single spectator scalar with only gravitational couplings, the observed dark matter abundance is obtained for m~ 0.1 GeV and ξ ~ 1. Larger mass and coupling values of the spectator are excluded as they would lead to overproduction of dark matter.

  12. Massive primordial black holes from hybrid inflation as dark matter and the seeds of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clesse, Sébastien; García-Bellido, Juan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we present a new scenario where massive primordial black holes (PBHs) are produced from the collapse of large curvature perturbations generated during a mild-waterfall phase of hybrid inflation. We determine the values of the inflaton potential parameters leading to a PBH mass spectrum peaking on planetarylike masses at matter-radiation equality and producing abundances comparable to those of dark matter today, while the matter power spectrum on scales probed by cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies agrees with Planck data. These PBHs could have acquired large stellar masses today, via merging, and the model passes both the constraints from CMB distortions and microlensing. This scenario is supported by Chandra observations of numerous BH candidates in the central region of Andromeda. Moreover, the tail of the PBH mass distribution could be responsible for the seeds of supermassive black holes at the center of galaxies, as well as for ultraluminous x-ray sources. We find that our effective hybrid potential can originate e.g. from D-term inflation with a Fayet-Iliopoulos term of the order of the Planck scale but sub-Planckian values of the inflaton field. Finally, we discuss the implications of quantum diffusion at the instability point of the potential, able to generate a Swiss-cheese-like structure of the Universe, eventually leading to apparent accelerated cosmic expansion.

  13. PRESENT STATE AND POSSIBILITIES OF MAIZE HYBRIDS SEED PRODUCTION WITH THE REVIEW ON THE EXPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Šimić

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The present seed production of maize in the Republic of Croatia is reduced in relation to the period before the Patriotic War. Production of maize seed in Croatia was between 14,000 and 21,000 tons yearly in the period from 1981 to 1986. It was reduced to 8000 tons yearly in the period from 1989 to 2001. Today, Croatia has 13 processing centres with the capacity approximately 50,000 tons of seed, but utilisation of these capacities is about 40%. Decreasing of maize seed production is caused by market reduction (less areas under the maize in Croatia and reduced export of maize hybrids seed. Before the Patriotic War, Croatia participated in the total seeds export of former Yugoslavia with 35-40%. The largest export of maize seed was 1983, with the approximately 10,700 tons. Seed export of Bc, Os and KWS hybrids was the Eastern European market, while the seed of Pioneer, SES and part of KWS hybrids was exported on the Western European market. Nowadays, production of maize hybrids at Croatia is about 5000 ha (in the world on about 1 mil. ha with the seed export of 3500 tons, approximately. Today, the largest amount of maize seed is exported in Spain, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Slovenia and Turkey. The total value of maize seed production is 20 mil. Euro, approximately. Seed export should be the basic strategic aim in the program of seed production development because areas occupied with mercantile maize (approximately 400,000 ha cannot completely employ capacities for the production of seed.

  14. Preventing an increase in Verticillium wilt incidence in spinach seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Gislum, René;

    2014-01-01

    A semifield assay was conducted from 2009 to 2011 to distinguish between different preventive methods of reducing Verticillium spp. in spinach seed production. The seed treatments for controlling seed infection levels included Thiram, Signum, Trichoderma harzianum, Gliocladium roseum and Natural II...

  15. Cultivation and irrigation of fernleaf biscuitroot (Lomatium dissectum) for seed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrtle P. Shock; Clinton C. Shock; Erik G. B. Feibert; Nancy L. Shaw; Lamont D. Saunders; Ram K. Sampangi

    2012-01-01

    Native grass, forb, and shrub seed is needed to restore rangelands of the U.S. Intermountain West. Fernleaf biscuitroot [Lomatium dissectum (Nutt.) Mathias & Constance] is a desirable component of rangelands. Commercial seed production is necessary to provide the quantity and quality of seed needed for rangeland restoration and reclamation efforts. Fernleaf...

  16. Decontamination of seeds for seed sprout production by high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuytack, Elke Y; Diels, Ann M J; Meersseman, Katelijne; Michiels, Chris W

    2003-06-01

    Garden cress, sesame, radish, and mustard seeds immersed in water were treated with high pressure (250, 300, 350, and 400 MPa) for 15 min at 20 degrees C. After treatment, percentages of seeds germinating on water agar were recorded for up to 11 days. Of the seeds tested, radish seeds were found to be the most pressure sensitive, with seeds treated at 250 MPa reaching 100% germination 9 days later than untreated control seeds did. Garden cress seeds, on the other hand, were the most pressure resistant, with seeds treated at 250 MPa reaching 100% germination 1 day later than untreated control seeds did. Garden cress sprouts from seeds treated at 250 and 300 MPa also took about 1 day longer to reach average sprout length than sprouts from untreated control seeds did, indicating that sprout growth was not retarded once germination had occurred. Garden cress seeds were inoculated with suspensions of seven different bacteria (10(7) CFU/ml) and processed with high pressure. Treatment at 300 MPa (15 min, 20 degrees C) resulted in 6-log reductions of Salmonella Typhimurium, Escherichia coli MG1655, and Listeria innocua, > 4-log reductions of Shigella flexneri and pressure-resistant E. coli LMM1010, and a 2-log reduction of Staphylococcus aureus. Enterococcus faecalis was virtually not inactivated. For suspensions of the gram-positive bacteria, similar levels of inactivation in water in the absence of garden cress seeds were found, but the inactivation of E. coil LMM1010 and S. flexneri in water in the absence of garden cress seeds was significantly less extensive. These data suggest that garden cress seeds contain a component that acts synergistically with high hydrostatic pressure against gram-negative bacteria.

  17. Importance of permanent improvement of production and control of basic seed of ZP maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sečanski Mile

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High-quality seed is one of the key factors in the commercial maize grain production. In addition, hybrid seed production is conditioned by the production of basic seed of parental inbreds. According to the Law on Seed, 2005, the category of basic seed is defined as: original of self-pollinated plant species, hybrid components and potato elite, produced under control of the Ministry competent for agribusiness and is used for the production of certified seed of the first generation. This paper presents a chronological overview of the overall activity since1945. that led to the modern production of maize seed in our country. The activities have been based on scientific, technical and technological achievements within many fields, ranging from genetics and breeding, through growing practices, processing, quality control and legal regulations concerning all of this. Transition from maize breeding and production to hybrids has provided an amazing development of maize breeding and seed production and also included significant profit. Therefore, maize seed production has become high-technology industry. The scientific and professional work in improving the production of basic seed of ZP maize hybrids has been carried out in stages, and generally followed achievements in maize breeding and genetics, as well as developments in the growing practices and processing. In order to maintain a high quality of maize hybrid seed, as the end product, permanent efforts have to be invested into maize production improvement, drying, processing, storing, genetic purity of basic seed of parental inbreds of ZP maize hybrids, which are grown on the significant percentage of maize production areas not only in Serbia and countries in the region.

  18. Structural and functional properties of hemp seed protein products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malomo, Sunday A; He, Rong; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-08-01

    The effects of pH and protein concentration on some structural and functional properties of hemp seed protein isolate (HPI, 84.15% protein content) and defatted hemp seed protein meal (HPM, 44.32% protein content) were determined. The HPI had minimum protein solubility (PS) at pH 4.0, which increased as pH was decreased or increased. In contrast, the HPM had minimum PS at pH 3.0, which increased at higher pH values. Gel electrophoresis showed that some of the high molecular weight proteins (>45 kDa) present in HPM were not well extracted by the alkali and were absent or present in low ratio in the HPI polypeptide profile. The amino acid composition showed that the isolation process increased the Arg/Lys ratio of HPI (5.52%) when compared to HPM (3.35%). Intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism data indicate that the HPI proteins had a well-defined structure at pH 3.0, which was lost as pH value increased. The differences in structural conformation of HPI at different pH values were reflected as better foaming capacity at pH 3.0 when compared to pH 5.0, 7.0, and 9.0. At 10 and 25 mg/mL protein concentrations, emulsions formed by the HPM had smaller oil droplet sizes (higher quality), when compared to the HPI-formed emulsions. In contrast at 50 mg/mL protein concentration, the HPI-formed emulsions had smaller oil droplet sizes (except at pH 3.0). We conclude that the functional properties of hemp seed protein products are dependent on structural conformations as well as protein concentration and pH.

  19. Dilepton Production in a Chemically Equilibrating Quark-Gluon Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺泽君; 蒋维洲; 张家驹; 张伟; 刘波

    2002-01-01

    We have studied dilepton production in a chemically equilibrating quark-gluon matter produced at RHIC energies.We find that the dilepton yield is no longer a monotonically decreasing function of the initial quark chemicalpotential. Therefore, the dilepton suppression may not be useful as a signature for quark-gluon matter formation.

  20. Deoiledjatropha seed cake is a useful nutrient for pullulan production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhury Anirban

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ever increasing demand for fossil fuels is a major factor for rapid depletion of these non-renewable energy resources, which has enhanced the interest of finding out alternative sources of energy. In recent years jatropha seed oil has been used extensively for production of bio-diesel and has shown significant potential to replace petroleum fuels at least partially. De-oiled jatropha seed cake (DOJSC which comprises of approximately 55 to 65% of the biomass is a byproduct of bio-diesel industry. DOJSC contains toxic components like phorbol esters which restricts its utilization as animal feed. Thus along with the enhancement of biodiesel production from jatropha, there is an associated problem of handling this toxic byproduct. Utilization of DOJSC as a feed stock for production of biochemicals may be an attractive solution to the problem. Pullulan is an industrially important polysaccharide with several potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries. However, the major bottleneck for commercial utilization of pullulan is its high cost. A cost effective process for pullulan production may be developed using DOJSC as sole nutrient source which will in turn also help in utilization of the byproduct of bio-diesel industry. Results In the present study, DOJSC has been used as a nutrient for production of pullulan, in place of conventional nutrients like yeast extract and peptone. Process optimization was done in shake flasks, and under optimized conditions (8% DOJSC, 15% dextrose, 28°C temperature, 200 rpm, 5% inoculum, 6.0 pH 83.98 g/L pullulan was obtained. The process was further validated in a 5 L laboratory scale fermenter. Conclusion This is the first report of using DOJSC as nutrient for production of an exopolysaccharide. Successful use of DOJSC as nutrient will help in finding significant application of this toxic byproduct of biodiesel industry. This in turn also have a significant impact on

  1. Deoiledjatropha seed cake is a useful nutrient for pullulan production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Anirban Roy; Sharma, Nishat; Prasad, G S

    2012-03-30

    Ever increasing demand for fossil fuels is a major factor for rapid depletion of these non-renewable energy resources, which has enhanced the interest of finding out alternative sources of energy. In recent years jatropha seed oil has been used extensively for production of bio-diesel and has shown significant potential to replace petroleum fuels at least partially. De-oiled jatropha seed cake (DOJSC) which comprises of approximately 55 to 65% of the biomass is a byproduct of bio-diesel industry. DOJSC contains toxic components like phorbol esters which restricts its utilization as animal feed. Thus along with the enhancement of biodiesel production from jatropha, there is an associated problem of handling this toxic byproduct. Utilization of DOJSC as a feed stock for production of biochemicals may be an attractive solution to the problem.Pullulan is an industrially important polysaccharide with several potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries. However, the major bottleneck for commercial utilization of pullulan is its high cost. A cost effective process for pullulan production may be developed using DOJSC as sole nutrient source which will in turn also help in utilization of the byproduct of bio-diesel industry. In the present study, DOJSC has been used as a nutrient for production of pullulan, in place of conventional nutrients like yeast extract and peptone. Process optimization was done in shake flasks, and under optimized conditions (8% DOJSC, 15% dextrose, 28°C temperature, 200 rpm, 5% inoculum, 6.0 pH) 83.98 g/L pullulan was obtained. The process was further validated in a 5 L laboratory scale fermenter. This is the first report of using DOJSC as nutrient for production of an exopolysaccharide. Successful use of DOJSC as nutrient will help in finding significant application of this toxic byproduct of biodiesel industry. This in turn also have a significant impact on cost reduction and may lead to development of a cost

  2. Production, Marketing and Value Chain Mapping of 'Srijana' Tomato Hybrid Seed in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Babu Thapa Magar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A tomato variety known as ‘Srijana’ developed by Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC has been substantially popular among Nepalese farmers and entrepreneurs. To understand the seed value chain of the Srijana hybrid tomato, a survey was conducted in 2014/15 with public research and extension institutions, private seed companies/firms, non-governmental organization and community group including individual farmers, involved in Srijana tomato seed production. The survey covered random selection of 30 agro-vets and 30 farmers in Kathmandu valley, Kavre, Nuwakot, Dolakha and Kaski districts, Nepal where production of Srijana tomato seed is mostly concentrated. A focus group discussion was also conducted with commercial tomato farmers in each of the study districts. The study showed a total production of 293 kg Srijana seed having a value of around 47 million Nepalese Rupees (US $ 470 thousands in year 2013/14. Private sector was the dominant actor sharing about 85% of the total Srijana seed production followed by non-governmental organization (10%, farmers group (3% and governmental station/farm/centers (2%, respectively. Out of the total Srijana seed produced, about 95% was consumed in domestic market while 5% was exported to India. The study revealed increasing trend of production, supply and price of Srijana tomato seed. About 0.3 million NRs (US $ 3,000 profit was estimated through the production of Srijana tomato seed in 0.05 hectares (500 m2 of land. Agro-vets (private sector seed dealers were the major actors for supplying the seed from the producers to farms and received a higher profit margins. The farmers producing and selling the seed in technical assistance of public agencies received higher producer`s share (66.6% than farmers producing and selling seed through own group (60%, technical assistance of non-governmental organization (53.3%, and in contract with private seed companies (26.7%. Majority of commercial tomato farmers

  3. Heavy meson production in hot dense matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolos, Laura; Gamermann, Daniel; Garcia-Recio, Carmen; Molina, Raquel; Nieves, Juan; Oset, Eulogio; Ramos, Angels; Nieves, JM; Oset, E; Vacas, MJV

    2010-01-01

    The properties of charmed mesons in dense matter are studied using a unitary coupled-channel approach in the nuclear medium which takes into account Pauli-blocking effects and meson self-energies in a self-consistent manner. We obtain the open-charm meson spectral functions in this dense nuclear env

  4. Reactive Extraction of Jatropha Seed for Biodiesel Production: Effect of Moisture Content of Jatropha Seed and Co-solvent Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dani Supardan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is one among the promising renewable fuels, holding various advantages compared with fossil fuel. In this study, reactive extraction of jatropha seed for biodiesel production was investigated. The effect of moisture content of jatropha seeds and cosolvent concentration was examined to determine the best performance of the biodiesel production yield. The co-solvent used is hexane. Design of experiments (DOE was used to study the effect of moisture content of jatropha seed and co-solvent of hexane concentration on the yield of biodiesel. Generally, the moisture content of jatropha seeds and co-solvent concentration affected biodiesel production yield. The experimental result also shows that the transesterification rate was improved when compared to the system without co-solvents. It was found that the production of biodiesel achieved an optimum level of 68.3% biodiesel yield at the following reaction conditions, i.e. moisture content of jatropha seed of 1% and hexane to oil ratio of 6.9 (w/w.

  5. A Preliminary Study of the Key Technologies in Rice Seed Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guodong HUA; Guanxi LI; Delong MENG; Duoming WANG

    2015-01-01

    To study the production technology of rice seeds,with Lianjing 7 as test material,this paper explores the effects of the key rice seed production,processing and storage technologies( such as nitrogen fertilizer application and management,weeding mode in seed breeding field,temperature control of mechanical drying and water control on seed storage) on the quality of rice seeds. The results show that the optimal application proportion of tillering stage dressing and earing fertilizer is 8: 2,followed by 7 : 3; the best time of weeding is booting stage,with the highest purity; the effect of drying and germination rate is best when the temperature is controlled at 44℃ in mechanical drying process; the seed storage quality and storage costs can be guaranteed when the water content of rice seed is controlled at 18%.

  6. The Impact of Insects on Second-Year Cone Crops in Red Pine Seed-Production Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    William J. Mattson

    1968-01-01

    Second-year cone crops in red pine seed-production areas have been severely damaged by five species of insects. Control of the two most destructive pests could increase present seed yields in most areas by at least 50 percent. Some seed-production areas may not produce harvestable seed crops until cone-insect populations are suppressed.

  7. Ultrasound Assisted Esterification of Rubber Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkah Fajar Tamtomo Kiono

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available roduction of biodiesel is currently shifting from the first to the second generation in which the raw materials are mostly from non-edible type oils and fats. Biodiesel production is commonly conducted under batch operation using mechanical agitation to accelerate mass transfers. The main drawback of oil esterification is the high content of free fatty acids (FFA which may reduce the yield of biodiesel and prolong the production time (2-5 hours. Ultrasonification has been used in many applications such as component extraction due to its ability to produce cavitation under certain frequency. This research is aimed to facilitate ultrasound system for improving biodiesel production process particularly rubber seed oil. An ultrasound unit was used under constant temperature (40oC and frequency of 40 Hz. The result showed that ultrasound can reduces the processing time and increases the biodiesel yield significantly. A model to describe correlation of yield and its independent variables is yield (Y = 43,4894 – 0,6926 X1 + 1,1807 X2 – 7,1042 X3 + 2,6451 X1X2 – 1,6557 X1X3 + 5,7586 X2X3 - 10,5145 X1X2X3, where X1 is mesh sizes, X2 ratio oil: methanol and X3 type of catalyst.

  8. Effect of seed rate and row spacing in seed production of Festulolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, L C; Gislum, R; Boelt, B

    2010-01-01

    in seed yield. No effect of row spacing on seed yield was observed in Paulita. Neither of the two types was affected in seed yield by seed rate. The fact that row spacing in both types can be increased to 24 cm without having a concomitant negative effect on seed yield implies that mechanical weed control......-type festulolium, Paulita, and in a fescue-type festulolium, Hykor. The objectives were to examine the influence of row spacing (12, 24, and 36 cm) and seed rate (8, 12, or 16 kg ha-1) on plant establishment, development, and seed yield. Observations of autumn and spring in-row plant densities indicated...... satisfactory plant establishment in all combinations of seed rate and row spacing. The number of reproductive tillers was in the range from 800 to 2200 m-2 in Paulita and from 500 to 1300 m-2 in Hykor. Row spacing had an effect on the number of reproductive tillers and in both cultivars the highest number...

  9. Local seed businesses in Uganda: a market-oriented approach towards community seed production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, A.

    2015-01-01

    The integrated seed sector development (ISSD) programme aims to improve food security and economic development, by providing smallholder farmers with sustainable access to quality seed of superior varieties. The specific objective of the programme is to create a vibrant, pluralistic and

  10. Influence of ingredients of motor transport exhausts on the seed productivity of adornment flowering plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. P. Pryimak

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Basic descriptions of the seminal productivity for some ornamental flowering plants under influence of cars’ emissions are presented. Decreasing of the seminal productivity, germinating capacity of seeds and mass of thousand seeds was found. Recommendations on plants using for planting of the cities environment polluted by vehicles emissions are proposed.

  11. Analysis of seed and ware potato production systems and yield constraints in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caldiz, D.O.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to analyze the seed and ware potato production systems in Argentina and their possible yield constraints in order to develop specific strategies to increase seed quality and tuber yield.This thesis starts with a survey of the actual potato production systems in Argentina ca

  12. Village-based tropical pasture seed production in Thailand and Laos – a success story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed of 6 forage species, Mulato II hybrid brachiaria (Brachiaria ruziziensis x B. decumbens x B. brizantha, Cayman hybrid brachiaria (B. ruziziensis x B. decumbens x B. brizantha, Mombasa guinea (Panicum maximum, Tanzania guinea (P. maximum, Ubon stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis var. vulgaris x var. pauciflora and Ubon paspalum (Paspalum atratum, is currently being produced by more than 1,000 smallholder farmers in villages in northeast Thailand and northern Laos, under contract to Ubon Forage Seeds, Faculty of Agriculture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Thailand. The seed is mainly exported (95%, with the remainder sold within Thailand. Tropical Seeds LLC, a subsidiary of a Mexican seed company, Grupo Papalotla, employs Ubon Forage Seeds to manage seed production, seed sales and export, and to conduct research on new forage species. This paper details how the development of a smallholder-farmer seed-production program in Thailand and Laos produced positive social and economic outcomes for the village seed-growers. In addition, the strong emphasis on seed quality, high purity, high vigor and high germination enabled pasture growers in more than 20 tropical countries in Asia, Africa, the Pacific and Central and South America, to establish more than 20,000 ha of pastures over the past 3 years. 

  13. The role of NGO in informal seed production and dissemination: The case of eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekadu Beyene

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed is the basic input to crop production. Farmer-based seed production as an alternative agricultural technology transfer is increasingly given especial attention in developing countries where food insecurity is critical. This paper aims to assess the seed production and dissemination strategy among smallholder farmers in eastern Ethiopia that has been introduced by Hararghe Catholic Secretariat (a Non-GovernmentalOrganization. A survey of 160 households in four administrative districts and focus group discussions were used to collect data. While narratives helped understand the process, logistic regressionwas used to identify determinants of land allocation to seed production. Results indicate the crucial role of informal networks and social capital as facilitators of access to production inputs, information and knowledge. The informal seed supply system initiated by the NGO has a huge potential to benefit smallholder farmers by improving their access to higher-yielding varieties of various crops, thereby contributing to an increase in their wellbeing. However, the traditional practice of seed exchange, influenced by social relations, will remain uneconomical to seed producers. Thus, the paper suggests that this potential can be further exploited if some preconditions such as establishment of seed banks, investment in human capital, removal of the underlying constraints and creation of reliable seed markets are given emphasis.

  14. Validity of accessible critical nitrogen dilution curves in perennial ryegrass for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gislum, René; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    The objectives were to test if accessible critical nitrogen dilution curves (NDCs) in rapeseed, pea, alfalfa, tall fescue, wheat, annual ryegrass and linseed could be used in grass species for seed production and to develop a critical NDC especially in grass species for seed production. The criti......The objectives were to test if accessible critical nitrogen dilution curves (NDCs) in rapeseed, pea, alfalfa, tall fescue, wheat, annual ryegrass and linseed could be used in grass species for seed production and to develop a critical NDC especially in grass species for seed production...... the NDCs in tall fescue, alfalfa, pea and rapeseed. These findings should be used to continue the interesting and necessary work on developing a NDC in grass species for seed production....

  15. Protocols for sagebrush seed processing and seedling production at the Lucky Peak Nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark D. Fleege

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the production protocols currently practiced at the USDA Forest Service Lucky Peak Nursery (Boise, ID) for seed processing and bareroot and container seedling production for three subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata).

  16. Analysis on Dry Matter Production Characteristics of Super Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Six middle-season indica hybrid rice combinations,including five super hybrid rice combinations with the high yield about 10.5 t/ha and a check hybrid rice combination Shanyou 63 with a yield potential about 9.5 t/ha,were used as materials to study the dry matter production characteristics.The super hybrid rice showed a high ability in dry matter production and accumulation and its yield enhanced with the increase of dry matter accumulation.The advantage period of dry matter production in the super hybrid rice was mainly at the middle and late growth stages compared with the check.The grain yield had no significant correlation with the dry matter accumulation before the elongation stage while had a significantly positive correlation with the dry matter accumulation from the elongation to maturity stages in super hybrid rice.There were more dry matter in vegetative organs at the heading stage in the super hybrid rice but its contribution to yield (apparent conversion percentage) was averagely 4.3 percent points lower than that in the check.For crop growth rate (CGR),the comparative advantage of super hybrid rice was at the middle and late stages,especially after flowering.Moreover,as the rising of leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD),CGR enhanced.The total LAD and the mean of LAD per day of super hybrid rice was about 14.79% and 10.31% higher than those of the check,respectively.The results indicate that the high yield of super hybrid rice mostly comes from the products of photosynthesis after heading,which is shown by the increased CGR at middle and later stages.It is suggested that LAD character might be used to better explain the advantage in the dry matter production of super hybrid rice than LAI.

  17. Annual Variability in Seed Production by Woody Plants and the Masting Concept: Reassessment of Principles and Relationship to Pollination and Seed Dispersal

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, Carlos M.; Jordano, Pedro; GUITIÁN, J.; Traveset, Anna

    1998-01-01

    By analyzing 296 published and unpublished data sets describing annual variation in seed output by 144 species of woody plants, this article addresses the following questions. Do plant species naturally fall into distinct groups corresponding to masting and nonmasting habits? Do plant populations generally exhibit significant bimodality in annual seed output? Are there significant relationships between annual variability in seed production and pollination and seed dispersal modes, as predicte...

  18. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    OpenAIRE

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural production. Approximately 80% of the smallholder farmers in Africa depend for their seed on the informal seed system, consisting of farmers involved in selection, production and dissemination of seed. The la...

  19. Seed Production, Germination, Emergence and Growth of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl. A. Gray as Influenced by Different Sowing Depths and Soil Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMMANUEL OBUKOHWO ETEJERE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed production, germination, emergence and the influence of planting depths and soil types on growth of T. diversifolia were determined from the harvest made in 2013 fruiting season. Natural population of Tithonia diversifolia stands growing on a clay soil was used for the study. Number of capitulum heads per plant was in the range of 35-212 with each capitulum head carrying seeds in the range of 32-62. Depending on the size and number of capitulum heads number of seeds per plant ranged from 1120-13,144 with average of 897,342 seeds per square meter. The seeds were small and light in weight as indicated by 100-seed weight (0.51-0.72 g with 93% viability. The seedlings that emerged from soil showed greater growth efficiency and vigour compared to seedlings obtained from seeds plated in petri-dishes. The young seedlings emerged at all depths studied with seeds sown on soil surface having 76.76 % germination while those at the depth of 3.5 cm showing 5%. Growth parameters such as root length, shoot length, leaf area, leaf number and dry matter accumulation increased significantly (p≤0.05 with decrease in sowing depth. The plant grew in all types of soils investigated with maximum growth in loamy followed by clayey and sandy soil. The foregoing results could be used to account for the aggressive nature of this plant.

  20. Evaluation of new hybrid brachiaria lines in Thailand. 2. Seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Forty-three new hybrid bracharia lines bred at CIAT, Colombia, were evaluated for seed production in Northeast Thailand between 2006 and 2010 in 2 experiments at 2 sites, Ubon Ratchathani and Amnart Charoen. These lines were compared with Mulato II hybrid brachiaria. From the BR02 collection, 4 lines, BR02/1718, BR02/1752, BR02/1794 and BR02/0465, were granted Plant Variety Rights in 2011. BR02/1794 produced more seed than Mulato II on most occasions, including both harvests at Ubon Ratchathani and 2 of 3 harvests at Amnart Charoen. The next best yielding lines were BR02/1718 and BR02/0465, which produced more seed than Mulato II in 1 of 2 harvests at Ubon Ratchathani and 2 of 3 harvests at Amnart Charoen. Seed-set (percentage of cleaned seed to spikelets was generally very low in all hybrid lines (1–12%. The reasons for low seed-set in hybrid brachiaria grasses are discussed, including: being a common defect in newly formed apomictic forage hybrids; previous selection for seed yield not being rigorous enough; and insufficient selection at latitudes and sites where commercial brachiaria seed production is practiced.Keywords: Cayman, Cobra, Mulato II, seed yields, seed yield components.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(394-103 

  1. Accessory costs of seed production and the evolution of angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Janice M; Westoby, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Accessory costs of reproduction frequently equal or exceed direct investment in offspring, and can limit the evolution of small offspring sizes. Early angiosperms had minimum seed sizes, an order of magnitude smaller than their contemporaries. It has been proposed that changes to reproductive features at the base of the angiosperm clade reduced accessory costs thus removing the fitness disadvantage of small seeds. We measured accessory costs of reproduction in 25 extant gymnosperms and angiosperms, to test whether angiosperms can produce small seeds more economically than gymnosperms. Total accessory costs scaled isometrically to seed mass for angiosperms but less than isometrically for gymnosperms, so that smaller seeds were proportionally more expensive for gymnosperms to produce. In particular, costs of abortions and packaging structures were significantly higher in gymnosperms. Also, the relationship between seed:ovule ratio and seed size was negative in angiosperms but positive in gymnosperms. We argue that the carpel was a key evolutionary innovation reducing accessory costs in angiosperms by allowing sporophytic control of pre- and postzygotic mate selection and timing of resource allocation. The resulting reduction in costs of aborting unfertilized ovules or genetically inferior embryos would have lowered total reproductive costs enabling early angiosperms to evolve small seed sizes and short generation times. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution © 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  2. Defoliation effects on Bromus tectorum seed production: Implications for grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempy-Mayer, K.; Pyke, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.) is an invasive annual grass that creates near-homogenous stands in areas throughout the Intermountain sagebrush steppe and challenges successful native plant restoration in these areas. A clipping experiment carried out at two cheatgrass-dominated sites in eastern Oregon (Lincoln Bench and Succor Creek) evaluated defoliation as a potential control method for cheatgrass and a seeding preparation method for native plant reseeding projects. Treatments involved clipping plants at two heights (tall = 7.6 cm, and short = 2.5 cm), two phenological stages (boot and purple), and two frequencies (once and twice), although purple-stage treatments were clipped only once. Treatments at each site were replicated in a randomized complete block design that included a control with no defoliation. End-of-season seed density (seeds??m-2) was estimated by sampling viable seeds from plants, litter, and soil of each treatment. Undipped control plants produced an average of approximately 13 000 and 20 000 seeds??m-2 at Lincoln Bench and Succor Creek, respectively. Plants clipped short at the boot stage and again 2 wk later had among the lowest mean seed densities at both sites, and were considered the most successful treatments (Lincoln Bench: F 6,45 = 47.07, P treatment, and 769-2256 seeds??m-2 from the Succor Creek treatment. Literature suggests a maximum acceptable cheatgrass seed density of approximately 330 seeds??m-2 for successful native plant restoration through reseeding. Thus, although this study helped pinpoint optimal defoliation parameters for cheatgrass control, it also called into question the potential for livestock grazing to be an effective seed-bed preparation technique in native plant reseeding projects in cheatgrass-dominated areas.

  3. In-situ Alkaline Transesterification of Jatropha curcas seed Oil for Production of Biodiesel and Nontoxic Jatropha seed Cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novizar Nazir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME by direct in situ alkaline-catalyzed transesterification of the triglycerides (TG in Jatropha curcas seeds was examined. The experimental results showed that the amount of Jatropha curcas seed oil dissolved in methanol was approximately 83% of the total oil and the conversion of this oil could achieve 98% under the following conditions: less than 2% moisture content in Jatropha curcas seed flours, 0.3–0.335 mm particle size, 0.08 mol/L NaOH concentration in methanol, 171:1 methanol/oil mole ratio, 45.66 oC reaction temperature and 3.02 h reaction time. The use of alkaline methanol as extraction and reaction solvent, which would be useful for extraction oil and phorbol esters, would reduce the phorbol esters content in the Jatropha curcas seed cake. The cake after in-situ transesterification is rich in protein and is a potential source of livestock feed. Further, the the toxicity studies were also investigated on male rate by feeding the seed cake after after in-situ transesterification as well as the from solvent and mechanical extraction. Food intake, growth rate, protein efficiency ratio (PER and transformation index (TI showed that the meal is potential as protein supplement to livestock feed.

  4. Towards integrated pest management in red clover seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2012-10-01

    The development of integrated pest management is hampered by lack of information on how insect pest abundances relate to yield losses, and how pests are affected by control measures. In this study, we develop integrated pest management tactics for Apion spp. weevils (Coleoptera: Brentidae) in seed production of red clover, Trifolium pratense L. We tested a method to forecast pest damage, quantified the relationship between pest abundance and yield, and evaluated chemical and biological pest control in 29 Swedish red clover fields in 2008 and 2011. Pest inflorescence abundance, which had a highly negative effect on yield, could be predicted with pan trap catches of adult pests. In 2008, chemical control with typically one application of pyrethroids was ineffective both in decreasing pest abundances and in increasing yields. In 2011, when chemical control included applications of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid, pest abundances decreased and yields increased considerably in treated field zones. A post hoc analysis indicated that using pyrethroids in addition to thiacloprid was largely redundant. Infestation rates by parasitoids was higher and reached average levels of around 40% in insecticide treated field zones in 2011, which is a level of interest for biological pest control. Based on the data presented, an economic threshold for chemical control is developed, and guidelines are provided on minimum effective chemical pest control.

  5. An Economic Analysis of Pigeonpea Seed Production Technology and Its Adoption Behavior: Indian Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govind Pal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on primary data collected from 100 farmers in Gulbarga district of Karnataka, India, during the agricultural year 2013-2014. Study shows that average land holding size of pigeonpea seed farmers was higher in comparison to grain farmers and district average. The study illustrates a ratio of 32 : 68 towards fixed and variable costs in pigeonpea certified seed production with a total cost of ₹ 39436 and the gross and net returns were ₹ 73300 and ₹ 33864 per hectare, respectively. The total cost of cultivation, gross return, and net return in pigeonpea seed production were higher by around 23, 32, and 44 percent than grain production, respectively. Hence, production of certified seed has resulted in a win-win situation for the farmers with higher yield and increased returns. The decision of the farmer on adoption of seed production technology was positively influenced by his education, age, land holding, irrigated land, number of crops grown, and extension contacts while family size was influencing negatively. Higher yield and profitability associated with seed production can be effectively popularized among farmers, resulting in increased certified seed production.

  6. Forage and seed production of Puero (Pueraria javanica in a Different Light intensity level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanindi A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Puero (Pueraria javanica is forage that can serve as a cover crop in plantations. The limiting factor for plant growth in the plantation is the light intensity, therefore the influence of light intensity on forage and seed production of Puero needs to be examined. Research was conducted at Kaum Pandak Research station of Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production Bogor and Laboratory of Agrostology Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Bogor Agricultural University, for 16 months. Four levels of light intensity,i.e 100, 80,60 and 40% were applied, leguminosainous species Puero (Pueraria javanica, was used. The treatments were arangged in Randomized Complete Block Design with 3 replications. Data collected were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. Forage production was evaluated in one year. The forage quality and digestibility (invitro were assessed. Seed production was recorded accumulatively from seasonal seed production during one year. Results show that light intensity affected (P 0.05 quality and digestibility of Puero. The highest forage and seed production of Puero were obtained from full light intensity (100%. and seed production of Puero was affected (P < 0.05 by light intensity. The seed quality of Puero was also affected by light intensity. The best seed quality of Puero was achieved by from 80% light intensity.

  7. How Do Stakeholders Matter in Product Innovation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.H.; Hillebrand, B.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how stakeholder orientation affects product innovation and takes the incorporation of green (ecological) issues as a specific context to study this question. The authors borrow insights from three streams of literature: (1) insights from stakeholder theory, combined with (2)

  8. Aerobic methane production from organic matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vigano, I.

    2010-01-01

    Methane, together with H2O, CO2 and N2O, is an important greenhouse gas in the Earth’s atmosphere playing a key role in the radiative budget. It has been known for decades that the production of the reduced compound CH4 is possible almost exclusively in anoxic environments per opera of one of the mo

  9. How Do Stakeholders Matter in Product Innovation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, P.H.; Hillebrand, B.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates how stakeholder orientation affects product innovation and takes the incorporation of green (ecological) issues as a specific context to study this question. The authors borrow insights from three streams of literature: (1) insights from stakeholder theory, combined with (2)

  10. Importance and condition of forage crops seed production in agriculture of the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Dragoslav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For contemporary and economical livestock production, especially cattle and sheep raising, it is necessary to achieve high production of livestock feed while reducing production costs. Improving the production of perennial grasses and legumes creates a good basis for the development of livestock production in different agro-ecological conditions of Serbia. It also establishes a link between farming and animal husbandry, which is of particular importance for the preservation and higher fertility of arable land and the protection of agro-ecosystems. An important factor for the cheaper production of livestock feed is the possibility to provide sufficient quantities of quality seeds at affordable prices. Production of quality seeds of local varieties of perennial legumes is possible to obtain sufficient amounts of good quality forage. Current situation in forage crop seed production of the Republic of Serbia is unsatisfactory because the seed of perennial grasses are mostly imported. Domestic production of alfalfa, red clover and birdsfoot trefoil met domestic needs only in some years. Seed of imported varieties are often not satisfactory because those varieties are not adapted to our local agro-ecological conditions. The present results provide the basis and direction for further researches that may provide solutions to increase seed yields and which will be widely accepted in practice, which will make the production more cost-effective. Institute for forage crops Kruševac is making a significant contribution to the development of technology of seed productions, especially alfalfa, red clover and perennial grasses. Therefore the role of the Institute is very important and necessary link between production, processing and trading seeds of perennial legumes and grasses in Serbia.

  11. Production of high levels of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate in plastids of Camelina sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Meghna R; Yang, Wenyu; Patterson, Nii; Tang, Jihong; Wellinghoff, Rachel L; Preuss, Mary L; Burkitt, Claire; Sharma, Nirmala; Ji, Yuanyuan; Jez, Joseph M; Peoples, Oliver P; Jaworski, Jan G; Cahoon, Edgar B; Snell, Kristi D

    2015-06-01

    Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) production in plastids of Camelina sativa seeds was investigated by comparing levels of polymer produced upon transformation of plants with five different binary vectors containing combinations of five seed-specific promoters for expression of transgenes. Genes encoding PHB biosynthetic enzymes were modified at the N-terminus to encode a plastid targeting signal. PHB levels of up to 15% of the mature seed weight were measured in single sacrificed T1 seeds with a genetic construct containing the oleosin and glycinin promoters. A more detailed analysis of the PHB production potential of two of the best performing binary vectors in a Camelina line bred for larger seed size yielded lines containing up to 15% polymer in mature T2 seeds. Transmission electron microscopy showed the presence of distinct granules of PHB in the seeds. PHB production had varying effects on germination, emergence and survival of seedlings. Once true leaves formed, plants grew normally and were able to set seeds. PHB synthesis lowered the total oil but not the protein content of engineered seeds. A change in the oil fatty acid profile was also observed. High molecular weight polymer was produced with weight-averaged molecular weights varying between 600 000 and 1 500 000, depending on the line. Select lines were advanced to later generations yielding a line with 13.7% PHB in T4 seeds. The levels of polymer produced in this study are the highest reported to date in a seed and are an important step forward for commercializing an oilseed-based platform for PHB production.

  12. Seeds as a production system for molecular pharming applications: status and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabalza, Maite; Vamvaka, Evagelia; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    The production of recombinant proteins in seeds is achieved by driving transgene expression using promoters and protein targeting sequences derived from genes encoding abundant seed storage proteins. This approach is advantageous because high yields, stability and containment are conferred by the accumulation of recombinant proteins in specialized storage compartments such as protein bodies and protein storage vacuoles. Seeds are particularly suitable for the production of pharmaceutical proteins in developing country settings because they reduce the costs of production and distribution by avoiding the need for fermenter-based production capacity and a cold chain for storage and distribution, thus increasing access to critical medicines for the poor in rural areas. Seeds are also ideal for the production of oral vaccine antigens, because encapsulation within the seed provides protection that prolongs exposure to the gastric immune system and thus increases the potency of the immune response. In this review we discuss the current state of the art in seed-based molecular pharming and the future potential of production platforms based on seeds.

  13. Seed production of two meadow fescue cultivars differing in growth habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. MÄKELÄ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds. is grown widely in the Nordic countries in forage grass mixtures. Locally adapted cultivars are preferred for establishment of mixed swards. Meadow fescue seed yield is determined by seed weight, the number of panicle bearing tillers, size of panicles and the number of fertile florets. We aimed to determine the differences in components of seed yield in two different meadow fescue cultivars differing in forage quality; Kalevi, released in 1979, and Fure, released in 1999. Biomass accumulation was monitored, numbers of fertile and sterile florets, and seeds were counted, and the forage quality was analysed. Seed quality was also analysed. Fure was leafier and accumulated more vegetative biomass than Kalevi. Kalevi had significantly more panicles than Fure, although Fure compensated for the lower number of panicles with increased panicle size. There were no differences in number of sterile and aborted florets between cultivars. Based on the results it seems that these two meadow fescue cultivars have a completely different strategy in seed production even though the final seed yield was not markedly different. It is apparent that meadow fescues have good ability to compensate among the components of seed yield. Long-term field experiments should be conducted to investigate the interactions between plant stand ecology, seed production and cultivation technology.;

  14. On thermal production of self-interacting dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Min; Kang, Yoo-Jin; Lee, Hyun Min

    2016-12-01

    We consider thermal production mechanisms of self-interacting dark matter in models with gauged Z 3 symmetry. A complex scalar dark matter is stabilized by the Z 3, that is the remnant of a local dark U(1) d . Light dark matter with large self-interaction can be produced from thermal freeze-out in the presence of SM-annihilation, SIMP and/or forbidden channels. We show that dark photon and/or dark Higgs should be relatively light for unitarity and then assist the thermal freeze-out. We identify the constraints on the parameter space of dark matter self-interaction and mass in cases that one or some of the channels are important in determining the relic density.

  15. On thermal production of self-interacting dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Soo-Min; Lee, Hyun Min

    2016-01-01

    We consider thermal production mechanisms of self-interacting dark matter in models with gauged $Z_3$ symmetry. A complex scalar dark matter is stabilized by the $Z_3$, that is the remnant of a local dark $U(1)_d$. Light dark matter with large self-interaction can be produced from thermal freeze-out in the presence of SM-annihilation, SIMP and/or forbidden channels. We show that dark photon and/or dark Higgs should be relatively light for unitarity and then assist the thermal freeze-out. We identify the constraints on the parameter space of dark matter self-interaction and mass in cases that one or some of the channels are important in determining the relic density.

  16. Preons, Dark Matter and the Production of Early Cosmological Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Burdyuzha, V; Ponomarev, Yu; Vereshkov, G M; Ponomarev, Yu.

    1999-01-01

    If the preon structure of quarks, leptons and gauge bosons will be proved then in the Universe during relativistic phase transition the production of nonperturbative preon condensates has been occured collective excitations of which are perceived as pseudogoldstone bosons. Dark matter consisting of pseudogoldstone bosons of familon type contains a "hot" component from massless particles and a "cold" (nonrelativistic) component from massive particles. It is shown that such dark matter was undergone to two relativistic phase transitions temperatures of which were different. In the result of these phase transitions the structurization of dark matter and therefore the baryon subsystem has taken place. Besides, the role of particle generations in the Universe become more evident. For the possibility of structurization of matter as minimum three generations of particles are necessary.

  17. Economics of Mini tuber Seed Yam Production Technique in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marcel

    in Nigeria still exceeds its supply (Andreas, 2003). ... advantage of producing seed yams of similar uniformity in shape and sizes. Hence ..... Journal of Farm Management of Nigeria. ... Commodity Associations: More Competitive Supply Chain.

  18. STRUCTURES AND PERSPECTIVES OF CEREAL SEEDS PRODUCTION AND USE, IN IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najah Naiem Mutlak

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper regarding the situation of Iraq we are tackling the production issue and the use of seeds for the main cereal crops (wheat, barley, and maize. Based on a pertinent methodology, the paper starts from the stringent need to produce seed quantities, while the arguments are based on the processing results of the information in the annual dynamics. We are making knowledge references on the used quantities, but also on the seed provisioning. By means of presenting and extrapolating the production functions, we discover the limits and conditions for the production factors use extension on the production. It emerged that for the analyzed crops, the seed quantity factor is predominant in increasing the cereal production volume.

  19. Practical considerations for maximizing heat production in a novel thermobrachytherapy seed prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Bhoj; Warrell, Gregory; Shvydka, Diana; Ishmael Parsai, E., E-mail: e.parsai@utoledo.edu [University of Toledo Medical Center, 3000 Arlington Avenue, MS1151, Toledo, Ohio 43614 (United States); Subramanian, Manny [BEST Medical International, Inc., 7643 Fullerton Road, Springfield, Virginia 22153 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: A combination of hyperthermia and radiation in the treatment of cancer has been proven to provide better tumor control than radiation administered as a monomodality, without an increase in complications or serious toxicities. Moreover, concurrent administration of hyperthermia and radiation displays synergistic enhancement, resulting in greater tumor cell killing than hyperthermia and radiation delivered separately. The authors have designed a new thermobrachytherapy (TB) seed, which serves as a source of both radiation and heat for concurrent brachytherapy and hyperthermia treatments when implanted in solid tumors. This innovative seed, similar in size and geometry to conventional seeds, will have self-regulating thermal properties. Methods: The new seed's geometry is based on the standard BEST Model 2301{sup 125}I seed, resulting in very similar dosimetric properties. The TB seed generates heat when placed in an oscillating magnetic field via induction heating of a ferromagnetic Ni–Cu alloy core that replaces the tungsten radiographic marker of the standard Model 2301. The alloy composition is selected to undergo a Curie transition near 50 °C, drastically decreasing power production at higher temperatures and providing for temperature self-regulation. Here, the authors present experimental studies of the magnetic properties of Ni–Cu alloy material, the visibility of TB seeds in radiographic imaging, and the ability of seed prototypes to uniformly heat tissue to a desirable temperature. Moreover, analyses are presented of magnetic shielding and thermal expansion of the TB seed, as well as matching of radiation dose to temperature distributions for a short interseed distance in a given treatment volume. Results: Annealing the Ni–Cu alloy has a significant effect on its magnetization properties, increasing the sharpness of the Curie transition. The TB seed preserves the radiographic properties of the BEST 2301 seed in both plain x rays and CT

  20. The rate of visitation by Amazilia fimbriata (Apodiformes: Trochilidae influences seed production in Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio C.C. Missagia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Legitimate flowers visitors pollinate the flower during the visit and thus influence the production of fruits and seeds. We tested whether the visitation rate of potential pollinators is associated with the amount of seeds per fruit produced by the self-compatible bromeliad Tillandsia stricta (Bromeliaceae. We determined whether hummingbirds are legitimate visitors by testing for a correlation between visits and pollination (seed production at the Guapiaçú Ecological Reserve (Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçú, state of Rio de Janeiro. We tested 30 flowers, five of which were also monitored to test the possibility of spontaneous self-pollination. The remaining 25 flowers were exposed to floral visitors. Twenty-two flowers formed fruits and seeds, from which three formed seeds without floral visits. The hummingbird Amazilia fimbriata (Gmelin, 1788 was the only legitimate visitor. The average number (± standard deviation of seeds was 27 units (±15 per fruit. The floral visitation rate by A. fimbriata was 6.6 (±3.4 visits/per flower. The number of floral visits and the amount of seed produced were positively correlated (r² = 0.58, p < 0.01. Thus, A. fimbriata is a legitimate floral visitor of T. stricta, and influences seed production per fruit in this bromeliad.

  1. Effects of pollination timing and distance on seed production in a dioecious weed Silene latifolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jay F.; Duddu, Hema S. N.; Shirtliffe, Steven J.; Benaragama, Dilshan; Syrovy, Lena D.; Stanley, Katherine A.; Haile, Teketel A.

    2015-11-01

    Silene latifolia Poir. (white cockle or white campion) is an important invasive weed in North American agriculture. It exhibits dioecy, therefore, both male and female plants are required in order for seed production to occur. However, dioecious species being invasive is not common because of their limitations in pollination and subsequent seed production. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of pollination timing and distance on seed production of Silene latifolia. A series of experiments including pollination exclusion, timing and pollination distance were conducted in 2009 and 2010 at or around Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. For pollination exclusion, exclosures were built around the natural female plants for exclosure, sham-exclosure, and male and female combined treatments. Pollination timing was studied by applying exclosure, non-exclosure, night-exclosure, and day-exclosure treatments to individual female plants. Female plants were transplanted along a linear interval at six different distances from the pollen source to study the effect of pollination distance. S. latifolia was exclusively insect-pollinated and pollination occurred both day and night; however, in one year, pollination occurred mainly at night. Female plants that were in the range of 0-4 m from a compatible pollen source experienced no limitation to pollination. However, when the distance was increased further up to 128 m, pollination levels and subsequent seed production were declined. Moreover, there were differences in seed production between years suggesting that pollination was affected by the environmental conditions during pollination and the crop that white cockle was grown in. These experiments indicate that seed production in S. latifolia is limited by insect-pollination. Although there was pollination limitation for seed production at greater distances from a pollen source, the high fecundity rate (3000-18000 seeds per plant) resulted in a large seed output. Thus, we

  2. Transgene movement in commercial alfalfa seed production: Implications for seed purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. With the advent of genetically-engineered (GE) alfalfa concerns have risen regarding the coexistence of GE and non GE alfalfa since the crop is largely ou...

  3. Pollen and seed mediated gene flow in commercial alfalfa seed production fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential for gene flow has been widely recognized since alfalfa is pollinated by bees. The Western US is a major exporter of alfalfa seed and hay and the organic dairy industry is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors. Because of this, many alfalfa producers are impacted by market sen...

  4. Perennially young: seed production and quality in controlled and natural populations of Cistus albidus reveal compensatory mechanisms that prevent senescence in terms of seed yield and viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Maren; Siles, Laura; Cela, Jana; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2014-01-01

    The question of whether or not perennial plants senesce at the organism level remains unresolved. The aim of this study was to unravel whether or not plant age can influence the production and composition of seeds. Flower and seed production was examined in 3-, 8-, and 13-year-old Cistus albidus plants growing in experimental plots corresponding to the F2, F1, and F0 generations of the same population. Furthermore, the phytohormone, fatty acid, and vitamin E content of the seeds was evaluated, and their viability was examined. Whether or not age-related differences in seed quality were observed in a natural population in the Montserrat Mountains (NE Spain) was also tested. The results indicate that under controlled conditions, the oldest plants not only produced fewer flowers, but also had higher rates of embryo abortion in mature seeds. However, germination capacity was not negatively affected by plant ageing. Seeds of the oldest plants contained significantly higher salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and vitamin E levels compared with those from younger plants. Despite vigour (in terms of plant growth) being severely reduced due to harsh environmental conditions in the natural population, the oldest individuals produced seeds with no decline in viability. Seed biomass was instead positively correlated with seed viability. In conclusion, increased plant size may explain the loss of seed viability in the experimental field, but older smaller individuals in natural populations can escape senescence in terms of seed viability loss.

  5. Production and refining of Dacryodes edulis “native pear” seeds oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... when left in oil will result in the production of off flavours, odours and colours ... such as palm kernel (40%), peanuts (49%), cotton seed. (36%), and soybean ... resulted in acceleration of rate deterioration (rancidity) in the oil.

  6. Effects of salinity and soil-drying on radiation use efficiency, water productivity, seed set and final yield of field-grown quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, S. H.; Jacobsen, S.-E.

    2012-01-01

    Drought and salinity reduce crop productivity especially in arid and semi-arid regions, and finding a crop which produces yield under these adverse conditions is therefore very important. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is such a crop. Hence, a study was conducted in field lysimeters...... to investigate the effect of salinity and soil–drying on radiation use efficiency, yield and water productivity of quinoa. Quinoa was exposed to five salinity levels (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m)1) of irrigation water from flower initiation onwards. During the seed-filling phase the five salinity levels were...... matter. Increasing salinity from 20 to 40 dS m)1 did not further decrease the seed number per m2 and seed yield, which shows that quinoa (cv. Titicaca) acclimated to saline conditions when exposed to salinity levels between 20 and 40 dS m)1....

  7. Fruitful factors: what limits seed production of flowering plants in the alpine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Jason R; Starzomski, Brian M

    2015-05-01

    Predicting demographic consequences of climate change for plant communities requires understanding which factors influence seed set, and how climate change may alter those factors. To determine the effects of pollen availability, temperature, and pollinators on seed production in the alpine, we combined pollen-manipulation experiments with measurements of variation in temperature, and abundance and diversity of potential pollinators along a 400-m elevation gradient. We did this for seven dominant species of flowering plants in the Coast Range Mountains, British Columbia, Canada. The number of viable seeds set by plants was influenced by pollen limitation (quantity of pollen received), mate limitation (quality of pollen), temperature, abundance of potential pollinators, seed predation, and combinations of these factors. Early flowering species (n = 3) had higher seed set at high elevation and late-flowering species (n = 4) had higher seed set at low elevation. Degree-days >15 °C were good predictors of seed set, particularly in bee-pollinated species, but had inconsistent effects among species. Seed production in one species, Arnica latifolia, was negatively affected by seed-predators (Tephritidae) at mid elevation, where there were fewer frost-hours during the flowering season. Anemone occidentalis, a fly-pollinated, self-compatible species had high seed set at all elevations, likely due to abundant potential pollinators. Simultaneously measuring multiple factors affecting reproductive success of flowering plants helped identify which factors were most important, providing focus for future studies. Our work suggests that responses of plant communities to climate change may be mediated by flowering time, pollination syndrome, and susceptibility to seed predators.

