WorldWideScience

Sample records for matter pom emissions

  1. POM Pulses: Characterizing the Physical and Chemical Properties of Particulate Organic Matter (POM) Mobilized by Large Storm Events and its Influence on Receiving Fluvial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. R.; Rowland, R. D.; Protokowicz, J.; Inamdar, S. P.; Kan, J.; Vargas, R.

    2016-12-01

    Extreme storm events have tremendous erosive energy which is capable of mobilizing vast amounts of material from watershed sources into fluvial systems. This complex mixture of sediment and particulate organic matter (POM) is a nutrient source, and has the potential to impact downstream water quality. The impact of POM on receiving aquatic systems can vary not only by the total amount exported but also by the various sources involved and the particle sizes of POM. This study examines the composition of POM in potential sources and within-event POM by: (1) determining the amount and quality of dissolved organic matter (DOM) that can be leached from coarse, medium and fine particle classes; (2) assessing the C and N content and isotopic character of within-event POM; and (3) coupling physical and chemical properties to evaluate storm event POM influence on stream water. Storm event POM samples and source sediments were collected from a forested headwater catchment (second order stream) in the Piedmont region of Maryland. Samples were sieved into three particle classes - coarse (2mm-1mm), medium (1mm-250µm) and fine (solid state event and source material. Future work will include examination of microbial communities associated with POM particle size classes. Physical size class separation of within-event POM exhibited differences in C:N ratios, δ15N composition, and extracted DOM lability. Smaller size classes exhibited lower C:N ratios, more enriched δ15N and more recalcitrant properties in leached DOM. Source material had varying C:N ratios and contributions to leached DOM. These results indicate that both source and size class strongly influence the POM contribution to fluvial systems during large storm events.

  2. Nighttime residential wood burning evidenced from an indirect method for estimating real-time concentration of particulate organic matter (POM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciare, J.; Sarda-Esteve, R.; Favez, O.; Cachier, H.; Aymoz, G.; Laj, P.

    2008-01-01

    Real-time analyzers of selected chemical components (sulfate, nitrate, Black Carbon) and integrative aerosol parameters (particulate matter and light scattering coefficient) were implemented for a 2-week campaign (November-December 2005) in a suburban area of Clermont-Ferrand (France) in order to document fast changes in the chemical composition of submicron aerosols. Measurements of particulate organic matter (POM) were not available in the field but were indirectly estimated from time-resolved (3-min) reconstruction of the light scattering coefficient. This methodology offered the opportunity to investigate almost real-time and artifact-free POM concentrations even at low concentrations (typically below 0.1 mu g m(-3)). The overall uncertainties associated with this POM calculation were of the order of 20%, which are comparable to those commonly referred in literature for POM calculation or measurements. A chemical mass balance (CMB) of PM1 was performed using the derived POM concentrations and showed a very good correlation (slope = 0.93; r(2) = 0.91, N = 663) with real-time PM1 measurements obtained from R and P TEOM-FDMS, demonstrating the consistency of our approach. Important diurnal variations were observed in POM concentrations, with a dominant contribution of POM from fossil fuel origin during daytime and a dominant contribution of POM from residential wood burning at night. POM was calculated to contribute as much as 70% of PM1 during our study, pointing out the major role of carbonaceous aerosols at this period of the year at our residential area. (authors)

  3. Elongational viscosity of multiarm (Pom-Pom) polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Kromann; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2006-01-01

    -Pom was estimated to have 2.5 arms on average, while the estimate is 3.3 for the asymmetric star. The molar mass of each arm is about 27 kg/mol. The melts were characterized in the linear viscoelastic regime and in non-linear elongational rheometry. The transient elongational viscosity for the Pom-Pom molecule...... it corresponds well with an estimate of the maximum stretchability of the backbone. Time-strain separability was not observed for the 'Asymmetric star' molecule at the elongation rates investigated. The transient elongational viscosity for the 'Pom-Pom' molecule went through a reproducible maximum...... in the viscosity at the highest elongational rate....

  4. Danish emission inventory for particular matter (PM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M; Winther, M; Illerup, J B; Hjort Mikkelsen, M

    2003-11-01

    The first Danish emission inventory that was reported in 2002 was a provisional-estimate based on data presently available. This report documents methodology, emission factors and references used for an improved Danish emission inventory for particulate matter. Further results of the improved emission inventory for the year 2000 are shown. The particulate matter emission inventory includes TSP, PM,, and PM, The report covers emission inventories for transport and stationary combustion. An appendix covering emissions from agriculture is also included. For the transport sector, both exhaust and non-exhaust emission such as tyre and break wear and road abrasion are included. (au)

  5. Modifying the pom-pom model for extensional viscosity overshoots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawke, L. D. G.; Huang, Qian; Hassager, Ole

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a variant of the pom-pom model that qualitatively describes two surprising features recently observed in filament stretching rheometer experiments of uniaxial extensional flow of industrial branched polymer resins: (i) Overshoots of the transient stress during steady flow and (i...

  6. Particulate Matter Emission Factors for Biomass Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Simões Amaral

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Emission factor is a relative measure and can be used to estimate emissions from multiple sources of air pollution. For this reason, data from literature on particulate matter emission factors from different types of biomass were evaluated in this paper. Initially, the main sources of particles were described, as well as relevant concepts associated with particle measurements. In addition, articles about particle emissions were classified and described in relation to the sampling environment (open or closed and type of burned biomass (agricultural, garden, forest, and dung. Based on this analysis, a set of emission factors was presented and discussed. Important observations were made about the main emission sources of particulate matter. Combustion of compacted biomass resulted in lower particulate emission factors. PM2.5 emissions were predominant in the burning of forest biomass. Emission factors were more elevated in laboratory burning, followed by burns in the field, residences and combustors.

  7. The effects of biodiesels on semivolatile and nonvolatile particulate matter emissions from a light-duty diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Li, Shao-Meng; Liggio, John; Hayden, Katherine; Han, Yuemei; Stroud, Craig; Chan, Tak; Poitras, Marie-Josée

    2017-11-01

    Semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) represent a dominant category of secondary organic aerosol precursors that are increasingly included in air quality models. In the present study, an experimental system was developed and applied to a light-duty diesel engine to determine the emission factors of particulate SVOCs (pSVOCs) and nonvolatile particulate matter (PM) components at dilution ratios representative of ambient conditions. The engine was tested under three steady-state operation modes, using ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD), three types of pure biodiesels and their blends with ULSD. For ULSD, the contribution of pSVOCs to total particulate organic matter (POM) mass in the engine exhaust ranged between 21 and 85%. Evaporation of pSVOCs from the diesel particles during dilution led to decreases in the hydrogen to carbon ratio of POM and the PM number emission factor of the particles. Substituting biodiesels for ULSD could increase pSVOCs emissions but brought on large reductions in black carbon (BC) emissions. Among the biodiesels tested, tallow/used cooking oil (UCO) biodiesel showed advantages over soybean and canola biodiesels in terms of both pSVOCs and nonvolatile PM emissions. It is noteworthy that PM properties, such as particle size and BC mass fraction, differed substantially between emissions from conventional diesel and biodiesels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Flipped neutrino emissivity from strange matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyal, A.; Dutta, S.

    1994-01-01

    Energy loss due to wrong helicity sterile neutrinos through spin flip processes leads to rapid cooling of nascent neutron stars. The observed cooling of neutron stars associated with SN 1987A seems to preclude the existence of Dirac neutrinos with a mass in excess of 20 keV. Assuming that nuclear matter in the core of the neutron star undergoes a phase transition to quark matter leading to a strange star or a neutron star with a strange matter core, we examine the emission of flipped Dirac neutrinos for two dominant processes: quark-neutrino scattering [q+ν - (bar ν + )→q+ν + (bar ν - )] and the quark neutrino pair bremsstrahlung process [q+q→q+q+ν - bar ν - (ν+bar ν + )]. We determine the composition of quark matter just after core bounce and examine the effect of neutrino degeneracy on the emission rate and mean free path of the wrong helicity neutrinos

  9. Flipped neutrino emissivity from strange matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyal, A.; Dutta, S. (Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India))

    1994-04-15

    Energy loss due to wrong helicity sterile neutrinos through spin flip processes leads to rapid cooling of nascent neutron stars. The observed cooling of neutron stars associated with SN 1987A seems to preclude the existence of Dirac neutrinos with a mass in excess of 20 keV. Assuming that nuclear matter in the core of the neutron star undergoes a phase transition to quark matter leading to a strange star or a neutron star with a strange matter core, we examine the emission of flipped Dirac neutrinos for two dominant processes: quark-neutrino scattering [[ital q]+[nu][sub [minus

  10. Thermodynamic admissibility of the extended Pom-Pom model for branched polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soulages, J.; Hütter, M.; Öttinger, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    The thermodynamic consistency of the eXtended Pom-Pom (XPP) model for branched polymers of Verbeeten et al. [W.M.H. Verbeeten, G.W.M. Peters, F.P.T. Baaijens, Differential constitutive equations for polymer melts: the extended pom-pom model, J. Rheol. 45 (4) (2001) 823–843; W.M.H. Verbeeten, G.W.M.

  11. Neutrino emission in inhomogeneous pion condensed quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xuguang; Wang, Qun; Zhuang, Pengfei

    2008-01-01

    It is believed that quark matter can exist in neutron star interior if the baryon density is high enough. When there is a large isospin density, quark matter could be in a pion condensed phase. We compute neutrino emission from direct Urca processes in such a phase, particularly in the inhomogeneous Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrell (LOFF) states. The neutrino emissivity and specific heat are obtained, from which the cooling rate is estimated. (author)

  12. Carbon emission disclosure: does it matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudibyo, Y. A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research were to test empirically the relationship of Volume of Carbon emission, Carbon Management Practice disclosure and Carbon disclosure emission with firm value, especially in Indonesia as developing Country. This research using data from Indonesian sustainability Award in 2013-2015. The instrument of this research was adapted from CDP Questionnaires to score the disclosure of Carbon Management Practice. While the carbon emission disclosure instrument was dummy variable. For volume of carbon emission, this research used the quantity or volume of carbon reported in sustainability reporting. We find that Volume of carbon emission was not related to Firm value. Also Carbon disclosure Emission does not have relationship with Firm value. Both hypotheses were not consistent with [8] which was doing their research in Developed Country. While Carbon Management Practice Disclosure, using CDP Questionnaires, has positive relationship with Firm value. The conclusion is developing country as resource constraint need to be motivated to report and disclose carbon emission from voluntary reporting to mandatory by regulation from government, not just only for high sensitive industry but also low sensitive industry. Then developing country which has resource constraint need to have more proactive strategy to prevent carbon emission instead of reducing carbon emission.

  13. Cosmological radio emission induced by WIMP Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fornengo, N.; Regis, M.; Lineros, R.; Taoso, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the radio synchrotron emission induced by WIMP dark matter annihilations and decays in extragalactic halos. We compute intensity, angular correlation, and source counts and discuss the impact on the expected signals of dark matter clustering, as well as of other astrophysical uncertainties as magnetic fields and spatial diffusion. Bounds on dark matter microscopic properties are then derived, and, depending on the specific set of assumptions, they are competitive with constraints from other indirect dark matter searches. At GHz frequencies, dark matter sources can become a significant fraction of the total number of sources with brightness below the microJansky level. We show that, at this level of fluxes (which are within the reach of the next-generation radio surveys), properties of the faint edge of differential source counts, as well as angular correlation data, can become an important probe for WIMPs

  14. Cosmological radio emission induced by WIMP Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornengo, N.; Regis, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica Teorica, Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Lineros, R.; Taoso, M., E-mail: fornengo@to.infn.it, E-mail: rlineros@ific.uv.es, E-mail: regis@to.infn.it, E-mail: mtaoso@phas.ubc.ca [IFIC, CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Ed. Institutos, Apdo. Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2012-03-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the radio synchrotron emission induced by WIMP dark matter annihilations and decays in extragalactic halos. We compute intensity, angular correlation, and source counts and discuss the impact on the expected signals of dark matter clustering, as well as of other astrophysical uncertainties as magnetic fields and spatial diffusion. Bounds on dark matter microscopic properties are then derived, and, depending on the specific set of assumptions, they are competitive with constraints from other indirect dark matter searches. At GHz frequencies, dark matter sources can become a significant fraction of the total number of sources with brightness below the microJansky level. We show that, at this level of fluxes (which are within the reach of the next-generation radio surveys), properties of the faint edge of differential source counts, as well as angular correlation data, can become an important probe for WIMPs.

  15. Dark matter properties implied by gamma ray interstellar emission models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balázs, Csaba; Li, Tong, E-mail: csaba.balazs@monash.edu, E-mail: tong.li@monash.edu [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale, School of Physics and Astronomy, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

    2017-02-01

    We infer dark matter properties from gamma ray residuals extracted using eight different interstellar emission scenarios proposed by the Fermi-LAT Collaboration to explain the Galactic Center gamma ray excess. Adopting the most plausible simplified ansatz, we assume that the dark matter particle is a Majorana fermion interacting with standard fermions via a scalar mediator. To trivially respect flavor constraints, we only couple the mediator to third generation fermions. Using this theoretical hypothesis, and the Fermi residuals, we calculate Bayesian evidences, including Fermi-LAT exclusion limits from 15 dwarf spheroidal galaxies as well. Our evidence ratios single out one of the Fermi scenarios as most compatible with the simplified dark matter model. In this scenario the dark matter (mediator) mass is in the 25-200 (1-1000) GeV range and its annihilation is dominated by bottom quark final state. Our conclusion is that the properties of dark matter extracted from gamma ray data are highly sensitive to the modeling of the interstellar emission.

  16. Volatile organic matter emission trade. Pitfalls and chances. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind, M.H.A.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this report is to provide policy makers non-specialist information on a system for tradeable emission rights (VER, abbreviated in Dutch) for volatile matter in the Netherlands in order to be able to choose the best trading system. The information is based on an environmental-economical theory of VER and the results of practical experiments, mainly from the USA. 18 refs [nl

  17. Energy, emissions and emergency medical services: Policy matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lawrence H.; Blanchard, Ian E.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the energy consumption and emissions associated with health services is important for minimizing their environmental impact and guiding their adaptation to a low-carbon economy. In this post-hoc analysis, we characterize the energy burden of North American emergency medical services (EMS) agencies and estimate the potential marginal damage costs arising from their emissions as an example of how and why health services matter in environmental and energy policy, and how and why environmental and energy policy matter to health services. We demonstrate EMS systems are energy intensive, and that vehicle fuels represent 80% of their energy burden while electricity and natural gas represent 20%. We also demonstrate that emissions from EMS operations represent only a small fraction of estimated health sector emissions, but for EMS systems in the United States the associated marginal damage costs are likely between $2.7 million and $9.7 million annually. Significant changes in the supply or price of energy, including changes that arise from environmental and energy policy initiatives designed to constrain fossil fuel consumption, could potentially affect EMS agencies and other health services. We encourage cross disciplinary research to proactively facilitate the health system's adaptation to a low-carbon economy. - Highlights: ► Estimated EMS-related emissions less than 1% of health sector emissions. ► Damage costs of U.S. EMS-related emissions estimated at $2.7 to $9.7 million. ► EMS energy burden is approximately 442 MJ per ambulance response. ► Approximately 80% of EMS energy burden is vehicle fuels. ► Energy supply, price and policy could impact EMS (and other health) services. ► Research needed to facilitate health services’ adaptation to a low carbon economy.

  18. Emission Sectoral Contributions of Foreign Emissions to Particulate Matter Concentrations over South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E.; Kim, S.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, B. U.; Cho, J. H.; Woo, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the contributions of major emission source categories located upwind of South Korea to Particulate Matter (PM) in South Korea. In general, air quality in South Korea is affected by anthropogenic air pollutants emitted from foreign countries including China. Some studies reported that foreign emissions contributed 50 % of annual surface PM total mass concentrations in the Seoul Metropolitan Area, South Korea in 2014. Previous studies examined PM contributions of foreign emissions from all sectors considering meteorological variations. However, little studies conducted to assess contributions of specific foreign source categories. Therefore, we attempted to estimate sectoral contributions of foreign emissions from China to South Korea PM using our air quality forecasting system. We used Model Inter-Comparison Study in Asia 2010 for foreign emissions and Clean Air Policy Support System 2010 emission inventories for domestic emissions. To quantify contributions of major emission sectors to South Korea PM, we applied the Community Multi-scale Air Quality system with brute force method by perturbing emissions from industrial, residential, fossil-fuel power plants, transportation, and agriculture sectors in China. We noted that industrial sector was pre-dominant over the region except during cold season for primary PMs when residential emissions drastically increase due to heating demand. This study will benefit ensemble air quality forecasting and refined control strategy design by providing quantitative assessment on seasonal contributions of foreign emissions from major source categories.

  19. Particulate matter emission from livestock houses: measurement methods, emission levels and abatement systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Animal houses are extremely dusty environments. Airborne particulate matter (PM) poses a health threat not only to the farmer and the animals, but, as a result of emissions from ventilation systems, also to residents living in livestock farming areas. In relation to this problem, the objectives

  20. Particulate matter emissions of different brands of mentholated cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerharz, Julia; Bendels, Michael H K; Braun, Markus; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A; Mueller, Ruth

    2018-01-09

    Inhaling particulate matter (PM) in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) endangers the health of nonsmokers. Menthol, an additive in cigarettes, attenuates respiratory irritation of tobacco smoke. It reduces perceptibility of smoke and therefore passive smokers may inhale ETS unnoticed. To investigate a possible effect of menthol on PM concentrations (PM 10 , PM 2.5 , and PM 1 ), ETS of four mentholated cigarette brands (Elixyr Menthol, Winston Menthol, Reyno Classic, and Pall Mall Menthol Blast) with varying menthol content was analyzed. ETS was generated in a standardized way using an automatic environmental tobacco smoke emitter (AETSE), followed by laser aerosol spectrometry. This analysis shows that the tested cigarette brands, despite having different menthol concentrations, do not show differences with regard to PM emissions, with the exception of Reyno Classic, which shows an increased emission, although the menthol level ranged in the midfield. More than 90% of the emitted particles had a size smaller than or equal to 1 µm. Regardless of the menthol level, the count median diameter (CMD) and the mass median diameter (MMD) were found to be 0.3 µm and 0.5 µm, respectively. These results point out that there is no effect of menthol on PM emission and that other additives might influence the increased PM emission of Reyno Classic. Particulate matter (PM) in ETS endangers the health of nonsmokers and smokers. This study considers the effect of menthol, an additive in cigarettes, on PM emissions. Does menthol increase the amount of PM? Due to the exposure to secondhand smoke nearly 900,000 people die each year worldwide. The aim of the study is to measure the particle concentration (L -1 ), mass concentration (µg m -3 ), and dust mass fractions shown as PM 10 , PM 2.5 , and PM 1 of five different cigarette brands, including four with different menthol concentrations and one menthol-free reference cigarette, in a well-established standardized system.

  1. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimont, Zbigniew; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Heyes, Chris; Purohit, Pallav; Cofala, Janusz; Rafaj, Peter; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Schöpp, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990-2010) global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10), as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC). The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping), presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5° × 0.5° longitude-latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global anthropogenic total, and residential combustion

  2. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Klimont

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990–2010 global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10, as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC. The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping, presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5°  ×  0.5° longitude–latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global

  3. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on particulate organic matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xueyan; Luo Lei; Ma Yibing; Zhang Shuzhen

    2010-01-01

    Particulate organic matter (POM) is a key organic matter fraction which can influence soil fertility. Its interactions with hydrophobic organic pollutants (HOCs) have not been characterized and the mechanisms of retention of HOCs by POM remain unclear. In the present study, sorption behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE), and pyrene (PYR) by POMs separated from different soils were examined and the POMs were characterized by elemental analysis, solid state 13 C NMR, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results indicated that POMs were mainly composed of aliphatic components with high polarity. The different original POMs showed similar chemical composition and configuration. Sorption behaviors of PAHs indicated that there was no significant difference in sorption capacity among the POMs. Sorption of NAP and PHE by POMs displayed a nonlinear isotherm, while sorption of PYR yielded a linear isotherm. No significant hysteresis and ionic strength effect were observed for PAH desorption from the POMs.

  4. Dark matter structures and emission of very long gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Formation of large structure in the Universe as a result of gravitational instability in cold dark matter is investigated in a simple analytical model. Collapse of the rotating spheroid is approximated by a system of ordinary differential equations describing its dynamics. The gravitational potential is approximated by the one of the uniform Maclaurin spheroid. Development of gravitational instability and collapse in the dark matter medium do not lead to any shock formation or radiation, but is characterized by non-collisional relaxation, which is accompanied by the mass and angular momentum losses. Phenomenological account of these processes is done in this model. Formation of the equilibrium configuration dynamics of collapse is investigated. A very long gravitational wave emission during the collapse is estimated, and their possible connection with the observed gravitational lenses is discussed

  5. A study to reduce DPM(Diesel Particulate Matter) emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-01

    This research commenced in 1994 for the purpose of providing safety and environmental measures of underground mines where the mobile diesel equipment are operating. In this last research year, research on filtering of DPM(diesel particulate matter) has been carried out. Through the research, it was known that water scrubber is only one practical way to reduce DPM emission as of now. There are several kinds of the sophisticated DPM filters, but it is not practical yet to be used in underground equipment due to the many adverse effects of the devices such as tremendous increase of SOx, NOx and back pressure etc. (author). 1 tab., 3 figs.

  6. Revisiting Bremsstrahlung emission associated with Light Dark Matter annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Böhm, C

    2006-01-01

    We compute the single bremsstrahlung emission associated with the pair annihilation of spin-0 particles into electrons and positrons, via the t-channel exchange of a heavy fermion. We compare our result with the work of Beacom et al. . Unlike what is stated in the literature, we show that the Bremsstrahlung cross section is not necessarily given by the tree-level annihilation cross section (for a generalized kinematics) times a factor related to the emission of a soft photon. Such a factorization appears only in the soft photon limit or in the approximation where the masses of the particles in the initial and final states are negligible with respect to the mass of the internal particle. However, in the latter case, we do not recover the same factor as for e^+ e- --> mu^+ mu^- gamma. Numerically the difference, in the hard photon limit, is as large as a factor 3.6. However the effect on the upper limit of the dark matter mass is not significant. Using gamma ray observations, we obtain an upper limit on the dar...

  7. Climate effects of a hypothetical regional nuclear war: Sensitivity to emission duration and particle composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Lindvall, Jenny; Ekman, Annica M. L.; Svensson, Gunilla

    2016-11-01

    Here, we use a coupled atmospheric-ocean-aerosol model to investigate the plume development and climate effects of the smoke generated by fires following a regional nuclear war between emerging third-world nuclear powers. We simulate a standard scenario where 5 Tg of black carbon (BC) is emitted over 1 day in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere. However, it is likely that the emissions from the fires ignited by bomb detonations include a substantial amount of particulate organic matter (POM) and that they last more than 1 day. We therefore test the sensitivity of the aerosol plume and climate system to the BC/POM ratio (1:3, 1:9) and to the emission length (1 day, 1 week, 1 month). We find that in general, an emission length of 1 month substantially reduces the cooling compared to the 1-day case, whereas taking into account POM emissions notably increases the cooling and the reduction of precipitation associated with the nuclear war during the first year following the detonation. Accounting for POM emissions increases the particle size in the short-emission-length scenarios (1 day/1 week), reducing the residence time of the injected particle. While the initial cooling is more intense when including POM emission, the long-lasting effects, while still large, may be less extreme compared to the BC-only case. Our study highlights that the emission altitude reached by the plume is sensitive to both the particle type emitted by the fires and the emission duration. Consequently, the climate effects of a nuclear war are strongly dependent on these parameters.

  8. Dark matter line emission constraints from NuSTAR observations of the Bullet Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riemer-Sørensen, S.; Wik, D.; Madejski, G.

    2015-01-01

    Some dark matter candidates, e.g., sterile neutrinos, provide observable signatures in the form of mono-energetic line emission. We present the first search for dark matter line emission in the range in a pointed observation of the Bullet Cluster with NuSTAR. We do not detect any significant line...... emission and instead we derive upper limits (95% CL) on the flux, and interpret these constraints in the context of sterile neutrinos and more generic dark matter candidates. NuSTAR does not have the sensitivity to constrain the recently claimed line detection at , but improves on the constraints...... for energies of 10–25 keV....

  9. Monoterpene emissions from a Ponderosa Pine forest. Does age matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madronich, M. B.; Guenther, A. B.; Wessman, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    Determining the emissions rate of biogenic volatile organic carbon (BVOC) from plants is a challenge. Biological variability makes it difficult to assess accurately those emissions rates. It is known that photosynthetic active radiation (PAR), temperature, nutrients as well as the biology of the plant affect emissions. However, less is known about the variability of the emissions with respect to the life cycle of the plants. This study is focusing on the difference of monoterpene emission rates from mature Ponderosa Pine trees and saplings in the field. Preliminary calculations show that there is a significant difference between total monoterpene emissions in mature trees (0.24±0.04 μgC/gdwh) and saplings (0.37±0.02 μgC/gdwh).

  10. Emission factors of carbonaceous particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from residential solid fuel combustions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Guofeng [Jiangsu Academy of Environmental Science, Nanjing (China). Inst. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2014-07-01

    Emission inventory is basic for the understanding of environmental behaviors and potential effects of compounds, however, current inventories are often associated with relatively high uncertainties. One important reason is the lack of emission factors, especially for the residential solid fuel combustion in developing countries. In the present study, emission factors of a group of pollutants including particulate matter, organic carbon, elemental carbon (sometimes known as black carbon) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured for a variety of residential solid fuels including coal, crop straw, wood, and biomass pellets in rural China. The study provided a large number of emission factors that can be further used in emission estimation. Composition profiles and isomer ratios were investigated and compared so as to be used in source apportionment. In addition, the present study identified and quantified the influence of factors like fuel moisture, volatile matter on emission performance.

  11. Observed effects of soil organic matter content on the microwave emissivity of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, P.E.; Jackson, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the significance of organic matter content on the microwave emissivity of soils when estimating soil moisture, a series of field experiments were conducted in which 1.4 GHz microwave emissivity data were collected over test plots of sandy loam soil with different organic matter levels (1.8%, 4.0%, and 6.1%) for a range of soil moisture values. Analyses of the observed data showed only minor variation in microwave emissivity due to a change in organic matter content at a given moisture level for soils with similar texture and structure. Predictions of microwave emissivity made using a dielectric model for aggregated soils exhibited the same trends and type of response as the measured data when adjusted values for the input parameters were utilized

  12. Impact of biogenic emission uncertainties on the simulated response of ozone and fine particulate matter to anthropogenic emission reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, Christian; Isukapalli, Sastry S; Tang, Xiaogang; Georgopoulos, Panos G; He, Shan; Zalewsky, Eric E; Hao, Winston; Ku, Jia-Yeong; Key, Tonalee; Sistla, Gopal

    2011-01-01

    The role of emissions of volatile organic compounds and nitric oxide from biogenic sources is becoming increasingly important in regulatory air quality modeling as levels of anthropogenic emissions continue to decrease and stricter health-based air quality standards are being adopted. However, considerable uncertainties still exist in the current estimation methodologies for biogenic emissions. The impact of these uncertainties on ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels for the eastern United States was studied, focusing on biogenic emissions estimates from two commonly used biogenic emission models, the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature (MEGAN) and the Biogenic Emissions Inventory System (BEIS). Photochemical grid modeling simulations were performed for two scenarios: one reflecting present day conditions and the other reflecting a hypothetical future year with reductions in emissions of anthropogenic oxides of nitrogen (NOx). For ozone, the use of MEGAN emissions resulted in a higher ozone response to hypothetical anthropogenic NOx emission reductions compared with BEIS. Applying the current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency guidance on regulatory air quality modeling in conjunction with typical maximum ozone concentrations, the differences in estimated future year ozone design values (DVF) stemming from differences in biogenic emissions estimates were on the order of 4 parts per billion (ppb), corresponding to approximately 5% of the daily maximum 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) of 75 ppb. For PM2.5, the differences were 0.1-0.25 microg/m3 in the summer total organic mass component of DVFs, corresponding to approximately 1-2% of the value of the annual PM2.5 NAAQS of 15 microg/m3. Spatial variations in the ozone and PM2.5 differences also reveal that the impacts of different biogenic emission estimates on ozone and PM2.5 levels are dependent on ambient levels of anthropogenic emissions.

  13. Ionization for reducing particulate matter emissions from poultry houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cambra-López, M.; Winkel, A.; Harn, van J.; Ogink, N.W.M.; Aarnink, A.J.A.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of ionization in reducing particulate and gaseous emissions in broiler houses and its effect on particle size distribution. Furthermore, we evaluated the performance of the tested ionization system and its influence on bird performance. The experiment was done during two

  14. A new tool for long-term studies of POM-bacteria interactions: overcoming the century-old Bottle Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Danny; Bizic-Ionescu, Mina; Khalili, Arzhang; Malekmohammadi, Reza; Morad, Mohammad Reza; de Beer, Dirk; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Downward fluxes of particulate organic matter (POM) are the major process for sequestering atmospheric CO2 into aquatic sediments for thousands of years. Budget calculations of the biological carbon pump are heavily based on the ratio between carbon export (sedimentation) and remineralization (release to the atmosphere). Current methodologies determine microbial dynamics on POM using closed vessels, which are strongly biased towards heterotrophy due to rapidly changing water chemistry (Bottle Effect). We developed a flow-through rolling tank for long term studies that continuously maintains POM at near in-situ conditions. There, bacterial communities resembled in-situ communities and greatly differed from those in the closed systems. The active particle-associated community in the flow-through system was stable for days, contrary to hours previously reported for closed incubations. In contrast to enhanced respiration rates, the decrease in photosynthetic rates on particles throughout the incubation was much slower in our system than in traditional ones. These results call for reevaluating experimentally-derived carbon fluxes estimated using traditional methods. PMID:26435525

  15. Fine particulate matter (PM) and organic speciation of fireplace emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, C.R.; McCrillis, R.C.; Kariher, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of fireplace particle size and organic speciation data gathered to date in an ongoing project. Tests are being conducted in a residential wood combustion (RWC) laboratory on three factory-built fireplaces. RWC wood smoke particles <10 microm (PM10) consist primarily of a mixture of organic compounds that have condensed into droplets; therefore, the size distribution and total mass are influenced by temperature of the sample during its collection. During the series 1 tests (15 tests), the dilution tunnel used to cool and dilute the stack gases gave an average mixed gas temperature of 47.3 C and an average dilution ration of 4.3. Averages for the PM2.5 (particles <2.5 microm) and PM10 fractions were 74 and 84%, respectively. For the series 2 tests, the dilution tunnel was modified, reducing the average mixed gas temperatures to 33.8 C and increasing the average dilution ratio to 11.0 in tests completed to date. PM2.5 and PM10 fractions were 83 and 91%, respectively. Since typical winter-time mixed gas temperatures would usually be less than 10 C, these size fraction results probably represent the lower bound; the PM10 and PM2.5 size fraction results might be higher at typical winter temperatures. The particles collected on the first stage were light gray and appeared to include inorganic ash. Particles collected on the remainder of the stages were black and appeared to be condensed organics because there was noticeable lateral bleeding of the collected materials into the filter substrate. Total particulate emission rates ranged from 10.3 to 58.4 g/h; corresponding emission factors ranged from 3.3 to 14.9 g/kg of dry wood burned. A wide range of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 8270 semivolatile organic compounds were found in the emissions; of the 17 target compounds quantified, major constituents are phenol, 2-methylphenol, 4-methylphenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, and naphthalene

  16. Protein and carbohydrate in P-POM collected from the fishing ground in Minnan-Taiwan Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yongquan; Zhang, Huan

    1992-06-01

    The analysis of the protein and carbohydrate in P-POM (Plankton and Particulate Organic Matter) samples collected from the fishing ground in Minnan-Taiwan Bank in five voyages (April, June, July, August and November, 1988) shows that the protein and carbohydrate contents and amounts in samples from four stations (501, 401, 301, 201) along the coast and another four stations (404, 304, 403, 204) south and southeast of the shoal were higher than those in April and November, indicating that this phenomenon is related to the upwelling in the two regions in summer.

  17. AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF PRODUCTION AND OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT (POM) TEACHING IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Çekiç, Bülent; Ömürgönülşen, Mine

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate theteaching and assessment methods of POM academicians in Business AdministrationDepartments of Turkey. First of all, the profile (the academic position, numberetc.) of POM academicians has been introduced. Then, via using a questionnaire,the chapters of POM course, textbooks and assessment methods during POMteaching have been asked and the results have been analyzed with chi-squaretest. Another purpose of this study is to present the difficulties enco...

  18. Particulate matter emissions from biochar-amended soils as a potential tradeoff to the negative emission potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Sujith; Sharratt, Brenton S.; Li, Junran; Olshevski, Stuart; Meng, Zhongju; Zhang, Jianguo

    2016-10-01

    Novel carbon sequestration strategies such as large-scale land application of biochar may provide sustainable pathways to increase the terrestrial storage of carbon. Biochar has a long residence time in the soil and hence comprehensive studies are urgently needed to quantify the environmental impacts of large-scale biochar application. In particular, black carbon emissions from soils amended with biochar may counteract the negative emission potential due to the impacts on air quality, climate, and biogeochemical cycles. We investigated, using wind tunnel experiments, the particulate matter emission potential of a sand and two agriculturally important soils amended with different concentrations of biochar, in comparison to control soils. Our results indicate that biochar application considerably increases particulate emissions possibly by two mechanisms-the accelerated emission of fine biochar particles and the generation and emission of fine biochar particles resulting from abrasion of large biochar particles by sand grains. Our study highlights the importance of considering the background soil properties (e.g., texture) and geomorphological processes (e.g., aeolian transport) for biochar-based carbon sequestration programs.