  8. Evolutionary and ecological consequences of multiscale variation in pollen receipt for seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Sebastian J; Rosenheim, Jay A; Williams, Neal W; Harder, Lawrence D

    2015-01-01

    Variation in resource availability can select for traits that reduce the negative impacts of this variability on mean fitness. Such selection may be particularly potent for seed production in flowering plants, as they often experience variation in pollen receipt among individuals and among flowers within individuals. Using analytically tractable models, we examine the optimal allocations for producing ovules, attracting pollen, and maturing seeds in deterministic and stochastic pollen environments. In deterministic environments, the optimal strategy attracts sufficient pollen to fertilize every ovule and mature every zygote into a seed. Stochastic environments select for allocations proportional to the risk of seed production being limited by zygotes or seed maturation. When producing an ovule is cheap and maturing a seed is expensive, among-plant variation selects for attracting more pollen at the expense of producing fewer ovules and having fewer resources for seed maturation. Despite this increased allocation, such populations are likely to be pollen limited. In contrast, within-plant variation generally selects for an overproduction of ovules and, to a lesser extent, pollen attraction. Such populations are likely to be resource limited and exhibit low seed-to-ovule ratios. These results highlight the importance of multiscale variation in the evolution and ecology of resource allocations.

  9. Evidence for osmotic regulation of hydrolytic enzyme production in germinating barley seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R L; Armstrong, J E

    1971-08-01

    alpha-Amylase levels in intact seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Himalaya) reach a maximum at 3 to 4 days of germination while gibberellin levels continue to increase beyond 6 days of germination. In contrast to its effect on half seeds, gibberellic acid does not increase the total amount of alpha-amylase produced in germinating seeds. The inability of gibberellic acid to stimulate alpha-amylase production is not related to its availability; rather, evidence suggests that a factor(s) in whole seeds prevents further enhancement of alpha-amylase formation and accumulation. Hydrolysis products accumulate in the subaleurone space of the endosperm of germinating seeds up to concentrations of 570 milliosmolar. Chromatography of these hydrolysis products indicate the presence of maltose and glucose. Calculations based on reducing sugar determinations show that glucose accounts for as much as 57% of the solutes present in the endosperm fluid. Both maltose and glucose in the range of 0.2 to 0.4 M effectively inhibit the production of alpha-amylase by isolated barley aleurone layers. This inhibition is quantitatively similar to that brought about by solutions of polyethylene glycol and mannitol. On the basis of these data we propose that hydrolysis products which accumulate in the starchy endosperm of germinating seeds function to regulate the production of hydrolytic enzymes by the aleurone layer.

  10. Species, diaspore volume and body mass matter in gastropod seed feeding behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Türke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seed dispersal of ant-dispersed plants (myrmecochores is a well studied ecosystem function. Recently, slugs have been found to act as seed dispersers of myrmecochores. The aim of our study was to (1 further generalize the finding that gastropods feed on seeds of myrmecochores and hence may act as seed dispersers, (2 to test whether gastropod body mass and the volume of diaspores have an influence on the seed dispersal potential. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We assessed the seed dispersal potential of four slug and snail species with a set of seven myrmecochorous plant species from seven different plant families common to Central European beech forests. Diaspores differed in shape and size. Gastropods differed in their readiness to feed on diaspores and in the proportion of seeds that were swallowed as a whole, and this readiness generally decreased with increasing diaspore size. Smaller Arionid slugs (58 mm body length; mean mostly fed on the elaiosome but also swallowed small diaspores and therefore not only act as elaiosome consumers, a nutrient rich appendage on myrmecochorous diaspores, but may also disperse seeds. Large Arionid slugs (>100 mm body length swallowed diaspores of all sizes. Diaspores swallowed by gastropods were defecated without damage. Within-species variability in body size also affect seed dispersal potential, as larger individuals of the red slug (Arion rufus swallowed more diaspores of wood anemone (Anemone nemorosa than smaller ones. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our results help to generalize the finding that gastropods consume and potentially disperse seeds of myrmecochores. The dispersal potential of gastropods is strongly influenced by diaspore size in relation to gastropod size.

  11. Legume Seed Production Meeting Market Requirements and Economic Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Julier, Bernadette; Karagić, Đura

    2015-01-01

    L.), crop management techniques are applied to stimulate reproductive development in order to obtain high seed yields. These include a low plant density, manipulation of canopy size to avoid lodging and shading of fruiting organs, synchronization of flowering with pollinating insects as well...... to be an increasing emphasis on the role of forage legumes in producing high-quality meat and milk, combined with the requirement to reduce the environmental footprint of grassland agriculture. A high forage legume seed yield is a prerequisite to meet market requirements for new, improved cultivars and hence achieve...

  12. Alginate-chitosan coacervation in production of artificial seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, L F; Khoh, L K; Loh, C S; Khor, E

    1993-08-05

    Survival of secondary embryoids of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus ssp. oleifera cv. Primor) has been used as an assay for the development of artificial seeds involving complex coacervation of alginate (polyanion) with chitosan (polycation). Germination frequency of 100% was achieved for encapsulated embryoids when alginate formed the inner matrix and chitosan the outer layer. When the matrix makeup was reversed, there was no germination of embryoids. The artificial seeds produced were hardened in dilute alkaline solutions of NaOH and Ca(OH)(2). An optimum setting time could be selected based on a quantitative measurement of resistance of hardened capsules to compression and the germination frequency of the encapsulated embryoids.

  13. Role of Weed Emergence Time for the Relative Seed Production in Maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Benvenuti

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Trials were carried out in 2000 and 2001 to investigate the effect of weed emergence time on weed seed production in a maize field. Datura stramonium L., Solanum nigrum L. and Abutilon theophrasti Medicus were selected for their importance as summer weeds. Emergence time was found to be crucial since delay would involve an unfavourable light environment determined by crop canopy elongation and resulting shade production. Only the early emergence of D. stramonium and A. theophrasti showed the capacity to exposing their leaves over the crop canopy. Generally the weed seed production under shade conditions decreased for the reduction of the fruit per plant since the number of seed per plant showed only a light reduction. However, while D. stramonium and A. theophrasti compete with the crop by increasing height, Solanum nigrum tends to adjust to shade without excessive reduction in number of seeds produced. Thus in D. stramonium and A. theophrasti late emergence reduced seed production to only 15%, while S. nigrum maintained 25% of the seed production level generally observed with greater light exposure. This environmental adaptation was confirmed by the less marked decrease in S. nigrum harvest index. Agroecological involvements are discussed.

  14. Seed production and dispersal of sulfur cinquefoil in northeast Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Dwire; Catherine G. Parks; Michael L. McInnis; Bridgett J. Naylor

    2006-01-01

    Sulfur cinquefoil (family Rosaceae) is an invasive, herbaceous perennial, native to Eurasia. It has wide ecological amplitude and has become established throughout North America in numerous habitat types. Sulfur cinquefoil reproduces only by seed (achenes); however, little is known about its regenerative strategy or reproductive biology. To improve understanding of the...

  15. Production of Rice Seed-Based Allergy Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hidenori; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant hypoallergenic derivative is the next generation of tolerogen replacing the natural allergen extract to increase safety and efficacy. Japanese cedar pollinosis is the predominant seasonal allergy disease in Japan. A rice seed-based oral vaccine containing the recombinant hypoallergens derived from these allergens was developed. Efficacy of this rice-based allergy vaccine was evaluated by oral administration in animal models.

  16. Artificial seed germination and seedling production ofZostera marina L. by salinity manipulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yunlong; ZHANG Xuelei; SONG Wei; WANG Zongling

    2016-01-01

    Vast declines inZostera marina seagrass beds demand effective methods of rehabilitation. In this study, we developed a practical method by reducing salinity to induce seed germination followed with recovering salinity to facilitate seedling production ofZ. marina. The results showed thatZ. marina seeds collected from natural seawater (salinity 30) were induced to germinate at reduced salinities. Percent germination (GR) was higher and mean-time-to-germinate (MTG) was shorter at lower salinities. The highestGR and shortestMTG occurred at salinity 0 (deionized freshwater). After germination in freshwater, seeds could develop into seedlings at salinities 5–30 and continue the growth. Viability or development of germinated seeds was not significantly different during the 40 d of post-germination incubation at salinities 5–15 after 1–20 d of germination in freshwater. However, during the process of translating germinated seeds from salinity 0 and 5 to salinity 30, reducing the gradients of post-germination acclimation facilitated more seeds forming seedlings in less time. On average, after 60 d of static incubation, including 20 d in freshwater for germination followed with immediate shift to salinity 5 and increasing to salinity 30 at increment of 5 every two days until cultivation at constant salinity 30, 33% ofZ. marina seeds produced healthy seedlings. The results indicate that the salinity-manipulation based method of artificial germination and seedling production is practical and effective in supporting rehabilitation ofZ. marina bed.

  17. Agaricus blazei production on non-composted substrates based on sunflower seed hulls and spent oyster mushroom substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Matute, R; Figlas, D; Curvetto, N

    2011-06-01

    Agaricus blazei Murrill is usually cultivated using the same biphasic composting method employed for A. bisporus. Because cultivation of A. blazei on traditional A. bisporus composts poses some disadvantages, non-composted substrates were studied for A. blazei cultivation. Mycelial growth rate and productive performance of A. blazei were evaluated on substrates containing sunflower seed hulls, Pleurotus spp. spent mushroom substrate, or their combination, in the absence or in the presence of different supplements (vermicompost, peat or brewery residues). Substrates were prepared by initially soaking them and then they were sterilized (1 atm for 120 min). In addition, each substrate's degradation was measured after cultivation by obtaining the lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, organic matter, total fiber, ash, carbon and nitrogen contents before spawn-run and at the end of two flushes of A. blazei. The cultivation of A. blazei on non-composted substrates is possible and with a low rate of contamination when using the spent mushroom substrate as the main component or combined 50:50 with sunflower seed hulls. In addition, the best yields were obtained on those substrates containing spent Pleurotus mushroom substrate with supplements and those mixtures with sunflower seed hulls and vermicompost. These yields were similar to those reported on composted substrates. Substrate changes in composition measured at the end of two flushes indicate that the lignin-hemicellulose fraction was preferentially used and that the substrates exhibiting the best yield showed greater biodegradation of lignin-hemicellulose fraction than the others did.

  18. Hura crepitans Seed Oil: An Alternative Feedstock for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Adewuyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil was extracted from the seed of Hura crepitans using hexane in a soxhlet extractor and analyzed for iodine value, saponification value and free fatty acid content. The dominant fatty acid in the oil was C18:2 (52.8±0.10% while the iodine value was 120.10±0.70 g iodine/100 g. Biodiesel was produced from the oil using a two-step reaction system involving a first step of pretreatment via esterification reaction and a second step via transesterification reaction. The pretreatment step showed that free fatty acid in Hura crepitans seed oil can be reduced in a one-step pretreatment of esterification using H2SO4 as catalyst. The biodiesel produced from Hura crepitans seed oil had an acid value of 0.21±0.00 mg KOH/g, flash point of 152 ± 1.10°C, copper strip corrosion value of 1A, calorific value of 39.10±0.30 mJ/kg, cetane number of 45.62±0.30, and density of 0.86±0.02 g cm−3. The process gave a biodiesel yield of 98.70±0.40% with properties within the recommended values of EN 14214.

  19. Extraction and characterization of triglycerides from coffeeweed and switchgrass seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armah-Agyeman, Grace; Gyamerah, Michael; Biney, Paul O; Woldesenbet, Selamawit

    2016-10-01

    Although switchgrass has been developed as a biofuel feedstock and its potential for bioethanol and bio-oil from fast pyrolysis reported in the literature, the use of the seeds of switchgrass as a source of triglycerides for biodiesel production has not been reported. Similarly, the potential for extracting triglycerides from coffeeweed (an invasive plant of no current economic value) needs to be investigated to ascertain its potential economic use for biodiesel production. The results show that coffeeweed and switchgrass seeds contain known triglycerides which are 983 and 1000 g kg(-1) respectively of the fatty acids found in edible vegetable oils such as sunflower, corn and soybean oils. In addition, the triglyceride yields of 53-67 g kg(-1) of the seed samples are in the range of commercial oil-producing seeds such as corn (42 g kg(-1) ). The results also indicate that the two non-edible oils could be used as substitutes for edible oil for biodiesel production. In addition, the use of seeds of switchgrass for non-edible oil production (as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel) further increases the total biofuel yield when switchgrass is cultivated for use as energy feedstock for pyrolysis oil and biodiesel production. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Highly efficient method for production of radioactive silver seed cores for brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Roberta Mansini; de Souza, Carla Daruich; Rostelato, Maria Elisa Chuery Martins; Araki, Koiti

    2017-02-01

    A simple and highly efficient (shorter reaction time and almost no rework) method for production of iodine based radioactive silver seed cores for brachytherapy is described. The method allows almost quantitative deposition of iodine-131 on dozens of silver substrates at once, with even distribution of activity per core and insignificant amounts of liquid and solid radioactive wastes, allowing the fabrication of cheaper radioactive iodine seeds for brachytherapy.

  1. Production of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in Arctic Ocean sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meilian; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Nam, Seung-Il; Niessen, Frank; Hong, Wei-Li; Kang, Moo-Hee; Hur, Jin

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about the production of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in the anoxic oceanic sediments. In this study, sediment pore waters were sampled from four different sites in the Chukchi-East Siberian Seas area to examine the bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and their optical properties. The production of FDOM, coupled with the increase of nutrients, was observed above the sulfate-methane-transition-zone (SMTZ). The presence of FDOM was concurrent with sulfate reduction and increased alkalinity (R2 > 0.96, p  0.95, p oceans.

  2. Effects of liana load, tree diameter and distances between conspecifics on seed production in tropical timber trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob; Kollmann, Johannes Christian; Peña-Claros, Marielos

    2009-01-01

    Seed production in tropical timber trees is limited by abiotic resources, pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation. Resource availability is influenced by the number of competing trees and by lianas that often reach high densities in disturbed parts of tropical forests. The distance between...... conspecific trees affects pollination efficiency and seed predation intensity, and may therefore indirectly affect the long-term sustainability of selective logging. Here we investigate how reproductive status and the number of seeds dispersed per tree are affected by liana load, distance to the nearest...... and positively with tree diameter. In C. ianeirensis the most liana-infested trees dispersed fewer seeds. In T. oblonga the intensity of pre-dispersal seed predation decreased with distance to the nearest conspecifics. There was no evidence that seed viability or seed production decreased with distance...

  3. Ecophysiological variables influencing Aleppo pine seed and cone production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayari, Abdelaziz; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi

    2014-04-01

    The most interesting factors associated with seed and cone production of Aleppo pine were largely reviewed to identify broad patterns and potential effectiveness of reforestation efforts and planning. Aleppo pine cone production and seed yields are relatively variable, with differences between spatial and temporal influences. These differences are considered, mainly between (i) year, (ii) stand characteristics and (iii) individual tree measurements. Annual variability among populations was recorded for cone production per tree, based on influencing factors such as genetic characteristics, wetness, nutrient availability, insect pests and disease. In addition, some factors may affect Aleppo pine tree growth directly but may be affecting seed and cone production indirectly. Therefore, reduced stand density results in less competition among Aleppo pine trees and accompanying understory flora, which subsequently increases the stem diameter and other tree dimensions, including seed production. This review suggests that reforestation planning, particularly thinning, will result in improved tree morphology that will increase Aleppo pine seed and cone crops. Wildfire intensity and stand conditions such as light and soil nutrient status are also examined.

  4. Rapid expression of transgenes driven by seed-specific constructs in leaf tissue: DHA production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xue-Rong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolic engineering of seed biosynthetic pathways to diversify and improve crop product quality is a highly active research area. The validation of genes driven by seed-specific promoters is time-consuming since the transformed plants must be grown to maturity before the gene function can be analysed. Results In this study we demonstrate that genes driven by seed-specific promoters contained within complex constructs can be transiently-expressed in the Nicotiana benthamiana leaf-assay system by co-infiltrating the Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2 gene. A real-world case study is described in which we first assembled an efficient transgenic DHA synthesis pathway using a traditional N. benthamiana Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV 35S-driven leaf assay before using the LEC2-extended assay to rapidly validate a complex seed-specific construct containing the same genes before stable transformation in Arabidopsis. Conclusions The LEC2-extended N. benthamiana assay allows the transient activation of seed-specific promoters in leaf tissue. In this study we have used the assay as a rapid preliminary screen of a complex seed-specific transgenic construct prior to stable transformation, a feature that will become increasingly useful as genetic engineering moves from the manipulation of single genes to the engineering of complex pathways. We propose that the assay will prove useful for other applications wherein rapid expression of transgenes driven by seed-specific constructs in leaf tissue are sought.

  5. Biodiesel and biohydrogen production from cotton-seed cake in biorefinery concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Pasias, S.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Papayannakos, N.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel production from cotton-seed cake (CSC) and the pretreatment of the remaining biomass for dark fermentative hydrogen production was investigated. The direct conversion to biodiesel with alkali free fatty acids neutralization pretreatment and alkali transesterification resulted in a biodiese

  6. TECHNOLOGY FOR PRODUCTION OF PROTEIN-CONTAINING RAW MATERIALS FROM THE PRODUCTS OF SUNFLOWER SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shchekoldina T. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, secondary resources of vegetable raw materials are widely used in solving the food, environmental and energy issues, as well as an additional source of substances of natural origin. A significant amount of secondary resources is produced during the processing of sunflower seeds - the main oilseed Kuban. Fats industry, while processing seeds, mainly extracts only one component - vegetable oil and is having a huge amount of meal, which is mainly used for agricultural purposes. Valuable property of sunflower meal is that it is high in protein, low cost and lack of toxic and anti-nutrients. Favorable amino acid composition determines the viability of recovering proteins from sunflower meal. Proteins were extracted from sunflower meal with a dispersing agent which may be water, sodium salts, alkalis, acids, or any organic solvent, followed by precipitation of the protein at the isoelectric point with hydrochloric acid. However, this protein has a high content of phenolic compounds, which gives it a dark color. The high concentration of chlorogenic acid in sunflower meal and its ability to form a dark colored complex with proteins limits the use of sunflower proteins in the food industry. All known methods of protein purification products from phenolic compounds, in particular chlorogenic acids, are mainly aimed at reducing the use of solvents and washing using membrane technology. However, in most cases, their use is either inadequate due to removal of phenolic compounds or decreasing the nutritional and biological value of the obtained product due to the toxicity of the solvent used, and an inability to completely remove it from the protein

  7. OPTIMISATION OF PROCESS PARAMETER CONDITIONS FOR BIODIESEL PRODUCTION BY REACTIVE EXTRACTION OF JATROPHA SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD DANI SUPARDAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel can be produced by reactive extraction of jatropha seeds to reduce the cost and processing time associated with conventional methods. In this study, the relationship between various parameters of reactive extraction of jatropha seeds is investigated. The effect of processing time, the moisture content of jatropha seeds and hexane to oil weight ratios are examined to determine the best performance for biodiesel yield. Response surface methodology was used to statistically evaluate and optimise the process parameter conditions. It was found that the biodiesel production achieved an optimum biodiesel yield of 73.7% under the following conditions: processing time of 160 min, moisture content of jatropha seeds of 1% and hexane to oil weight ratio of 7.2.

  8. Development of irradiation support devices for production of brachytherapy seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattos, Fabio R.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.M.; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Souza, Carla D.; Moura, Joao A.; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Karan Junior, Dib; Feher, Anselmo; Oliveira, Tiago B.; Benega, Marcos A.G., E-mail: tiagooliveira298@gmail.com, E-mail: mattos.fr@gmail.com, E-mail: elisaros@ipen.br, E-mail: czeituni@ipen.br, E-mail: carladdsouza@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: jamoura@ipen.br, E-mail: ernandopeleias@gmail.com, E-mail: s, E-mail: dib.karan@usp.br, E-mail: afeher@ipen.br, E-mail: marcosagbenega@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Ophthalmic tumors treatment with brachytherapy sources has been widely used as a primary or secondary therapy for non-malignant or malignant tumors, for example, choroid melanoma, and retinoblastoma. Ruthenium-106, Iodine-125, Palladium -103, Gold-198 and Iridium-192, are some radionuclides that can be applied for treatment of ocular tumors. These sources are in small sizes (a few millimeters) and different shapes (rods, wires, disks). To ensure high accuracy during treatment, they are positioned in eye applicators, specially designed to fit on the surface of tumor. The Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN) in a partnership with Paulista Medicine School (UNIFESP) created a project that aims to develop a prototype of Iridium-192 seeds for treatment of eye cancer. This seed consists in a core of Ir -Pt alloy (20%-80%) with a length of 3 mm, to be activated in IPEN's IEA-R1 Reactor, and a titanium capsule sealing the core. It was imperative to develop a sustainer device for irradiation. This piece is used to avoid overlapping of one cores and, therefore, avoiding the 'shadow effect' that does not allow full activation of each core due to the high density. (author)

  9. Seed and Wasp Production in the Mutualism of Figs and Fig Wasps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Jin-yan; Zhao Nan-xian; Chen Yi-zhu; Jia Xiao-cheng; Deng Yuan; Yu Hui

    2005-01-01

    Figs (Moracea: Ficus) and fig wasps (Hymenoptera: Chlocloids: Agaonideae) depend on each other to complete their reproduction. Monoecious fig species and their pollinating wasps are in conflict over the use of fig ovaries which can either produce one seed or one wasp. From observation on Ficus virens Ait., we showed that female flowers with outer layer of ovaries (near to the wall of syconium) had no significant difference from that with inner and interval layer of ovaries (near to the syconium cavity), in which most seeds and wasps were produced. This meant that fig tree provided the same potential resource for seed and wasps production. Observation indicated that there was usually only one foundress in syconium at female flower phase and no competition pollinators. Measurement of the style length of female flowers and the ovipositor of pollinators indicated that most ovaries could be reached by pollinator's ovipositor. However, at the male flower phase, production of seeds was significantly more than that of wasps including non-pollinating wasps but there was no significant difference between seed and pollinating wasp production when without non-pollinating wasps produced. This result indicated that non-pollinating wasps competed ovaries not with seeds but with pollinating wasps for ovipositing. Bagged experiment showed that the sampling fig species was not self-sterile which was important for figs and wasps to survive bad season. Seed production in self-pollinated figs was not significantly different from total wasps including non-pollinating ones. This might be related with the weaker competition among wasps since bagged figs were not easy to reach by wasps from outside.

  10. Seeds, saplings and gaps: size matters. A study in the tropical rain forest of Guyana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rose, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    Forest management for timber exploitation is dependent on the succesful regeneration of commercial timber species in gaps. This study evaluated the influence of gap size and seed mass on the processes of seedling recruitment, establishment, growth and survival in logged over and mature forest

  11. Seed regulations and local seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.

    2000-01-01

    Seed regulations have been introduced in most countries based on the development of formal seed production. Concerns about seed quality and about the varietal identity of the seeds have commonly led to seed laws. However, formal regulations are often inappropriate for informal seed systems, which

  12. [Sex structure and seed productivity of Mentha canadensis L. from natural flora of primorye of Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronkova, T V; Shelepova, O V; Kondrat'eva, V V; Bidiukova, G F

    2014-01-01

    The sex structure and seed productivity of Mentha canadensis L. from different climatic regioins of Primorye of Russia was studied. We established that M. canadensis is characterized by a homogeneous population structure due to the formation of vegetative clones. The ratio of female and androgynous individuals was 1:5, and it is possible that this is a species-specific trait. Both sexual forms produced fruits under conditions of isolation from cross-pollination. We discuss the possibility of apomixis and the influence of climatic conditions on seed productivity and morphometric characteristics of plants.

  13. Seed sprout production: Consumables and a foundation for higher plant growth in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michelle; Thomas, Terri; Johnson, Steve; Luttges, Marvin

    1990-01-01

    Seed sprouts can be produced as a source of fresh vegetable materials and as higher plant seedlings in space. Sprout production was undertaken to evaluate the mass accumulations possible, the technologies needed, and the reliability of the overall process. Baseline experiments corroborated the utility of sprout production protocols for a variety of seed types. The automated delivery of saturated humidity effectively supplants labor intensive manual soaking techniques. Automated humidification also lend itself to modest centrifugal sprout growth environments. A small amount of ultraviolet radiation effectively suppressed bacterial and fungal contamination, and the sprouts were suitable for consumption.

  14. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    fertilizer (18.0 g pot-1) with a hard effect (57%). Our results are shown that it was possible developing of the seed potato production under tropical greenhouse conditions by optimalised soil-organic matter-fertilizer system. This datas should be as indicators to sustainable field potato advisory systems. Keywords: potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), greenhouse, latossolo vermelho soil, farmyard manure, burnt rice straw, 4N:14P:8K fertilizer, sustainability, yield Introducáo: Importância e situação actual em produção da batata no Brazíl A batata é atualmente uma das hortaliças de maior importância no Brasíl (Márton 2000a., 2000b.) com um cultivo annual médio de 173.000 ha e uma produção de 2600000 t. A produtividade médio nacional é de 15 t ha-1, muito baixa se considerar que é possivel a obtenção de rendimentos acima de 40 t ha-1. Observa- se também, que existe variação no produtividade entre regiões e estados. E importante como fonte de alimento pelo seu alto valor nutricional a quantidade produzida muito superior por unidade de área a tempo, se comparada com diversas outras culturas (László 2000b., 2000c.). Os estados que tradicionalmente produzem batata em maior ou menor escala são indicados em seguente: Pernambuco, Ceará, Sergipe, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rondonia e Acre. Os plantios predominantes são o das águas e das secas, sendo o de inverno bem menos expressivo, pois poucas áreas permitem o seu cultivo, na maioria dos casos necessitando- se de irrigação. Considerando as três épocas de plantio e diferentes condições climaticas brasileiras, podemos definir de um modo geral o plantio de batata no Brasíl da seguinte maneira: Nordeste e Centro- Oeste- plantio de inverno, Sudeste- plantio das águas, secas e inverno, Sul- plantio das aguas, secas e inverno. Sendo este último em áreas muito limitadas. Dentre as hortaliças a batata é uma das culturas mais estudadas actualmente. Os principais problemas que afetam a

  15. Production of 16.5% v/v ethanol from seagrass seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Motoharu; Miyoshi, Tatsuo; Kaneniwa, Masaki; Ishihara, Kenji; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Urano, Naoto

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol fermentation on seeds of seagrass Zostera marina was studied. The seeds were collected from the annual plant colony of Z. marina at Hinase Bay, Okayama. The seeds contained 83.5% carbohydrates including 48.1% crude starch on a dry weight basis, which is comparable to cereals such as wheat flour and corns. The seeds were saccharified with glucoamylase (50°C, 96 h) and 103.4 g/l concentration of glucose juice was obtained. The glucose juice was further fermented (23°C-35°C, 15 days) with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains NBRC10217(T) and Kyokai 7-go, and ethanol was obtained at a 65.0 g/l (82.3 ml/l) level by monographic double-fermentation and at a 130.4 g/l (165.1 ml/l) level by parallel double-fermentation. Fermented products of seagrass seeds containing such a high ethanol concentration as the present study have potential to be utilized not only for biofuel but also for foods and beverages in the future. Culturing of seagrass seeds as a crop may enable development of a new marine fermentation industry.

  16. Seeds, saplings and gaps: size matters. A study in the tropical rain forest of Guyana

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, S A

    2001-01-01

    Forest management for timber exploitation is dependent on the succesful regeneration of commercial timber species in gaps. This study evaluated the influence of gap size and seed mass on the processes of seedling recruitment, establishment, growth and survival in logged over and mature forest areas over four years (1996-1999) in the tropical rain forest in Guyana. It generates insight into the potential impacts of logging on forest species diversity, and indicates necessary management procedu...

  17. Solid-state fermentation for the production of Monascus pigments from jackfruit seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babitha, Sumathy; Soccol, Carlos R; Pandey, Ashok

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the feasibility of jackfruit seed powder as a substrate for the production of pigments by Monascus purpureus in solid-state fermentation (SSF). A pigment yield of 25ODUnits/g dry fermented substrate was achieved by employing jackfruit seed powder with optimized process parameters such as 50% initial moisture content, incubation temperature 30 degrees C, 9x10(4)spores/g dry substrate inoculum and an incubation period of seven days. The color of the pigments was stable over a wide range of pH, apparently due to the buffering nature of the substrate, which could be a significant point for its scope in food applications. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on pigment production using jackfruit seed powder in solid-state fermentation (SSF).

  18. Extracellular superoxide production, viability and redox poise in response to desiccation in recalcitrant Castanea sativa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Thomas; Beckett, Richard P; Minibayeva, Farida V; Colville, Louise; Whitaker, Claire; Chen, Hongying; Bailly, Christophe; Kranner, Ilse

    2010-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in seed death following dehydration in desiccation-intolerant 'recalcitrant' seeds. However, it is unknown if and how ROS are produced in the apoplast and if they play a role in stress signalling during desiccation. We studied intracellular damage and extracellular superoxide (O(2)(.-)) production upon desiccation in Castanea sativa seeds, mechanisms of O(2)(.-) production and the effect of exogenously supplied ROS. A transient increase in extracellular O(2)(.-) production by the embryonic axes preceded significant desiccation-induced viability loss. Thereafter, progressively more oxidizing intracellular conditions, as indicated by a significant shift in glutathione half-cell reduction potential, accompanied cell and axis death, coinciding with the disruption of nuclear membranes. Most hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-dependent O(2)(.-) production was found in a cell wall fraction that contained extracellular peroxidases (ECPOX) with molecular masses of approximately 50 kDa. Cinnamic acid was identified as a potential reductant required for ECPOX-mediated O(2)(.-) production. H(2)O(2), applied exogenously to mimic the transient ROS burst at the onset of desiccation, counteracted viability loss of sub-lethally desiccation-stressed seeds and of excised embryonic axes grown in tissue culture. Hence, extracellular ROS produced by embryonic axes appear to be important signalling components involved in wound response, regeneration and growth.

  19. Quality assessment of commercial dietary antioxidant products from Vitis vinifera L. grape seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monagas, María; Hernández-Ledesma, Blanca; Garrido, Ignacio; Martín-Alvarez, Pedro J; Gómez-Cordovés, Carmen; Bartolomé, Begoña

    2005-01-01

    Phenolic preparations from Vitis vinifera L. grape seeds are products commonly used in the formulation of dietary antioxidant supplements. In this article, we used a methodology (the oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ORAC) to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant capacity of commercial dietary grape seed products and studied the relationship of the antioxidant capacity with the phenolic composition of these products. The ORAC value of the different brands of commercial products studied (n = 16) varied from 2.71 to 26.4 micromol Trolox equivalents/mg (approximately equal to 10-fold difference). For four of these products, the batch-to-batch ORAC variation, expressed as a coefficient of variation of the mean, was 10.5% (n = 6), 13.1% (n = 3), 19.4% (n = 4), and 7.8% (n = 4). Analysis of monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ols by liquid chromatography-diode array detection (LC-DAD)/electrospray-mass spectrometry and procyanidins by thiolysis-LC-DAD also revealed large differences among the commercial grape seed products. Moreover, the ORAC value could be fitted to a regression model using variables from contents of individual phenolic compounds and procyanidins. The product-to-product and batch-to-batch variation in ORAC values and flavan-3-ol composition found among the commercial products studied demonstrated that they are poorly standardized, resulting in inconsistent composition and biological activity.

  20. Direct somatic embryogenesis and synthetic seed production from Paulownia elongata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipekci, Z; Gozukirmizi, N

    2003-08-01

    We have developed a reproducible system for efficient direct somatic embryogenesis from leaf and internodal explants of Paulownia elongata. The somatic embryos obtained were subsequently encapsulated as single embryos to produce synthetic seeds. Several plant growth regulators [6-benzylaminopurine, indole-3-acetic acid, alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid, kinetin and thidiazuron (TDZ)] alone or in combination were tested for their capacity to induce somatic embryogenesis. The highest induction frequencies of somatic embryos were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 3% sucrose, 0.6% Phytagel, 500 mg l(-1) casein hydrolysate and 10 mg l(-1) TDZ (medium MS10). Somatic embryos were induced from leaf (69.8%) and internode (58.5%) explants on MS10 medium after 7 days. Subsequent withdrawal of TDZ from the induction medium resulted in the maturation and growth of the embryos into plantlets on MS basal media. The maturation frequency of somatic embryos from leaf and internodal explants was 50.8% and 45.8%, respectively. Subculturing of mature embryos led to their germination on the same medium with a germination frequency of 50.1% and 29.8% from leaf and internode explants, respectively. Somatic embryos obtained directly on leaf explants were used for encapsulation in liquid MS medium containing different concentrations of sodium alginate with a 30-min exposure to 50 m M CaCl(2). A 3% sodium alginate concentration provided a uniform encapsulation of the embryos with survival and germination frequencies of 73.7% and 53.3%, respectively. Storage at 4 degrees C for 30 days or 60 days significantly reduced the survival and complete germination frequencies of both encapsulated and non-encapsulated embryos relative to those of non-stored somatic embryos. However, the survival and germination rates of encapsulated embryos increased following storage at 4 degrees C. After 30 days or 60 days of storage, the survival rates of encapsulated embryos were 67.8% and 53

  1. Nutritional evaluation of safflower silage and biomass, seed and oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Possenti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The  objective  of  this study  was  to evaluate the nutritional value of safflower biomass  (Carthamus tinctorium L. ensiled in three treatments. An apparent nutrient digestibility assay was conducted using sheep and the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter (DM were determined in the biomass and silages obtained. The production of DM, seeds and crude oil per hectare safflower crop was also quantified and was 12.4±4.9, 2.9±1.5 and 0.7 ±0.2 t/ha, respectively. The following ensiling treatments  were applied: FS = freshly ensiled safflower; WS = wilted safflower (sun exposure for 2 hours; SCP = safflower + 5% citrus pulp. The chemical composition of the FS, WS and SCP silages, respectively, was 10.8, 11.15 and 10.07% crude protein, 55.22, 55.4 and 52.2% neutral detergent fiber, and 55.6, 53.45 and 57.87% in vitro DM digestibility. A randomized complete block design with animal weight as blocks was used. The apparent DM digestibility of the silages was 55.96, 55.54 and 57.94% and total digestible nutrients were 57.62, 57.49 and 57.87% for FS, WS and SCP, respectively. The results  indicate  the use  of  safflower conserved  as  silage  in ruminant diets as an alternative to roughage. However, the biomass ensiling treatments showed no differences in terms of physicochemical parameters, intake or nutrient digestibility of the silages that would justify their application.

  2. Experimental study of bioethanol production using mixed cassava and durian seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seer, Q. H.; Nandong, J.; Shanon, T.

    2017-06-01

    The production of biofuels using conventional fermentation feedstocks, such as sugar-and starch-based agricultural crops will in the long-term lead to a serious competition with human-animal food consumption. To avoid this competition, it is important to explore various alternative feedstocks especially those from inedible waste materials. Potentially, fruit wastes such as damaged fruits, peels and seeds represent alternative cheap feedstocks for biofuel production. In this work, an experimental study was conducted on ethanol production using mixed cassava and durian seeds through fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast. The effects of pH, temperature and ratio of hydrolyzed cassava to durian seeds on the ethanol yield, substrate consumption and product formation rates were analyzed in the study. In flask-scale fermentation using the mixed cassava-durian seeds, it was found that the highest ethanol yield of 45.9 and a final ethanol concentration of 24.92 g/L were achieved at pH 5.0, temperature 35°C and 50:50 volume ratio of hydrolyzed cassava to durian seeds for a batch period of 48 hours. Additionally, the ethanol, glucose and biomass concentration profiles in a lab-scale bioreactor were examined for the fermentation using the proposed materials under the flask-scale optimum conditions. The ethanol yield of 35.7 and a final ethanol concentration of 14.61 g/L were obtained over a period of 46 hours where the glucose was almost fully consumed. It is worth noting that both pH and temperature have significant impacts on the fermentation process using the mixed cassava-durian seeds.

  3. Minimal inflationary cosmologies and production of heavy dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Maity, Debaprasad

    2016-01-01

    Generalizing one of the author's recent paper on minimal Higgs inflation, we proposed and analyzed a large class of inflationary models with non-polynomial modification of the potential. The modification is done by introducing a single scale creating an infinite plateau for large inflaton field value. One can identify those class of potentials as a small dip at the origin of a constant one dimensional field space. Because of this large flat plateau, we find all the predictions are fitting extremely well with the recent observations made by PLANCK. We have extensively studied perturbative reheating phenomena specifically focusing on the production of dark matter heavier than the reheating temperature. We generalize the well known analysis of heavy dark matter production for general equation of state $w$ of the oscillating inflaton field. However, at the end we consider effective equation of state $w = (n-2)/(n+2)$ emerging form our model. Where, $n$ is the index of the power law potential during late time osci...

  4. Universal Parametrization of Thermal Photon Production in Hadronic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Matthew; Hohler, Paul; Rapp, Ralf

    2014-09-01

    As the production of photons and dileptons from high-energy collisions is able to provide information on the high temperature and high density phases of nuclear matter, an improved and universal parametrization of the rather involved microscopic calculations is key to honing the theory behind this production. We focus on photon emission rates from hadronic many-body calculations of the in-medium rho spectral function, which includes the effects of baryons and antibaryons. Across a range of temperatures from 0.1 to 0.18 GeV and baryon chemical potentials from 0 to 0.4 GeV, a parametrization of thermal photon rates for energies from 0.2 to 5 GeV is numerically determined through the use of nested fitting methods. This provides a fully functional description of thermal photon production largely within an unprecedented 20% of the calculated values from the spectral function, a significant reduction in error from available parametrizations. The contribution of photons and dileptons from pion-pion bremsstrahlung is evaluated for the importance of its contribution. The functional form, coupled with the comparison to the bremsstrahlung production of thermal photons, will provide a baseline for guiding future studies. As the production of photons and dileptons from high-energy collisions is able to provide information on the high temperature and high density phases of nuclear matter, an improved and universal parametrization of the rather involved microscopic calculations is key to honing the theory behind this production. We focus on photon emission rates from hadronic many-body calculations of the in-medium rho spectral function, which includes the effects of baryons and antibaryons. Across a range of temperatures from 0.1 to 0.18 GeV and baryon chemical potentials from 0 to 0.4 GeV, a parametrization of thermal photon rates for energies from 0.2 to 5 GeV is numerically determined through the use of nested fitting methods. This provides a fully functional description of

  5. Straightforward analytical method to determine opium alkaloids in poppy seeds and bakery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez Sanchez, Patricia; Pereboom-de Fauw, Diana P.K.H.; Mulder, Patrick P.J.; Spanjer, Martien; Stoppelaar, de Joyce; Mol, Hans G.J.; Nijs, de Monique

    2018-01-01

    A straightforward method to determine the content of six opium alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, noscapine, papaverine and narceine) in poppy seeds and bakery products was developed and validated down to a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.1 mg/kg. The method was based on extraction with

  6. Age and size effects on seed productivity of northern black spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. N. Viglas; C. D. Brown; J. F. Johnstone

    2013-01-01

    Slow-growing conifers of the northern boreal forest may require several decades to reach reproductive maturity, making them vulnerable to increases in disturbance frequency. Here, we examine the relationship between stand age and seed productivity of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.) in Yukon Territory and Alaska....

  7. Direction of Pollination Affects Seed Productivity in (Shortleaf x Loblolly) x Loblolly Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy La Farge; Davie L. Hunt

    1980-01-01

    In reciprocal crosses between shortleaf X loblolly pine hybrids and loblolly pines, seed production per pollinated flower was higher when the loblolly pine was the mother tree. We therefore recommend that loblolly pines be favored as mother trees in such work, even though storage of pollen for 1 year is required.

  8. Pea (Pisum sativum) Seed Production as an Assay for Reproductive Effects Due to Herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even though herbicide drift can affect plant reproduction, current plant testing protocols emphasize effects on vegetative growth. In this study, we determined whether a short–growing season plant can indicate potential effects of herbicides on seed production. Pea (Pisum sativum...

  9. The production of 'Kpaye'--a fermented condiment from Prosopis africana (Guill and Perr) Taub. Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omafuvbe, B O; Abiose, S H; Adaraloye, O O

    1999-10-15

    'Kpaye', a fermented condiment from Prosopis africana seeds was produced using the traditional method. Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus pumilus were consistently isolated in the fermentations lasting 120 h. 'Kpaye'production involved a rise in pH, moisture content and total free amino acids while titratable acidity and reducing sugar decreased gradually after 24 h and 72 h of fermentation respectively.

  10. Selfing rate in an alfalfa seed production field pollinated with leafcutter bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self-pollination or “selfing” in autotetraploid alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (2n = 4x = 32) leads to severe inbreeding depression. Investigating selfing in alfalfa seed production may allow mitigation strategy development against potential negative impacts of selfing on varietal performance. Using m...

  11. Processing of coriander fruits for the production of essential oil, triglyceride, and high protein seed meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) is a summer annual traditionally grown for use as a fresh green herb or as a spice. The essential oil extracted from coriander fruit is also widely used as flavoring in a variety of food products. The fatty oil (triglyceride) fraction in the seed is rich in petrosel...

  12. Weed seed production, crop planting pattern, and mechanical weeding in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, S.K.; Jansen, J.

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate weed seed production in widely spaced spring wheat crops that received aggressive mechanical weed control (hoeing and harrowing) compared with that in narrowly spaced crops receiving less aggressive mechanical control (harrowing only). Three species (wild

  13. Establishment techniques in under-sown perennial ryegrass for seed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Lise C; Boelt, Birte

    2009-01-01

    Establishment methods have proven to be of major importance for grass-seed production. The objective of this research was to test the effect of different sowing techniques on plant establishment and the subsequent seed yield. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is used as the model grass due...... to its large importance in Danish agriculture. In a three-year trial six different methods of under-sowing of perennial ryegrass in a spring barley cover crop were employed. Perennial ryegrass was either sown directly at different depths within the spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) rows or placed 2, 6...

  14. From seed production to seedling establishment: Important steps in an invasive process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreras, Ana Elisa; Galetto, Leonardo

    2010-03-01

    It is widely accepted that exotic invasive species are one of the most important ecological and economic problems. Reproductive and establishment traits are considered key features of a population expansion process, but few works have studied many of these simultaneously. This work examines how large the differences are in reproductive and establishment traits between two Fabaceae, the exotic invasive, Gleditsia triacanthos and the native, Acacia aroma. Gleditsia is a serious leguminous woody invader in various parts of the world and Acacia is a common native tree of Argentina. Both species have similar dispersal mechanisms and their reproductive phenology overlaps. We chose 17 plants of each species in a continuous forest of the Chaco Serrano Forest of Córdoba, Argentina. In each plant we measured fruit production, fruit removal (exclusion experiments), seed predation (pre- and post-dispersal), seed germination, seed bank (on each focal tree, three sampling periods during the year), and density of seedlings (around focal individuals and randomly in the study site). Gleditsia presented some traits that could favour the invasion process, such as a higher number of seeds per plant, percentage of scarified seed germination and density of seedlings around the focal individuals, than Acacia. On the other hand, Gleditsia presented a higher percentage of seed predation. The seed bank was persistent in both species and no differences were observed in fruit removal. This work highlights the importance of simultaneously studying reproductive and establishment variables involved in the spreading of an exotic invasive species. It also gives important insight into the variables to be considered when planning management strategies. The results are discussed from the perspective of some remarkable hypotheses on invasive species and may contribute to rethinking some aspects of the theory on invasive species.

  15. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Morsy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5 fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA, and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017 ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001 and acetate (p = 0.034 concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013 in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007 and milk fat content (p = 0.002. Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048 and feed efficiency (p = 0.046 compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05 milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021 C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3, without detrimental effects on animal performance.

  16. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; Kholif, S M; Kholif, A E; Matloup, O H; Salem, A Z M; Elella, A Abu

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance.

  17. Protocols for In Vitro Propagation, Conservation, Synthetic Seed Production, Microrhizome Production, and Molecular Profiling in Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal Babu, K; Divakaran, Minoo; Pillai, Geetha S; Sumathi, V; Praveen, K; Raj, Rahul P; Akshita, H J; Ravindran, P N; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Turmeric is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial but cultivated as annual, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. It is a native of India and South East Asia. The tuberous rhizomes or underground stems of turmeric are used from antiquity as condiments, a dye and as an aromatic stimulant in several medicines. Turmeric is an important crop in India and it is used as a spice, food preservative, coloring agent, cosmetic as well as for its medicinal properties. Propagation is done vegetatively with rhizome bits as seed materials. It is plagued by rhizome rot diseases most of which are mainly spread through infected seed rhizomes. Micropropagation will help in production of disease-free seed. Sexual reproduction is rare in turmeric, making recombinant breeding very difficult. In vitro technology can thus become the preferred choice and it can be utilized for multiplication, conservation of genetic resources, generating variability, gene transfer, molecular tagging, and their utility in crop improvement.

  18. Seed priming improves early seedling vigor, growth and productivity of spring maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hafeez ur Rehman; Hassan Iqbal; Shahzad M A Basra; Irfan Afzal; Muhammad Farooq; Abdul Wakeel; WANG Ning

    2015-01-01

    Potential of seed priming treatments in improving the performance of early planted maize was evaluated against timely planting. Seeds of maize hybrid FH-810 were soaked in water (hydropriming), CaCl2 (2.2%, osmopriming), moringa leaf extracts (MLE 3.3%, osmopriming) and salicylic acid (SA, 50 mg L–1, hormonal priming) each for 18 h. Untreated and hydroprimed seeds were taken as control. Seeds primed with SA took less time in emergence and had high vigor in early planted maize. Amongst treatments, hormonal priming, reduced the electrical conductivity, increased the leaf relative and chlorophyl contents fol owed by osmopriming with CaCl2 at seedling stage. Likewise, plant height, grain rows and 1 000-grain weight, grain and biological yield and harvest index were also improved by seed priming;however hormonal priming and osmopriming with MLE were more effective in this regard. Improved yield performance by hormonal priming or osmopriming with MLE in early planting primarily owed to increased leaf area index, crop growth and net assimilation rates, and maintenance of green leaf area at maturity. In conclusion, osmopriming with MLE and hormonal priming with SA were the most economical treatments in improving productivity of early planted spring maize through stimulation of early seedling growth at low temperature.

  19. Seed priming improves early seedling vigor, growth and productivity of spring maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hafeez ur Rehman[1; Hassan lqbal[1; Shahzad M A Basra[1; Irfan Afzal[1; Muhammad Farooq[2; Abdul Wakeel[3; WANG Ning[4

    2015-01-01

    Potential of seed priming treatments in improving the performance of early planted maize was evaluated against timely planting. Seeds of maize hybrid FH-810 were soaked in water (hydropriming), CaCI2 (2.2%, osmopriming), moringa leaf extracts (MLE 3.3%, osmopriming) and salicylic acid (SA, 50 mg L-1, hormonal priming) each for 18 h. Untreated and hydroprimed seeds were taken as control. Seeds primed with SA took less time in emergence and had high vigor in eady planted maize. Amongst treatments, hormonal priming, reduced the electrical conductivity, increased the leaf relative and chlorophyll contents followed by osmopriming with CaCI2 at seedling stage. Likewise, plant height, grain rows and 1 000-grain weight, grain and biological yield and harvest index were also improved by seed pdming; however hormonal priming and osmopriming with MLE were more effective in this regard. Improved yield performance by hormonal priming or osmopriming with MLE in early planting primarily owed to increased leaf area index, crop growth and net assimilation rates, and maintenance of green leaf area at maturity. In conclusion, osmopriming with MLE and hormonal priming with SA were the most economical treatments in improving productivity of early planted spring maize through stimulation of early seedling growth at low temperature.

  20. Efficacies of Various Anaerobic Starter Seeds for Biogas Production from Different Types of Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawinee Chaiprasert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Various anaerobic starter seeds from different sources were investigated for their efficacies in treatment of different types of wastewater. Six combinations of starter seeds and wastewaters were selected out of 25 combination batch experiments and operated in semicontinuous reactors. It was noticed that the efficacies of various anaerobic starter seeds for biogas production from different types of wastewater in terms of reactor performance and stability were depended on wastewater characteristics and F/M ratio affecting microbial community and their microbial activities. However, exogenous starter seed can be used across different types of wastewater with or without acclimatization. Four reactors reached the targeted OLR of 2 kg COD/m3·d with high performance and stability except for concentrated rubber wastewater (RBw, even using high active starter seeds of cassava starch (CSs and palm oil (POs. The toxic compounds in RBw such as ammonia and sulfate might also adversely affect methanogenic activity in CSsRBw and POsRBw reactors. DGGE analysis showed that propionate utilizers, Smithella propionica strain LYP and Syntrophus sp., were detected in all samples. For Archaea domain, methylotrophic, hydrogenotrophic, and acetoclastic methanogens were also detected. Syntrophic relationships were assumed between propionate utilizers and methanogens as acetate/H2 producers and utilizers, respectively.

  1. A Study of the Mechanism of Customer Value Creation Integrating Market Needs and Technological Seeds in Product Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    岩間, 仁

    2009-01-01

    Based upon in-depth case studies of pioneering products by Japanese manufactures including Japanese word processor as a pilot case and additional nine products, a new process model was introduced to better understand the mechanism of creating customer value integrating needs and seeds in product innovation. The process model revealed that the traditional needs-pull or seeds-push dichotomy as the driver of product innovation can be sublated by “customer value-driven”, and ambiguous concept of ...

  2. Enhanced seed oil production in canola by conditional expression of Brassica napus LEAFY COTYLEDON1 and LEC1-LIKE in developing seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Helin; Yang, Xiaohui; Zhang, Fengxia; Zheng, Xiu; Qu, Cunmin; Mu, Jinye; Fu, Fuyou; Li, Jiana; Guan, Rongzhan; Zhang, Hongsheng; Wang, Guodong; Zuo, Jianru

    2011-07-01

    The seed oil content in oilseed crops is a major selection trait to breeders. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1) and LEC1-LIKE (L1L) are key regulators of fatty acid biosynthesis. Overexpression of AtLEC1 and its orthologs in canola (Brassica napus), BnLEC1 and BnL1L, causes an increased fatty acid level in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, which, however, also show severe developmental abnormalities. Here, we use truncated napin A promoters, which retain the seed-specific expression pattern but with a reduced expression level, to drive the expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L in transgenic canola. Conditional expression of BnLEC1 and BnL1L increases the seed oil content by 2% to 20% and has no detrimental effects on major agronomic traits. In the transgenic canola, expression of a subset of genes involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and glycolysis is up-regulated in developing seeds. Moreover, the BnLEC1 transgene enhances the expression of several genes involved in Suc synthesis and transport in developing seeds and the silique wall. Consistently, the accumulation of Suc and Fru is increased in developing seeds of the transgenic rapeseed, suggesting the increased carbon flux to fatty acid biosynthesis. These results demonstrate that BnLEC1 and BnL1L are reliable targets for genetic improvement of rapeseed in seed oil production.

  3. Integrating Sunflower Oil Seed Crops into Florida Horticultural Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locally produced biodiesel feedstock plant oil creates a unique possibility to integrate multiple-goal oriented cover crops into Florida horticultural production systems. Typically, cover crops are planted to improve soil fertility and the natural suppression of soilborne pests at times when fields...

  4. Processing of Brassica seeds for feedstock in biofuels production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several Brassica species are currently being evaluated to develop regionalized production systems based on their suitability to the environment and with the prevailing practices of growing commodity food crops like wheat, corn, and soybeans. This integrated approach to farming will provide high qual...

  5. Influence of Seed Coating Formulations on Maize Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Effects of four coating formulations on maize production were studied. The results showec that all coating formulations had some effects on improving maize seedlings, strengthening the resistance againt diseases and pests and increasing the yields in dtifferent degrees, especially Paxil which increased the com yield by 12.0%, significantly higher than the control.

  6. Mapping swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) seed productivity using spectral values and vegetation indices in managed wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahilly, P.J.A.; Li, D.; Guo, Q.; Zhu, J.; Ortega, R.; Quinn, N.W.T.; Harmon, T.C.

    2010-01-15

    This work examines the potential to predict the seed productivity of a key wetland plant species using spectral reflectance values and spectral vegetation indices. Specifically, the seed productivity of swamp timothy (Cripsis schenoides) was investigated in two wetland ponds, managed for waterfowl habitat, in California's San Joaquin Valley. Spectral reflectance values were obtained and associated spectral vegetation indices (SVI) calculated from two sets of high resolution aerial images (May 11, 2006 and June 9, 2006) and were compared to the collected vegetation data. Vegetation data were collected and analyzed from 156 plots for total aboveground biomass, total aboveground swamp timothy biomass, and total swamp timothy seed biomass. The SVI investigated included the Simple Ratio (SR), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI), Transformed Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (TSAVI), Modified Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (MSAVI), and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI). We evaluated the correlation of the various SVI with in situ vegetation measurements for linear, quadratic, exponential and power functions. In all cases, the June image provided better predictive capacity relative to May, a result that underscores the importance of timing imagery to coincide with more favorable vegetation maturity. The north pond with the June image using SR and the exponential function (R{sup 2}=0.603) proved to be the best predictor of swamp timothy seed productivity. The June image for the south pond was less predictive, with TSAVI and the exponential function providing the best correlation (R{sup 2}=0.448). This result was attributed to insufficient vegetal cover in the south pond (or a higher percentage of bare soil) due to poor drainage conditions which resulted in a delay in swamp timothy germination. The results of this work suggest that spectral reflectance can be used to estimate seed productivity in managed seasonal

  7. Axion-Assisted Production of Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Berlin, Asher

    2016-01-01

    Sterile neutrinos can be generated in the early universe through oscillations with active neutrinos and represent a popular and well-studied candidate for our universe's dark matter. Stringent constraints from X-ray and gamma-ray line searches, however, have excluded the simplest of such models. In this letter, we propose a novel alternative to the standard scenario in which the mixing angle between the sterile and active neutrinos is a dynamical quantity, induced through interactions with a light axion-like field. As the energy density of the axion-like particles is diluted by Hubble expansion, the degree of mixing is reduced at late times, suppressing the decay rate and easily alleviating any tension with X-ray or gamma-ray constraints. We present a simple model which illustrates the phenomenology of this scenario, and also describe a framework in which the QCD axion is responsible for the production of sterile neutrinos in the early universe.

  8. Searches for direct production of dark matter \\\\ at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Karapostoli, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on searches for new phenomena through direct production of dark matter (DM) particles at the LHC. Searches for DM made public by Summer 2015 by the CMS and ATLAS collaborations, are presented and categorized according to the event topology characteristics. The data collected in proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 8~TeV, correspond to an integrated luminosity of 19.7~$\\textrm{fb}^{-1}$ and 20.3~$\\textrm{fb}^{-1}$ for CMS and ATLAS respectively. The analyses find no excess of events above the Standard Model expectations and the results are interpreted in terms of 90\\% confidence limits on the DM-nucleon scattering cross-section, as a function of the DM particle mass, for both spin-dependent and spin-independent scenarios. We find that LHC collider searches provide a complementary probe of WIMPs to direct detection experiments, and give strong constraints on light DM particles.

  9. Size-fractionated production and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen-Leerbeck, Helle; Bronk, Deborah A.; Markager, Stiig

    Production and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter was quantified on a time scale of two days from size fractions ranging from bacteria to zooplankton in the York River, Virginia. The goal was to find the main contributor to DOM. Batch incubation experiments were labeled with N15-ammonium...... was mainly in the phytoplankton size fraction, which on average contributed 62 % of total particulate nitrogen and 61 % of total particulate carbon. Up to 5 ± 0.4 μmol dissolved organic nitrogen L-1 and 33 ± 6.2 μmol dissolved organic carbon L-1 was produced during the incubation. Bioavailability...... of phytoplankton produced dissolved organic carbon was 12 ± 1 % and higher than in the presence of bacteria, microzooplankton, or copepods (7 ± 3 %). The pattern for bioavailability of dissolved organic nitrogen was less clear and ranged from 4 – 7 %. This study revealed that phytoplankton was the main contributor...

  10. Effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pimpinella anisum L. seeds on milk production in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Tafaghodi, Mohsen; Abedzadeh, Shirin; Taghiabadi, Elahe

    2014-08-01

    Pimpinella anisum L. (P. anisum) is used as a galactagogue in traditional medicine; hence, the effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. anisum seeds on milk production in rats was evaluated. The milk production was assessed by measuring the pups' weights during the suckling period. The intraperitoneal LD(50) values of P. anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 4.93 and 3.77 g/kg, respectively. The aqueous (1 g/kg) and ethanolic extracts (1 g/kg) increased the milk production significantly (p anisum aqueous and ethanolic extracts can increase milk production in rats.

  11. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Sekulic; Rempel, Curtis B.

    2016-01-01

    The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST) is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM). The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI) se...

  12. Productivity and quality of soybean seeds as a function of potassium application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano André Petter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultural practices affect the production and physiological quality of soybean seeds, however the Cerrado these studies are still scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the production and physiological quality of soybean seeds (cv. Monsoy 9350 in Piauí Cerrado under the influence of times and doses of potassium. We used a randomized block design in a factorial design, the treatments consisted of the combination of five doses of potassium (30 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg K2O ha-1 + aditional treatment (zero kg ha-1 applied four times: I. 100% at planting, 50 % at planting and 50% at 30 days after sowing (DAS; II. 100% at 30 DAS; III. 50% at 20 DAS and IV. 50% at 40 DAS, with four replications. The yield and harvest index of grain, thousand seed weight, seedling length, seedling dry weight, rate of germination, germination and first count. Regardless of the applied dose, there was no effect of application times on the parameters evaluated. Except for the germination and germination speed index, all other parameters were significantly influenced by K rates. The length and seedling dry weight increased with the increasing use of K, showing greater seed vigor. Doses of 80 to 95 kg ha-1 K2O provide the best results for all parameters evaluated.

  13. Effects of Seeding Density and Nitrogen Fertilizer on the Productivity of Egyptian Clover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jwan G. Rafaat

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to show the effect of different levels of nitrogen fertilizer 0, 20, 40 and 60 kg urea/ha, and two seeding rates 15 and 30 kg/ha. The study was conducted at Bakrajo research field during the winter season 2011-2012 to some growth characteristics of Egyptian clover, such as plant height, dry leaf weight percent, dry stem weight percent, leave stem ratio, fresh yield t/ha, dry yield t/ha and dry matter percent. The experiment was designed as (R.C.B.D. The results can be summarized as follow; significant differences were observed between all three cuts, and the third cut was superior in almost characters especially in the forage yield. The application of 40 and 60 kg urea gave maximum yield. Using 15 kg seeds/ha showed superior value due to fresh yield in compare to 30 kg for all cutting, while the dry yield responded non-significantly to seeding rates.

  14. The role of Mie scattering in the seeding of matter-wave superradiance

    CERN Document Server

    Bachelard, Romain; Courteille, Philippe W; Piovella, Nicola; Stehle, Christian; Zimmermann, Claus; Slama, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Matter-wave superradiance is based on the interplay between ultracold atoms coherently organized in momentum space and a backscattered wave. Here, we show that this mechanism may be triggered by Mie scattering from the atomic cloud. We show that the system evolves into a superposition of states, where the scattering process imprints a {\\it phase grating} on the atomic dipoles. This grating generates coherent emission even when there is at most one excited atom in the system at a time, contributing to the backward light wave onset. The atomic recoil 'halos' created by the scattered light exhibit a strong anisotropy, in contrast to single-atom scattering.

  15. Oil extraction from plant seeds for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadessa Gonfa Keneni

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy is basic for development and its demand increases due to rapid population growth, urbanization and improved living standards. Fossil fuels will continue to dominate other sources of energy although it is non-renewable and harm global climate. Problems associated with fossil fuels have driven the search for alternative energy sources of which biodiesel is one option. Biodiesel is renewable, non-toxic, environmental-friendly and an economically feasible options to tackle the depleting fossil fuels and its negative environmental impact. It can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae. However, nowadays, the major feedstocks of biodiesel are edible oils and this has created food vs fuel debate. Therefore, the future prospect is to use non-edible oils, animal fats, waste oils and algae as feedstock for biodiesel. Selection of non-expensive feedstock and the extraction and preparation of oil for biodiesel production is a crucial step due to its relevance on the overall technology. There are three main conventional oil extraction methods: mechanical, chemical/solvent and enzymatic extraction methods. There are also some newly developed oil extraction methods that can be used separately or in combination with the conventional ones, to overcome some disadvantages of the conventional oil extraction methods. This review paper presents, compare and discusses different potential biofuel feedstocks, various oil extraction methods, advantages and disadvantages of different oil extraction methods, and propose future prospective for the improvement of oil extraction methods and sustainability of biodiesel production and utilization.

  16. Split-gene system for hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Gils, Mario

    2014-06-24

    Hybrid wheat plants are superior in yield and growth characteristics compared with their homozygous parents. The commercial production of wheat hybrids is difficult because of the inbreeding nature of wheat and the lack of a practical fertility control that enforces outcrossing. We describe a hybrid wheat system that relies on the expression of a phytotoxic barnase and provides for male sterility. The barnase coding information is divided and distributed at two loci that are located on allelic positions of the host chromosome and are therefore "linked in repulsion." Functional complementation of the loci is achieved through coexpression of the barnase fragments and intein-mediated ligation of the barnase protein fragments. This system allows for growth and maintenance of male-sterile female crossing partners, whereas the hybrids are fertile. The technology does not require fertility restorers and is based solely on the genetic modification of the female crossing partner.

  17. Single-tube hydroponics as a novel idea for small-scale production of crop seed in a plant incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Masaharu; Ikenaga, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel protocol for small-scale production of crop seed in a plant incubator termed "Single-tube hydroponics." Our protocol minimizes the materials and methods for cultivation whereby a large number of independent plants can be cultured in a limited space. This study may aid in the improvement of crop seed components, especially in the cultivation of transgenic plants.

  18. Effects of liana load, tree diameter and distances between conspecifics on seed production in tropical timber trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabe-Nielsen, J.; Kollmann, J.; Peña-Claros, M.

    2009-01-01

    Seed production in tropical timber trees is limited by abiotic resources, pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation. Resource availability is influenced by the number of competing trees and by lianas that often reach high densities in disturbed parts of tropical forests. The distance between

  19. Effects of liana load, tree diameter and distances between conspecifics on seed production in tropical timber trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabe-Nielsen, J.; Kollmann, J.; Peña-Claros, M.

    2009-01-01

    Seed production in tropical timber trees is limited by abiotic resources, pollination and pre-dispersal seed predation. Resource availability is influenced by the number of competing trees and by lianas that often reach high densities in disturbed parts of tropical forests. The distance between cons

  20. Seed-Derived Ethylene Facilitates Colonization but Not Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus flavus in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shi; Park, Yong-Soon; Yang, Yang; Borrego, Eli J.; Isakeit, Tom; Gao, Xiquan; Kolomiets, Michael V.

    2017-01-01

    Ethylene (ET) emitted by plant tissues has been broadly reported to play important roles in plant development, response to environmental stresses and defense against certain pathogens. Recent evidence obtained from using in vitro fungal cultures exposed to ET suggested that exogenous ET may regulate the production of aflatoxin by Aspergilli. However, the function of endogenous, seed-derived ET has not been explored. In this study, we found that the maize lipoxygenase lox3 mutant, previously reported to be susceptible to Aspergillus spp., emitted greater levels of ET upon A. flavus infection, suggesting the potential involvement of endogenous ET in the susceptibility of maize to A. flavus. Supporting this idea, both colonization and conidiation of A. flavus were reduced in wild-type (WT) kernels treated with AgNO3, an ET synthesis inhibitor. There was no ET emission from non-viable kernels colonized by A. flavus, suggesting that living seed but not the fungus itself was the primary source of ET released upon infection with A. flavus. The kernels of acs2 and acs6, two ET biosynthetic mutants carrying Mutator transposons in the ACC synthase genes, ACS2 and ACS6, respectively, displayed enhanced seed colonization and conidiation, but not the levels of aflatoxin, upon infection with A. flavus. Surprisingly, both acs2 and acs6 mutant kernels emitted greater levels of ET in response to infection by A. flavus as compared with WT seed. The increased ET in single mutants was found to be due to overexpression of functional ACS genes in response to A. flavus infection. Collectively, these findings suggested that ET emitted by infected seed facilitates colonization by A. flavus but not aflatoxin production.

  1. Thermophysical characterization of the seeds of invasive Chinese tallow tree: importance for biofuel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Laura; Boldor, Doran

    2012-10-16

    The limited supply of traditional fossil based fuels, and increased concern about their environmental impact has driven the interest in the utilization of biomass based energy sources, including those that are underutilized or otherwise nuisance species such as Chinese tallow trees (Triadica sebifera [L.]). This species is a prolific seeds producer, and this paper shows that they contain more than 50% lipids by mass that are suitable for conversion into biodiesel. We present here, for the first time, the seeds' thermophysical properties important for biofuel production. The seeds were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and ultimate analysis; their thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and specific heat were determined. The characterization results were correlated to fatty acid composition and lipid content for whole seeds and individual layers, as well as to the protein, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin content. The TGA analysis indicated the presence, in addition to lipids, of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and proteins, depending on the layer analyzed. Thermal conductivity and specific heat were, respectively 0.14 ± 0.007 W/mK and 3843.5 ± 171.16 J/kgK for wax, 0.20 ± 0.002 W/mK and 2018.7 ± 5.18 J/kgK for shells, 0.13 ± 0.0 W/mK and 1237 ± 3.15 J/kgK for internal kernel, and 0.13 ± 0.000 W/mK and 2833.9 ± 104.11 J/kgK for whole seeds. These properties and characterization method can be further used in engineering analysis used to determine the most optimum processing method for production of biofuels from this feedstock.

  2. Seed coating with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as an ecotechnologicalapproach for sustainable agricultural production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui S; Rocha, Inês; Ma, Ying; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has become of great interest in agriculture due to their potential roles in reducing the need for agrochemicals, while improving plant growth and nutrition. Nevertheless, the application of AM fungi by dispersing inocula in granular form to open agricultural fields is not feasible because nontargeted spreading of inocula over large surface areas results in high cost per plant. Seed coating has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of inoculum needed, resulting in cost reduction and increased efficiency. The aim of this study was to assess whether seed coating with AM fungal inoculum is a feasible delivery system for production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat seeds were coated with inoculum of Rhizophagus irregularis BEG140 and grown under different fertilization conditions: (1) none, (2) partial, or (3) complete. Data indicated that mycorrhizal inoculation via seed coating significantly increased the dry weight of shoot and seed spikes of wheat associated with reduced fertilization. Assessment of nutritional status of wheat showed that plants inoculated with R. irregularis via seed coating displayed enhanced stem concentrations of potassium (K), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn). There were no significant differences in root colonization between plants conventionally inoculated with R. irregularis in soil and those inoculated via seed coating. Seed coating with AM fungi may be as effective as conventional soil inoculation and may contribute to reduce the utilization of chemical fertilizers. The application of AM via seed coating is proposed as an ecotechnological approach for sustainable agricultural wheat production.

  3. Developing a participatory approach to seed production and varietal selection (OF0330)

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Dr Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Overall Aim To develop a robust system for identifying, testing, multiplying and marketing cereal varieties, lines, mixtures and populations best suited to organic production in different parts of the country. Objectives 1. Develop a participatory research and development methodology for UK organic farmers using variety trialling and the management of seed-borne disease as examples. 2. Collect information on the range of cereal varieties currently grown by organic farmers to ...

  4. Populus seed fibers as a natural source for production of oil super absorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likon, Marko; Remškar, Maja; Ducman, Vilma; Švegl, Franc

    2013-01-15

    The genus Populus, which includes poplars, cottonwoods and aspen trees, represents a huge natural source of fibers with exceptional physical properties. In this study, the oil absorption properties of poplar seed hair fibers obtained from Populus nigra italica when tested with high-density motor oil and diesel fuel are reported. Poplar seed hair fibers are hollow hydrophobic microtubes with an external diameter between 3 and 12 μm, an average length of 4±1 mm and average tube wall thickness of 400±100 nm. The solid skeleton of the hollow fibers consists of lignocellulosic material coated by a hydrophobic waxy coating. The exceptional chemical, physical and microstructural properties of poplar seed hair fibers enable super-absorbent behavior with high absorption capacity for heavy motor oil and diesel fuel. The absorption values of 182-211 g heavy oil/g fiber and 55-60 g heavy oil/g fiber for packing densities of 0.005 g/cm(3) and 0.02 g/cm(3), respectively, surpass all known natural absorbents. Thus, poplar seed hair fibers obtained from Populus nigra italica and other trees of the genus Populus are an extremely promising natural source for the production of oil super absorbents.

  5. Superoxide radical production and performance index of Photosystem II in leaves from magnetoprimed soybean seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baby, Shine Madukakkuzhyil; Narayanaswamy, Guruprasad Kadur; Anand, Anjali

    2011-11-01

    Priming of soybean seeds with static magnetic field exposure of 200 mT (1 h) and 150 mT (1 h) resulted in plants with enhanced performance index (PI). The three components of PI i.e the density of reaction centers in the chlorophyll bed (RC/ABS), exciton trapped per photon absorbed (φpo) and efficiency with which a trapped exciton can move in electron transport chain (Ψo) were found to be 17%, 27% and 16% higher, respectively in leaves from 200 mT (1h) treated compared to untreated seeds. EPR spectrum of O2.--PBN adduct revealed that the O2.-radical level was lower by 16% in the leaves of plants that emerged from magnetic field treatment. Our study revealed that magnetoprimed seeds have a long lasting stimulatory effect on plants as reduced superoxide production and higher performance index contributed to higher efficiency of light harvesting that consequently increased biomass in plants that emerged from magnetoprimed seeds.

  6. Novel gram-scale production of enantiopure R-sulforaphane from Tuscan black kale seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Rollin, Patrick; Mazzon, Emanuela; Iori, Renato

    2014-05-27

    Dietary R-sulforaphane is a highly potent inducer of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Furthermore, sulforaphane is currently being used in clinical trials to assess its effects against different tumour processes. This study reports an efficient preparation of enantiopure R-sulforaphane based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of its natural precursor glucoraphanin. As an alternative to broccoli seeds, we have exploited Tuscan black kale seeds as a suitable source for gram-scale production of glucoraphanin. The defatted seed meal contained 5.1% (w/w) of glucoraphanin that was first isolated through an anion exchange chromatographic process, and then purified by gel filtration. The availability of glucoraphanin (purity≈95%, weight basis) has allowed us to develop a novel simple hydrolytic process involving myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147) in a biphasic system to directly produce R-sulforaphane. In a typical experiment, 1.09 g of enantiopure R-sulforaphane was obtained from 150 g of defatted Tuscan black kale seed meal.

  7. Aflatoxin B1 in sesame seeds and sesame products from the Greek market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollia, Eleni; Tsourouflis, Kyriakos; Markaki, Panagiota

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is considered as the most potent liver carcinogen for humans. A method for determination in sesame seeds was developed. AFB1 was extracted by methanol-water, cleaned by immunoaffinity columns and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The recovery factor and the limit of detection (LOD) of AFB1 in sesame seeds were 111.5% and 0.02 ng g(-1), respectively. Thirty samples of sesame products were examined for the presence of AFB1. After analysis, 77.6% of samples were found to be contaminated. Eight samples exceeded the European Union (EU) limit (2 µg AFB1 kg(-1)). In 15 samples, AFB1 was below the EU limit. Seven samples remained below the LOD. The most contaminated (14.49 ng AFB1 g(-1)) sample was unpeeled packaged sesame seeds. In all samples, aflatoxigenic Aspergilli fungi as well as the risk for AFB1 presence in sesame seed was investigated.

  8. Novel Gram-Scale Production of Enantiopure R-Sulforaphane from Tuscan Black Kale Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Rosalinda De Nicola

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Dietary R-sulforaphane is a highly potent inducer of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway. Furthermore, sulforaphane is currently being used in clinical trials to assess its effects against different tumour processes. This study reports an efficient preparation of enantiopure R-sulforaphane based on the enzymatic hydrolysis of its natural precursor glucoraphanin. As an alternative to broccoli seeds, we have exploited Tuscan black kale seeds as a suitable source for gram-scale production of glucoraphanin. The defatted seed meal contained 5.1% (w/w of glucoraphanin that was first isolated through an anion exchange chromatographic process, and then purified by gel filtration. The availability of glucoraphanin (purity ≈ 95%, weight basis has allowed us to develop a novel simple hydrolytic process involving myrosinase (EC 3.2.1.147 in a biphasic system to directly produce R-sulforaphane. In a typical experiment, 1.09 g of enantiopure R-sulforaphane was obtained from 150 g of defatted Tuscan black kale seed meal.

  9. Characteristics of the production of underground fruits and seed dispersal of Crocus alatavicus, a geophytic-geocarpic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyan Fu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Geophytic-geocarpy is a special type of fruit production in angiosperms, whereby flowers with a long tubular perianth arise from underground buds and bloom above ground with the ovary and subsequent fruit remaining below ground. Crocus alatavicus, a geophytic-geocarpic species, is a perennial early-spring ephemeral that grows in subalpine areas of the western Tianshan Mountains. Based on field observations and controlled experiments, development of the underground ovaries and young fruits and seed dispersal were investigated for C. alatavicus and their adaptive significance analyzed. The results showed that developmental time from flowering to emergence of the underground capsules above the soil was about 35 days, and emergence of the underground capsules results from elongation of the peduncles, and then capsules dehisce and seeds are dispersed. Seeds of C. alatavicus have an elaiosome, which is typical of myrmecochores. Ants make a significant contribution to seed dispersal, and three ant species, Formica pressilabris, F. gagates and F. fusca, were recorded near newly-dispersed seeds of C. alatavicus. The visiting frequency of F. pressilabris was the highest, but F. fusca removed seeds faster and to a greater distance than the other two species. The average dispersal distance of the three ant species was 62.4±1.7 cm. Formica pressilabris, the major ant species taking seeds, ate the elaiosome after it moved the seeds into its nest and then stored more than 50% of the transported seeds in the nest. Rodents and birds had no effect on seed dispersal of C. alatavicus, but hydrophily and anemophily played a minor role in short-distance dispersal. Formation of seeds underground and their dispersal by ants help ensure that seeds escape damage from herbivores and fire and that they are dispersed in a manner that reduces sib-competition and competition between mother plant and offspring, thereby ensuring seed germination and seedling establishment in

  10. Molybdate in Rhizobial Seed-Coat Formulations Improves the Production and Nodulation of Alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiqiong; Deng, Bo; Zhang, Yingjun; Cobb, Adam B; Zhang, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Rhizobia-legume symbiosis is the most well researched biological nitrogen fixation system. Coating legume seeds with rhizobia is now a recognized practical measure for improving the production of legume corp. However, the efficacy of some commercial rhizobia inoculants cannot be guaranteed in China due to the low rate of live rhizobia in these products. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the effects of different rhizobial inoculant formulations on alfalfa productivity and nitrogen fixation. Two rhizobia strains, (ACCC17631 and ACCC17676), that are effective partners with alfalfa variety Zhongmu No. 1 were assessed with different concentrations of ammonium molybdate in seed-coat formulations with two different coating adhesives. Our study showed that the growth, nodulation, and nitrogen fixation ability of the plants inoculated with the ACCC17631 rhizobial strain were greatest when the ammonium molybdate application was0.2% of the formulation. An ammonium molybdate concentration of 0.1% was most beneficial to the growth of the plants inoculated with the ACCC17676 rhizobial strain. The sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate, used as coating adhesives, did not have a significant effect on alfalfa biomass and nitrogen fixation. However, the addition of skimmed milk to the adhesive improved nitrogenase activity. These results demonstrate that a new rhizobial seed-coat formulation benefitted alfalfa nodulation and yield.

  11. Ocular irritation from product of pesticide degradation among workers in a seed warehouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Takehisa; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Itoh, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Four workers at a seed supply warehouse in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, complained of ocular irritation on the job. Pesticide-coated seeds were stored in the warehouse but no significant amount of pesticide was detected in the air inside the warehouse. To identify the cause of the ocular irritation and to determine an appropriate solution to the problem, the authors used thermal desorption gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to analyze the profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the air of the two warehouses at the site-warehouse A, where the four workers experienced ocular irritation, and warehouse B, where no workers experienced ocular irritation. Comparing the profiles of VOCs in these warehouses indicated that n-butyl isocyanate, a hydrolyzed product of the fungicide benomyl, was the cause of the workers' ocular irritation. n-Butyl isocyanate is known to be a contact irritant and if the benomyl-coated seeds were not properly dried before storage in the warehouse n-butyl isocyanate would have been produced. The results of the study suggest that more attention should be paid both to the pesticide itself and to the products of pesticide degradation. In this study, n-butyl isocyanate was identified as a product of pesticide degradation and a causative chemical affecting occupational health.

  12. Molybdate in Rhizobial Seed-Coat Formulations Improves the Production and Nodulation of Alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiqiong; Deng, Bo; Zhang, Yingjun; Cobb, Adam B.; Zhang, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Rhizobia-legume symbiosis is the most well researched biological nitrogen fixation system. Coating legume seeds with rhizobia is now a recognized practical measure for improving the production of legume corp. However, the efficacy of some commercial rhizobia inoculants cannot be guaranteed in China due to the low rate of live rhizobia in these products. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the effects of different rhizobial inoculant formulations on alfalfa productivity and nitrogen fixation. Two rhizobia strains, (ACCC17631 and ACCC17676), that are effective partners with alfalfa variety Zhongmu No. 1 were assessed with different concentrations of ammonium molybdate in seed-coat formulations with two different coating adhesives. Our study showed that the growth, nodulation, and nitrogen fixation ability of the plants inoculated with the ACCC17631 rhizobial strain were greatest when the ammonium molybdate application was0.2% of the formulation. An ammonium molybdate concentration of 0.1% was most beneficial to the growth of the plants inoculated with the ACCC17676 rhizobial strain. The sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and sodium alginate, used as coating adhesives, did not have a significant effect on alfalfa biomass and nitrogen fixation. However, the addition of skimmed milk to the adhesive improved nitrogenase activity. These results demonstrate that a new rhizobial seed-coat formulation benefitted alfalfa nodulation and yield. PMID:28099471

  13. Date seed characterisation, substrate extraction and process modelling for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate by Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuf, R G; Winterburn, J B

    2016-12-01

    Poly-3-hydroxybutrate (PHB) is a biodegradable polymer synthesised via bacterial fermentation as a means of storing carbon and energy under unbalanced growth conditions. The production cost of petroleum-based plastics is currently lower than that for biopolymers, and the carbon source is the most significant contributor to biopolymer production cost. A feasibility study to assess the suitability of using a date seed derived media as an alternative for PHB production under various stress conditions was investigated. Results include fructose extraction from date seeds and a mass transfer model to describe the process, demonstrating that the high nutrient content of date seeds makes them a promising raw material for microbial growth and that a meaningful amount of PHB can be produced without supplementation. Maximum dry cell weight and PHB concentrations were 6.3g/l and 4.6g/l respectively, giving a PHB content of 73%, when an initial fructose concentration of 10.8g/l was used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A novel male sterility-fertility restoration system in plants for hybrid seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Sudhir P; Pandey, Tripti; Singh, Ram Rakshpal; Sawant, Samir V

    2015-06-15

    Hybrid seeds are used for stimulated crop production, as they harness heterosis. The achievement of complete male-sterility in the female-parent and the restored-fertility in F1-hybrids are the major bottlenecks in the commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we report a male sterility-fertility restoration system by engineering the in most nutritive anther wall layer tapetum of female and male parents. In the female parent, high-level, and stringent expression of Arabidopsis autophagy-related gene BECLIN1 was achieved in the tapetum, which altered the tapetal degeneration program, leading to male sterility. This works on our previously demonstrated expression cassette based on functional complementation of TATA-box mutant (TGTA) promoter and TATA-binding protein mutant3 (TBPm3), with modification by conjugating Long Hypocotyle in Far-Red1 fragment (HFR1(NT131)) with TBPm3 (HFR1(NT131)-TBPm3) to exercise regulatory control over it. In the male parent, tapetum-specific Constitutive photo-morphogenesis1 (COP1) was expressed. The F1 obtained by crossing these engineered parents showed decreased BECLIN1 expression, which was further completely abolished when COP1-mutant (COP1(L105A)) was used as a male parent, leading to normal tapetal development and restored fertility. The system works on COP1-HFR1 interaction and COP1-mediated degradation of TBPm3 pool (HFR1(NT131)-TBPm3). The system can be deployed for hybrid seed production in agricultural crops.

  15. Production of hydrophobic amino acids from biobased resources: wheat gluten and rubber seed proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyarani; Sari, Yessie W; Ratnaningsih, Enny; Sanders, Johan P M; Bruins, Marieke E

    2016-09-01

    Protein hydrolysis enables production of peptides and free amino acids that are suitable for usage in food and feed or can be used as precursors for bulk chemicals. Several essential amino acids for food and feed have hydrophobic side chains; this property may also be exploited for subsequent separation. Here, we present methods for selective production of hydrophobic amino acids from proteins. Selectivity can be achieved by selection of starting material, selection of hydrolysis conditions, and separation of achieved hydrolysate. Several protease combinations were applied for hydrolysis of rubber seed protein concentrate, wheat gluten, and bovine serum albumin (BSA). High degree of hydrolysis (>50 %) could be achieved. Hydrophobic selectivity was influenced by the combination of proteases and by the extent of hydrolysis. Combination of Pronase and Peptidase R showed the highest selectivity towards hydrophobic amino acids, roughly doubling the content of hydrophobic amino acids in the products compared to the original substrates. Hydrophobic selectivity of 0.6 mol-hydrophobic/mol-total free amino acids was observed after 6 h hydrolysis of wheat gluten and 24 h hydrolysis of rubber seed proteins and BSA. The results of experiments with rubber seed proteins and wheat gluten suggest that this process can be applied to agro-industrial residues.

  16. Searches for dark matter production with ATLAS (MET+X)

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00335606; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Dark Matter constitutes more than 80% of the matter in the universe but cannot be accommodated within the Standard Model of particle physics. The search for Dark Matter is one of the main objectives of the LHC physics programme. This contribution summarises searches performed in final states with large missing transverse momentum using 3.2 fb$^{-1}$ of data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV collected by the ATLAS detector in 2015.

  17. Consolida regalis Gray seed production as influenced by the habitat and crop plant in the western Podlasie region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Skrajna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted in 2007–2009 in the Western Podlasie region to examine the seed production potential of Consolida regalis under different habitat conditions. Consolida regalis populations from 15 sites representing the habitat amplitude of this species were examined. Thirty morphologically different plants were sampled from each habitat and soil samples were taken to determine soil contents of available phosphorus (P, potassium (K and magnesium (Mg as well as pH. The results were statistically analysed. The seed production potential of the species studied was most strongly correlated with soil contents of magnesium (Mg, potassium (K, phosphorus (P and soil pH. By contrast, the kind of crop plant and its cover were insignificant. Of the plant characteristics, plant height and traits associated with inflorescence structure had a significant influence on seed production potential. The populations with the greatest seed production potential produced an average of 1287 and 965 se- eds per plant. These populations were associated with the most fertile sites (good wheat soil complex where the differences in seed production potential resulted from the nutrient contents and soil pH. By contrast, the least seeds were produced by plants growing on poor and acidic light soils. The average seed number per plant ranged from 42 to 83. Low concentrations of the nutrients examined were determined, with the soil content of magnesium being very low.

  18. Production of Biodiesel through Transesterification of Avocado (Persea gratissima Seed Oil Using Base Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Rachimoellah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is produced through a chemical process called transesterification, which refers to a catalysed chemical reaction involving vegetable oil and alcohol to yield fatty acid alkyl esters (biodiesel and glycerol as a by product. Biodiesel is petroleum substitution in which its quantity continually decreases due to increasing of demand. Plenty of plants could be used as raw material for biodiesel, for example is avocado (Persea gratissima seed. This is a waste that being thrown out after the flesh is taken. Therefore, avocado has a higher economic value to be used for consumption. Avocado is not only as an edible commodity but also as feedstock for production of biodiesel. The purposes of this research are producing biodiesel from avocado seed oil (Persea gratissima so it can be used for alternative fuel, studying the effect of molar ratio avocado seed oil to methanol and reaction temperature to yield the highest methyl ester content, and also studying the effect of washing method and comparing between the conventional method (using water and dry washing method to reach the highest methyl ester content. Variables that are used in this research are molar ratio of methanol to avocado seed oil, reaction temperature, and washing method. Transesterification process runs for 60 minutes, with NaOH as base catalyst concentration is 1% by weight. Avocado seed oil contains free fatty acid less than 2%, so that transesterification process can be carried out with no addition step to convert free fatty acid content become esters. Crude biodiesel which is yielded from transesterification process still contains of impurities, such as traces of glycerine, unreacted methanol, rest of base catalyst, and soap stock. So it needs to be washed out. There are two washing methods, which are water washing and dry washing. The use of dry washing method is expected to be technically feasible with less complexity than the water washing method, thereby making it a

  19. Use of acid whey and mustard seed to replace nitrites during cooked sausage production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójciak, Karolina M; Karwowska, Małgorzata; Dolatowski, Zbigniew J

    2014-02-01

    The aim was to determine the effects of sea salt, acid whey, native and autoclaved mustard seed on the physico-chemical properties, especially colour formation, microbial stability and sensory evaluation of non-nitrite cooked sausage during chilling storage. The cooked pork sausages were divided into 4 groups (group I--control sausages with curing salt (2.8%) and water (5%) added; group II--sausages with sea salt (2.8%) and acid whey (5%) added; group III--sausages with sea salt (2.8%), acid whey (5%) and mustard seed (1%) added; group IV--sausages with sea salt (2.8%), acid whey (5%) and autoclaved mustard seed (1%) added). Instrumental colour (L*, a*, b*), oxygenation index (ΔR), 650/570 nm ratio, heme iron, pH value and water activity (aw) were determined 1 day after production and after 10, 20 and 30 days of refrigerated storage (4 °C). Sensory analysis was conducted immediately after production (day 1). Microbial analysis (lactic acid bacteria, total viable count, Clostridium spp.) was determinated at the end of storage (30 days). The autoclaved mustard with acid whey can be used at 1.0% (w/w) of model cooked sausages with beneficial effect on physico-chemical and sensory qualities of no-nitrite sausage. This product can be stored at refrigeration temperature for up to 30 days, in vacuum, with good acceptability. The colour, visual appearance and overall quality of samples with autoclaved mustard seed and acid whey were similar to the control with curing agent.

  20. Axion-Assisted Production of Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, Asher [Chicago U.; Hooper, Dan [Chicago U., KICP

    2016-10-12

    Sterile neutrinos can be generated in the early universe through oscillations with active neutrinos and represent a popular and well-studied candidate for our universe's dark matter. Stringent constraints from X-ray and gamma-ray line searches, however, have excluded the simplest of such models. In this letter, we propose a novel alternative to the standard scenario in which the mixing angle between the sterile and active neutrinos is a dynamical quantity, induced through interactions with a light axion-like field. As the energy density of the axion-like particles is diluted by Hubble expansion, the degree of mixing is reduced at late times, suppressing the decay rate and easily alleviating any tension with X-ray or gamma-ray constraints. We present a simple model which illustrates the phenomenology of this scenario, and also describe a framework in which the QCD axion is responsible for the production of sterile neutrinos in the early universe.

  1. Scrutinising sterile neutrino dark matter production from scalar decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merle, Alexander; Totzauer, Maximilian [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Muenchen (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We investigate in detail the production of sterile neutrino dark matter from the decay of a scalar singlet to which the sterile neutrinos couple via a Yukawa-type interaction. The scalar couples to the Standard Model via a Higgs portal, the size of which determines whether or not the scalar singlet enters thermal equilibrium in the early Universe. If both couplings are chosen adequately, the mechanism can produce the correct observed relic abundance. While previous studies restricted themselves to limiting cases where the abundance and the momentum distribution are approximately accessible with analytic approaches, we present a fully numerical computation in order to cover the whole parameter space of the model. This allows us to gain deeper insight into the assumptions and simplifications usually made in the literature and it moreover yields refined results for the momentum distribution function of the sterile neutrino, which is the vital input quantity for the formation of large-scale structure in the Universe. In particular we show that the momentum distribution function can differ significantly from the analytical estimates present in the literature, which opens a wide range of possibilities for addressing the small scale problems in structure formation.

  2. Effect of Pot Size on Various Characteristics Related to Photosynthetic Matter Production in Soybean Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Minobu Kasai; Keisuke Koide; Yuya Ichikawa

    2012-01-01

    Despite the wide uses of potted plants, information on how pot size affects plant photosynthetic matter production is still considerably limited. This study investigated with soybean plants how transplantation into larger pots affects various characteristics related to photosynthetic matter production. The transplantation was analyzed to increase leaf photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance without affecting significantly leaf intercellular CO2 concentration, implica...

  3. Processes controlling the production of aromatic water-soluble organic matter during litter decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klotzbücher, T.; Kaiser, K.; Filley, T.R.; Kalbitz, K.

    2013-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a fundamental role for many soil processes. For instance, production, transport, and retention of DOM control properties and long-term storage of organic matter in mineral soils. Production of water-soluble compounds during the decomposition of plant litter is a

  4. Mono-everything: Combined limits on dark matter production at colliders from multiple final states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, N.; Berge, D.; Whiteson, D.

    2013-01-01

    Searches for dark matter production at particle colliders are complementary to direct-detection and indirect-detection experiments and especially powerful for small masses, mχ<100  GeV. An important collider dark matter signature is due to the production of a pair of these invisible particles with t

  5. Mono-everything: Combined limits on dark matter production at colliders from multiple final states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, N.; Berge, D.; Whiteson, D.

    2013-01-01

    Searches for dark matter production at particle colliders are complementary to direct-detection and indirect-detection experiments and especially powerful for small masses, mχ<100  GeV. An important collider dark matter signature is due to the production of a pair of these invisible particles with t

  6. 75 FR 51843 - In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products Containing the Same... certain large scale integrated circuit semiconductor chips and products containing same by reason of... including the following: Freescale Semiconductor Xiqing Integrated Semiconductor Manufacturing...

  7. Effect of Monascus purpureus inoculum concentration on pigment production in jackfruit seed flour substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdiyati, Yanti; Kusnadi, Yuliani, Lia Amelia

    2016-02-01

    The used of synthetic dyes have various negative effects on human health. Roomates pigment produced by Monascus purpureus mold can be used as an alternative natural food coloring. The research on the effect of inoculum concentration's M. purpureus to pigment production on the jackfruit seed flour has been done. The objective of research to is to investigate the effect of inoculum concentration's M. purpureus to the production of red, yellow and orange pigment on the jackfruit seed flour. The concentrations used were 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% (v/w). The result of the data analysed using One-Way ANOVA showed that the inoculum concentration affected the production of red pigment M. purpureus, as well as the data analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis showed that inoculum concentration has influence on the production of yellow and orange pigments. Inoculum concentration of 15% is the optimum concentration for the production of red, yellow and orange pigments with 0:10, 0:50 and 0:20 absorbance units per gram of sample respectively. Based on the results of the research, it can be concluded that inoculum concentration of M. purpureus influenced the production of red, yellow and orange pigments.

  8. A technique for estimating seed production of common moist-soil plants - Fish and Wildlife Leaflet 13.4.5

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Contains methods to estimate seed production of moist-soil plants inlcuding survey design - Leaflet is part of the Wetland Management Book series.

  9. In-situ Transesterification of Jatropha curcas L. Seeds for Biodiesel Production using Supercritical Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak M.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In-situ supercritical methanol transesterification for production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas L. (JCL seeds was successfully being carried out via batch-wise reactor system, under varying temperatures of 180 - 300 °C, pressures of 6 - 18 MPa, reaction time of 5 - 35 min and seeds-to-methanol ratio of 1:15 - 1:45 (w/v. In this study, the extracted oil obtained showed the presence of FAME referring as biodiesel, indicating that transesterification reaction had occurred during the extraction process. The results showed that the biodiesel yield was obtained at optimum conditions of 280 °C, 12 MPa, 30 min and 1:40 (w/v were 97.9%.

  10. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum Linn.) seed oil as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress) is a fast growing annual herb, native to Egypt and west Asia but widely cultivated in temperate climates throughout the world. L. sativum seed oil (LSO) extracted from plants grown in Tunisia was analyzed to determine whether it has potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content of the seeds was 26.77%, mainly composed of polyunsaturated (42.23%) and monounsaturated (39.62%) fatty acids. Methyl esters (LSOMEs) were prepared by base-catalyzed transesterification with a conversion rate of 96.8%. The kinematic viscosity (1.92 mm(2)/s), cetane number (49.23), gross heat value (40.45), and other fuel properties were within the limits for biodiesel specified by the ASTM (American Standard for Testing and Materials). This study showed that LSOMEs have the potential to supplement petroleum-based diesel.

  11. Amygdalin content of seeds, kernels and food products commercially-available in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2014-01-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are a large group of secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in the plant kingdom, including many plants that are commonly consumed by humans. The diverse chemical nature of cyanogenic glycosides means that extraction and analysis of individual compounds can be difficult. In addition, degradation can be rapid under appropriate conditions. Amygdalin is one of the cyanogenic glycosides found, for example, in apples, apricots and almonds. We have developed and applied a high performance liquid chromatographic procedure for amygdalin quantification to investigate extraction efficiency and to determine levels in a range of commercially-available foods for the first time. Our results show that seed from Rosaceae species contained relatively high amounts (range 0.1-17.5 mg g(-1)) of amygdalin compared to seed from non-Rosaceae species (range 0.01-0.2 mg g(-1)). The amygdalin content of processed food products was very low. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Plant response to sunflower seeds to osmotic conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Santos Barros de Morais

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seeds osmotic conditioning in seedlings emergence and plants performance of sunflower. Three lots of seeds sunflower (Catissol, was submited to osmotic conditioning with polyethylene glycol solution, –2,0 MPa in aerated system, under 15 ºC for 8 hour and then was evaluated for germination tests and vigour. Under filed conditions was conducted emergency evaluations of seedling, plants development as well as the productivity and seeds quality, and the accumulation of nutrients in the seeds. The osmotic conditioning improve the survival of seedling, the dry matter mass to aerial part of plants from 60 days after sowing and oil content, in lots with low seeds physiological quality. The osmotic conditioning not increase the seeds yield but promotes the vigour of seeds produced, regardless of the lot used for sowing seeds.

  13. Effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production in different farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rapetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to test the effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production. Two farms with different farming systems (intensive and semi-intensive participated to the trial. In each farm about 60 mid-lactation Alpine goats were divided in two groups during spring-summer time. A diet containing 5-6% of sunflower seeds on DM basis was compared with a control diet in a change-over design. In the semi-intensive farm milk yield of goats fed sunflower was 3.46 kg/d compared to 3.58 kg/d of goats fed control diet, whereas in the intensive farm milk yield was 4.60 kg/d vs 4.66 kg/d. Fat content increased significantly from 2.99% to 3.23% only in the intensive farm. The research in the intensive farm investigated also milk and cheese fatty acids composition. Medium and short chain fatty acids (C8-C16 content dropped and long chain fatty acids content increased when sunflower was added. In conclusion raw sunflower seed inclusion in dairy goat diets can be useful, in order to limit the inversion of fat and protein percentages in milk.

  14. Biochemical changes during the fermentation of Prosopis africana seeds for ogiri-okpei production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odibo, F J C; Ezeaku, E O; Ogbo, F C

    2008-09-01

    Biochemical changes during fermentation of seeds of Prosopis africana for production of ogiri-okpei, a food condiment popular among people of West Africa were studied. Fermentation resulted in a net increase in concentrations of total soluble sugars and free amino acids, both reaching a peak after 72 h of fermentation but declining thereafter. Corresponding increases were observed in amylase and protease activities, respectively. Lipase activity was observed to be very strong, increasing throughout the duration of fermentation. Analyses of amino and fatty acid composition using an amino acid analyzer and gas liquid chromatography, respectively, revealed a wide variety of amino acids including glutamine > cystine > arginine and the fatty acids stearic > Arachidic > linolenic > linoleic in the unfermented seed in the highest concentrations. Fluctuations in the concentrations of these compounds were observed during the fermentation. At the end of 96 h fermentation, glutamine > cystine > lysine and an unidentified fatty acid > arachidic > linolenic acids were found in the highest concentrations. Marked increases in composition with increasing period of fermentation were observed for Ca, P, K, Mn, and Z. Transformations of amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals during the fermentation of this seed revealed during this study will contribute towards the development of an industrial process for ogiri-okpei as well as an understanding of its contribution to the nutrition of its consumers.

  15. Seed Production, Herbage Residue and Crude Protein Content of Centro (Centrosema pubescens in the Year of Establishment at Shika, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omokanye, AT.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was carried out on seed production pattern of centro (Centrosema pubescens, in the year of establishment in a sub humid environment of Nigeria as influenced by sowing date and phosphorus application levels. The herbage residue and its crude protein content were also determined after pod harvest. The variation in seeds per pod for plantings between June 21 to August 2 was from 16.5 to 14.5, while for unfertilized and fertilized plots seeds number varied between 12.6 and 16.2/pod. The weight of 1000 seeds decreased with delayed planting. Phosphorus application improved seed weight. Seed yield was highest (1000 kg/ha for July 5 sowing with phosphorus application of 60 kg/ha P205 combination. The variation in mean seed yield for planting between June 21 and August 2 was 782.0 to 360.3 kg/ha. The application of 0 to 60 kg/ha P205 resulted in mean seed yields of 405.7 to 776.8 kg/ha. Herbage residue was favoured more by June 21 sowing and the application of 60 kg/ha P205. The crude protein content was better with August sowing and 60 kg/ha P205.

  16. Pollen Morphology and Viability Relates to Seed Production in Hybrid Roses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fertility of hybrid tea roses is often reduced due to their interspesific origin but also to intensive inbreeding. New genotypes used as pollen donors represent an economic risk for a breeding program, as their influence on seed production is unknown. In this study 9 garden rose genotypes were selected from a company database as high fertile or low fertile male parents, according to the number of seeds per hybridization. Pollen morphology and in vitro germination of the selected genotypes were characterized. Pollen was either small (mean diameter = 30 urn, shrunken, and irregular (abnormal, or large (mean diameter = 30 urn, elliptical and crossed by furrows (normal. High correlations were found between the number of seeds produced per hybridization and the pollen diameter (r = 0.94 or the percentage of normal pollen (r = 0.96. In order to evaluate the predictive power of the models, we conducted regression analyses and performed a validation experiment on genotypes not present in the database and without background information on fertility. Pollen diameter and percentage of normal pollen were characterized and fitted in the regression models for seed set predictions. Validation with an independent dataset gave a good prediction for 83.3% of the data. This indicates that using either the mean pollen diameter or the percentage of normal pollen resulted in effective fertility prediction. Moreover cluster analysis of the data classified all the cultivars into various groups with varying fertility. This tool could enhance the genetic variability in crossings between hybrid tea roses, thus creating possibilities for less economically risky exploitation of new tetraploid genotypes as male parents.

  17. Synthetic seed production and physio-biochemical studies in Cassia angustifolia Vahl. - a medicinal plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, N A W; Siddique, Iram; Perveen, K; Siddiqui, I; Alwahibi, M S

    2014-09-01

    Synthetic seed technology is an alternative to traditional micropropagation for production and delivery of cloned plantlets. Synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating nodal segments of C. angustifolia in calcium alginate gel. 3% (w/v) sodium alginate and 100 mM CaCl2 · 2H2O were found most suitable for encapsulation of nodal segments. Synthetic seeds cultured on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with thidiazuron (5.0 μM) + indole-3-acetic acid (1.0 μM) produced maximum number of shoots (10.9 ± 0.78) after 8 weeks of culture exhibiting (78%) in vitro conversion response. Encapsulated nodal segments demonstrated successful regeneration after different period (1-6 weeks) of cold storage at 4 °C. The synthetic seeds stored at 4 °C for a period of 4 weeks resulted in maximum conversion frequency (93%) after 8 weeks when placed back to regeneration medium. The isolated shoots when cultured on half strength Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1.0 μM indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), produced healthy roots and plantlets with well-developed shoot and roots were successfully hardened off in plastic pots containing sterile soilrite inside the growth chamber and gradually transferred to greenhouse where they grew well with 85% survival rate. Growth performance of 2 months old in vitro-raised plant was compared with in vivo seedlings of the same age. Changes in the content of photosynthetic pigments, net photosynthetic rate (PN), superoxide dismutase and catalase activity in C. angustifolia indicated the adaptation of micropropagated plants to ex vitro conditions.

  18. Fluorescent detection of (-)-epicatechin in microsamples from cacao seeds and cocoa products: Comparison with Folin-Ciocalteu method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; Maya, Lisandro; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2010-12-01

    Polyphenolic compounds of the flavanoid family are abundantly present in cacao seed and its cocoa products. Results from studies using cocoa products indicate beneficial effects of flavanols on cardiovascular endpoints. Evidence indicates that (-)-epicatechin is the main cacao flavanol associated with cardiovascular effects, so the accurate quantification of its content in cacao seeds or cocoa products is important. Common methods for the quantification of phenolic content in cocoa products are based on the reaction of phenols with colorimetric reagents such as the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) In this study, we compared the FC method of phenolic determinations using 2 different standards (gallic acid and (-)-epicatechin) to construct calibration curves. We compare these results with those obtained from a simple fluorometric method (Ex(280)/Em(320) nm) used to determine catechin/(-)-epicatechin content in samples of cacao seeds and cocoa products. Values obtained from the FC method determination of polyphenols yield an overestimation of phenol (flavonoid) content when gallic acid is used as standard. Moreover, the epicatechin is a more reliable standard because of its abundance in cacao seeds and cocoa products. The use of fluorometric spectra yields a simple and highly quantitative means for a more precise and rapid quantification of cacao catechins. Fluorometric values are essentially in agreement with those reported using more cumbersome methods. In conclusion, the use of fluorescence emission spectra is a quick, practical and suitable means to quantifying catechins in cacao seeds and cocoa products.

  19. Fluorescent detection of (-)-epicatechin in microsamples from cacao seeds and cocoa products: Comparison with Folin-Ciocalteu method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Sanchez, Israel; Maya, Lisandro; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds of the flavanoid family are abundantly present in cacao seed and its cocoa products. Results from studies using cocoa products indicate beneficial effects of flavanols on cardiovascular endpoints. Evidence indicates that (-)-epicatechin is the main cacao flavanol associated with cardiovascular effects, so the accurate quantification of its content in cacao seeds or cocoa products is important. Common methods for the quantification of phenolic content in cocoa products are based on the reaction of phenols with colorimetric reagents such as the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) In this study, we compared the FC method of phenolic determinations using 2 different standards (gallic acid and (-)-epicatechin) to construct calibration curves. We compare these results with those obtained from a simple fluorometric method (Ex280/Em320 nm) used to determine catechin/(-)-epicatechin content in samples of cacao seeds and cocoa products. Values obtained from the FC method determination of polyphenols yield an overestimation of phenol (flavonoid) content when gallic acid is used as standard. Moreover, the epicatechin is a more reliable standard because of its abundance in cacao seeds and cocoa products. The use of fluorometric spectra yields a simple and highly quantitative means for a more precise and rapid quantification of cacao catechins. Fluorometric values are essentially in agreement with those reported using more cumbersome methods. In conclusion, the use of fluorescence emission spectra is a quick, practical and suitable means to quantifying catechins in cacao seeds and cocoa products. PMID:21297935

  20. A novel male sterility-fertility restoration system in plants for hybrid seed production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Singh, Sudhir P.; Pandey, Tripti; Singh, Ram Rakshpal; Sawant, Samir V.