  19. Nuclear pore complex assembly and maintenance in POM121- and gp210-deficient cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stavru, Fabrizia; Nautrup-Pedersen, Gitte; Cordes, Volker C

    2006-01-01

    So far, POM121 and gp210 are the only known anchoring sites of vertebrate nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) within the lipid bilayer of the nuclear envelope (NE) and, thus, are excellent candidates for initiating the NPC assembly process. Indeed, we demonstrate that POM121 can recruit several...... as depletion of POM121 from human fibroblasts, which do not express gp210, further suggest that NPCs can assemble or at least persist in a POM121- and gp210-free form. This points to extensive redundancies in protein-protein interactions within NPCs and suggests that vertebrate NPCs contain additional membrane...

  20. Development of peat-oil (POM) and peat-alcohol (PAM) slurries as alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, D F

    1983-11-01

    The preparation and evaluation of peat/No. 2 fuel oil mixtures (POM) and peat/methanol mixtures (PAM) is described. POM and PAM prepared using North Carolina peat and having varied peat loadings, peat moisture contents and peat particle sizes have been studied by measuring slurry sedimentation ratios and drain times from sedimentation tubes. The peat moisture content was particularly crucial in forming stable slurries. The effect of a variety of additives at 0.5-1.0 wt% on sedimentation ratios, drain times and viscosities was studied. Calorimetric studies of several PAM and POM slurries as well as preliminary combustion tests of POM slurries in a salamander burner are also reported.

  1. The development of peat-oil (POM) and peat-alcohol (PAM) slurries as alternative fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemens, D F; Evans, G O; Harrell, P A; Whitehurst, B M

    1983-11-01

    The preparation and evaluation of peat/No. 2 fuel oil mixtures (POM) and peat/methanol mixtures (PAM) is described. POM and PAM prepared using North Carolina peat and having varied peat loadings, peat moisture contents, and peat particle sizes have been studied by measuring slurry sedimentation ratios and drain times from sedimentation tubes. The peat moisture content was particularly crucial in forming stable slurries. The effect of a variety of additives at 0.5-1.0 wt.% on sedimentation ratios, drain times, and viscosities was studied. Calorimetric studies of several PAM and POM slurries as well as preliminary combustion tests of POM slurries in a salamander burner are also reported.

  2. Characteristics of particulate matter emissions from toy cars with electric motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Williams, Brent J; Biswas, Pratim

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol emissions from toy cars with electric motors were characterized. Particle emission rates from the toy cars, as high as 7.47×10(7) particles/s, were measured. This emission rate is lower than other indoor sources such as smoking and cooking. The particles emitted from toy cars are generated from spark discharges inside the electric motors that power the toy cars. Size distribution measurements indicated that most particles were below 100 nm in diameter. Copper was the dominant inorganic species in these particles. By deploying aerosol mass spectrometers, high concentrations of particulate organic matter were also detected and characterized in detail. Several organic compounds were identified using a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatography. The mass size distribution of particulate organic matter was bimodal. The formation mechanism of particulate organic matter from toy cars was elucidated. A possible new source of indoor air pollution, particles from electric motors in toy cars, was identified. This study characterized aerosol emissions from toy cars in detail. Most of these particles have a diameter less than 100 nm. Copper and some organics are the major components of these particles. Conditions that minimize these emissions were determined.

  3. Quark nugget dark matter: no contradiction with 511 keV line emission from dwarf galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, Kyle; Zhitnitsky, Ariel, E-mail: klawson@phas.ubc.ca, E-mail: arz@phas.ubc.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1 (Canada)

    2017-02-01

    The observed galactic 511 keV line has been interpreted in a number of papers as a possible signal of dark matter annihilation within the galactic bulge. If this is the case then it is possible that a similar spectral feature may be observed in association with nearby dwarf galaxies. These objects are believed to be strongly dark matter dominated and present a relatively clean observational target. Recently INTEGRAL observations have provided new constraints on the 511 keV flux from nearby dwarf galaxies [1] motivating further investigation into the mechanism by which this radiation may arise. In the model presented here dark matter in the form of heavy quark nuggets produces the galactic 511 keV emission line through interactions with the visible matter. It is argued that this type of interaction is not strongly constrained by the flux limits reported in [2].

  4. Effect of the organic matter and soil water deficit on the castor bean inflorescences emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de; Araujo, Ester Luiz de; Nascimento, Elka Costa Santos; Barros Junior, Genival [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Guerra, Hugo O. Carvallo; Chaves, Lucia Helena G. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    The castor bean culture has become important due to the several applications of its oil, which constitutes one of the best row materials for biodiesel manufacturing, and the base for several other industrial products. The objective of the present work was to study the effect of different soil water and soil organic matter on the castor bean inflorescence emission. The experiment was conducted from April to August 2006 under Greenhouse conditions using a randomized block 2x4 factorial design with two soil organic mater content (5.0 g.kg{sup -1} e 25.0 g.kg{sup -1}), four levels of available water (100, 90, 80 e 70% ) and three replicates. For this, 24 plastic containers, 75 kg capacity, were used on which was grown one plant 120 days after the seedling. When flowering occurred it was measured the number, the time required for the emission and the height of the emissions. The results were analyzed statistically; for the qualitative factor (with and without organic matter) the treatment means were compared through the Tukey test. For the quantitative ones (water levels) regressions were used. The time for the emission of the inflorescences was affected significantly by the organic matter and the available soil water content for plants. The number of inflorescences was affected positively by both treatments. (author)

  5. Review, improvement and harmonisation of the Nordic particulate matter air emission inventories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M; Boll Illerup, J [Aarhus Univ. National Environmental Research Institute (NERI) (Denmark); Kindbom, K; Sjodin, AA [Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL) (Sweden); Saarinen, K; Mikkola-Pusa, J [Finlands Miljoecentral (SYKE) (Finland); Aasestad, K [Statistisk Sentralbyraa (SSB) (Norway); Hallsdottir, B [Environmental and Food Agency Iceland (IS); Makela, K [Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) (Finland)

    2010-12-15

    In this study the Nordic particulate matter (PM) emission inventories are compared and for the most important sources - residential wood burning and road transport - a quality analysis is carried out based on PM measurements conducted and models used in the Nordic countries. All the institutions in charge of the work on emission inventories in the Nordic countries have participated in this project together with researchers performing PM measurements in the residential and transport sectors in the Nordic countries in order to increase the quality of the PM national inventories. The ratio between the reported emissions of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} was calculated for each country. Norway has the largest share of PM{sub 2.5} compared to PM{sub 10} (88 %), whereas Finland has the lowest (66 %). Denmark and Sweden are right in the middle with 73 and 76 %, respectively. The completeness of the inventories was assessed with particular emphasis on the categories where emissions were reported by one or more countries, while the other categories reported notation keys. It is found that the PM emission inventories generally are complete and that the sources reported as not estimated only are expected to have minor contributions to the total PM emissions. The variability of emission factors for residential wood combustion is discussed and it is illustrated that the emission factors can vary by several orders of magnitude. (Author)

  6. Gamma-Ray Emission from Galaxy Clusters : DARK MATTER AND COSMIC-RAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzke, Anders

    The quest for the first detection of a galaxy cluster in the high energy gamma-ray regime is ongoing, and even though clusters are observed in several other wave-bands, there is still no firm detection in gamma-rays. To complement the observational efforts we estimate the gamma-ray contributions from both annihilating dark matter and cosmic-ray (CR) proton as well as CR electron induced emission. Using high-resolution simulations of galaxy clusters, we find a universal concave shaped CR proton spectrum independent of the simulated galaxy cluster. Specifically, the gamma-ray spectra from decaying neutral pions, which are produced by CR protons, dominate the cluster emission. Furthermore, based on our derived flux and luminosity functions, we identify the galaxy clusters with the brightest galaxy clusters in gamma-rays. While this emission is challenging to detect using the Fermi satellite, major observations with Cherenkov telescopes in the near future may put important constraints on the CR physics in clusters. To extend these predictions, we use a dark matter model that fits the recent electron and positron data from Fermi, PAMELA, and H.E.S.S. with remarkable precision, and make predictions about the expected gamma-ray flux from nearby clusters. In order to remain consistent with the EGRET upper limit on the gamma-ray emission from Virgo, we constrain the minimum mass of substructures for cold dark matter halos. In addition, we find comparable levels of gamma-ray emission from CR interactions and dark matter annihilations without Sommerfeld enhancement.

  7. Particulate matter emission modelling based on soot and SOF from direct injection diesel engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, P.Q.; Hu, Z.Y.; Deng, K.Y.; Lu, J.X.; Lou, D.M.; Wan, G.

    2007-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emission is one of the major pollutants from diesel engines, and it is harmful for human health and influences the atmospheric visibility. In investigations for reducing PM emission, a simulation model for PM emission is a useful tool. In this paper, a phenomenological, composition based PM model of direct injection (DI) diesel engines has been proposed and formulated to simulate PM emission. The PM emission model is based on a quasi-dimensional multi-zone combustion model using the formation mechanisms of the two main compositions of PM: soot and soluble organic fraction (SOF). First, the quasi-dimensional multi-zone combustion model is given. Then, two models for soot and SOF emissions are established, respectively, and after that, the two models are integrated into a single PM emission model. The soot emission model is given by the difference between a primary formation model and an oxidation model of soot. The soot primary formation model is the Hiroyasu soot formation model, and the Nagle and Strickland-Constable model is adopted for soot oxidation. The SOF emission model is based on an unburned hydrocarbons (HC) emission model, and the HC emission model is given by the difference between a HC primary formation model and a HC oxidation model. The HC primary formation model considers fuel injected and mixed beyond the lean combustion limit during ignition delay and fuel effusing from the nozzle sac volume at low pressure and low velocity. In order to validate the PM emission model, experiments were performed on a six cylinder, turbocharged and intercooled DI diesel engine. The simulation results show good agreement with the experimental data, which indicates the validity of the PM emission model. The calculation results show that the distinctions between PM and soot formation rates are mainly in the early combustion stage. The SOF formation has an important influence on the PM formation at lower loads, and soot formation dominates the

  8. Particulate Matter from the Road Surface Abrasion as a Problem of Non-Exhaust Emission Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Penkała

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Along with house heating and industry, emissions from road traffic (exhaust and tire, brake, car body or road surface abrasions are one of the primary sources of particulate matter (PM in the atmosphere in urban areas. Though numerous regulations and vehicle-control mechanisms have led to a significant decline of PM emissions from vehicle exhaust gases, other sources of PM remain related to road and car abrasion are responsible for non-exhaust emissions. Quantifying these emissions is a hard problem in both laboratory and field conditions. First, we must recognize the physicochemical properties of the PM that is emitted by various non-exhaust sources. In this paper, we underline the problem of information accessibility with regards to the properties and qualities of PM from non-exhaust sources. We also indicate why scarce information is available in order to find the possible solution to this ongoing issue.

  9. Power plant emissions: particulate matter-related health damages and the benefits of alternative emission reduction scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, C.

    2004-06-15

    This report estimates the avoidable health effects of each of a series of alternative regulatory scenarios for power plants, focusing on the adverse human health effects due to exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) This report uses the same analytical methods that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency used in 2003 to prepare an analysis of the potential health effects of the proposed Clear Skies Act (EPA 2003). This report conducts an analysis of the impacts in 2010 and 2020 of three policy alternatives to the proposed Clear Skies Act, The Jeffords/Lieberman/Collins 'The Clean Power Act', S. 366, and the EPA August 2001 Straw Proposal (one of several alternatives EPA analyzed prior to the announcement of the Clear Skies Initiative in 2002). The report also examines the health impacts associated with the total emissions from coal fired electricity generating units in 2010. Chapter 2 describes the emissions inventory estimates, and the changes in the emissions associated with each scenario analyzed. Chapter 3 describes the methods used to estimate changes in particulate matter concentrations. Chapter 4 describes general issues arising in estimating and valuing changes in adverse health effects associated with changes in particulate matter. Chapter 5 describes in some detail the methods used for estimating and valuing adverse health effects, and Chapter 6 presents the results of these analyses. Chapter 7 presents estimates of the impact of these alternative policy options on the PM non-attainment status. 117 refs., 21 figs., 32 tabs., 3 apps.

  10. Studies of lignin transformation in polyoxometalate (POM) bleaching of kraft pulp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biljana Bujanovic; Richard S. Reiner; Kolby C. Hirth; Sally A. Ralph; Rajai H. Atalla

    2005-01-01

    In order to elucidate changes occurring in lignin during polyoxometalate delignification of kraft pulp, residual lignins of a series of POM- delignified kraft pulps of decreasing kappa number were isolated and characterized. Oxidative treatment of commercial unbleached kraft pulp was performed using complex POM solutions containing the active [SiVW11O40]anion. For...

  11. Air emission in France. Metropolitan area particulate matter; Emissions dans l'air en France. Metropole poussieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Substances and index currently in survey are: Particulate matter: Total suspended particulates (TSP), Fine particulates with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}), 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}) and 1.0 {mu}m (PM{sub 1.0}). Density ratios relating to population, area, gross product, primary energy consumption, etc. Annual emissions are provided for each substance since 1990. Dates corresponding to the maximum and minimum values are also included. Results are provisional for 2001. (author)

  12. Influence of char texture and volatile matter content on NO emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Parra, J.B.; Moreno, A.H.; Pis, J.J. [Inst. National Vacional del Carbon, Oviedo (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    A low volatile bituminous coal was pyrolysed in a quartz reactor under nitrogen at different heating rates (5, 10, 50 and 150 C/min) up to a final temperature of 850 C. Textural characterisation (mercury porosimetry, adsorption isotherms of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, ASA) of the chars was carried out in order to study the influence of textural properties on char reactivity and NO emissions. The role of volatile matter content in the emission of nitrogen compounds was also investigated. A thermogravimetric analyser linked to a quadrupole mass spectrometer (TG-MS) was used to study the compounds evolved during pyrolysis and combustion. (orig.)

  13. Extension of an assessment model of ship traffic exhaust emissions for particulate matter and carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Jalkanen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A method is presented for the evaluation of the exhaust emissions of marine traffic, based on the messages provided by the Automatic Identification System (AIS, which enable the positioning of ship emissions with a high spatial resolution (typically a few tens of metres. The model also takes into account the detailed technical data of each individual vessel. The previously developed model was applicable for evaluating the emissions of NOx, SOx and CO2. This paper addresses a substantial extension of the modelling system, to allow also for the mass-based emissions of particulate matter (PM and carbon monoxide (CO. The presented Ship Traffic Emissions Assessment Model (STEAM2 allows for the influences of accurate travel routes and ship speed, engine load, fuel sulphur content, multiengine setups, abatement methods and waves. We address in particular the modeling of the influence on the emissions of both engine load and the sulphur content of the fuel. The presented methodology can be used to evaluate the total PM emissions, and those of organic carbon, elemental carbon, ash and hydrated sulphate. We have evaluated the performance of the extended model against available experimental data on engine power, fuel consumption and the composition-resolved emissions of PM. We have also compared the annually averaged emission values with those of the corresponding EMEP inventory, As example results, the geographical distributions of the emissions of PM and CO are presented for the marine regions of the Baltic Sea surrounding the Danish Straits.

  14. Sensitive emission spectrometric method for the analysis of airborne particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimae, A.

    1975-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive emission spectrometric method for the routine analysis of airborne particulate matter collected on the glass fiber filter is reported. The method is a powder--dc arc technique involving no chemical pre-enrichment procedures. The elements--Ag, BA: Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn, V, Y, Yb, and Zn--were determined. (U.S.)

  15. Consumption-based Total Suspended Particulate Matter Emissions in Jing-Jin-Ji Area of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, B.

    2014-12-01

    The highly-industrialized regions in China have been facing a serious problem of haze mainly consisted of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM), which has attracted great attention from the public since it directly impairs human health and clinically increases the risks of various respiratory and pulmonary diseases. In this paper, we set up a multi-regional input-output (MRIO) model to analyze the transferring routes of TSPM emissions between regions through trades. TSPM emission from particulate source regions and sectors are identified by analyzing the embodied TSPM flows through monetary flow and carbon footprint. The track of TSPM from origin to end via consumption activities are also revealed by tracing the product supply chain associated with the TSPM emissions. Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (Jing-Jin-Ji) as the most industrialized area of China is selected for a case study. The result shows that over 70% of TSPM emissions associated with goods consumed in Beijing and Tianjin occurred outside of their own administrative boundaries, implying that Beijing and Tianjin are net embodied TSPM importers. Meanwhile, 63% of the total TSPM emissions in Hebei Province are resulted from the outside demand, indicating Hebei is a net exporter. In addition, nearly half of TSPM emissions are the by-products related to electricity and heating supply and non-metal mineral products in Jing-Jin-Ji Area. Based on the model results, we provided new insights into establishing systemic strategies and identifying mitigation priorities to stem TSPM emissions in China. Keywords: total suspended particulate matter (TSPM); urban ecosystem modeling; multi-regional input-output (MRIO); China

  16. Particulate Matter Emission from Dual Fuel Diesel Engine Fuelled with Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelmasiak Zdzisław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of examination of particulate matter emission from the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT simultaneously fuelled with diesel oil and natural gas CNG. The basic premise for engine adaptation was the addition of a small amount of CNG to reduce exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. At this assumption, diesel oil remained the basic fuel, with contribution amounting to 0,70-0,85 of total energy delivered to the engine. The dual fuel engine was examined using an original controller installed in the Diesel engine FPT 1.3 MJT which controlled the diesel fuel dose. The dose of the injected natural gas was controlled by changing the opening time of gas injectors at constant pressure in the gas collector. The examined issues included the exhaust gas opacity, and the total number and fractional distribution of the emitted particles. The measurements were performed at twenty selected measuring points corresponding to the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC test. The performed tests have demonstrated a positive effect of gas addition on exhaust gas opacity and particulate matter emission. Depending on test conditions, the exhaust gas opacity was reduced by 10÷92%, and the total number of particles by 30÷40%. The performed tests have revealed that a small addition of gas can reduce the load of the DPF filter, extend its lifetime, and increase engine reliability. Longer time intervals between successive DPF filter regenerations improve ecological properties of the engine.

  17. Collective emission of matter-wave jets from driven Bose-Einstein condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Logan W; Gaj, Anita; Feng, Lei; Chin, Cheng

    2017-11-16

    Scattering is used to probe matter and its interactions in all areas of physics. In ultracold atomic gases, control over pairwise interactions enables us to investigate scattering in quantum many-body systems. Previous experiments on colliding Bose-Einstein condensates have revealed matter-wave interference, haloes of scattered atoms, four-wave mixing and correlations between counter-propagating pairs. However, a regime with strong stimulation of spontaneous collisions analogous to superradiance has proved elusive. In this regime, the collisions rapidly produce highly correlated states with macroscopic population. Here we find that runaway stimulated collisions in Bose-Einstein condensates with periodically modulated interaction strength cause the collective emission of matter-wave jets that resemble fireworks. Jets appear only above a threshold modulation amplitude and their correlations are invariant even when the number of ejected atoms grows exponentially. Hence, we show that the structures and atom occupancies of the jets stem from the quantum fluctuations of the condensate. Our findings demonstrate the conditions required for runaway stimulated collisions and reveal the quantum nature of matter-wave emission.

  18. The effect of diesel properties on the emissions of particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bello, A; Torres, J; Herrera, J; Sarmiento, J

    2000-01-01

    An evaluation was carried out on the effect that modifying some properties of Colombian diesel fuel, such as final boiling point (FBP), density and sulfur content, has on the emissions of particulate matter (PM). Four diesel engines with different technologies and work capacity were used for the evaluation. Different alternatives to modify the properties of commercial diesel fuel, from the fuel treatment viewpoint, as well as that of the incorporation or segregation of some of the streams from the pool at the Barrancabermeja refinery were studied. The particulate matter was measured using a partial flow (AVL-SPC472) Constant volume sampler (CVS) with following the 13-step steady state European cycle and the ECE-R49 European guideline. The tests were performed at the Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo. (ICP) test cell in the city of Bucaramanga, Colombia. General tendencies show reductions of up to 25% in PM emissions when final boiling point and sulfur content are reduced. But levels of reduction vary from one engine to another depending on technology and working time. As a baseline, the emission levels of the commercial diesel fuel for each engine are used, and as a reference the results obtained are compared with the EURO I and II European standards defined for the emission levels of heavy duty engines

  19. Bioavailability and export of dissolved organic matter from a tropical river during base- and stormflow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy N. Wiegner; Randee L. Tubal; Richard A. MacKenzie

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations, bioavailability, and export of dissolved organic matter (DOM), particulate organic matter (POM), and nutrients from the Wailuku River, Hawai'i, U.S.A., were examined under base- and stormflow conditions. During storms, DOM and POM concentrations increased approximately by factors of 2 and 11, respectively, whereas NO3...

  20. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Date Report No. 3: Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    1999-11-15

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report covers the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on particulate matter emissions for four technologies.

  1. PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATION AND EMISSION FACTOR IN THREE DIFFERENT LAYING HEN HOUSING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate PM10 concentration in three different laying hens houses (traditional battery cages with aerated open manure storage, aviary system and vertical tiered cages with manure belts with forced air drying and to evaluate particulate matter emission into atmosphere during one year of observation. Internal and external temperature and relative humidity, ventilation rate, PM10 concentration have been continuously monitored in order to evaluate particulate matter concentration changes during the day and the season and to define PM10 emission factors. PM10 concentration was corrected by gravimetric technique to lower measurements error. In the aviary system house, TSP and fine particulate matter (particles smaller than 2.5 micron concentration was measured. Average yearly PM10 concentration was remarkably higher in the aviary system house with 0.215 mg m-3 vs 108 mg m-3 for the ventilated belt house and vs 0.094 mg m-3 for the traditional battery cages house. In the Aviary system housing, TSP concentration was 0.444 mg m-3 and PM2.5 was 0.032 mg m-3, highlighting the existence of a severe working environment for men and animals. Recorded values for PM10 emission were 0.433 mg h-1 hen-1 for battery cages housing type, 0.081 mg h-1 hen-1 for ventilated belt cages house, values lower than those available in literature, while the aviary system housing type showed the highest PM10 emission (1.230 mg h-1 hen-1 with appreciable peaks during the morning, together with the increased animal activity and daily farmer operations, as feed administration, cleaning and droppings removal.

  2. Impact of Agricultural Emission Reductions on Fine Particulate Matter and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzer, A.; Tsimpidi, A.; Karydis, V.; De Meij, A.; Lelieveld, J.

    2017-12-01

    A global chemistry-climate model has been used to study the impacts of pollutants released by agriculture on fine particulate matter (PM2.5), with a focus on Europe, North America, South and East Asia. Hypothetical reduction of agricultural emission of 50%, 66% and 100% have been simulated and compared with the reference simulation. The simulations results reveal that a relatively strong reduction in PM2.5 levels can be achieved by decreasing agricultural emissions, and this effect can almost be exclusively explain by the reduction of ammonia (NH3) emissions, released from fertilizer use and animal husbandry. The absolute impact on PM2.5 reduction is strongest in East Asia, even for small emission decreases, although the relative reduction is very low (below 13% for a full removal of agricultural emissions) . Conversely, over Europe and North America, aerosol formation is not directly limited by the availability of ammonia. Nevertheless, reduction of NH3 can also substantially decrease PM2.5concentrations over the latter regions, especially when emissions are abated systematically and an ammonia limited regions of aerosol growth is reached. Further, our results document how reduction of agricultural emissions decreases aerosol pH due to the depletion of aerosol ammonium, which affects particle liquid phase and heterogeneous chemistry. It is calculated that ammonia emission controls could reduce the particle pH up to 1.5 pH-units in East Asia during winter, and more than 1.7 pH-units in South Asia, theoretically assuming complete agricultural emission removal, which could have repercussions for the reactive uptake of gases from the gas phase and the outgassing of relative weak acids. It is finally shown that a 50% reduction of agricultural emissions could prevent the mortality attributable to air pollution by 250 thousands people per year worldwide, amounting to reductions of 30%, 19% , 8% and 3% over North America, Europe and South Asia and East Asia, respectively

  3. Impact of agricultural emission reductions on fine-particulate matter and public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pozzer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A global chemistry-climate model has been used to study the impacts of pollutants released by agriculture on fine-particulate matter (PM2.5, with a focus on Europe, North America, East and South Asia. Simulations reveal that a relatively strong reduction in PM2.5 levels can be achieved by decreasing agricultural emissions, notably of ammonia (NH3 released from fertilizer use and animal husbandry. The absolute impact on PM2.5 reduction is strongest in East Asia, even for small emission decreases. Conversely, over Europe and North America, aerosol formation is not immediately limited by the availability of ammonia. Nevertheless, reduction of NH3 can also substantially decrease PM2.5 concentrations over the latter regions, especially when emissions are abated systematically. Our results document how reduction of agricultural emissions decreases aerosol pH due to the depletion of aerosol ammonium, which affects particle liquid phase and heterogeneous chemistry. Further, it is shown that a 50 % reduction of agricultural emissions could prevent the mortality attributable to air pollution by  ∼ 250 000 people yr−1 worldwide, amounting to reductions of 30, 19, 8 and 3 % over North America, Europe, East and South Asia, respectively. A theoretical 100 % reduction could even reduce the number of deaths globally by about 800 000 per year.

  4. Impact of agricultural emission reductions on fine-particulate matter and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzer, Andrea; Tsimpidi, Alexandra P.; Karydis, Vlassis A.; de Meij, Alexander; Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-10-01

    A global chemistry-climate model has been used to study the impacts of pollutants released by agriculture on fine-particulate matter (PM2.5), with a focus on Europe, North America, East and South Asia. Simulations reveal that a relatively strong reduction in PM2.5 levels can be achieved by decreasing agricultural emissions, notably of ammonia (NH3) released from fertilizer use and animal husbandry. The absolute impact on PM2.5 reduction is strongest in East Asia, even for small emission decreases. Conversely, over Europe and North America, aerosol formation is not immediately limited by the availability of ammonia. Nevertheless, reduction of NH3 can also substantially decrease PM2.5 concentrations over the latter regions, especially when emissions are abated systematically. Our results document how reduction of agricultural emissions decreases aerosol pH due to the depletion of aerosol ammonium, which affects particle liquid phase and heterogeneous chemistry. Further, it is shown that a 50 % reduction of agricultural emissions could prevent the mortality attributable to air pollution by ˜ 250 000 people yr-1 worldwide, amounting to reductions of 30, 19, 8 and 3 % over North America, Europe, East and South Asia, respectively. A theoretical 100 % reduction could even reduce the number of deaths globally by about 800 000 per year.

  5. A Comparison of the Health Effects of Ambient Particulate Matter Air Pollution from Five Emission Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil J. Hime

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly reviews evidence of health effects associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM air pollution from five common outdoor emission sources: traffic, coal-fired power stations, diesel exhaust, domestic wood combustion heaters, and crustal dust. The principal purpose of this review is to compare the evidence of health effects associated with these different sources with a view to answering the question: Is exposure to PM from some emission sources associated with worse health outcomes than exposure to PM from other sources? Answering this question will help inform development of air pollution regulations and environmental policy that maximises health benefits. Understanding the health effects of exposure to components of PM and source-specific PM are active fields of investigation. However, the different methods that have been used in epidemiological studies, along with the differences in populations, emission sources, and ambient air pollution mixtures between studies, make the comparison of results between studies problematic. While there is some evidence that PM from traffic and coal-fired power station emissions may elicit greater health effects compared to PM from other sources, overall the evidence to date does not indicate a clear ‘hierarchy’ of harmfulness for PM from different emission sources. Further investigations of the health effects of source-specific PM with more advanced approaches to exposure modeling, measurement, and statistics, are required before changing the current public health protection approach of minimising exposure to total PM mass.

  6. Emissions from residential energy use dominate exposure to ambient fine particulate matter in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conibear, L.; Butt, E. W.; Knote, C. J.; Arnold, S.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter of less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) is a leading cause of disease burden in India. Information on the source contributions to the burden of disease attributable to ambient PM2.5 exposure is critical to support the national and sub-national control of air pollution. Previous studies analysing the contributions of different emission sectors to disease burden in India have been limited by coarse model resolutions and a lack of extensive PM2.5 observations before 2016. We use a regional numerical weather prediction model online-coupled with chemistry, evaluated against extensive surface observations, to make the first high resolution study of the contributions of seven emission sectors to the disease burden associated with ambient PM2.5 exposure in India. We find that residential energy use is the dominant contributing emission sector. Removing air pollution emissions from residential energy use would reduce population-weighted annual mean ambient PM2.5 concentrations by 52%, reducing the number of premature mortalities caused by exposure to ambient PM2.5 by 26%, equivalent to 268,000 (95% uncertainty interval (95UI): 167,000-360,000) lives every year. The smaller fractional reduction in mortality burden is due to the non-linear exposure-response relationship at the high PM2.5 concentrations observed across India and consequently large reductions in emissions are required to reduce the health burden from ambient PM2.5 exposure in India. Keywords: ambient air quality, India, residential energy use, health impact, particulate matter, WRF-Chem

  7. Two Emission Mechanisms in the Fermi Bubbles: A Possible Signal of Annihilating Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan; Slatyer, Tracy R.

    2013-09-01

    We study the variation of the spectrum of the Fermi Bubbles with Galactic latitude. Far from the Galactic plane (|b| > 30 degrees), the observed gamma-ray emission is nearly invariant with latitude, and is consistent with arising from inverse Compton scattering of the interstellar radiation field by cosmic-ray electrons with an approximately power-law spectrum. The same electrons in the presence of microgauss-scale magnetic fields can also generate the the observed microwave "haze". At lower latitudes (b < 20 degrees), in contrast, the spectrum of the emission correlated with the Bubbles possesses a pronounced spectral feature peaking at 1-4 GeV (in E^2 dN/dE) which cannot be generated by any realistic spectrum of electrons. Instead, we conclude that a second (non-inverse-Compton) emission mechanism must be responsible for the bulk of the low-energy, low-latitude emission. This second component is spectrally similar to the excess GeV emission previously reported from the Galactic Center (GC), and also appears spatially consistent with a luminosity per volume falling approximately as r^-2.4, where r is the distance from the GC. We argue that the spectral feature visible in the low-latitude Bubbles is the extended counterpart of the GC excess, now detected out to at least 2-3 kpc from the GC. The spectrum and angular distribution of the signal is consistent with that predicted from ~10 GeV dark matter particles annihilating to leptons, or from ~50 GeV dark matter particles annihilating to quarks, following a distribution similar to the canonical Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profile. We also consider millisecond pulsars as a possible astrophysical explanation for the signal, as observed millisecond pulsars possess a spectral cutoff at approximately the required energy. Any such scenario would require a large population of unresolved millisecond pulsars extending at least 2-3 kpc from the GC.

  8. Methodology to estimate particulate matter emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Roger L; Fleming, Gregg G; Lovinelli, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Today, about one-fourth of U.S. commercial service airports, including 41 of the busiest 50, are either in nonattainment or maintenance areas per the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. U.S. aviation activity is forecasted to triple by 2025, while at the same time, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is evaluating stricter particulate matter (PM) standards on the basis of documented human health and welfare impacts. Stricter federal standards are expected to impede capacity and limit aviation growth if regulatory mandated emission reductions occur as for other non-aviation sources (i.e., automobiles, power plants, etc.). In addition, strong interest exists as to the role aviation emissions play in air quality and climate change issues. These reasons underpin the need to quantify and understand PM emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines, which has led to the need for a methodology to predict these emissions. Standardized sampling techniques to measure volatile and nonvolatile PM emissions from aircraft engines do not exist. As such, a first-order approximation (FOA) was derived to fill this need based on available information. FOA1.0 only allowed prediction of nonvolatile PM. FOA2.0 was a change to include volatile PM emissions on the basis of the ratio of nonvolatile to volatile emissions. Recent collaborative efforts by industry (manufacturers and airlines), research establishments, and regulators have begun to provide further insight into the estimation of the PM emissions. The resultant PM measurement datasets are being analyzed to refine sampling techniques and progress towards standardized PM measurements. These preliminary measurement datasets also support the continued refinement of the FOA methodology. FOA3.0 disaggregated the prediction techniques to allow for independent prediction of nonvolatile and volatile emissions on a more theoretical basis. The Committee for Aviation Environmental Protection of the International Civil

  9. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and particulate matter emissions from California high-rise layer houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X.-J.; Cortus, E. L.; Zhang, R.; Jiang, S.; Heber, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia and hydrogen sulfide are hazardous substances that are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency through community right-to-know legislation (EPCRA, EPA, 2011). The emissions of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide from large commercial layer facilities are of concern to legislators and nearby neighbors. Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) released from layer houses are two of seven criteria pollutants for which EPA has set National Ambient Air Quality Standards as required by the Clean Air Act. Therefore, it is important to quantify the baseline emissions of these pollutants. The emissions of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and PM from two California high-rise layer houses were monitored for two years from October 2007 to October 2009. Each house had 32,500 caged laying hens. The monitoring site was setup in compliance with a U.S. EPA-approved quality assurance project plan. The results showed the average daily mean emission rates of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide were 0.95 ± 0.67 (standard deviation) g d -1 bird -1, 1.27 ± 0.78 mg d -1 bird -1 and 91.4 ± 16.5 g d -1 bird -1, respectively. The average daily mean emission rates of PM 2.5, PM 10 and total suspended particulate (TSP) were 5.9 ± 12.6, 33.4 ± 27.4, and 78.0 ± 42.7 mg d -1 bird -1, respectively. It was observed that ammonia emission rates in summer were lower than in winter because the high airflow stabilized the manure by drying it. The reductions due to lower moisture content were greater than the increases due to higher temperature. However, PM 10 emission rates in summer were higher than in winter because the drier conditions coupled with higher internal air velocities increased PM 10 release from feathers, feed and manure.