    2015-01-01

    Hybrid seeds are used for stimulated crop production, as they harness heterosis. The achievement of complete male-sterility in the female-parent and the restored-fertility in F1-hybrids are the major bottlenecks in the commercial hybrid seed production. Here, we report a male sterility–fertility restoration system by engineering the inmost nutritive anther wall layer tapetum of female and male parents. In the female parent, high–level, and stringent expression of Arabidopsis autophagy–related gene BECLIN1 was achieved in the tapetum, which altered the tapetal degeneration program, leading to male sterility. This works on our previously demonstrated expression cassette based on functional complementation of TATA-box mutant (TGTA) promoter and TATA-binding protein mutant3 (TBPm3), with modification by conjugating Long Hypocotyle in Far-Red1 fragment (HFR1NT131) with TBPm3 (HFR1NT131-TBPm3) to exercise regulatory control over it. In the male parent, tapetum–specific Constitutive photo-morphogenesis1 (COP1) was expressed. The F1 obtained by crossing these engineered parents showed decreased BECLIN1 expression, which was further completely abolished when COP1-mutant (COP1L105A) was used as a male parent, leading to normal tapetal development and restored fertility. The system works on COP1-HFR1 interaction and COP1–mediated degradation of TBPm3 pool (HFR1NT131-TBPm3). The system can be deployed for hybrid seed production in agricultural crops. PMID:26073981

  1. Testing hypotheses for excess flower production and low fruit-to-flower ratios in a pollinating seed-consuming mutualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; Bronstein, Judith L.; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2004-01-01

    Pollinator attraction, pollen limitation, resource limitation, pollen donation and selective fruit abortion have all been proposed as processes explaining why hermaphroditic plants commonly produce many more flowers than mature fruit. We conducted a series of experiments in Arizona to investigate low fruit-to-flower ratios in senita cacti, which rely exclusively on pollinating seed-consumers. Selective abortion of fruit based on seed predators is of particular interest in this case because plants relying on pollinating seed-consumers are predicted to have such a mechanism to minimize seed loss. Pollinator attraction and pollen dispersal increased with flower number, but fruit set did not, refuting the hypothesis that excess flowers increase fruit set by attracting more pollinators. Fruit set of natural- and hand-pollinated flowers were not different, supporting the resource, rather than pollen, limitation hypothesis. Senita did abort fruit, but not selectively based on pollen quantity, pollen donors, or seed predators. Collectively, these results are consistent with sex allocation theory in that resource allocation to excess flower production can increase pollen dispersal and the male fitness function of flowers, but consequently results in reduced resources available for fruit set. Inconsistent with sex allocation theory, however, fruit production and the female fitness function of flowers may actually increase with flower production. This is because excess flower production lowers pollinator-to-flower ratios and results in fruit abortion, both of which limit the abundance and hence oviposition rates, of pre-dispersal seed predators.

  2. Efficacy of honeybees (Apis mellifera on the production of sunflower (Helianthus annus L. seeds in the Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Abd Elmhmoud Altayeb

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Study was conducted to test the efficacy of the honeybees in the production of sunflower seeds. This experiment was conducted in Complete Randomized Block Design in the cropping season of 2011- 2012 at Sinnar region, Sudan. Three different patterns of pollination i.e. pollination with honey bee (H, open pollination (O and control without pollination (C were tested for the seed set in sun flower. Each treatments contains twenty (20 plants. Results of study revealed significant differences among the tested pollination pattern. Among these highest seed set ratios (80% and 79% were obtained in the open (O and honey bee (H pollination system. While only 45.2% seed set was reported in the control (C where plants kept in closed system and away from insect pollination. Furthermore, the mean seeds weights per head (27.65g and 26.88g were also reported higher in open and honey bee pollinated system and it was 162.3% and 155% higher than the control respectively. Similar types of trends was reported in the weight parameters of hundred seeds, the superiority was shown by open and honey bee pollination. This weight was 52% and 45% higher than the control treatment (C respectively. Therefore, the results of the study revealed that use of honeybees as pollinator for sunflower can contribute in hybrid seed production in better manner.

  3. Nonthermal production of dark radiation and dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Matthew; Roxlo, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Dark matter may be coupled to dark radiation: light degrees of freedom that mediate forces between dark sector particles. Cosmological constraints favor dark radiation that is colder than Standard Model radiation. In models with fixed couplings between dark matter and the Standard Model, these constraints can be difficult to satisfy if thermal equilibrium is assumed in the early universe. We construct a model of asymmetric reheating of the visible and dark sectors from late decays of a long-lived particle (for instance, a modulus). We show, as a proof of principle, that such a model can populate a sufficiently cold dark sector while also generating baryon and dark matter asymmetries through the out-of-equilibrium decay. We frame much of our discussion in terms of the scenario of dissipative dark matter, as in the Double-Disk Dark Matter scenario. However, our results may also be of interest for other scenarios like the Twin Higgs model that are in danger of overproducing dark radiation due to nonnegligible dark-visible couplings.

  4. Dark matter production associated with a heavy quarkonium at B factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaehyun Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate light dark matter production associated with a heavy quarkonium at B factories in a model-independent way by adopting the effective field theory approach for the interaction of dark matter with standard model particles. We consider the effective operators for the dark matter–heavy quark interaction, which are relevant to the production of dark matter associated with a heavy quarkonium. We calculate the cross sections for dark matter production associated with a J/ψ or ηc to compare with the standard model backgrounds. We set bounds on the energy scale of new physics for various effective operators and also obtain the corresponding limits for the dark matter–nucleon scattering cross sections for light dark matter with mass of the order of a few GeV.

  5. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE EFFECT OF SOME BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PRODUCTS UPON THE GERMINATION CAPACITIES OF SMOOTH BROME SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PET

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The carrying out of uniform forage crops represents an important technological loop for all agricultural species. The uniformity of these crops is caused especially by seed germination capacity, respectively by plant emergence capacity, depending upon the climatic and technological conditions. With regards to the researches carried out in this direction, we present here the influence exerted by some biologically-active products, used through extra-root application during plant vegetation period, upon seeds submitted to germination. The observations performed on smooth brome seeds have led to the conclusion that the per cent of germinated seeds ranges from 82%, in the untreated control variant, to 87.67% in the variant treated with the product Stimupro.

  6. Dry matter production, radiation interception and radiation use efficiency of potato in response to temperature and nitrogen application regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Plauborg, Finn; Kristensen, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    while N rate varied from 0 to 180 kg ha−1. Statistical analysis using mixed modelling detected two clear features: Both temperature and N supply were important factors for dry matter production. Higher temperatures were associated with decreased dry matter production mainly through its negative effect...... from emergence to end of tuber initiation was more important for dry matter production. N supply promoted dry matter production (p

  7. Process data descriptions for the production of synthetic organic materials : input data for the MATTER study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.A.J.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes technologies for the production of synthetic organic materials. It is a result of the MATTER study (MATerials Technologies for CO2 Emission Reduction). The MATTER study focuses on reduction of CO2 emissions caused by the use of energy and materials. This report aims at providin

  8. Process data descriptions for the production of synthetic organic materials : input data for the MATTER study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.A.J.

    This report describes technologies for the production of synthetic organic materials. It is a result of the MATTER study (MATerials Technologies for CO2 Emission Reduction). The MATTER study focuses on reduction of CO2 emissions caused by the use of energy and materials. This report aims at

  9. Soil Organic Matter and Soil Productivity: Searching for the Missing Link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe G. Sanchez

    1998-01-01

    Soil-organic matter (SOM) is a complex array of components including soil fauna and flora at different stages of decomposition (Berg et al., 1982). Its concentration in soils can vary from 0.5% in mineral soils to almost 100% in peat soils (Brady, 1974). Organic matter (OM) in the surface mineral soil is considered a major determinant of forest ecosystem productivity...

  10. Processing-bioprocessing of oilseed rape in bioenergy production and value added utilization of remaining seed components

    OpenAIRE

    Bagger, Christian; Bellostas, Natalia; Jensen, Søren K.; Sørensen, Jens C.; Sørensen, Hilmer; Sørensen, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Cruciferous oilseed crops accumulate relatively high concentrations of oil, proteins and dietary fibres (DF) in their seeds, in addition to bioactive components as glucosinolates and myrosinase isoenzymes (thioglucohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.147). When mixed in the presence of moisture, myrosinase isoenzymes and associated components transform glucosinolates into various types of products, which reduces the value of the extracted oil and the remaining seed components, as well as producing unwanted e...

  11. Frugivore Behavioural Details Matter for Seed Dispersal: A Multi-Species Model for Cantabrian Thrushes and Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Juan Manuel; García, Daniel; Martínez, Daniel; Rodriguez-Pérez, Javier; Herrera, José Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Animal movement and behaviour is fundamental for ecosystem functioning. The process of seed dispersal by frugivorous animals is a showcase for this paradigm since their behaviour shapes the spatial patterns of the earliest stage of plant regeneration. However, we still lack a general understanding of how intrinsic (frugivore and plant species traits) and extrinsic (landscape features) factors interact to determine how seeds of a given species are more likely to be deposited in some places more than in others. We develop a multi-species mechanistic model of seed dispersal based on frugivore behavioural responses to landscape heterogeneity. The model was fitted to data from three-years of spatially-explicit field observations on the behaviour of six frugivorous thrushes and the fruiting patterns of three fleshy-fruited trees in a secondary forest of the Cantabrian range (N Spain). With such model we explore how seed rain patterns arise from the interaction between animal behaviour and landscape heterogeneity. We show that different species of thrushes respond differently to landscape heterogeneity even though they belong to the same genus, and that provide complementary seed dispersal functions. Simulated seed rain patterns are only realistic when at least some landscape heterogeneity (forest cover and fruit abundance) is taken into account. The common and simple approach of re-sampling movement data to quantify seed dispersal produces biases in both the distance and the habitat at which seeds arrive. Movement behaviour not only affects dispersal distance and seed rain patterns but also can affect frugivore diet composition even if there is no built-in preference for fruiting species. In summary, the fate of seeds produced by a given plant species is strongly affected by both the composition of the frugivore assemblage and the landscape-scale context of the plant location, including the presence of fruits from other plants (from the same or different species). PMID

  12. Seed production and recruitment in primary and harvested Nothofagus pumilio forests: Influence of regional climate and years after cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana D. Torres

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Harvesting proposals (e.g. variable retention for Nothofagus pumilio forests are based on canopy opening, to increase recruitment and enhance seedling growth, by modifying light and soil moisture. Seed production and seedling recruitment will define the success of harvesting, where remnant forest structure are the main influence factors, as well as biotic and abiotic factors. The objective was to analyse seed production, seedling recruitment and recruitment efficiency in primary and harvested forests through variable retention along the first 10 years after harvesting, as well as the influence of regional climate. Area of study: The study were conducted in a pure Nothofagus pumilio forest located in central Tierra del Fuego (54°18’ S, 67°49’ W, where harvested stands with variable retention and unmanaged forests were sampled in long-term permanent plots. Material and methods: Data of forest regeneration plots were used (n = 72 (2007 a 2014, and forest structure and seed production (2006 a 2013 were also measured. Regional climate was characterised for these years from satellite images (Sea Surface Temperature and climate re-analysis models (rainfall and temperature of land surface. Main results: Harvesting modified forest structure; however, aggregated retention maintained some characteristics of the primary unmanaged forests. These changes influenced seed production and recruitment. Seed production and recruitment were related to crown cover and the amount of seed production; however, recruitment efficiency was not affected by harvesting. The studied variables significantly changed along the years after harvesting. Seed production and recruitment were also related to regional climate factors, where it was possible to explain their variations through temperature (e.g. summer temperature and rainfall (e.g. winter rainfall for the different retention types in harvested forests and the primary forests. Research highlights

  13. Effects of rutin and buckwheat seeds on energy metabolism and methane production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoldt, Ann-Kathrin; Derno, Michael; Das, Gürbüz; Weitzel, Joachim M; Wolffram, Siegfried; Metges, Cornelia C

    2016-03-01

    Flavonoids are secondary plant metabolites with several health promoting effects. As dairy cows often suffer from metabolic imbalance and health problems, interest is growing in health improvements by plant substances such as flavonoids. Our group has recently shown that the flavonoids quercetin and rutin (a glucorhamnoside of quercetin) are bioavailable in cows when given via a duodenal fistula or orally, respectively, affect glucose metabolism, and have beneficial effects on liver health. Furthermore, flavonoids may reduce rumen methane production in vitro through their antibacterial properties. To test the hypothesis that rutin has effects on energy metabolism, methane production, and production performance in dairy cows, we fed rutin trihydrate at a dose of 100mg/kg of body weight to a group of 7 lactating dairy cows for 2 wk in a crossover design. In a second experiment, 2 cows were fed the same ration but were supplemented with buckwheat seeds (Fagopyrum tartaricum), providing rutin at a dose comparable to the first experiment. Two other cows receiving barley supplements were used as controls in a change-over mode. Blood samples were taken weekly and respiration measurements were performed at the end of each treatment. Supplementation of pure rutin, but not of rutin contained in buckwheat seeds, increased the plasma quercetin content. Methane production and milk yield and composition were not affected by rutin treatment in either form. Plasma glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, and albumin were increased by pure rutin treatment, indicating a possible metabolic effect of rutin on energy metabolism of dairy cows. In addition, we did not show that in vivo ruminal methane production was reduced by rutin. In conclusion, we could not confirm earlier reports on in vitro methane reduction by rutin supplementation in dairy cows in established lactation.

  14. 75 FR 81643 - In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Products Made by Advanced Lithography Techniques and... for ] importation, and sale within the United States after importation of certain semiconductor... respondents: Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing, Co., Ltd. (Taiwan) (``TSMC''); and Samsung Electronics...

  15. 75 FR 5804 - In the Matter of: Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Products Containing Same; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Semiconductor Integrated Circuits and Products Containing Same; Notice... importation, and sale within the United States after importation of certain semiconductor integrated...

  16. 76 FR 39895 - In the Matter of Certain Microprocessors, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Microprocessors, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same; Notice... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain microprocessors, components... sale within the United States after importation of certain microprocessors, components thereof,...

  17. 75 FR 18548 - In the Matter of Certain Products and Pharmaceutical Compositions Containing Recombinant Human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Products and Pharmaceutical Compositions Containing Recombinant Human... pharmaceutical compositions containing recombinant human erythropoietin by reason of infringement of claims 1...

  18. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Julie

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Results Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g, total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g, and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g. Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Conclusions Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  19. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, Stephen J; Preston, Amy G; Hurst, Jeffrey W; Payne, Mark J; Mann, Julie; Hainly, Larry; Miller, Debra L

    2011-02-07

    Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder and cocoa products to powders and juices derived from fruits commonly considered "Super Fruits". Various fruit powders and retail fruit products were obtained and analyzed for antioxidant capacity (ORAC (μM TE/g)), total polyphenol content (TP (mg/g)), and total flavanol content (TF (mg/g)). Among the various powders that were tested, cocoa powder was the most concentrated source of ORAC and TF. Similarly, dark chocolate was a significantly more concentrated source of ORAC and TF than the fruit juices. Cocoa powder and dark chocolate had equivalent or significantly greater ORAC, TP, and TF values compared to the other fruit powders and juices tested, respectively. Cacao seeds thus provide nutritive value beyond that derived from their macronutrient composition and appear to meet the popular media's definition of a "Super Fruit".

  20. Phenology, fruit production and seed dispersal of Astrocaryum jauari (Arecaceae) in Amazonian black water floodplains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedade, Maria Teresa F; Parolin, Pia; Junk, Wolfgang J

    2006-12-01

    Astrocaryum jauari Mart. (Arecaceae) is one of the commonest palm species occurring in nutritionally poor Amazonian black water floodplains. It is an emergent or subcanopy tree that grows on river banks and islands, with a wide distribution along the entire flooding gradient, tolerating flood durations between 30 and 340 days. The species is important for fish nutrition in the floodplains, and is also used for hearts of palm. In the present study, the auto-ecology of A. jauari was analysed over a period of two years in the Anavilhanas Archipelago, Rio Negro, Brazil, with a focus on phenology, fruit production, and seed dispersal. Fruit fall is annual and synchronized with high water levels, with a production of 1.6 ton of fruit ha(-1). The fruits are eaten by at least 16 species of fish which either gnaw the pulp, fragment the seed, or ingest the entire fruit, thus acting as dispersal agents. Besides ichthyocory, barochory (with subsequent vegetative propagation) is an important dispersal mode, enhancing the occurrence of large masses of individuals in the Anavilhanas islands and in the region of maximum palm heart extraction near Barcelos.

  1. Distance to semi-natural grassland influences seed production of insect-pollinated herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Anna; Ågren, Jon

    2014-05-01

    Marginal grassland fragments, such as road verges and field margins, may act as important supplemental habitats for grassland plants in the modern agricultural landscape. However, abundance of pollinators in such fragments has been found to decline with distance to larger natural and semi-natural habitats, and this could have corresponding effects on plant pollination. In this study, we performed a field experiment on road verges with three insect-pollinated grassland herbs to examine the relationship between distance to semi-natural grassland and plant reproductive success in two landscapes with contrasting farming intensities. In Lychnis viscaria and Lotus corniculatus, seed production tended to decrease with increasing distance to semi-natural grassland, but only in the landscape with high farming intensity. Seed production in Armeria maritima spp. maritima decreased with distance in both landscapes. Although many studies have investigated effects of natural habitat on crop pollination, little is known about the impact on pollination in native plants. The results from this study indicate that management of semi-natural grasslands improves not only biodiversity within the actual grassland but also pollination of native plants in the surrounding agricultural landscape.

  2. USE MANURE AND ORGANIC WASTE AS PLANTING MEDIA OF SEED POTATOES PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meksy Dianawati

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Manure and organic waste could be used as organic media at potato seed production of G1. The goal of this research was to increase production of potato seed G1 by several kinds of manure and organic waste. This research was conducted at plastic house in Lembang, West Java, from June to September 2014. This research used randomized completed block design with two treatment factors and six replications. The first factor was kinds of manure i.e chicken manure and sheep manure. The second factor was kinds of organic waste. Data was analysed by F test and followed by Duncan and correlation test at 95 percent confidence level. The results showed that media of husk waste with chicken and sheep manure has higher tuber weight and number of big-size tuber per plant than one of cocopeat significantly. Media of sheep manure with husk and bamboo waste has highest tuber weight per plant significantly. Number of total tuber was effected by number of smallsized tuber by 84 percent.

  3. Organic seed: The production and the certification in the experimental field of the 'Tamiš' Institute, Pančevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugrenović Vladan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The seed, the replanation and the planting material used in organic production, have to originate from a certified organic plant production ('The Official Register of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia', number 51/2002. In the beginning of 2009, in the experimental field of the 'Tamiš' Institute, there was established a demo-field according to the methods of organic production. A demo-field establishing process and a seed production were prepared according to the current Law on Organic Production and Organic Products and its accompanying regulations ('The Official Register of the Republic of Serbia', number 62/2006; 'The Official Register of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia', number 51/2002. During the first year of conversion period was established the seed production of soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill. Production of organic seed is submitted to double check, and requires issuing two certificates. According to the current Law on Seed ('The Official Register of the Republic of Serbia', number 45/2006, the established production of soybean was reported as a seed crop to the Ministry of Agriculture, as well as to an authorized organization for control and certification. All the necessary professional crop checking was per- formed during the seed processing. The seed production was successfully ended and resulted in acquiring the seed of the three soybean types organically produced, with the status of the first year conversion period. We specially emphasize a soybean seed type named 'Domestic Black', which, for its characteristics, rep- resents very interesting selection material for organic production. In the autumn of 2009, there was established the seed production of the only acknowledged type of spelt (Triticum spelta L - type 'Nirvana', in the demo-field of the 'Tamiš' Institute. There was used a declared seed, produced according the methods of organic production with the status of the second year conversion period.

  4. Fractional characterisation of jatropha, neem, moringa, trisperma, castor and candlenut seeds as potential feedstocks for biodiesel production in Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Carlos [Bioresource Technology group, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Matanzas, Autopista a Varadero, km 3, Matanzas 44740 (Cuba); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), Polytechnical Building, As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Moure, Andres; Dominguez, Herminia; Parajo, Juan C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Vigo (Campus Ourense), Polytechnical Building, As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Martin, Giraldo [Experimental Station of Pastures and Forages ' ' Indio Hatuey' ' , Central Espana Republicana, CP 44280, Matanzas (Cuba); Carrillo, Eugenio [Biomass Energy Department, National Renewable Energy Centre (CENER), Ciudad de la Innovacion 4, Sarriguren, 31621 Pamplona (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    A preliminary investigation on the suitability of various non-edible oil seeds for the integral utilisation of their fractions for production of biodiesel and other products was carried out. The oil seeds considered were jatropha (Jatropha curcas), neem (Azadirachta indica), moringa (Moringa oleifera), trisperma (Aleurites trisperma), castor beans (Ricinus communis) and candlenut (Aleurites moluccana). The highest oil content (62.0% (w/w)) was found in trisperma seeds, but the use of that oil for biodiesel production is restricted by its high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The oils of castor beans and moringa contained 86.0% of ricinoleic acid and 70.6% of oleic acid, respectively, while in the oils from the other seeds no predominance of any acid was observed. According to the oil yield and to the fatty acid composition of the oil, jatropha was identified as the most promising oil seed for biodiesel production in Cuba. All the press cakes were rich in protein, the highest content (68.6%) being detected in moringa cake. The investigation revealed that the husks of neem and moringa can be considered potential substrates for ethanol production due to their high cellulose content (approximately 30%). A high concentration (4.3%) of acetyl groups was found in neem husks, what is favourable for the hydrolytic conversion of polysaccharides to simple sugars. A high protein content (15.2%) was detected in moringa husks, which is a positive feature for lowering the cost of nutrient supplementation in ethanolic fermentation. (author)

  5. The effect of fertilizer level and foliar-applied calcium on seed production and germination of Gerbera hybrida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Christian; Kemezys, Andrius Hansen; Müller, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Gerbera hybrida is an ornamental plant of great commercial interest, which is primarily propagated by seeds. We investigated whether increasing fertilizer concentrations during seed set enhanced plant biomass, number of flower heads, seed set, and seed weight. Furthermore, we studied whether...... conductivity (EC) of 1.25 mS·cm-1, 2.50 mS·cm-1, 3.75 mS·cm-1, 5.00 mS·cm-1, and 6.25 mS·cm-1. Additionally, plants were sprayed with a 0.5% foliar-applied calcium solution or deionized water (control) three times during the experimental period. In Expt. A, the concentration of fertilizer significantly...... affected seed production. Number of flower heads and seed weight were not influenced by the dose of fertilizer, but plant biomass and number of seeds were significantly reduced at the highest concentration (6.25 mS·cm-1). In Expt. B, the fertilizer concentration did not affect number of flower heads...

  6. Species richness matters for the quality of ecosystem services: a test using seed dispersal by frugivorous birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Daniel; Martínez, Daniel

    2012-08-07

    The positive link between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning is a current paradigm in ecological science. However, little is known of how different attributes of species assemblages condition the quality of many services in real ecosystems affected by human impact. We explore the links between the attributes of a frugivore assemblage and the quantitative and qualitative components of its derived ecosystem service, seed dispersal, along a landscape-scale gradient of anthropogenic forest loss. Both the number and the richness of seeds being dispersed were positively related to frugivore abundance and richness. Seed dispersal quality, determined by the fine-scale spatial patterns of seed deposition, mostly depended on frugivore richness. In fact, richness was the only attribute of the frugivore assemblage affecting the probability of seed dispersal into deforested areas of the landscape. The positive relationships between frugivore richness per se (i.e. independent of frugivore abundance and composition) and all components of seed dispersal suggest the existence of functional complementarity and/or facilitation between frugivores. These links also point to the whole assemblage of frugivores as a conservation target, if we aim to preserve a complete seed dispersal service and, hence, the potential for vegetation regeneration and recovery, in human-impacted landscapes.

  7. 75 FR 14467 - In the Matter of: Certain Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors and Products Containing Same... random access memory semiconductors and products containing same, including memory modules, by reason of... after importation of certain dynamic random access memory semiconductors or products containing the...

  8. 75 FR 24742 - In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products... semiconductor chips and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos... certain large scale integrated circuit semiconductor chips or products containing the same that...

  9. Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on Open and Hidden Heavy Flavor Production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, R

    2015-01-01

    We discuss a number of cold nuclear matter effects that can modify open heavy flavor and quarkonium production in proton-nucleus collisions and could thus also affect their production in nucleus-nucleus collisions, in addition to hot quark-gluon plasma production. We show some results for $p+$Pb collisions at sqrt s = 5 TeV at the LHC.

  10. Microwave assisted alkali-catalyzed transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ritesh; Kumar, G Ravi; Chandrashekar, N

    2011-06-01

    In this study, microwave assisted transesterification of Pongamia pinnata seed oil was carried out for the production of biodiesel. The experiments were carried out using methanol and two alkali catalysts i.e., sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH). The experiments were carried out at 6:1 alcohol/oil molar ratio and 60°C reaction temperature. The effect of catalyst concentration and reaction time on the yield and quality of biodiesel was studied. The result of the study suggested that 0.5% sodium hydroxide and 1.0% potassium hydroxide catalyst concentration were optimum for biodiesel production from P. pinnata oil under microwave heating. There was a significant reduction in reaction time for microwave induced transesterification as compared to conventional heating.

  11. Lotus Seed Resistant Starch Regulates Gut Microbiota and Increases SCFAs Production and Mineral Absorption in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hongliang; Huang, Cancan; Lin, Shan; Zheng, Mingjing; Chen, Chuanjie; Zheng, Baodong; Zhang, Yi

    2017-09-27

    Lotus seed resistant starch, known as resistant starch type 3 (LRS3), was orally administered to mice to investigate its effects on the gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production, and mineral absorption. The results showed that mice fed LRS3 displayed a lower level of gut bacterial diversity than other groups. The numbers of starch-utilizing and butyrate-producing bacteria, such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridium, respectively, in mice increased after the administration of medium and high doses of LRS3, while those of Rikenellaceae and Porphyromonadaceae decreased. Furthermore, SCFAs and lactic acid in mice feces were affected by LRS3, and lactate was fermented to butyrate by gut microbiota. LRS3 enhanced the intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and iron, and this was dependent on the type and concentration of SCFAs, especially butyrate. Thus, LRS3 promoted the production of SCFAs and mineral absorption by regulating gut microbiota in mice.

  12. Experimental aspects of quarkonia production and suppression in cold and hot nuclear matter

    CERN Document Server

    Frawley, A D

    2015-01-01

    When heavy Quarkonia are formed in collisions between between nuclei, their production cross section is modified relative to that in p+p collisions. The physical effects that cause this modification fall into two categories. Hot matter effects are due to the large energy density generated in the nuclear collision, which disrupts the formation of the quarkonium state. Cold nuclear matter effects are due to the fact that the quarkonium state is created in a nuclear target. I will review experimental aspects of quarkonia production due to both hot and cold matter effects.

  13. Production of pre-basic potato seed by polyvinyl chloride PVC: articulate gutters hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of more efficient and productive systems for pre-basic seed potato production would improve the quality of the propagative material used by the potato growers, directly affecting the crop yields. A two-year experiment was carried out to evaluate the potato pre-basic seed production by two types of hydroponic systems (fibrocement tiles and articulated PVC gutters, two cultivars (`Baronesa` and `Eliza` and two types of propagative material (plants coming from in vitro culture and minitubers. The PVC gutters system was highly efficient. When using minitubers, this system reached multiplication rates up to 74 tubers per plant. Minitubers were more productive than in vitro plants, independent of cultivar and hydroponic system utilized.Um experimento realizado por dois anos consecutivos avaliou a produção de sementes pré-básicas de batata por meio de sistemas de cultivo hidropônico. O trabalho testou a combinação de dois sistemas de cultivo (telha de fibrocimento e calhas de PVC articuladas, duas cultivares (Baronesa e Eliza e dois tipos de material propagativo (plântulas oriundas do cultivo in vitro e minitubérculos. O sistema de calhas de PVC foi altamente eficiente. Quando foi utilizado minitubérculos, este sistema alcançou taxas de multiplicação de até 74 tubérculos por planta. De modo geral, o uso de minitubérculos como material propagativo apresentou os melhores resultados de produtividade quando comparada ao material in vitro, independentemente da cultivar e sistemas hidropônicos utilizados.

  14. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Sekulic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM. The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI seed treatment (NNI ST use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.. Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species.

  15. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Gregory; Rempel, Curtis B

    2016-08-03

    The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST) is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM). The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI) seed treatment (NNI ST) use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.). Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species.

  16. The K+-dependent asparaginase, NSE1, is crucial for plant growth and seed production in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credali, Alfredo; García-Calderón, Margarita; Dam, Svend; Perry, Jillian; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio; Parniske, Martin; Wang, Trevor L; Stougaard, Jens; Vega, José M; Márquez, Antonio J

    2013-01-01

    The physiological role of K(+)-dependent and K(+)-independent asparaginases in plants remains unclear, and the contribution from individual isoforms during development is poorly understood. We have used reverse genetics to assess the phenotypes produced by the deficiency of K(+)-dependent NSE1 asparaginase in the model legume Lotus japonicus. For this purpose, four different mutants were identified by TILLING and characterized, two of which affected the structure and function of the asparaginase molecule and caused asparagine accumulation. Plant growth and total seed weight of mature mutant seeds as well as the level of both legumin and convicilin seed storage proteins were affected in the mutants. The mutants isolated in the present work are the first of their type in legumes and have enabled us to demonstrate the importance of asparagine and K(+)-dependent NSE1 asparaginase for nitrogen remobilization and seed production in L. japonicus plants.

  17. Effect of electrode materials on a negative ion production in a cesium seeded negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Morishita, Takutoshi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Hanada, Masaya; Iga, Takashi; Inoue, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Imai, Tsuyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Wada, Motoi [Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Effects of plasma grid materials on the negative ion production efficiency in a cesium seeded ion source have been experimentally studied. Grid materials of Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, and Mo were examined. A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source was utilized in the experiment to avoid contamination of tungsten from filament cathode. Relations between the negative ion currents and work functions of the grid were measured for these materials. Influence of the contamination by tungsten on the grid was also investigated. If was clarified that the negative ion production efficiency was determined only by the work function of the grid. The efficiency did not depend on the material itself. The lowest work function of 1.42 eV was obtained for Au grid with Cs, and a high H{sup -} production efficiency of 20.7 mA/kW was measured. This efficiency is about 1.3 times larger than that of Cs/Mo and Cs/Cu. Further improvement of the production efficiency was observed by covering the plasma grid with tungsten and cesium simultaneously. Such co-deposition of W and Cs on the plasma grid produced the negative ion production efficiency of 1.7 times higher than that from the tungsten grid simply covered with Cs. (author)

  18. Sesame seed products contaminated with Salmonella: three outbreaks associated with tahini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unicomb, L E; Simmons, G; Merritt, T; Gregory, J; Nicol, C; Jelfs, P; Kirk, M; Tan, A; Thomson, R; Adamopoulos, J; Little, C L; Currie, A; Dalton, C B

    2005-12-01

    In November 2002, the first of three outbreaks of Salmonella Montevideo infection in Australia and New Zealand was identified in New South Wales, Australia. Affected persons were interviewed, and epidemiologically linked retail outlets inspected. Imported tahini was rapidly identified as the source of infection. The contaminated tahini was recalled and international alerts posted. A second outbreak was identified in Australia in June-July 2003 and another in New Zealand in August 2003. In a total of 68 S. Montevideo infections, 66 cases were contacted. Fifty-four (82%) reported consumption of sesame seed-based foods. Laboratory analyses demonstrated closely related PFGE patterns in the S. Montevideo isolates from human cases and sesame-based foods imported from two countries. On the basis of our investigations sesame-based products were sampled in other jurisdictions and three products in Canada and one in the United Kingdom were positive for Salmonella spp., demonstrating the value of international alerts when food products have a wide distribution and a long shelf life. A review of the controls for Salmonella spp. during the production of sesame-based products is recommended.

  19. Effect of Rhizobium inoculation of seeds and foliar fertilization on productivity of Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pea (Pisum sativum L. is the second most important grain legume crop in the world which has a wide array of uses for human food and fodder. One of the major factors that determines the use of field pea is the yield potential of cultivars. Presently, pre-sowing inoculation of pea seeds and foliar application of microelement fertilizers are prospective solutions and may be reasonable agrotechnical options. This research was undertaken because of the potentially high productivity of the 'afila' morphotype in good wheat complex soils. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of vaccination with Rhizobium and foliar micronutrient fertilization on yield of the afila pea variety. The research was based on a two-year (2009–2010 controlled field experiment, conducted in four replicates and carried out on the experimental field of the Bayer company located in Modzurów, Silesian region. experimental field soil was Umbrisol – slightly degraded chernozem, formed from loess. Nitragina inoculant, as a source of symbiotic bacteria, was applied before sowing seeds. Green area index (GAI of the canopy, photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI were determined at characteristic growth stages. The presented results of this study on symbiotic nitrogen fixation by leguminous plants show that the combined application of Nitragina and Photrel was the best combination for productivity. Remote measurements of the pea canopy indexes indicated the formation of the optimum leaf area which effectively used photosynthetically active radiation. The use of Nitragina as a donor of effective Rhizobium for pea plants resulted in slightly higher GAI values and the optimization of PAR and NDVI. It is not recommended to use foliar fertilizers or Nitragina separately due to the slowing of pea productivity.

  20. Characterization and Utilization of castor bean seed oil extract for production of medicated soap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrasheed A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research work is to investigate the potential utilization of castor bean seed oil extract in the production of medicated soap. The oil was extracted via soxhlet extractor using hexane as solvent. The characterization analysis reveals the acid value and saponification value of the oil which were between the ranges of values specified by ASTM. The soap produced gave a pH of (8.9, foam height (16cm, alcohol insoluble (3.45%, moisture content (4.2% and free acidity of (0.10. The antibacterial activity of soap produced from castor oil on bacteria isolate (Staphylococcus Aureus was promising with an inhibition zone of 15.5mm but at dilutions of 10-1 , 10-2 and 10-3 , were found to be 11.5mm, 9.5mm and 6mm respectively. This shows that as concentration decreases, the sensitivity of the soap to the bacteria isolate also decreases. The sensitivity of the medicated soap to the bacteria isolate is as a result of the presence of ricinoleic acid present in large proportion in the fatty acid composition of castor oil. It can be concluded that a highly effective soap can be produced from castor bean seed oil extract.

  1. Corn seeds as bioreactors for the production of phytase in the feed industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rumei; Zhang, Chunyi; Yao, Bin; Xue, Guangxing; Yang, Wenzhu; Zhou, Xiaojin; Zhang, Junmin; Sun, Cheng; Chen, Ping; Fan, Yunliu

    2013-05-20

    Corn seed is a major ingredient of animal feed worldwide. However, it contains phytate, a major phosphate storage form that is unavailable to monogastric animals like pigs and poultry. We report a transgenic corn with bioavailable phosphate, achieved by seed-specific overexpression of Aspergillus niger phytase, an enzyme catalyzing the release of phosphate from phytate. We obtained maximal phytase activity of 125 FTU/g kernels, 1000-fold above that of the wild type, with 1000 g of kernels containing up to 67 times the feed industry requirement. Enzymatic characterization of Zea mays recombinant phytase (ZmrPhy) showed it to be equivalent to yeast (Pichia pastoris) recombinant phytase (PprPhy), a commercially available phytase product. An animal feeding trial demonstrated that ZmrPhy had similar nutritional effects on broiler chickens to PprPhy in terms of reducing inorganic phosphorus addition to feed and phosphate excretion in animal manure. These results suggest that transgenic phytase corn can be used directly in the feed industry. Experiments were conducted to assess the food safety of the corn; the results demonstrated no difference versus regular corn. This is the first genetically modified corn officially issued with a biosafety certificate in China and has great potential in the animal feed industry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Microorganisms associated with natural fermentation of Prosopis africana seeds for the production of okpiye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achi, O K

    1992-10-01

    Okpiye is a food condiment prepared by the fermentation of Prosopis africana seeds. The traditional process for the production and microbiological characteristics of the condiment were investigated. During laboratory fermentation that lasted 96 h, the mesquite seeds underwent a natural fermentation that was characterised by the growth of microorganisms to 10(6)-10(8) cfu/g. Several species of bacteria especially B. subtilis, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus spp were found to be the most actively involved organisms. However, significant contributions to the microbial ecology were made by Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Lactobacillus spp were present in low numbers towards the end of the fermentation. The presence of Proteus and Pseudomonas spp in traditional fermented samples demonstrate the variability which may exist in the microflora of individual fermented samples. Variations in the important microbial groups show that Bacillus spp were the most prevalent species and occurred until the end of fermentation. Temperature, pH and titratable acidity varied with time and were influenced by the metabolic activities of the microorganisms.

  3. Use of transgenic seeds in Brazilian agriculture and concentration of agricultural production to large agribusinesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, C D; Martins, F J O; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gonçalves, L S A; Amaral, S C S; de Mello, M P

    2012-07-19

    We identified the commercial releases of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in Brazil, their characteristics, the types of genetic transformation used, and the companies responsible for the development of these GMOs, classifying them into two categories: private companies, subdivided into multinational and national, and public institutions. The data came from the data bank of the national registration of cultivars and the service of national protection of cultivars of the Ministry of Agriculture, Fishing and Supply (MAPA). This survey was carried out from 1998 to February 12, 2011. Until this date, 27 GMOs had been approved, including five for soybean, 15 for maize and seven for cotton cultivars. These GMOs have been used for the development of 766 cultivars, of which, 305 are soybean, 445 are maize, and 13 are cotton cultivars. The Monsato Company controls 73.2% of the transgenic cultivars certified by the MAPA; a partnership between Dow AgroSciences and DuPont accounts for 21.4%, and Syngenta controls 4.96%. Seed supply by these companies is almost a monopoly supported by law, giving no choice for producers and leading to the fast replacement of conventional cultivars by transgenic cultivars, which are expensive and exclude small producers from the market, since seeds cannot be kept for later use. This situation concentrates production in the hands of a few large national agribusiness entrepreneurs.

  4. Salinity affects production and salt tolerance of dimorphic seeds of Suaeda salsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengxia; Xu, Yan-Ge; Wang, Shuai; Shi, Weiwei; Liu, Ranran; Feng, Gu; Song, Jie

    2015-10-01

    The effect of salinity on brown seeds/black seeds ratio, seed weight, endogenous hormone concentrations, and germination of brown and black seeds in the euhalophyte Suaeda salsa was investigated. The brown seeds/black seeds ratio, seed weight of brown and black seeds and the content of protein increased at a concentration of 500 mM NaCl compared to low salt conditions (1 mM NaCl). The germination percentage and germination index of brown seeds from plants cultured in 500 mM NaCl were higher than those cultured in 1 mM NaCl, but it was not true for black seeds. The concentrations of IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), ZR (free zeatin riboside) and ABA (abscisic acid) in brown seeds were much greater than those in black seeds, but there were no differences in the level of GAs (gibberellic acid including GA1 and GA3) regardless of the degree of salinity. Salinity during plant culture increased the concentration of GAs, but salinity had no effect on the concentrations of the other three endogenous hormones in brown seeds. Salinity had no effect on the concentration of IAA but increased the concentrations of the other three endogenous hormones in black seeds. Accumulation of endogenous hormones at different concentrations of NaCl during plant growth may be related to seed development and to salt tolerance of brown and black S. salsa seeds. These characteristics may help the species to ensure seedling establishment and population succession in variable saline environments.

  5. Potential of stale seed bed preparation in integrated and organic crop production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotz, L.A.P.; Weide, van der R.Y.; Bleeker, P.O.; Groeneveld, R.M.W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews a study over six years to assess the potential of stale seed beds in various crops. Using stale seed beds, the farmer has to optimize the combined effect of, firstly, the delaying of the sowing time of the crop and, secondly, the timing of the stale seed bed (i.e. the period after

  6. Production of Dissolved Organic Matter During Fungal Wood Rot Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, T. R.; Jellison, J.; Goodell, B.; Kelley, S.; Davis, M.

    2002-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter mediates numerous biogeochemical processes in soil systems impacting subsurface microbial activity, redox chemistry, soil structure, and carbon and nitrogen sequestration. The structure and chemistry of DOM is a function of the inherited chemistry of the source material, the type of microbial action that has occurred, and selective interaction with mineral substrates. The type of fungal decomposition imparted to woody tissue is a major factor in determining the nature of DOM in forest soils. In order to investigate the relationship between fungal decomposition and the nature of DOM in coniferous forest soils we conducted 32-week inoculation studies on spruce sapwood with basidiomycete brown-rot wood decay fungi where leachable dissolved and colloidal organic matter was separated from decayed residue. A detailed examination of the organic fractions was conducted using 13C-labeled tetramethylammonium hydroxide thermochemolysis, solid-state 13C-NMR, and electrospray mass spectrometry. The progressive stages of microbial decay (cellulolytic and ligninolytic) were manifested in the chemical composition of the DOM which showed an evolution from a composition initially polysaccharide rich to one dominated by mildly oxidized and demethylated lignin. Upon removal of all polysaccharides at 16 weeks the DOM (up to 10% by weight of the original tissue) looked chemically distinct from the degraded residue

  7. Consumption and quantitation of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol in commercially available hemp seed oil products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosy, T Z; Cole, K A

    2000-10-01

    There has been a recent and significant increase in the use and availability of hemp seed oil products. These products are being marketed as a healthy source of essential omega fatty acids when taken orally. Although the health aspects of these oils is open to debate, the probability that oils derived from the hemp seed will contain delta9-tetrahyrdocannabinol (THC) is noteworthy. Recent additions to the literature cite a number of studies illustrating that the ingestion of these products results in urinary levels of the THC metabolite, delta9-tetrahyrdocannabinol carboxylic acid (THCA), well above the administrative cutoff (50 ng/mL) used during random drug screens. Testing performed by our laboratory found that the concentration of THC in hemp oil products has been reduced considerably since the publication of earlier studies. The purpose of this study is to quantitate the THC levels in commercially available hemp oils and to administer those oils tested to THC-free volunteers to determine urine metabolite levels following several 15-g doses. Two extraction protocols were evaluated for removing THC from the oil matrix: a single step liquid-liquid extraction was compared to a two-phase process using both liquid-liquid and solid-phase techniques. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine THC levels in several products: four from Spectrum Essentials (3 bottled oils and 1-g capsules), two from Health from the Sun (1-g capsules and bottled oil) oils, and single samples of both Hempstead and Hempola hemp oils. These hemp oil products contained THC concentrations of 36.0, 36.4, 117.5, 79.5, 48.6, 45.7, 21.0, and 11.5 mg/g, respectively. The Abbott AxSYM FPIA and Roche On-Line KIMS immunoassays were used to screen the urine samples, and GC-MS was used to determine the amount of THC in each oil as well as confirm and quantitate THCA in the urine of study participants immediately before and 6 h after each dose. Peak THCA levels in the participants' urine

  8. Happiness matters: the role of well-being in productivity

    OpenAIRE

    DiMaria, Charles Henri; Peroni, Chiara; Sarracino, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the link between people’s subjective well-being, defined as an evaluation of one’s own life, and productivity. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that subjective well-being contributes to productivity using a two step approach: first, we establish whether subjective well-being can be a candidate variable to study Total Factor Productivity; second, we assess how much subjective well-being contributes to productivity at aggregate level through efficiency gains. We adopt ...

  9. Anticancer and cancer chemopreventive potential of grape seed extract and other grape-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manjinder; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2009-09-01

    With emerging trends in the incidence of cancer of various organ sites, additional approaches are needed to control human malignancies. Intervention or prevention of cancer by dietary constituents, a strategy defined as chemoprevention, holds great promise in our conquest to control cancer, because it can be implemented on a broader population base with less economic burden. Consistent with this, several epidemiological studies have shown that populations that consume diets rich in fruits and vegetables have an overall lower cancer incidence. Based on these encouraging observations, research efforts from across the globe have focused on identifying, characterizing, and providing scientific basis to the efficacy of various phytonutrients in an effort to develop effective strategy to control various human malignancies. Cancer induction, growth, and progression are multi-step events and numerous studies have demonstrated that various dietary agents interfere with these stages of cancer, thus blocking malignancy. Fruits and vegetables represent untapped reservoir of various nutritive and nonnutritive phytochemicals with potential cancer chemopreventive activity. Grapes and grape-based products are one such class of dietary products that have shown cancer chemopreventive potential and are also known to improve overall human health. This review focuses on recent advancements in cancer chemopreventive and anticancer efficacy of grape seed extract and other grape-based products. Overall, completed studies from various scientific groups conclude that both grapes and grape-based products are excellent sources of various anticancer agents and their regular consumption should thus be beneficial to the general population.

  10. A nonlinear relationship between genetic diversity and productivity in a polyphagous seed beetle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burls, K J; Shapiro, J; Forister, M L; Hoelzer, G A

    2014-05-01

    There has been a renewed interest in the effects of genetic diversity on population-level and community-level processes. Many of these studies have found non-additive, positive effects of diversity, but these studies have rarely examined ecological mechanisms by which diverse populations increase productivity. We used the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to study genetic diversity in insect host preference and fecundity and its effects on total productivity and resource use. We created genetically distinct lineages that varied in host preference and fecundity and then assembled groups consisting of one, three, five, or all ten lineages. We found that lineages with intermediate diversity had the highest productivity, though resource use did not change in diverse groups. In addition, lineages showed substantial plasticity in host preference when preference was assayed either individually or in groups, and productivity was much lower in groups than predicted by individual assays. These results highlight the interplay of genetic diversity, resource variation, and phenotypic plasticity in determining the ecological consequences of genetic diversity. In addition, when plasticity modifies a population's response to population density, this may create a complex interaction between genetic diversity and density, influencing selective pressures on the population and potentially maintaining genetic diversity across generations.

  11. Improvement of pea biomass and seed productivity by simultaneous increase of phloem and embryo loading with amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lizhi; Garneau, Matthew G; Majumdar, Rajtilak; Grant, Jan; Tegeder, Mechthild

    2015-01-01

    The development of sink organs such as fruits and seeds strongly depends on the amount of nitrogen that is moved within the phloem from photosynthetic-active source leaves to the reproductive sinks. In many plant species nitrogen is transported as amino acids. In pea (Pisum sativum L.), source to sink partitioning of amino acids requires at least two active transport events mediated by plasma membrane-localized proteins, and these are: (i) amino acid phloem loading; and (ii) import of amino acids into the seed cotyledons via epidermal transfer cells. As each of these transport steps might potentially be limiting to efficient nitrogen delivery to the pea embryo, we manipulated both simultaneously. Additional copies of the pea amino acid permease PsAAP1 were introduced into the pea genome and expression of the transporter was targeted to the sieve element-companion cell complexes of the leaf phloem and to the epidermis of the seed cotyledons. The transgenic pea plants showed increased phloem loading and embryo loading of amino acids resulting in improved long distance transport of nitrogen, sink development and seed protein accumulation. Analyses of root and leaf tissues further revealed that genetic manipulation positively affected root nitrogen uptake, as well as primary source and sink metabolism. Overall, the results suggest that amino acid phloem loading exerts regulatory control over pea biomass production and seed yield, and that import of amino acids into the cotyledons limits seed protein levels.

  12. High Temperature Induced Glume Closure Resulted in Lower Fertility in Hybrid Rice Seed Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haoliang; Zhang, Binglin; Zhang, Yunbo; Chen, Xinlan; Xiong, Hui; Matsui, Tsutomu; Tian, Xiaohai

    2017-01-01

    Predicted climate changes, in particular, the increased dimension and frequency of heat waves, are expected to affect crop growth in the future seriously. Hybrid rice relies on seed production from male sterile and restorer lines. Experiments were conducted over two consecutive years to compare the high temperature tolerance of parents of different hybrid rice combinations, in terms of fertility rate, flowering pattern, pollination and physiological parameters of the lodicule. Three male sterile lines and a broad compatibility restorer line (as pollen donor and conventional variety as well) were grown to heading stage and then treated with average daily temperatures of 26°C (range 23–30°C), 28°C (25–32°C), and 30°C (26–34°C), respectively, continued for 5–7 days each in a natural light phytotron which simulated the local typical high temperature weather in the field. The results indicated that male sterile lines were more sensitive to high temperature than the restorer line for fertility rate, and the sensitivity varied between varieties. The fertility rate of the restorer line was maintained at about 90% under the high temperature treatments, while it decreased in the male sterile lines by 23.3 and 48.1% at 28 and 30°C, respectively. The fertility rate of the most sensitive line declined by 70%, and the tolerant line declined by 34% at 30°C. Glume closure in the male sterile lines was a major reason for the reduced fertility rate under high temperature, which is closely correlated with carbohydrates content and the vascular bundle pattern in the lodicule. The present study identified a useful trait to select male sterile lines with high temperature tolerance for seed production. PMID:28105031

  13. Annual grasses in crop rotations with grass seed production - A survey with special focus on Vulpia spp. in red fescue production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Kryger; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of grass weeds in grass seed crops in Denmark. The survey is based on an analysis of data from a database containing monitoring of grass weeds in the period from 2004 to 2009 on an acreage of approximately 400,000 ha. The survey is based on weed monitoring carried out...... during a mandatory field inspection of grass seed crops. All fields grown with grasses for seed production are monitored shortly before harvest at a time when the weeds present are a result of a combination of the cropping history of the field, competition from the crop and the weed control carried out...... in the field. The survey showed that Poa annua, Elytrigia repens and Poa trivialis were the three most frequent grass weeds in grass seed crops. Furthermore, Bromus hordeaceus, Bromus sterilis, P. trivialis and Vulpia spp. showed an increasing frequency in the study period. The perennial weed, E. repens...

  14. Planting Date and Seeding Rate Effects on Sunn Hemp Biomass and Nitrogen Production for a Winter Cover Crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipling S. Balkcom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L. is a tropical legume that produces plant biomass and nitrogen (N quickly. Our objectives were to assess the growth of a new sunn hemp cultivar breed to produce seed in a temperate climate and determine the residual N effect on a rye (Secale cereale L. cover crop in east-central Alabama from 2007 to 2009. Plant populations, plant height, stem diameter, biomass production, and N content were determined for two sunn hemp planting dates, following corn (Zea mays L. and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. harvest, across different seeding rates (17, 34, 50, and 67 kg/ha. Rye biomass was measured the following spring. Sunn hemp biomass production was inconsistent across planting dates, but did relate to growing degree accumulation. Nitrogen concentrations were inversely related to biomass production, and subsequent N contents corresponded to biomass levels. Neither planting date nor seeding rate affected rye biomass production, but rye biomass averaged over both planting dates following wheat/sunn hemp averaged 43% and 33% greater than rye following fallow. Rye biomass following corn/sunn hemp was equivalent to fallow plots. Early planting dates are recommended for sunn hemp with seeding rates between 17 and 34 kg/ha to maximize biomass and N production.

  15. Seasonality of Leaf and Fig Production in Ficus squamosa, a Fig Tree with Seeds Dispersed by Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothasin, Pornwiwan; Compton, Stephen G; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2016-01-01

    The phenology of plants reflects selection generated by seasonal climatic factors and interactions with other plants and animals, within constraints imposed by their phylogenetic history. Fig trees (Ficus) need to produce figs year-round to support their short-lived fig wasp pollinators, but this requirement is partially de-coupled in dioecious species, where female trees only develop seeds, not pollinator offspring. This allows female trees to concentrate seed production at more favorable times of the year. Ficus squamosa is a riparian species whose dispersal is mainly by water, rather than animals. Seeds can float and travel in long distances. We recorded the leaf and reproductive phenology of 174 individuals for three years in Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand. New leaves were produced throughout the year. Fig production occurred year-round, but with large seasonal variations that correlated with temperature and rainfall. Female and male trees initiated maximal fig crops at different times, with production in female trees confined mainly to the rainy season and male figs concentrating fig production in the preceding months, but also often bearing figs continually. Ficus squamosa concentrates seed production by female plants at times when water levels are high, favouring dispersal by water, and asynchronous flowering within male trees allow fig wasps to cycle there, providing them with potential benefits by maintaining pollinators for times when female figs become available to pollinate.

  16. In Vitro Inhibition of Cholera Toxin Production in Vibrio cholerae by Methanol Extract of Sweet Fennel Seeds and Its Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Shruti; Zahid, M Shamim Hasan; Awasthi, Sharda Prasad; Chowdhury, Nityananda; Asakura, Masahiro; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Ramamurthy, T; Iwaoka, Emiko; Aoki, Shunji; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2016-09-21

    A newly emerged Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor variant strain with multidrug resistance is considered a threat to public health. Recent strategies to suppress virulence factors production instead of bacterial growth may lead to less selective pressure for the emergence of resistant strains. The use of spices and their active constituents as the inhibitory agents against cholera toxin (CT) production in V. cholerae may be an alternative approach to treat cholera. In this study, we examined the potential of sweet fennel seed (Foeniculum vulgare Miller var. dulce) methanol extract to inhibit CT production in V. cholerae without affecting viability. The methanol extract of sweet fennel seeds significantly inhibited CT production in various V. cholerae strains, regardless of serogroup or biotype. Interestingly, trans-anethole and 4-allylanisole, essential oil components of sweet fennel seeds, also demonstrated similar effects. Here, we report that sub-bactericidal concentrations of sweet fennel seed methanol extract and its major components can drastically inhibit CT production in various V. cholerae strains.