  10. The molecular distribution of fine particulate organic matter emitted from Western-style fast food cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yunliang; Hu, Min; Slanina, Sjaak; Zhang, Yuanhang

    The emissions from food cooking could be a significant contributor to atmospheric particulate organic matter (POM) and its chemical composition would vary with different cooking styles. In this study, the chemical composition of POM emitted from Western-style fast food cooking was investigated. A total of six PM 2.5 samples was collected from a commercial restaurant and determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It is found that the total amount of quantified compounds of per mg POM in Western-style fast food cooking is much higher than that in Chinese cooking. The predominant homologue is fatty acids, accounting for 78% of total quantified POM, with the predominant one being palmitic acid. Dicarboxylic acids display the second highest concentration in the quantified homologues with hexanedioic acid being predominant, followed by nonanedioic acid. Cmax of n-alkanes occurs at C25, but they still appear relative higher concentrations at C29 and C31. In addition, both levoglucosan and cholesterol are quantified. The relationship of concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids (C16 and C18) with a double bond at C9 position and C9 acids indicates the reduction of the unsaturated fatty acids in the emissions could form the C9 acids. Moreover, the nonlinear fit indicates that other C9 species or other compounds are also produced, except for the C9 acids. The potential candidates of tracers for the emissions from Western-fast food cooking could be: tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid, nonanal, lactones, levoglucosan, hexanedioic acid and nonanedioic acid.

  11. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured using... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide...

  12. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 13 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Particulate Matter Emission Limits 2 Table 2 to Subpart DDDDD of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL EMISSION...

  13. Particulate matter and black carbon optical properties and emission factors from prescribed fires in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aerosol emissions from prescribed fires in the Southeastern United States were measured and compared to emissions from laboratory burns with fuels collected from the site. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, and aerosol light scattering and absorption were characte...

  14. Relationships between soil organic matter pools and nitrous oxide emissions of agroecosystems in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, Cícero Célio; de Oliveira, Alexsandra Duarte; Dos Santos, Isis Lima; Ferreira, Eloisa Aparecida Belleza; Malaquias, Juaci Vitoria; de Sá, Marcos Aurélio Carolino; de Carvalho, Arminda Moreira; Dos Santos, João de Deus Gomes

    2018-03-15

    In the Brazilian Cerrado, despite the increasing adoption of no-till systems, there are still extended areas under conventional soil management systems that reduce soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks and increase the emissions of greenhouse gases, such as nitrous oxide (N 2 O). Conservation agroecosystems, such as no-till, have been proposed as a strategy to mitigate agriculture-induced climatic changes through reductions in N 2 O emissions. However, the relationship between organic matter and N 2 O emissions from soils under different agroecosystems is not yet clear. This study hypothesized that agroecosystems under no-till promote an accumulation of labile and stable SOM fractions along with a reduction of N 2 O emissions. This study evaluated the effects of crop-rotation agroecosystems: i) on C and N pools and labile and stable SOM fractions; ii) on cumulative N 2 O emissions; and iii) on the relationships between SOM fractions and N 2 O emissions. The agricultural systems consisted of: (I) soybean followed by sorghum under no-tillage (NT1); (II) maize followed by pigeon pea under no-tillage (NT2); (III) soybean under conventional tillage followed by fallow soil (CT); (IV) and native Cerrado (CER). After CT for 18years, following the replacement of CER, the soil C stock in the 0-20cm layer was reduced by 0.64tha -1 year -1 . The no-till systems were more efficient in accumulating labile and stable C fractions with values close to those observed under CER, and were directly related to lower soil N 2 O emissions. The cumulative pattern of N 2 O emissions was inverse to that of the following SOM fractions: microbial biomass carbon, permanganate-oxidizable carbon, particulate organic carbon, inert carbon, and humic substances. Based on principal component analysis, the CT was generally separated from the other land use systems. This separation was strongly influenced by the low C contents in the different SOM fractions and higher N 2 O emissions promoted by the

  15. Organic and Inorganic Matter in Louisiana Coastal Waters: Vermilion, Atchafalaya, Terrebonne, Barataria, and Mississippi Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) spectral absorption, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, and the particulate fraction of inorganic (PIM) and organic matter (POM) were measured in Louisiana coastal waters at Vermilion, Atchafalaya, Terrebonne, Barataria, and...

  16. ASPECTOS HIDROLOGICOS DE LAS LAGUNAS DE ATASTA Y POM, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ruiz-Marín

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las lagunas de Pom y Atasta forman parte del área natural protegida de flora y fauna laguna de Términos en la región de Campeche, México. Esta es una  importante área ecológica ya que es el habitad de muchas especies nativas y migratorias. Estas lagunas han sido afectadas por actividades industriales y por descargas de aguas residuales. Monitoreo de nitrógeno, fósforo y coliformes fecales en agua superficial fueron realizados a lo largo de ambas lagunas durante las temporadas de seca, lluvia y nortes durante un año. Las altas temperaturas en verano (31 ºC y mínimas en nortes (25ºC fueron asociadas con valores de oxigeno disuelto (5.1 y 6.3 mg l-1, respectivamente indicando también una probable relación con la actividad fitoplanctonica. El pH (8.0-8.2 y la salinidad (0.32 - 3.48 UPS no mostraron variación significativa entre las tres temporadas climáticas. El nivel de amonio no fue mayor a los valores sugeridos para el control de eutroficación (0.1 mg l-1, mientras que los niveles de fósforo fueron de mayor concentración (2.0-3.5 mg l-1 que aquellos considerados seguros (0.01-0.125 mg l-1 para el medio ambiente. Las más altas concentraciones de N y P cerca de las áreas habitadas sugiere un importante contribución de nutrientes provenientes de aguas de desecho, asociado con la descomposición de material orgánico. La concentración de coliformes fecales durante la temporada de lluvias y nortes (8.0-26.0 MPN 100 ml-1 fue mayor que durante la temporada de seca (1.3-3.5 MPN 100 ml-1 sugiriendo un importante acceso por escurrimiento pluvial y aguas residuales no tratadas proveniente de las áreas cercanas al lago habitadas. La deforestación de manglares y la descontrolada actividad de agricultura afectaran la calidad del agua en ambos lagos en el futuro.

  17. Particulate Organic Matter Affects Soil Nitrogen Mineralization under Two Crop Rotation Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongyan Bu

    Full Text Available Changes in the quantity and/or quality of soil labile organic matter between and after different types of cultivation system could play a dominant role in soil nitrogen (N mineralization. The quantity and quality of particulate organic matter (POM and potentially mineralizable-N (PMN contents were measured in soils from 16 paired rice-rapeseed (RR/cotton-rapeseed (CR rotations sites in Hubei province, central China. Then four paired soils encompassing low (10th percentile, intermediate (25th and 75th percentiles, and high (90th percentile levels of soil PMN were selected to further study the effects of POM on soil N mineralization by quantifying the net N mineralization in original soils and soils from which POM was removed. Both soil POM carbon (POM-C and N (POM-N contents were 45.8% and 55.8% higher under the RR rotation compared to the CR rotation, respectively. The PMN contents were highly correlated with the POM contents. The PMN and microbial biomass N (MBN contents concurrently and significantly decreased when POM was removed. The reduction rate of PMN was positively correlated with changes in MBN after the removal of POM. The reduction rates of PMN and MBN after POM removal are lower under RR rotations (38.0% and 16.3%, respectively than CR rotations (45.6% and 19.5%, respectively. Furthermore, infrared spectroscopy indicated that compounds with low-bioavailability accumulated (e.g., aromatic recalcitrant materials in the soil POM fraction under the RR rotation but not under the CR rotation. The results of the present study demonstrated that POM plays a vital role in soil N mineralization under different rotation systems. The discrepancy between POM content and composition resulting from different crop rotation systems caused differences in N mineralization in soils.

  18. Determination of inorganic beryllium species in the particulate matter of emissions and working areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Profumo, A.; Spini, G.; Cucca, L.; Pesavento, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica Gen., Pavia (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    A sequential extraction procedure for separating and determining Be(0), soluble Be(II) inorganic compounds, BeO and beryllium silicates in samples, such as particulate matter of emissions and working areas, has been developed. The proposed procedure has been tested on synthetic samples prepared with the inorganic beryllium compounds, in the presence of atmospherical particulate matter sampled in a laboratory, previously checked for the absence of beryllium. The speciation was then repeated on a sample of fly ash deriving from a solid waste incinerator and on a reference material (Coal Fly ash SRM 1633a, by NIST), followed by an evaluation of matrix spiking and recovery analyses. Performing multiple analyses of the spiked samples assessed the repeatability of the procedure. Quantitative determinations have been made by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The possible interferences of the most common ions have been investigated. The selective sequential extractions allow one to separate and to determine different inorganic beryllium species, to which a different toxicity and therefore, a different risk are related: it is the case for example of metallic beryllium and beryllium oxide.

  19. [Size structure, gonadic development and diet of the fish Diapterus rhombeus (Gerreidae) in the Pom-Atasta fluvial-deltaic system, Campeche, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-León, Arturo; Díaz-Ruiz, Silvia

    2006-06-01

    The fish Diapterus rhombeus was studied during an annual cycle from 1992 to 1993 in the fluvial-deltaic Pom-Atasta system associated with Terminos Lagoon, Campeche, Mexico. It is a dominant species in the system, based on its numeric abundance, weight, high frequency and wide distribution. A total of 745 individuals were obtained, with a weigth of 2 890.2 g and length ranging from 3.0 to 16.7 cm. The annual variation of the allometric coefficient b was from 2.71 to 3.345. The condition factor varied from 0.711 to 0.934. The statistical analysis shows significant differences (p < 0.05) between the seasons of the year and the habitats of the system for the weight, the longitude and the condition factor K, which reflects the space-temporal utilization of the system for the species. The population present at Pom-Atasta, consists mainly by juvenile and few preadults individuals in gonadal stages I, II, and III, and more females than males were recorded. This species utilizes the system as a nursery area, growth and feeding area. It has a varied trophic spectrum, and consumes at least eight different groups. Its principal food items are undetermined organic matter, foraminifers, ostracods and tanaidaceans. It is a first order consumer. The Pom-Atasta system is located in a zone of intense fishing and oil activity, so it is important to advance in the knowledge of its fishing resources.

  20. Structural characterization of POM6 Fab and mouse prion protein complex identifies key regions for prions conformational conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Pravas Kumar; Swayampakula, Mridula; Aguzzi, Adriano; James, Michael N G

    2018-05-01

    Conversion of the cellular prion protein PrP C into its pathogenic isoform PrP S c is the hallmark of prion diseases, fatal neurodegenerative diseases affecting many mammalian species including humans. Anti-prion monoclonal antibodies can arrest the progression of prion diseases by stabilizing the cellular form of the prion protein. Here, we present the crystal structure of the POM6 Fab fragment, in complex with the mouse prion protein (moPrP). The prion epitope of POM6 is in close proximity to the epitope recognized by the purportedly toxic antibody fragment, POM1 Fab also complexed with moPrP. The POM6 Fab recognizes a larger binding interface indicating a likely stronger binding compared to POM1. POM6 and POM1 exhibit distinct biological responses. Structural comparisons of the bound mouse prion proteins from the POM6 Fab:moPrP and POM1 Fab:moPrP complexes reveal several key regions of the prion protein that might be involved in initiating mis-folding events. The structural data of moPrP:POM6 Fab complex are available in the PDB under the accession number www.rcsb.org/pdb/search/structidSearch.do?structureId=6AQ7. © 2018 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  1. Cost-effective reduction of fine primary particulate matter emissions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karvosenoja, Niko; Klimont, Zbigniew; Tohka, Antti; Johansson, Matti

    2007-01-01

    Policies to reduce adverse health impacts of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) require information on costs of abatement and associated costs. This paper explores the potential for cost-efficient control of anthropogenic primary PM 2.5 emissions in Finland. Based on a Kyoto-compliant energy projection, two emission control scenarios for 2020 were developed. 'Baseline' assumes implementation of PM controls in compliance with existing legislation. 'Reduction' assumes ambitious further reductions. Emissions for 2020 were estimated at 26 and 18.6 Gg a -1 for 'Baseline' and 'Reduction', respectively. The largest abatement potential, 3.0 Gg a -1 , was calculated for power plants and industrial combustion. The largest potential with marginal costs below 5000 Euro MG(PM 2.5 ) -1 was for domestic wood combustion, 1.7 Gg a -1 . For traffic the potential was estimated at 1.0 Gg a -1 , but was associated with high costs. The results from this paper are used in the policy-driven national integrated assessment modeling that explores cost-efficient reductions of the health impacts of PM

  2. Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    WP-201317) Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-volatile Particulate Matter (PM... Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions 6. AUTHOR(S) E. Corporan, M. DeWitt, C. Klingshirn, M.D. Cheng, R. Miake-Lye, J. Peck...the performance and viability of two devices to condition aircraft turbine engine exhaust to allow the accurate measurement of total (volatile and non

  3. Dry Matter Losses and Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Outside Storage of Short Rotation Coppice Willow Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Carly; Yates, Nicola E; Powers, Stephen J; Misselbrook, Tom; Shield, Ian

    This study examined the dry matter losses and the greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations within two short rotation coppice (SRC) willow wood chip storage heaps. One heap was built on a grassland area (East Midlands) and the other (Rothamsted) on a concrete hard standing. A series of 1- and 3-m probes were embedded in the heaps in order to retrieve gas samples for analysis, and pre-weighed net bags were positioned in the core of the heap to detect dry matter losses. The bagged samples showed dry matter losses of 18 and 19 % in the East Midlands and Rothamsted heaps after 210 and 97 days storage, respectively. The Rothamsted heap showed a whole-heap dry matter loss of 21 %. During this time, the wood chips dried from 54 to 39 % moisture content in the East Midlands heap and 50 to 43 % at Rothamsted. The results from analysing the whole Rothamsted heap indicated an overall loss of 1.5 GJ per tonne stored, although measurements from bagged samples in the core suggested that the chips dried sufficiently to have a minimal energy loss from storage. The process of mixing the heap, however, led to incorporation of wet outer layers and hence the average moisture content was higher in an average sample of chip. After establishment of the heaps, the temperature rose rapidly and this correlated with a peak in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration within the heap. A peak in methane (CH 4 ) concentration was also detected in both heaps, though more noticeably in the East Midlands heap after around 55 days. In both instances, the peak CH 4 concentration occurred as CO 2 concentrations dropped, suggesting that after an active period of aerobic decomposition in the first 2 months of storage, the conditions in the heap became anaerobic. The results from this study suggest that outside wood chip storage is not an efficient method of storing biomass, though this may be location-specific as there are some studies showing lower dry matter losses. It is necessary to explore other

  4. Transformation of organic matter and the emissions of methane and ammonia during storage of liquid manure as affected by acidification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Sven G.; Clough, Timothy J.; Balaine, Nimlesh

    2017-01-01

    ), suggesting that DOC may be a predictor for CH4 emission from dilute slurries. volatile fatty acid and total ammoniacal nitrogen concentrations in surface layers were substantially higher than at the center of stored liquid manure, perhaps resulting from microbial activity at the surface. This pattern......Acidification of livestock manure can reduce emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as well as ammonia (NH3). We examined the relation between emission of these gases and transformation of organic matter as affected by acidification. Liquid cattle manure......, probably due to the absence of a surface crust. Reductions in NH3 and CH4 emission were highest at the start but declined over time concomitantly with a gradual increase in the stored liquid manure pH. Acidification did not significantly affect CO2 emissions. Emission of CO2 was high, fiveto ten-fold of CH...

  5. Emission characteristics and chemical components of size-segregated particulate matter in iron and steel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jia; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Yao, Sen; Xu, Tiebing; Zhang, Tingting; Ma, Yuetao; Wang, Hongliang; Duan, Wenjiao

    2018-06-01

    As one of the highest energy consumption and pollution industries, the iron and steel industry is regarded as a most important source of particulate matter emission. In this study, chemical components of size-segregated particulate matters (PM) emitted from different manufacturing units in iron and steel industry were sampled by a comprehensive sampling system. Results showed that the average particle mass concentration was highest in sintering process, followed by puddling, steelmaking and then rolling processes. PM samples were divided into eight size fractions for testing the chemical components, SO42- and NH4+ distributed more into fine particles while most of the Ca2+ was concentrated in coarse particles, the size distribution of mineral elements depended on the raw materials applied. Moreover, local database with PM chemical source profiles of iron and steel industry were built and applied in CMAQ modeling for simulating SO42- and NO3- concentration, results showed that the accuracy of model simulation improved with local chemical source profiles compared to the SPECIATE database. The results gained from this study are expected to be helpful to understand the components of PM in iron and steel industry and contribute to the source apportionment researches.

  6. Efficient heterogeneous and environmentally friendly degradation of nerve agents on a tungsten-based POM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizrahi, Dana M., E-mail: danami@iibr.gov.il [Department of Organic Chemistry, Israel Institute for Biological Research, P.O. Box 19, Ness Ziona 74100 (Israel); Saphier, Sigal; Columbus, Ishay [Department of Organic Chemistry, Israel Institute for Biological Research, P.O. Box 19, Ness Ziona 74100 (Israel)

    2010-07-15

    Common (chemical warfare agent) CWA decontaminants exhibit harsh and corrosive characteristics, and are harmful to the environment. In the course of our quest for active sorbents as efficient decontaminants, Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM) (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40} was tested for oxidative degradation of CWAs. Although oxidation did not take place, sarin (GB) and VX were smoothly decontaminated to non-toxic products within 1 and 10 days, respectively. Degradation was carried out directly on the powder, eliminating the need for solvents. Mustard gas (HD), whose degradation is highly dependent on oxidation, was not decontaminated by this POM. Solid state MAS NMR ({sup 31}P and {sup 13}C) was utilized both for POM characterization and for decontamination studies monitoring.

  7. Efficient heterogeneous and environmentally friendly degradation of nerve agents on a tungsten-based POM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizrahi, Dana M.; Saphier, Sigal; Columbus, Ishay

    2010-01-01

    Common (chemical warfare agent) CWA decontaminants exhibit harsh and corrosive characteristics, and are harmful to the environment. In the course of our quest for active sorbents as efficient decontaminants, Keggin-type polyoxometalate (POM) (NH 4 ) 3 PW 12 O 40 was tested for oxidative degradation of CWAs. Although oxidation did not take place, sarin (GB) and VX were smoothly decontaminated to non-toxic products within 1 and 10 days, respectively. Degradation was carried out directly on the powder, eliminating the need for solvents. Mustard gas (HD), whose degradation is highly dependent on oxidation, was not decontaminated by this POM. Solid state MAS NMR ( 31 P and 13 C) was utilized both for POM characterization and for decontamination studies monitoring.

  8. Factors influencing mobile source particulate matter emissions-to-exposure relationships in the Boston urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Susan L; Wilson, Andrew M; Hanna, Steven R; Levy, Jonathan I

    2007-11-15

    Benefit-cost and regulatory impact analyses often use atmospheric dispersion models with coarse resolution to estimate the benefits of proposed mobile source emission control regulations. This approach may bias health estimates or miss important intra-urban variability for primary air pollutants. In this study, we estimate primary fine particulate matter (PM2.5) intake fractions (iF; the fraction of a pollutant emitted from a source that is inhaled by the population) for each of 23 398 road segments in the Boston Metro Core area to evaluate the potential for intra-urban variability in the emissions-to-exposure relationship. We estimate iFs using the CAL3QHCR line source model combined with residential populations within 5000 m of each road segment. The annual average values for the road segments range from 0.8 to 53 per million, with a mean of 12 per million. On average, 46% of the total exposure is realized within 200 m of the road segment, though this varies from 0 to 93% largely due to variable population patterns. Our findings indicate the likelihood of substantial intra-urban variability in mobile source primary PM2.5 iF that accounting for population movement with time, localized meteorological conditions, and street-canyon configurations would likely increase.

  9. EPA Supersites Program-related emissions-based particulate matter modeling: initial applications and advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Armistead G

    2008-02-01

    One objective of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Supersite Program was to provide data that could be used to more thoroughly evaluate and improve air quality models, and then have those models used to address both scientific and policy-related issues dealing with air quality management. In this direction, modeling studies have used Supersites-related data and are reviewed here. Fine temporal resolution data have been used both to test model components (e.g., the inorganic thermodynamic routines) and air quality modeling systems (in particular, Community Multiscale Air Quality [CMAQ] and Comprehensive Air Quality Model with extensions [CAMx] applications). Such evaluations suggest that the inorganic thermodynamic approaches being used are accurate, as well as the description of sulfate production, although there are significant uncertainties in production of nitric acid, biogenic and ammonia emissions, secondary organic aerosol formation, and the ability to follow the formation and evolution of ultrafine particles. Model applications have investigated how PM levels will respond to various emissions controls, suggesting that nitrate will replace some of the reductions in sulfate particulate matter (PM), although the replacement is small in the summer. Although not part of the Supersite program, modeling being conducted by EPA, regional planning organizations, and states for policy purposes has benefited from the detailed data collected, and the PM models have advanced by their more widespread use.

  10. Particulate matters from diesel heavy duty trucks exhaust versus cigarettes emissions: a new educational antismoking instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Cinzia; Ruprecht, Ario Alberto; Pozzi, Paolo; Munarini, Elena; Ogliari, Anna Chiara; Mazza, Roberto; Boffi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Indoor smoking in public places and workplaces is forbidden in Italy since 2003, but some health concerns are arising from outdoor secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure for non-smokers. One of the biggest Italian Steel Manufacturer, with several factories in Italy and abroad, the Marcegaglia Group, recently introduced the outdoor smoking ban within the perimeter of all their factories. In order to encourage their smoker employees to quit, the Marcegaglia management decided to set up an educational framework by measuring the PM1, PM2.5 and PM10 emissions from heavy duty trucks and to compare them with the emissions of cigarettes in an indoor controlled environment under the same conditions. The exhaust pipe of two trucks powered by a diesel engine of about 13.000/14.000 cc(3) were connected with a flexible hose to a hole in the window of a container of 36 m(3) volume used as field office. The trucks operated idling for 8 min and then, after adequate office ventilation, a smoker smoked a cigarette. Particulate matter emission was thereafter analyzed. Cigarette pollution was much higher than the heavy duty truck one. Mean of the two tests was: PM1 truck 125.0(47.0), cigarettes 231.7(90.9) p = 0.002; PM2.5 truck 250.8(98.7), cigarettes 591.8(306.1) p = 0.006; PM10 truck 255.8(52.4), cigarettes 624.0(321.6) p = 0.002. Our findings may be important for policies that aim reducing outdoor SHS exposure. They may also help smokers to quit tobacco dependence by giving them an educational perspective that rebuts the common alibi that traffic pollution is more dangerous than cigarettes pollution.

  11. Testing the near field/far field model performance for prediction of particulate matter emissions in a paint factory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, A.J.; Jensen, A.C.Ø.; Levin, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    A Near Field/Far Field (NF/FF) model is a well-accepted tool for precautionary exposure assessment but its capability to estimate particulate matter (PM) concentrations is not well studied. The main concern is related to emission source characterization which is not as well defined for PM emitters...

  12. Molecular composition of particulate matter emissions from dung and brushwood burning household cookstoves in Haryana, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Lauren T.; Lin, Peng; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Weltman, Robert; Edwards, Rufus D.; Arora, Narendra K.; Yadav, Ankit; Meinardi, Simone; Blake, Donald R.; Pillarisetti, Ajay; Smith, Kirk R.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.

    2018-02-01

    Emissions of airborne particles from biomass burning are a significant source of black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) in rural areas of developing countries where biomass is the predominant energy source for cooking and heating. This study explores the molecular composition of organic aerosols from household cooking emissions with a focus on identifying fuel-specific compounds and BrC chromophores. Traditional meals were prepared by a local cook with dung and brushwood-fueled cookstoves in a village in Palwal district, Haryana, India. Cooking was done in a village kitchen while controlling for variables including stove type, fuel moisture, and meal. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions were collected on filters, and then analyzed via nanospray desorption electrospray ionization-high-resolution mass spectrometry (nano-DESI-HRMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array-high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-PDA-HRMS) techniques. The nano-DESI-HRMS analysis provided an inventory of numerous compounds present in the particle phase. Although several compounds observed in this study have been previously characterized using gas chromatography methods a majority of the species in the nano-DESI spectra were newly observed biomass burning compounds. Both the stove (chulha or angithi) and the fuel (brushwood or dung) affected the composition of organic aerosols. The geometric mean of the PM2.5 emission factor and the observed molecular complexity increased in the following order: brushwood-chulha (7.3 ± 1.8 g kg-1 dry fuel, 93 compounds), dung-chulha (21.1 ± 4.2 g kg-1 dry fuel, 212 compounds), and dung-angithi (29.8 ± 11.5 g kg-1 dry fuel, 262 compounds). The mass-normalized absorption coefficient (MACbulk) for the organic-solvent extractable material for brushwood PM2.5 was 3.7 ± 1.5 and 1.9 ± 0.8 m2 g-1 at 360 and 405 nm, respectively, which was approximately a factor of two higher than that for dung PM2.5. The HPLC-PDA-HRMS analysis

  13. The Profile of Mood State (POMS) questionnaire as an indicator of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overtraining syndrome (OTS) is largely a diagnosis of exclusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the compact Profile of Mood State (POMS) questionnaire as an early and accurate indicator for the diagnosis of OTS and the reliability of such findings in a group of athletes diagnosed with OTS, in comparison with a ...

  14. Brand Cigarillos — A Cheap and Less Harmful Alternative to Cigarettes? Particulate Matter Emissions Suggest Otherwise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gerber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS-associated particulate matter (PM constitutes a considerable health risk for passive smokers. It ought to be assessed separately from the other known toxic compounds of tobacco smoke. Brand-specific differences between cigarettes and particularly between cigarettes and favorably taxed cigarillos, are of public interest and therefore worth being investigated. Methods: An automatic environmental tobacco smoke emitter (AETSE was developed to generate cigarette and cigarillo smoke in a reliable and reproducible way. John Player Special (JPS Red cigarettes, JPS filter cigarillos and 3R4F standard research cigarettes were smoked automatically in a 2.88 m3 glass chamber according to a standardized protocol until 5 cm from the top were burned down. Results: Mean concentrations (Cmean and area of the curve (AUC of PM2.5 were measured and compared. Cmean PM2.5 were found to be 804 µg/m3 for 3R4F reference cigarettes, 1633 µg/m3 for JPS cigarettes, and 1059 µg/m3 for JPS filter cigarillos. AUC PM2.5-values are 433,873 µg/m3×s for 3R4F reference cigarettes, 534,267 µg/m3×s for JPS Red cigarettes and 782,850 µg/m3×s for JPS filter cigarillos. Conclusion: Potential brand-specific differences of ETS-associated PM emissions among brands of cigarettes, and between cigarettes and cigarillos of the same brand and size should be investigated and published. Information about relative PM-emissions should be printed on the package.

  15. Characterization of dissolved organic matter in fogwater by excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, J.E.; Valsaraj, K.T.

    2010-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) present in fogwater samples collected in southeastern Louisiana and central-eastern China has been characterized using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy. The goal of the study was to illustrate the utility of fluorescence for obtaining information on the large fraction of organic carbon in fogwaters (typically >40% by weight) that defies characterization in terms of specific chemical compounds without the difficulty inherent in obtaining sufficient fogwater volume to isolate DOM for assessment using other spectroscopic and chemical analyses. Based on the findings of previous studies using other characterization methods, it was anticipated that the unidentified organic carbon fraction would have characteristic peaks associated with humic substances and fluorescent amino acids. Both humic- and protein-like fluorophores were observed in the fogwater spectra and fluorescence-derived indices for the fogwater had similar values to those of soil and sediment porewater. Greater biological character was observed in samples with higher organic carbon concentrations. Fogwaters are shown to contain a mixture of terrestrially- and microbially-derived fluorescent organic material, which is expected to be derived from an array of different sources, such as suspended soil and dust particles, biogenic emissions and organic substances generated by atmospheric processes. The fluorescence results indicate that much of the unidentified organic carbon present in fogwater can be represented by humic-like and biologically-derived substances similar to those present in other aquatic systems, though it should be noted that fluorescent signatures representative of DOM produced by atmospheric processing of organic aerosols may be contributing to or masked by humic-like fluorophores. ?? 2010.

  16. Alignment of policies to maximize the climate benefits of diesel vehicles through control of particulate matter and black carbon emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minjares, Ray; Blumberg, Kate; Posada Sanchez, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Diesel vehicles offer greater fuel-efficiency and lower greenhouse gas emissions at a time when national governments seek to reduce the energy and climate impacts of the vehicle fleet. Policies that promote diesels like preferential fuel taxes, fuel economy standards and greenhouse gas emission standards can produce higher emissions of diesel particulate matter if diesel particulate filters or equivalent emission control technology is not in place. This can undermine the expected climate benefits of dieselization and increase impacts on public health. This paper takes a historical look at Europe to illustrate the degree to which dieselization and lax controls on particulate matter can undermine the potential benefits sought from diesel vehicles. We show that countries on the dieselization pathway can fully capture the value of diesels with the adoption of tailpipe emission standards equivalent to Euro 6 or Tier 2 for passenger cars, and fuel quality standards that limit the sulfur content of diesel fuel to no greater than 15 ppm. Adoption of these policies before or in parallel with adoption of fuel consumption and greenhouse gas standards can avert the negative impacts of dieselization. - Highlights: ► Preferential tax policies have increased the dieselization of some light-duty vehicle fleets. ► Dieselization paired with lax emission standards produces large black carbon emissions. ► Diesel black carbon undermines the perceived climate benefits of diesel vehicles. ► Stringent controls on diesel particulate emissions will also reduce black carbon. ► Euro 6/VI equivalent emission standards can preserve the climate benefits of diesel vehicles

  17. Comparative analysis of wood chips and bundles - Costs, carbon dioxide emissions, dry-matter losses and allergic reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lisa; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    There are multiple systems for the collection, processing, and transport of forest residues for use as a fuel. We compare two systems in use in Sweden to analyze differences in fuel cost, CO{sub 2} emissions, dry-matter loss, and potential for allergic reactions. We compare a bundle system with the traditional Swedish chip system, and then do an in-depth comparison of a Finnish bundle system with the Swedish bundle system. Bundle systems have lower costs, while the allergic reactions do not differ significantly between the systems. The bundle machine is expensive, but results in high productivity and in an overall cost-effective system. The bundle system has higher primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions, but the lower dry-matter losses in the bundle system chain give CO{sub 2} emissions per delivered MWh almost as low as for the chip system. Also, lower dry-matter losses mean that more biomass per hectare can be extracted from the clear-cut area. This leads to a higher possible substitution of fossil fuels per hectare with the bundle system, and that more CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel can be avoided per hectare than in the chip system. The Finnish bundle system with its more effective compressing and forwarding is more cost- and energy-effective than the Swedish bundle system, but Swedish bundle systems can be adapted to be more effective in both aspects. (author)

  18. Properties and cellular effects of particulate matter from direct emissions and ambient sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wenjie; Su, Shu; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Xi; Chen, Yilin; Shen, Guofeng; Liu, Junfeng; Cheng, Hefa; Wang, Xilong; Wu, Shuiping; Zeng, Eddy; Xing, Baoshan; Tao, Shu

    2016-10-14

    The pollution of particulate matter (PM) is of great concern in China and many other developing countries. It is generally recognized that the toxicity of PM is source and property dependent. However, the relationship between PM properties and toxicity is still not well understood. In this study, PM samples from direct emissions of wood, straw, coal, diesel combustion, cigarette smoking and ambient air were collected and characterized for their physicochemical properties. Their expression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and levels of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) was measured using a RAW264.7 cell model. Our results demonstrated that the properties of the samples from different origins exhibited remarkable differences. Significant increases in ROS were observed when the cells were exposed to PMs from biomass origins, including wood, straw and cigarettes, while increases in TNF-α were found for all the samples, particularly those from ambient air. The most important factor associated with ROS generation was the presence of water-soluble organic carbon, which was extremely abundant in the samples that directly resulted from biomass combustion. Metals, endotoxins and PM size were the most important properties associated with increases in TNF-α expression levels. The association of the origins of PM particles and physicochemical properties with cytotoxic properties is illustrated using a cluster analysis.

  19. Quantities and qualities of physical and chemical fractions of soil organic matter under a rye cover crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    To detect the effects of a rye cover crop on labile soil carbon, the light fraction, large particulate organic matter (POM), small POM, and two NaOH-extractable humic fractions were extracted from three depths of a corn soil in central Iowa having an overwinter rye cover crop treatment and a contro...

  20. Anthropogenic impacts on the optical characteristics and biodegradability of dissolved and particulate organic matter in the Han River watershed, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirina Begum, Most; Jin, Hyojin; Yoon, Tae Kyung; Park, Ji-Hyung

    2016-04-01

    . Greater amounts of CO2 were produced in all the samples than could be explained by BDOC alone, indicating the role of POM as a source of CO2. Faster and more intense changes in the consumed or produced components detected in the differential images between the fluorescence excitation emission matrices collected at intervals also suggested activated organic matter processing and CO2 production upon mixing the mainstem and tributary organic matter. Overall results suggest that dams and urban water pollution leave idiosyncratic imprints in the optical characteristics of DOM along waterways of the dammed and urbanized watershed and that inputs of anthropogenic organic materials via urban tributary streams can exert a strong priming effect on the biodegradation of both DOM and POM downstream.

  1. The impact of dry matter loss during herbaceous biomass storage on net greenhouse gas emissions from biofuels production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, Isaac R.; Mosier, Nathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle inventory models of greenhouse gas emissions from biofuel production have become tightly integrated into government mandates and other policies to encourage biofuel production. Current models do not include life cycle impacts of biomass storage or reflect current literature on emissions from soil and biomass decomposition. In this study, the GREET model framework was used to determine net greenhouse gas emissions during ethanol production from corn and switchgrass via three biomass storage systems: wet ensiling of whole corn, and indoor and outdoor dry bale storage of corn stover and switchgrass. Dry matter losses during storage were estimated from the literature and used to modify GREET inventory analysis. Results showed that biomass stability is a key parameter affecting fuel production per farmed hectare and life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. Corn silage may generate 5358 L/ha of ethanol at 26.5 g CO 2 eq/MJ, relative to 5654 L/ha at 52.3 g CO 2 eq/MJ from combined corn stover and conventional grain corn ethanol production, or 3919 L/ha at 21.3 g CO 2 eq/MJ from switchgrass. Dry matter losses can increase net emissions by 3–25% (ensiling), 5–53% (bales outdoors), or 1–12% (bales indoors), decreasing the net GHG reduction of ethanol over gasoline by up to 10.9%. Greater understanding of biomass storage losses and greenhouse gas fluxes during storage is necessary to accurately assess biomass storage options to ensure that the design of biomass supply logistics systems meet GHG reduction mandates for biofuel production. -- Highlights: ► Analyzed the impact of biomass loss during storage. ► Probable dry matter losses strongly depend on storage method and infrastructure. ► Assessed impact of storage losses on LCA for cellulosic ethanol production. ► Storage losses increase GHG emissions by 1–53% depending upon storage conditions.

  2. Emission factors of particulate matter, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and levoglucosan from wood combustion in south-central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Jorge; Farias, Oscar; Quiroz, Roberto; Yañez, Jorge

    2017-07-01

    In south-central Chile, wood stoves have been identified as an important source of air pollution in populated areas. Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), Chilean oak (Nothofagus oblique), and mimosa (Acacia dealbata) were burned in a single-chamber slow-combustion wood stove at a controlled testing facility located at the University of Concepción, Chile. In each experiment, 2.7-3.1 kg of firewood were combusted while continuously monitoring temperature, exhaust gases, burn rate, and collecting particulate matter samples in Teflon filters under isokinetic conditions for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and levoglucosan analyses. Mean particulate matter emission factors were 2.03, 4.06, and 3.84 g/kg dry wood for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. The emission factors were inversely correlated with combustion efficiency. The mean emission factors of the sums of 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particle phases were 1472.5, 2134.0, and 747.5 μg/kg for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. Fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, and chrysene were present in the particle phase in higher proportions compared with other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that were analyzed. Mean levoglucosan emission factors were 854.9, 202.3, and 328.0 mg/kg for eucalyptus, oak, and mimosa, respectively. Since the emissions of particulate matter and other pollutants were inversely correlated with combustion efficiency, implementing more efficient technologies would help to reduce air pollutant emissions from wood combustion. Residential wood burning has been identified as a significant source of air pollution in populated areas. Local wood species are combusted for home cooking and heating, which releases several toxic air pollutants, including particulate matter, carbon monoxide, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Air pollutant emissions depend on the type of wood and the technology and operational conditions of the wood stove. A better understanding of emissions from

  3. X-RAY EMISSION FROM SUPERNOVAE IN DENSE CIRCUMSTELLAR MATTER ENVIRONMENTS: A SEARCH FOR COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofek, E. O.; Gal-Yam, A.; Yaron, O.; Arcavi, I.; Fox, D.; Cenko, S. B.; Filippenko, A. V.; Bloom, J. S.; Sullivan, M.; Gnat, O.; Frail, D. A.; Horesh, A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Corsi, A.; Quimby, R. M.; Gehrels, N.; Nugent, P. E.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Bildsten, L.; Poznanski, D.

    2013-01-01

    The optical light curve of some supernovae (SNe) may be powered by the outward diffusion of the energy deposited by the explosion shock (the so-called shock breakout) in optically thick (τ ∼> 30) circumstellar matter (CSM). Recently, it was shown that the radiation-mediated and radiation-dominated shock in an optically thick wind must transform into a collisionless shock and can produce hard X-rays. The X-rays are expected to peak at late times, relative to maximum visible light. Here we report on a search, using Swift/XRT and Chandra, for X-ray emission from 28 SNe that belong to classes whose progenitors are suspected to be embedded in dense CSM. Our sample includes 19 Type IIn SNe, one Type Ibn SN, and eight hydrogen-poor superluminous SNe (SLSN-I such as SN 2005ap). Two SNe (SN 2006jc and SN 2010jl) have X-ray properties that are roughly consistent with the expectation for X-rays from a collisionless shock in optically thick CSM. However, the X-ray emission from SN 2006jc can also be explained as originating in an optically thin region. Thus, we propose that the optical light curve of SN 2010jl is powered by shock breakout in CSM. We suggest that two other events (SN 2010al and SN 2011ht) were too X-ray bright during the SN maximum optical light to be explained by the shock-breakout model. We conclude that the light curves of some, but not all, SNe IIn/Ibn are powered by shock breakout in CSM. For the rest of the SNe in our sample, including all of the SLSN-I events, our X-ray limits are not deep enough and were typically obtained too early (i.e., near the SN maximum light) for definitive conclusions about their nature. Late-time X-ray observations are required in order to further test whether these SNe are indeed embedded in dense CSM. We review the conditions required for a shock breakout in a wind profile. We argue that the timescale, relative to maximum light, for the SN to peak in X-rays is a probe of the column density and the density profile above the

  4. 40 CFR 63.843 - Emission limits for existing sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... paste for plants with batch mixers. The POM emission rate shall be determined by sampling using Method 315 in appendix A to this part. (c) Anode bake furnaces. The owner or operator shall not discharge or...

  5. A large source of dust missing in Particulate Matter emission inventories? Wind erosion of post-fire landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Wagenbrenner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Wind erosion of soils burned by wildfire contributes substantial particulate matter (PM in the form of dust to the atmosphere, but the magnitude of this dust source is largely unknown. It is important to accurately quantify dust emissions because they can impact human health, degrade visibility, exacerbate dust-on-snow issues (including snowmelt timing, snow chemistry, and avalanche danger, and affect ecological and biogeochemical cycles, precipitation regimes, and the Earth’s radiation budget. We used a novel modeling approach in which local-scale winds were used to drive a high-resolution dust emission model parameterized for burned soils to provide a first estimate of post-fire PM emissions. The dust emission model was parameterized with dust flux measurements from a 2010 fire scar. Here we present a case study to demonstrate the ability of the modeling framework to capture the onset and dynamics of a post-fire dust event and then use the modeling framework to estimate PM emissions from burn scars left by wildfires in U.S. western sagebrush landscapes during 2012. Modeled emissions from 1.2 million ha of burned soil totaled 32.1 Tg (11.7–352 Tg of dust as PM10 and 12.8 Tg (4.68–141 Tg as PM2.5. Despite the relatively large uncertainties in these estimates and a number of underlying assumptions, these first estimates of annual post-fire dust emissions suggest that post-fire PM emissions could substantially increase current annual PM estimates in the U.S. National Emissions Inventory during high fire activity years. Given the potential for post-fire scars to be a large source of PM, further on-site PM flux measurements are needed to improve emission parameterizations and constrain these first estimates.

  6. Characterization of particulate matter emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Dallmann, T. R.; Onasch, T. B.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Worton, D. R.; Fortner, E. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Wood, E. C.; Franklin, J. P.; Worsnop, D. R.; Goldstein, A. H.; Harley, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions were measured in July 2010 from on-road motor vehicles driving through a highway tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. A soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was used to measure the chemical composition of PM emitted by gasoline and diesel vehicles at high time resolution. Organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC) concentrations were measured during various time periods that had different levels of diesel influence, as well as d...

  7. Contribution of biogenic emissions to the formation of ozone and particulate matter in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Betty K; Wu, Shiang-Yuh; Seigneur, Christian

    2002-08-15

    As anthropogenic emissions of ozone (O3) precursors, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and PM2.5 precursors continue to decrease in the United States, the fraction of O3 and PM2.5 attributable to natural sources may become significant in some locations, reducing the efficacy that can be expected from future controls of anthropogenic sources. Modeling studies were conducted to estimate the contribution of biogenic emissions to the formation of O3 and PM2.5 in Nashville/TN and the northeastern United States. Two approaches were used to bound the estimates. In an anthropogenic simulation, biogenic emissions and their influence at the domain boundaries were eliminated. Contributions of biogenic compounds to the simulated concentrations of O3 and PM2.5 were determined by the deviation of the concentrations in the anthropogenic case from those in the base case. A biogenic simulation was used to assess the amounts of O3 and PM2.5 produced in an environment free from anthropogenic influences in emissions and boundary conditions. In both locations, the contribution of biogenic emissions to O3 was small (production of O3 was much more sensitive to biogenic emissions in urban areas (22-34%). Therefore, the effects of biogenic emissions on O3 manifested mostly via their interaction with anthropogenic emissions of NOx. In the anthropogenic simulations, the average contribution of biogenic and natural sources to PM2.5 was estimated at 9% in Nashville/TN and 12% in the northeast domain. Because of the long atmospheric lifetimes of PM2.5, the contribution of biogenic/natural PM2.5 from the boundary conditions was higher than the contribution of biogenic aerosols produced within the domain. The elimination of biogenic emissions also affected the chemistry of other secondary PM2.5 components. Very little PM2.5 was formed in the biogenic simulations.

  8. Kinetic analysis of polyoxometalate (POM) oxidation of non-phenolic lignin model compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoya Yokoyama; Hou-min Chang; Ira A. Weinstock; Richard S. Reiner; John F. Kadla

    2003-01-01

    Kinetic and reaction mechanism of non-phenolic lignin model compounds under anaerobic polyoxometalate (POM), Na5(+1.9)[SiV1(-0.1)MoW10(+0.1) 40], bleaching conditions were examined. Analyses using a syringyl type model, 1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)ethanol (1), a guaiacyl type, 1-(3,4- imethoxyphenyl)ethanol (2), and 1- (4-ethoxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanol (3) suggest...

  9. The POM monoclonals: a comprehensive set of antibodies to non-overlapping prion protein epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalini Polymenidou

    Full Text Available PrP(Sc, a misfolded and aggregated form of the cellular prion protein PrP(C, is the only defined constituent of the transmissible agent causing prion diseases. Expression of PrP(C in the host organism is necessary for prion replication and for prion neurotoxicity. Understanding prion diseases necessitates detailed structural insights into PrP(C and PrP(Sc. Towards this goal, we have developed a comprehensive collection of monoclonal antibodies denoted POM1 to POM19 and directed against many different epitopes of mouse PrP(C. Three epitopes are located within the N-terminal octarepeat region, one is situated within the central unstructured region, and four epitopes are discontinuous within the globular C-proximal domain of PrP(C. Some of these antibodies recognize epitopes that are resilient to protease digestion in PrP(Sc. Other antibodies immunoprecipitate PrP(C, but not PrP(Sc. A third group was found to immunoprecipitate both PrP isoforms. Some of the latter antibodies could be blocked with epitope-mimicking peptides, and incubation with an excess of these peptides allowed for immunochromatography of PrP(C and PrP(Sc. Amino-proximal antibodies were found to react with repetitive PrP(C epitopes, thereby vastly increasing their avidity. We have also created functional single-chain miniantibodies from selected POMs, which retained the binding characteristics despite their low molecular mass. The POM collection, thus, represents a unique set of reagents allowing for studies with a variety of techniques, including western blotting, ELISA, immunoprecipitation, conformation-dependent immunoassays, and plasmon surface plasmon resonance-based assays.

  10. N-terminally truncated POM121C inhibits HIV-1 replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Saito

    Full Text Available Recent studies have identified host cell factors that regulate early stages of HIV-1 infection including viral cDNA synthesis and orientation of the HIV-1 capsid (CA core toward the nuclear envelope, but it remains unclear how viral DNA is imported through the nuclear pore and guided to the host chromosomal DNA. Here, we demonstrate that N-terminally truncated POM121C, a component of the nuclear pore complex, blocks HIV-1 infection. This truncated protein is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, does not bind to CA, does not affect viral cDNA synthesis, reduces the formation of 2-LTR and diminished the amount of integrated proviral DNA. Studies with an HIV-1-murine leukemia virus (MLV chimeric virus carrying the MLV-derived Gag revealed that Gag is a determinant of this inhibition. Intriguingly, mutational studies have revealed that the blockade by N-terminally-truncated POM121C is closely linked to its binding to importin-β/karyopherin subunit beta 1 (KPNB1. These results indicate that N-terminally-truncated POM121C inhibits HIV-1 infection after completion of reverse transcription and before integration, and suggest an important role for KPNB1 in HIV-1 replication.

  11. Laboratory Validation of Four Black Carbon Measurement Methods for Determination of the Nonvolatile Particulate Matter (nvPM) Mass Emissions from Commercial Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four candidate black carbon (BC) measurement techniques have been identified by the SAE International E-31 Committee for possible use in determining nonvolatile particulate matter (nvPM) mass emissions during commercial aircraft engine certification. These techniques are carbon b...

  12. Nitrous Oxide (N2O) Emissions by Termites: Does the Feeding Guild Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauman, Alain; Majeed, Muhammad Zeeshan; Buatois, Bruno; Robert, Alain; Pablo, Anne-Laure; Miambi, Edouard

    2015-01-01

    In the tropics, termites are major players in the mineralization of organic matter leading to the production of greenhouse gases including nitrous oxide (N2O). Termites have a wide trophic diversity and their N-metabolism depends on the feeding guild. This study assessed the extent to which N2O emission levels were determined by termite feeding guild and tested the hypothesis that termite species feeding on a diet rich in N emit higher levels of N2O than those feeding on a diet low in N. An in-vitro incubation approach was used to determine the levels of N2O production in 14 termite species belonging to different feeding guilds, collected from a wide range of biomes. Fungus-growing and soil-feeding termites emit N2O. The N2O production levels varied considerably, ranging from 13.14 to 117.62 ng N2O-N d(-1) (g dry wt.)(-1) for soil-feeding species, with Cubitermes spp. having the highest production levels, and from 39.61 to 65.61 ng N2O-N d(-1) (g dry wt.)(-1) for fungus-growing species. Wood-feeding termites were net N2O consumers rather than N2O producers with a consumption ranging from 16.09 to 45.22 ng N2O-N d(-1) (g dry wt.)(-1). Incubating live termites together with their mound increased the levels of N2O production by between 6 and 13 fold for soil-feeders, with the highest increase in Capritermes capricornis, and between 14 and 34 fold for fungus-growers, with the highest increase in Macrotermes muelleri. Ammonia-oxidizing (amoA-AOB and amoA-AOA) and denitrifying (nirK, nirS, nosZ) gene markers were detected in the guts of all termite species studied. No correlation was found between the abundance of these marker genes and the levels of N2O production from different feeding guilds. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that N2O production rates were higher in termites feeding on substrates with higher N content, such as soil and fungi, compared to those feeding on N-poor wood.

  13. Nitrous Oxide (N2O Emissions by Termites: Does the Feeding Guild Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Brauman

    Full Text Available In the tropics, termites are major players in the mineralization of organic matter leading to the production of greenhouse gases including nitrous oxide (N2O. Termites have a wide trophic diversity and their N-metabolism depends on the feeding guild. This study assessed the extent to which N2O emission levels were determined by termite feeding guild and tested the hypothesis that termite species feeding on a diet rich in N emit higher levels of N2O than those feeding on a diet low in N. An in-vitro incubation approach was used to determine the levels of N2O production in 14 termite species belonging to different feeding guilds, collected from a wide range of biomes. Fungus-growing and soil-feeding termites emit N2O. The N2O production levels varied considerably, ranging from 13.14 to 117.62 ng N2O-N d(-1 (g dry wt.(-1 for soil-feeding species, with Cubitermes spp. having the highest production levels, and from 39.61 to 65.61 ng N2O-N d(-1 (g dry wt.(-1 for fungus-growing species. Wood-feeding termites were net N2O consumers rather than N2O producers with a consumption ranging from 16.09 to 45.22 ng N2O-N d(-1 (g dry wt.(-1. Incubating live termites together with their mound increased the levels of N2O production by between 6 and 13 fold for soil-feeders, with the highest increase in Capritermes capricornis, and between 14 and 34 fold for fungus-growers, with the highest increase in Macrotermes muelleri. Ammonia-oxidizing (amoA-AOB and amoA-AOA and denitrifying (nirK, nirS, nosZ gene markers were detected in the guts of all termite species studied. No correlation was found between the abundance of these marker genes and the levels of N2O production from different feeding guilds. Overall, these results support the hypothesis that N2O production rates were higher in termites feeding on substrates with higher N content, such as soil and fungi, compared to those feeding on N-poor wood.

  14. Size matters: Exploring the importance of vessel characteristics to inform estimates of shipping emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Conor; Bows, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ship emission baselines can be used to inform studies but require prior knowledge. ► Region specific conditions alter average shipping emission factors. ► Region specific conditions are clearer when individual callings are examined. ► Relationship between ship size and emissions frustrates estimating mean emissions. -- Abstract: The decarbonisation agenda is placing increasing pressure on retailers to directly and indirectly influence greenhouse gas emissions associated with full supply chains. Transportation by sea is an important and significant element of these supply chains, yet the emissions associated with shipping, particularly international shipping, are often poorly accounted for. The magnitude of emissions embodied in a product is directly related to the distances involved in globalised product chains, where shipping can represent the most emission intensive stage per tonne of goods transported. Specifically, limited choice of ship type and size within assessment tools negates a fair estimate of product chain emissions. To address this, the correlation between ship emissions and size is quantified for a sample of United Kingdom (UK) port callings to estimate typical UK emission factors by ship type and size and to determine how well existing global data and available databases represent UK shipping activity. The results highlight that although ship type is a crucial determinant of emissions, vessel size is also important, particularly for smaller ships where the variance in emission factors is greatest. Existing, globally averaged data correlating ship size with emissions agree well with the UK data. However, the relatively higher proportion of smaller ships satisfying a UK demand for short sea shipping results in a skew towards higher typical emission factors, principally within the general cargo, product and chemical tanker categories. This bias is most visible when emissions per individual ship calling are estimated. Incorporating

  15. Evaluation of manure drying tunnels to serve as dust filters in the exhaust of laying hen houses: Emissions of particulate matter, ammonia, and odour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, Albert; Mosquera, Julio; Aarnink, André J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G.; Ogink, Nico W.M.

    2017-01-01

    IAgrE Poultry houses are important emission sources of ammonia, odour, and particulate matter (PM). Manure drying tunnels (MDTs) might act as ‘end of pipe’ PM filters, but might also emit additional ammonia and odour. This study aimed to gain insight into this matter (parts A and B) and into the

  16. Three-dimensional distribution of organic matter in coastal-deltaic peat : Implications for subsidence and carbon dioxide emissions by human-induced peat oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, K.; Stafleu, J.; Cohen, K. M.; Stouthamer, E.; Busschers, Freek S.; Middelkoop, H.

    2018-01-01

    Human-induced groundwater level lowering in the Holocene coastal-deltaic plain of the Netherlands causes oxidation of peat organic matter, resulting in land subsidence and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Here, a three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the distribution of the remaining peat organic matter

  17. Early UV emission from disc-originated matter (DOM) in Type Ia supernovae in the double-degenerate scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levanon, Naveh; Soker, Noam

    2017-09-01

    We show that the blue and UV excess emission in the first few days of some Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) can be accounted in the double-degenerate (DD) scenario by the collision of the SN ejecta with circumstellar matter that was blown by the accretion disc formed during the merger process of the two white dwarfs (WDs). We assume that in cases of excess early light, the disc blows the circumstellar matter, that we term disc-originated matter (DOM), hours to days before explosion. To perform our analysis, we first provide a model-based definition for early excess light, replacing the definition of excess light relative to a power-law fit to the rising luminosity. We then examine the light curves of the SNe Ia iPTF14atg and SN 2012cg, and find that the collision of the ejecta with a DOM in the frame of the DD scenario can account for their early excess emission. Thus, early excess light does not necessarily imply the presence of a stellar companion in the frame of the single-degenerate scenario. Our findings further increase the variety of phenomena that the DD scenario can account for, and emphasize the need to consider all different SN Ia scenarios when interpreting observations.

  18. Reliability and validity of the Pragmatics Observational Measure (POM): a new observational measure of pragmatic language for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Munro, Natalie; Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Speyer, Renée; Pearce, Wendy M

    2014-07-01

    There is a need for a reliable and valid assessment of childhood pragmatic language skills during peer-peer interactions. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of a newly developed pragmatic assessment, the Pragmatic Observational Measure (POM). The psychometric properties of the POM were investigated from observational data of two studies - study 1 involved 342 children aged 5-11 years (108 children with ADHD; 108 typically developing playmates; 126 children in the control group), and study 2 involved 9 children with ADHD who attended a 7-week play-based intervention. The psychometric properties of the POM were determined based on the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) taxonomy of psychometric properties and definitions for health-related outcomes; the Pragmatic Protocol was used as the reference tool against which the POM was evaluated. The POM demonstrated sound psychometric properties in all the reliability, validity and interpretability criteria against which it was assessed. The findings showed that the POM is a reliable and valid measure of pragmatic language skills of children with ADHD between the age of 5 and 11 years and has clinical utility in identifying children with pragmatic language difficulty. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. A comprehensive study of the characterization of particulate matter emissions from a Delmarva broiler poultry operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Shannon E.

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from agricultural practices, including those from animal feeding operations (AFO's) have become an increasingly important topic, and has generated considerable interest from local and state agencies, as well as, the local community over the past decade. Because of growth in population, and an increase in commercial and residential development within close proximity to these operations, which house a large number of animals in confinement, and because of a better understanding of the effects of exposure to airborne contaminants on health, this has lead to an increase in concerns and a demand for more research to be conducted on PM from AFO's. Particulate matter generated within, and emitted from, AFO's can carry with it various components including metals and microorganisms that can negatively affect health. This research was conducted in order to verify if PM from a broiler poultry operation on Delmarva has the potential to become a health concern. The first step was to determine concentrations of two size segregated fractions of PM from indoor and outdoor sampling sites over four seasonal periods, early summer (ES), late summer (LS), Fall (F), and Winter (W). Both PM10 and PM2.5 were collected because of their classification from the Environmental Protection Agency as having the ability to cause significant health effects with short-term exposure. Next, temporal and spatial characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on PM concentrations over the four seasonal periods. Following this, the chemical composition and morphology of PM10 and PM2.5 generated from the broiler poultry operation was investigated. Finally, further detailed information was obtained on arsenic speciation and oxidation state in PM to investigate toxicity. Arsenic use in the poultry industry has been occurring for a number of decades, and is most frequently administered in the organic form. However, studies have shown that these organo

  20. [Application of excitation-emission matrix spectrum combined with parallel factor analysis in dissolved organic matter in East China Sea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Li-Sha; Zhao, Wei-Hong; Miao, Hui

    2013-03-01

    Using excitation-emission matrix spectrum(EEMs) combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) examine the fluorescent components feature of dissolved organic matter (DOM) sampled from East China Sea in the summer and autumn was examined. The type, distribution and origin of the fluorescence dissolved organic matter were also discussed. Three fluorescent components were identified by PARAFAC, including protein-like component C1 (235, 280/330), terrestrial or marine humic-like component C2 (255, 330/400) and terrestrial humic-like component C3 (275, 360/480). The good linearity of the two humic-like components showed the same source or some relationship between the chemical constitutions. As a whole, the level of the fluorescence intensity in coastal ocean was higher than that of the open ocean in different water layers in two seasons. The relationship of three components with chlorophyll-a and salinity showed the DOM in the study area is almost not influenced by the living algal matter, but the fresh water outflow of the Yangtze River might be the source of them in the Yangtze River estuary in Summer. From what has been discussed above, we can draw the conclusion that the application of EEM-PARAFAC modeling will exert a profound influence upon the research of the dissolved organic matter.

  1. X-ray emission due to interaction of SN1987A ejecta with its progenitor's stellar-wind matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masai, Kuniaki.

    1990-06-01

    The progenitor of the supernova 1987A, Sk-69 202 probably had lost a considerable amount of mass in its stellar wind in the past evolutionary track through a red supergiant to a blue supergiant. In about 10 years, the expanding ejecta of SN1987A will catch up to collide with the wind matter ejected in the red supergiant phase. Shocks due to the collision will heat up the ejecta and the wind matter to cause an enhancement of thermal X-ray emission lasting for several decades. We predict the X-ray light curve and the spectrum as well as the epoch of the enhancement intending to encourage future X-ray observations, which will give a clue for the study of such peculiar stellar evolution with a blueward transition as Sk-69 202. (author)

  2. Location matters: The impact of renewable power on transmission congestion and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitaj, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Many governments offer subsidies for renewable power to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the power sector. However, most support schemes for renewable power do not take into account that emissions depend on the location of renewable and conventional power plants within an electricity grid. I simulate optimal power flow in a test grid when 4 renewable power plants connect to the grid across 24 potential sites, amounting to over 10,000 configurations. Each configuration is associated with different levels of emissions and renewable power output. I find that emission reductions vary by a factor of 7 and that curtailment due to transmission congestion is more likely when renewable power plants are concentrated in an area of the grid with low demand. Large cost savings could be obtained by allowing subsidies for renewable power to vary across locations according to abatement potential or by replacing subsidies with a price on emissions. - Highlights: • Analyze the impact of renewable power plant location on congestion and emissions. • Simulate optimal power flow in a test grid for over 10,000 configurations. • Determine that emission reductions vary by a factor of 7. • Find that renewable power is curtailed due to transmission congestion. • Pricing emissions is most efficient since abatement potential varies across locations.

  3. Effects of Particulate Organic Matter Complexation and Photo-Irradiation on the Fate and Toxicity of Mercury(II) in Aqueous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfond, C. E.; Kocar, B. D.; Carrasquillo, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    This project investigates how interactions between mercury (Hg) and particulate organic matter (POM) affect the fate, transport, and toxicity of Hg in the environment. Previous studies have evaluated the coordination of dissolved organic matter (DOM) with Hg, but the coordination of POM with Hg has not been thoroughly addressed. Owing to a high density of reactive functional groups, POM will sorb appreciable quantities of Hg, resulting in a large pool of Hg susceptible to organic matter dependent transformations. Particulate organic carbon is also susceptible photolysis, hence chemical changes induced by irradiation by natural sunlight is also important. Further, photo-reduction of Hg(II) to elemental mercury in the presence of DOM has been observed, yet studies examining this process with Hg(II) complexed to POM are less exhaustive. Here, we illustrate that POM derived from fresh plant detritus is a powerful sorbent of Hg(II), and sorbent properties are altered during POM photolysis. Further, we examine redox transformations of Hg(II), and examine functional groups that contribute to mercury association with POM. Batch sorption isotherms of Hg to dark and irradiated POM from ground Phragmites australis ("common reed") were performed and data was collected using ICP-MS. Coordination of Hg to POM was lower in the irradiated samples, resulting from the decrease in Hg-associated (reduced) sulfur bearing functional groups as measured using X-ray adsorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended x-ray adsorption fine structure (EXAFS). Further analysis of the dark and irradiated POM was performed using FT-IR microscopy and STXM to determine changes in distribution and alteration of functional groups responsible for Hg sorption to POM.

  4. Impact of alternative fuels on emissions characteristics of a gas turbine engine - part 2: volatile and semivolatile particulate matter emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul I; Allan, James D; Lobo, Prem; Coe, Hugh; Christie, Simon; Wilson, Christopher; Hagen, Donald; Whitefield, Philip; Raper, David; Rye, Lucas

    2012-10-02

    The work characterizes the changes in volatile and semivolatile PM emissions from a gas turbine engine resulting from burning alternative fuels, specifically gas-to-liquid (GTL), coal-to-liquid (CTL), a blend of Jet A-1 and GTL, biodiesel, and diesel, to the standard Jet A-1. The data presented here, compares the mass spectral fingerprints of the different fuels as measured by the Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. There were three sample points, two at the exhaust exit plane with dilution added at different locations and another probe located 10 m downstream. For emissions measured at the downstream probe when the engine was operating at high power, all fuels produced chemically similar organic PM, dominated by C(x)H(y) fragments, suggesting the presence of long chain alkanes. The second largest contribution came from C(x)H(y)O(z) fragments, possibly from carbonyls or alcohols. For the nondiesel fuels, the highest loadings of organic PM were from the downstream probe at high power. Conversely, the diesel based fuels produced more organic material at low power from one of the exit plane probes. Differences in the composition of the PM for certain fuels were observed as the engine power decreased to idle and the measurements were made closer to the exit plane.

  5. Emission of particulate matter from a desktop three-dimensional (3D) printer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinghai; LeBouf, Ryan F.; Duling, Matthew G.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy; Chen, Bean T.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Virji, M. Abbas; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers are becoming commonplace in business offices, public libraries, university labs and classrooms, and even private homes; however, these settings are generally not designed for exposure control. Prior experience with a variety of office equipment devices such as laser printers that emit ultrafine particles (UFP) suggests the need to characterize 3D printer emissions to enable reliable risk assessment. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influence particulate emissions from 3D printers and characterize their physical properties to inform risk assessment. Emissions were evaluated in a 0.5-m3 chamber and in a small room (32.7 m3) using real-time instrumentation to measure particle number, size distribution, mass, and surface area. Factors evaluated included filament composition and color, as well as the manufacturer-provided printer emissions control technologies while printing an object. Filament type significantly influenced emissions, with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) emitting larger particles than polylactic acid (PLA), which may have been the result of agglomeration. Geometric mean particle sizes and total particle (TP) number and mass emissions differed significantly among colors of a given filament type. Use of a cover on the printer reduced TP emissions by a factor of 2. Lung deposition calculations indicated a threefold higher PLA particle deposition in alveoli compared to ABS. Desktop 3D printers emit high levels of UFP, which are released into indoor environments where adequate ventilation may not be present to control emissions. Emissions in nonindustrial settings need to be reduced through the use of a hierarchy of controls, beginning with device design, followed by engineering controls (ventilation) and administrative controls such as choice of filament composition and color. PMID:27196745

  6. Emission of particulate matter from a desktop three-dimensional (3D) printer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jinghai; LeBouf, Ryan F; Duling, Matthew G; Nurkiewicz, Timothy; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Virji, M Abbas; Stefaniak, Aleksandr B

    2016-01-01

    Desktop three-dimensional (3D) printers are becoming commonplace in business offices, public libraries, university labs and classrooms, and even private homes; however, these settings are generally not designed for exposure control. Prior experience with a variety of office equipment devices such as laser printers that emit ultrafine particles (UFP) suggests the need to characterize 3D printer emissions to enable reliable risk assessment. The aim of this study was to examine factors that influence particulate emissions from 3D printers and characterize their physical properties to inform risk assessment. Emissions were evaluated in a 0.5-m(3) chamber and in a small room (32.7 m(3)) using real-time instrumentation to measure particle number, size distribution, mass, and surface area. Factors evaluated included filament composition and color, as well as the manufacturer-provided printer emissions control technologies while printing an object. Filament type significantly influenced emissions, with acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) emitting larger particles than polylactic acid (PLA), which may have been the result of agglomeration. Geometric mean particle sizes and total particle (TP) number and mass emissions differed significantly among colors of a given filament type. Use of a cover on the printer reduced TP emissions by a factor of 2. Lung deposition calculations indicated a threefold higher PLA particle deposition in alveoli compared to ABS. Desktop 3D printers emit high levels of UFP, which are released into indoor environments where adequate ventilation may not be present to control emissions. Emissions in nonindustrial settings need to be reduced through the use of a hierarchy of controls, beginning with device design, followed by engineering controls (ventilation) and administrative controls such as choice of filament composition and color.

  7. Comparative study for hardwood and softwood forest biomass: chemical characterization, combustion phases and gas and particulate matter emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Simone Simões; de Carvalho, João Andrade; Costa, Maria Angélica Martins; Soares Neto, Turíbio Gomes; Dellani, Rafael; Leite, Luiz Henrique Scavacini

    2014-07-01

    Two different types of typical Brazilian forest biomass were burned in the laboratory in order to compare their combustion characteristics and pollutant emissions. Approximately 2 kg of Amazon biomass (hardwood) and 2 kg of Araucaria biomass (softwood) were burned. Gaseous emissions of CO2, CO, and NOx and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) were evaluated in the flaming and smoldering combustion phases. Temperature, burn rate, modified combustion efficiency, emissions factor, and particle diameter and concentration were studied. A continuous analyzer was used to quantify gas concentrations. A DataRam4 and a Cascade Impactor were used to sample PM2.5. Araucaria biomass (softwood) had a lignin content of 34.9%, higher than the 23.3% of the Amazon biomass (hardwood). CO2 and CO emissions factors seem to be influenced by lignin content. Maximum concentrations of CO2, NOx and PM2.5 were observed in the flaming phase. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Emission Rate of Particulate Matter and Its Removal Efficiency by Precipitators in Under-Fired Charbroiling Restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Bok Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the potent role of meat cooking processes as the emission sources of particulate matter (PM, emission rates and the associated removal efficiency by precipitators were estimated based on the on-site measurements made at five under-fired charbroiling (UFC restaurants. The emission patterns of PM for these five restaurants were compared after having been sorted into the main meat types used for cooking: beef (B, chicken (C, intestines (I, and pork (P: two sites. The mass concentrations (μg m-3 of three PM fractions (PM2.5/PM10/TSP measured from these restaurants were 15,510/15,701/17,175 (C; 8,525/10,760/12,676 (B; 11,027/13,249/13,488 (P; and 22,409/22,412/22,414 (I. Emission factors (g kg-1 for those PM fractions were also estimated as 3.23/4.08/4.80 (B, 3.07/3.82/3.87 (P, 8.12/8.22/8.99 (C, and 6.59/6.59/6.59 (I. If the annual emission rate of PM10 is extrapolated by combining its emission factor, population, activity factor, etc., it is estimated as 500 ton year-1, which corresponds to 2.4% of the PM10 budget in Seoul, Korea. Removal efficiencies of PM10 via precipitators, such as an electrostatic precipitator (ESP, bag filter (BF, and the combination system (ESP + catalyst, installed in those UFC restaurants ranged between 54.76 and 98.98%. The removal efficiency of PM by this control system was the least effective for particles with <0.4 μm, although those in the range of 0.4–10 μm were the most effective.