  17. Lower limit on dark matter production at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jonathan L; Su, Shufang; Takayama, Fumihiro

    2006-04-21

    We evaluate the prospects for finding evidence of dark matter production at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We consider weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) and superWIMPs and characterize their properties through model-independent parametrizations. The observed relic density then implies lower bounds on dark matter production rates as functions of a few parameters. For WIMPs, the resulting signal is indistinguishable from background. For superWIMPs, however, this analysis implies significant production of metastable charged particles. For natural parameters, these rates may far exceed Drell-Yan cross sections and yield spectacular signals.

  18. Production of Sterile Neutrino dark matter and the 3.5 keV line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merle, Alexander, E-mail: amerle@mpp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Schneider, Aurel, E-mail: aurel@physik.uzh.ch [Institute for Computational Science, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057, Zürich (Switzerland); Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-07

    The recent observation of an X-ray line at an energy of 3.5 keV mainly from galaxy clusters has initiated a discussion about whether we may have seen a possible dark matter signal. If confirmed, this signal could stem from a decaying sterile neutrino of a mass of 7.1 keV. Such a particle could make up all the dark matter, but it is not clear how it was produced in the early Universe. In this letter we show that it is possible to discriminate between different production mechanisms with present-day astronomical data. The most stringent constraint comes from the Lyman-α forest and seems to disfavor all but one of the main production mechanisms proposed in the literature, which is the production via decay of heavy scalar singlets. Pinning down the production mechanism will help to decide whether the X-ray signal indeed comprises an indirect detection of dark matter.

  19. Production of Sterile Neutrino Dark Matter and the 3.5 keV line

    CERN Document Server

    Merle, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The recent observation of an X-ray line at an energy of $3.5$ keV mainly from galaxy clusters has generated a buzz in the Dark Matter community. If confirmed, this signal could stem from a decaying sterile neutrino of a mass of $7.1$ keV. Such a particle could make up all the Dark Matter, but it is not clear how it was produced in the early Universe. In this paper we show that it is possible to discriminate between different production mechanisms with present-day astronomical data. The most stringent constraint comes from the Lyman-$\\alpha$ forest and seems to disfavor all but one of the main production mechanisms proposed in the literature, which is the production via decay of heavy scalar singlets. Pinning down the production mechanism will help to decide whether the X-ray signal indeed comprises an indirect detection of Dark Matter.

  20. 76 FR 14688 - In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Large Scale Integrated Circuit Semiconductor Chips and Products... semiconductor chips and products containing same by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos... Semiconductor Xiqing Integrated Semiconductor Manufacturing Site (``Freescale Xiqing'') of China;...

  1. 76 FR 12133 - In the Matter of Certain GPS Devices and Products Containing Same; Enforcement Proceeding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain GPS Devices and Products Containing Same; Enforcement Proceeding... importation of certain GPS devices and products containing the same by reason of infringement of...

  2. 76 FR 39896 - In the Matter of Certain GPS Navigation Products, Components Thereof, and Related Software...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain GPS Navigation Products, Components Thereof, and Related Software; Notice... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain GPS navigation products... States, the sale for importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain...

  3. 75 FR 51481 - In the Matter of Certain GPS Devices and Products Containing Same; Modification Proceeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain GPS Devices and Products Containing Same; Modification Proceeding Notice... within the United States after importation of certain GPS (Global Positioning System) devices and... within the United States after importation of certain GPS devices and products containing the same....

  4. 75 FR 30855 - In the Matter of: Certain Lighting Products; Notice of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Lighting Products; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International... certain lighting products by reason of infringement of U.S. Patent No. D570,038; U.S. Copyright... http://www.usitc.gov . The public record for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's...

  5. SOURCES ALTERNATIVE OF ORGANIC MATTERS FOR MIX OF SUBSTRATES FOR THE PRODUCTION OF YELLOW-PASSION SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vander Mendonça

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the time, seedlings of yellow passion fruit are produced from seeds. The success in the establishment of the culture depends on several factors, such as the use of seeds of good quality and choice of the best substrate. This work the aim, was to evaluate sources alternative of organic matter in the mixture of substrates for the production of yellow-passion (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg seedlings. The experimental design was in blocks completely randomized, with ten treatments, with four repetitions and ten plants per parcel, been the treatments: pure soil (S, soil + goat manure (S + GM in the proportion of 3:1, soil + sheep manure (S + SM in the proportion of 3:1, soil + bovine manure (S + BM in the proportion of 3:1, soil + earthworm humus (S + H in the proportion of 3:1, soil + goat manure + sheep manure (S + GM + SM in the proportion of 2:1:1, soil + goat manure + bovine manure (S + GM + BM in the proportion of 2:1:1, soil + sheep manure + bovine manure (S + SM + BM in the proportion of 2:1:1 , soil + sheep manure + bovine manure (S + SM + BM in the proportion of 2:1:1, pure soil fertilized with single superphosphate and potassium chloride (S + P + K at doses of 1 kg m-3 and 0.5 kg m-3 respectively and pure soil fertilized with only single superphosphate (S + P at a dose of 1 kg m-3. The use of goat and sheep manure in mixtures of substrates provided good results in the production of Yellow-passion seedlings. Of all the tested substrates, the substrate soil + bovine manure in the proportion of 3:1 promoted the best development of the yellow-passion seedlings.

  6. Intermediate Mass Dilepton Production in a Chemically Equilibrating Quark-Gluon Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ze-Jun; ZHOU Wen-Jie; ZHANG Jia-Ju; LIU Bo

    2001-01-01

    Dilepton production during the chemical equilibration of quark-gluon matter with a finite baryon density has been studied. We find that due to the slowing down of the cooling rate and the high initial temperature of the quark-gluon matter produced at RHIC energies, the quark phase contribution to dileptons with intermediate masses is significantly heightened and is much larger than that calculated by the evolution of the thermodynamic equilibrium system. The latter has shown an enhancement of intermediate mass dileptons from the quark phase. Therefore, such an enhancement of dileptons should be a signature for quark-gluon matter formation.

  7. The effect of organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from Moringa oleifera seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Q.; Yasin, N. H. M.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of three different organic solvent, temperature and mixing time on the production of oil from M.oleifera seeds were studied to evaluate the effectiveness in obtaining the high oil yield based on the percentage of oil production. The modified version of Soxhlet extraction method was carried out to extract the oil from M.oleifera seeds by using hexane, heptane and ethanol as the organic solvent. Among the three solvents, it is found that heptane yield higher oil from M.oleifera seeds with maximum oil yield of 36.37% was obtained followed by hexane and ethanol with 33.89% and 18.46%, respectively. By using heptane as a solvent, the temperature (60oC, 70oC, 80oC) and mixing time (6 h, 7 h, and 8 h) were investigated to ensure the high oil yield over the experimental ranges employed and high oil yield was obtained at 600C for 6 h with percentage oil yield of 36.37%. The fatty acid compositions of M.oleifera seeds oil were analyzed using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The main components of fatty acid contained in the oil extracted from M.oleifera seeds was oleic acid, followed by palmitic acid and arachidic acid, and small amount of behenic acid and margaric acid.

  8. Evaluating the quality of protein from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, James D; Neufeld, Jason; Leson, Gero

    2010-11-24

    The macronutrient composition and the quality of protein of hemp seed and products derived from hemp seed grown in Western Canada were determined. Thirty samples of hemp products (minimum 500 g), including whole hemp seed, hemp seed meal from cold-press expelling, dehulled, or shelled, hemp seed and hemp seed hulls, were obtained from commercial sources. Proximate analysis, including crude protein (% CP), crude fat (% fat) and fiber, as well as full amino acid profiles, were determined for all samples. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) measurements, using a rat bioassay for protein digestibility and the FAO/WHO amino acid requirement of children (2-5 years of age) as reference, were conducted on subsets of hemp products. Mean (±SD) percentage CP and fat were 24.0(2.1) and 30.4(2.7) for whole hemp seed, 40.7(8.8) and 10.2(2.1) for hemp seed meal, and 35.9(3.6) and 46.7(5.0) for dehulled hemp seed. The percentage protein digestibility and PDCAAS values were 84.1-86.2 and 49-53% for whole hemp seed, 90.8-97.5 and 46-51% for hemp seed meal, and 83.5-92.1 and 63-66% for dehulled hemp seed. Lysine was the first limiting amino acid in all products. Removal of the hull fraction improved protein digestibility and the resultant PDCAAS value. The current results provide reference data in support of protein claims for hemp seed products and provide evidence that hemp proteins have a PDCAAS equal to or greater than certain grains, nuts, and some pulses.

  9. Effects of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water on seed germination, seedling development, and biomass production of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa Marques, Mônica Regina; de Souza, Paulo Sérgio Alves; Rigo, Michelle Machado; Cerqueira, Alexandre Andrade; de Paiva, Julieta L; Merçon, Fábio; Perez, Daniel Vidal

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate possible toxic effects of oil and other contaminants from oilfield-produced water from oil exploration and production, on seed germination, and seedling development of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). In comparison, as treated by electroflocculation, oilfield-produced water, with lower oil and organic matter content, was also used. Electroflocculation treatment of oilfield-produced water achieved significant removals of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (94 %), oil and grease (O&G) (96 %), color (97 %), and turbidity (99 %). Different O&G, COD, and salt levels of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water did not influence germination process and seedling biomass production. Normal seedlings percentage and vigor tended to decrease more intensely in O&G and COD levels, higher than 337.5 mg L(-1) and 1321 mg O2 L(-1), respectively, using untreated oilfield-produced water. These results indicate that this industrial effluent must be treated, in order to not affect adversely seedling development. This way, electroflocculation treatment appears as an interesting alternative to removing oil and soluble organic matter in excess from oilfield-produced water improving sunflower's seedling development and providing a friendly environmental destination for this wastewater, reducing its potential to harm water resources, soil, and biota.

  10. Improvement of sheep welfare and milk production fed on diet containing hydroponically germinating seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Zarrilli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cortisol and milk production responses of 45 lactating Comisana sheeps (4th- 5th parity, divided into three homogeneous groups of 15 subject each, were used to evaluate the effects of two different levels of partial substitution of a complete feed with hydroponically germinating seeds. Germinated oat was employed after 7 days of hydroponic growth. The three groups received the following diets: Control group (T received only complete feed. The other 2 groups were fed on diet containing different levels of hydroponically germinating oat (1,5 kg – group A; 3 kg – group B. All the subjects have shown to accept the diets because the per capita ration was always completely consumed. In the second month, the A and B groups showed lower average values of cortisol (P<0.01 and a statistically significant increase in milk production as compared to T (P<0.05 and P<0.001. The obtained data induced to conclude that integration with hydroponically germinating oat in partial substitution of the complete feed does not modify biochemical and hematological parameters and seems to produce an improvement in animal welfare and production of milk.

  11. Seed Oil from Ten Algerian Peanut Landraces for Edible Use and Biodiesel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, Angelo Maria; Tellah, Sihem; Capocasale, Marco; Zappia, Clotilde; Latati, Mourad; Badiani, Maurizio; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    As a result of a recent ad hoc prospection of the Algerian territory, a collection of peanut (groundnut; Arachis hypogaea L.) landraces was established, covering a remarkable array of diversity in terms of morphological and physiological features, as well as of adaptation to local bioclimatic conditions. In the present work, the oils extracted from the seeds of these landraces were evaluated in terms of edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production. As for edible use, a low free acidity (ranging from 0.62 to 1.21%) and a high oleic acid content (44.61-50.94%) were common features, although a poor stability to oxidation [high peroxide values, high spectrophotometric indices, and low % of inhibition in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH)· test] was observed in a few cases. As for biodiesel production, low values of acidity [1.23-2.40 mg KOH (g oil)(-1)], low iodine values [90.70-101.54 g I2 (g oil)(-1)], high cetane numbers (56.95-58.88) and high calorific values (higher heating value 37.34-39.27 MJ kg(-1)) were measured. Edible properties and suitability for biodiesel production were discussed with respect to the German standard DIN 51605 for rapeseed oil and to the EN 14214 standard, respectively. One way ANOVA and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis showed significant differences among the oils from the Algerian peanut landraces.

  12. Hybrid breeding in wheat: technologies to improve hybrid wheat seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Ryan; Fleury, Delphine; Reif, Jochen C; Garcia, Melissa; Okada, Takashi; Korzun, Viktor; Langridge, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Global food security demands the development and delivery of new technologies to increase and secure cereal production on finite arable land without increasing water and fertilizer use. There are several options for boosting wheat yields, but most offer only small yield increases. Wheat is an inbred plant, and hybrids hold the potential to deliver a major lift in yield and will open a wide range of new breeding opportunities. A series of technological advances are needed as a base for hybrid wheat programmes. These start with major changes in floral development and architecture to separate the sexes and force outcrossing. Male sterility provides the best method to block self-fertilization, and modifying the flower structure will enhance pollen access. The recent explosion in genomic resources and technologies provides new opportunities to overcome these limitations. This review outlines the problems with existing hybrid wheat breeding systems and explores molecular-based technologies that could improve the hybrid production system to reduce hybrid seed production costs, a prerequisite for a commercial hybrid wheat system.

  13. Evapotranspiration partitioning and variation of sap flow in female and male parents of maize for hybrid seed production in arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the variation of sap flow in female and male parents of maize for hybrid seed production and evapotranspiration (ET) partitioning is useful in accurately determining water use of the female and male parents and improving irrigation management of maize for hybrid seed production. Sap fl...

  14. Cutleafgroundcherry (physalis angulata) density, biomass and seed production in peanut (arachis hypogaea L.) following regrowth due to inadequate control

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field experiment was conducted to evaluate herbicide and application timing on cutleaf groundcherry density, biomass, seed production, and crop yield in a peanut system. Treatments included: 1) a non-treated control; 2) hand pruning; 3) diclosulam applied preemergence (PRE) alone at 0.027 kg ai h...

  15. Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed oil as an alternative feedstock for the production of biodiesel in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schinas, P.; Karavalakis, G.; Davaris, C.; Anastopoulos, G.; Karonis, D.; Zannikos, F.; Stournas, S.; Lois, E. [Laboratory of Fuels and Lubricants Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece)

    2009-01-15

    In recent years, the acceptance of fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel) as a substitute to petroleum diesel has rapidly grown in Greece. The raw materials for biodiesel production in this country mainly include traditional seed oils (cotton seed oil, sunflower oil, soybean oil and rapeseed oil) and used frying oils. In the search for new low-cost alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production, this study emphasizes the evaluation of pumpkin seed oil. The experimental results showed that the oil content of pumpkin seeds was remarkably high (45%). The fatty acid profile of the oil showed that is composed primarily of linoleic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acids. The oil was chemically converted via an alkaline transesterification reaction with methanol to methyl esters, with a yield nearly 97.5 wt%. All of the measured properties of the produced biodiesel met the current quality requirements according to EN 14214. Although this study showed that pumpkin oil could be a promising feedstock for biodiesel production within the EU, it is rather difficult for this production to be achieved on a large scale. (author)

  16. Assessing climate change effects on long-term forest development: adjusting growth, phenology, and seed production in a gap model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.; Jorritsma, I.T.M.; Kramer, K.

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity of forest development to climate change is assessed using a gap model. Process descriptions in the gap model of growth, phenology, and seed production were adjusted for climate change effects using a detailed process-based growth modeland a regression analysis. Simulation runs over 4

  17. Assessing climate change effects on long-term forest development: adjusting growth, phenology, and seed production in a gap model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der P.J.; Jorritsma, I.T.M.; Kramer, K.

    2002-01-01

    The sensitivity of forest development to climate change is assessed using a gap model. Process descriptions in the gap model of growth, phenology, and seed production were adjusted for climate change effects using a detailed process-based growth modeland a regression analysis. Simulation runs over 4

  18. Masting in wind-pollinated trees: system-specific roles of weather and pollination dynamics in driving seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdziewicz, Michał; Szymkowiak, Jakub; Kasprzyk, Idalia; Grewling, Łukasz; Borowski, Zbigniew; Borycka, Katarzyna; Kantorowicz, Władysław; Myszkowska, Dorota; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Ziemianin, Monika; Pesendorfer, Mario B

    2017-10-01

    Masting, the highly variable production of synchronized large seed crops, is a common reproductive strategy in plant populations. In wind-pollinated trees, flowering and pollination dynamics are hypothesized to provide the mechanistic link for the well-known relationship between weather and population-level seed production. Several hypotheses make predictions about the effect of weather on annual pollination success. The pollen coupling hypothesis predicts that weather and plant resources drive the flowering effort of trees, which directly translates into the size of seed crops through efficient pollination. In contrast, the pollination Moran effect hypothesis predicts that weather affects pollination efficiency, leading to occasional bumper crops. Furthermore, the recently formulated phenology synchrony hypothesis predicts that Moran effects can arise because of weather effects on flowering synchrony, which, in turn, drives pollination efficiency. We investigated the relationship between weather, airborne pollen, and seed production in common European trees, two oak species (Quercus petraea and Q. robur) and beech (Fagus sylvatica) with a 19-yr data set from three sites in Poland. Our results show that warm summers preceding flowering correlated with high pollen abundance and warm springs resulted in short pollen seasons (i.e., high flowering synchrony) for all three species. Pollen abundance was the best predictor for seed crops in beech, as predicted under pollen coupling. In oaks, short pollen seasons, rather than pollen abundance, correlated with large seed crops, providing support for the pollination Moran effect and phenology synchrony hypotheses. Fundamentally different mechanisms may therefore drive masting in species of the family Fagacae. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Effects of replacing maize with mango seed kernel meal on performance, carcass characteristics and economic of production of weaner rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    N. Saleh; K.M. Bello

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of replacing maize with mango seed kernel meal (MSKM) in the diets of Weaner rabbit on performance, carcass characteristics and economic of production. Twenty mongrel rabbits were randomly allocated to four diets in which mango seed kernel meal replaced maize at 0, 33.33, 66.67 and 100% level designed as diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The daily feed intake (42.75-49.76), daily weight gain (8.75-9.72) and feed conversion ratio (4.64-5.19) ob...

  20. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L. in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L Greene

    Full Text Available The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa, a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1 evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2 determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  1. Occurrence of Transgenic Feral Alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa L.) in Alfalfa Seed Production Areas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Stephanie L; Kesoju, Sandya R; Martin, Ruth C; Kramer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The potential environmental risks of transgene exposure are not clear for alfalfa (Medicago sativa subsp. sativa), a perennial crop that is cross-pollinated by insects. We gathered data on feral alfalfa in major alfalfa seed-production areas in the western United States to (1) evaluate evidence that feral transgenic plants spread transgenes and (2) determine environmental and agricultural production factors influencing the location of feral alfalfa, especially transgenic plants. Road verges in Fresno, California; Canyon, Idaho; and Walla Walla, Washington were surveyed in 2011 and 2012 for feral plants, and samples were tested for the CP4 EPSPS protein that conveys resistance to glyphosate. Of 4580 sites surveyed, feral plants were observed at 404 sites. Twenty-seven percent of these sites had transgenic plants. The frequency of sites having transgenic feral plants varied among our study areas. Transgenic plants were found in 32.7%, 21.4.7% and 8.3% of feral plant sites in Fresno, Canyon and Walla Walla, respectively. Spatial analysis suggested that feral populations started independently and tended to cluster in seed and hay production areas, places where seed tended to drop. Significant but low spatial auto correlation suggested that in some instances, plants colonized nearby locations. Neighboring feral plants were frequently within pollinator foraging range; however, further research is needed to confirm transgene flow. Locations of feral plant clusters were not well predicted by environmental and production variables. However, the likelihood of seed spillage during production and transport had predictive value in explaining the occurrence of transgenic feral populations. Our study confirms that genetically engineered alfalfa has dispersed into the environment, and suggests that minimizing seed spillage and eradicating feral alfalfa along road sides would be effective strategies to minimize transgene dispersal.

  2. Diabetes and employment productivity: does diabetes management matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown I I I, H Shelton; Perez, Adriana; Yarnell, Lisa Marie; Pagan, Jose A; Hanis, Craig L; Fischer-Hoch, Susan P; McCormick, Joseph B

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether labor market effects were the result of diabetes per se or rather depended on the degree to which diabetes was controlled through management of blood sugar levels. This study utilized data from a recently completed survey of households in Brownsville, Texas, a largely Mexican American community with a high prevalence of diabetes that is located on the Texas-Mexico border. Diabetes management, or control, was measured by blood sugar levels, glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) levels, and interaction terms. Methods used were probit and Heckman regression. Management of diabetes did not appear to have a discernible impact on labor market outcomes in the short run. However, diabetes was negatively associated with male productivity, particularly in males' propensity to work. The new American Diabetes Association (ADA) definition of diabetes is based on having an A1C level of diabetes was negatively associated with female productivity. Female productivity was also negatively associated with the new ADA definition of prediabetes (A1C levels between 5.7% and 6.4%). However, very few people with diabetes actually controlled their blood sugar or A1C levels. These results imply that in order to avoid productivity losses associated with diabetes, more scarce prevention resources should be spent on prevention of the onset of diabetes than on the management of A1C for those already diagnosed with diabetes. For women, the prevention of prediabetes is key.

  3. Innovations in crop production: a matter of physiology and technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Buwalda, F.; Dieleman, J.A.; Dueck, T.A.; Elings, A.; Gelder, de A.; Hemming, S.; Kempkes, F.; Li, T.; Noort, van F.R.; Visser, de P.H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Crop production per unit greenhouse area has doubled during the last 25 years in The Netherlands, while the energy use has been drastically reduced. The growth conditions for plants have been improved significantly through understanding crop physiology in combination with new technologies. In this p

  4. Production of wax esters in plant seed oils by oleosomal cotargeting of biosynthetic enzymes[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Mareike; Iven, Tim; Ahmann, Katharina; Hornung, Ellen; Stymne, Sten; Feussner, Ivo

    2012-01-01

    Wax esters are neutral lipids exhibiting desirable properties for lubrication. Natural sources have traditionally been whales. Additionally some plants produce wax esters in their seed oil. Currently there is no biological source available for long chain length monounsaturated wax esters that are most suited for industrial applications. This study aimed to identify enzymatic requirements enabling their production in oilseed plants. Wax esters are generated by the action of fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR), generating fatty alcohols and wax synthases (WS) that esterify fatty alcohols and acyl-CoAs to wax esters. Based on their substrate preference, a FAR and a WS from Mus musculus were selected for this study (MmFAR1 and MmWS). MmWS resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas MmFAR1 associates with peroxisomes. The elimination of a targeting signal and the fusion to an oil body protein yielded variants of MmFAR1 and MmWS that were cotargeted and enabled wax ester production when coexpressed in yeast or Arabidopsis. In the fae1 fad2 double mutant, rich in oleate, the cotargeted variants of MmFAR1 and MmWS enabled formation of wax esters containing >65% oleyl-oleate. The data suggest that cotargeting of unusual biosynthetic enzymes can result in functional interplay of heterologous partners in transgenic plants. PMID:22878160

  5. HPLC-DAD-q-TOF-MS as a powerful platform for the determination of phenolic and other polar compounds in the edible part of mango and its by-products (peel, seed, and seed husk).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; López-Cobo, Ana; Verardo, Vito; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Free and bound phenolic and other polar compounds in mango edible fraction and its by-products (peel, seed, and seed husk) have been determined by HPLC-DAD-ESI-qTOF-MS. This analytical technique has demonstrated to be a valuable platform for the identification and quantification of these compounds in mango. In fact, UV-Vis and mass spectra data allowed the determination of 91 free compounds and 13 bound (cell wall linked) compounds taking into account the four fractions of mango. To our knowledge, this is the first time that mango seed husk has been studied regarding its phenolic compounds. The method proposed showed LODs between 0.006 and 0.85 μg/mL and accuracy ranged from 94.8 and 100.7%. Mango peel presented the highest concentration of free polar compounds followed by seed, pulp, and seed husk. It is also important to highlight that bound phenolic compounds had never been determined in mango pulp, seed, and seed husk before. Furthermore, ellagic acid was the most abundant bound compound in the four mango fractions analyzed. These results show that mango pulp and its by-products are a good source of phenolic and other polar compounds. In particular, mango seed contains a high total concentration of ellagic acid (650 mg/100 g dry weight).

  6. [Comparative study of allozyme polymorphism in groups of pine trees (Pinus sylvestris L.) with different seed productivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Kalafat, L A

    2004-01-01

    Genotypes of 196 Pinus sylvestris L. plants from 10 natural populations of five Ukrainian regions have been determined using 19 polymorphic isozyme loci. Variability of quantity of full-grained, empty-grained and underdeveloped seeds in the cones of these plants has been studied. The basic indexes of genetic polymorphism were determined for 6 samples presented by 18-19 trees with high and low productivity of the full-grained, empty-grained and underdeveloped seeds. The maximum amount of rare alleles and genotypes as well as the highest heterozygosity (Ho = 0.285) were typical for the sample of plants with the maximum quantity of empty-grained seeds in the cones.

  7. Sterile Neutrino Production Through a Matter Effect Enhancement at Long Baselines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramante, Joseph

    2013-06-01

    If sterile neutrinos have a neutral coupling to standard model fermions, matter effect resonant transitions to sterile neutrinos and excess neutral-current events could manifest at long baseline experiments. Assuming a single sterile neutrino with a neutral coupling to fermionic matter, we re-examine bounds on sterile neutrino production at long baselines from the MINOS result Pνμ →νs space of sterile neutrino matter effect fits of the LSND and MiniBooNe data, we show that in the case of a vector singlet coupling of sterile neutrinos to matter, some favored parametrizations of these fits would create neutral-current event excesses above standard model predictions at long baseline experiments (e.g. MINOS and OPERA).

  8. Production and detection of heavy matter anti-matter from Higgs decays

    CERN Document Server

    Srivastava, Y N; Swain, J

    2011-01-01

    The one-loop Higgs coupling to two gluons has been invoked in the past to estimate that the fraction of the nucleon mass which is due to the Higgs is rather small but calculable (approximately 8 percent). To test the veracity of this hypothesis, we employ the same mechanism to compute the Higgs coupling to an arbitrary stable nucleus $A$ and its anti-nucleus $\\bar{A}$. We find that the physical decay rate of a Higgs into a spin zero $A\\bar{A}$ pair near the threshold corresponding to the Higgs mass is quite substantial, once we include the final state Coulomb corrections as well as possible form factor effects. If true, observation of even a few such decay events would be truly spectacular (with no competing background) since we are unaware of any other interaction which might lead to the production of a very heavy nucleus accompanied by its anti nucleus in nucleon-(anti-) nucleon scattering.

  9. Factors affecting production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in extraterrestrial matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reedy, R.C., E-mail: reedy@psi.edu

    2015-10-15

    Good production rates are needed for cosmic-ray-produced nuclides to interpret their measurements. Rates depend on many factors, especially the pre-atmospheric object’s size, the location of the sample in that object (such as near surface or deep inside), and the object’s bulk composition. The bulk composition affects rates, especially in objects with very low and very high iron contents. Extraterrestrial materials with high iron contents usually have higher rates for making nuclides made by reactions with energetic particles and lower rates for the capture of thermal neutrons. In small objects and near the surface of objects, the cascade of secondary neutrons is being developed as primary particles are being removed. Deep in large objects, that secondary cascade is fully developed and the fluxes of primary particles are low. Recent work shows that even the shape of an object in space has a small but measureable effect. Work has been done and continues to be done on better understanding those and other factors. More good sets of measurements in meteorites with known exposure geometries in space are needed. With the use of modern Monte Carlo codes for the production and transport of particles, the nature of these effects have been and is being studied. Work needs to be done to improve the results of these calculations, especially the cross sections for making spallogenic nuclides.

  10. Production and short-term of synthetic seeds from encapsulated begonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synthetic seeds were formed from in vitro grown Begonia (cvs ‘Sweetheart Mix’ and ‘Baby Wing White’) shoot tips using 3% sodium alginate in Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium (MS) salt solution as the gel matrix and 100 mM calcium chloride for complexation. Synthetic seed formation was achieved by re...

  11. Numerical modelling of agricultural products on the example of bean and yellow lupine seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Andrzej; Kaliniewicz, Zdzisław; Markowski, Piotr

    2015-10-01

    Numerical models of bean seeds cv. Złota Saxa and yellow lupine seeds cv. Juno were generated with the use of a 3D scanner, the geometric parameters of seeds were determined based on the models developed, and compared with the results of digital image analysis and micrometer measurements. Measurements of seed length, width and thickness performed with the use of a micrometer, 3D scanner and digital image analysis produced similar results that did not differ significantly at α = 0.05. The micrometer delivered the simplest and fastest measurements. The mean surface area of bean seeds cv. Złota Saxa and yellow lupine seeds cv. Juno, calculated with the use of mathematical formulas based on the results of micrometer measurements and digital image analysis, differed significantly from the mean surface area determined with a 3D scanner. No significant differences in seed volume were observed when this parameter was measured with a 3D scanner and determined with the use of mathematical formulas based on the results of digital image analysis and micrometer measurements. The only differences were noted when the volume of yellow lupine seeds cv. Juno was measured in a 25 ml liquid pycnometer.

  12. Cone production, seed dispersal, germination in...old-growth redwood cut and uncut stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth N. Boe

    1968-01-01

    Records of 5 and 6 years' cone crops in old-growth redwood (Sequoia sempervirens [D. Don Endl.] stands in northern California were studied for silvical facts. They show that (a) the principal trees in both cut and uncut stands bore fair to good cone crops for 5 consecutive years, (b) maximum seed dispersal of both total and sound seed occurred in winter, (c)...

  13. Microbiological Safety and Food Handling Practices of Seed Sprout Products in the Australian State of Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symes, Sally; Goldsmith, Paul; Haines, Heather

    2015-07-01

    Seed sprouts have been implicated as vehicles for numerous foodborne outbreaks worldwide. Seed sprouts pose a unique food safety concern because of the ease of microbiological seed contamination, the inherent ability of the sprouting process to support microbial growth, and their consumption either raw or lightly cooked. To examine seed sprout safety in the Australian state of Victoria, a survey was conducted to detect specific microbes in seed sprout samples and to investigate food handling practices relating to seed sprouts. A total of 298 seed sprout samples were collected from across 33 local council areas. Escherichia coli was detected in 14.8%, Listeria spp. in 12.3%, and Listeria monocytogenes in 1.3% of samples analyzed. Salmonella spp. were not detected in any of the samples. A range of seed sprout handling practices were identified as potential food safety issues in some food businesses, including temperature control, washing practices, length of storage, and storage in proximity to unpackaged ready-to-eat potentially hazardous foods.

  14. Gravitational induced particle production through a nonminimal curvature-matter coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Harko, Tiberiu; Mimoso, José P; Pavón, Diego

    2015-01-01

    We consider the possibility of a gravitationally induced particle production through the mechanism of a nonminimal curvature-matter coupling. An interesting feature of this gravitational theory is that the divergence of the energy-momentum tensor is nonzero. As a first step in our study we reformulate the model in terms of an equivalent scalar-tensor theory, with two arbitrary potentials. By using the formalism of open thermodynamic systems, we interpret the energy balance equations in this gravitational theory from a thermodynamic point of view, as describing irreversible matter creation processes. The particle number creation rates, the creation pressure, and the entropy production rates are explicitly obtained as functions of the scalar field and its potentials, as well as of the matter Lagrangian. The temperature evolution laws of the newly created particles are also obtained. The cosmological implications of the model are briefly investigated, and it is shown that the late-time cosmic acceleration may be...

  15. Effects of inorganic seed aerosols on the particulate products of aged 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene secondary organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingqiang; Hao, Liqing; Cai, Shunyou; Gu, Xuejun; Zhang, Weixiong; Hu, Changjin; Wang, Zhenya; Fang, Li; Zhang, Weijun

    2017-03-01

    Inorganic aerosols such as (NH4)2SO4, NaNO3 and CaCl2 are commonly present in the Chinese urban atmosphere. They could significantly affect the formation and aging of ambient secondary organic aerosols (SOA), but the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In this work we studied SOA formation from the photooxidation reaction of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (135-TMB) with 100 μg/m3 of the above three types of inorganic aerosols as seeds in a laboratory chamber. We focused on the aging products of SOA particles by exposing them to high levels of oxidizing hydroxyl radicals (OH). The particulate products of SOA were measured using an aerosol laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ALTOFMS) and Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) were applied to organic mass spectra for clustering. In the presence of (NH4)2SO4 seeds, 4-methyl-1H-imidazole, 4-methyl-imidazole-2-acetaldehyde and other imidazole derivative compounds formed from reactions of NH4+ with methylglyoxal were detected as new aged products. We also observed aromatic nitrogen-containing organic compounds as the major aged products in the presence of NaNO3 seeds as a consequence of reaction with OH and NO2 radicals, which were generated by UV irradiation of acidic aqueous nitrate, inducing nitration reactions with phenolic compounds. As CaCl2 has the strongest hygroscopic properties of the three salt particles tested, the greater water content on the surface of the aerosol may facilitate the condensing of more gas-phase organic acid products to the hygroscopic CaCl2 seeds, forming H+ ions that catalyze the heterogeneous reaction of aldehydes, products of photooxidation of 135-TMB, and forming high-molecular-weight (HMW) compounds. These results provide new insight into the aromatic SOA aging mechanisms.

  16. Chemical characterization of the pulp, peel and seeds of cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana SERNA-COCK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary The chemical characterization of the pulp, peel and seeds of cocona (Solanum sessiliflorum Dunal was determined. In artisanal fruit processing, 26.3% of peel and 9.7% of seeds were obtained. The seeds showed a high potential for the development of value-added products because of their dry matter contents (23.46% as follows: carbohydrate (69.37% dry basis (d.b., nitrogen (3.18 g/100 g of seed d.b., K (0.023 g/100 g of seed d.b., Fe (0.0185 g/100 g of seed d.b. and dietary fiber (21.27 g/100 g of seed d.b.. The carbohydrate, dietary fibre and mineral contents of the pulp, peel and seeds also highlighted the agroindustrial potential of the fruit in that these constituents could be used to develop functional foods, food additives, preparations for functional diets and dietary supplements.

  17. Determination and purification of sesamin and sesamolin in sesame seed oil unsaponified matter using reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and tandem mass spectrometry and high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Miki; Nishizaki, Yuzo; Sugimoto, Naoki; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Kazuya; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sato, Kyoko; Inoue, Koichi

    2016-10-01

    In Asian countries, sesame seed oil unsaponified matter is used as a natural food additive due to its associated antioxidant effects. We determined and purified the primary lignans sesamin and sesamolin in sesame seed oil unsaponified matter using reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and tandem mass spectrometry and high-speed countercurrent chromatography. Calibration curves showed good correlation coefficients (r(2) > 0.999, range 0.08 and/or 0.15 to 5 μg/mL) with a limit of detection (at 290 nm) of 0.02 μg/mL for sesamin and 0.04 μg/mL for sesamolin. Sesame seed oil unsaponified matter contained 2.82% sesamin and 2.54% sesamolin, respectively. Direct qualitative analysis of sesamin and sesamolin was achieved using quadrupole mass spectrometry with positive-mode electrospray ionization. Pure (>99%) sesamin and sesamolin standards were obtained using high-speed countercurrent chromatographic purification (hexane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water; 7:3:7:3). An effective method for determining and purifying sesamin and sesamolin from sesame seed oil unsaponified matter was developed by combining these separation techniques for standardized food additives.

  18. Factors associated with the allocation of carbohydrates to bunch dry matter production in oil palm.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breure, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis reports on the factors relevant to the allocation of assimilates to oil palm bunch dry matter (DM) production, based on an extensive set of growth and yield records from experiments in Papua New Guinea and Malaysia.Basically, assimilates from gross assimilation of the canopy are first us

  19. Natural Organic Matter as Global Antennae for Primary Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Trump, J. Ian; Rivera Vega, Fransheska J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Humic substances (HS) are high-molecular-weight complex refractory organics that are ubiquitous in terrestrial and aquatic environments. While resistant to microbial degradation, these compounds nevertheless support microbial metabolism via oxidation or reduction of their (hydro)quinone moieties. As such, they are known to be important electron sinks for respiratory and fermentative bacteria and electron sources for denitrifying and perchlorate-reducing bacteria. HS also strongly promote abiotic reduction of Fe(III) when irradiated with light. Here, we show that HS-enhanced Fe(III) photoreduction can also drive chemolithotrophic microbial respiration by producing Fe(II), which functions as a respiratory electron donor. Due to their molecular complexity, HS absorb most of the electromagnetic spectrum and can act as broad-spectrum antennae converting radiant energy into bioavailable chemical energy. The finding that chemolithotrophic organisms can utilize this energy has important implications for terrestrial, and possibly extraterrestrial, microbial processes and offers an alternative mechanism of radiation-driven primary productivity to that of phototrophy. Key Words: Deep subsurface biosphere—Chemolithotrophic microorganisms—Organic matter—Geochemistry—Iron-oxidizing bacteria. Astrobiology 13, 476–482. PMID:23683047

  20. Photochemical production of hydrogen peroxide from natural algicides: decomposition organic matter from straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hua; Zhang, Jie; Tong, Liyin; Yang, Jixiang

    2015-08-01

    The ability of decomposition organic matter from three natural algicides (barley, rice, and wheat straw) and natural organic matter (NOM) isolates to generate hydrogen peroxide under simulated solar irradiation was evaluated in order to understand the mechanism of indirect algae inhibition through a photochemical pathway. Specific optical properties (higher phenolic hydroxyl group contents and lower E2/E3) of barley straw organic matter (BSOM) reveal its outstanding ability to produce H2O2 as a photosensitizer. The appearance of a protein-like structure in BSOM indicated that bacteria or fungi probably transformed the structure of BSOM and brought other organic matter, which may account for its distinct optical properties. The ΦH2O2 of BSOM obtained through aerobic decomposition is 14.73 × 10(-5), which is three times the value of SRHA, whereas the ΦH2O2 value of BSOM obtained for non-aerobic decomposition was 5.30 × 10(-5), still higher than that of SRHA. The ΦH2O2 of rice straw organic matter was slightly lower than those of SRHA and SRFA, but much higher than that of wheat straw organic matter. The superior ability of BSOM to generate H2O2 was partly responsible for the outstanding potential and prior choice of barley straw for cyanobacteria or algae inhibition in various plant decomposition products.

  1. New inhibitors of nitric oxide production from the seeds of Myristica fragrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gui-Yun; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Xu, Wei; Li, Fei

    2013-12-01

    Six dihydrobenzofuran type neolignans were isolated from the dried ripe seeds of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (family: Myristicaceae) and their chemical structures were identified as licarin B (1), 3'-methoxylicarin B (2), myrisfrageal A (3), isodihydrocainatidin (4), dehydrodiisoeugenol (5), and myrisfrageal B (6), respectively, on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses. Among them, compounds 3 and 6 are new compounds. Compounds 1-6 showed inhibition of nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated murine monocyte-macrophage RAW264.7 with IC50 values of 53.6, 48.7, 76.0, 36.0, 33.6, and 45.0 μM, respectively. These values were compared to those of the positive controls, indomethacin and L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine, which have IC50 values of 65.3 and 27.1 μM, respectively. Further compounds 3, 5 and 6 suppressed LPS-induced iNOS mRNA expression in a does-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells assayed by real-time RT-PCR. Compounds 3, 5 and 6 may inhibit NO overproduction via inhibition of iNOS mRNA expression. The results provided valuable information for further investigation of compounds 1-6 as anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive agents.

  2. The population ecology of male gametophytes: the link between pollination and seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Lawrence D; Aizen, Marcelo A; Richards, Shane A

    2016-05-01

    The fate of male gametophytes after pollen reaches stigmas links pollination to ovule fertilisation, governing subsequent siring success and seed production. Although male gametophyte performance primarily involves cellular processes, an ecological analogy may expose insights into the nature and implications of male gametophyte success. We elaborate this analogy theoretically and present empirical examples that illustrate associated insights. Specifically, we consider pollen loads on stigmas as localised populations subject to density-independent mortality and density-dependent processes as they traverse complex stylar environments. Different combinations of the timing of pollen-tube access to limiting stylar resources (simultaneous or sequential), the tube distribution among resources (repulsed or random) and the timing of density-independent mortality relative to competition (before or after) create signature relations of mean pollen-tube success and its variation among pistils to pollen receipt. Using novel nonlinear regression analyses (two-moment regression), we illustrate contrasting relations for two species, demonstrating that variety in these relations is a feature of reproductive diversity among angiosperms, rather than merely a theoretical curiosity. Thus, the details of male gametophyte ecology should shape sporophyte reproductive success and hence the dynamics and structure of angiosperm populations.

  3. REPRODUCTIVE ASPECTS OF CULTURED HUMPBACK GROUPER (Cromileptes altivelis FOR SUPPORTING SEED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Budi Moria Sembiring

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Humpback grouper (Cromileptes altivelis has been successfully spawned in 2000 by IMRAD (Institute of Mariculture Research and Development and there are already the third generation (F3 currently. The reproductive aspects need to be studied to support the success of seed production. Humpback grouper reared in floating cage (F1 and F3 had matured (gonad stage 4 while F2 fish reared in concrete tanks has spawned. Gonadal maturity stage of 38 fishes from first generation (F1 and 35 fishes from the third generation were observed in June 2013 and compared to gonadal maturity stage of 18 fishes from the second generation observed in June 2009. Samples were measured in total length and body weight and gonads were taken for histology preparation to determine gonadal maturity stage and the sex. From the histological observation of the gonads, it showed that all female humpback grouper were in early maturity stage (stage I and II with gonadal maturity index between 0.12% and 5.45%. Further, it was observed that the same gonad was found in different maturity stage and concluded that humpback groupers were multiple spawners (asynchronous. By determining gonadal maturity level, it was also known the minimum size for grouper ready to spawn.

  4. Biodiesel production from waste cotton seed oil using low cost catalyst: Engine performance and emission characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duple Sinha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Production of fatty acid methyl esters from waste cotton seed oil through transesterification was reported. The GC–MS analysis of WCCO oil was studied and the major fatty acids were found to be palmitic acid (27.76% and linoleic acid (42.84%. The molecular weight of the oil was 881.039 g/mol. A maximum yield of 92% biodiesel was reported when the reaction temperature, time, methanol/oil ratio and catalyst loading rate were 60 °C, 50 min, 12:1 and 3% (wt.%, respectively. The calcined egg shell catalyst was prepared and characterized. Partial purification of the fatty acid methyl esters was proposed for increasing the purity of the biodiesel and better engine performance. The flash point and the fire point of the biodiesel were found to be 128 °C and 136 °C, respectively. The Brake thermal efficiency of WCCO B10 biodiesel was 26.04% for maximum load, specific fuel consumption for diesel was 0.32 kg/kW h at maximum load. The use of biodiesel blends showed a reduction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions and a marginal increase in nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions improved emission characteristics.

  5. Compositional analysis of grain and forage from MON 87427, an inducible male sterile and tissue selective glyphosate-tolerant maize product for hybrid seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, Tyamagondlu V; Breeze, Matthew L; Liu, Kang; Harrigan, George G; Culler, Angela H

    2014-02-26

    Conventional maize hybrid seed production has historically relied upon detasseling using either manual methods or semiautomated processes to ensure the purity of the hybrid cross. Monsanto Co. has developed biotechnology-derived MON 87427 maize with tissue-selective glyphosate tolerance to facilitate the production of hybrid maize seed. MON 87427 utilizes a specific promoter and intron combination to drive expression of CP4 EPSPS protein in vegetative and female reproductive tissues, conferring tolerance to glyphosate. This specific combination of regulatory elements also results in limited or no production of CP4 EPSPS protein in two key male reproductive tissues: pollen microspores, which develop into pollen grains, and tapetum cells that supply nutrients to the pollen. Thus, MON 87427 induces a male sterile phenotype after appropriately timed glyphosate applications. To confer additional benefits of herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance, MON 87427 was combined with MON 89034 and NK603 by conventional breeding to develop MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. The work described here is an assessment of the nutrient, antinutrient, and secondary metabolite levels in grain and forage tissues of MON 87427 and MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. Results demonstrated that MON 87427 is compositionally equivalent to a near-isogenic conventional comparator. Results from this analysis established that the compositional equivalence observed for the single-event product MON 87427 is extendable to the combined-trait product, MON 87427 × MON 89034 × NK603. With increasing global demand for food production, the development of more efficient seed production strategies is important to sustainable agriculture. The study reported here demonstrated that biotechnology can be applied to simplify hybrid maize seed production without affecting crop composition.

  6. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural socialities)

  7. Seeds as biosocial commons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patnaik, Archana

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates and describes the conservation and use of Plant Genetic Resources (PGRs), especially seeds through processes of commonisation. Seeds form an important element for sustaining human life (through food production) and social relations (by maintaining agricultural

  8. Grape Seed Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reduce inflammation. Grape seed extract contains the antioxidant compound oligomeric proanthocyanidin (OPC), which has been studied for a variety of health conditions. OPCs are found in extracts of grape skin and seeds, which are by-products of the ...

  9. Blood product collection and supply: a matter of money?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kort, W; Wagenmans, E; van Dongen, A; Slotboom, Y; Hofstede, G; Veldhuizen, I

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that countries with a low or medium Human Development Index (HDI) transfuse far fewer blood products than countries with a high HDI. HDI comprises both economical and non-economical elements. We considered the hypothesis that non-economical, cultural differences may be additional factors in understanding blood donation and blood supply differences. We quantified the explained variance, r(2), in: the number of donors, the number of whole blood collections and the number of red blood cell units supplied to hospitals for 25 European countries. Candidate predictors were Hofstede's cultural dimensions, the demographic factor Old Age Dependency Ratio and the three components of HDI: Gross National Income, Life Expectancy and the Educational Development Index. The cultural dimension Power Distance was the best sole predictor of whole blood collection (r(2) = 56.8%) and the number of donors (r(2) = 25.1%). The Educational Development Index best predicted the number of red blood cell units (r(2) = 45.0%). Multivariable models including the cultural dimension Power Distance and the Educational Development Index gave the best results in predicting the number of whole blood collections and red blood cell units supplied and, to a lesser extent, the number of donors, with adjusted r(2) values of 63.6%, 51.9% and 28.6%, respectively. In contrast, Gross National Income made no significant predictive contribution to any of the multivariable models. Neither did the other cultural dimensions, Life Expectancy or Old Age Dependency Ratio. The effects of education level and cultural aspects should be taken into account as influencers on donation behaviour. The concept of power distance, in particular, presents a challenge to blood donor managers in cross-cultural and multi-cultural donor management contexts.

  10. Methodology to calculate starch in castor seed cake residue from biodiesel production; Metodologia de quantificacao de amido em torta de mamona residual da producao de biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Aline Machado de [Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES). Gerencia de Energias Renovaveis, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: alinebio@petrobras.com.br; Pereira Junior, Nei [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Departamento de Engenharia Bioquimica. Escola de Quimica, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: nei@eq.ufrj.br

    2009-04-15

    When castor seeds are used in the production of biodiesel a solid residue is obtained from the seed crushing process (castor seed cake). This residue, due to its high starch content, is a potential biomass for second generation bioethanol production. The starch in this biomass presents some peculiarities that are associated with the proteins and other structures of the seed. The challenge of this study was to standardize a method to quantify the starch, tailored for this biomass. This methodology was confirmed with a comparative study using commercial methods and a standard starch sample. This study is an important aspect in bioethanol production from castor seed cake. This is because to evaluate the potential of cakes from different sources it is necessary to determine the starch content in the biomass to calculate the mass balance as well as the process yield.

  11. Effect of Versaklin® bioproduct on Early Blight in potato cv. ‘Romano’ seed production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelenys Alvarado-Capó

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the need to produce potato seed (Solanum tuberosum L. with low inputs, this work was carried out with the aim of to determine the effect of the Versaklin® bioproduct on Early Blight (Alternaria solani Sorauer in the production of potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. ‘Romano’ seed. Minitubers obtained as basic seed were used. A field experiment was designed with three treatments: application of Versaklin®, chemical products and control without application of products. The incidence and intensity of the disease were determined, the area under the disease progression curve (AUDPC was calculated and the technical effectiveness of the culture was estimated with Versaklin® or chemical products. In addition, the number of tubers per plant was quantified, the fresh and dry mass of the tubers were determined and it were classified by their diameter (caliber. Treatment with Versaklin® reduced incidence (30% and disease severity (23.0%. The AUDPC was found in a value between control and chemical treatment. The superiority of the chemical treatment was verified by its technical efficiency and the potential of Versaklin® use because it reached a value that represents 60% of chemical treatment but with only one product. The number of tubers per plant had no significant differences among treatments. The highest proportion of tubers of caliber to be used as seed (35-45 mm occurred in the treatment with Versaklin®. The results indicated that Versaklin® bioproduct could be part of disease management strategies.   Key words: Alternaria solani, bioproduct, minitubers, Solanum tuberosum

  12. Why is seed production so variable among individuals? A ten-year study with oaks reveals the importance of soil environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio M Pérez-Ramos

    Full Text Available Mast-seeding species exhibit not only a large inter-annual variability in seed production but also considerable variability among individuals within the same year. However, very little is known about the causes and consequences for population dynamics of this potentially large between-individual variability. Here, we quantified seed production over ten consecutive years in two Mediterranean oak species - the deciduous Quercus canariensis and the evergreen Q. suber - that coexist in forests of southern Spain. First, we calibrated likelihood models to identify which abiotic and biotic variables best explain the magnitude (hereafter seed productivity and temporal variation of seed production at the individual level (hereafter CVi, and infer whether reproductive effort results from the available soil resources for the plant or is primarily determined by selectively favoured strategies. Second, we explored the contribution of between-individual variability in seed production as a potential mechanism of satiation for predispersal seed predators. We found that Q. canariensis trees inhabiting moister and more fertile soils were more productive than those growing in more resource-limited sites. Regarding temporal variation, individuals of the two studied oak species inhabiting these resource-rich environments also exhibited larger values of CVi. Interestingly, we detected a satiating effect on granivorous insects at the tree level in Q. suber, which was evident in those years where between-individual variability in acorn production was higher. These findings suggest that individual seed production (both in terms of seed productivity and inter-annual variability is strongly dependent on soil resource heterogeneity (at least for one of the two studied oak species with potential repercussions for recruitment and population dynamics. However, other external factors (such as soil heterogeneity in pathogen abundance or certain inherent characteristics of the

  13. Why is seed production so variable among individuals? A ten-year study with oaks reveals the importance of soil environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Aponte, Cristina; García, Luis V; Padilla-Díaz, Carmen M; Marañón, Teodoro

    2014-01-01

    Mast-seeding species exhibit not only a large inter-annual variability in seed production but also considerable variability among individuals within the same year. However, very little is known about the causes and consequences for population dynamics of this potentially large between-individual variability. Here, we quantified seed production over ten consecutive years in two Mediterranean oak species - the deciduous Quercus canariensis and the evergreen Q. suber - that coexist in forests of southern Spain. First, we calibrated likelihood models to identify which abiotic and biotic variables best explain the magnitude (hereafter seed productivity) and temporal variation of seed production at the individual level (hereafter CVi), and infer whether reproductive effort results from the available soil resources for the plant or is primarily determined by selectively favoured strategies. Second, we explored the contribution of between-individual variability in seed production as a potential mechanism of satiation for predispersal seed predators. We found that Q. canariensis trees inhabiting moister and more fertile soils were more productive than those growing in more resource-limited sites. Regarding temporal variation, individuals of the two studied oak species inhabiting these resource-rich environments also exhibited larger values of CVi. Interestingly, we detected a satiating effect on granivorous insects at the tree level in Q. suber, which was evident in those years where between-individual variability in acorn production was higher. These findings suggest that individual seed production (both in terms of seed productivity and inter-annual variability) is strongly dependent on soil resource heterogeneity (at least for one of the two studied oak species) with potential repercussions for recruitment and population dynamics. However, other external factors (such as soil heterogeneity in pathogen abundance) or certain inherent characteristics of the tree might be

  14. Soft X-Ray Photoionizing Organic Matter from Comet Wild 2: Evidence for the Production of Organic Matter by Impact Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Wirick, S.; Flynn, G. J.; Jacobsen, C.; Na

    2011-01-01

    The Stardust mission collected both mineral and organic matter from Comet Wild 2 [1,2,3,4]. The organic matter discovered in Comet Wild 2 ranges from aromatic hydrocarbons to simple aliphatic chains and is as diverse and complex as organic matter found in carbonaceous chondrites and interplanetary dust particles.[3,5,6,7,8,9]. Compared to insoluble organic matter from carbonaceous chondrites the organic matter in Comet Wild 2 more closely resembles organic matter found in the IDPS both hydrous and anhydrous. Common processes for the formation of organic matter in space include: Fischer-Tropsch, included with this aqueous large body and moderate heating alterations; UV irradiation of ices; and; plasma formation and collisions. The Fischer-Tropsch could only occur on large bodies processes, and the production of organic matter by UV radiation is limited by the penetration depth of UV photons, on the order of a few microns or less for most organic matter, so once organic matter coats the ices it is formed from, the organic production process would stop. Also, the organic matter formed by UV irradiation would, by the nature of the process, be in-sensitive to photodissocation from UV light. The energy of soft X-rays, 280-300 eV occur within the range of extreme ultraviolet photons. During the preliminary examination period we found a particle that nearly completely photoionized when exposed to photons in the energy range 280-310eV. This particle experienced a long exposure time to the soft x-ray beam which caused almost complete mass loss so little chemical information was obtain. During the analysis of our second allocation we have discovered another particle that photoionized at these energies but the exposure time was limited and more chemical information was obtained.