  9. Does export product quality matter for CO2 emissions? Evidence from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozgor, Giray; Can, Muhlis

    2017-01-01

    This paper re-estimates the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in China. To this end, it uses the unit root tests with structural breaks and the autoregressive-distributed lag (ARDL) estimations over the period 1971-2010. The special role is given to the impact of export product quality on CO 2 emissions in the empirical models. The paper finds that the EKC hypothesis is applicable in China. It also observes the positive effect from energy consumption to CO 2 emissions. In addition, it finds that the export product quality is negatively associated with CO 2 emissions. The paper also argues potential implications.

  10. Two-component injection moulding simulation of ABS-POM micro structured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Islam, Aminul

    2013-01-01

    Multi-component micro injection moulding (μIM) processes such as two-component (2k) μIM are the key technologies for the mass fabrication of multi-material micro products. 2k-μIM experiments involving a miniaturized test component with micro features in the sub-mm dimensional range and moulding...... a pair of thermoplastic materials (ABS and POM) were conducted. Three dimensional process simulations based on the finite element method have been performed to explore the capability of predicting filling pattern shape at component-level and surface micro feature-level in a polymer/polymer overmoulding...

  11. New approach to measure soil particulate organic matter in intact samples using X-ray computed micro-tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Alexandra; Negassa, Wakene; Guber, Andrey; Schmidt, Sonja

    2014-05-01

    Particulate soil organic matter (POM) is biologically and chemically active fraction of soil organic matter. It is a source of many agricultural and ecological benefits, among which are POM's contribution to C sequestration. Most of conventional research methods for studying organic matter dynamics involve measurements conducted on pre-processed i.e., ground and sieved soil samples. Unfortunately, grinding and sieving completely destroys soil structure, the component crucial for soil functioning and C protection. Importance of a better understanding of the role of soil structure and of the physical protection that it provides to soil C cannot be overstated; and analysis of quantities, characteristics, and decomposition rates of POM in soil samples with intact structure is among the key elements of gaining such understanding. However, a marked difficulty hindering the progress in such analyses is a lack of tools for identification and quantitative analysis of POM in intact soil samples. Recent advancement in applications of X-ray computed micro-tomography (μ-CT) to soil science has given an opportunity to conduct such analyses. The objective of the current study is to develop a procedure for identification and quantitative characterization of POM within intact soil samples using X-ray μ-CT images and to test performance of the proposed procedure on a set of multiple intact soil macro-aggregates. We used 16 4-6 mm soil aggregates collected at 0-15 cm depth from a Typic Hapludalf soil at multiple field sites with diverse agricultural management history. The aggregates have been scanned at SIMBIOS Centre, Dundee, Scotland at 10 micron resolution. POM was determined from the aggregate images using the developed procedure. The procedure was based on combining image pre-processing steps with discriminant analysis classification. The first component of the procedure consisted of image pre-processing steps based on the range of gray values (GV) along with shape and size

  12. Effects of electron beam irradiation on tribological and physico-chemical properties of Polyoxymethylene copolymer (POM-C)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Md. Shahinur; Shaislamov, Ulugbek; Yang, Jong-Keun [Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Applications Laboratory, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju 63243 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Kuk [Plasma Processing Laboratory, Division of Surface Technology, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 797 Changwondaero, Sungsan-Gu, Changwon, Kyungnam 641-010 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Young Hun [Department of Physics, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju 63243 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sooseok [Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Applications Laboratory, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju 63243 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Heon-Ju, E-mail: hjlee@jejunu.ac.kr [Nuclear Fusion and Plasma Applications Laboratory, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehak-ro, Jeju-si, Jeju 63243 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Electron beam dose irradiation effect on tribology of POM-C was investigated. • Raman and FTIR-ATR spectra confirm the chemical structural modification. • 1 MeV, 100 kGy dose irradiation induced well suited carbonization and hydrophobicity. • Well suited carbonization and hydrophobicity reduced friction coefficient. - Abstract: Polyoxymethylene copolymer (POM-C) is an attractive and widely used engineering thermoplastic across many industrial sectors owing to outstanding physical, mechanical, self-lubricating and chemical properties. In this research work, the POM-C blocks were irradiated with 1 MeV electron beam energy in five doses (100, 200, 300, 500 and 700 kGy) in vacuum condition at room temperature. The tribological and physico-chemical properties of electron beam irradiated POM-C blocks have been analyzed using pin on disk tribometer, Raman spectroscopy, FTIR-ATR, gel content analysis, SEM-EDS (scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy), surface profiler and contact angle analyzer. Electron beam irradiation at a dose of 100 kGy resulted in decrease of the friction coefficient of POM-C block due to well suited carbonization, cross-linking, free radicals formation and partial physical modification. It also showed the lowest surface roughness and highest water contact angle among all unirradiated and irradiated POM-C blocks. The irradiation dose at 200 kGy resulted in increase of friction coefficient due to less effective cross-linking, but the irradiation doses at 300, 500 and 700 kGy resulted in increase of the friction coefficient as compared to unirradiated POM-C block due to severe chain scission, chemical and physical structural degradation. The degree of improvement for tribological attribute relies on the electron beam surface dose delivered (energy and dose rate).

  13. Characterizing and Quantifying Local and Regional Particulate Matter Emissions from Department of Defense Installations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gillies, J. A; Arnott, W. P; Etyemezian, V; Kuhns, H; Moosmueller, H; Schwemmer, Geary; Gillette, D. A; Nickling, W. G; Wilkerson, T; Varma, R

    2005-01-01

    ...) Develop a dust emission factor database for military vehicles traveling on unpaved surfaces that reflects the influence of the surface over which the travel takes place and the speed of the vehicles; 3...

  14. Does trade matter for carbon emissions in OECD countries? Evidence from a new trade openness measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozgor, Giray

    2017-12-01

    This paper analyzes the impacts of the per capita income, the per capita energy consumption, and the trade openness on the level of per capita carbon emissions in the panel dataset of 35 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries over the period 1960-2013. Along with the nominal trade openness, the paper uses a different trade openness measure, so called as the "trade potential index" (TPI). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that uses the TPI in the empirical environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis literature. The paper finds that the EKC hypothesis is valid and there is an "inverted-U" relationship between the income and the carbon emissions. In addition, the paper observes that there is a positive effect of the energy consumption on the carbon emissions. Furthermore, the results indicate that both trade openness measures are negatively associated with the carbon emissions in the OECD countries in the long run.

  15. Final report for measurement of primary particulate matter emissions from light-duty motor vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norbeck, J. M.; Durbin, T. D.; Truex, T. J.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes the results of a particulate emissions study conducted at the University of California, Riverside, College of Engineering-Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) from September of 1996 to August of 1997. The goal of this program was to expand the database of particulate emissions measurements from motor vehicles to include larger numbers of representative in-use vehicles. This work was co-sponsored by the Coordinating Research Council (CRC), the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and was part of a larger study of particulate emissions being conducted in several states under sponsorship by CRC. For this work, FTP particulate mass emission rates were determined for gasoline and diesel vehicles, along with the fractions of particulates below 2.5 and 10 microns aerodynamic diameter. A total of 129 gasoline-fueled vehicles and 19 diesel-fueled vehicles were tested as part of the program.

  16. Locomotive emissions test stand with particulate matter measurement integration : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This project builds upon previous research efforts, in which a complete instruction manual and bill of materials was developed for : a blueprint that allows any organization in the railroad industry to build their own locomotive emissions measurement...

  17. Effect of Fuel Composition on Particulate Matter Emissions from a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Bryden Alexander

    The effects of fuel composition on reducing PM emissions were investigated using a Ford Focus wall-guided gasoline direct injection engine (GDI). Initial results with a 65% isooctane and 35% toluene blend showed significant reductions in PM emissions. Further experiments determined that this decrease was due to a lack of light-end components in that fuel blend. Tests with pentane content lower than 15% were found to have PN concentrations 96% lower than tests with 20% pentane content. This indicates that there is a shift in mode of soot production. Pentane significantly increases the vapour pressure of the fuel blend, potentially resulting in surface boiling, less homogeneous mixtures, or decreased fuel rebound from the piston. PM mass measurements and PN Index values both showed strong correlations with the PN concentration emissions. In the gaseous exhaust, THC, pentane, and 1,3 butadiene showed strong correlations with the PM emissions.

  18. Source apportionment of traffic emissions of particulate matter using tunnel measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Mao, Hongjun; Prain, Hunter Douglas; Bull, Ian D.

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to quantify exhaust/non-exhaust emissions and the uncertainties associated with them by combining innovative motorway tunnel sampling and source apportionment modelling. Analytical techniques ICP-AES and GC-MS were used to identify the metallic and organic composition of PM10, respectively. Good correlation was observed between Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Sb and change in traffic volume. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organics varies significantly at the entrance and exit site of the tunnel, with fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene and benzothiazole having the highest incremented concentrations. The application of Principal Component Analysis and Multiple Linear Regression Analysis helped to identify the emission sources for 82% of the total PM10 mass inside the tunnel. Identified sources include resuspension (27%), diesel exhaust emissions (21%), petrol exhaust emissions (12%), brake wear emissions (11%) and road surface wear (11%). This study shows that major health related chemical species of PM10 originate from non-exhaust sources, further signifying the need for legislation to reduce these emissions.

  19. Evaluation of solid particle number and black carbon for very low particulate matter emissions standards in light-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, M-C Oliver; Shields, J Erin

    2017-06-01

    To reliably measure at the low particulate matter (PM) levels needed to meet California's Low Emission Vehicle (LEV III) 3- and 1-mg/mile particulate matter (PM) standards, various approaches other than gravimetric measurement have been suggested for testing purposes. In this work, a feasibility study of solid particle number (SPN, d50 = 23 nm) and black carbon (BC) as alternatives to gravimetric PM mass was conducted, based on the relationship of these two metrics to gravimetric PM mass, as well as the variability of each of these metrics. More than 150 Federal Test Procedure (FTP-75) or Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (US06) tests were conducted on 46 light-duty vehicles, including port-fuel-injected and direct-injected gasoline vehicles, as well as several light-duty diesel vehicles equipped with diesel particle filters (LDD/DPF). For FTP tests, emission variability of gravimetric PM mass was found to be slightly less than that of either SPN or BC, whereas the opposite was observed for US06 tests. Emission variability of PM mass for LDD/DPF was higher than that of both SPN and BC, primarily because of higher PM mass measurement uncertainties (background and precision) near or below 0.1 mg/mile. While strong correlations were observed from both SPN and BC to PM mass, the slopes are dependent on engine technologies and driving cycles, and the proportionality between the metrics can vary over the course of the test. Replacement of the LEV III PM mass emission standard with one other measurement metric may imperil the effectiveness of emission reduction, as a correlation-based relationship may evolve over future technologies for meeting stringent greenhouse standards. Solid particle number and black carbon were suggested in place of PM mass for the California LEV III 1-mg/mile FTP standard. Their equivalence, proportionality, and emission variability in comparison to PM mass, based on a large light-duty vehicle fleet examined, are dependent on engine

  20. About dark matter search and diffuse gamma ray emission with the H.E.S.S. experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonnier, A.

    2010-01-01

    Very high energy gamma-ray astronomy (E ≥ 30 GeV), that allows to probe non-thermal processes in the universe, is a rather young field of research. Up to now, most of the objects that have been observed are point-like or have small spatial extensions. However, the interaction of cosmic rays with the interstellar medium is expected to give rise to a diffuse emission at these energies. A preliminary study of the detectability of this diffuse component by the H.E.S.S. telescope array is presented. The latter has been operating since 2004 and detects the Cherenkov light from atmospheric showers that are generated by very high energy photons. The standard On-O background subtraction method is investigated along with the influence of the sky background noise on the recorded event rate. A second theme covered by this thesis is that of the detectability of dark matter by the H.E.S.S. experiment. This is performed using Clumpy, a semi-analytical code developed during this thesis. The Clumpy code calculates the gamma-ray flux from dark matter annihilation from user-defined galactic structure and sub-structure distributions. The H.E.S.S. ∼15 hour long observation of the Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy has furthermore set an upper limit at 10 -22 cm 3 s -1 for the dark matter annihilation cross section. (author)

  1. 40 CFR 49.126 - Rule for limiting fugitive particulate matter emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... amount of fugitive particulate matter that may be emitted from certain air pollution sources operating... minimize the accumulation of dusty materials that have the potential to become airborne, and the prompt... materials likely to become airborne. (viii) The prompt removal from paved streets of earth or other material...

  2. Impacts of Mid-level Biofuel Content in Gasoline on SIDI Engine-Out and Tailpipe Particulate Matter Emissions: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.; Ireland, J. C.; Zigler, B. T.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Knoll, K. E.; Alleman, T. L.; Tester, J. T.

    2011-02-01

    The influences of ethanol and iso-butanol blended with gasoline on engine-out and post Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) particle size distribution and number concentration were studied using a GM 2.0L turbocharged Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was operated using the production ECU with a dynamometer controlling the engine speed and the accelerator pedal position controlling the engine load. A TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) spectrometer was used to measure the particle size distribution in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm with a sampling rate of 1 Hz. US federal certification gasoline (E0), two ethanol-blended fuels (E10 and E20), and 11.7% iso-butanol blended fuel (BU12) were tested. Measurements were conducted at ten selected steady-state engine operation conditions. Bi-modal particle size distributions were observed for all operating conditions with peak values at particle sizes of 10 nm and 70 nm. Idle and low speed / low load conditions emitted higher total particle numbers than other operating conditions. At idle, the engine-out Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were dominated by nucleation mode particles, and the production TWC reduced these nucleation mode particles by more than 50%, while leaving the accumulation mode particle distribution unchanged. At engine load higher than 6 bar NMEP, accumulation mode particles dominated the engine-out particle emissions and the TWC had little effect. Compared to the baseline gasoline (E0), E10 does not significantly change PM emissions, while E20 and BU12 both reduce PM emissions under the conditions studied. Iso-butanol was observed to impact PM emissions more than ethanol, with up to 50% reductions at some conditions. In this paper, the issues related to PM measurement using FMPS are also discussed. While some uncertainties are due to engine variation, the FMPS must be operated under careful maintenance procedures in order to achieve repeatable measurement results.

  3. On-road heavy-duty diesel particulate matter emissions modeled using chassis dynamometer data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kear, Tom; Niemeier, D A

    2006-12-15

    This study presents a model, derived from chassis dynamometer test data, for factors (operational correction factors, or OCFs) that correct (g/mi) heavy-duty diesel particle emission rates measured on standard test cycles for real-world conditions. Using a random effects mixed regression model with data from 531 tests of 34 heavy-duty vehicles from the Coordinating Research Council's E55/E59 research project, we specify a model with covariates that characterize high power transient driving, time spent idling, and average speed. Gram per mile particle emissions rates were negatively correlated with high power transient driving, average speed, and time idling. The new model is capable of predicting relative changes in g/mi on-road heavy-duty diesel particle emission rates for real-world driving conditions that are not reflected in the driving cycles used to test heavy-duty vehicles.

  4. Effects of organic matter application on methane emission from paddy fields adopting organic farming system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Nungkat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A study that was aimed to determine the effect of the use of organic manure and azolla on methane emission on paddy field of organic systems was conducted on paddy fields in the Gempol Village, Sambirejo District of Sragen Regency, Indonesia. The experimental design performed for this study was a completely randomized block design consisting of three factors; the factor I was rice cultivars (Mira-1; Mentik Wangi; Merah Putih; factor II was dose of organic manure (0 t/ha and 10 t/ha and factor III was Azolla inoculums dose (0 t/ha and 2 t/ha. Gas sampling was conducted 3 times in one growing season when the rice plants reached ages of 38, 66 and 90 days after planting. The results showed that there was no correlation between the uses of organic fertilizers for rice production on methane emission. The increase of methane emission was very much influenced by the redox potential. Methane emission from Mira-1 field was higher than that from Mentik Wangi and Merah Putih fields. Emission of methane gas from Mira-1 field ranged from -509.82 to 791.34 kg CH4/ha; that from Wangi ranged from -756.77 to d 547.50 kg CH4/ha and that from Merah Putih ranged from -399.63 to 459.94 kg CH4/ha. Application of 10 t organic manure /ha and 2 t azolla/ha in Mentik Wangi reduced methane emissions with a high rice production compared to Merah Putih and Mira-1.

  5. Chemical and isotopic composition of marine organic matter as indicators of its origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malej, A.

    1989-07-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the relative importance of marine and terrestrial sources of Particulate Organic Matter (POM) in the Northern Adriatic Sea. Samples of POM were obtained from the water column at 14 stations using Niskin bottles at 4 depths and sediment traps (placed near the sea floor). Additional samples were obtained of likely source organic matter: sewage, river POM, phytoplankton bloom material, zooplankton, jelly-fish and bethic macrophytes. All samples were analyzed for total carbon and nitrogen and the delta C-13/C-12 ratio (by mass spectrometry). Marine and terrestrial sources of POM were clearly distinguished by their isotopic ratios. A linear model was set up to evaluate the relative importance of these sources at each sampling station. Except in the immediate vicinity of river sources, the marine component appears to dominate. 7 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  6. EMISSIONS FROM INDIRECT LAND USE CHANGE: DO THEY MATTER WITH FUEL MARKET LEAKAGES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Drabik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indirect land use change, an agricultural market leakage, has been a major controversy over the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA requirement for corn-ethanol to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG emissions by 20 percent relative to gasoline it is assumed to replace. This paper shows that corn-ethanol policies generate far greater carbon leakage in the fuel market itself. Hence, corn-ethanol does not meet EPA’s threshold, regardless of ethanol policy and whether one includes emissions from land use change.

  7. Temporal variability in aerosol characteristics and its radiative properties over Patiala, northwestern part of India: Impact of agricultural biomass burning emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, D; Srivastava, A K; Ram, K; Singh, A; Singh, D

    2017-12-01

    A comprehensive measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD), particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) mass concentrations have been carried out over Patiala, a semi-urban site in northwest India during October 2008 to September 2010. The measured aerosol data was incorporated in an aerosol optical model to estimate various aerosol optical parameters, which were subsequently used for radiative forcing estimation. The measured AOD at 500 nm (AOD 500 ) shows a significant seasonal variability, with maximum value of 0.81 during post-monsoon (PoM) and minimum of 0.56 during winter season. The Ångström exponent (α) has higher values (i.e. more fine-mode fraction) during the PoM/winter periods, and lower (i.e. more coarse-mode fraction) during pre-monsoon (PrM). In contrast, turbidity coefficient (β) exhibits an opposite trend to α during the study period. BC mass concentration varies from 2.8 to 13.9 μg m -3 (mean: 6.5 ± 3.2 μg m -3 ) during the entire study period, with higher concentrations during PoM/winter and lower during PrM/monsoon seasons. The average single scattering albedo (SSA at 500 nm) values are 0.70, 0.72, 0.82 and 0.75 during PoM, winter, PrM and monsoon seasons, respectively. However, inter-seasonal and inter-annual variability in measured aerosol parameters are statistically insignificant at Patiala. These results suggest strong changes in emission sources, aerosol composition, meteorological parameters as well as transport of aerosols over the station. Higher values of AOD, α and BC, along with lower SSA during PoM season are attributed to agriculture biomass burning emissions over and around the station. The estimated aerosol radiative forcing within the atmosphere is positive (i.e. warming) during all the seasons with higher values (∼60 Wm -2 ) during PoM-08/PoM-09 and lower (∼40 Wm -2 ) during winter-09/PrM-10. The present study highlights the role of BC aerosols from agricultural biomass burning emissions during post

  8. Projection of SO2, NOx, NMVOC, particulate matter and black carbon emissions - 2015-2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Hjelgaard, Katja Hossy

    This report contains a description of models and background data for projection of SO2, NOX, NMVOC, PM2.5 and black carbon for Denmark. The emissions are projected to 2030 using basic scenarios together with the expected results of a few individual policy measures. Official Danish forecasts...

  9. Review, improvement and harmonisation of the Nordic particulate matter air emission inventories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Illerup, Jytte Boll; Kindbom, Karin

    the reported emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 was calculated for each country. Norway has the largest share of PM2.5 compared to PM10 (88 %), whereas Finland has the lowest (66 %). Denmark and Sweden are right in the middle with 73 and 76 %, respectively. The completeness of the inventories was assessed...

  10. How much do electric drive vehicles matter to future U.S. emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Samaneh; Nagpure, Ajay S; DeCarolis, Joseph F

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and battery electric vehicles--known collectively as electric drive vehicles (EDVs)--may represent a clean and affordable option to meet growing U.S. light duty vehicle (LDV) demand. The goal of this study is 2-fold: identify the conditions under which EDVs achieve high LDV market penetration in the U.S. and quantify the associated change in CO2, SO2, and NOX emissions through midcentury. We employ the Integrated MARKAL-EFOM System (TIMES), a bottom-up energy system model, along with a U.S. data set developed for this analysis. To characterize EDV deployment through 2050, varying assumptions related to crude oil and natural gas prices, a CO2 policy, a federal renewable portfolio standard, and vehicle battery cost were combined to form 108 different scenarios. Across these scenarios, oil prices and battery cost have the biggest effect on EDV deployment. The model results do not demonstrate a clear and consistent trend toward lower system-wide emissions as EDV deployment increases. In addition to the trade-off between lower tailpipe and higher electric sector emissions associated with plug-in vehicles, the scenarios produce system-wide emissions effects that often mask the effect of EDV deployment.

  11. Response of fine particulate matter concentrations to changes of emissions and temperature in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Megaritis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PMCAMx-2008, a three dimensional chemical transport model (CTM, was applied in Europe to quantify the changes in fine particle (PM2.5 concentration in response to different emission reductions as well as to temperature increase. A summer and a winter simulation period were used, to investigate the seasonal dependence of the PM2.5 response to 50% reductions of sulfur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, nitrogen oxides (NOx, anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs and anthropogenic primary organic aerosol (POA emissions and also to temperature increases of 2.5 and 5 K. Reduction of NH3 emissions seems to be the most effective control strategy for reducing PM2.5, in both periods, resulting in a decrease of PM2.5 up to 5.1 μg m−3 and 1.8 μg m−3 (5.5% and 4% on average during summer and winter respectively, mainly due to reduction of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3 (20% on average in both periods. The reduction of SO2 emissions decreases PM2.5 in both periods having a significant effect over the Balkans (up to 1.6 μg m−3 during the modeled summer period, mainly due to decrease of sulfate (34% on average over the Balkans. The anthropogenic POA control strategy reduces total OA by 15% during the modeled winter period and 8% in the summer period. The reduction of total OA is higher in urban areas close to its emissions sources. A slight decrease of OA (8% in the modeled summer period and 4% in the modeled winter period is also predicted after a 50% reduction of VOCs emissions due to the decrease of anthropogenic SOA. The reduction of NOx emissions reduces PM2.5 (up to 3.4 μg m−3 during the summer period, due to a decrease of NH4NO3, causing although an increase of ozone concentration in major urban areas and over Western Europe. Additionally, the NOx control strategy actually increases PM2.5 levels during the winter period, due to more oxidants becoming available to react with SO2 and VOCs. The increase of temperature results in a decrease of PM2

  12. Response of winter fine particulate matter concentrations to emission and meteorology changes in North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The winter haze is a growing problem in North China, but the causes are not well understood. The chemistry version of the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF-Chem was applied in North China to examine how PM2.5 concentrations change in response to changes in emissions (sulfur dioxide (SO2, black carbon (BC, organic carbon (OC, ammonia (NH3, and nitrogen oxides (NOx, as well as meteorology (temperature, relative humidity (RH, and wind speeds changes in winter. From 1960 to 2010, the dramatic changes in emissions lead to +260 % increases in sulfate, +320 % increases in nitrate, +300 % increases in ammonium, +160 % increases in BC, and +50 % increases in OC. The responses of PM2.5 to individual emission species indicate that the simultaneous increases in SO2, NH3, and NOx emissions dominated the increases in PM2.5 concentrations. PM2.5 shows more notable increases in response to changes in SO2 and NH3 as compared to increases in response to changes in NOx emissions. In addition, OC also accounts for a large fraction in PM2.5 changes. These results provide some implications for haze pollution control. The responses of PM2.5 concentrations to temperature increases are dominated by changes in wind fields and mixing heights. PM2.5 shows relatively smaller changes in response to temperature increases and RH decreases compared to changes in response to changes in wind speed and aerosol feedbacks. From 1960 to 2010, aerosol feedbacks have been significantly enhanced due to higher aerosol loadings. The discussions in this study indicate that dramatic changes in emissions are the main cause of increasing haze events in North China, and long-term trends in atmospheric circulations may be another important cause since PM2.5 is shown to be substantially affected by wind speed and aerosol feedbacks. More studies are necessary to get a better understanding of the aerosol–circulation interactions.

  13. Estructura de tallas, madurez gonádica y alimentación del pez Diapterus rhombeus (Gerreidae en el sistema fluvio-deltaico Pom-Atasta, Campeche, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Aguirre-León

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el pez D. rhombeus en el sistema fluviodeltaico Pom-Atasta, asociado a la Laguna de Términos Campeche, en un ciclo anual de 1992 a 1993. Esta especie es dominante en el sistema por su abundancia numérica, peso, frecuencia y amplia distribución. Se obtuvieron 745 individuos con un peso total de 2 890.2 g y un intervalo de longitud total de 3.0 a 16.7 cm. La variación anual del coeficiente alométrico b fue de 2.71 a 3.45. El factor de condición varió de 0.711 a 0.934. Fueron obtenidas diferencias significativas (pSize structure, gonadic development and diet of the fish Diapterus rhombeus (Gerreidae in the Pom-Atasta fluvial-deltaic system, Campeche, Mexico. The fish Diapterus rhombeus was studied during an annual cycle from 1992 to 1993 in the fluvial-deltaic Pom-Atasta system associated with Terminos Lagoon, Campeche, Mexico. It is a dominant species in the system, based on its numeric abundance, weight, high frequency and wide distribution. A total of 745 individuals were obtained, with a weigth of 2 890.2 g and length ranging from 3.0 to 16.7 cm. The annual variation of the allometric coefficient b was from 2.71 to 3.345. The condition factor varied from 0.711 to 0.934. The statistical analysis shows significant differences (p< 0.05 between the seasons of the year and the habitats of the system for the weight, the longitude and the condition factor K, which reflects the space-temporal utilization of the system for the species. The population present at Pom-Atasta, consists mainly by juvenile and few preadults individuals in gonadal stages I, II, and III, and more females than males were recorded. This species utilizes the system as a nursery area, growth and feeding area. It has a varied trophic spectrum, and consumes at least eight different groups. Its principal food items are undetermined organic matter, foraminifers, ostracods and tanaidaceans. It is a first order consumer. The Pom-Atasta system is located in a zone of

  14. Measurement of emissions of fine particulate organic matter from Chinese cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ling-Yan; Hu, Min; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Yu, Ben-De; Zhang, Yuan-Hang; Liu, De-Quan

    Cooking emissions may contribute significantly to atmospheric organic particles in urban environment in China, and thus need to be examined first for its chemical compositions and characteristics. The particulate organic emissions of the two cooking styles of Chinese cuisine, that is, Hunan Cooking and Cantonese Cooking, were characterized in Shenzhen. More than half of the PM 2.5 mass is due to organic compounds, and over 90 species of organic compounds were identified and quantified, accounting for 26.1% of bulk organic particle mass and 20.7% of PM 2.5. Fatty acids, diacids and steroids were the major organic compounds emitted from both styles of cooking. Of the quantified organic mass, over 90% was fatty acids. The mass of organic species, and the molecular distribution of n-alkanes and PAHs indicated the dissimilarities between the two different cooking styles, but generally the major parts of the organic particulate emissions of the two restaurants were similar, showing less difference than between Chinese and American cooking.

  15. Management matters: Testing a mitigation strategy of nitrous oxide emissions on managed grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Kathrin; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Eugster, Werner; Koller, Patrick; Käslin, Florian; Merbold, Lutz

    2017-04-01

    The magnitude of greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange between managed grasslands and the atmosphere depends besides climate predominantly on management practices. While natural or extensively managed grasslands are known to function as GHG sinks, intensively managed grasslands are characterized by substantial nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions diminishing their sink function. One potential N2O mitigation strategy is to reduce the required amount of nitrogen (N) fertilizer input by using biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) via legumes. However, the effect of legumes on nitrous oxide emissions is still not fully understood. In this study we quantify net GHG fluxes from two differently managed grassland parcels (mitigation, control) and relate our results to productivity (yields). In addition, we aim at revealing the influence of various driver variables on N2O exchange. Our experimental setup consisted of an eddy covariance tower that measured the net exchange of the three major anthropogenic GHGs, nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Both grassland parcels can be covered with this tower due to two prevailing wind directions. GHG flux measurements were accompanied by measurements of commonly known driver variables such as water filled pore space, soil temperature, soil oxygen concentrations and mineral N to disentangle the soil meteorological influence of N2O fluxes from human drivers. Following organic fertilizer application, we measured elevated N2O emissions (>1 nmol m-2 s-1) at the control parcel and unchanged N2O emissions at the treatment parcel. Net annual fluxes were 54% and 50% lower at the experimental parcel in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Annual yields did not significantly differ between parcels, but were slightly lower at the experimental parcel compared to the control parcel. Significantly lower nitrous oxide fluxes under experimental management indicate that nitrous oxide emissions can be effectively reduced at very low costs with a clover

  16. [Vermicomposting of different organic materials and three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of their dissolved organic matter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Wang, Dong-sheng; Liu, Man-qiang; Hu, Feng; Li, Hui-xin; Huang, Zhong-yang; Chang, Yi-jun; Jiao, Jia-guo

    2015-10-01

    In this experiment, different proportions of the cattle manure, tea-leaf, herb and mushroom residues, were used as food for earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to study the growth of the earth-worm. Then the characteristics and transformation of nutrient content and three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence (3DEEM) of dissolved organic matter (DOM) during vermistabilization were investigated by means of chemical and spectroscopic methods. The result showed that the mixture of different ratios of cattle manure with herb residue, and cattle manure with tea-leaf were conducive to the growth of earthworm, while the materials compounded with mushroom residue inhibited the growth of earthworm. With the increasing time of verimcomposting, the pH in vermicompost tended to be circumneutral and weakly acidic, and there were increases in electrical conductivity, and the contents of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, available nitrogen, and available phosphorus, while the total potassium and available potassium increased first and then decreased, and the organic matter content decreased. 3DEEM and fluorescence regional integration results indicated that, the fluorescence of protein-like fluorescence peaks declined significantly, while the intensity of humic-like fluorescence peak increased significantly in DOM. Vermicomposting process might change the compositions of DOM with elevated concentrations of humic acid and fulvic acid in the organics. In all, this study suggested the suitability of 3DEEM for monitoring the organics transformation and assessing the maturity in the vermicomposting.

  17. Micro injection moulding process optimization of an ultra-small POM three-dimensional component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baruffi, Federico; Calaon, Matteo; Tosello, Guido

    Replication-based manufacturing processes are a cost effective method for producing complex and net-shaped components [1]. Micro injection moulding has a prominent place among them for its capability of accurately and precisely produce micro plastic parts in large production scale [2], [3......]. In this study, the optimization of the micro injection moulding process of an ultra-small (volume: 0.07 mm3; mass: 0.1 mg) three-dimensional Polyoxymethylene (POM) micro component for medical applications (see Figure 1) is presented. Preliminary experiments highlighted the need for venting channels in order...... with respect to design specifications, the flash areal size was utilized as quality indicator. A design of the experiments approach was carried out in order to study the effects of melt temperature, mould temperature, holding pressure and injection speed. For this task, a two-level full factorial design...

  18. On The compatibility and dynamic vulcanization of Pom/Nbr blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortezaee, M.; Naveed Family, M.H.; Mehrabzadeh, M.

    2001-01-01

    Polymer blends based on polyacetal butadiene rubber were prepared by melt blending technique. The mixing parameters such ad temperature, time and speed of mixing were varied to obtain a wide range of properties. The mixing parameters were optimized by evaluating the mechanical properties of the blend over a wide range of mixing conditions. The morphology of the blend indicated a two-phase structure. This study describes an attempt to improve the tensile strength of Pom/Nbr blends by means of compatibility and dynamic vulcanization. A commercial compatibility, maleic anhydride (Ma), has been used to control the phase morphology of the blend system. Dicumyl peroxide is used to dynamically vulcanize the Nbr elastomer in the blend. The tensile strength of the compatibility systems showed improvement. Dynamic vulcanization raises elastic recovery and tensile modulus of the blends, but the elongation at break decreases

  19. Effect of flexible fuels on mechanical properties of reinforced polyoxymethylenes (POM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gómez-Mares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of flexible fuels has been increased during the last years making essential to run compatibility tests with those materials exposed to them. In this work the effect of the flexible fuels M15A (Volume Mixture of 85% fuel C and 15 % Aggressive methanol and M30A (Volume mixture of 70% fuel C and 30 % Aggressive methanol on the mechanical properties of some polymers of the Polyoxymethylene (POM family is assessed. The polymers chosen had different levels of glass fiber filler (0, 10 and 25%. The samples were immersed on fuel and kept on a chamber at 80°C during 1008h. The results showed that the properties of polymers with filler are more affected than the ones of the polymers without it. Tensile stress at break and Tensile stress at yield diminished with the fuel exposure. The most aggressive fuel was found to be M30A, due to the higher methanol concentration.

  20. Study of cerebral blood flow and oxygen utilization in the edematous area and ipsilateral hemispheric gray matter using positron emission tomography in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yusuke

    1990-01-01

    We measured the cerebral blood flow and oxygen utilization of the peritumoral white matter and ipsilateral hemispheric gray matter in 50 patients with brain tumors using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The intraaxial tumors consisted of 34 cases (25 of gliomas, 6 of metastatic tumors, and 3 others), white the extraaxial tumors (all of meningiomas) were 16 cases. The cases were divided into 2 groups on the basis of the Xray CT scan findings. The cases of Edema (+) group showed moderate or large peritumoral edema in the white matter on the Xray CT scan, while Edema (-) group showed no or small edema. The method of PET study was the 15 O steady state inhalation technique by Frackoviak's method. ROIs (region of interest) were set on the peritumoral white matter and the ipsilateral hemispheric gray matter, and the mean CBF, OEF and CMRO2 values of the white and gray matter were calculated. In the Edema (+) group, the mean values of blood flow and oxygen utilization were low in the peritumoral white matter, and there were no obvious differences of values between intra and extraaxial tumors. But, the values in the ipsilateral hemispheric gray matter of intraaxial tumors were lower than those of extraaxial tumor. In the Edema (-) group, the mean values were almost normal in the white and gray matter, and there were no differences between intra and extraaxial tumors. The consideration about significance of the above stated results was discussed added with literature. (author)

  1. Effects of organic matter fraction and compositional changes on distribution of cadmium and zinc in long-term polluted paddy soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Tong; Wu, Longhua; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Soil particulate organic matter (POM) has rapid turnover and metal enrichment, but the interactions between organic matter (OM) and metals have not been well studied. The present study aimed to investigate changes in the OM concentration and composition of the POM fraction and their corresponding effects on metal distribution and extractability in long-term polluted paddy soils. Soil 2000–53 μm POM size fractions had higher contents of C–H and C=O bonds, C–H/C=O ratios and concentrations of fulvic acid (FA), humic acid (HA), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) than the bulk soils. Cadmium and Zn stocks in soil POM fractions were 24.5–27.9% and 7.12–16.7%, respectively, and were more readily EDTA-extractable. Compared with the control soil, the 2000–250 μm POM size fractions had higher organic carbon concentrations and C/N ratios in the polluted soils. However, there were no significant differences in the contents in C–H and C=O bonds or C–H/C=O ratios of POM fractions among the control, slightly and highly polluted soils. In accordance with the lower contents of C=O bonds and FA and HA concentrations, the Cd and Zn concentrations in 250–53 μm POM size fractions were lower than those in 2000–250 μm POM size fractions. Enrichment of Cd in POM fractions increased with increasing soil pollution level. These results support the view that changes in the OM concentration and the size and composition of POM fractions play a key role in determining the distribution of Cd and Zn in paddy soils. - Highlights: • The OC and FA contents and C/N in POM (2000–250 μm) increased in polluted soil. • Enrichment of Cd and Zn decreased with decreasing POM size. • No significant change in content of C=O group in POM was observed in polluted soil. • Changes in the size and composition of soil POM affected the Cd and Zn distribution. - Interactions between soil organic matter and metals.

  2. Does Export Product Quality Matter for CO2 Emissions? Evidence from China

    OpenAIRE

    Gozgor, Giray; Can, Muhlis

    2016-01-01

    This paper re-estimates the environmental Kuznets curve over the period 1971–2010 in China. To this end, it uses the unit root tests with one structural break and the autoregressive-distributed lag (ARDL) estimations. The special role is given to the impacts of export product quality and energy consumption on CO2 emissions in the empirical models. The paper finds that the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis is valid in China. It also observes the positive effect from energy consumption to ...

  3. The hot and cold interstellar matter of early type galaxies and their radio emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongwoo; Fabbiano, G.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last few years, the knowledge of the interstellar matter (ISM) of early type galaxies has increased dramatically. Many early type galaxies are now known to have ISM in three different phases: cold (neutral hydrogen (HI), dust and molecular material), warm (ionized) and hot (S-ray emitting) gas. Early type galaxies have smaller masses of cold ISM (10 to the 7th power - 10 to the 8th power solar mass; Jura et al. 1987) than later type spiral galaxies, while they have far more hot gas (10 to the 9th power - 10 to the tenth power solar mass; Forman et al. 1985, Canizares et al. 1987). In order to understand the relationship between the different phases of the ISM and the role of the ISM in fueling radio continuum sources and star formation, researchers compared observational data from a wide range of wavelengths

  4. The role of Dark Matter sub-halos in the non-thermal emission of galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchegiani, Paolo; Colafrancesco, Sergio, E-mail: Paolo.Marchegiani@wits.ac.za, E-mail: Sergio.Colafrancesco@wits.ac.za [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, WITS-2050, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2016-11-01

    Annihilation of Dark Matter (DM) particles has been recognized as one of the possible mechanisms for the production of non-thermal particles and radiation in galaxy clusters. Previous studies have shown that, while DM models can reproduce the spectral properties of the radio halo in the Coma cluster, they fail in reproducing the shape of the radio halo surface brightness because they produce a shape that is too concentrated towards the center of the cluster with respect to the observed one. However, in previous studies the DM distribution was modeled as a single spherically symmetric halo, while the DM distribution in Coma is found to have a complex and elongated shape. In this work we calculate a range of non-thermal emissions in the Coma cluster by using the observed distribution of DM sub-halos. We find that, by including the observed sub-halos in the DM model, we obtain a radio surface brightness with a shape similar to the observed one, and that the sub-halos boost the radio emission by a factor between 5 and 20%, thus allowing to reduce the gap between the annihilation cross section required to reproduce the radio halo flux and the upper limits derived from other observations, and that this gap can be explained by realistic values of the boosting factor due to smaller substructures. Models with neutralino mass of 9 GeV and composition τ{sup +} τ{sup −}, and mass of 43 GeV and composition b b-bar can fit the radio halo spectrum using the observed properties of the magnetic field in Coma, and do not predict a gamma-ray emission in excess compared to the recent Fermi-LAT upper limits. These findings make these DM models viable candidate to explain the origin of radio halos in galaxy clusters, avoiding the problems connected to the excessive gamma-ray emission expected from proton acceleration in most of the currently proposed models, where the acceleration of particles is directly or indirectly connected to events related to clusters merging. Therefore, DM

  5. Major Sources of Organic Matter in a Complex Coral Reef Lagoon: Identification from Isotopic Signatures (δ13C and δ15N.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine J Briand

    Full Text Available A wide investigation was conducted into the main organic matter (OM sources supporting coral reef trophic networks in the lagoon of New Caledonia. Sampling included different reef locations (fringing, intermediate and barrier reef, different associated ecosystems (mangroves and seagrass beds and rivers. In total, 30 taxa of macrophytes, plus pools of particulate and sedimentary OM (POM and SOM were sampled. Isotopic signatures (C and N of each OM sources was characterized and the composition of OM pools assessed. In addition, spatial and seasonal variations of reef OM sources were examined. Mangroves isotopic signatures were the most C-depleted (-30.17 ± 0.41 ‰ and seagrass signatures were the most C-enriched (-4.36 ± 0.72 ‰. Trichodesmium spp. had the most N-depleted signatures (-0.14 ± 0.03 ‰ whereas mangroves had the most N-enriched signatures (6.47 ± 0.41 ‰. The composition of POM and SOM varied along a coast-to-barrier reef gradient. River POM and marine POM contributed equally to coastal POM, whereas marine POM represented 90% of the POM on barrier reefs, compared to 10% river POM. The relative importance of river POM, marine POM and mangroves to the SOM pool decreased from fringing to barrier reefs. Conversely, the relative importance of seagrass, Trichodesmium spp. and macroalgae increased along this gradient. Overall, spatial fluctuations in POM and SOM were much greater than in primary producers. Seasonal fluctuations were low for all OM sources. Our results demonstrated that a large variety of OM sources sustain coral reefs, varying in their origin, composition and role and suggest that δ13C was a more useful fingerprint than δ15N in this endeavour. This study also suggested substantial OM exchanges and trophic connections between coral reefs and surrounding ecosystems. Finally, the importance of accounting for environmental characteristics at small temporal and spatial scales before drawing general patterns is

  6. Emission of Electromagnetic Waves through Medium of Matter Waves, Correlation between Wavelengths and Temperatures in Radiation Series of Hydrogen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pekárek, Viktor

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2002), s. 139-149 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2057903 Keywords : Matter waves * interference and surges of matter waves Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  7. Source apportionment of particulate matter in Chinese megacities: the implication for emission control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ru-Jin; Elser, Miriam; Wang, Qiyuan Wang; Bozzetti, Carlo; Wolf, Robert; Wang, Yichen; Ni, Haiyan; Wang, Meng; Ho, Kin-Fai; Han, Yongming; Dällenbach, Kaspar; Canonaco, Francesco; Slowik, Jay; El Haddad, Imad; Baltensperger, Urs; Cao, Junji; Prévôt, André S. H.

    2015-04-01

    The rapid industrialization and urbanization in developing countries has led to an increase in air pollution, along a similar trajectory to that previously experienced by the developed nations. In China, particulate pollution is a serious environmental problem that is influencing air quality, regional and global climates, and human health. A quantitative understanding of these effects has proven extremely challenging due to spatial and temporal variability in the sources of aerosols and their precursors, the complexity of particle composition, and uncertainties associated with the atmospheric aging of existing particles (Pöschl 2005; Hallquist et al., 2009; Huang et al., 2014). Nowadays the average PM2.5 concentrations in China are approximately one to two orders of magnitude higher than those observed in urban areas in the US and European countries (Cao 2012). This has forced the Chinese government to announce its first national environmental standard for PM2.5 in 2012 and to make highly ambitious plans for emission control. The Chinese aim to reduce the PM2.5 concentrations by up to 25% of the 2012 levels by 2017, backed by 277 billion investments from the central government. To achieve this ambitious aim, a better understanding of the aerosol composition, sources, and atmospheric processing is required. In this study, we present the results from intensive field measurement campaigns carried out in Chinese megacities in 2013/2014. The sources of PM2.5 and the organic aerosol (OA) were investigated by applying the multi-linear engine (ME-2) receptor model (Canonaco et al., 2013) to a comprehensive dataset. Primary sources including vehicle emissions, biomass burning, coal burning, and dust-related emissions were identified and quantified. The contributions from secondary aerosol formation processes to total PM2.5 mass and OA mass were evaluated. Detailed results will be presented and discussed. References Cao, J. J. (2012) J. Earth Environ., 3, 1030

  8. Investigation of counterface surface topography effects on the wear and transfer behaviour of a POM-20% PTFE composite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franklin, S.E.; de Kraker, A.

    2003-01-01

    In order to gain greater insight into the relation between the wear rate, counterface surface topography and the characteristics of the transfer layer formed, a series of wear experiments have been performed with a commercial POM-20% PTFE composite sliding against hardened tool steel counterfaces in

  9. Source profiles of particulate matter emissions from a pilot-scale boiler burning North American coal blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S W

    2001-11-01

    Recent awareness of suspected adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM) emission has prompted publication of new standards for fine PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). However, scientific data on fine PM emissions from various point sources and their characteristics are very limited. Source apportionment methods are applied to identify contributions of individual regional sources to tropospheric particulate concentrations. The existing industrial database developed using traditional source measurement techniques provides total emission rates only, with no details on chemical nature or size characteristics of particulates. This database is inadequate, in current form, to address source-receptor relationships. A source dilution system was developed for sampling and characterization of total PM, PM2.5, and PM10 (i.e., PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 pm) from residual oil and coal combustion. This new system has automatic control capabilities for key parameters, such as relative humidity (RH), temperature, and sample dilution. During optimization of the prototype equipment, three North American coal blends were burned using a 0.7-megawatt thermal (MWt) pulverized coal-fired, pilot-scale boiler. Characteristic emission profiles, including PM2.5 and total PM soluble acids, and elemental and carbon concentrations for three coal blends are presented. Preliminary results indicate that volatile trace elements such as Pb, Zn, Ti, and Se are preferentially enriched in PM2.5. PM2.5 is also more concentrated in soluble sulfates relative to total PM. Coal fly ash collected at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) contains about 85-90% PM10 and 30-50% PM2.5. Particles contain the highest elemental concentrations of Si and Al while Ca, Fe, Na, Ba, and K also exist as major elements. Approximately 4-12% of the materials exists as soluble sulfates in fly ash generated by coal blends containing 0.2-0.8% sulfur by mass

  10. Evaluating Nitrogen Oxides and Ultrafine Particulate Matter Emission Features of Urban Bus Based on Real-World Driving Conditions in the Yangtze River Delta Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengguo Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A Portable Emission Measurement System was used in this study to evaluate the exhaust emission characteristics of nitrogen oxides (NOx, ultrafine particulate matter (PM, and ultrafine particulate number (PN from buses in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Results showed that NOx emission factor (unit: g·km−1 increased from 5.0 to 19.1, and PM emission factor (unit: g·km−1 increased from 0.001 to 0.189. A nonlinear model was established based on scientific statistical method, which showed that NOx and PM emission factors significantly decreased with speed increasing. The model also showed a “long tail effect” of NOx and PM emission factors beyond 30 km·h−1. Furthermore, hybrid bus exhausted less NOx, PM, and PN emissions compared to conventional bus in the acceleration condition. Exhaust rates of NOx, PM and PN emissions (unit: g·s−1 increased with speed increasing under steady state driving condition, while PN emissions commonly showed a unimodal distribution at the speed of 20 km·h−1.

  11. Chemical Composition and Emission Sources of the Fine Particulate Matters in a Southeast Asian Mega City (Dhaka, Bangladesh)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Abdus

    2016-04-01

    Air pollution has significant impact on human health, climate change, agriculture, visibility reduction, and also on the atmospheric chemistry. There are many studies already reported about the direct relation of the human mortality and morbidity with the increase of the atmospheric particulate matters. Especially, fine particulate matters can easily enter into the human respiratory system and causes many diseases. Particulate matters have the properties to absorb the solar radiation and impact on the climate. Dhaka, Bangladesh is a densely populated mega-city in the world. About 16 million inhabitants are living within an area of 360 square kilometers. Air quality situation has been degrading due to unplanned growth, increasing vehicles, severe traffic jams, brick kilns, industries, construction, and also transboundary air pollution. A rapidly growing number of vehicles has worsen the air quality in spite of major policy interventions, e.g., ban of two-stroke and three-wheeled vehicles, phase out of 20 years old vehicles, conversion to compressed natural gas (CNGs), etc. Introduction of CNGs to reduce air pollution was not the solution for fine particles at all, as evidence shows that CNGs and diesel engines are the major sources of fine particles. High concentration of the air pollutants in Dhaka city such as PM, carbonaceous species (black and organic carbon), CO, etc. has already been reported. PM2.5 mass, chemical composition (e.g., BC, OC, SO42-, NO3-, trace elements, etc.), aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and emission sources of our recent measurements at the highly polluted south East Asian Mega city (Dhaka) Bangladesh will be presented in the conference. PM2.5 samples were collected on filters with Digital PM2.5 sampler (Switzerland) and Air photon, USA. BC was measured from filters (with thermal and optical method) and also real time with an Aethalometer AE42 (Magee Scitific., USA). Water soluble ions were determined from filters with ion chromatogram. AOD

  12. 77 FR 1267 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-09

    ... Cooling Tower PEPO--Polyether Polyols PET--Poly (Ethylene Terephthalate) Resin PM--Particulate Matter POM...., fixed roofs on storage vessels and oil water separators; covers on surface impoundments, containers and... category: Solid-state resins (PET bottle grade resins), polyester film and engineering resins. They are all...

  13. A multi-frequency analysis of possible dark matter contributions to M31 gamma-ray emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, G.; Colafrancesco, S., E-mail: geoffrey.beck@wits.ac.za, E-mail: sergio.colafrancesco@wits.ac.za [School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, WITS-2050, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2017-10-01

    We examine the possibility of a dark matter (DM) contribution to the recently observed gamma-ray spectrum seen in the M31 galaxy. In particular, we apply limits on Weakly Interacting Massive Particle DM annihilation cross-sections derived from the Coma galaxy cluster and the Reticulum II dwarf galaxy to determine the maximal flux contribution by DM annihilation to both the M31 gamma-ray spectrum and that of the Milky-Way Galactic Centre. We limit the energy range between 1 and 12 GeV in M31 and Galactic Centre spectra due to the limited range of former's data, as well as to encompass the high-energy gamma-ray excess observed in the latter target. In so doing, we will make use of Fermi-LAT data for all mentioned targets, as well as diffuse radio data for the Coma cluster. The multi-target strategy using both Coma and Reticulum II to derive cross-section limits, as well as multi-frequency data, ensures that our results are robust against the various uncertainties inherent in modelling of indirect DM emissions. Our results indicate that, when a Navarro-Frenk-White (or shallower) radial density profile is assumed, severe constraints can be imposed upon the fraction of the M31 and Galactic Centre spectra that can be accounted for by DM, with the best limits arising from cross-section constraints from Coma radio data and Reticulum II gamma-ray limits. These particular limits force all the studied annihilation channels to contribute 1% or less to the total integrated gamma-ray flux within both M31 and Galactic Centre targets. In contrast, considerably more, 10−100%, of the flux can be attributed to DM when a contracted Navarro-Frenk-White profile is assumed. This demonstrates how sensitive DM contributions to gamma-ray emissions are to the possibility of cored profiles in galaxies. The only channel consistently excluded for all targets and profiles (except for ∼ 10 GeV WIMPs) is the direct annihilation into photons. Finally, we discuss the ramifications of

  14. Occurrence and abundance of carbohydrates and amino compounds in sequentially extracted labile soil organic matter fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study aimed to investigate the content of carbohydrates and amino compounds in three labile fraction of soil organic matter (SOM). Soil samples were collected from two agricultural fields in southern Italy and the light fraction (LF), the 500–53-µm particulate organic matter (POM) and the mobil...

  15. Hearing and Otoacoustic Emissions Outcome of Stapedotomy: Does the Prosthesis Diameter Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faranesh, Nabil; Magamseh, Ebrahim; Zaaroura, Suliman; Zeidan, Reem; Shupak, Avi

    2017-08-01

    To compare the hearing and otoacoustic emissions (OAE) outcome of stapedotomy employing 0.4 and 0.6 mm diameter prostheses. In total, 18 patients with otosclerosis participated in a prospective, double-armed, randomized cohort study. All the patients underwent small fenestra drill stapedotomy employing the Causse fluroplastic large loop piston prostheses. The patients were randomly assigned to groups of 0.4 mm (n=9) and 0.6 mm (n=9) diameter prostheses. The results of pure tone air and bone audiometries, speech audiometry, and OAE conducted 12 months post operatively were compared within and between the groups. The within-group analysis showed significant post-stapedotomy improvements in the average air conduction pure tone thresholds in both groups (52.9±9.6 vs. 25.6±5.2 dB HL; p<0.0001 and 54.6±10.4 vs. 22.2±8.2 dB HL; p<0.0001 for the 0.4 and 0.6 mm groups, respectively) and average air-bone gap (ABG; 37.1±8.5 vs. 8.1±3.9 dB HL; p<0.0001 and 38.3±7.5 vs. 9.9±4.5 dB HL; p<0.0001 in the 0.4 and 0.6 mm groups, respectively). No significant differences were found between the groups in these outcome measures, as well as in the rate of ABG closure within 10 dB HL and the word recognition scores. Favorable outcome in the post-stapedotomy bone conduction (BC) was found for the 0.6 mm prosthesis group, reflecting superior cancellation of the Carhart phenomenon for the 500-3000 Hz pure tone thresholds average (-1.7±3.7 vs. 3.9±6.2 dB HL for the 0.4 and 0.6 mm groups, respectively; p<0.04) and 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz average (-2.6±4.33 vs. 3.9±7.8 dB HL for the 0.4 and 0.6 mm groups, respectively; p<0.05). Small signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) values of the transient-evoked OAE (TEOAE) and distortion product OAE (DPOAE) were found at baseline and follow-up evaluation with no consistent changes post stapedotomy. Similar post-stapedotomy hearing results were found for the 0.4 and 0.6 mm prostheses with small but statistically significant advantage in BC gain and the

  16. Comparison between particulate matter and ultrafine particle emission by electronic and normal cigarettes in real-life conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Ario Alberto; De Marco, Cinzia; Pozzi, Paolo; Munarini, Elena; Mazza, Roberto; Angellotti, Giorgia; Turla, Francesca; Boffi, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes may be safer than conventional cigarettes as they generate less indoor pollution in terms of particulate matter (PM); however, recent findings in experimental conditions demonstrated that secondhand exposure to PM may be expected from e-cigarette smoking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emission of PM generated by e-cigarettes and normal cigarettes under real-life conditions. Real-time measurement and comparison of PM and ultrafine particles (UFP) generated by electronic cigarettes with and without nicotine and by normal cigarettes in a 50 m3 office of an Italian comprehensive cancer center was performed. PM mass as PM1, PM2.5, PM7, PM10, total suspended particles (TSP) in μg/m³ and UFP in number of particles per cubic centimeter from 10 to 1,000 nanometers were measured. Outdoor concentrations were measured contemporaneously to compensate for urban background changes. Regardless of their nicotine content, e-cigarettes generated lower PM levels than conventional cigarettes. Notably, nicotine-enriched e-cigarettes produced lower PM levels than their nicotine-free counterparts. E-cigarettes appear to generate less indoor pollution than normal cigarettes and may therefore be safer. Further studies are required to investigate the long-term health-related effects of secondhand e-cigarette exposure.

  17. Field testing of particulate matter continuous emission monitors at the DOE Oak Ridge TSCA incinerator. Toxic Substances Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James E; Davis, Wayne T; Calcagno, James A; Allen, Marshall W

    2002-01-01

    A field study to evaluate the performance of three commercially available particulate matter (PM) continuous emission monitors (CEMs) was conducted in 1999-2000 at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. This study offers unique features that are believed to enhance the collective US experience with PM CEMs. The TSCA Incinerator is permitted to treat PCB-contaminated RCRA hazardous low-level radioactive wastes. The air pollution control system utilizes MACT control technology and is comprised of a rapid quench, venturi scrubber, packed bed scrubber, and two ionizing wet scrubbers in series, which create a saturated flue gas that must be conditioned by the CEMs prior to measurement. The incinerator routinely treats a wide variety of wastes including high and low BTU organic liquids, aqueous, and solid wastes. The various possible combinations for treating liquid and solid wastes may present a challenge in establishing a single, acceptable correlation relationship for individual CEMs. The effect of low-level radioactive material present in the waste is a unique site-specific factor not evaluated in previous tests. The three systems chosen for evaluation were two beta gauge devices and a light scattering device. The performance of the CEMs was evaluated using the requirements in draft Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 11 (PS11) and Procedure 2. The results of Reference Method 5i stack tests for establishing statistical correlations between the reference method data and the CEMs responses are discussed.

  18. Particulate matter beyond mass: recent health evidence on the role of fractions, chemical constituents and sources of emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassee, Flemming R; Héroux, Marie-Eve; Gerlofs-Nijland, Miriam E; Kelly, Frank J

    2013-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is regulated in various parts of the world based on specific size cut offs, often expressed as 10 or 2.5 µm mass median aerodynamic diameter. This pollutant is deemed one of the most dangerous to health and moreover, problems persist with high ambient concentrations. Continuing pressure to re-evaluate ambient air quality standards stems from research that not only has identified effects at low levels of PM but which also has revealed that reductions in certain components, sources and size fractions may best protect public health. Considerable amount of published information have emerged from toxicological research in recent years. Accumulating evidence has identified additional air quality metrics (e.g. black carbon, secondary organic and inorganic aerosols) that may be valuable in evaluating the health risks of, for example, primary combustion particles from traffic emissions, which are not fully taken into account with PM2.5 mass. Most of the evidence accumulated so far is for an adverse effect on health of carbonaceous material from traffic. Traffic-generated dust, including road, brake and tire wear, also contribute to the adverse effects on health. Exposure durations from a few minutes up to a year have been linked with adverse effects. The new evidence collected supports the scientific conclusions of the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines and also provides scientific arguments for taking decisive actions to improve air quality and reduce the global burden of disease associated with air pollution.

  19. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere II. Continuous Emission and Condensed Matter Within the Corona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The K-corona, a significant portion of the solar atmosphere, displays a continuous spectrum which closely parallels photospheric emission, though without the presence of overlying Fraunhofer lines. The E-corona exists in the same region and is characterized by weak emission lines from highly ionized atoms. For instance, the famous green emission line from coronium (FeXIV is part of the E-corona. The F-corona exists beyond the K/E-corona and, like the photospheric spectrum, is characterized by Fraunhofer lines. The F-corona represents photospheric light scattered by dust particles in the interplanetary medium. Within the gaseous models of the Sun, the K-corona is viewed as photospheric radiation which has been scattered by relativistic electrons. This scattering is thought to broaden the Fraunhofer lines of the solar spectrum such that they can no longer be detected in the K-corona. Thus, the gaseous models of the Sun account for the appearance of the K-corona by distorting photospheric light, since they are unable to have recourse to condensed matter to directly produce such radiation. Conversely, it is now advanced that the continuous emission of the K-corona and associated emission lines from the E-corona must be interpreted as manifestations of the same phenomenon: condensed matter exists in the corona. It is well-known that the Sun expels large amounts of material from its surface in the form of flares and coronal mass ejections. Given a liquid metallic hydrogen model of the Sun, it is logical to assume that such matter, which exists in the condensed state on the solar surface, continues to manifest its nature once expelled into the corona. Therefore, the continuous spectrum of the K-corona provides the twenty-seventh line of evidence that the Sun is composed of condensed matter.

  20. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, biological screenings, DNA binding study and POM analyses of transition metal carboxylates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Noor; Sirajuddin, Muhammad; Uddin, Nizam; Tariq, Muhammad; Ullah, Hameed; Ali, Saqib; Tirmizi, Syed Ahmed; Khan, Abdur Rehman

    2015-04-01

    This article contains the synthesis of a novel carboxylic acid derivative, its transition metal complexes and evaluation of biological applications. Six carboxylate complexes of transition metals, Zn(II) and Hg(II), have been successfully synthesized and characterized by FT-IR and NMR (1H, 13C). The ligand, HL, (4-[(2,6-Diethylphenyl)amino]-4-oxobutanoic acid) was also characterized by single crystal X-ray analysis. The complexation occurs via oxygen atoms of the carboxylate moiety. FT-IR date show the bidentate nature of the carboxylate moiety of the ligand as the Δν value in all complexes is less than that of the free ligand. The ligand and its complexes were screened for antifungal and antileishmanial activities. The results showed that the ligand and its complexes are active with few exceptions. UV-visible spectroscopy and viscometry results reveal that the ligand and its complexes interact with the DNA via intercalative mode of interaction. A new and efficient strategy to identify the pharmacophores and anti-pharmacophores sites in carboxylate derivatives for the antibacterial/antifungal activity using Petra, Osiris and Molinspiration (POM) analyses was also carried out.

  1. PARADIGM: A BIBLIOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF PAPERS PRESENTED AT THE CONFERENCES OF THE POMS FROM 2000 TO 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Almeida Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents bibliometrics on Paradigm in papers presented at the Production and Operation Management Society (POMS from 2000 to 2010, and establishes the profile of the authors and the theoretical relationships present in those papers’ content. The portal of the Production and Operation Management Society and the abstracts contained in each of the events of the period were used, seeking to highlight the concept of Paradigm and its approaches. As a result, the articles presented at the POMS from 2000 to 2010, at least three out of the four hundred papers had the concept in its title or abstract, besides being within the central arguments of these same items analyzed by this study.

  2. Transient state-dependent fluctuations in anxiety measured using STAI, POMS, PANAS or VAS: a comparative review

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Valentina; Pourtois, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Several psychometric instruments can be used to measure state-dependent variations in anxiety, including the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Profile of Mood States (POMS), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and the Visual Analog Scales (VAS). Each of these instruments rests on specific theoretical assumptions about the construct of state anxiety, and has been widely used for this purpose in different research domains. However, it remains difficult to determine what ma...

  3. Regional contributions to particulate matter concentration in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea: seasonal variation and sensitivity to meteorology and emissions inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Eunhye; Bae, Changhan; Cho, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Byeong-Uk; Kim, Soontae

    2017-09-01

    The impact of regional emissions (e.g., domestic and international) on surface particulate matter (PM) concentrations in the Seoul metropolitan area (SMA), South Korea, and its sensitivities to meteorology and emissions inventories are quantitatively estimated for 2014 using regional air quality modeling systems. Located on the downwind side of strong sources of anthropogenic emissions, South Korea bears the full impact of the regional transport of pollutants and their precursors. However, the impact of foreign emissions sources has not yet been fully documented. We utilized two regional air quality simulation systems: (1) a Weather Research and Forecasting and Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) system and (2) a United Kingdom Met Office Unified Model and CMAQ system. The following combinations of emissions inventories are used: the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-Phase B, the Inter-comparison Study for Asia 2010, and the National Institute of Environment Research Clean Air Policy Support System. Partial contributions of domestic and foreign emissions are estimated using a brute force approach, adjusting South Korean emissions to 50 %. Results show that foreign emissions contributed ˜ 60 % of SMA surface PM concentration in 2014. Estimated contributions display clear seasonal variation, with foreign emissions having a higher impact during the cold season (fall to spring), reaching ˜ 70 % in March, and making lower contributions in the summer, ˜ 45 % in September. We also found that simulated surface PM concentration is sensitive to meteorology, but estimated contributions are mostly consistent. Regional contributions are also found to be sensitive to the choice of emissions inventories.

  4. Clean heating with wood. An electrostatic separator reduces particulate matter emissions from biomass boilers; Sauber heizen mit Holz. Ein elektrostatischer Abscheider senkt die Feinstaub-Emissionen von Biomassekesseln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Franz

    2016-08-01

    Despite considerable advances in firing technology, harmful particulate matter is produced when wood is combusted. Electrostatic precipitators, however, filter up to 90 per cent of particulate emissions from biomass boilers. These therefore enable wood burners to use a wider range of fuel and still meet the tightened requirements of Germany's 1st Ordinance on the Implementation of the Federal Immission Control Act. The major advantage: Both new and old heating plants can benefit from the new system.

  5. Estimating source-attributable health impacts of ambient fine particulate matter exposure: global premature mortality from surface transportation emissions in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambliss, S E; Zeinali, M; Minjares, R; Silva, R; West, J J

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ambient fine particular matter (PM 2.5 ) was responsible for 3.2 million premature deaths in 2010 and is among the top ten leading risk factors for early death. Surface transportation is a significant global source of PM 2.5 emissions and a target for new actions. The objective of this study is to estimate the global and national health burden of ambient PM 2.5 exposure attributable to surface transportation emissions. This share of health burden is called the transportation attributable fraction (TAF), and is assumed equal to the proportional decrease in modeled ambient particulate matter concentrations when surface transportation emissions are removed. National population-weighted TAFs for 190 countries are modeled for 2005 using the MOZART-4 global chemical transport model. Changes in annual average concentration of PM 2.5 at 0.5 × 0.67 degree horizontal resolution are based on a global emissions inventory and removal of all surface transportation emissions. Global population-weighted average TAF was 8.5 percent or 1.75 μg m −3 in 2005. Approximately 242 000 annual premature deaths were attributable to surface transportation emissions, dominated by China, the United States, the European Union and India. This application of TAF allows future Global Burden of Disease studies to estimate the sector-specific burden of ambient PM 2.5 exposure. Additional research is needed to capture intraurban variations in emissions and exposure, and to broaden the range of health effects considered, including the effects of other pollutants. (letter)

  6. Efficiency of Emission Control Measures on Particulate Matter-Related Health Impacts and Economic Cost during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Meeting in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qichen Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC meeting was held from 5 November to 11 November 2014 in Beijing, and comprehensive emission control measures were implemented. The efficiency of these measures on particulate matter-related health impacts and economic cost need to be evaluated. Methods: The influences of emission control measures during APEC on particulate matter were evaluated, and health economic effects were assessed. Results: Average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 during APEC were reduced by 57.0%, and 50.6% respectively, compared with pre-APEC period. However, the concentrations of particulate matter rebounded after APEC. Compared with the pre-APEC and post-APEC periods, the estimated number of deaths caused by non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases that could be attributed to PM2.5 and PM10 during the APEC were the lowest. The economic cost associated with mortality caused by PM2.5 and PM10 during the APEC were reduced by (61.3% and 66.6% and (50.3% and 60.8% respectively, compared with pre-APEC and post-APEC. Conclusions: The emission control measures were effective in improving short term air quality and reducing health risks and medical expenses during 2014 APEC, but more efforts is needed for long term and continuous air quality improvement and health protection.