  15. Evaluation of Exotically-Derived Soybean Breeding Lines for Seed Yield, Germination, Damage, and Composition under Dryland Production in the Midsouthern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although the Early Soybean Production System (ESPS) in the Midsouthern USA increased seed yield under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions, heat stress and drought still lead to poor seed quality in heat sensitive soybean cultivars. Our goal was to identify breeding lines that possess high germin...

  16. Effect of whole flax seed and carbohydrase enzymes on gastrointestinal morphology, muscle fatty acids, and production performance in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperson, K Denise; Cherian, Gita

    2016-10-19

    Flax seed is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (18:3 n-3). Feeding broiler birds flax seed can increase n-3 fatty acids in meat tissues. However, non-starch polysaccharides in flax seed decrease nutrient digestibility and can have a negative impact on bird performance and muscle fatty acid content. Addition of carbohydrase enzymes to flax-based broiler diets can decrease the anti-nutritive effects of non-starch polysaccharides. An experiment was conducted to investigate on the effect of flax seed and carbohydrase enzyme foregut morphology, muscle tissue, fatty acids, and bird performance. A total of 112 five-day-old broiler chicks were assigned to one of four treatments: Flax10 (corn-soybean meal basal diet adjusted for 10% flax), Flax15 (basal diet adjusted for 15% flax), Flax10E (Flax10 + 0.05% enzyme), and Flax15E (Flax 15 + 0.05% enzyme). Addition of enzyme led to large increases in villi height and villi width in the jejunum of birds fed Flax10 and increases in crypt depth in the jejunum of birds fed Flax15 (P enzyme supplementation was minimal on the fatty acids measured in breast muscle except for total n-6 fatty acids which was higher (P acid, arachidonic acid, and total n-6 fatty acids were higher in birds fed Flax15 vs. Flax10. Feeding Flax15 led to a reduction in dry matter of excreta when compared to Flax10 (P enzyme addition (P > 0.05). © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. Isolated and Community Contexts Produce Distinct Responses by Host Plants to the Presence of Ant-Aphid Interaction: Plant Productivity and Seed Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canedo-Júnior, Ernesto Oliveira; Santiago, Graziele Silva; Zurlo, Luana Fonseca; Ribas, Carla Rodrigues; Carvalho, Rafaela Pereira; Alves, Guilherme Pereira; Carvalho, Mariana Comanucci Silva; Souza, Brígida

    2017-01-01

    Ant-aphid interactions may affect host plants in several ways, however, most studies measure only the amount of fruit and seed produced, and do not test seed viability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of the presence of ant-aphid interactions upon host plant productivity and seed viability in two different contexts: isolated and within an arthropod community. For this purpose we tested the hypothesis that in both isolated and community contexts, the presence of an ant-aphid interaction will have a positive effect on fruit and seed production, seed biomass and rate of seed germination, and a negative effect on abnormal seedling rates, in comparison to plants without ants. We performed a field mesocosm experiment containing five treatments: Ant-aphid, Aphid, Community, Ant-free community and Control. We counted fruits and seeds produced by each treatment, and conducted experiments for seed biomass and germinability. We found that in the community context the presence of an ant-aphid interaction negatively affected fruit and seed production. We think this may be because aphid attendance by tending-ants promotes aphid damage to the host plant, but without an affect on seed weight and viability. On the other hand, when isolated, the presence of an ant-aphid interaction positively affected fruit and seed production. These positive effects are related to the cleaning services offered to aphids by tending-ants, which prevent the development of saprophytic fungi on the surface of leaves, which would cause a decrease in photosynthetic rates. Our study is important because we evaluated some parameters of plant fitness that have not been addressed very well by other studies involving the effects of ant-aphid interactions mainly on plants with short life cycles. Lastly, our context dependent approach sheds new light on how ecological interactions can vary among different methods of crop management.

  18. Isolated and Community Contexts Produce Distinct Responses by Host Plants to the Presence of Ant-Aphid Interaction: Plant Productivity and Seed Viability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Graziele Silva; Zurlo, Luana Fonseca; Ribas, Carla Rodrigues; Carvalho, Rafaela Pereira; Alves, Guilherme Pereira; Carvalho, Mariana Comanucci Silva; Souza, Brígida

    2017-01-01

    Ant-aphid interactions may affect host plants in several ways, however, most studies measure only the amount of fruit and seed produced, and do not test seed viability. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effects of the presence of ant-aphid interactions upon host plant productivity and seed viability in two different contexts: isolated and within an arthropod community. For this purpose we tested the hypothesis that in both isolated and community contexts, the presence of an ant-aphid interaction will have a positive effect on fruit and seed production, seed biomass and rate of seed germination, and a negative effect on abnormal seedling rates, in comparison to plants without ants. We performed a field mesocosm experiment containing five treatments: Ant-aphid, Aphid, Community, Ant-free community and Control. We counted fruits and seeds produced by each treatment, and conducted experiments for seed biomass and germinability. We found that in the community context the presence of an ant-aphid interaction negatively affected fruit and seed production. We think this may be because aphid attendance by tending-ants promotes aphid damage to the host plant, but without an affect on seed weight and viability. On the other hand, when isolated, the presence of an ant-aphid interaction positively affected fruit and seed production. These positive effects are related to the cleaning services offered to aphids by tending-ants, which prevent the development of saprophytic fungi on the surface of leaves, which would cause a decrease in photosynthetic rates. Our study is important because we evaluated some parameters of plant fitness that have not been addressed very well by other studies involving the effects of ant-aphid interactions mainly on plants with short life cycles. Lastly, our context dependent approach sheds new light on how ecological interactions can vary among different methods of crop management. PMID:28141849

  19. Gamma-linolenic acid egg production enriched with hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil in diet of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Oh; Hwangbo, Jong; Yuh, In-Suh; Park, Byung-Sung

    2014-07-01

    This study was carried out to find out the effect of supplying gamma linolenic acid (GLA) on laying performance and egg quality. A hundred twenty of 30 weeks old hyline brown laying hens with 98% of egg production were completely randomized to 4 different treatment groups by 30 hens (the control group fed with the diet containing beef tallow, 3 treatment groups fed with the diet containing corn oil, the diet containing hemp seed oil and the diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively), and their laying performance and egg production were investigated for 5 weeks. Intake of hemp seed oil or evening primrose helped to increase the retention rate of GLA, which was transmigrated into eggs from blood. GLA was not detected in the blood samples of control group and treatment group fed diet containing corn oil, while it was significantly increased in the blood samples of the treatment groups fed with diet containing hemp seed oil and diet containing evening primrose oil, respectively. GLA retention was not observed in the eggs produced respectively by control group and treatment group fed with diet containing corn oil, whereas it was significantly increased in the eggs produced by the treatment group fed with diet containing hemp seed oil by 1.09% and the treatment group fed with diet containing evening primrose oil by 4.87%. This result suggests that GLA-reinforced functional eggs can be produced by adding hemp seed oil and evening primrose oil to the feed for laying hens and feeding them with it. It is thought that further researches and clinical trials on biochemical mechanism related to atopic dermatitis should be conducted in future.

  20. Study of the Relationships between Technological and Productivity Elements that Determine Seed Yield in Birdsfoot Trefoil (Lotus Corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neculai Dragomir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During an experience performed to elaborate an efficient technology of seed production in birdsfoot trefoil, we observed a series of correlations between yield and the elements of productivity, which exert a strong influence on seed quantity. In this viewpoint, the matrix of correlations between the elements of fructification, in the case of the influence exerted by birdsfoot trefoil cultivation method, made evident the following correlation coefficients: r = 0.81**, between the number of pods/plant; r = 0.82**, between the number of generative sprigs and the number of pods/inflorescence; r = 0.98**, between the number of generative sprigs and the number of pods/plant.

  1. 76 FR 14687 - In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Chips and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Semiconductor Chips and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission... importation of certain semiconductor chips and products containing the same. The Commission's notice...

  2. Proteolysis in tempeh-type products obtained with Rhizopus and Aspergillus strains from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Starzyńska-Janiszewska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tempeh is a food product obtained from legumes by means of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus sp. Our previous research proved that mixed-culture inoculum may also be successfully applied. The objective of present research was to study the proteolytic activity of R. microsporus var. chinensis and A. oryzae during tempeh-type fermentation of grass pea seeds, and the effect of inoculum composition on the protein level and in vitro protein bioavailability in products. Material and methods. Fermentation substrate were soaked and cooked grass pea seeds. Material was mixed with single- or mixed-culture inoculum, and incubated in perforated plastic bags at 30°C for 32 hrs. In the products, the proteolytic activity (pH 3, 5 and 7, glucosamine, total protein and free amino acids levels, as well as protein in vitro bioavailability and degree of protein hydrolysis were obtained. Results. The signifi cant correlation was found between glucosamine content and proteolytic activity in grass pea seeds fermented with Rhizopus or Aspergillus. The activities of Rhizopus proteases were higher than Aspergillus ones, which corresponded with the degree of seed protein hydrolysis. Both strains showed the highest activity of protease at pH 3. Tempeh made with pure culture of Rhizopus had 37% protein of 69% in-vitro bioavailability. Mixed-culture fermentation improved nutritional parameters of products only when the dose of Aspergillus spores in the inoculum was equal and lower than that of Rhizopus. This process resulted in higher in-vitro bioavailability of protein, slightly more effi cient protein hydrolysis and higher level of free amino acids, as compared to standard tempeh. Conclusions. The activity of A. oryzae in tempeh-type fermentation is benefi cial as long as it does not dominate the activity and/or growth of Rhizopus strain.

  3. Optimization of Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification of Cotton Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production Using Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Xia Li; Bing Xue Dong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the biodiesel production from cotton seed oil by lipase produced by Pichia guilliermondii lipase, which was immobilized onto hydrophobic magnetic particles (HMPs). The optimum reaction conditions were determined for lipase dosage, methanol-to-oil molar ratio, temperature and water content. Using response surface methodology, a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained for fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) content by multiple regression analysis. Verification ...

  4. 油茶籽油不皂化物成分分析与分离%Separation and analysis of unsaponifiable matters in camellia seed oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖义坡; 张彬; 邓丹雯; 罗家星; 白雪

    2015-01-01

    采用GC-MS分析油茶籽油不皂化物成分,并通过薄层层析( TLC)对不皂化物进行初步分离。结果表明:油茶籽油不皂化物的主要成分为角鲨烯、α-生育酚,另外还有香叶基芳樟醇、麦角甾醇、β-香树脂醇、羊毛甾醇、3-乙酰菲、2,4-二叔丁基苯酚及N-(2-三氟甲基苯)-3-吡啶甲酰胺肟等物质。以石油醚与乙醚(9:1,V/V)为展开剂,通过薄层层析分离油茶籽油不皂化物,得到6条色带,利用紫外-可见光对分离物进行扫描,获得各分离物的最大吸收峰波长。%Analyzed the unsaponifiable matters in camellia see d oil by GC-MS,and separated the unsaponifi-able matters with thin-layer chromatography( TLC). The results showed that the main components of camellia seed oil unsaponifiable matters were squalene,alpha tocopherol,geranyl linalool,ergosterol,beta amyrin,lanosterol,phe-nanthrene,3-acetyl 2,4-Di tert butyl phenol and N-(2-three trifluoromethyl benzene)-3-pyridine formamide oxime and other substances. Eluted with petroleum ether-ethyl ether(9: 1,V/V),separated the camellia seed oil unsa-ponifiables by thin layer chromatography,six bands were evidenced under ultraviolet light. Scanned the 6 isolates with UV-visible,maximum absorption peak wavelength was obtained for each isolates.

  5. Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on J/psi Production: Intrinsic and Extrinsic Transverse Momentum Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreiro, E.G.; /Santiago de Compostela U.; Fleuret, F.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Lansberg, J.P.; /Heidelberg U.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; /SPhN, DAPNIA, Saclay

    2010-08-26

    Cold nuclear matter effects on J/{psi} production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions are evaluated taking into account the specific J/{psi}-production kinematics at the partonic level, the shadowing of the initial parton distributions and the absorption in the nuclear matter. We consider two different parton processes for the c{bar c}-pair production: one with collinear gluons and a recoiling gluon in the final state and the other with initial gluons carrying intrinsic transverse momentum. Our results are compared to RHIC observables. The smaller values of the nuclear modification factor R{sub AA} in the forward rapidity region (with respect to the mid rapidity region) are partially explained, therefore potentially reducing the need for recombination effects.

  6. Establishment of ANEDr model for evaluating absorbed-nitrogen effects on wheat dry matter production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jiao; TAO Hong-bin; LIAO Shu-hua; WANG Pu

    2016-01-01

    Applying mathematic models to evaluate absorbed-N effects on dry matter production at different developmental stages would help determine proper nitrogen management according to crop demands and yield target. Two ifeld trials were car-ried out for establishing absorbed-N effects on dry matter production (ANEDr) model, using uniform design in 2010–2011 and 2012–2013 winter wheat growing seasons in Hebei Province, China. Another ifeld trial was carried out in 2010–2011 for model validation. Dry matter and N concentration in leaf and non-leaf organs were measured at setting, jointing, an-thesis, and maturity. Theory of best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) was applied to analyse the N effects of leaf and non-leaf organs on dry matter production. Within ANEDr model, four N-affected phases at each stage were concerned, leaf absorbed-N effect before this stage, non-leaf organ absorbed-N effect before this stage,leaf absorbed-N effect at this stage, and non-leaf organ absorbed-N effect at this stage. In addition, developmental processes, genotype characters and temperature were three factors that determine each N effect. It was demonstrated that ANEDr model can precisely quantify absorbed-N effects on dry matter production with high correlation coefifcient (r=0.95). Comparing with other models, ANEDr model considered both leaf and non-leaf organs according to developmental processes of winter wheat, showed higher lfexibility and simplicity, thus could be applied to different environments, cultivars and crops after parameter adjustment.

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Castor Seed Oil and Its Utilization Potential in the Production of Polyurethane Foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aishat IMASUEN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Firm polyurethane (PU foams were prepared using Nigerian grown brown and white castor seed oil starting materials extracted at ambient temperature. Polyol with terminal primary hydroxyl groups synthesized from crude castor oil were reacted with aromatic diphenylmethane diisocyanate to prepare the foams. Castor seeds were decorticated and milled, after which they were weighed into filter bags for expression at ambient temperature, 50, 100 and 150 °C respectively at a constant pressure of 2 ton. Evaluation of the oil yield shows that the brown seeds with lower weight at a temperature of 150 °C gave a high yield of 54.79 %, compared to high weight at ambient temperature, which yielded 29.45 %. The white seeds with lower weight at a temperature of 150 °C gave high yields of 52.75 %, compared to higher weight at ambient temperature yielding 30.06 %. The oil was characterized in terms of moisture content, volatile content, acid value, free fatty acid and saponification value. The results are within the range reported in literature. In-situ polymerization was used in the production of polyurethane foam using the extracted oil as polyol. The results of the foam characterization in terms of compression set and density conform to standard foams.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.20

  8. Effects of replacing maize with mango seed kernel meal on performance, carcass characteristics and economic of production of weaner rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saleh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of replacing maize with mango seed kernel meal (MSKM in the diets of Weaner rabbit on performance, carcass characteristics and economic of production. Twenty mongrel rabbits were randomly allocated to four diets in which mango seed kernel meal replaced maize at 0, 33.33, 66.67 and 100% level designed as diets 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The daily feed intake (42.75-49.76, daily weight gain (8.75-9.72 and feed conversion ratio (4.64-5.19 obtained were not significantly (P<0.05 affected by the dietary levels of mango seed kernel meal. Carcass yield and weight of organs expressed as percentage of live weight did not significantly differ between the treatment means. The cost in naira per kilogram gain was highest on diet 1 (0%MSKM and lowest on diet 4 (100% MSKM having N338.84 and 245.58 respectively. The result indicates that mango seed kernel meal can replace maize at 100% level in the diet of Weaner rabbit with better performance and tremendous reduction in feed cost.

  9. Recommendations of the LHC Dark Matter Working Group: Comparing LHC searches for heavy mediators of dark matter production in visible and invisible decay channels arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, Andreas; Boveia, Antonio; Buchmueller, Oliver; Busoni, Giorgio; De Roeck,Albert; Doglioni, Caterina; DuPree, Tristan; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gori, Stefania; Gustavino, Giuliano; Hahn, Kristian; Haisch, Ulrich; Harris, Philip C.; Hayden, Dan; Ippolito, Valerio; John, Isabelle; Kahlhoefer, Felix; Kulkarni, Suchita; Landsberg, Greg; Lowette, Steven; Mawatari, Kentarou; Riotto, Antonio; Shepherd, William; Tait, Tim M.P.; Tolley, Emma; Tunney, Patrick; Zaldivar, Bryan; Zinser, Markus

    Weakly-coupled TeV-scale particles may mediate the interactions between normal matter and dark matter. If so, the LHC would produce dark matter through these mediators, leading to the familiar "mono-X" search signatures, but the mediators would also produce signals without missing momentum via the same vertices involved in their production. This document from the LHC Dark Matter Working Group suggests how to compare searches for these two types of signals in case of vector and axial-vector mediators, based on a workshop that took place on September 19/20, 2016 and subsequent discussions. These suggestions include how to extend the spin-1 mediated simplified models already in widespread use to include lepton couplings. This document also provides analytic calculations of the relic density in the simplified models and reports an issue that arose when ATLAS and CMS first began to use preliminary numerical calculations of the dark matter relic density in these models.

  10. Study on the seed production and germination dynamic of common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sárkány, S E; Lehoczky, E; Nagy, P

    2008-01-01

    The common milkweed causes considerable damages on the agricultural and nature conservation areas. The area occupied by this weed is continuously bigger. The common milkweed is spread over North-America between the 35th and 50th degree of western Latitude and 60th 103rd degree of longitude. Millions of hectares are polluted by this weed in the United States. Important is its spread also in Asia (Iraq), in Europe (Carpathian Basin, Poland, Bulgaria, Switzerland, France, Austria, Germany), as well as in the area of the former Soviet Union (Belorussia, The Baltic Countries, Caucasus, and the Ukraine). Though the basic biological characters of this plant are well known, still its control is a significant problem, the damages increase on the areas occupied by this weed. We collect seed samples from several Hungarian areas in 2007. After the sampling we determined the average sprout length and the number of follicle as well as the average seed numbers in the follicle. We determined also the weight of thousand seeds of the resultant seed samples. At natural circumstances the seedlings appear at a soil temperature of 15 degrees C during the end of April and first week of May. Under Laboratory circumstances the dormancy of the seeds ceases continuously from November on, germinate at a temperature of 20-30 degrees C, the maximum germination can be achieved in the first part of April. At January we started germination examinations with the seeds in Petri dish, among laboratory condition.

  11. Biodiesel Production from Kapok (Ceiba pentandra Seed Oil using Naturally Alkaline Catalyst as an Effort of Green Energy and Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Handayani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, energy that used to serve all the needs of community, mainly generated from fossil (conventional energy. Terrace in energy consumption is not balanced with adequate fossil fuel reserves and will be totally depleted in the near future. Indonesian Government through a Presidential Decree No. 5 year 2006 mandates an increased capacity in renewable energy production from 5 percent to 15 percent in 2025. C. pentandra seed oil has feasibility as a sustainable biodiesel feedstock in Indonesia. The aim of this paper was to investigate biodiesel production from ceiba petandra seed oil using naturally potassium hydroxide catalyst. Research designs are based on factorial design with 2 levels and 3 independent variables (temperature, reaction time and molar ratio of methanol to oil. According to data calculation, the most influential single variable is molar ratio of methanol to oil. Characterization of biodiesel products meet all the qualifications standardized by SNI 04-7182-2006. Keywords: biodiesel, kapok seed oil, c. pentandra, green technology

  12. Determination of volatile glucosinolate degradation products in seed coat, stem and in vitro cultures of Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehshahri, S; Afsharypuor, S; Asghari, G; Mohagheghzadeh, A

    2012-01-01

    Moringaceae, a monogeneric family in Capparales (glucosinolate-containing species), includes 14 species. One of them is Moringa peregrina (Forssk.) Fiori., a small tree, which grows in south east of Iran. Volatile constituents of seed coat and stem of M. peregrina were determined by GC and GC/MS. Moreover, extracts of seed and different cultured cells were analyzed by TLC and GC. Three volatile isothiocyanates including isopropyl isothiocyanate (4.2%), sec-butyl isothiocyanate (< 0.1%) and isobutyl isothiocyanate (92.9%) were found in the volatile oil of the stem , while only two volatile isothiocyanates namely isopropyl isothiocyanate (7.0%) and isobutyl isothiocyanate (51.5%) were determined in the seed coat of the tree. For the first time, the callus and suspension cultures of M. peregrina were initiated and established successfully on Murashige and Skoog medium, containing plant growth hormones. Different precursors and elicitors were fed to the cultures to induce glucosinolates production. This is the first report of in vitro culture production of M. peregrina. There was no production of volatile isothiocyanates in M. peregrina callus and suspension cultures with different treatments.

  13. IMPACT OF IMPROVED SEEDS ON SMALL FARMERS' PRODUCTIVITY, INCOME AND LIVELIHOOD OF BARA LOCALITY IN NORTH KORDOFAN STATE, SUDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkhalil Elnour Briema Ahmed

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to test and identify the impact of improved seeds on small farmers' productivity, income and livelihood in Bara locality. Sixty households participants were randomly selected through a field survey during 2011 for 2008/2009, 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 cropping seasons. The study applied Multi-stage random sample technique. Based on existing farm situation and price level, the sampled farmers were obtained SDG 8604 as gross margin to cover all expenses. Results of this study also depicted that the required net income and off-farm income were 16293 and 11378 SDG, respectively. With respect to Linear Programming (LP results, a total of SDG 8890 were obtained and all crops were entered and solved. The optimal plan and existing farm situation were changed by 3.3 and 5.6% for gross margin and cash income, respectively. Results of LP also indicated a positive change in production patterns of resource use; 3.3, 6.2, 3.5, 3.3 and 9.1% for land, cash income, labour, seeds supply and productivity, respectively under existing and optimal plan. Partial crop budgeting revealed that, all treatments were financially gave positive returns. Dominance analysis showed that cowpea ainelgazal, okra, roselle and sesame herhri crops were dominated by crops of millet ashana, watermelon, groundnut and guar, respectively. Marginal analysis exposed that, for every SDG 1.00 invested in improved seeds cultivation, farmer can expect to cover the SDG 1.00 and obtain an additional SDG 1.345; then, additional seed rate implies a further marginal rate of SDG 43.9. Sensitivity analysis for cost over run and benefit reduction by 10% indicated highly stability with MRR of 1.22, 3.991 and 1.21 and 3.951% for watermelon and guar, respectively. The productivity of improved seeds compared to local ones was increased in some varieties and decreased among others. This study reached to some recommendations for improving crop productivity, production and livelihood of

  14. D-glufosinate as a male sterility agent for hybrid seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Tim; Pline-Srnic, Wendy; Dale, Richard; Friend, Emma; Hollinshead, Tricia; Howe, Peter; Thompson, Paul; Viner, Russell; Greenland, Andy

    2011-04-01

    A chemical male sterility system based on anther-localized conversion of the inactive D-enantiomer of the herbicide, glufosinate (2-amino-4-(methylphosphinyl)-butanoate) to the phytotoxic L is described. Highly pure D-glufosinate was isolated in >98% enantiomeric excess from the racemate via fermentation with a strain of Escherichia coli expressing the PAT (L-glufosinate N-acetyl transferase) gene and purification of the unreacted D-enantiomer from the broth by ion exchange. A modified (F58K, M213S) form of the D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) (EC 1.4.3.3) from Rhodosporidium toruloides was designed, tested in vitro and found to efficiently oxidize D-glufosinate to its 2-oxo derivative [2-oxo-4-(methylphosphinyl)-butanoic acid]. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants were transformed to express this modified oxidase under control of the TAP1 tapetum-specific promoter. A number of the resultant transgenic lines exhibited complete male sterility that persisted for two or more weeks immediately following foliar treatment with 75 or 200 g/ha of D-glufosinate without exhibiting obvious phytotoxic symptoms or any measurable decline in female fertility. Similarly, plants containing the same construct and, additionally, a PAT gene expressed from a plastocyanin promoter exhibited significantly reduced male fertility and no reduction in female fertility following foliar application of racemic glufosinate. Thus, foliar application of d-glufosinate either purified or as the commercial herbicide, combined with anther expression of a modified DAAO promises to provide a cost-effective conditional chemical male sterility system with the characteristics necessary for practical F₁ hybrid seed production.

  15. Application of Wine Pomace seeds as finning agent during production of red wines and its effects over colour parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    m Hatice Kalkan Yıldırı

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During production of wines are used different fining agents with animal origin for preventing later presipitation and reducing harshenss of wines. Even these positive properties they may cause some allergic reactions in consumers with allergic predispositons. Due to health concern wine pomace seeds could be a new alternative as fining agent with plant origin. In this study were evaluated preliminary effects of seeds over wine qulity expecially wine colour. As the next stage will be considered thier health effects. Grapes of Vitis vinifera L. cvs. “Cabernet Sauvignon” were manually harvested at optimum maturity (25∘Brix and transported to the Experimental Winery at the Department of Food Engineering, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. Wine production were done according to the accepted wine production procedures with exeption of SO2 (it was not added. Obtained grape seeds flour (drying and milling were used as fining agent with different values (2/4/6/8/10 gram/100 ml. In all wines basic wine chemical parameters and some spesific colour parameters were determined %D280, %D420, %D520, %D620, CD: Colour density, CI: Colour intensity, T: Tint value, dA %: Proportion of red colour produced by flavylium cations , %Y: Proportion of yellow colour, % R: Proportion of red colour and % B: Proportion of blue colour. The results demonstrated the possibility of using wine pomace grape seeds as fining agent. Concidering colour parametrs of obtianed wines the best results were deterrmined with 8 g/100 ml application. Futher studies are needed in order to evaluate other wine parameters.

  16. The impact of seeds provenance and nursery production method on Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arn. seedlings quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Ivetić

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed provenances and seedling production methodson quality of one and two years old seedlings of Austrian pine wereinvestigated. Seeds from three provenances of Austrian pine (Goč, Studenica and Šargan were used for seedlings production, combined with three production methods: (i the modified seedbeds (bare-root, (ii the container type Plantagrah II and (iii the container type Gočko. Provenance, as well as the combined influence of provenance and production method had minimal influence on the variability of one and two years old Austrian pine seedlings. Nevertheless, the production method had the highest influence. The production system, besides its importance in nursery, will have a high influence on seedlings growth during the first year after planting. Considering the results of this study (e.g. the highest values of the diameter, number of lateral roots, shoot and root dry weight, and quality index and the lowest value of SQ and satisfactory value of S:R, we can conclude that the seedlings produced in container type Gočko led to the highestseedlings quality, recommended especially for afforestation on hard sites.

  17. Supplementation of Carbohydrate to Enhance the α-amylase Production by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6346 in Presence of Seed Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadaramana, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The effect of carbohydrate and amino acids on the production of a-amylase by Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 6346 was investigated. Methodology and results: To find out the influence of carbohydrate the total carbohydrate content of the medium containing different concentration (2-18 g/L of defatted seed cake powder of sesamum and mustard containing medium was kept constant by the addition of soluble starch separately. The highest a-amylase activity obtained in the medium containing 18g/L mustard (59.11+b1.48 U/mL and sesamum seed cake powder (55.23+b1.55 U/mL. The results indicated that under these conditions the carbohydrate content had no effect on the production of a-amylase. Effect of amino acids (0.2g/L of glycine, methionine, proline, lysine, leucine, threonine, serine, arginine, alanine, glutamic acid, tryptophan, glutamine, asparagine, histidine, valine, phenylalanine, isoleucine and mixture of amino acids on the production of a-amylase in fermentation medium was investigated. Among the different amino acids supplemented, eight amino acids improved the a-amylase production but casaminoacids slightly inhibited the enzyme production. In presence of tryptophan highest enzyme activity was obtained than control. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: In these study amino acids especially tryptophan takes part in a particular role rather than carbohydrate in the production of a-amylase from B. licheniformis ATCC 6346.

  18. Morphological parameters and genetic diversity of progenies from seed production areas and unimproved stands of teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    N. Lyngdoh; Geeta Joshi; G. Ravikanth; R. Vasudeva; R. Uma Shaanker

    2013-01-01

    We compared morphological and genetic attributes of prog-eny obtained from three seed production areas (SPAs) and three corre-sponding unimproved stands (UIS) of teak (Tectona grandis L.f) at three broad teak growing regions in the state of Karnataka, India. In general, seed morphological parameters such as seed weight, seed size and seed emptiness were significantly superior in SPAs compared to UISs. Seed germination percentage was also higher in seeds from SPAs. Seedling performance measured at two monthly intervals for six months was ob-served to be superior in SPAs at two of the three regions compared. Although the genetic diversity of progeny of SPAs was lower than UIS at all regions, the values were moderately high. Germination percent was positively correlated with fruit weight and kernel weight per seed, while diversity indices were negatively correlated with fruit weight, fruit di-ameter and kernel weight per seed. SPAs proved important as a source of moderately improved planting material with no severe threat to the ge-netic diversity of future plantations.

  19. [Characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley genotypes with high nitrogen utilization efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Li, Ting-Xuan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Ji, Lin

    2014-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted under low (125 mg x kg-1) and normal (250 mg x kg(-1)) nitrogen treatments. The nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency of 22 barley cultivars were investigated, and the characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley were analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency were different for barley under two nitrogen levels. The maximal values of grain yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index were 2.87, 2.91 and 2.47 times as those of the lowest under the low nitrogen treatment. Grain yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index of barley genotype with high nitrogen utilization efficiency were significantly greater than low nitrogen utilization efficiency, and the parameters of high nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype were 82.1%, 61.5% and 50.5% higher than low nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype under the low nitrogen treatment. Dry matter mass and nitrogen utilization of high nitrogen utilization efficiency was significantly higher than those of low nitrogen utilization efficiency. A peak of dry matter mass of high nitrogen utilization efficiency occurred during jointing to heading stage, while that of nitrogen accumulation appeared before jointing. Under the low nitrogen treatment, dry matter mass of DH61 and DH121+ was 34.4% and 38.3%, and nitrogen accumulation was 54. 8% and 58.0% higher than DH80, respectively. Dry matter mass and nitrogen accumulation seriously affected yield before jointing stage, and the contribution rates were 47.9% and 54.7% respectively under the low nitrogen treatment. The effect of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation on nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain was the largest during heading to mature stages, followed by sowing to jointing stages, with the contribution rate being 29.5% and 48.7%, 29.0% and 15.8%, respectively. In conclusion, barley genotype with high

  20. Production of antioxidant compounds of grape seed skin by fermentation and its optimization using response surface method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andayani, D. G. S.; Risdian, C.; Saraswati, V.; Primadona, I.; Mawarda, P. C.

    2017-03-01

    Skins and seeds of grape are waste generated from food industry. These wastes contain nutrients of which able to be utilized as an important source for antioxidant metabolite production. Through an environmentally friendly process, natural antioxidant material was produced. This study aimed to generate antioxidant compounds by liquid fermentation. Optimization was carried out by using Schizosaccharomyces cerevisiae in Katu leaf substrate. Optimization variables through response surface methodology (RSM) were of sucrose concentration, skins and seeds of grape concentration, and pH. Results showed that the optimum conditions for antioxidant production were of 5 g/L sucrose, 5 g/L skins and seed at pH 5, respectively. The resulted antioxidant activity was of 1.62 mg/mL. Mathematical model of variance analysis using a second order polynomial corresponding to the resulted data for the antioxidant was of 20.70124 - 3.86997 A - 0.65996 B - 1.88367 C + 0.19634 A2 - 0.016638 B2 + 0.28848 C2 + 0.26980 AB - 0.068333 AC - 0.12367 BC. From the gained equation, the optimum yield from all variables was significant. Chemical analysis of the antioxidant was carried out using 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH).

  1. Toxic effects of wastewater from various phases of monosodium glutamate production on seed germination and root elongation of crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Rui; ZHOU Qixing; ZHANG Lanying; GUO Hao

    2007-01-01

    To make a comprehensive assessment on monosodium glutamate(MSG)wastewater pollution,a pollution exposure experiment was carried out on the seed germination and root elongation of wheat,Chinese cabbage and tomato by using the wastewater discharged from different processing phases of MSG production.The results showed that there were significantly positive linear relationships between the inhibitory rates of wheat seed germination and root elongation and the CODcr of the mother liquor scraps.The toxicity of MSG wastewater to the test crops was in the order of tomato>Chinese cabbage>wheat,indicating that tomato was the most sensitive to the wastewater,and could be considered as an ideal toxic bioindicator.The half-effect concentrations(IC50)based on the seed germination and root elongation of the test crops exposed to the wastewater discharged from various processing phases of MSG production was 22.0-32432 and 17.3-3320 mg/L,respectively.

  2. Research on Theories and Techniques of Irrigation for Safeguarding Seed Production of Two-Line Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Jiang-shi; L(U) Chuan-gen; YAO Ke-min; HU Ning; XIA Shi-jian

    2006-01-01

    By inducing frequency, intensity and duration of lower temperature in the middle and last ten-day periods in August in the rice-growing areas of southern China, increasing temperature for safe seed production was defined as 2℃. During the sensitive period of fertility, characters of panicle height and canopy structure of TGMS rice, Pei'ai64S, were measured.Results showed that temperature changes caused by irrigation in fields were below 40 cm of rice plant, and heating effect was significant at 20 cm when the temperature was increased by 3.1℃. For the present study, the following irrigation techniques were put forth: the water depth of 15-20 cm, current water used, irrigating after 17:00 and bailing at 10:00 in sunny or cloudy weather, irrigating on whole day, in shady or rainy weather, increasing inflows and outflows in large fields. In the present experiment, pollen fertility and self-fertilized seed setting rate accepted that the techniques were feasible and effective for against lower temperature and safeguarding seed production of two-line hybrid rice.

  3. Ecological and evolutionary conditions for fruit abortion to regulate pollinating seed-eaters and increase plant production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, J. Nathaniel; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2002-01-01

    Coevolved mutualisms, such as those between senita cacti, yuccas, and their respective obligate pollinators, benefit both species involved in the interaction. However, in these pollination mutualisms the pollinator's larvae impose a cost on plants through consumption of developing seeds and fruit. The effects of pollinators on benefits and costs are expected to vary with the abundance of pollinators, because large population sizes result in more eggs and larval seed-eaters. Here, we develop the hypothesis that fruit abortion, which is common in yucca, senita, and plants in general, could in some cases have the function of limiting pollinator abundance and, thereby, increasing fruit production. Using a general steady-state model of fruit production and pollinator dynamics, we demonstrate that plants involved in pollinating seed-eater mutualisms can increase their fecundity by randomly aborting fruit. We show that the ecological conditions under which fruit abortion can improve plants fecundity are not unusual. They are best met when the plant is long-lived, the population dynamics of the pollinator are much faster than those of the plant, the loss of one fruit via abortion kills a larva that would have the expectation of destroying more than one fruit through its future egg laying as an adult moth, and the effects of fruit abortion on pollinator abundance are spatially localized. We then use the approach of adaptive dynamics to find conditions under which a fruit abortion strategy based on regulating the pollinator population could feasibly evolve in this type of plant–pollinator interaction.

  4. The assessment of influence of different nitrogen compounds and time on germination of Lupinus angustifolius seeds and chemical composition of final products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kasprowicz-Potocka

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine changes in the chemical composition in lupin seeds during seed germination in a solution containing selected nitrogen compounds. Blue lupin seeds of the Neptun cultivar were germinated for 3 or 4 days in darkness, at 24°C in 1% solutions containing the following nitrogen compounds: urea, nitric acid, ammonium sulphate, methionine or yeast extract. The control consisted of seeds germinated in water. The presence of all nitrogen sources has resulted in a poorer growth of the sprouts as compared to seeds germinated in water. There was a significant increase in the true protein content as well as a significant decrease in the content of crude ash and alkaloids in the germinated seeds. The seeds germinated for 4 days had significantly higher total protein content and significantly lower content of nitrogen-free extract compounds and oligosaccharides as compared to the seeds germinated for 3 days. A significant influence of the nitrogen source on the concentration of some amino acids was found. Cystine was found to be absent in seeds germinated in the nitric acid solution, while there occurred a twofold increase in the cystine content and a fivefold increase in the methionine content in seeds germinated in the aqueous solution of methionine and an 50% increase in the cystine concentration was observed in seeds germinated in the yeast extract and ammonium sulphate solution. Methionine and cystine were the limiting amino acids in all the samples, accept of seeds germinated in the methionine solution were it was valine. Aqueous solutions of ammonium sulphate and yeast extract were found to have the most advantageous influence on the chemical composition of lupin germination products.

  5. Electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution and plant density in aeroponic production of seed potato under tropical conditions (winter/spring)

    OpenAIRE

    Calori,Alex Humberto; Factor,Thiago Leandro; Feltran, José Carlos [UNESP; Watanabe,Eduardo Yuji; Moraes,Carolina Cinto de; Purquerio,Luís Felipe Villani

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The recent introduction in Brazil of production of quality seed potatoes in hydroponic systems, such as aeroponics, demands studies on the nutritional and crop management. Thus, this study evaluated the influence of electrical conductivity of the nutrient solution and plant density on the seed potato minitubers production in aeroponics system. The Agata and Asterix cultivars were produced in a greenhouse under tropical conditions (winter/spring). The experimental design was a randomi...

  6. In-Medium K+ and K- Production and K- Condensation in Supernova Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hua; ZHOU Ran; LIU Yu-Xin; LIU Bo; LI Xi-Guo

    2004-01-01

    @@ In-medium effects and neutrino trapping on K+ and K- production and K- condensation in supernova matter are investigated in a chiral hadronic model. Our results show that neutrino trapping shifts the critical density for K- condensation to higher density, the Q values for K+ and K- production are not sensitive to neutrino trapping, in-medium effects decrease the Q values for NN → NNK+ K- and ∧N → NNK- and increase those for NN → N∧K+, K-p →∧π0 and K-n →∧π- as the density of supernova matter increases. Moreover,it is shown that neutrino trapping decreases the maximum masses of protoneutron stars compared with the neutrino-free case.

  7. Comparing Production Cross Sections for QCD Matter, Higgs Boson, Neutrino with Dark Energy in Accelerating Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaffary, Tooraj

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the production cross sections for QCD matter, neutrino and dark energy due to acceleration of Universe is calculated. To obtain these cross sections, the Universe production cross section is multiplied by the particle or dark energy distribution in accelerating Universe. Also missing cross section for each matter and dark energy due to formation of event horizon, is calculated. It is clear that the cross section of particles produced near event horizon of Universe is much larger for higher acceleration of Universe. This is because as the acceleration of Universe becomes larger, the Unruh temperature becomes larger and the thermal radiations of particles are enhanced. There are different channels for producing Higgs boson in accelerating Universe. Universe maybe decay to quark and gluons, and then these particles interact with each other and Higgs boson is produced. Also, some Higgs boson are emitted directly from event horizon of Universe. Comparing Higgs boson cross sections via different c...

  8. Significant anaerobic production of fluorescent dissolved organic matter in the deep East Sea (Sea of Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeonghyun; Kim, Guebuem

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) in the East Sea (Sea of Japan) was examined by excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Humic-like FDOM (FDOMH) increased with depth and was significantly correlated with Apparent Oxygen Utilization (AOU), indicating that FDOMH in the deep water is mainly produced by oxidation of organic matter. In addition, a surprisingly large excess of FDOMH relative to that expected from the observed AOU was found from 1000 m to the bottom (up to 3500 m). Based on the high-resolution geographical distribution and characteristics of FDOM in the East Sea, we conclude that this excess likely originates from anaerobic FDOMH production in subsurface bottom sediments. This FDOMH flux accounts for 8-15% of the total FDOM production in the water column. Our results suggest that anaerobic activities in subsurface sediments are an important hidden source of FDOM in the ocean.

  9. Direct Detection Phenomenology in Models Where the Products of Dark Matter Annihilation Interact with Nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherry, John F.; Frandsen, Mads T.; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the direct detection phenomenology of a class of dark matter (DM) models in which DM does not directly interact with nuclei, {but rather} the products of its annihilation do. When these annihilation products are very light compared to the DM mass, the scattering in direct detection...... cross sections has already been reached in a class of models. Moreover, the compatibility of dark matter direct detection experiments can be compared directly in $E_{{\\rm min}}$ space without making assumptions about DM astrophysics, mass, or scattering form factors. Lastly, when DM has direct couplings...... to nuclei, the limit from annihilation to relativistic particles in the Sun can be stronger than that of conventional non-relativistic direct detection by more than three orders of magnitude for masses in a 2-7 GeV window....

  10. Inhibition of seed germination and induction of systemic disease resistance by Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6 requires phenazine production regulated by the global regulator, gacS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Beom Ryong; Han, Song Hee; Zdor, Rob E; Anderson, Anne J; Spencer, Matt; Yang, Kwang Yeol; Kim, Yong Hwan; Lee, Myung Chul; Cho, Baik Ho; Kim, Young Cheol

    2007-04-01

    Seed coating by a phenazine-producing bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6, induced dose-dependent inhibition of germination in wheat and barley seeds, but did not inhibit germination of rice or cucumber seeds. In wheat seedlings grown from inoculated seeds, phenazine production levels near the seed were higher than in the roots. Deletion of the gacS gene reduced transcription from the genes required for phenazine synthesis, the regulatory phzI gene and the biosynthetic phzA gene. The inhibition of seed germination and the induction of systemic disease resistance against a bacterial soft-rot pathogen, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora, were impaired in the gacS and phzA mutants of P chlororaphis O6. Culture filtrates of the gacS and phzA mutants of P chlororaphis 06 did not inhibit seed germination of wheat, whereas that of the wild-type was inhibitory. Our results showed that the production of phenazines by P chlororaphis O6 was correlated with reduced germination of barley and wheat seeds, and the level of systemic resistance in tobacco against E. carotovora.

  11. The Effect of Water Stress on the Gas Exchange Parameters, Productivity and Seed Health of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present pot experiment studied the effect of different soil moisture contents (60 - 70% CWC (capillary water capacity - control; 30 - 35% CWC - water stress on buckwheat productivity, the gas exchange parameters and health of buckwheat nuts. It was found that water deficit affected adversely certain biometric features investigated (plant height, number of nuts per cluster and caused a decrease in seed weight per plant. It was also shown that water stress reduced the values of the investigated gas exchange parameters (photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, intercellular-space CO2 concentration, and stomatal conductance relative to the control treatment. Different soil moisture contents did not have a clear effect on fungal colonization of seeds. The multiplex PCR assays did not enable the detection of the genes responsible for mycotoxin synthesis. Under water deficit conditions, an increase was found in the content of albumin and globulin fractions as well as of glutelin fractions.

  12. Characteristics and applications of isotopes in products from organic matter in sedimentary rocksby simulated thermal experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈安定; 张文正; 徐永昌

    1995-01-01

    Isotopic compositions of carbon in the products obtained respectively from 25 sedimentary rocks at an early stage of maturation by the simulated thermogenetic hydrocarbons experiments have been determined. The fractional effect of methane carbon isotope during the thermal maturation of organic matter is observed. Based on the experimental data, the relative equations between δ13C and R0 were established and have been used for differentiation of origins of various kinds of natural gases in the Shan-Gan-Ning Basin.

  13. Data and planting density on the production and quality seed the triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack).

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Theobjective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sowingdates and seeding rates on triticale seed yield and quality.This work was performed during the autumn-winter seasonin 2006-2007, at the research station of The TechnologicalInstitute of Roque, located at km 8 of the highway Celaya-Juventino Rosas, Celaya, Guanajuato, Mexico. We used threecultivars of triticale of different genetic origin (Roque I, AN-31 and AN-105) with one formula per hectare of 120-100-100, NPK. Three sowing da...

  14. Seed production of woody plants in conditions of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. V. Gritzay

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of environment pollution by metallurgical industry emissions on woody plants bearing parameters was examined. The results obtained show the decrease of bearing rate, diminution of seeds, fruits and seed cells sizes in woody plants affected by technogenic emissions. Attenuation of the 1000 seeds’ weight was established. Incresing the amount of fruits with development deviations was ascertained. It was found aplasia and abnormal form of the samara fruit of ash and ailanthus trees, arcuation and narrowing of some parts of the catalpa fruitcases. Practical recommendations on using seeds’ sensitive parameters in biomonitoring of woody phytocenoses under technogenic stressful conditions are proposed.

  15. Potential exposure of bees, Apis mellifera L., to particulate matter and pesticides derived from seed dressing during maize sowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochi, Daniele; Biocca, Marcello; Fanigliulo, Roberto; Pulcini, Patrizio; Conte, Elisa

    2012-08-01

    This paper assessed the potential exposure of bees (Apis mellifera L.) to pesticides during maize (Zea mays L.) sowing with pneumatic drills. Data were derived from tests carried out in field tests, comparing two configurations of a pneumatic precision drill: conventional drill; drill with air deflectors. In addition, static tests simulating the sowing under controlled conditions, were performed on the drill equipped with an innovative system developed at CRA-ING. During the field tests, the concentrations in the air of the active ingredients of four insecticides used in maize seed dressing (imidacloprid, clothianidin, thiamethoxam and fipronil) were recorded. The concentrations of active ingredients in the air were used for assessing the quantities of active ingredients that a bee might intercept as it flies in a sort of virtual tunnel, the dimensions of which were dependent upon the bee body cross-section and the length of flight. The results of the field tests show that the air deflectors were not completely effective in reducing the amount of active ingredients dispersed in the air. The results of the static tests with drill equipped with the prototype indicated reductions of the active ingredient air concentrations ranging from 72 % up to 95 %, with reference to the conventional drill. Such ratios were applied to the amounts of active ingredients intercepted by the bees in the virtual tunnel contributing to a consistent reduction of the probability that sub-lethal effects can occur.

  16. Intra-stand variation of cone structure and seed production in Siberian stone pine: pattern and use for breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Akimov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Siberian stone pine (Pinus sibirica Du Tour in Russia is primarily valued as a nut-bearing species. Therefore, intra-standvariation in its cone structure and seed production have been actively studied during the last 50 years. However, these studies arepoorly related to practical breeding. We used a novel system of traits to characterize yearly seed crops at the different levels of itsstructural organization. The purpose is to analyze the results of long-term observations of the intra-stand variation of the reproductivefeatures complex, and to reveal the pattern and character of its diversity. This information would be useful to develop the method ofsearching the initial material for breeding. The research plot is established in the Nizhne-Sechenovo forest located 25 km fromTomsk in the south part of the boreal zone (170 years old, mean height 22 m, mean d.b.h. 60 cm. The number of sampled trees variedbetween 40-120 among years. The registration of seed crop and analysis of its structure was conducted every year from 1990 to 2005. Theintra-stand variation of the traits' level was determined as a standard deviation in percent from the simple average. The level ofvariability rose sharply and the correlations between them decreased in the years of the low crops. The results concerning variation in seedand cone traits are listed in the next table. The number of full seeds depended rather on losses in the processes of development (r =0.80*-0.85* than on their starting number (r =0.55*-0.60*. The mass of one seed with sound endosperm rose with an increase in the ratio ofthe ovules, which were lost at the earlier stagesof development (r = 0.20-0.25* and the flat seed ratio (r = 0.35*-0.40*. In year-to-year dynamics, the number of cones per tree ispositively connected with the number of filled seeds per cone (r = 0.78* and with other indices characterizing 'the crop quality'.The breeding rank of trees by all important

  17. Production responses by early lactation cows to whole sunflower seed or tallow supplementation of a diet based on barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, S B; Wittenberg, K M; Ingalls, J R; Undi, M

    1996-10-01

    A 2-yr study to evaluate the effectiveness of whole sunflower seed as a source of fat was conducted with 18 primiparous and 31 multiparous Holstein cows. The three diets evaluated were a basal diet based on barley (control), a basal diet supplemented with 2.7% tallow, and a basal diet supplemented with 7.1% whole sunflower seeds. The DMI of lactating cows during the 16-wk test period was not influenced by supplementation with either sunflower seeds or tallow. Milk production was 34.4, 34.6, and 35.5 kg/d for cows fed the control diet or the diets supplemented with sunflower or tallow, respectively, and was not influenced by diet. The production and concentrations of milk protein, fat, and SNF also were not influenced by diet. The concentrations of C6:0 to C14:1 fatty acids were highest in the milk of cows fed the control diet. The concentrations of C10:0 to C16:1 were higher when cows were fed the diet with the tallow supplement than when they were fed the diet with the sunflower supplement. However, the concentrations of C18:0 to C18:2 and C20:0 were higher in the milk of cows that were fed the sunflower supplement than in the milk of cows that were fed the tallow supplement or the control diet. Concentrations of individual VFA and the ratio of acetate to propionate were not influenced by diet. Body weight, body condition score, and reproduction parameters were similar for all diets, suggesting that there were no effects on subsequent production. The performance of cows fed whole sunflower seeds as a source of energy appeared to be similar to the performance of cows fed traditional high energy diets based on barley. The fatty acid profile of the milk of cows fed diets supplemented with sunflower seeds was more favorable than that of the milk of cows fed diets supplemented with tallow.

  18. NTFP harvesters as citizen scientists: Validating traditional and crowdsourced knowledge on seed production of Brazil nut trees in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evert; Valdivia, Jheyson; Alcázar Caicedo, Carolina; Quaedvlieg, Julia; Wadt, Lucia Helena O; Corvera, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the factors that underlie the production of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), as well as regularly monitoring production levels, are key to allow sustainability assessments of NTFP extractive economies. Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa, Lecythidaceae) seed harvesting from natural forests is one of the cornerstone NTFP economies in Amazonia. In the Peruvian Amazon it is organized in a concession system. Drawing on seed production estimates of >135,000 individual Brazil nut trees from >400 concessions and ethno-ecological interviews with >80 concession holders, here we aimed to (i) assess the accuracy of seed production estimates by Brazil nut seed harvesters, and (ii) validate their traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) about the variables that influence Brazil nut production. We compared productivity estimates with actual field measurements carried out in the study area and found a positive correlation between them. Furthermore, we compared the relationships between seed production and a number of phenotypic, phytosanitary and environmental variables described in literature with those obtained for the seed production estimates and found high consistency between them, justifying the use of the dataset for validating TEK and innovative hypothesis testing. As expected, nearly all TEK on Brazil nut productivity was corroborated by our data. This is reassuring as Brazil nut concession holders, and NTFP harvesters at large, rely on their knowledge to guide the management of the trees upon which their extractive economies are based. Our findings suggest that productivity estimates of Brazil nut trees and possibly other NTFP-producing species could replace or complement actual measurements, which are very expensive and labour intensive, at least in areas where harvesters have a tradition of collecting NTFPs from the same trees over multiple years or decades. Productivity estimates might even be sourced from harvesters through registers on an annual basis

  19. Dark matter production from Goldstone boson interactions and implications for direct searches and dark radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Cely, Camilo; Ibarra, Alejandro; Molinaro, Emiliano, E-mail: camilo.garcia@tum.de, E-mail: alejandro.ibarra@ph.tum.de, E-mail: emiliano.molinaro@tum.de [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Straße, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    The stability of the dark matter particle could be attributed to the remnant Z{sub 2} symmetry that arises from the spontaneous breaking of a global U(1) symmetry. This plausible scenario contains a Goldstone boson which, as recently shown by Weinberg, is a strong candidate for dark radiation. We show in this paper that this Goldstone boson, together with the CP-even scalar associated to the spontaneous breaking of the global U(1) symmetry, plays a central role in the dark matter production. Besides, the mixing of the CP-even scalar with the Standard Model Higgs boson leads to novel Higgs decay channels and to interactions with nucleons, thus opening the possibility of probing this scenario at the LHC and in direct dark matter search experiments. We carefully analyze the latter possibility and we show that there are good prospects to observe a signal at the future experiments LUX and XENON1T provided the dark matter particle was produced thermally and has a mass larger than ∼ 25 GeV.