  7. Efficiency of Emission Control Measures on Particulate Matter-Related Health Impacts and Economic Cost during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Meeting in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qichen; Huang, Jing; Guo, Bin; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-12-28

    Background : The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting was held from 5 November to 11 November 2014 in Beijing, and comprehensive emission control measures were implemented. The efficiency of these measures on particulate matter-related health impacts and economic cost need to be evaluated. Methods : The influences of emission control measures during APEC on particulate matter were evaluated, and health economic effects were assessed. Results : Average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 during APEC were reduced by 57.0%, and 50.6% respectively, compared with pre-APEC period. However, the concentrations of particulate matter rebounded after APEC. Compared with the pre-APEC and post-APEC periods, the estimated number of deaths caused by non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases that could be attributed to PM 2.5 and PM 10 during the APEC were the lowest. The economic cost associated with mortality caused by PM 2.5 and PM 10 during the APEC were reduced by (61.3% and 66.6%) and (50.3% and 60.8%) respectively, compared with pre-APEC and post-APEC. Conclusions : The emission control measures were effective in improving short term air quality and reducing health risks and medical expenses during 2014 APEC, but more efforts is needed for long term and continuous air quality improvement and health protection.

  8. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere I. Continuous Emission and Condensed Matter Within the Chromosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous spectrum of the solar photosphere stands as the paramount observation with regard to the condensed nature of the solar body. Studies relative to Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission (e.g. Robitaille P.-M. Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission: 150 years. Progr. Phys., 2009, v. 4, 3–13. and a detailed analysis of the stellar opacity problem (Robitaille P.M. Stellar opacity: The Achilles’ heel of the gaseous Sun. Progr. Phys., 2011, v. 3, 93–99 have revealed that gaseous models remain unable to properly account for the generation of this spectrum. Therefore, it can be stated with certainty that the photosphere is comprised of condensed matter. Beyond the solar surface, the chromospheric layer of the Sun also generates a weak continuous spectrum in the visible region. This emission exposes the presence of material in the condensed state. As a result, above the level of the photosphere, matter exists in both gaseous and condensed forms, much like within the atmosphere of the Earth. The continuous visible spectrum associated with the chromosphere provides the twenty-sixth line of evidence that the Sun is condensed matter.

  9. Experimental validation on the effect of material geometries and processing methodology of Polyoxymethylene (POM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafizzal, Y.; Nurulhuda, A.; Izman, S.; Khadir, AZA

    2017-08-01

    POM-copolymer bond breaking leads to change depending with respect to processing methodology and material geometries. This paper present the oversights effect on the material integrity due to different geometries and processing methodology. Thermo-analytical methods with reference were used to examine the degradation of thermomechanical while Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) was used to judge the thermal stability of sample from its major decomposition temperature. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) investigation performed to identify the thermal behaviour and thermal properties of materials. The result shown that plastic gear geometries with injection molding at higher tonnage machine more stable thermally rather than resin geometries. Injection plastic gear geometries at low tonnage machine faced major decomposition temperatures at 313.61°C, 305.76 °C and 307.91 °C while higher tonnage processing method are fully decomposed at 890°C, significantly higher compared to low tonnage condition and resin geometries specimen at 398°C. Chemical composition of plastic gear geometries with injection molding at higher and lower tonnage are compare based on their moisture and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) content, polymeric material content and the absence of filler. Results of higher moisture and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) content are report in resin geometries (0.120%) compared to higher tonnage of injection plastic gear geometries which is 1.264%. The higher tonnage of injection plastic gear geometry are less sensitive to thermo-mechanical degradation due to polymer chain length and molecular weight of material properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, fatigue strength and creep resistance.

  10. Cardiovascular effects in patrol officers are associated with fine particulate matter from brake wear and engine emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbst Margaret C

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to fine particulate matter air pollutants (PM2.5 affects heart rate variability parameters, and levels of serum proteins associated with inflammation, hemostasis and thrombosis. This study investigated sources potentially responsible for cardiovascular and hematological effects in highway patrol troopers. Results Nine healthy young non-smoking male troopers working from 3 PM to midnight were studied on four consecutive days during their shift and the following night. Sources of in-vehicle PM2.5 were identified with variance-maximizing rotational principal factor analysis of PM2.5-components and associated pollutants. Two source models were calculated. Sources of in-vehicle PM2.5 identified were 1 crustal material, 2 wear of steel automotive components, 3 gasoline combustion, 4 speed-changing traffic with engine emissions and brake wear. In one model, sources 1 and 2 collapsed to a single source. Source factors scores were compared to cardiac and blood parameters measured ten and fifteen hours, respectively, after each shift. The "speed-change" factor was significantly associated with mean heart cycle length (MCL, +7% per standard deviation increase in the factor score, heart rate variability (+16%, supraventricular ectopic beats (+39%, % neutrophils (+7%, % lymphocytes (-10%, red blood cell volume MCV (+1%, von Willebrand Factor (+9%, blood urea nitrogen (+7%, and protein C (-11%. The "crustal" factor (but not the "collapsed" source was associated with MCL (+3% and serum uric acid concentrations (+5%. Controlling for potential confounders had little influence on the effect estimates. Conclusion PM2.5 originating from speed-changing traffic modulates the autonomic control of the heart rhythm, increases the frequency of premature supraventricular beats and elicits pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic responses in healthy young men.

  11. Sampling for diesel particulate matter in mines : Diesel Emissions Evaluation Program (DEEP), technology transfer initiative, October 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, M.; Gangal, M.; Goyer, N.; McGinn, S.; Penney, J.; Vergunst, J.

    2001-10-01

    The physical and chemical characteristics of diesel particulate matter (DPM) from exhaust gases from diesel powered mining equipment were presented along with guidelines and regulation for exposure monitoring in the workplace. The report addresses issues related to personal and direct exhaust sampling in mines and presents evidence about potential carcinogenicity of the solid fraction of diesel exhaust. The incomplete combustion of diesel fuel results in the formation of solid and liquid particles in the exhaust. DPM is defined as being the portion of diesel exhaust which is made up of solid carbon particles and the attached chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganics such as sulphate compounds. DPM is a submicron aerosol and as such, it is a respirable dust which penetrates deep into the lungs. In addition, DPMs are not easily removed from the air stream because of their small size. Control of DPM is crucial because once they are airborne, they are likely to remain that way and will affect the workplace where they are produced as well as workplaces downwind. In January 2001, the Mine Safety and Health Administration issued a ruling for U.S. metal and non-metal mines requiring that mines meet a limit of exposure of 0.40 mg/m 3 . Mines are expected to reduce exposure to meet a 0.16 mg/m 3 limit of exposure by January 2006. European mines and tunnel construction projects must also meet DPM exposure limits. DPM sampling in Canada has been regulated for nearly one decade. Sampling protocols in Canada and the United States were described with reference to equipment and procedures testing DPM filtration efficiency of after-treatment modules and to evaluate the impact of diesel equipment maintenance on gaseous particulate emissions. 23 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  12. An evaluation of fuels and retrofit diesel particulate filters to reduce diesel particulate matter emissions in an underground mine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wattrus, MC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Through an industry wide collaborative project, this paper explores what potential exists for South African underground mines to reduce diesel particulate emissions, where the starting point is a mine using older engine technology (Tier 1 emission...

  13. Exoenzyme activities as indicators of dissolved organic matter composition in the hyporheic zone of a floodplain river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra M. Clinton; Rick T. Edwards; Stuart E.G. Findlay

    2010-01-01

    We measured the hyporheic microbial exoenzyme activities in a floodplain river to determine whether dissolved organic matter (DOM) bioavailability varied with overlying riparian vegetation patch structure or position along flowpaths. Particulate organic matter (POM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity and temperature were...

  14. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from garbage burning, wood and dung cooking fires, motorcycles and brick kilns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, T. S.; Rathnayake, C.; Stockwell, C.; Daugherty, K.; Islam, R. M.; Christian, T. J.; Bhave, P.; Praveen, P. S.; Panday, A. K.; Adhikari, S.; Rasmi, M.; Goetz, D.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Saikawa, E.; Yokelson, R. J.; Stone, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in-situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources in South Asia by determining emission factors (EF) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon, inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. Garbage burning had the highest EF PM2.5 among the sampled sources ranging 7-124 g kg-1, with maximum EFs for garbage burned under higher moisture conditions. Garbage burning emissions contained high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn) that are associated with acute and chronic health effects. Triphenylbenzene and antimony (Sb) were unique to garbage burning are good candidates for tracing this source. Cook stove emissions varied largely by stove technology (traditional mud stove, 3-stone cooking fire, chimney stove, etc.) and biomass fuel (dung, hardwood, twigs, and mixtures thereof). Burning dung consistently emitted more PM2.5 than burning wood and contained characteristic fecal sterols and stanols. Motorcycle emissions were evaluated before and after servicing, which decreased EF PM2.5 from 8.8 g kg-1 to 0.7 g kg-1. Organic species analysis indicated that this reduction in PM2.5­ is largely due to a decrease in emission of motor oil. For brick kilns, the forced draft zig-zag kilns had higher EF PM2.5 (12-19 g kg-1) compared to clamp kilns (8-13 g kg-1) and also exhibited chemical differences. PM2.5 emitted from the zig-zag kiln were mainly OC (7%), sulfate (32%) and uncharacterized chemical components (60%), while clamp kiln emissions were dominated by OC (64%) and ammonium sulfate (36%). The quantitative emission factors developed in this study may be used for source apportionment and to update regional emission inventories.

  15. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): Emissions of particulate matter from wood and dung cooking fires, brick kilns, generators, trash and crop residue burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Elizabeth; Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea; Christian, Ted; Bhave, Prakash; Siva Praveen, Puppala; Panday, Arnico; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, Doug; DeCarlo, Peter; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMASTE) field campaign targeted the in situ characterization of widespread and under-sampled combustion sources. In Kathmandu and the Terai, southern Nepal's flat plains, samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected from wood and dung cooking fires (n = 22), generators (n = 2), groundwater pumps (n = 2), clamp kilns (n = 3), zig-zag kilns (n = 3), trash burning (n = 4), one heating fire, and one crop residue fire. Co-located measurements of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds allowed for the application of the carbon mass balance approach to estimate emission factors for PM2.5, elemental carbon, organic carbon, and water-soluble inorganic ions. Organic matter was chemically speciated using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, sterols, n-alkanes, hopanes, steranes, and levoglucosan, which accounted for 2-8% of the measured organic carbon. These data were used to develop molecular-marker based profiles for use in source apportionment modeling. This study provides quantitative emission factors for particulate matter and its constituents for many important combustion sources in Nepal and South Asia.

  16. Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-30

    emissions demonstration . 46 6 Figure 24. T63 engine with extension pipe to direct exhaust outside of the test cell for exhaust sampling with tip...to assess their effectiveness in conditioning turbine engine exhaust for total PM emissions measurements. Both were designed to promote the... effectively control and mitigate PM emissions. Aircraft PM is formed in the engine combustor due to incomplete combustion of fuel, and in the

  17. Electrocatalytic properties of three new POMs-based inorganic–organic frameworks with flexible zwitterionic dicarboxylate ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yanli; Li, Ling; Mu, Bao; Li, Changxia; Huang, Rudan, E-mail: huangrd@bit.edu.cn

    2017-05-15

    Three POMs–based inorganic–organic frameworks, namely, [Cu{sub 2}(L){sub 2}(SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40})(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}]·6H{sub 2}O (1), [Co{sub 2}(L){sub 2}(SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40})(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}]·8H{sub 2}O (2) and [Ni{sub 2}(L){sub 2}(SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40})(H{sub 2}O){sub 8}]·6H{sub 2}O (3), (L=1,1′-(1,4-phenylene-bis(methylene))-bis(pyridine-3-carboxylic acid)), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, IR, XRPD, TG, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 contains 1D double chains decorated by (Cu{sub 2}(L){sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}) units and the 1D chains and POMs are stacked to yield 2D frameworks. Compound 2 displays a 2D network constructed from 1D zigzag chains and POMs arranged in ABAB mode. Compound 3 consists of big square girds and the POMs are dispersed in the middle of the two adjacent girds, forming 2D networks. Compounds 1–3 all show structural integrity in aqueous solutions at different pH values and in common organic solvents. Additionally, the fluorescence and electrochemical properties of compounds 1–3 are also investigated. Compounds 1–3 exhibit good electrocatalytic activities for the reduction of NaNO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Compound 1–3 all contain different 1D chains. The noncovalent interaction of metal–organic moieties from compounds 1–3 and POMs to construct three new host–guest supramolecular compounds. • Compounds 1–3 show good electrocatalytic activities towards the reduction of NaNO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • Compounds 1–3 all show structural integrity in aqueous solutions at different pH values and in common organic solvents. • Compounds 1–3 may be promising luminescent materials due to their luminescent properties.

  18. Spontaneous emission spectra and quantum light-matter interactions from a strongly coupled quantum dot metal-nanoparticle system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Vlack, C.; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Hughes, S.

    2012-01-01

    the dot to the detector, we demonstrate that the strong-coupling regime should be observable in the far-field spontaneous emission spectrum, even at room temperature. The vacuum-induced emission spectra show that the usual vacuum Rabi doublet becomes a rich spectral triplet or quartet with two of the four...

  19. Global emissions of trace gases, particulate matter, and hazardous air pollutants from open burning of domestic waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    The open burning of waste, whether at individual residences, businesses, or dump sites, is a large source of air pollutants. These emissions, however, are not included in many current emission inventories used in chemistry and climate modeling applications. This paper presents th...

  20. Estimating Landscape Fire Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions over Southern Africa using MSG-SEVIRI Fire Radiative Power (FRP) and MODIS Aerosol Optical Thickness Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Bernardo; Wooster, Martin J.

    2016-04-01

    The approach to estimating landscape fire fuel consumption based on the remotely sensed fire radiative power (FRP) thermal energy release rate, as opposed to burned area, is now relatively widely used in studies of fire emissions, including operationally within the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). Nevertheless, there are still limitations to the approach, including uncertainties associated with using only the few daily overpasses typically provided by polar orbiting satellite systems, the conversion between FRP and smoke emissions, and the increased likelihood that the more frequent data from geostationary systems fails to detect the (probably highly numerous) smaller (i.e. low FRP) component of a regions fire regime. In this study, we address these limitations to directly estimate fire emissions of Particular Matter (PM; or smoke aerosols) by presenting an approach combining the "bottom-up" FRP observations available every 15 minutes across Africa from the Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) Fire Radiative Product (FRP) processed at the EUMETSAT LSA SAF, and the "top-down" aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measures of the fire plumes themselves as measured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensors aboard the Terra (MOD04_L2) and Aqua (MYD04_L2) satellites. We determine PM emission coefficients that relate directly to FRP measures by combining these two datasets, and the use of the almost continuous geostationary FRP observations allows us to do this without recourse to (uncertain) data on wind speed at the (unknown) height of the matching plume. We also develop compensation factors to address the detection limitations of small/low intensity (low FRP) fires, and remove the need to estimate fuel consumption by going directly from FRP to PM emissions. We derive the smoke PM emissions coefficients per land cover class by comparing the total fire radiative energy (FRE) released from individual fires

  1. Hazardous air emissions potential from a wood-fired furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    During the first week of April, 1991 the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) conducted a series of air emissions tests of a small industrial wood-fired boiler in northern Wisconsin. The boiler was firing a virgin hogged wood/wood waste fuel with a moisture content of about 35 percent. The pollutants measured were particulates, nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (GO), total hydrocarbons (THC), benzene, formaldehyde (CHOH), polycyclic organic matter (POM, e.g. Benzo (a) pyrene), aldehydes, and trace metals (As, Ba, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ni, K, Se, Na, and Zn). For two and a half days continuous emissions data were recorded by laboratory-certified continuous emissions monitors for CO, NOx, 0-2, THC, and COq2 while the EPA reference method stack tests were being conducted for the other pollutants. In addition, a WDNR test team measured CO, 0-2, and flue gas temperature with a Rosemount portable combustion analyzer for several hours over the course of those two and a half days. The principal purpose behind the study was to evaluate the hazardous air emissions potential of a small industrial furnace firing a virgin wood fuel. To that end, it was hoped that a surrogate pollutant could be identified which would represent the levels of hazardous air emissions (e.g., benzene) present in the wood-fired furnace flue gases. If a readily monitorable pollutant could be identified, then a regulatory strategy of measuring one representative pollutant could be put in place to continually assess the hazardous emissions potential of virgin wood combustion. (UK)

  2. Impacts of future climate change and effects of biogenic emissions on surface ozone and particulate matter concentrations in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Lam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulations of present and future average regional ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the United States were performed to investigate the potential impacts of global climate change and emissions on regional air quality using CMAQ. Various emissions and climate conditions with different biogenic emissions and domain resolutions were implemented to study the sensitivity of future air quality trends from the impacts of changing biogenic emissions. A comparison of GEOS-Chem and CMAQ was performed to investigate the effect of downscaling on the prediction of future air quality trends. For ozone, the impacts of global climate change are relatively smaller when compared to the impacts of anticipated future emissions reduction, except for the Northeast area, where increasing biogenic emissions due to climate change have stronger positive effects (increases to the regional ozone air quality. The combination effect from both climate change and emission reductions leads to approximately a 10 % or 5 ppbv decrease of the maximum daily average eight-hour ozone (MDA8 over the Eastern United States. For PM2.5, the impacts of global climate change have shown insignificant effect, where as the impacts of anticipated future emissions reduction account for the majority of overall PM2.5 reductions. The annual average 24-h PM2.5 of the future-year condition was found to be about 40 % lower than the one from the present-year condition, of which 60 % of its overall reductions are contributed to by the decrease of SO4 and NO3 particulate matters. Changing the biogenic emissions model increases the MDA8 ozone by about 5–10 % or 3–5 ppbv in the Northeast area. Conversely, it reduces the annual average PM2.5 by 5 % or 1.0 μg m−3 in the Southeast region.

  3. The impact of particulate matter (PM and nitric oxides (NOx on human health and an analysis of selected sources accounting for their emission in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krzeszowiak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: This paper is concerned with the harmful impact of nitric oxides (NOx and particulate matter (PM on humans. The objective was to determine which source of emission is the most urgent in terms of its reduction.Abbreviated description of the state of knowledge: In published epidemiological studies multiple notifications indicating the harmful impact of particulate matter on human health can be found. The harmful impact is underscored by the increase in the number of hospitalisations owing to diseases of respiratory and cardio-vascular systems, as well as by the rise in general fatality rate. The analysis of the PM impact on the human body is prompted by the fact that its detrimental effects are not clearly defined. Additionally, nitric oxides contribute to the increased number of exacerbations of respiratory disease and are a factor increasing susceptibility to development of local inflammation. Conclusions: The following study is meant to show that the air pollution which derives from vehicles (NOx and PM has a significant impact on human health. This applies particularly to residents of cities and big towns. This issue has gained special importance in Poland. According to the data from the Central Statistical Office, the increasing number of vehicles in use and their age lead to increased emission of the pollutants considered.

  4. New Tropical Peatland Gas and Particulate Emissions Factors Indicate 2015 Indonesian Fires Released Far More Particulate Matter (but Less Methane than Current Inventories Imply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J. Wooster

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Deforestation and draining of the peatlands in equatorial SE Asia has greatly increased their flammability, and in September–October 2015 a strong El Niño-related drought led to further drying and to widespread burning across parts of Indonesia, primarily on Kalimantan and Sumatra. These fires resulted in some of the worst sustained outdoor air pollution ever recorded, with atmospheric particulate matter (PM concentrations exceeding those considered “extremely hazardous to health” by up to an order of magnitude. Here we report unique in situ air quality data and tropical peatland fire emissions factors (EFs for key carbonaceous trace gases (CO2, CH4 and CO and PM2.5 and black carbon (BC particulates, based on measurements conducted on Kalimantan at the height of the 2015 fires, both at locations of “pure” sub-surface peat burning and spreading vegetation fires atop burning peat. PM2.5 are the most significant smoke constituent in terms of human health impacts, and we find in situ PM2.5 emissions factors for pure peat burning to be 17.8 to 22.3 g·kg−1, and for spreading vegetation fires atop burning peat 44 to 61 g·kg−1, both far higher than past laboratory burning of tropical peat has suggested. The latter are some of the highest PM2.5 emissions factors measured worldwide. Using our peatland CO2, CH4 and CO emissions factors (1779 ± 55 g·kg−1, 238 ± 36 g·kg−1, and 7.8 ± 2.3 g·kg−1 respectively alongside in situ measured peat carbon content (610 ± 47 g-C·kg−1 we provide a new 358 Tg (± 30% fuel consumption estimate for the 2015 Indonesian fires, which is less than that provided by the GFEDv4.1s and GFASv1.2 global fire emissions inventories by 23% and 34% respectively, and which due to our lower EFCH4 produces far less (~3× methane. However, our mean in situ derived EFPM2.5 for these extreme tropical peatland fires (28 ± 6 g·kg−1 is far higher than current emissions inventories assume, resulting in our total

  5. Performance evaluation of non-thermal plasma on particulate matter, ozone and CO2 correlation for diesel exhaust emission reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babaie, Meisam; Davari, Pooya; Talebizadeh, Poyan

    2015-01-01

    This study is seeking to investigate the effect of non-thermal plasma technology in the abatement of particulate matter (PM) from the actual diesel exhaust. Ozone (O3) strongly promotes PM oxidation, the main product of which is carbon dioxide (CO2). PM oxidation into the less harmful product (CO2...

  6. Organic, elemental and inorganic carbon in particulate matter of six urban environments in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sillanpää

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 7-week sampling campaigns were conducted in urban background sites of six European cities as follows: Duisburg (autumn, Prague (winter, Amsterdam (winter, Helsinki (spring, Barcelona (spring and Athens (summer. The campaigns were scheduled to include seasons of local public health concern due to high particulate concentrations or findings in previously conducted epidemiological studies. Aerosol samples were collected in parallel with two identical virtual impactors that divide air particles into fine (PM2.5 and coarse (PM2.5-10 size ranges. From the collected filter samples, elemental (EC and organic (OC carbon contents were analysed with a thermal-optical carbon analyser (TOA; total Ca, Ti, Fe, Si, Al and K by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF; As, Cu, Ni, V, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS; Ca2+, succinate, malonate and oxalate by ion chromatography (IC; and the sum of levoglucosan+galactosan+mannosan (∑MA by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS. The campaign means of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were 8.3-29.6 µg m-3 and 5.4-28.7 µg m-3, respectively. The contribution of particulate organic matter (POM to PM2.5 ranged from 21% in Barcelona to 54% in Prague, while that to PM2.5-10 ranged from 10% in Barcelona to 27% in Prague. The contribution of EC was higher to PM2.5 (5-9% than to PM2.5-10 (1-6% in all the six campaigns. Carbonate (C(CO3, that interferes with the TOA analysis, was detected in PM2.5-10 of Athens and Barcelona but not elsewhere. It was subtracted from the OC by a simple integration method that was validated. The CaCO3 accounted for 55% and 11% of PM2.5-10 in Athens and Barcelona, respectively. It was anticipated that combustion emissions from vehicle engines affected the POM content in PM2.5 of all the six sampling campaigns, but a comparison of mass concentration ratios of the selected inorganic and organic tracers of common sources of organic material to POM suggested

  7. Particulate matter emissions, and metals and toxic elements in airborne particulates emitted from biomass combustion: The importance of biomass type and combustion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosima, Angela T; Tsakanika, Lamprini-Areti V; Ochsenkühn-Petropoulou, Maria Th

    2017-05-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of biomass combustion with respect to burning conditions and fuel types on particulate matter emissions (PM 10 ) and their metals as well as toxic elements content. For this purpose, different lab scale burning conditions were tested (20 and 13% O 2 in the exhaust gas which simulate an incomplete and complete combustion respectively). Furthermore, two pellet stoves (8.5 and 10 kW) and one open fireplace were also tested. In all cases, 8 fuel types of biomass produced in Greece were used. Average PM 10 emissions ranged at laboratory-scale combustions from about 65 to 170 mg/m 3 with flow oxygen at 13% in the exhaust gas and from 85 to 220 mg/m 3 at 20% O 2 . At pellet stoves the emissions were found lower (35 -85 mg/m 3 ) than the open fireplace (105-195 mg/m 3 ). The maximum permitted particle emission limit is 150 mg/m 3 . Metals on the PM 10 filters were determined by several spectrometric techniques after appropriate digestion or acid leaching of the filters, and the results obtained by these two methods were compared. The concentration of PM 10 as well as the total concentration of the metals on the filters after the digestion procedure appeared higher at laboratory-scale combustions with flow oxygen at 20% in the exhaust gas and even higher at fireplace in comparison to laboratory-scale combustions with 13% O 2 and pellet stoves. Modern combustion appliances and appropriate types of biomass emit lower PM 10 emissions and lower concentration of metals than the traditional devices where incomplete combustion conditions are observed. Finally, a comparison with other studies was conducted resulting in similar results.

  8. Repeated applications of compost and manure mainly affect the size and chemical nature of particulate organic matter in a loamy soil after 8 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltre, Clement; Dignac, Marie-France; Doublet, Jeremy; Plante, Alain; Houot, Sabine

    2013-04-01

    Land application of exogenous organic matter (EOM) of residual origin can help to maintain or increase soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. However, it remains necessary to quantify and predict the soil C accumulation and to determine under which form the C accumulates. Changes to the chemical composition of soil organic matter (SOM) after repeated applications of composts and farmyard manure were investigated in a field experiment (Qualiagro experiment, Ile-de-France) after 8 years of applications of green waste and sludge compost (GWS), municipal solid waste compost (MSW), biowaste compost (BIOW) or farmyard manure (FYM). The soil was fractionated into particulate organic matter >50 µm (POM), a heavy fraction >50 µm and a 0-50 µm fraction demineralized with hydrofluoric acid (HF). Repeated EOM applications significantly increased total SOC stocks, the C amount in the POM fraction and to a less extent in the 0-50 µm fraction compared to the reference treatment. Compost applications accumulated C preferentially under the form of coarse organic matter of size >50 µm, whereas the FYM accumulated similar C proportions of size >50 µm and 0-50 µm, which was attributed to the presence in the FYM of a fraction of labile C stimulating microbial activity and producing humified by-products together with a fraction of stabilized C directly alimenting the humified fraction of SOC. Pyrolysis-GC/MS and DRIFT spectroscopy revealed enrichment in lignin in the POM fractions of amended soils with GWS, BIOW and FYM. In the soil receiving MSW compost, the pyrolysate of the POM fraction revealed the presence of plastics originating from the MSW compost. A lower C mineralization during laboratory incubation was found for the POM fractions of amended soils compared with the POM from reference soil. This feature was related to a lower ratio of (furfural+acetic acid) / pyrole pyrolysis products in POM of amended vs. reference plots, indicating a higher degree of recalcitrance.. The POM

  9. Effects of a catalytic volatile particle remover (VPR) on the particulate matter emissions from a direct injection spark ignition engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fan; Chen, Longfei; Stone, Richard

    2011-10-15

    Emissions of fine particles have been shown to have a large impact on the atmospheric environment and human health. Researchers have shown that gasoline engines, especially direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines, tend to emit large amounts of small size particles compared to diesel engines fitted with diesel particulate filters (DPFs). As a result, the particle number emissions of DISI engines will be restricted by the forthcoming EU6 legislation. The particulate emission level of DISI engines means that they could face some challenges in meeting the EU6 requirement. This paper is an experimental study on the size-resolved particle number emissions from a spray guided DISI engine and the performance of a catalytic volatile particle remover (VPR), as the EU legislation seeks to exclude volatile particles. The performance of the catalytic VPR was evaluated by varying its temperature and the exhaust residence time. The effect of the catalytic VPR acting as an oxidation catalyst on particle emissions was also tested. The results show that the catalytic VPR led to a marked reduction in the number of particles, especially the smaller size (nucleation mode) particles. The catalytic VPR is essentially an oxidation catalyst, and when post three-way catalyst (TWC) exhaust was introduced to the catalytic VPR, the performance of the catalytic VPR was not affected much by the use of additional air, i.e., no significant oxidation of the PM was observed.

  10. Energy and CO2 emissions performance in China's regional economies: Do market-oriented reforms matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Kerui

    2015-01-01

    This paper employs a newly developed non-radial directional distance function to evaluate China's regional energy and CO 2 emission performance for the period 1997–2009. Moreover, we analyze the impact of China's market-oriented reform on China's regional energy and carbon efficiency. The main findings are as follows. First, most of China's regions did not perform efficiently in energy use and CO 2 emissions. Provinces in the east area generally performed better than those in the central and west areas. By contrast, provinces in the west area generally evidenced the lowest efficiency. Second, Market-oriented reforms, especially the promotion of factor market, were found to have positive effect on the efficiency of energy use and CO 2 emissions. Third, the share of coal in the total energy consumption and the expansion of the industrial sector were found to be negatively correlated with China's regional energy and CO 2 emissions performance. Based on the empirical findings, we provide policy suggestions for enhancing energy and carbon efficiency in China. - Highlights: • A newly developed NDDF are applied to evaluate China's energy and carbon performance. • Most of China's regions did not perform efficiently in energy use and CO 2 emissions. • Market-oriented reforms contributed to improving China's energy and carbon efficiency

  11. Detailed analysis of hollow ions spectra from dense matter pumped by X-ray emission of relativistic laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, S. B.; Colgan, J.; Abdallah, J.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, S. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Wagenaars, E.; Culfa, O.; Dance, R. J.; Tallents, G. J.; Rossall, A. K.; Woolsey, N. C.; Booth, N.; Lancaster, K. L.; Evans, R. G.; Gray, R. J.; McKenna, P.; Kaempfer, T.; Schulze, K. S.; Uschmann, I.

    2014-01-01

    X-ray emission from hollow ions offers new diagnostic opportunities for dense, strongly coupled plasma. We present extended modeling of the x-ray emission spectrum reported by Colgan et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 125001 (2013)] based on two collisional-radiative codes: the hybrid-structure Spectroscopic Collisional-Radiative Atomic Model (SCRAM) and the mixed-unresolved transition arrays (MUTA) ATOMIC model. We show that both accuracy and completeness in the modeled energy level structure are critical for reliable diagnostics, investigate how emission changes with different treatments of ionization potential depression, and discuss two approaches to handling the extensive structure required for hollow-ion models with many multiply excited configurations

  12. The emission of particulate matters and heavy metals from cement kilns – case study: co-incineration of tires in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Todorović

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Co-incineration of wastes started more than 20 years ago. In the last 10 years, the use of alternative fuels in the cement industry is continuously increasing. The use of solid wastes in cement kilns is one of the best technologies for a complete and safe destruction of these wastes, due to the fact that there is a simultaneous benefit of destroying wastes and getting the energy. However, particulate matters (PM and gaseous chemicals emitted from a source into the environment could be directly transmitted to humans through air inhalation. Therefore, for accurate health risk estimation, the emission of pollutants must be determined. In this work, the analysis of the emission of different pollutants when replacing partially the fuel type used in a cement kiln is done. PM, PM10, heavy metals and inorganic pollutants are analyzed. The methods used for sampling and analysis are the standard methods suggested by the EU regulations for stack analysis. Experimental results have shown the encouraging results: in particular clinker characteristics were unmodified, and stack emissions (NOx, SO2 and CO mainly were in the case of tires, slightly incremented but remaining almost always below the law imposed limits, and in some cases were even decreased.

  13. Organic matter and water management strategies to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice paddies in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Arjun; Mai, Van Trinh; Duong, Quynh Vu

    2014-01-01

    with the safe alternate wetting and drying (AWD) has the potential to suppress both CH4 and N2O emissions from rice paddies while maintaining the rice yield. The study compared the proposed strategies with local farmers' practice of permanent flooding (PF) and farmyard manure (FYM) incorporation, respectively...

  14. Investigation of the environmental Kuznets curve for carbon emissions in Malaysia: Do foreign direct investment and trade matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Lin-Sea; Choong, Chee-Keong; Eng, Yoke-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Environmental degradation has become a central issue of discussion among the economists and environmentalists. In view of Malaysia's position as one of the main contributors to CO 2 emissions in Asia and its status as a fast growing economy, it is vital, therefore, to conduct a study to identify the relationship between economic growth and CO 2 emissions for Malaysia. This study attempts to examine empirically the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for Malaysia in the presence of foreign direct investment and trade openness both in the short- and long-run for the period 1970 to 2008.The bounds testing approach and Granger causality methodology are applied to test the interrelationships of the variables. The results of our study indicate that the inverted-U shaped relationship does exist between economic growth and CO 2 emission in both the short- and long-run for Malaysia after controlling for two additional explanatory variables, namely FDI and trade. Importantly, the results of the study also provide some crucial policy recommendations to the policy makers. - Highlights: • Examining environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis by incorporating FDI and trade. • FDI promotes higher economic growth and leads to higher environmental degradation. • Both FDI and trade directly influence CO 2 emission and economic growth. • Attraction of technology-oriented FDI is crucial for the quality of environment

  15. The Effects of Detritus Input on Soil Organic Matter Content and Carbon Dioxide Emission in a Central European Deciduous Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FEKETE, István

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A major objective of our research was to survey soil biological activity and organic mattercontent reduction in a Central European oak forest during treatments of various detritus inputs within theSíkfkút DIRT (Detritus Input and Removal Treatments Project. Beside the control, three detritusremoval and two detritus duplication treatments were applied. Our examinations have proven that soilorganic matter content declined relatively fast in detritus removal treatments. The reduction wasespecially remarkable in root detritus removal treatments, where – due to the lack of transpiration – soilswere moister during the whole year than in the other treatments. The higher moisture content, despite ofthe reduction of detritus input, produced an intense soil respiration. This can be explained by the fact thatdecomposing organisms have increased the use of soil organic matter. Detritus input reduction had asignificantly greater effect on soil respiration and organic matter content than detritus input duplicationof the same extent. The latter did not cause any significant change compared to the control.