  20. Effects of hydrogen fluoride on production and organic reserves of bean seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pack, M.R.

    1971-11-01

    The response of bean fruiting to HF gas was investigated in a series of experiments in growth chambers. No response was found when plants were fumigated at 4.5 to 8.0 ..mu..g (F)/m/sup 3/ for 7 to 14 days during or near flowering. Bean plants exposed from seeding to harvest to as little as 2.1 ..mu..g (F)/m/sup 3/ produced fewer fruit and (or) fewer seed per fruit than control plants. In lower HF treatments and in one experiment at 2.2 ..mu..g (F)/m/sup 3/, no effects were evident. Where fruiting was affected, the mature seed had a somewhat faded, shriveled appearance, weighted less, and had a markedly lower starch content than seed of control plants. There were no definite differences in reducing sugars, total sugars, protein, or ether extract. The effects on bean fruiting were independent of visible injury to the foliage. 16 references, 4 tables.

  1. Phenotype and seed production among hyacinth bean (Lablab purpureus L. Sweet) accessions rescued using hydroponic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyacinth bean, Lablab purpureus L. (Sweet) is a legume used as a vegetable, forage, and in home gardens as an ornamental plant. Many accessions do not flower during their juvenile period in Byron, GA. Other hyacinth bean accessions produce few seed when regenerated in the field. This study was condu...

  2. A mineral seed coating for control of seedling diseases of alfalfa suitable for organic production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most alfalfa seed is treated with the systemic fungicide mefenoxam (Apron XL) for control of soilborne seedling diseases. However, Apron XL does not have activity against Aphanomyces euteiches, the causal agent of Aphanomyces root rot (ARR), which is an important component of the alfalfa root rot co...

  3. Response of SC704 maize hybrid seed production to planting pattern

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammed Reza

    2012-05-08

    May 8, 2012 ... 1Safiabad Research Center, Dezful, Iran. 2Department of ... Key words: Planting pattern, seed produce, corn grain, S.C.704 hybrid. INTRODUCTION ... plants for light, moisture and food would decrease and plants will have a ...

  4. Responsive Surface Methodology Optimizes Extraction Conditions of Industrial by-products, Camellia japonica Seed Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Lim, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Mi-So; Choi, Soo Jung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Cho Rong; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Background: The central nervous system is easily damaged by oxidative stress due to high oxygen consumption and poor defensive capacity. Hence, multiple studies have demonstrated that inhibiting oxidative stress-induced damage, through an antioxidant-rich diet, might be a reasonable approach to prevent neurodegenerative disease. Objective: In the present study, response surface methodology was utilized to optimize the extraction for neuro-protective constituents of Camellia japonica byproducts. Materials and Methods: Rat pheochromocytoma cells were used to evaluate protective potential of Camellia japonica byproducts. Results: Optimum conditions were 33.84 min, 75.24%, and 75.82°C for time, ethanol concentration and temperature. Further, we demonstrated that major organic acid contents were significantly impacted by the extraction conditions, which may explain varying magnitude of protective potential between fractions. Conclusions: Given the paucity of information in regards to defatted C. japonica seed cake and their health promoting potential, our results herein provide interesting preliminary data for utilization of this byproduct from oil processing in both academic and industrial applications. SUMMARY Neuro-protective potential of C. japonica seed cake on cell viability was affected by extraction conditionsExtraction conditions effectively influenced on active constituents of C. japonica seed cakeBiological activity of C. japonica seed cake was optimized by the responsive surface methodology. Abbreviations used: GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, PC12 cells: Pheochromocytoma, RSM: Response surface methodology. PMID:27601847

  5. A new natural product and insecticidal amides from seeds of Piper nigrum Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Gulzar, Tahsin; Begum, Sabira; Afshan, Farhana; Sultana, Razia

    2008-01-01

    Studies on the petroleum ether soluble and insoluble fraction of ethanol extract of dried ground seeds of Piper nigrum resulted in the isolation and structure elucidation of 1 new and 11 known compounds which include 3 hitherto unreported constituents, namely, cinnamylideneacetone, 3,4-methylenedioxyphenylpropiophenone and 2-hydroxy-4,5-methylenedioxypropiophenone from this plant.

  6. A GmAOX2b antisense gene compromises vegetative growth and seed production in soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Tsun-Thai; Simmonds, Daina; Day, David A; Colmer, Timothy D; Finnegan, Patrick M

    2012-07-01

    The alternative oxidase mediates the cyanide-resistant respiratory pathway in plant mitochondria. In non-thermogenic plants, the role of alternative oxidase in plant growth and development is not well understood. Soybean (Glycine max) lines carrying a GmAOX2b antisense gene had compromised vegetative growth and reproductive performance under typical glasshouse growth conditions. The reduction in vegetative growth was demonstrated by reduction in shoot height, the number of leaves per plant and the green leaf area. Antisense plants also had decreased pod formation and seed to pod ratios, which together led to a reduction in the number and total mass of seed produced. The negative effects of the antisense gene on pod set, seed set, ovule availability and total seed mass were primarily confined to the branches, rather than the main stem. The preferential effect of alternative oxidase suppression in the branches is discussed in relation to the reproductive potential of soybean under stress. Taken together, these results demonstrate that alternative oxidase provides the benefit of sustaining plant vegetative growth and reproductive capacity in soybean.

  7. Seed production from Aeschynomene genetic resources rescued and regenerated using aeroponics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana L. or A. americana L. var. americana) and A. villosa Poir. var. villosa are legumes used for cover cropping and forage. These accessions require a very long growing season and do not produce mature seed before the first hard freezes in Griffin, GA. This study was c...

  8. Molecular strategies to engineer transgenic rice seed compartments for large-scale production of plant-made pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenham, Trevor; Altosaar, Illimar

    2013-01-01

    The use of plants as bioreactors for the large-scale production of recombinant proteins has emerged as an exciting area of research. The current shortages in protein therapeutics due to the capacity and economic bottlenecks faced with modern protein production platforms (microbial, yeast, mammalian) has driven considerable attention towards molecular pharming. Utilizing plants for the large-scale production of recombinant proteins is estimated to be 2-10% the cost of microbial platforms, and up to 1,000-fold more cost effective than mammalian platforms (Twyman et al. Trends Biotechnol 21:570-578, 2003; Sharma and Sharma, Biotechnol Adv 27:811-832, 2009). In order to achieve an economically feasible plant production host, protein expression and accumulation must be optimized. The seed, and more specifically the rice seed has emerged as an ideal candidate in molecular pharming due to its low protease activity, low water content, stable protein storage environment, relatively high biomass, and the molecular tools available for manipulation (Lau and Sun, Biotechnol Adv 27:1015-1022, 2009).

  9. Anaerobic digestion of selected Italian agricultural and industrial residues (grape seeds and leather dust): combined methane production and digestate characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramiello, C; Lancellotti, I; Righi, F; Tatàno, F; Taurino, R; Barbieri, L

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental evaluation of methane production (obtained by anaerobic digestion) and detailed digestate characterization (with physical-chemical, thermo-gravimetric and mineralogical approaches) was conducted on two organic substrates, which are specific to Italy (at regional and national levels). One of the substrates was grape seeds, which have an agricultural origin, whereas the other substrate was vegetable-tanned leather dust, which has an industrial origin. Under the assumed experimental conditions of the performed lab-scale test series, the grape seed substrate exhibited a resulting net methane production of 175.0 NmL g volatile solids (VS)(-1); hence, it can be considered as a potential energy source via anaerobic digestion. Conversely, the net methane production obtained from the anaerobic digestion of the vegetable-tanned leather dust substrate was limited to 16.1 NmL gVS(-1). A detailed characterization of the obtained digestates showed that there were both nitrogen-containing compounds and complex organic compounds present in the digestate that was obtained from the mixture of leather dust and inoculum. As a general perspective of this experimental study, the application of diversified characterization analyzes could facilitate (1) a better understanding of the main properties of the obtained digestates to evaluate their potential valorization, and (2) a combination of the digestate characteristics with the corresponding methane productions to comprehensively evaluate the bioconversion process.

  10. Seed production and seed quality of the dune building grass Panicum racemosum Spreng Produção e qualidade da semente da gramínea Panicum racemosum Spreng. em um gradiente de dunas costeiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Vieira Cordazzo

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed production, pollination requirement, seed characteristics related to quality and the relationship between number and mass of seeds were examined for Panicum racemosum in three successional populations in southern Brazilian coastal dunes. The seed production was generally low and declined further between the frontal dunes and the backdunes, dropping from 4.05 seeds per panicle in the former to 1.8 seeds in the latter. However fertility (% fertile florets did not differ among the three habitats. Plants cross-pollinated in a glasshouse showed an increase in seed production to 41.4 seeds compared to no seed production in self-pollinated plants. Caryopses varied in mass from 3.2 to 12.2 mg with a mean of 7.98 mg. A strong negative correlation was found between mean individual seed mass and the total number of seeds per panicle in a natural population. However, this relationship did not persist in seeds produced by cultivated plants in the glasshouse. The causes of low seed production appear to be mainly pollen self-incompatibility and additionally competition for nutrients between sexual reproduction and allocation to clonal growth. Under conditions of nutrient shortage, Panicum racemosum probably allocates resources more to clonal growth and to fewer, but well-endowed seeds. This would permit emergence from deeper burial sand, faster growth and greater survival of seedlings.A produção de sementes, polinização, características das sementes e a relação entre o número e peso de sementes foram examinadas em três populações de Panicum racemosum ao longo de um gradiente nas dunas costeiras no sul do Brasil. A produção de sementes foi pequena e decresceu ao longo do gradiente, diminuindo de 4,05 sementes por espiga nas dunas frontais para 1,8 sementes por espiga nas dunas mais estáveis. Entretanto não ocorreram diferenças na fertilidade entre as populações. Plantas cultivadas em casas de vegetação e que foram polinizadas

  11. Interspecific Variation in Primary Seed Dispersal in a Tropical Forest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Helene C. Muller-Landau; S. Joseph Wright; Osvaldo Calderón; Richard Condit; Stephen P. Hubbell

    2008-01-01

    1. We investigated the relationships of seed size, dispersal mode and other species characteristics to interspecific variation in mean primary seed dispersal distances, mean annual seed production per...

  12. Dark matter production mechanisms with a nonthermal cosmological history: A classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Gordon L.; Kumar, Piyush; Nelson, Brent D.; Zheng, Bob

    2016-03-01

    We perform a comprehensive study of models of dark matter (DM) in a Universe with a nonthermal cosmological history, i.e. with a phase of pressureless matter domination before the onset of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Such cosmological histories are generically predicted by UV completions that contain gravitationally coupled scalar fields (moduli). We classify the different production mechanisms for DM in this framework, generalizing previous works by considering a wide range of DM masses/couplings and allowing for DM to be in equilibrium with a "dark" sector. We identify four distinct parametric regimes for the production of relic DM, and derive accurate semianalytic approximations for the DM relic abundance. Our results are particularly relevant for supersymmetric theories, in which the standard nonthermally produced DM candidates are disfavored by indirect-detection constraints. We also comment on experimental signals in this framework, focusing on novel effects involving the power spectrum of DM density perturbations. In particular, we identify a class of models where the spectrum of DM density perturbations is sensitive to the pressureless matter-dominated era before BBN, giving rise to interesting astrophysical signatures to be looked for in the future. A worthwhile future direction would be to study well-motivated theoretical models within this framework and carry out detailed studies of the pattern of expected experimental signals.

  13. Natural regeneration and seed production of pine stands on the dumps of coal mining industry in Kuzbass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Ufimtsev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the accounting of undergrowth in 5 gradations of crown closure density of Scots pine (Pinus sylvest-ris L. stands, growing on the dumps in 4 ecological-geographic areas of Kuzbass, inverse relation of parameters of renewal from hydrothermal coefficient of the district is established. Optimum conditions develop in a steppe kernel where the number of shoots, seed production and undergrowth reaches 110 thousand trees per hectare with crown closure of 50 % and density of forest stand of 0.75 thousand trees of the II class of age on 1 hectare. At decrease or increase of forest canopy density of the main tree stand layer quantitative characteristics decrease. The smallest amount of undergrowth is recorded in the mountain-taiga area – from 0.4 to 23 thousand trees per hectare with a tendency to increase in the process of increasing crown closure. Areas of the northern forest-steppe and the southern forest-steppe on quantitative signs of renewal are intermediate. The number of undergrowth has high direct correlation dependence on the size of the current fructification of forest stands – around a steppe kernel ripens to 3.7 million seeds on 1 hectare, in mountain and taiga – to 0.39 million seeds on 1 hectare. Sowing qualities of seeds – the weight 1000, energy of germination and viability, and morphometric characteristics of 2-year seedlings, which are grown up from them – height, diameter and point of a vital state between ecological-geographic areas have no statistically reliable distinctions, but the characteristics stated above, than in the stands on zone soils. It testifies to usefulness of dumps’ conditions for natural regeneration of Scots pine, high actual reproductive opportunities for pine stands in forest-steppe areas and a steppe kernel, and also potential opportunities of the stands in the mountain and taiga region of the southern Kuzbass.

  14. Protocols for In Vitro Propagation, Conservation, Synthetic Seed Production, Embryo Rescue, Microrhizome Production, Molecular Profiling, and Genetic Transformation in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal Babu, K; Samsudeen, K; Divakaran, Minoo; Pillai, Geetha S; Sumathi, V; Praveen, K; Ravindran, P N; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Ginger is a rhizomatous plant that belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. It is a herbaceous perennial but cultivated as annual, with crop duration of 7-10 months. Ginger is native to India and Tropical South Asia. The tuberous rhizomes or underground stems of ginger are used as condiment, an aromatic stimulant, and food preservative as well as in traditional medicine. Ginger is propagated vegetatively with rhizome bits as seed material. Cultivation of ginger is plagued by rhizome rot diseases, most of which are mainly spread through infected seed rhizomes. Micropropagation will help in production of disease-free planting material. Sexual reproduction is absent in ginger, making recombinant breeding very impossible. In vitro technology can thus become the preferred choice as it can be utilized for multiplication, conservation of genetic resources, generating variability, gene transfer, molecular tagging, and their utility in crop improvement of these crops.

  15. A selection and seed-grower are a substantial factor of increase to the productivity of oil-bearing cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. В. Кириченко

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of oilseeds in Ukraine, including sunflower, soybean, winter and spring rape, mustard, linseed, sesame, spring false flax, safflower. Presented research-based elements of the technology of cultivation. Described seed of oilseeds. Named most promising varieties of these crops. Disclosed their productive and qualitative potential. The above varietal structure of oilseeds in the State Register of plant varieties suitable for dissemination in Ukraine for years. In order to ensure stable population of oil and food, which include oil, and for the implementation of programs related to soil fertility, scientifically grounded recommended area of oilseeds in Ukraine for 2013–2015 years, ha.

  16. Mycoflora and mycotoxins of peanut (arachis hypogaea l.) Seeds in egypt. II - mycotoxin production by thermophilic or thermotolerant fungi

    OpenAIRE

    El Maraghy, S. S. Mohamed [سعد شحاتة محمد المراغي; El-Magraby, O. M. O.

    1987-01-01

    Twelve species and one variety which belong to 6 genera were identified from 40 peanut seed samples using a dilution—plate method on 1% glucose—Czapek's medium at 4S°C. Aspergillus (6 species and 1 variety) followed by Mucor (1 species) were the most frequent genera. From the preceding genera, A. fumigatus was extremely dominant, followed by Mucor pusillus, A. niger, A. ten-ens and A. nidulans. Fifty—four isolates belonging to the previous species were screened for the production of mycoto...

  17. Particulate organic matter predicts bacterial productivity in a river dominated estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    Estuaries act as coastal filters for organic and inorganic fluvial materials in which microbial, biogeochemical, and ecological processes combine to transform organic matter and nutrients prior to export to the coastal ocean. The function of this estuarine 'bioreactor' is linked to the residence times of those materials and to rates of microbial heterotrophic activity. Our ability to forecast the impact of global change on estuarine bioreactor function requires an understanding of the basic controls on microbial community activity and diversity. In the Columbia River estuary, the microbial community undergoes a dramatic seasonal shift in species composition during which a spring bacterioplankton community, dominated by Flavobacteriaceae and Oceanospirillales, is replaced by a summer community, dominated by Rhodobacteraceae and several common marine taxa. This annual shift occurs in July, following the spring freshet, when river flow and river chlorophyll concentration decrease and when estuarine water residence time increases. Analysis of a large dataset from 17 research cruises (1990-2014) showed that the composition of particulate organic matter in the estuary changes after the freshet with decreasing organic carbon and nitrogen content, and increasing contribution of marine and autochthonous estuarine organic matter (based on PO13C and pigment ratios). Bacterial production rates (measured as leucine or thymidine incorporation rates) in the estuary respond to this change, and correlate strongly with labile particulate nitrogen concentration and temperature during individual sampling campaigns, and with the concentration of chlorophyll in the Columbia River across all seasons. Regression models suggest that the concentration of labile particulate nitrogen and the rate of bacterial production can be predicted from sensor measurements of turbidity, salinity, and temperature in the estuary and chlorophyll in the river. These results suggest that the quality of

  18. 75 FR 44283 - In the Matter of Certain Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Dynamic Random Access Memory Semiconductors and Products Containing Same... within the United States after importation of certain dynamic random access memory semiconductors...

  19. Cacao seeds are a "Super Fruit": A comparative analysis of various fruit powders and products

    OpenAIRE

    Mann Julie; Payne Mark J; Hurst Jeffrey W; Preston Amy G; Crozier Stephen J; Hainly Larry; Miller Debra L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Numerous popular media sources have developed lists of "Super Foods" and, more recently, "Super Fruits". Such distinctions often are based on the antioxidant capacity and content of naturally occurring compounds such as polyphenols within those whole fruits or juices of the fruit which may be linked to potential health benefits. Cocoa powder and chocolate are made from an extract of the seeds of the fruit of the Theobroma cacao tree. In this study, we compared cocoa powder...

  20. Optimization of biodiesel production from refined cotton seed oil and its characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Okechukwu Onukwuli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was produced through transesterification of refined cotton seed oil with methanol and potassium hydroxide (KOH as a catalyst using batch mode. The physicochemical properties of cotton seed oil and biodiesel as an alternative fuel for diesel engine was characterized through ASTM standards for fuel tests. The functional groups of the biodiesel were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Influence of key parameters like reaction temperature, reaction time, catalyst concentration and methanol/oil molar ratio were determined using batch mode. These process parameters were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM and analysis of variance (ANOVA. The significance of the different process parameters and their combined effects on the transesterification efficiency were established through a full factorial central composite design. The results obtained are in good agreement with published data for other vegetable oil biodiesel as well as various international standards for biodiesel fuel. An optimum yield of 96% was achieved with optimal conditions of methanol/oil molar ratio, 6:1; temperature, 55 °C; time, 60 min; and catalyst concentration, 0.6%. This investigation has shown that cotton seed oil from Nigeria can be used to produce biodiesel.

  1. Diversity of Δ12 fatty acid desaturases in santalaceae and their role in production of seed oil acetylenic fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Shoko; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Damcevski, Katherine; Gibb, Nerida; Wood, Craig; Hamberg, Mats; Haritos, Victoria S

    2013-11-08

    Plants in the Santalaceae family, including the native cherry Exocarpos cupressiformis and sweet quandong Santalum acuminatum, accumulate ximenynic acid (trans-11-octadecen-9-ynoic acid) in their seed oil and conjugated polyacetylenic fatty acids in root tissue. Twelve full-length genes coding for microsomal Δ12 fatty acid desaturases (FADs) from the two Santalaceae species were identified by degenerate PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences placed five Santalaceae FADs with Δ12 FADs, which include Arabidopsis thaliana FAD2. When expressed in yeast, the major activity of these genes was Δ12 desaturation of oleic acid, but unusual activities were also observed: i.e. Δ15 desaturation of linoleic acid as well as trans-Δ12 and trans-Δ11 desaturations of stearolic acid (9-octadecynoic acid). The trans-12-octadecen-9-ynoic acid product was also detected in quandong seed oil. The two other FAD groups (FADX and FADY) were present in both species; in a phylogenetic tree of microsomal FAD enzymes, FADX and FADY formed a unique clade, suggesting that are highly divergent. The FADX group enzymes had no detectable Δ12 FAD activity but instead catalyzed cis-Δ13 desaturation of stearolic acid when expressed in yeast. No products were detected for the FADY group when expressed recombinantly. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the FADY genes were expressed in leaf rather than developing seed of the native cherry. FADs with promiscuous and unique activities have been identified in Santalaceae and explain the origin of some of the unusual lipids found in this plant family.

  2. The effects of monitoring the abundance and species composition of aphids as virus vectors on seed potato production in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Milošević

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are the most important vectors of potato viruses during the crop’s growing season. The most widespread and damaging viruses, the potato virus Y and potato leaf roll virus, are transmitted by aphids in non-persistent and persistent manner, respectively. The two viruses cause the greatest concern of potato producers and a great constraint to seed potato production in Serbia, the region and across the world. Potato virus Y is particularly harmful, given its distribution and spreading rate. Seed potato production systems under well-managed conditions involve a series of virus control measures, including the monitoring of outbreaks of winged aphids, their abundance and species composition, in order to forecast virosis, i.e. potential plant and tuber infection periods. Monitoring the aphid vectors of potato viruses enables determination of optimum dates for haulm destruction when higher than normal numbers of winged aphids as vectors of economically harmful diseases have been observed. Haulm destruction in a potato crop reduces the risk of plant infection and virus translocation from the aboveground parts to tubers, thus keeping the proportion of infected tubers within tolerance limits allowed for certain categories of seed potatoes. This practice has positive effects if used in combination with other viral disease control measures; otherwise, it becomes ineffective. This paper provides an integral analysis of the effects and role of monitoring outbreaks of aphids, their abundance and species composition in timing haulm growth termination to prevent plant infection, virus translocation and tuber infestation in potato crops in Serbia and the wider region.

  3. Effect of Pot Size on Various Characteristics Related to Photosynthetic Matter Production in Soybean Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minobu Kasai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the wide uses of potted plants, information on how pot size affects plant photosynthetic matter production is still considerably limited. This study investigated with soybean plants how transplantation into larger pots affects various characteristics related to photosynthetic matter production. The transplantation was analyzed to increase leaf photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance without affecting significantly leaf intercellular CO2 concentration, implicating that the transplantation induced equal increases in the rate of CO2 diffusion via leaf stomata and the rate of CO2 fixation in leaf photosynthetic cells. Analyses of Rubisco activity and contents of a substrate (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP for Rubisco and total protein in leaf suggested that an increase in leaf Rubisco activity, which is likely to result from an increase in leaf Rubisco content, could contribute to the transplantation-induced increase in leaf photosynthetic rate. Analyses of leaf major photosynthetic carbohydrates and dry weights of source and sink organs revealed that transplantation increased plant sink capacity that uses leaf starch, inducing a decrease in leaf starch content and an increase in whole plant growth, particularly, growth of sink organs. Previously, in the same soybean species, it was demonstrated that negative correlation exists between leaf starch content and photosynthetic rate and that accumulation of starch in leaf decreases the rate of CO2 diffusion within leaf. Thus, it was suggested that the transplantation-induced increase in plant sink capacity decreasing leaf starch content could cause the transplantation-induced increase in leaf photosynthetic rate by inducing an increase in the rate of CO2 diffusion within leaf and thereby substantiating an increase in leaf Rubisco activity in vivo. It was therefore concluded that transplantation of soybean plants into larger pots attempted in this study increased the

  4. QUALITY OF HEMP SEED OIL DEPENDING ON ITS OBTAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Staruch

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Hemp (Cannabis sativa L. is probably one of the oldest field crops used in nutrition, but also for the production of fibres for clothes, ropes or canvas. Cannabis sativa is one of the most spread species of cannabis which belongs to family Cannabinaceae. The seeds are important part of cannabis sativa, which contains high part of lipids and proteins. It provides also valuable essential fatty acids, carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals. Due to low content of THC is possible to produce valuable oil from seeds, which is used in cosmetic and food industry. The aim of this work was to evaluate composition of hemp seeds from one harvest, observe and compare quality of parameters both cold pressed hemp seed oil and hemp seed oil by CO2 extraction. Both oils are comparable in composition of fatty acids which follow from results of analyses. Also contents of sterols and moisture are similar in both oils. The saponification value is similar in both oils, conformable to as a iodine value. Also were found dissimilarities in colours, phospholipides, unsaponifiable matter, acid value and peroxide value. The cold pressed hemp seed oil contained lower values of unsaponifiable matter, colours and higher concentration of phospholipides and lower acid value. It is caused by influence of CO2. The oxidation stability of cold pressed hemp seed oil was four times higher than oil by CO2 extraction. doi:10.5219/32 

  5. Heirloom biodynamic seeds network rescue, conservation and multiplication of local seeds in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Jovchelevich, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Structuring a network organic and biodynamic seed involving farmers in the central- southern Brazil. Training, participatory breeding, edition of publications, fairs of exchange seeds, a processing unit and assessment of seed quality, commercial seed multiplication with emphasis on vegetables. This network has garanteed the autonomy of farmers in seed production and enriched agrobiodiversity through exchanges of seed.

  6. Production of CaWO{sub 4} crystals for direct dark matter search with CRESST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenster, Andrea [Physik-Department and Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: CRESST-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The direct dark matter search experiment CRESST (Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers) uses scintillating CaWO{sub 4} single crystals as targets for possible recoils of dark matter particles. Since several years these CaWO{sub 4} crystals are produced directly at the Technische Universitaet Muenchen (TUM) including the CaWO{sub 4} powder production from the raw materials CaCO{sub 3} and WO{sub 3}, the CaWO{sub 4} crystal growth via the Czochralski method as well as the after-growth treatment of the crystals. In the recently finished CRESST-II Phase 2 (2013-2015), 4 TUM-grown crystals were installed in the main cryostat for the first time. Showing one of the best radiopurities of all installed crystals combined with an excellent detector performance the analysis of the crystal TUM40 resulted in the best sensitivity for low-mass dark matter particles in 2014. For the upcoming CRESST-III phase 2 we aim for a further improvement in radiopurity by a factor of 100. First results of a chemical purification of the raw materials as well as future plans to reduce the intrinsic background via recrystallization are presented.

  7. Vector mesons in dense matter and dilepton production in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, Elvira

    2008-02-15

    The vector meson spectral functions are calculated to the first order in the nuclear matter density assuming the dominant contribution comes from the couplings of the vector mesons to nucleons and nucleon resonances. An attempt is made to reproduce the HADES dilepton production data with the in-medium spectral functions of the vector mesons using the Relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (RQMD) transport model developed earlier for modelling heavy-ion collisions. The results are sensitive to the in-medium broadening of nucleon resonances. A generally good agreement with the HADES data is achieved for selfconsistent treatment of the nucleon resonance broadening and the vector meson spectral functions. (orig.)

  8. Neutrino-antineutrino pair production by a photon in a dense matter

    CERN Document Server

    Lobanov, A E

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of radiative effects that are due to interaction of fermions with a dense matter is investigated. Neutrino-antineutrino photo-production is studied. The rate of this process is calculated in the Furry picture. It is demonstrated that this effect does not disappear even if the medium refractive index is assumed to be equal to unity. The rate obtained strongly depends on the polarization states of the particles involved. This leads to evident spatial asymmetries, which may have certain consequences observable in astrophysical and cosmological studies.

  9. Exotic particles at the LHC. Production via the Higgs portal and WIMP dark matter searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessler, Andre Georg

    2016-09-05

    This thesis addresses two different aspects of the search for Physics Beyond the Standard Model at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). First, and motivated by the recent discovery of a new interaction mediated by the Higgs boson, we systematically analyze the impact of the Higgs interaction on the production of new particles at the LHC. Second, we investigate the collider signatures of long-lived particles decaying into leptons and invisible energy, and which are predicted to exist in a class of neutrino mass models with a weakly interacting dark matter particle.

  10. Large-scale microwave anisotropy from gravitating seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeraraghavan, Shoba; Stebbins, Albert

    1992-01-01

    Topological defects could have seeded primordial inhomogeneities in cosmological matter. We examine the horizon-scale matter and geometry perturbations generated by such seeds in an expanding homogeneous and isotropic universe. Evolving particle horizons generally lead to perturbations around motionless seeds, even when there are compensating initial underdensities in the matter. We describe the pattern of the resulting large angular scale microwave anisotropy.

  11. Comparative transcript profiling of resistant and susceptible peanut post-harvest seeds in response to aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Houmiao; Lei, Yong; Wan, Liyun; Yan, Liying; Lv, Jianwei; Dai, Xiaofeng; Ren, Xiaoping; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Huifang; Liao, Boshou

    2016-02-27

    Aflatoxin contamination caused by Aspergillus flavus in peanut (Arachis hypogaea) including in pre- and post-harvest stages seriously affects industry development and human health. Even though resistance to aflatoxin production in post-harvest peanut has been identified, its molecular mechanism has been poorly understood. To understand the mechanism of peanut response to aflatoxin production by A. flavus, RNA-seq was used for global transcriptome profiling of post-harvest seed of resistant (Zhonghua 6) and susceptible (Zhonghua 12) peanut genotypes under the fungus infection and aflatoxin production stress. A total of 128.72 Gb of high-quality bases were generated and assembled into 128, 725 unigenes (average length 765 bp). About 62, 352 unigenes (48.43%) were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein sequences, NCBI non-redundant nucleotide sequences, Swiss-Prot, KEGG Ortholog, Protein family, Gene Ontology, or eukaryotic Ortholog Groups database and more than 93% of the unigenes were expressed in the samples. Among obtained 30, 143 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs), 842 potential defense-related genes, including nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat proteins, polygalacturonase inhibitor proteins, leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases, mitogen-activated protein kinase, transcription factors, ADP-ribosylation factors, pathogenesis-related proteins and crucial factors of other defense-related pathways, might contribute to peanut response to aflatoxin production. Notably, DEGs involved in phenylpropanoid-derived compounds biosynthetic pathway were induced to higher levels in the resistant genotype than in the susceptible one. Flavonoid, stilbenoid and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathways were enriched only in the resistant genotype. This study provided the first comprehensive analysis of transcriptome of post-harvest peanut seeds in response to aflatoxin production, and would contribute to better understanding of molecular interaction between

  12. Determination of phenolic acids in seeds of black cumin, flax, pomegranate and pumpkin and their by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krimer-Malešević Vera M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten phenolic acids, contained in the seeds of black cumin (Nigella sativa L., flax (Linum usitatissimum L., pomegranate (Punica granatum L. and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. and their oil industry by-products, separated into the free, esterified, and insoluble-bound forms, were quantitatively analysed by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. The chromatographic data were interpreted using Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The PCA model with three principal components (PC1-PC2-PC3 fitted well with 12 examined plant samples, allowing their division into groups according to their origin. The total phenolic variables could be represented by two PCs and for the pattern recognition of the analysed samples, 13 phenolic variables are sufficient, including: free, esterified and insoluble-bound forms of gallic and syringic acids, free vanillic, insoluble bound p-coumaric, esterified p-hydroxybenzaldehide, and free and insoluble-bound forms of p-hydroxybenzoic and trans-synapic acids. This might have potential application in simplified screening of phenolic compounds in seeds and their oil industry by-products or in food component analysis or authenticity detection in such plant materials.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010

  13. NUCLEOPORIN85 is required for calcium spiking, fungal and bacterial symbioses, and seed production in Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Katsuharu; Yoshikawa, Makoto; Yano, Koji; Miwa, Hiroki; Uchida, Hisaki; Asamizu, Erika; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Imaizumi-Anraku, Haruko; Umehara, Yosuke; Kouchi, Hiroshi; Murooka, Yoshikatsu; Szczyglowski, Krzysztof; Downie, J Allan; Parniske, Martin; Hayashi, Makoto; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi

    2007-02-01

    In Lotus japonicus, seven genetic loci have been identified thus far as components of a common symbiosis (Sym) pathway shared by rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. We characterized the nup85 mutants (nup85-1, -2, and -3) required for both symbioses and cloned the corresponding gene. When inoculated with Glomus intraradices, the hyphae managed to enter between epidermal cells, but they were unable to penetrate the cortical cell layer. The nup85-2 mutation conferred a weak and temperature-sensitive symbiotic phenotype, which resulted in low arbuscule formation at 22 degrees C but allowed significantly higher arbuscule formation in plant cortical cells at 18 degrees C. On the other hand, the nup85 mutants either did not form nodules or formed few nodules. When treated with Nod factor of Mesorhizobium loti, nup85 roots showed a high degree of root hair branching but failed to induce calcium spiking. In seedlings grown under uninoculated conditions supplied with nitrate, nup85 did not arrest plant growth but significantly reduced seed production. NUP85 encodes a putative nucleoporin with extensive similarity to vertebrate NUP85. Together with symbiotic nucleoporin NUP133, L. japonicus NUP85 might be part of a specific nuclear pore subcomplex that is crucial for fungal and rhizobial colonization and seed production.

  14. Indoleacetic acid production and plant growth promoting potential of bacterial endophytes isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Raheem; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Al-Hosni, Khadija; Kang, Sang-Mo; Seo, Chang-Woo; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-06-01

    Bacterial endophytes from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere have been used to produce bioactive metabolites and to promote plant growth. However, little is known about the endophytes residing in seeds. This study aimed to isolate and identify seed-borne bacterial endophytes from rice and elucidate their potential for phytohormone production and growth enhancement. The isolated endophytes included Micrococcus yunnanensis RWL-2, Micrococcus luteus RWL-3, Enterobacter soli RWL-4, Leclercia adecarboxylata RWL-5, Pantoea dispersa RWL-6, and Staphylococcus epidermidis RWL-7, which were identified using 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. These strains were analyzed for indoleacetic acid (IAA) production by using GC-MS and IAA was found in the range of 11.50 ± 0.77 μg ml(-1) to 38.80 ± 1.35 μg ml(-1). We also assessed the strains for plant growth promoting potential because these isolates were able to produce IAA in pure culture. Most of the growth attributes of rice plants (shoot and root length, fresh and dry biomass, and chlorophyll content) were significantly increased by bacterial endophytes compared to the controls. These results show that IAA producing bacterial endophytes can improve hostplant growth traits and can be used as bio-fertilizers.

  15. Dry matter production of perennial pasture Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different doses of fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlize Prigol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farming is an activity that provides the small rural farmer the opportunity to earn income in small areas of land. The perennial pastures represent a source for a cheap and nutritious diet for the animals. The correct management of perennial pastures can be the key to sustainability in the dairy business, resulting in the preservation or recovery of the balance of a pasture system, starting with the pursuit of production with low costs and good pasture production per unit area. The correct choice of fertilizer is of great importance to ensure the continuous production of pasture both in quantity and in quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dry matter production of perennial pasture consisting of Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different nutrient sources on a typical dystrophic Red Latosol, presents in a region where the climate is characterized as humid-mesothermic with a hot summer, Cfa according to Köppen, with an average annual rainfall of 2039 mm, well distributed throughout the year and average annual temperatures around 18 º C, varying monthly from 14.1 to 23 º C. The treatments consisted of three nutrient sources: 1 organic manure, a base of chicken bedding (average values of reference NPK (02/03/02, 2 organic manure + mineral - organic mineral, with application of 606 kg ha-1 (04/10/10 Formula, aiming to adjust the same amounts of NPK supplied by mineral fertilizer and, 3 Mineral. The experimental design was a randomized blocks with nine replications. We collected five samples of each pasture treatment for determination of the average. After cutting the pasture of Tifton 85, the samples were subjected to weighing for determination of wet weight and then taken to the drying oven (temperature 65 ° C for 72 hours to determine dry matter production. The statistical analysis was performed with SAS for Windows computer system (SAS and the results submitted to the Tukey test at 5%. The highest dry matter yield (kg ha-1 was

  16. DOES PRODUCTIVITY MATTER IN THE ADOPTION OF HYBRID RICE? A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashed Saeed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to analyze comparative economics of hybrid rice and basmati in the core rice growing area of Punjab. Cross-data was collected through well-structured questionnaires from 80 farmers during May and June 2011.Study results reveal that higher yield and less time required for maturity in production were the main reasons for planting of hybrid rice. Hybrid rice occupied 3.6 acres whereas area under basmati was 5.9 acres of the total farm area. Farmers obtained above 60 percent increase in yield of hybrid rice. Results show that cost of production of basmati rice was estimated as Rs.37364 per acre and total revenue was Rs.44768 per acre. The benefit cost ratio of basmati rice was 1.20 and that of hybrid rice was 1.80, implying that hybrid rice has brought comparatively more economic benefits to the farmers as compared to basmati in the study area. Shortage of buyers, much costly poor quality hybrid seed, late payment and higher transportation costs are among major constraints in rice production and marketing.

  17. 7 CFR 52.1842 - Product description of Layer or (Cluster) raisins with seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS THEREOF, AND CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of...

  18. Extract of the seed coat of Tamarindus indica inhibits nitric oxide production by murine macrophages in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komutarin, T; Azadi, S; Butterworth, L; Keil, D; Chitsomboon, B; Suttajit, M; Meade, B J

    2004-04-01

    The seed coat extract of Tamarindus indica, a polyphenolic flavonoid, has been shown to have antioxidant properties. The present studies investigated the inhibitory effect of the seed coat extract of T. indica on nitric oxide production in vitro using a murine macrophage-like cell line, RAW 264.7, and in vitro and in vivo using freshly isolated B6C3F1 mouse peritoneal macrophages. In vitro exposure of RAW 264.7 cells or peritoneal macrophages to 0.2-200 microg/mL of T. indica extract significantly attenuated (as much as 68%) nitric oxide production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) in a concentration-dependent manner. In vivo administration of T. indica extract (100-500 mg/kg) to B6C3F1 mice dose-dependently suppressed TPA, LPS and/or IFN-gamma induced production of nitric oxide in isolated mouse peritoneal macrophages in the absence of any effect on body weight. Exposure to T. indica extract had no effect on cell viability as assessed by the MTT assay. In B6C3F1 mice, preliminary safety studies demonstrated a decrease in body weight at only the highest dose tested (1000 mg/kg) without alterations in hematology, serum chemistry or selected organ weights or effects on NK cell activity. A significant decrease in body weight was observed in BALB/c mice exposed to concentrations of extract of 250 mg/kg or higher. Oral exposure of BALB/c mice to T. indica extract did not modulate the development of T cell-mediated sensitization to DNFB or HCA as measured by the local lymph node assay, or dermal irritation to nonanoic acid or DNFB. These studies suggest that in mice, T. indica extract at concentrations up to 500 mg/kg may modulate nitric oxide production in the absence of overt acute toxicity.

  19. Dormancy removal of apple seeds by cold stratification is associated with fluctuation in H2O2, NO production and protein carbonylation level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dębska, Karolina; Krasuska, Urszula; Budnicka, Katarzyna; Bogatek, Renata; Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2013-03-15

    Reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species play a signaling role in seed dormancy alleviation and germination. Their action may be described by the oxidative/nitrosative "window/door". ROS accumulation in embryos could lead to oxidative modification of protein through carbonylation. Mature apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) seeds are dormant and do not germinate. Their dormancy may be overcome by 70-90 days long cold stratification. The aim of this work was to analyze the relationship between germinability of embryos isolated from cold (5°C) or warm (25°C) stratified apple seeds and ROS or nitric oxide (NO) production and accumulation of protein carbonyl groups. A biphasic pattern of variation in H2O2 concentration in the embryos during cold stratification was detected. H2O2 content increased markedly after 7 days of seeds imbibition at 5°C. After an additional two months of cold stratification, the H2O2 concentration in embryos reached the maximum. NO production by the embryos was low during entire period of stratification, but increased significantly in germination sensu stricto (i.e. phase II of the germination process). The highest content of protein carbonyl groups was detected after 6 weeks of cold stratification treatment. Fluctuation of H2O2 and protein carbonylation seems to play a pivotal role in seed dormancy alleviation by cold stratification, while NO appears to be necessary for seed germination.

  20. Microbial electrolysis cells for high yield hydrogen gas production from organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Bruce E; Call, Douglas; Cheng, Shaoan; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Sleutels, Tom H J A; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W; Rozendal, René A

    2008-12-01

    The use of electrochemically active bacteria to break down organic matter, combined with the addition of a small voltage (> 0.2 V in practice) in specially designed microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), can result in a high yield of hydrogen gas. While microbial electrolysis was invented only a few years ago, rapid developments have led to hydrogen yields approaching 100%, energy yields based on electrical energy input many times greater than that possible by water electrolysis, and increased gas production rates. MECs used to make hydrogen gas are similar in design to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) that produce electricity, but there are important differences in architecture and analytical methods used to evaluate performance. We review here the materials, architectures, performance, and energy efficiencies of these MEC systems that show promise as a method for renewable and sustainable energy production, and wastewater treatment.

  1. Microbial Electrolysis Cells for High Yield Hydrogen Gas Production from Organic Matter

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2008-12-01

    The use of electrochemically active bacteria to break down organic matter, combined with the addition of a small voltage (>0.2 V in practice) in specially designed microbial electrolysis cells (MECs), can result in a high yield of hydrogen gas. While microbial electrolysis was invented only a few years ago, rapid developments have led to hydrogen yields approaching 100%, energy yields based on electrical energy input many times greater than that possible by water electrolysis, and increased gas production rates. MECs used to make hydrogen gas are similar in design to microbial fuel cells (MFCs) that produce electricity, but there are important differences in architecture and analytical methods used to evaluate performance. We review here the materials, architectures, performance, and energy efficiencies of these MEC systems that show promise as a method for renewable and sustainable energy production, and wastewater treatment. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  2. Leaf dry matter content predicts herbivore productivity, but its functional diversity is positively related to resilience in grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakeman, Robin J

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses whether the ecosystem service of animal production from grasslands depends upon plant functional identity, plant functional diversity or if the resilience of production is a function of this diversity. Using the results of nine grazing experiments the paper shows that productivity is highly dependent on one leaf trait, leaf dry matter content, as well as rainfall. Animal (secondary) productivity is not dependent on plant functional diversity, but the variability in productivity of grasslands is related to the functional diversity of leaf dry matter content. This and a range of independent studies have shown that functional diversity is reduced at high levels of grassland productivity, so it appears that there is a trade-off between productivity and the resilience of productivity in the face of environmental variation.

  3. Leaf dry matter content predicts herbivore productivity, but its functional diversity is positively related to resilience in grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin J Pakeman

    Full Text Available This paper addresses whether the ecosystem service of animal production from grasslands depends upon plant functional identity, plant functional diversity or if the resilience of production is a function of this diversity. Using the results of nine grazing experiments the paper shows that productivity is highly dependent on one leaf trait, leaf dry matter content, as well as rainfall. Animal (secondary productivity is not dependent on plant functional diversity, but the variability in productivity of grasslands is related to the functional diversity of leaf dry matter content. This and a range of independent studies have shown that functional diversity is reduced at high levels of grassland productivity, so it appears that there is a trade-off between productivity and the resilience of productivity in the face of environmental variation.

  4. Evaluation of the agronomic performance of atrazine-tolerant transgenic japonica rice parental lines for utilization in hybrid seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luhua; Chen, Haiwei; Li, Yanlan; Li, Yanan; Wang, Shengjun; Su, Jinping; Liu, Xuejun; Chen, Defu; Chen, Xiwen

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the purity of hybrid seed is a crucial limiting factor when developing hybrid japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.). To chemically control hybrid seed purity, we transferred an improved atrazine chlorohydrolase gene (atzA) from Pseudomonas ADP into hybrid japonica parental lines (two maintainers, one restorer), and Nipponbare, by using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We subsequently selected several transgenic lines from each genotype by using PCR, RT-PCR, and germination analysis. In the presence of the investigated atrazine concentrations, particularly 150 µM atrazine, almost all of the transgenic lines produced significantly larger seedlings, with similar or higher germination percentages, than did the respective controls. Although the seedlings of transgenic lines were taller and gained more root biomass compared to the respective control plants, their growth was nevertheless inhibited by atrazine treatment compared to that without treatment. When grown in soil containing 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg atrazine, the transgenic lines were taller, and had higher total chlorophyll contents than did the respective controls; moreover, three of the strongest transgenic lines completely recovered after 45 days of growth. After treatment with 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg of atrazine, the atrazine residue remaining in the soil was 2.9-7.0% or 0.8-8.7% respectively, for transgenic lines, and 44.0-59.2% or 28.1-30.8%, respectively, for control plants. Spraying plants at the vegetative growth stage with 0.15% atrazine effectively killed control plants, but not transgenic lines. Our results indicate that transgenic atzA rice plants show tolerance to atrazine, and may be used as parental lines in future hybrid seed production.

  5. Evaluation of the agronomic performance of atrazine-tolerant transgenic japonica rice parental lines for utilization in hybrid seed production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luhua Zhang

    Full Text Available Currently, the purity of hybrid seed is a crucial limiting factor when developing hybrid japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.. To chemically control hybrid seed purity, we transferred an improved atrazine chlorohydrolase gene (atzA from Pseudomonas ADP into hybrid japonica parental lines (two maintainers, one restorer, and Nipponbare, by using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We subsequently selected several transgenic lines from each genotype by using PCR, RT-PCR, and germination analysis. In the presence of the investigated atrazine concentrations, particularly 150 µM atrazine, almost all of the transgenic lines produced significantly larger seedlings, with similar or higher germination percentages, than did the respective controls. Although the seedlings of transgenic lines were taller and gained more root biomass compared to the respective control plants, their growth was nevertheless inhibited by atrazine treatment compared to that without treatment. When grown in soil containing 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg atrazine, the transgenic lines were taller, and had higher total chlorophyll contents than did the respective controls; moreover, three of the strongest transgenic lines completely recovered after 45 days of growth. After treatment with 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg of atrazine, the atrazine residue remaining in the soil was 2.9-7.0% or 0.8-8.7% respectively, for transgenic lines, and 44.0-59.2% or 28.1-30.8%, respectively, for control plants. Spraying plants at the vegetative growth stage with 0.15% atrazine effectively killed control plants, but not transgenic lines. Our results indicate that transgenic atzA rice plants show tolerance to atrazine, and may be used as parental lines in future hybrid seed production.

  6. Evaluation of the Agronomic Performance of Atrazine-Tolerant Transgenic japonica Rice Parental Lines for Utilization in Hybrid Seed Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanlan; Li, Yanan; Wang, Shengjun; Su, Jinping; Liu, Xuejun; Chen, Defu; Chen, Xiwen

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the purity of hybrid seed is a crucial limiting factor when developing hybrid japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.). To chemically control hybrid seed purity, we transferred an improved atrazine chlorohydrolase gene (atzA) from Pseudomonas ADP into hybrid japonica parental lines (two maintainers, one restorer), and Nipponbare, by using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. We subsequently selected several transgenic lines from each genotype by using PCR, RT-PCR, and germination analysis. In the presence of the investigated atrazine concentrations, particularly 150 µM atrazine, almost all of the transgenic lines produced significantly larger seedlings, with similar or higher germination percentages, than did the respective controls. Although the seedlings of transgenic lines were taller and gained more root biomass compared to the respective control plants, their growth was nevertheless inhibited by atrazine treatment compared to that without treatment. When grown in soil containing 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg atrazine, the transgenic lines were taller, and had higher total chlorophyll contents than did the respective controls; moreover, three of the strongest transgenic lines completely recovered after 45 days of growth. After treatment with 2 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg of atrazine, the atrazine residue remaining in the soil was 2.9–7.0% or 0.8–8.7% respectively, for transgenic lines, and 44.0–59.2% or 28.1–30.8%, respectively, for control plants. Spraying plants at the vegetative growth stage with 0.15% atrazine effectively killed control plants, but not transgenic lines. Our results indicate that transgenic atzA rice plants show tolerance to atrazine, and may be used as parental lines in future hybrid seed production. PMID:25275554

  7. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  8. Seeds of confusion : the impact of policies on seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwaars, N.P.

    2007-01-01

    Seed is basic to crop production. Next to its importance in production, food security and rural development, seed is a key element in many debates about technology development and transfer, biodiversity, globalisation and equity. The sustainable availability of good quality seed is thus an important

  9. Dissolved organic matter composition and bioavailability reflect ecosystem productivity in the Western Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y.; Fichot, C. G.; Benner, R.

    2012-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and total dissolved amino acids (TDAA) were measured in high (Chukchi Sea) and low (Beaufort Sea) productivity regions of the western Arctic Ocean to investigate the composition and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Concentrations and DOC-normalized yields of TDAA in Chukchi surface waters were relatively high, indicating an accumulation of bioavailable DOM. High concentrations and yields of TDAA were also observed in the upper halocline of slope and basin waters, indicating off-shelf transport of bioavailable DOM from the Chukchi Sea. In contrast, concentrations and yields of TDAA in Beaufort surface waters were relatively low, indicting DOM was of limited bioavailability. Concentrations and yields of TDAA in the upper halocline of slope and basin waters were also low, suggesting the Beaufort is not a major source of bioavailable DOM to slope and basin waters. In shelf waters of both systems, elevated concentrations and yields of TDAA were often observed in waters with higher chlorophyll concentrations and productivity. Surface concentrations of DOC were similar (p > 0.05) in the two systems despite the contrasting productivity, but concentrations and yields of TDAA were significantly higher (p productivity in the western Arctic. The occurrence of elevated bioavailable DOM concentrations in the Chukchi Sea implies an uncoupling between the biological production and utilization of DOM and has important implications for sustaining heterotrophic microbial growth and diversity in oligotrophic waters of the central Arctic basins.

  10. Effect of incorporation of walnut cake (Juglans regia in concentrate mixture on degradation of dry matter, organic matter and production of microbial biomass in vitro in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Ahmad Mir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of incorporation of different level of walnut cake in concentrate mixture on in vitro dry matter degradation in order to determine its level of supplementation in ruminant ration. Materials and Methods: Walnut cake was used @ 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% level to formulate an iso-nitrogenous concentrate mixtures and designated as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 respectively. The different formulae of concentrate mixtures were used for in vitro gas production studies using goat rumen liquor with wheat straw in 40:60 ratio. Proximate composition, fiber fractionation and calcium and phosphrous content of walnut cake were estimated. Result: The per cent IVDMD value of T1 and T2 diets was 68.42 ± 1.20 and 67.25 ± 1.37 respectively which was found highest (P<0.05 T3, T4, T5 and T6. Similar trend was also found for TDOM and MBP. Inclusion of walnut cake at 10% level in the concentrate mixture does not affect in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD, truly degradable organic matter (TDOM, mg/200 mg DM, total gas production, microbial biomass production (MBP and efficiency of microbial biomass production (EMP. Conclusion: It is concluded that walnut cake incorporation up to 10% level in the iso -nitrogenous concentrate mixture has no any negative effect on in vitro digestibility of dry matter (DM, TDOM, MBP, EMP and total gas production in goat.

  11. Sunflower seedlings dry matter content as affected by chemical treatment and storage length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđa Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical treatment of seed is a common crop protection measure. In the case of sunflower seed, fungicides are used regularly and insecticides at an increasing rate. In some cases, sunflower hybrid seed not planted in the first year is planted in the second or even third year after production. Seed vigour decreases gradually over time, which negatively affects seed emergence and subsequent plant growth and development. Seed with high vigour is expected to germinate quickly, producing seedlings that grow fast and uniformly. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of seed chemical treatment and storage length on seedling dry matter content in different sunflower hybrids. The study included several variants with fungicide and pesticide treatments and an untreated control. In the case of the hybrid NS-H-111, highest values of the studied characteristic were recorded in the control and directly after chemical treatment. In the case of the hybrid Sremac, the lowest value was recorded in seed treatment with benomyl+metalaxyl, highest in the treatments directly after chemical treatment and in seed stored for six months. In the case of the hybrid Šumadinac, highest values were recorded in the control and in seed treatment with fludioxonil+metalaxyl, the lowest in seed treatment with fludioxonil+metalaxyl+im idacloprid. Regarding the effect of different seed storage periods, highest values of the studied characteristic were recorded shortly after chemical treatment and in seed stored for six months.

  12. Validation of a quantitative NMR method for suspected counterfeit products exemplified on determination of benzethonium chloride in grapefruit seed extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiroglu, Somer; Myrberg, Olle; Ostman, Kristina; Ek, Marianne; Arvidsson, Torbjörn; Rundlöf, Torgny; Hakkarainen, Birgit

    2008-08-05

    A 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy method for quantitative determination of benzethonium chloride (BTC) as a constituent of grapefruit seed extract was developed. The method was validated, assessing its specificity, linearity, range, and precision, as well as accuracy, limit of quantification and robustness. The method includes quantification using an internal reference standard, 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene, and regarded as simple, rapid, and easy to implement. A commercial grapefruit seed extract was studied and the experiments were performed on spectrometers operating at two different fields, 300 and 600 MHz for proton frequencies, the former with a broad band (BB) probe and the latter equipped with both a BB probe and a CryoProbe. The concentration average for the product sample was 78.0, 77.8 and 78.4 mg/ml using the 300 BB probe, the 600MHz BB probe and CryoProbe, respectively. The standard deviation and relative standard deviation (R.S.D., in parenthesis) for the average concentrations was 0.2 (0.3%), 0.3 (0.4%) and 0.3mg/ml (0.4%), respectively.

  13. A Study on the Production Process Control of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim Seed Kernel Oil without Trans-Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyi Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process control of the production of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim seed kernel oil (ZSKO with no trans-fatty acids (TFAs was investigated. Results revealed that drying temperature and time had a small effect on TFA formation in ZSKO. And high concentrations of sodium hydroxide solution had some effect on TFA formation in ZKSO, but there were no TFAs when the concentration of the sodium hydroxide solution was lower than 20% and even at boiling temperature for one hour. The roasting temperature and duration for Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim seed (ZS should be properly controlled at 100°C for six hours or 150°C for two hours. ZS, which has a moisture content of 18%, was pressed four times (two hours at less than 60°C, and ZSKO was obtained by collection through centrifuge separation. This contained 90.84% unsaturated fatty acids, which mainly include 32.49%  α-linolenic acid, 29.88% linoleic acid, and 27.52% oleic acids; and there was no TFA. Its acidic value and peroxide value conformed to China standards for edible oil. Therefore, ZKSO could be used as a healthy food for further development.

  14. Highly efficient pollination by bumblebees ensures seed production in Pedicularis lachnoglossa (Orobanchaceae), an early-flowering Himalayan plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Bin YU; De-Zhu LI; Hong WANG

    2012-01-01

    Pedicularis (Orobranchaceae) is a common high altitude genus of the Himalayas that may be affected by pollination limitation.Using Pedicularis lachnoglossa from Yulong (Jade Dragon) Snow Mountain in Lijiang (Yunnan Province,southwest China),we investigated the effects of high altitude habitats on the process of pollination and seed production.Floral biology,pollinator foraging behavior,breeding system,and pollination efficiency were examined using observation and exclusionary techniques.Pedicularis lachnoglossa was found to be entomophilous and exclusively pollinated by Bombusfriseanus and B.yunnanicola.Our results indicated that pollination limitation in P.lachnoglossa was not significant.Under open pollination,approximately 80% of flowers were successfully pollinated and developed to fruits,and about 38% of ovules developed to mature seeds.Bumblebee pollination is highly precise and efficient in P lachnoglossa,because its flowering phenology and floral characters enhance the foraging of bumblebees on flowers.This study supports that animal pollination plays a crucial role in the outbreeding of the early flowering Pedicularis.The evolution of floral specification in Pedicularis has the advantages of adaptation to bumblebee pollination in adverse high altitude habitats.

  15. Characterization of particulate products for aging of ethylbenzene secondary organic aerosol in the presence of ammonium sulfate seed aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mingqiang; Zhang, Jiahui; Cai, Shunyou; Liao, Yingmin; Zhao, Weixiong; Hu, Changjin; Gu, Xuejun; Fang, Li; Zhang, Weijun

    2016-09-01

    Aging of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles formed from OH- initiated oxidation of ethylbenzene in the presence of high mass (100-300μg/m(3)) concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 seed aerosol was investigated in a home-made smog chamber in this study. The chemical composition of aged ethylbenzene SOA particles was measured using an aerosol laser time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ALTOFMS) coupled with a Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering algorithm. Experimental results showed that nitrophenol, ethyl-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, methyl glyoxylic acid, 5-ethyl-6-oxo-2,4-hexadienoic acid, 2-ethyl-2,4-hexadiendioic acid, 2,3-dihydroxy-5-ethyl-6-oxo-4-hexenoic acid, 1H-imidazole, hydrated N-glyoxal substituted 1H-imidazole, hydrated glyoxal dimer substituted imidazole, 1H-imidazole-2-carbaldehyde, N-glyoxal substituted hydrated 1H-imidazole-2-carbaldehyde and high-molecular-weight (HMW) components were the predominant products in the aged particles. Compared to the previous aromatic SOA aging studies, imidazole compounds, which can absorb solar radiation effectively, were newly detected in aged ethylbenzene SOA in the presence of high concentrations of (NH4)2SO4 seed aerosol. These findings provide new information for discussing aromatic SOA aging mechanisms.

  16. Foliar fertilization of peanuts with cobalt and molybdenum: agronomic characteristics of production and physiological potential of seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Marani Barbosa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As a crop, the peanut is becoming increasingly important in Brazil because it is used to renew areas where sugarcane is cultivated. The peanuts are mainly used by the candy industry and their importance has also grown because of the exploitation of oil crops to produce biodiesel. This study aimed to determine the effect of applying different levels Co and Mo foliar fertilizer to two peanut cultivars. The experiment was conducted in cerrado, during the rainy season, and the treatments consisted of applying Mo and Co fertilizer at zero, 400 and 800g.ha–1 to the Runner IAC 886 and IAC Tatu ST cultivars. The study found that there were differences in the parameters of the cultivars but there were no changes when the rates of cobalt and molybdenum were increased. The foliar application of cobalt and molybdenum in doses up to 800g.ha–1, during the initial stage of seed formation, does not change the agronomic characteristics of peanuts; Runner IAC 886 is more productive than the IAC Tatu ST cultivar, and seeds with higher molybdenum content do not have more physiological potential.

  17. Higher-Order QCD prediction for dark matter pair associated with a b-jet production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gang, Li; Mao, Song; Yu, Zhang; Ya-Jin, Zhou; Jian-You, Guo

    2016-01-01

    Dark matter associated visible particle production at high energy colliders provides a unique way to determine the microscopic properties of the dark matter. We investigate a pair of fermionic dark matter particles associated with a b-jet production at the LHC, through a mediator which couples to standard model or dark matter particles via either a vector or axial-vector coupling. The calculation is performed by implementing these simplified models in the FeynRules/MadGraph5 aMC@NLO framework. In our calculation, next-to-leading order QCD corrections and parton-shower effects are considered. We find that this process has a sizeable cross section and the QCD correction can reach more than 2 times than LO results. We also investigate the discovery potential in several benchmark scenarios at the 13TeV LHC.

  18. 76 FR 15340 - In the Matter of Certain GPS Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain GPS Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission... certain GPS devices and products containing the same by reason of infringement of various claims of...

  19. 76 FR 60082 - In the Matter of Certain Light-Emitting Diodes and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... investigation on July 11, 2011, based on a complaint filed by OSRAM GmbH of Munich, Germany. 76 FR 40745 (Jul... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Light-Emitting Diodes and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission... within the United States after importation of certain light-emitting diodes and products containing...

  20. 75 FR 65380 - In the Matter of Certain Lighting Products; Notice of Commission Decision Not To Review an...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Lighting Products; Notice of Commission Decision Not To Review an Initial... server at http://www.usitc.gov . The public record for this investigation may be viewed on the Commission... States after importation of certain lighting products by reason of infringement of U.S. Patent No. D570...

  1. 76 FR 11275 - In the Matter of Certain Ceramic Capacitors and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Ceramic Capacitors and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission... the sale within the United States after importation of certain ceramic capacitors and products...

  2. 75 FR 36119 - In the Matter of Certain Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp (“CCFL”) Inverter Circuits and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamp (``CCFL'') Inverter Circuits and Products... United States after importation of certain cold cathode fluorescent lamp inverter circuits and products..., and the sale within the United States after importation of CCFL inverter circuits and...

  3. Productivity and seed health of husked oats (Avena sativa L. grown under different soil moisture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pszczółkowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of different soil moisture content levels (60 - 70% SWC (soil water capacity - control; 30 - 35% SWC - water stress on yields, gas exchange parameters, seed health, and protein fractions of husked oat grain. The study showed that water deficit resulted in a decrease in grain weight per plant and a reduction in the gas exchange rates, primarily the photosynthesis and transpiration rates. Cladosporium cladosporioides was the dominant species on oat kernels in both experimental treatment options and in both years of the study. The presence of Fusarium poae was also found. Higher contents of prolamin, albumin and globulin fractions were found in the oat grain harvested from plants grown under soil water deficit conditions.

  4. Green Polymers in Personal Care Products: Rheological Properties of Tamarind Seed Polysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Semenzato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP is a xyloglucan of vegetable origin, recently proposed for the cosmetic and pharmaceutical market as a “green” alternative to hyaluronic acid. In this study, TSP water dispersions, at different concentrations, were characterized by means of rheological measurements, both in continuous and oscillatory flow conditions. The results were compared with those of hyaluronic acid of two different molecular weights. The results pointed out the close rheological behaviors between TSP and hyaluronic acid with comparable molecular weight. Afterwards, the structural features of binary and ternary polysaccharide associations prepared with TSP, hyaluronic acid (very high MW and dehydropolysaccharide gum, a modified xanthan gum, with high stabilizing properties, were investigated. The rheological properties were significantly affected by the polysaccharide ratios in the mixture, suggesting that the combination of TSP with other polymers can lead to a modulation of the texture and functional properties of cosmetics.

  5. Viability of biocompatible and biodegradable seeds production with incorporated radionuclides; Viabilidade da producao de sementes biocompativeis e biodegradaveis com radionuclideos incorporados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, W.S. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Ouro Preto (CEFET/OP), MG (Brazil); Pereira, M.M.; Vasconcelos, W.L.; Campos, T.P.R. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: wanderley@nuclear.ufmg.br

    2000-07-01

    The present work aims the development of radioactive seeds, biocompatible and biodegradable, with the objective of adding options in the cancer treatment. The work focus on the production of seeds biodegradable that incorporate radioisotopes with half life inferior than the degradation time of the material. The idea of producing devices with biodegradable materials impregnated with radioisotopes of short half life will offer new possibilities in the cancer treatment, since they can be used following the same procedures of the permanent interstitial brachytherapy, but using degradable materials compatible with the physiological environment. It will be discussed in particular the possible application of these seeds in the treatment of prostate cancer. A review of the subject and a preliminary evaluation of the viability of production of the seeds will be presented. The method of production of the seeds is based on the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium in glass matrixes obtained by sol-gel processing. X-ray fluorescence was done in the samples produced and the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium atoms was confirmed. (author)

  6. Characterization of protein fractions and antioxidant activity of Chia seeds (Salvia hispanica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvetoslava Kačmárová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L. is an annual herbaceous plant categorized under Lamiaceae family. Chia seeds were investigated as a source of proteins and natural antioxidants. It is a potential alternative source of high quality protein, fats, carbohydrates, high dietary fibre, vitamins and mineral elements. The objective of this study was to evaluate chia seed from protein content and antioxidant acivity and highlight the quality of this pseudocereal. A crude protein, moisture content, content of protein fractions, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and superoxide dismutase activity of chia seeds and food products containing chia seeds were determined. The protein content of chia seeds ranged from 2.9% to 4.6% dry matter from that albumins and globulins ranged from 54.6% to 62.8%. Chia is poor in a prolamines (<15%. Various chia seeds showed differences in their SOD activity and exhibited the high antiradical activity against 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS. The highest antioxidant capacity was found in sample chia seeds from Bolivia (1.46 mM TEAC.g-1 in the dry matter and the lowest values of antioxidant activity was estimated in sample chia seeds from Argentina (1.05 mM TEAC.g-1 in the dry matter. The highest SOD activity was determined in sample chia from Argentina (2191.8 U.g-1 in the dry matter. The lowest SOD activity was found in sample chia-bio from Argentina (754.0 U.g-1 in the dry matter.. It makes them potentially suitable for use in the gluten-free diet of coeliac people and it can be used as a potential ingredient in health food because of its high antioxidant activity.

  7. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  8. Effect of freezing and canning on the content of vitamin C in immature seeds of five cultivars of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Słupski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available   Background. Legumes are usually consumed when physiologically mature, as dry seeds, however, flageolet beans seeds are also consumed immature. They are harvested when dry matter content is about 40%, pods are filled, grown, seeds succulent, showing green or light green colour and do not require lengthy thermal processing when prepared for consumption. Material and methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate vitamin C content in immature seeds of five bean cultivars harvested when dry matter content was 40%. The analysis included raw, blanched and cooked fresh seeds and three products prepared for consumption after 0, 4, 8 and 12 months of storage: frozen products obtained using the traditional method (blanching–freezing–frozen storage–cooking, frozen products obtained using a modified method (cooking–freezing–frozen storage–thawing and heating in a microwave oven, a ready-to-eat product to consumption at ambient temperature, and canned products obtained by sterilization. Results. The application of technological processes, frozen and sterilized products storage, and the preparation for consumption had a cumulative effect in retention vitamin C content on final products. Conclusion. Comparing frozen seeds obtained by modified method with seeds treated by traditional method, generally, this one could retain more vitamin C. Canned seeds retained significantly less vitamin C than other frozen products.  

  9. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural producti

  10. Seed quality in informal seed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biemond, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    Keywords:     informal seed systems, seed recycling, seed quality, germination, seed pathology, seed health, seed-borne diseases, mycotoxigenic fungi, Fusarium verticillioides, mycotoxins, Vigna unguiculata, Zea mays, Nigeria.   Seed is a crucial input for agricultural

  11. Anticancer and Cancer Chemopreventive Potential of Grape Seed Extract and Other Grape-Based Products1–3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manjinder; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    With emerging trends in the incidence of cancer of various organ sites, additional approaches are needed to control human malignancies. Intervention or prevention of cancer by dietary constituents, a strategy defined as chemoprevention, holds great promise in our conquest to control cancer, because it can be implemented on a broader population base with less economic burden. Consistent with this, several epidemiological studies have shown that populations that consume diets rich in fruits and vegetables have an overall lower cancer incidence. Based on these encouraging observations, research efforts from across the globe have focused on identifying, characterizing, and providing scientific basis to the efficacy of various phytonutrients in an effort to develop effective strategy to control various human malignancies. Cancer induction, growth, and progression are multi-step events and numerous studies have demonstrated that various dietary agents interfere with these stages of cancer, thus blocking malignancy. Fruits and vegetables represent untapped reservoir of various nutritive and nonnutritive phytochemicals with potential cancer chemopreventive activity. Grapes and grape-based products are one such class of dietary products that have shown cancer chemopreventive potential and are also known to improve overall human health. This review focuses on recent advancements in cancer chemopreventive and anticancer efficacy of grape seed extract and other grape-based products. Overall, completed studies from various scientific groups conclude that both grapes and grape-based products are excellent sources of various anticancer agents and their regular consumption should thus be beneficial to the general population. PMID:19640973

  12. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Perea

    Full Text Available Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis. In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P. Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  13. Empty seeds are not always bad: simultaneous effect of seed emptiness and masting on animal seed predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed.

  14. Empty Seeds Are Not Always Bad: Simultaneous Effect of Seed Emptiness and Masting on Animal Seed Predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Ramón; Venturas, Martin; Gil, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Seed masting and production of empty seeds have often been considered independently as different strategies to reduce seed predation by animals. Here, we integrate both phenomena within the whole assemblage of seed predators (both pre and post-dispersal) and in two contrasting microsites (open vs. sheltered) to improve our understanding of the factors controlling seed predation in a wind-dispersed tree (Ulmus laevis). In years with larger crop sizes more avian seed predators were attracted with an increase in the proportion of full seeds predated on the ground. However, for abundant crops, the presence of empty seeds decreased the proportion of full seeds predated. Empty seeds remained for a very long period in the tree, making location of full seeds more difficult for pre-dispersal predators and expanding the overall seed drop period at a very low cost (in dry biomass and allocation of C, N and P). Parthenocarpy (non-fertilized seeds) was the main cause of seed emptiness whereas seed abortion was produced in low quantity. These aborted seeds fell prematurely and, thus, could not work as deceptive seeds. A proportion of 50% empty seeds significantly reduced ground seed predation by 26%. However, a high rate of parthenocarpy (beyond 50% empty seeds) did not significantly reduce seed predation in comparison to 50% empty seeds. We also found a high variability and unpredictability in the production of empty seeds, both at tree and population level, making predator deception more effective. Open areas were especially important to facilitate seed survival since rodents (the main post-dispersal predators) consumed seeds mostly under shrub cover. In elm trees parthenocarpy is a common event that might work as an adaptive strategy to reduce seed predation. Masting per se did not apparently reduce the overall proportion of seeds predated in this wind-dispersed tree, but kept great numbers of seeds unconsumed. PMID:23776503

  15. Produtividade e qualidade de sementes de flores produzidas em Santa Maria Productivity and quality of flower seeds produced in Santa Maria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Antônio Bellé

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial de produção e a qualidade de sementes, foram cultivadas 15 espécies deflores nas condições de Santa Maria (Latitude 29°41'S e Longitude 53°48'W. O experimento foi realizado a campo no delineamento blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A grande maioria das espécies produz rendimento médio de sementes elevado apesar da variabilidade. Nas condições de benefïciamento oferecidas, as espécies Dianthus, Eschscholtzia, Nigella e Fhlox produziram sementes com alta germinação. As espécies Anthirrinum, Gelosia, Gailiardia, Nicotina, Scabiosa e Zinnia possuem potencial de produção de sementes de melhor qualidade, desde que se melhore, principalmente, o beneficiamento.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the potential and quality of flowers seeds. Fifteen species were tested for Santa Maria (24°41'S latitude and 53°48'W longitude. The majority of the species had high seed production despite of variability. Considering the local conditions of seeds cleaning and processing the species Dianthus, Eschscholtzia, Nigella and Phlox produced seeds with high germination. The species Anthirrinum, Gelosia, Gaillardia Nicotinic, Scabbiest and Zinnia have potential to potential to produce seeds of high quality, specially, when seed cleaning and processing are improved.

  16. Purification of a jojoba embryo wax synthase, cloning of its cDNA, and production of high levels of wax in seeds of transgenic arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardizabal, K D; Metz, J G; Sakamoto, T; Hutton, W C; Pollard, M R; Lassner, M W

    2000-03-01

    Wax synthase (WS, fatty acyl-coenzyme A [coA]: fatty alcohol acyltransferase) catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of linear esters (waxes) that accumulate in seeds of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). We have characterized and partially purified this enzyme from developing jojoba embryos. A protein whose presence correlated with WS activity during chromatographic fractionation was identified and a cDNA encoding that protein was cloned. Seed-specific expression of the cDNA in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred high levels of WS activity on developing embryos from those plants. The WS sequence has significant homology with several Arabidopsis open reading frames of unknown function. Wax production in jojoba requires, in addition to WS, a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and an efficient fatty acid elongase system that forms the substrates preferred by the FAR. We have expressed the jojoba WS cDNA in Arabidopsis in combination with cDNAs encoding the jojoba FAR and a beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (a component of fatty acid elongase) from Lunaria annua. (13)C-Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of pooled whole seeds from transgenic plants indicated that as many as 49% of the oil molecules in the seeds were waxes. Gas chromatography analysis of transmethylated oil from individual seeds suggested that wax levels may represent up to 70% (by weight) of the oil present in those seeds.

  17. Characterizing harmful advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and ribosylated aggregates of yellow mustard seed phytocystatin: Effects of different monosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Azaj; Shamsi, Anas; Bano, Bilqees

    2017-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are at the core of variety of diseases ranging from diabetes to renal failure and hence gaining wide consideration. This study was aimed at characterizing the AGEs of phytocystatin isolated from mustard seeds (YMP) when incubated with different monosaccharides (glucose, ribose and mannose) using fluorescence, ultraviolet, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and microscopy. Ribose was found to be the most potent glycating agent as evident by AGEs specific fluorescence and absorbance. YMP exists as a molten globule like structure on day 24 as depicted by high ANS fluorescence and altered intrinsic fluorescence. Glycated YMP as AGEs and ribose induced aggregates were observed at day 28 and 32 respectively. In our study we have also examined the anti-aggregative potential of polyphenol, resveratrol. Our results suggested the anti-aggregative behavior of resveratrol as it prevented the in vitro aggregation of YMP, although further studies are required to decode the mechanism by which resveratrol prevents the aggregation.

  18. Optimization of Lipase-Catalyzed Transesterification of Cotton Seed Oil for Biodiesel Production Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xia Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the biodiesel production from cotton seed oil by lipase produced by Pichia guilliermondii lipase, which was immobilized onto hydrophobic magnetic particles (HMPs. The optimum reaction conditions were determined for lipase dosage, methanol-to-oil molar ratio, temperature and water content. Using response surface methodology, a quadratic polynomial equation was obtained for fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs content by multiple regression analysis. Verification experiments confirmed the validity of the predicted model. The optimal conditions for the enzymatic transesterification were temperature of 38.76℃, 31.3% immobilized lipase, 10.4% water content, and a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 4.715:1. The gas chromatography- mass spectrometry showed that biodiesel was mainly composed of the methyl esters of hexadecanoic, 9,12-octadecadienoic and 9-octadecadienoic acid.

  19. Numerical simulation of flow field and optimization of structure parameters of seed precipitation tank for production of alumina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Hong-jie; ZHOU Jie-min; L(U) Zi-jian; ZHOU Huai-min

    2005-01-01

    In order to overcome the defects of air-agitated seed precipitation, such as scaring, liquid short-circuiting, the three-dimension flow fields with different structure are numerically simulated by computational fluid dynamics software. Euler/Euler approach was used to study the effects of structure on the flow field in the tank. Multi-fluid model, body-fitted coordinates and multi-block gird were adopted in the simulation. The simulating results are well consonant with the practical situations. The flow field is improved obviously when the flow velocity increases from 0.089 m/s to 0.192-0.300 m/s at the bottom of the optimized tank and therefore the scaring is reduced greatly in the industrial production. With a gathering sill, the problem of short-circuiting, which always appeares in the upper of the tank, can be solved very well.

  20. Non-thermal Production of Neutralino Cold Dark Matter from Cosmic String Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Jeannerot, R; Brandenberger, R H

    1999-01-01

    We propose a mechanism of nonthermal production of a neutralino cold dark matter particle, $\\chi$, from the decay of cosmic strings which form from the spontaneous breaking of a U(1) gauge symmetry, such as $U_{B-L}(1)$, in an extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM). By explicit calculation, we point out that with a symmetry breaking scale $\\eta$ of around $10^8$ GeV, the decay of cosmic strings can give rise to $\\Omega_\\chi \\simeq 1$. This gives a new constraint on supersymmetric models. For example, the dark matter produced from strings will overclose the universe if $\\eta$ is near the electroweak symmetry breaking scale. To be consistent with $\\Omega_\\chi \\leq 1$, the mass of the new U(1) gauge boson must be much larger than the Fermi scale which makes it unobservable in upcoming accelerator experiments. In a supersymmetric model with an extra $U_{B-L}(1)$ symmetry, the requirement of provided neutrino masses are generated by the see-saw mechanism.

  1. Search for vector mediator of Dark Matter production in invisible decay mode arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, D.; Chumakov, A.G.; Cooke, D.; Crivelli, P.; Depero, E.; Dermenev, A.V.; Donskov, S.V.; Dubinin, F.; Dusaev, R.R.; Emmenegger, S.; Fabich, A.; Frolov, V.N.; Gardikiotis, A.; Gerassimov, S.G.; S.N.Gninenko\\footnote{Corresponding author, Sergei.Gninenko@cern.ch}; Hösgen, M.; Karneyeu, A.E.; Ketzer, B.; Kirpichnikov, D.V.; Kirsanov, M.M.; Konorov, I.V.; Kovalenko, S.G.; Kramarenko, V.A.; Kravchuk, L.V.; Krasnikov, N.V.; Kuleshov, S.V.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.; Lysan, V.; Matveev, V.A.; Mikhailov, Yu.V.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Polyakov, V.A.; Radics, B.; Rubbia, A.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tlisov, D.A.; Toropin, A.N.; Trifonov, A.Yu.; Vasilishin, B.I.; Vasquez Arenas, G.; Ulloa, P.

    A search is performed for a new sub-GeV vector boson ($A'$) mediated production of Dark Matter ($\\chi$) in the fixed-target experiment, NA64, at the CERN SPS. The $A'$, called dark photon, could be generated in the reaction $ e^- Z \\to e^- Z A'$ of 100 GeV electrons dumped against an active target which is followed by the prompt invisible decay $A' \\to \\chi \\overline{\\chi}$. The experimental signature of this process would be an event with an isolated electron and large missing energy in the detector. From the analysis of the data sample collected in 2016 corresponding to $4.3\\times10^{10}$ electrons on target no evidence of such a process has been found. New stringent constraints on the $A'$ mixing strength with photons, $10^{-5}\\lesssim \\epsilon \\lesssim 10^{-2}$, for the $A'$ mass range $m_{A'} \\lesssim 1$ GeV are derived. For models considering scalar and fermionic thermal Dark Matter interacting with the visible sector through the vector portal the 90% C.L. limits $10^{-11}\\lesssim y \\lesssim 10^{-6}$ on...

  2. Using of Humic Matter from Low Rank Coal to Increase Phosphorous Fertilizer Efficiency and Production of Corn at Oxisol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herviyanti Herviyanti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was examined humic matter from low rank coal capability  combined with P fertilizer to adsorp Al and Fe metal, to improve soil fertility, to increase of P fertilizing efficiency and productivity Oxisol, therefore optimalize productivity of corn can be achieved. The experiment was designed using a 3 x 4 factorial with 3 replications in design groups randomly. The 1st factor was 3 way incubating humic matter with P-fertilizer are : I1 = Incubation of humic matter 1 week, then incubation P-fertilizer 1 week; I2 = Incubation of humic matter and P fertilizer directly into the soil for 2 weeks; and I3 = humic matter and P fertilizer mixed for 1 week, then incubation to the soil for 1 week. The 2nd factor was humic matter and P-fertilizer combination are 4 doses H1=400 ppm (0.8 Mg ha-1+ 100% R; H2 = 400 ppm + 75% R; H3 = 800 ppm (1.6 Mg ha-1 + 100% R; and H4 = 800 ppm + 75% R. The results showed that the best treatment interaction was founded 800 ppm humic matter and 100% R P-fertilizer doses in the first 3 way incubation that is corn  yields increased from 4.53 Mg ha-1 (control and 5.65 Mg ha -1 (farmer tradition to 9.21 Mg ha -1.. However, this result is almost the same as 800 ppm humic matter + 75 % R P-fertilizer doses incubation with followed I3 way too. It was concluded that addition of humic matter and I3 incubation could be P-fertilizer save up to 25%.

  3. Decontamination method using heat and relative humidity for radish seeds achieves a 7-log reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 without affecting product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y B; Kim, H W; Song, M K; Rhee, M S

    2015-05-18

    We developed a novel decontamination method to inactivate Escherichia coli O157:H7 on radish seeds without adversely affecting seed germination or product quality. The use of heat (55, 60, and 65 °C) combined with relative humidity (RH; 25, 45, 65, 85, and 100%) for 24h was evaluated for effective microbial reduction and preservation of seed germination rates. A significant two-way interaction of heat and RH was observed for both microbial reduction and germination rate (Pgermination rate (Pseeds (7.0 log CFU/g reduction) and had no significant effect on the germination rate (85.4%; P>0.05) or product quality. The method uses only heat and relative humidity without chemicals, and is thus applicable as a general decontamination procedure in spout producing plants where the use of growth chambers is the norm.

  4. Simultaneous quantification of sinigrin, sinalbin, and anionic glucosinolate hydrolysis products in Brassica juncea and Sinapis alba seed extracts using ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Inna E; Morra, Matthew J

    2014-11-01

    Although mustards such as Sinapis alba and Brassica juncea contain glucosinolates (sinalbin and sinigrin, respectively) that hydrolyze to form biopesticidal products, routine quality control methods to measure active ingredients in seed and seed meals are lacking. We present a simple and fast ion chromatography method for the simultaneous quantification of sinigrin, sinalbin, and anionic hydrolysis products in mustard seed to assess biological potency. Optimum conditions include isocratic elution with 100 mM NaOH at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min on a 4 × 210 mm hydroxide-selective anion-exchange column. All anion analytes including sinigrin, sinalbin, SO4(2-), and SCN(-) yielded recoveries ranging from 83 to 102% and limits of detection ≤0.04 mM, with samples displaying little interference from plant matrix components. Sample preparation is minimized and analysis times are shortened to <90 min as compared with previous methods that took days and multiple instruments.

  5. Factors affecting the production of seeds in fully fertile tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum L. Mill. and those showing a tendency to parthenocarpy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Gabara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on the development of the female gametophyte, pollination and fertilization in two lines of Lycopersicon esculentum, Kholodostoykye (Kh, fertile and A33 (with a tendency to parthenocarpy have revealed that seed production is affected by disturbances in embryo sac formation but mainly by its degeneration after anthesis, which is especially visible in line A33. Moreover, delayed development of some embryo sacs and incomplete pollination due to various stigma levels seem to be responsible for the diminution of seed number in line A33. Deep fluorescence of numerous pollen grains as well as whole pollen tubes in 83.3 per cent of A33 stigmas and only 24.1 per cent in the Kh line points to the heterogeneity of pollen. This could be one more reason for reduced fertility. The results of application of plant growth regulators (auxin, PCIB which affect seed production in tomato of line A33 remain inconclusive.

  6. Effects of Dense Matter on Hadron Production in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Papp, G; Fái, G; Lévai, Peter; Zhang, Y; Papp, Gabor; Barnafoeldi, Gergely; Fai, George; Levai, Peter; Zhang, Yi

    2000-01-01

    The intrinsic transverse momentum distribution of partons in the nucleon can be used to explain a large amount of high-$p_T$ hadron and photon production data in high-energy nucleon-nucleon collisions at energies $\\sqrt{s} \\approx 20$ to 1800 GeV. However, proton-nucleus experiments at energies $\\approx 30$ GeV show an extra enhancement (Cronin effect) in the yield of photons and mesons compared to a simple extrapolation of the proton-proton data. This enhancement is due to the effect of the dense hadronic matter encountered by the projectile proton in the nuclear environment. We discuss the origin and the properties of the nuclear enhancement.

  7. Probing parton dynamics of QCD matter with Ω and ϕ production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L.; Adkins, J. K.; Agakishiev, G.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Alekseev, I.; Aparin, A.; Arkhipkin, D.; Aschenauer, E. C.; Attri, A.; Averichev, G. S.; Bai, X.; Bairathi, V.; Bellwied, R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattarai, P.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bland, L. C.; Bordyuzhin, I. G.; Bouchet, J.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Brandin, A. V.; Bunzarov, I.; Butterworth, J.; Caines, H.; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M.; Campbell, J. M.; Cebra, D.; Chakaberia, I.; Chaloupka, P.; Chang, Z.; Chatterjee, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, J. H.; Chen, X.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Christie, W.; Contin, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, S.; De Silva, L. C.; Debbe, R. R.; Dedovich, T. G.; Deng, J.; Derevschikov, A. A.; di Ruzza, B.; Didenko, L.; Dilks, C.; Dong, X.; Drachenberg, J. L.; Draper, J. E.; Du, C. M.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Dunlop, J. C.; Efimov, L. G.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Esha, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Eyser, O.; Fatemi, R.; Fazio, S.; Federic, P.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, Z.; Filip, P.; Fisyak, Y.; Flores, C. E.; Fulek, L.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Garand, D.; Geurts, F.; Gibson, A.; Girard, M.; Greiner, L.; Grosnick, D.; Gunarathne, D. S.; Guo, Y.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, A.; Guryn, W.; Hamad, A. I.; Hamed, A.; Haque, R.; Harris, J. W.; He, L.; Heppelmann, S.; Heppelmann, S.; Hirsch, A.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Horvat, S.; Huang, T.; Huang, X.; Huang, B.; Huang, H. Z.; Huck, P.; Humanic, T. J.; Igo, G.; Jacobs, W. W.; Jang, H.; Jentsch, A.; Jia, J.; Jiang, K.; Judd, E. G.; Kabana, S.; Kalinkin, D.; Kang, K.; Kauder, K.; Ke, H. W.; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Khan, Z. H.; Kikoła, D. P.; Kisel, I.; Kisiel, A.; Kochenda, L.; Koetke, D. D.; Kosarzewski, L. K.; Kraishan, A. F.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kumar, L.; Lamont, M. A. C.; Landgraf, J. M.; Landry, K. D.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Lee, J. H.; Li, X.; Li, C.; Li, X.; Li, Y.; Li, W.; Lin, T.; Lisa, M. A.; Liu, F.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W. J.; Lomnitz, M.; Longacre, R. S.; Luo, X.; Ma, R.; Ma, G. L.; Ma, Y. G.; Ma, L.; Magdy, N.; Majka, R.; Manion, A.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H. S.; McDonald, D.; McKinzie, S.; Meehan, K.; Mei, J. C.; Minaev, N. G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mishra, D.; Mohanty, B.; Mondal, M. M.; Morozov, D. A.; Mustafa, M. K.; Nandi, B. K.; Nasim, Md.; Nayak, T. K.; Nigmatkulov, G.; Niida, T.; Nogach, L. V.; Noh, S. Y.; Novak, J.; Nurushev, S. B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Oh, K.; Okorokov, V. A.; Olvitt, D.; Page, B. S.; Pak, R.; Pan, Y. X.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Pawlik, B.; Pei, H.; Perkins, C.; Pile, P.; Pluta, J.; Poniatowska, K.; Porter, J.; Posik, M.; Poskanzer, A. M.; Pruthi, N. K.; Putschke, J.; Qiu, H.; Quintero, A.; Ramachandran, S.; Raniwala, S.; Raniwala, R.; Ray, R. L.; Ritter, H. G.; Roberts, J. B.; Rogachevskiy, O. V.; Romero, J. L.; Ruan, L.; Rusnak, J.; Rusnakova, O.; Sahoo, N. R.; Sahu, P. K.; Sakrejda, I.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarkar, A.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schmah, A. M.; Schmidke, W. B.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Seyboth, P.; Shah, N.; Shahaliev, E.; Shanmuganathan, P. V.; Shao, M.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, B.; Sharma, M. K.; Shen, W. Q.; Shi, Z.; Shi, S. S.; Shou, Q. Y.; Sichtermann, E. P.; Sikora, R.; Simko, M.; Singha, S.; Skoby, M. J.; Smirnov, N.; Smirnov, D.; Solyst, W.; Song, L.; Sorensen, P.; Spinka, H. M.; Srivastava, B.; Stanislaus, T. D. S.; Stepanov, M.; Stock, R.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Sumbera, M.; Summa, B.; Sun, Z.; Sun, X. M.; Sun, Y.; Surrow, B.; Svirida, D. N.; Tang, Z.; Tang, A. H.; Tarnowsky, T.; Tawfik, A.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Todoroki, T.; Tokarev, M.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tribedy, P.; Tripathy, S. K.; Tsai, O. D.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D. G.; Upsal, I.; Van Buren, G.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Varma, R.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Vertesi, R.; Videbæk, F.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S. A.; Vossen, A.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, J. S.; Wang, H.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J. C.; Wen, L.; Westfall, G. D.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S. W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xie, W.; Xie, G.; Xin, K.; Xu, Y. F.; Xu, Q. H.; Xu, N.; Xu, H.; Xu, Z.; Xu, J.; Yang, S.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, C.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Q.; Ye, Z.; Ye, Z.; Yepes, P.; Yi, L.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yu, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zha, W.; Zhang, X. P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, J. B.; Zhao, F.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhu, X.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zyzak, M.; STAR Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    We present measurements of Ω and ϕ production at midrapidity from Au+Au collisions at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies √{sN N}=7.7 , 11.5 , 19.6 , 27, and 39 GeV by the STAR experiment at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Motivated by the coalescence formation mechanism for these strange hadrons, we study the ratios of N (Ω-+Ω¯+) /[2 N (ϕ ) ] . These ratios as a function of transverse momentum pT fall on a consistent trend at high collision energies, but start to show deviations in peripheral collisions at √{sN N}=19.6 , 27, and 39 GeV, and in central collisions at 11.5 GeV in the intermediate pT region of 2.4 -3.6 GeV/c . We further evaluate empirically the strange quark pT distributions at hadronization by studying the Ω /ϕ ratios scaled by the number of constituent quarks (NCQ). The NCQ-scaled Ω /ϕ ratios show a suppression of strange quark production in central collisions at 11.5 GeV compared to √{sN N}≥19.6 GeV. The shapes of the presumably thermal strange quark distributions in 0-60% most central collisions at 7.7 GeV show significant deviations from those in 0-10% most central collisions at higher energies. These features suggest that there is likely a change of the underlying strange quark dynamics in the transition from quark matter to hadronic matter at collision energies below 19.6 GeV.

  8. Seed and Saponin Production of Organic Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd. for different Tillage and Fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios BILALIS

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to determine the effects of tillage systems and fertilization on growth, yield and quality of quinoa crop (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with four replicates, two main plots [conventional tillage (CT and minimum tillage (MT] and three sub-plots (fertilization treatments: control, cow manure and compost. The soil porosity (45.5-49.75% and total nitrogen (0.144-0.173% were higher in soils subjected to MT system than under CT. In soil porosity, an interaction between fertilization and tillage system was found. The highest leaf area index (4.47-5.03, dry weight (8650-9290 kg ha-1 and root density (1.03-1.21 cm cm-3 were also found in MT. Moreover, there were significant differences between the organic fertilization treatments concerning the LAI, dry weight and root density. The highest seed yield (2485-2643 kg ha-1 and saponin content (0.42-0.45% were found in cow manure and compost treatments. Also, the highest saponin yield (7.70-12.05 kg ha-1 was found in the MT system. Saponin yield had positive and significant correlation with total N (r=0.866. In quinoa measurements, an interaction between fertilization and tillage system was not found. The present results indicated that MT and organic fertilization increase saponin yield of quinoa.

  9. Effect of glycerol concentration on edible film production from cress seed carbohydrate gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouki, Mohammad; Khazaei, Naimeh; Ghasemlou, Mehran; Hadinezhad, Mehri

    2013-07-01

    In this study an edible film plasticized with glycerol was successfully prepared from cress seed gum (CSG). The physical, optical, water vapor permeability (WVP) and mechanical properties of CSG films incorporated with three levels of glycerol (25%, 35%, and 50% w/w) as plasticizer were determined. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis was used to determine the glass transition temperature. WVP of the films was found to increase as the glycerol content increased from 25% to 50% w/w in the formulation, resulted in improvement of films flexibility and significantly lower tensile strength and higher elongation at break. The color measurement values showed that increasing the glycerol concentration in polymer matrix caused the b and L values increased while ΔE value decreased. The electron scanning micrograph indicated smooth and uniform surface morphology without signs of phase separation between the film components. The results of the present study demonstrated that CSG can promisingly be used in producing edible films with improved quality characteristics.

  10. Dissolved organic matter composition and bioavailability reflect ecosystem productivity in the Western Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic carbon (DOC and total dissolved amino acids (TDAA were measured in high (Chukchi Sea and low (Beaufort Sea productivity regions of the western Arctic Ocean to investigate the composition and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter (DOM. Concentrations and DOC-normalized yields of TDAA in Chukchi surface waters were relatively high, indicating an accumulation of bioavailable DOM. High concentrations and yields of TDAA were also observed in the upper halocline of slope and basin waters, indicating off-shelf transport of bioavailable DOM from the Chukchi Sea. In contrast, concentrations and yields of TDAA in Beaufort surface waters were relatively low, indicting DOM was of limited bioavailability. Concentrations and yields of TDAA in the upper halocline of slope and basin waters were also low, suggesting the Beaufort is not a major source of bioavailable DOM to slope and basin waters. In shelf waters of both systems, elevated concentrations and yields of TDAA were often observed in waters with higher chlorophyll concentrations and productivity. Surface concentrations of DOC were similar (p > 0.05 in the two systems despite the contrasting productivity, but concentrations and yields of TDAA were significantly higher (p < 0.0001 in the Chukchi than in the Beaufort. Unlike bulk DOC, TDAA concentrations and yields reflect ecosystem productivity in the western Arctic. The occurrence of elevated bioavailable DOM concentrations in the Chukchi Sea implies an uncoupling between the biological production and utilization of DOM and has important implications for sustaining heterotrophic microbial growth and diversity in oligotrophic waters of the central Arctic basins.

  11. Dissolved organic matter composition and bioavailability reflect ecosystem productivity in the Western Arctic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved organic carbon (DOC and total dissolved amino acids (TDAA were measured in high (Chukchi Sea and low (Beaufort Sea productivity regions of the Western Arctic Ocean to investigate the composition and bioavailability of dissolved organic matter (DOM. Concentrations and DOC-normalized yields of TDAA in Chukchi surface waters were relatively high, indicating an accumulation of bioavailable DOM. High yields of TDAA were also observed in the upper halocline of slope and basin waters, indicating off-shelf transport of bioavailable DOM from the Chukchi Sea. In contrast, concentrations and yields of TDAA in Beaufort surface waters were relatively low, indicting DOM was of limited bioavailability. Yields of TDAA in the upper halocline of slope and basin waters were also low, suggesting the Beaufort is not a major source of bioavailable DOM to slope and basin waters. In shelf waters of both systems, elevated concentrations and yields of TDAA were often observed in waters with higher chlorophyll concentrations and productivity. Surface concentrations of DOC were similar (p > 0.05 in the two systems despite the contrasting productivity, but concentrations and yields of TDAA were significantly higher (p < 0.0001 in the Chukchi than in the Beaufort. Unlike bulk DOC, TDAA concentrations and yields reflect ecosystem productivity in the Western Arctic. The occurrence of elevated bioavailable DOM concentrations in the Chukchi implies an uncoupling between the biological production and utilization of DOM and has important implications for sustaining heterotrophic microbial growth and diversity in oligotrophic waters of the Central Arctic basins.

  12. Pasting and rheological properties of oat products dry-blended with ground chia seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oat products containing ß-glucan are documented for lowering blood cholesterol that could be beneficial for preventing coronary heart disease. Oat products (oat flour, oat bran concentrate, and Nutrim) were dry-blended with ground chia (Salvia hispanica L.) that contains omega-3 polyunsaturated fatt...

  13. Grape-seed procyanidins prevent the cafeteria-diet-induced decrease of glucagon-like peptide-1 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Abuín, Noemi; Martínez-Micaelo, Neus; Blay, Mayte; Ardévol, Anna; Pinent, Montserrat

    2014-02-05

    Grape-seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) has been reported to improve insulin resistance in cafeteria rats. Because glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is involved in glucose homeostasis, the preventive effects of GSPE on GLP-1 production, secretion, and elimination were evaluated in a model of diet-induced insulin resistance. Rats were fed a cafeteria diet for 12 weeks, and 25 mg of GSPE/kg of body weight was administered concomitantly. Vehicle-treated cafeteria-fed rats and chow-fed rats were used as controls. The cafeteria diet decreased active GLP-1 plasma levels, which is attributed to a decreased intestinal GLP-1 production, linked to reduced colonic enteroendocrine cell populations. Such effects were prevented by GSPE. In the same context, GSPE avoided the decrease on intestinal dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 (DPP4) activity and modulated the gene expression of GLP-1 and its receptor in the hypothalamus. In conclusion, the preventive treatment with GSPE abrogates the effects of the cafeteria diet on intestinal GLP-1 production and DPP4 activity.

  14. Environmentally friendly alternatives to bean and corn seeds production on the “Soterrado” farm in Cienfuegos

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    Mailiu Díaz Peña

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is to evaluate the environmental impact associated with the life cycle of seed production of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. CC 25-9 N and maize (Zea mays L. var. TGH on the Soterrado farm. The life cycle assessment (LCA methodology is applied, according to the NC-ISO14040, which includes the life cycle inventory of the crop, the assessment of the environmental impact of beans and maize crops and the assessment of the alternatives for environmental, agricultural and economic improvement. The environmental impact assessment helped determine the most affected impact categories: the non-renewable energy, global warming and respiratory inorganics. The most affected damage categories were damage to resources, human health and climate change. The consumption of urea, NPK and diesel represented an environmental impact with the highest contribution percentage. Two alternatives of environmental, agricultural and economic improvement for each crop were evaluated. They could reduce the environmental impact of the production of beans in 53.28 % and 79.25 % respectively and corn on 47.64 % and 63.48 % respectively. These alternatives would increase yields and soil characteristics, and help to reduce the production cost. It is recommended to inform the results of research to producers of Soterrado farm, validate the results, and apply this methodology to other crops in order to reduce the impact associated with agriculture.

  15. Optimization of supercritical methanol reactive extraction by response surface methodology and product characterization from Jatropha curcas L. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Steven; Lee, Keat Teong

    2013-08-01

    In this study, optimization of supercritical reactive extraction directly from Jatropha seeds in a high pressure batch reactor using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) coupled with Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD) was performed. Four primary variables (methanol to solid ratio (SSR), reaction temperature, time and CO2 initial pressure) were investigated under the proposed constraints. It was found that all variables had significant effects towards fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) yield. Moreover, three interaction effects between the variables also played a major role in influencing the final FAME yield. Optimum FAME yield at 92.0 wt.% was achieved under the following conditions: 5.9 SSR, 300°C, 12.3 min and 20 bar CO2. Final FAME product was discovered to fulfil existing international standard. Preliminary characterization analysis proved that the solid residue can be burnt as solid fuel in the form of biochar while the liquid product can be separated as specialty chemicals or burned as bio-oil for energy production. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of dilute acid pre-treatment process in bioethanol production from durian (Durio zibethinus) seeds waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, K. A.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyah, T. M. I.; Aditiya, H. B.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the promising feedstocks for bioethanol production. The process starts from pre-treatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and finally obtaining the final product, ethanol. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass depends heavily on the effectiveness of the pre-treatment step which main function is to break the lignin structure of the biomass. This work aims to investigate the effects of dilute acid pre-treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of durian seeds waste to glucose and the subsequent bioethanol fermentation process. The yield of glucose from dilute acid pre-treated sample using 0.6% H2SO4 and 5% substrate concentration shows significant value of 23.4951 g/L. Combination of dilute acid pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis using 150U of enzyme able to yield 50.0944 g/L of glucose content higher compared to normal pre-treated sample of 8.1093 g/L. Dilute acid pre-treatment sample also shows stable and efficient yeast activity during fermentation process with lowest glucose content at 2.9636 g/L compared to 14.7583g/L for normal pre-treated sample. Based on the result, it can be concluded that dilute acid pre-treatment increase the yield of ethanol from bioethanol production process.

  17. Does size really matter? A sensitivity analysis of number of seeds in a respondent-driven sampling study of gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men in Vancouver, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan John Lachowsky

    2016-11-01

    exclusion criteria used, the crude proportions fell within 95% confidence intervals of all RDS-weighted estimates. Significant differences between the three RDS estimators were not observed. Conclusions Within a sample of GBMSM in Vancouver, Canada, this RDS study suggests that when equilibrium and homophily are met, although potentially costly and time consuming, analysis is not negatively affected by large numbers of unproductive or lowly productive seeds.

  18. Soy bean seed-coat, potential renewable raw-material for alcohol production

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    Kailash Chandra Srivastava

    1984-11-01

    Full Text Available The seed coat was shaken for different periods of time, from 12 hr to 96 hr in sterile distilled water pre-adjusted to pH 8. The contents of the flask filtered and pH adjusted to 4.6. Next the solution was heated for 20 min at 90° C in a water bath, filtered and media prepared from the filtrate. These media were inoculated with 10% volume of a strain of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. The suspension shaken on a rotary shaker at 250 rpm and 30°C ± 1°C for 48 hr after which the culture filtrate was distilled and the amount of alcohol measured according to the alcoholometry tables of the U.S. Pharmacopeias. Thus up to 1.3% of alcohol could be obtained.Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados sobre obtenção de álcool a partir de casca de soja. A casca foi agitada por diferentes períodos de tempo de 12h a 96h em água destilada esterilizada, pré-ajustada para pH 8. Os conteúdos do frasco foram filtrados, o pH ajustado para 4,6; os conteúdos cozidos, esfriados e filtrados. Os filtrados com ou sem suplementação com extrato de levedura, peptona e glicose em conjunto ou separadamente foram usados como mosto para fermentação por S. cerevisiae. As suspensões foram agitadas a 250 rpm e 30° C ± l°C48h, e após este período, a quantidade de álcool calcula­da de acordo com a tabela alcoolométrica da Farmacopia dos Estados Unidos, foi de até 1.3%.

  19. Silybum marianum L. seed oil: A novel feedstock for biodiesel production

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    Abdelrahman B. Fadhil

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, biodiesel was produced from a novel non edible oil source, Silybum marianum L. seeds oil (SMSO. The acid value of the extracted oil was found to be 13.60 mg KOH/g. Therefore, a dual step process viz. acid–base catalyzed transesterification was developed to produce the biodiesel. Free fatty acids in SMSO were converted into methyl esters through the esterification of the oil by using hydrochloric acid (HCl as an acid catalyst with 6:1 methanol to molar ratio at 60°C for 1 h, to reduce the acid value of the parent oil to below (2 mg KOH/g of oil, a value safe to produce the biodiesel through alkaline catalyzed transesterification. During alkaline-catalyzed transesterification, the parameters of this step such as alkaline catalyst type and concentration, methanol to oil molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction duration were optimized. The results of esterification indicated that 1.0% HCl w/w of oil was optimal for the esterification, because it lowers the acid value to the minimum. For alkaline transesterification, a maximum conversion of (95.0% was obtained by using potassium hydroxide as a catalyst with a concentration of 0.90% w/w of oil, 6:1 methanol to oil molar ratio, 60 °C reaction temperature and a reaction duration of 100 min. Biodiesel was also analyzed by using thin layer chromatography and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy. The properties of the produced biodiesel are found to conform with the ASTM standard specifications.

  20. Efficient Seeds Computation Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Christou, Michalis; Iliopoulos, Costas S; Kubica, Marcin; Pissis, Solon P; Radoszewski, Jakub; Rytter, Wojciech; Szreder, Bartosz; Walen, Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    The notion of the cover is a generalization of a period of a string, and there are linear time algorithms for finding the shortest cover. The seed is a more complicated generalization of periodicity, it is a cover of a superstring of a given string, and the shortest seed problem is of much higher algorithmic difficulty. The problem is not well understood, no linear time algorithm is known. In the paper we give linear time algorithms for some of its versions --- computing shortest left-seed array, longest left-seed array and checking for seeds of a given length. The algorithm for the last problem is used to compute the seed array of a string (i.e., the shortest seeds for all the prefixes of the string) in $O(n^2)$ time. We describe also a simpler alternative algorithm computing efficiently the shortest seeds. As a by-product we obtain an $O(n\\log{(n/m)})$ time algorithm checking if the shortest seed has length at least $m$ and finding the corresponding seed. We also correct some important details missing in th...