  16. Source apportionment of sulfate and nitrate particulate matter in the Eastern United States and effectiveness of emission control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Hu, Jianlin; Kleeman, Michael; Ying, Qi

    2014-08-15

    Reducing population exposure to PM2.5 in the eastern US will require control of secondary sulfate and nitrate. A source-oriented Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is used to determine contributions of major emission sources to nitrate and sulfate concentrations in the seven eastern US cities (New York City, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, Chicago, Detroit, St. Paul, and Winston-Salem) in January and August of 2000 and 2006. Identified major nitrate sources include on-road gasoline-powered vehicles, diesel engines, natural gas and coal combustion. From 2000 to 2006, January nitrate concentrations decreased by 25-68% for all the seven cities. On average, ~53% of this change was caused by emissions controls while 47% was caused by meteorology variations. August nitrate concentrations decreased by a maximum of 68% in New York City but Detroit experienced increasing August nitrate concentrations by up to 33%. On average, ~33% of the reduction in nitrate is offset by increases associated with meteorological conditions that favor nitrate formation. Coal combustion and natural gas are the dominant sources for sulfate in both seasons. January sulfate decrease from 2000 to 2006 in all cities by 4-58% except New York City, which increases by 13%. On average, ~93% of the reduction in sulfate was attributed to emission controls with 7% associated with changes in meteorology. August sulfate concentrations decrease by 11-44% in all cities. On average, emission controls alone between 2000 and 2006 would have caused 6% more reduction but the effectiveness of the controls was mitigated by meteorology conditions more favorable to sulfate production in 2006 vs. 2000. The results of this study suggest that regional emissions controls between 2000 and 2006 have been effective at reducing population exposure to PM2.5 in the eastern US, but yearly variations in meteorology must be carefully considered when assessing the exact magnitude of the control benefits. Copyright © 2014

  17. Influence of polymethyl acrylate additive on the formation of particulate matter and NOX emission of a biodiesel-diesel-fueled engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monirul, Islam Mohammad; Masjuki, Haji Hassan; Kalam, Mohammad Abdul; Zulkifli, Nurin Wahidah Mohd; Shancita, Islam

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the polymethyl acrylate (PMA) additive on the formation of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxide (NO X ) emission from a diesel coconut and/or Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel-fueled engine. The physicochemical properties of 20% of coconut and/or C. inophyllum biodiesel-diesel blend (B20), 0.03 wt% of PMA with B20 (B20P), and diesel fuel were measured and compared to ASTM D6751, D7467, and EN 14214 standard. The test results showed that the addition of PMA additive with B20 significantly improves the cold-flow properties such as pour point (PP), cloud point (CP), and cold filter plugging point (CFPP). The addition of PMA additives reduced the engine's brake-specific energy consumption of all tested fuels. Engine emission results showed that the additive-added fuel reduce PM concentration than B20 and diesel, whereas the PM size and NO X emission both increased than B20 fuel and baseline diesel fuel. Also, the effect of adding PMA into B20 reduced Carbon (C), Aluminum (Al), Potassium (K), and volatile materials in the soot, whereas it increased Oxygen (O), Fluorine (F), Zinc (Zn), Barium (Ba), Chlorine (Cl), Sodium (Na), and fixed carbon. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) results for B20P showed the lower agglomeration than B20 and diesel fuel. Therefore, B20P fuel can be used as an alternative to diesel fuel in diesel engines to lower the harmful emissions without compromising the fuel quality.

  18. Out-of-plane emission of nuclear matter in Au+Au collisions between 100 and 800 AMeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastid, N.; Buta, A.; Crochet, P.

    1996-01-01

    We present new experimental results concerning the azimuthal distributions of light and intermediate mass fragments at midrapidity for Au (100 - 800 AMeV) +Au collisions measured with the phase I setup of the FOPI detector at GSI in Darmstadt. The azimuthal distributions are investigated as a function of the collision centrality, the incident energy, the fragment charge and transverse momentum. The maximum of the azimuthal anisotropy is obtained for collisions associated with impact parameters around 7 fm. Intermediate mass fragments present a stronger out-of-plane emission signal that light fragments. We show in particular that the azimuthal anisotropy as a function of the scaled fragment transverse momentum follows an universal curve for incident energies ranging from 250 to 800 AMeV. A signature for a transition from in-plane to out-of-plane emission is evidenced at the lowest beam energies. (author)

  19. Interstellar matter near the Pleiades. III. A search for H2 2.4-micron vibration-rotation emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Results are reported from a search for 2.4-micron v = 1-0 H2 emission near five stars in the Pleiades, performed using a cooled InSb photometer and a 10-arcsec entrance aperture on the 2.3-m telescope at Wyoming IR Observatory. The calibration and data-reduction procedures are described, and the results are presented in a table. No emission is detected, and upper limits in the range 0.000026-0.000072 erg/sec sq cm sr are obtained, corresponding to limiting column densities of (1.3-3.7) x 10 to the 15th/sq cm and H2 densities of 400-1100/cu cm (assuming fluorescence and dissociation of the gas as it passes the stars). 16 references

  20. Out-of-plane emission of nuclear matter in Au+Au collisions between 100 and 800 AMeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastid, N.; Buta, A.; Crochet, P. [and others; FOPI Collaboration

    1996-12-31

    We present new experimental results concerning the azimuthal distributions of light and intermediate mass fragments at midrapidity for Au (100 - 800 AMeV) +Au collisions measured with the phase I setup of the FOPI detector at GSI in Darmstadt. The azimuthal distributions are investigated as a function of the collision centrality, the incident energy, the fragment charge and transverse momentum. The maximum of the azimuthal anisotropy is obtained for collisions associated with impact parameters around 7 fm. Intermediate mass fragments present a stronger out-of-plane emission signal that light fragments. We show in particular that the azimuthal anisotropy as a function of the scaled fragment transverse momentum follows an universal curve for incident energies ranging from 250 to 800 AMeV. A signature for a transition from in-plane to out-of-plane emission is evidenced at the lowest beam energies. (author).

  1. Emission characterization and δ"1"3C values of parent PAHs and nitro-PAHs in size-segregated particulate matters from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruwei; Yousaf, Balal; Sun, Ruoyu; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Jiamei; Liu, Guijian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly associated with PM_1_–_2_._5 and PM_1 compared with PM_2_._5_–_1_0. • Combustion conditions and WFGD showed typical effects on PAH level and profile. • Diagnostic ratio of PAH was to indicative of emission sources to a certain degree. • δ"1"3C values of PAHs were useful for differentiating coal combustion source. • δ"1"3C values of PAHs were unable to differentiate coal-processing sources. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to characterize parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and their nitrated derivatives (NPAHs) in coarse (PM_2_._5_–_1_0), intermediate (PM_1_–_2_._5) and fine (PM_1) particulate matters emitted from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in Huainan, China. The diagnostic ratios and the stable carbon isotopic approaches to characterize individual PAHs were applied in order to develop robust tools for tracing the origins of PAHs in different size-segregated particular matters (PMs) emitted CFPP coal combustion. The concentrations of PAH compounds in flue gas emissions varied greatly, depending on boiler types, operation and air pollution control device (APCD) conditions. Both pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly enriched in PM_1_–_2_._5 and PM_1. In contrary to low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were more enriched in finer PMs. The PAH diagnostic ratios in size-segregated PMs are small at most cases, highlighting their potential application in tracing CFPP emitted PAHs attached to different sizes of PMs. Yet, substantial uncertainty still exists to directly apply PAH diagnostic ratios as emission tracers. Although the stable carbon isotopic composition of PAH molecular was useful in differentiating coal combustion emissions from other sources such as biomass combustion and vehicular exhausts, it was not feasible to differentiate isotopic fractionation processes such as low-temperature carbonization, high-temperature carbonization, gasification and

  2. Emission characterization and δ{sup 13}C values of parent PAHs and nitro-PAHs in size-segregated particulate matters from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruwei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710075 Shaanxi (China); Yousaf, Balal; Sun, Ruoyu [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Zhang, Hong [Anhui Department of Environmental Protection, Anhui Academy of Environmental Science, Hefei 230071 (China); Zhang, Jiamei [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu, Guijian, E-mail: lgj@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory of Crust-Mantle Materials and the Environments, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi’an 710075 Shaanxi (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly associated with PM{sub 1–2.5} and PM{sub 1} compared with PM{sub 2.5–10}. • Combustion conditions and WFGD showed typical effects on PAH level and profile. • Diagnostic ratio of PAH was to indicative of emission sources to a certain degree. • δ{sup 13}C values of PAHs were useful for differentiating coal combustion source. • δ{sup 13}C values of PAHs were unable to differentiate coal-processing sources. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to characterize parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and their nitrated derivatives (NPAHs) in coarse (PM{sub 2.5–10}), intermediate (PM{sub 1–2.5}) and fine (PM{sub 1}) particulate matters emitted from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in Huainan, China. The diagnostic ratios and the stable carbon isotopic approaches to characterize individual PAHs were applied in order to develop robust tools for tracing the origins of PAHs in different size-segregated particular matters (PMs) emitted CFPP coal combustion. The concentrations of PAH compounds in flue gas emissions varied greatly, depending on boiler types, operation and air pollution control device (APCD) conditions. Both pPAHs and NPAHs were strongly enriched in PM{sub 1–2.5} and PM{sub 1}. In contrary to low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs were more enriched in finer PMs. The PAH diagnostic ratios in size-segregated PMs are small at most cases, highlighting their potential application in tracing CFPP emitted PAHs attached to different sizes of PMs. Yet, substantial uncertainty still exists to directly apply PAH diagnostic ratios as emission tracers. Although the stable carbon isotopic composition of PAH molecular was useful in differentiating coal combustion emissions from other sources such as biomass combustion and vehicular exhausts, it was not feasible to differentiate isotopic fractionation processes such as low-temperature carbonization, high

  3. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2004-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  4. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2006-04-02

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0

  5. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport

  6. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Crist

    2005-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of prion protein bound to the Fab fragment of the POM1 antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baral, Pravas Kumar; Wieland, Barbara; Swayampakula, Mridula; Polymenidou, Magdalini; Aguzzi, Adriano; Kav, Nat N. V.; James, Michael N. G.

    2011-01-01

    The complex of MoPrP(120–232) and Fab POM1 has been crystallized (space group C2, unit-cell parameters a = 83.68, b = 106.9, c = 76.25 Å, β = 95.6°). Diffraction data to 2.30 Å resolution have been collected using synchrotron radiation. Prion diseases are neurodegenerative diseases that are characterized by the conversion of the cellular prion protein PrP c to the pathogenic isoform PrP sc . Several antibodies are known to interact with the cellular prion protein and to inhibit this transition. An antibody Fab fragment, Fab POM1, was produced that recognizes a structural motif of the C-terminal domain of mouse prion protein. To study the mechanism by which Fab POM1 recognizes and binds the prion molecule, the complex between Fab POM1 and the C-terminal domain of mouse prion (residues 120–232) was prepared and crystallized. Crystals of this binary complex belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 83.68, b = 106.9, c = 76.25 Å, β = 95.6°

  8. Detection of Copper (II) and Cadmium (II) binding to dissolved organic matter from macrophyte decomposition by fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectra combined with parallel factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Dong-hai; Guo, Xu-jing; Wen, Li; He, Lian-sheng; Wang, Jing-gang; Li, Jun-qi

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) was used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM) derived from macrophyte decomposition, and to study its complexation with Cu (II) and Cd (II). Both the protein-like and the humic-like components showed a marked quenching effect by Cu (II). Negligible quenching effects were found for Cd (II) by components 1, 5 and 6. The stability constants and the fraction of the binding fluorophores for humic-like components and Cu (II) can be influenced by macrophyte decomposition of various weight gradients in aquatic plants. Macrophyte decomposition within the scope of the appropriate aquatic phytomass can maximize the stability constant of DOM-metal complexes. A large amount of organic matter was introduced into the aquatic environment by macrophyte decomposition, suggesting that the potential risk of DOM as a carrier of heavy metal contamination in macrophytic lakes should not be ignored. - Highlights: • Macrophyte decomposition increases fluorescent DOM components in the upper sediment. • Protein-like components are quenched or enhanced by adding Cu (II) and Cd (II). • Macrophyte decomposition DOM can impact the affinity of Cu (II) and Cd (II). • The log K M and f values showed a marked change due to macrophyte decomposition. • Macrophyte decomposition can maximize the stability constant of DOM-Cu (II) complexes. - Macrophyte decomposition DOM can influence on the binding affinity of metal ions in macrophytic lakes

  9. Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) variability in Barataria Basin using excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shatrughan; D'Sa, Eurico J; Swenson, Erick M

    2010-07-15

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) variability in Barataria Basin, Louisiana, USA,was examined by excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). CDOM optical properties of absorption and fluorescence at 355nm along an axial transect (36 stations) during March, April, and May 2008 showed an increasing trend from the marine end member to the upper basin with mean CDOM absorption of 11.06 + or - 5.01, 10.05 + or - 4.23, 11.67 + or - 6.03 (m(-)(1)) and fluorescence 0.80 + or - 0.37, 0.78 + or - 0.39, 0.75 + or - 0.51 (RU), respectively. PARAFAC analysis identified two terrestrial humic-like (component 1 and 2), one non-humic like (component 3), and one soil derived humic acid like (component 4) components. The spatial variation of the components showed an increasing trend from station 1 (near the mouth of basin) to station 36 (end member of bay; upper basin). Deviations from this increasing trend were observed at a bayou channel with very high chlorophyll-a concentrations especially for component 3 in May 2008 that suggested autochthonous production of CDOM. The variability of components with salinity indicated conservative mixing along the middle part of the transect. Component 1 and 4 were found to be relatively constant, while components 2 and 3 revealed an inverse relationship for the sampling period. Total organic carbon showed increasing trend for each of the components. An increase in humification and a decrease in fluorescence indices along the transect indicated an increase in terrestrial derived organic matter and reduced microbial activity from lower to upper basin. The use of these indices along with PARAFAC results improved dissolved organic matter characterization in the Barataria Basin. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Connecting tropical river DOM and POM to the landscape with lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, Peter J.; Dyda, Rachael Y.; McDowell, William H.

    2017-12-01

    Tropical rivers account for two thirds of global fluxes of terrigenous organic matter to the oceans, yet because of their remote locations relative to most industrialized countries, they are poorly studied compared to temperate and even Arctic rivers. Further, most tropical river research has focused on large rivers like the Amazon or Congo, yet more than half of organic matter fluxes from tropical rivers comes from much smaller rivers. This study focuses on two such rivers in the Luquillo Experimental Forest of Puerto Rico, namely the Rio Mameyes and Rio Icacos, and uses time-series measurements of lignin biomarkers to put them in context with much bigger tropical rivers in the literature. Although lignin concentrations and carbon-normalized yields offer some distinction between mountainous vs. floodplain tropical river reaches, compositional differences appear to offer greater potential, including S:V vs. C:V plots that may capture the poorly-studied influence of palm trees, and (Ad:Al)s vs. (Ad:Al)v plots that may reflect differences in underlying mineralogy and degradation in soils. Even though dissolved and particulate lignin ultimately come from the same vegetation sources, comparison of dissolved and particulate lignin parameters within the two Puerto Rican rivers indicate that the pathways by which they end up in the same parcel of river water are largely decoupled. Across several particulate lignin studies in tropical rivers, mineral composition and concentration appears to exert a strong control on particulate lignin compositions and concentrations. Finally, the time-series nature of this study allows for new ways of analyzing dissolved lignin endmember compositions and degradation within the catchment. Plots of dissolved lignin parameters vs. lignin concentration reveal both the composition of "fresh" DOM that is likely mobilized from organic-rich soil surface layers along with the extent and trajectory of degradation of that signature that is possible

  11. Wildfire particulate matter in Europe during summer 2003: meso-scale modeling of smoke emissions, transport and radiative effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hodzic

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates effects of wildfire emissions on air quality in Europe during an intense fire season that occurred in summer 2003. A meso-scale chemistry transport model CHIMERE is used, together with ground based and satellite aerosol optical measurements, to assess the dispersion of fire emissions and to quantify the associated radiative effects. The model has been improved to take into account a MODIS-derived daily smoke emission inventory as well as the injection altitude of smoke particles. The simulated aerosol optical properties are put into a radiative transfer model to estimate (off-line the effects of smoke particles on photolysis rates and atmospheric radiative forcing. We have found that the simulated wildfires generated comparable amounts of primary aerosol pollutants (130 kTons of PM2.5, fine particles to anthropogenic sources during August 2003, and caused significant changes in aerosol optical properties not only close to the fire source regions, but also over a large part of Europe as a result of the long-range transport of the smoke. Including these emissions into the model significantly improved its performance in simulating observed aerosol concentrations and optical properties. Quantitative comparison with MODIS and POLDER data during the major fire event (3–8 August 2003 showed the ability of the model to reproduce high aerosol optical thickness (AOT over Northern Europe caused by the advection of the smoke plume from the Portugal source region. Although there was a fairly good spatial agreement with satellite data (correlation coefficients ranging from 0.4 to 0.9, the temporal variability of AOT data at specific AERONET locations was not well captured by the model. Statistical analyses of model-simulated AOT data at AERONET ground stations showed a significant decrease in the model biases suggesting that wildfire emissions are responsible for a 30% enhancement in mean AOT values during the heat

  12. Do differences in future sulfate emission pathways matter for near-term climate? A case study for the Asian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Rachel E.; Bollasina, Massimo A.; Booth, Ben B. B.; Dunstone, Nick J.; Marenco, Franco; Messori, Gabriele; Bernie, Dan J.

    2018-03-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols could dominate over greenhouse gases in driving near-term hydroclimate change, especially in regions with high present-day aerosol loading such as Asia. Uncertainties in near-future aerosol emissions represent a potentially large, yet unexplored, source of ambiguity in climate projections for the coming decades. We investigated the near-term sensitivity of the Asian summer monsoon to aerosols by means of transient modelling experiments using HadGEM2-ES under two existing climate change mitigation scenarios selected to have similar greenhouse gas forcing, but to span a wide range of plausible global sulfur dioxide emissions. Increased sulfate aerosols, predominantly from East Asian sources, lead to large regional dimming through aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions. This results in surface cooling and anomalous anticyclonic flow over land, while abating the western Pacific subtropical high. The East Asian monsoon circulation weakens and precipitation stagnates over Indochina, resembling the observed southern-flood-northern-drought pattern over China. Large-scale circulation adjustments drive suppression of the South Asian monsoon and a westward extension of the Maritime Continent convective region. Remote impacts across the Northern Hemisphere are also generated, including a northwestward shift of West African monsoon rainfall induced by the westward displacement of the Indian Ocean Walker cell, and temperature anomalies in northern midlatitudes linked to propagation of Rossby waves from East Asia. These results indicate that aerosol emissions are a key source of uncertainty in near-term projection of regional and global climate; a careful examination of the uncertainties associated with aerosol pathways in future climate assessments must be highly prioritised.

  13. Assessment of social losses of pollution's health caused by man-made pollution of atmospheric air with emissions of particulate matters (PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turos Ye.I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to available estimates, about 3% of lethal outcomes from cardiac-pulmonary pathology and 5% from lung cancer are related to the impact of patriculate matters (PM. In the course of the study there were assessed social losses of population’s health (additional death cases caused by risk conditions of atmospheric air pollution with PM of various air-dynamic diameter (PM10, proper to emissions of various industrial enterprises. It was established that 90% of population of cities under study live under high exposures (≥50 µg/m3 health and risks for population (IRM=10-3÷10-4, caused by PM10 emissions. Results showed that metallurgical industry is responsible for 7,2 to 2193 additional mortality cases. The impact of machine building enterprises – from 0.06 to 21 cases; coke and chemical – from 1.5 to 36 cases; mining – from 1.1 to 14,6 cases. The findings revealed 0.6 % increase in lifetime mortality for each 10 µg/m3 in 24-hour average PM10 concentration. Based on research outcomes, a set of instruments was developed for implementation of air pollution risk management programs aimed at mitigation of health risks from (PM10 in highly exposed groups.

  14. Biochar accelerates organic matter degradation and enhances N mineralisation during composting of poultry manure without a relevant impact on gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, M; Alburquerque, J A; Sánchez-Monedero, M A; Roig, A; Cayuela, M L

    2015-09-01

    A composting study was performed to assess the impact of biochar addition to a mixture of poultry manure and barley straw. Two treatments: control (78% poultry manure + 22% barley straw, dry weight) and the same mixture amended with biochar (3% dry weight), were composted in duplicated windrows during 19 weeks. Typical monitoring parameters and gaseous emissions (CO2, CO, CH4, N2O and H2S) were evaluated during the process as well as the agronomical quality of the end-products. Biochar accelerated organic matter degradation and ammonium formation during the thermophilic phase and enhanced nitrification during the maturation phase. Our results suggest that biochar, as composting additive, improved the physical properties of the mixture by preventing the formation of clumps larger than 70 mm. It favoured microbiological activity without a relevant impact on N losses and gaseous emissions. It was estimated that biochar addition at 3% could reduce the composting time by 20%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Combined Experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics Investigation of Particulate Matter Emissions from a Wall-Guided Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide D. Sciortino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The latest generation of high-efficiency gasoline direct injection (GDI engines continues to be a significant source of dangerous ultra-fine particulate matter (PM emissions. The forthcoming advent in the 2017–2020 timeframe of the real driving emission (RDE standards affords little time for the identification of viable solutions. The present research work aims to contribute towards a much-needed improved understanding of the process of PM formation in theoretically-homogeneous stoichiometric spark-ignition combustion. Experimental measurements of engine-out PM have been taken from a wall-guided GDI engine operated at part-load; through parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations of the test-engine, the process of mixture preparation was investigated. About 80% of the total particle number is emitted on average in the 5–50 nm range, with the vast majority being below the regulated lower limit of 23 nm. The results suggest that both improved charge homogeneity and lower peak combustion temperature contribute to lower particle number density (PNDen and larger particle size, as engine speed and load increase. The effect of engine load is stronger and results from greater injection pressure through better fuel droplet atomisation. Increases in pre-combustion homogeneity of 6% are associated with one order of magnitude reductions of PNDen. A simplified two-equation functional model was developed, which returns satisfactory qualitative predictions of PNDen as a function of basic engine control variables.

  16. Temporal variations in C-13 and C-14 concentrations in particulate organic matter from the southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Megens, L.; Plicht, J. van der; Leeuw, J.W. de

    As a new approach for the characterization and determination of the origin of particulate organic matter (POM) in coastal waters, we measured the 14C activity and 13C/12C isotope ratios and applied molecular analysis by means of AMS, IRMS and pyrolysis-GCMS for both bulk samples and isolated

  17. Determination of lead isotopic composition of airborne particulate matter by ICPMS: implications for lead atmospheric emissions in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celo, V.; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, E.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Quadrupole ICPMS was used for determination of trace metal concentrations and lead isotopic composition in fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) collected at selected sites within the Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance network, from February 2005 to February 2007. High enrichment factors indicated that lead is mostly of anthropogenic origin and consequently, the lead isotopic composition is directly related to that of pollution sources. The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb and 208 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios were measured and the results were compared to the isotopic signatures of lead from different sources. Various approaches were used to assess the impact of relevant sources and the meteorological conditions in the occurrence and distribution of lead in Canadian atmospheric aerosols. (author)

  18. Core-size regulated aggregation/disaggregation of citrate-coated gold nanoparticles (5-50 nm) and dissolved organic matter: Extinction, emission, and scattering evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Milad Rabbani; Pallem, Vasanta L.; Stretz, Holly A.; Wells, Martha J. M.

    2018-01-01

    Knowledge of the interactions between gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) is significant in the development of detection devices for environmental sensing, studies of environmental fate and transport, and advances in antifouling water treatment membranes. The specific objective of this research was to spectroscopically investigate the fundamental interactions between citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (CT-GNPs) and DOM. Studies indicated that 30 and 50 nm diameter GNPs promoted disaggregation of the DOM. This result-disaggregation of an environmentally important polyelectrolyte-will be quite useful regarding antifouling properties in water treatment and water-based sensing applications. Furthermore, resonance Rayleigh scattering results showed significant enhancement in the UV range which can be useful to characterize DOM and can be exploited as an analytical tool to better sense and improve our comprehension of nanomaterial interactions with environmental systems. CT-GNPs having core size diameters of 5, 10, 30, and 50 nm were studied in the absence and presence of added DOM at 2 and 8 ppm at low ionic strength and near neutral pH (6.0-6.5) approximating surface water conditions. Interactions were monitored by cross-interpretation among ultraviolet (UV)-visible extinction spectroscopy, excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy (emission and Rayleigh scattering), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). This comprehensive combination of spectroscopic analyses lends new insights into the antifouling behavior of GNPs. The CT-GNP-5 and -10 controls emitted light and aggregated. In contrast, the CT-GNP-30 and CT-GNP-50 controls scattered light intensely, but did not aggregate and did not emit light. The presence of any CT-GNP did not affect the extinction spectra of DOM, and the presence of DOM did not affect the extinction spectra of the CT-GNPs. The emission spectra (visible range) differed only slightly between calculated and actual

  19. Integrated emission inventory and modeling to assess distribution of particulate matter mass and black carbon composition in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Permadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This is part of a research study addressing the potential co-benefits associated with selected black carbon (BC emission reduction measures on mitigation of air pollution and climate forcing in Southeast Asia (SEA. This paper presents details of emission inventory (EI results and WRF–CHIMERE model performance evaluation. The SEA regional emissions for 2007 were updated with our EI results for Indonesia, Thailand, and Cambodia and used for the model input. WRF–CHIMERE-simulated 2007 PM10, PM2.5, and BC over the SEA domain (0.25° × 0.25° and the results were evaluated against the available meteorology and air quality monitoring data in the domain. WRF hourly simulation results were evaluated using the observed data at eight international airport stations in five SEA countries and showed a satisfactory performance. WRF–CHIMERE results for PM10 and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal influence of biomass open burning while the BC distribution showed the influence of urban activities in big SEA cities. Daily average PM10 constructed from the hourly concentrations were obtained from the automatic monitoring stations in three large SEA cities, i.e., Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, and Surabaya, for model evaluation. The daily observed PM2.5 and BC concentrations obtained from the Improving Air Quality in Asian Developing Countries (AIRPET project for four cities (i.e., Bangkok, Hanoi, Bandung, and Manila were also used for model evaluation. In addition, hourly BC concentrations were taken from the measurement results of the Asian Pacific Network (APN project at a suburban site in Bangkok. The modeled PM10 and BC satisfactorily met all suggested statistical criteria for PM evaluation. The modeled PM2.5∕PM10 ratios estimated for four AIRPET sites ranged between 0.47 and 0.59, lower than observed values of 0.6–0.83. Better agreement was found for BC∕PM2.5 ratios with the modeled values of 0.05–0.33 as compared to the observation values of 0

  20. Integrated emission inventory and modeling to assess distribution of particulate matter mass and black carbon composition in Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustian Permadi, Didin; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Vautard, Robert

    2018-02-01

    This is part of a research study addressing the potential co-benefits associated with selected black carbon (BC) emission reduction measures on mitigation of air pollution and climate forcing in Southeast Asia (SEA). This paper presents details of emission inventory (EI) results and WRF-CHIMERE model performance evaluation. The SEA regional emissions for 2007 were updated with our EI results for Indonesia, Thailand, and Cambodia and used for the model input. WRF-CHIMERE-simulated 2007 PM10, PM2.5, and BC over the SEA domain (0.25° × 0.25°) and the results were evaluated against the available meteorology and air quality monitoring data in the domain. WRF hourly simulation results were evaluated using the observed data at eight international airport stations in five SEA countries and showed a satisfactory performance. WRF-CHIMERE results for PM10 and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal influence of biomass open burning while the BC distribution showed the influence of urban activities in big SEA cities. Daily average PM10 constructed from the hourly concentrations were obtained from the automatic monitoring stations in three large SEA cities, i.e., Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, and Surabaya, for model evaluation. The daily observed PM2.5 and BC concentrations obtained from the Improving Air Quality in Asian Developing Countries (AIRPET) project for four cities (i.e., Bangkok, Hanoi, Bandung, and Manila) were also used for model evaluation. In addition, hourly BC concentrations were taken from the measurement results of the Asian Pacific Network (APN) project at a suburban site in Bangkok. The modeled PM10 and BC satisfactorily met all suggested statistical criteria for PM evaluation. The modeled PM2.5/PM10 ratios estimated for four AIRPET sites ranged between 0.47 and 0.59, lower than observed values of 0.6-0.83. Better agreement was found for BC/PM2.5 ratios with the modeled values of 0.05-0.33 as compared to the observation values of 0.05-0.28. AODEM (extended aerosol optical

  1. Temporal variability in aerosol characteristics and its radiative properties over Patiala, northwestern part of India: Impact of agricultural biomass burning emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, D.; Srivastava, A.K.; Ram, K.; Singh, A.; Singh, D.

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD), particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) mass concentrations have been carried out over Patiala, a semi-urban site in northwest India during October 2008 to September 2010. The measured aerosol data was incorporated in an aerosol optical model to estimate various aerosol optical parameters, which were subsequently used for radiative forcing estimation. The measured AOD at 500 nm (AOD 500 ) shows a significant seasonal variability, with maximum value of 0.81 during post-monsoon (PoM) and minimum of 0.56 during winter season. The Ångström exponent (α) has higher values (i.e. more fine-mode fraction) during the PoM/winter periods, and lower (i.e. more coarse-mode fraction) during pre-monsoon (PrM). In contrast, turbidity coefficient (β) exhibits an opposite trend to α during the study period. BC mass concentration varies from 2.8 to 13.9 μg m −3 (mean: 6.5 ± 3.2 μg m −3 ) during the entire study period, with higher concentrations during PoM/winter and lower during PrM/monsoon seasons. The average single scattering albedo (SSA at 500 nm) values are 0.70, 0.72, 0.82 and 0.75 during PoM, winter, PrM and monsoon seasons, respectively. However, inter-seasonal and inter-annual variability in measured aerosol parameters are statistically insignificant at Patiala. These results suggest strong changes in emission sources, aerosol composition, meteorological parameters as well as transport of aerosols over the station. Higher values of AOD, α and BC, along with lower SSA during PoM season are attributed to agriculture biomass burning emissions over and around the station. The estimated aerosol radiative forcing within the atmosphere is positive (i.e. warming) during all the seasons with higher values (∼60 Wm −2 ) during PoM–08/PoM–09 and lower (∼40 Wm −2 ) during winter–09/PrM–10. The present study highlights the role of BC aerosols from agricultural biomass burning

  2. In-plane and out-of-plane emission of nuclear matter in Au+Au collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastid, N.; Dupieux, P.; Ramillien, V.; Alard, J.P.; Amouroux, V.; Berger, L.; Boussange, S.; Fraysse, L.; Ibnouzahir, M.; Montarou, G.

    1995-01-01

    Collective flow effects in Au (E/A = 150 to 800 MeV) on Au collisions measured with the phase I setup of the FOPI detector at GSI - Darmstadt are presented. Directed side ward flow is studied, by the mean transverse momentum in the reaction plane x (y)>, without reaction plane reconstruction. A more quantitative measurement of the global amount of directed side ward flow is also made and some comparisons with the predictions of different QMD versions are given. Experimental results concerning the preferential emission of particles in a direction perpendicular to the reaction plane are also presented. Azimuthal distributions of fragments around the beam axis, with respect to the reaction plane are studied in the mid-rapidity region and the associated R N (out-of-plane/in-plane ratios) are extracted. The dependence of R N upon transverse momentum, centrality, fragment charge and bombarding energy is studied. (authors). 24 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  3. Impacts of roadway emissions on urban particulate matter concentrations in sub-Saharan Africa: new evidence from Nairobi, Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, E D S van; Kinney, P L

    2007-01-01

    Air quality is a serious and worsening problem in the rapidly growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, the lack of ambient monitoring data, and particularly urban roadside concentrations for particulate matter in SSA cities severely hinders our ability to describe temporal and spatial patterns of concentrations, characterize exposure-response relationships for key health outcomes, estimate disease burdens, and promote policy initiatives to address air quality. As part of a collaborative transportation planning exercise between Columbia University and University of Nairobi, air monitoring was carried out in February 2006 in Nairobi, Kenya. The objective of the monitoring was to collect pilot data on air concentrations (PM 2.5 and black carbon) encountered while driving in the Nairobi metropolitan area, and to compare those data to simultaneous 'urban background' concentrations measured in Nairobi but away from roadways. For both the background and roadway monitoring, we used portable air sampling systems that collect integrated filter samples. Results from this pilot study found that roadway concentrations of PM 2.5 were approximately 20-fold higher than those from the urban background site, whereas black carbon concentrations differed by 10-fold. If confirmed by more extensive sampling, these data would underscore the need for air quality and transportation planning and management directed at mitigating roadway pollution

  4. Impacts of roadway emissions on urban particulate matter concentrations in sub-Saharan Africa: new evidence from Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, E. D. S.; Kinney, P. L.

    2007-10-01

    Air quality is a serious and worsening problem in the rapidly growing cities of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, the lack of ambient monitoring data, and particularly urban roadside concentrations for particulate matter in SSA cities severely hinders our ability to describe temporal and spatial patterns of concentrations, characterize exposure response relationships for key health outcomes, estimate disease burdens, and promote policy initiatives to address air quality. As part of a collaborative transportation planning exercise between Columbia University and the University of Nairobi, air monitoring was carried out in February 2006 in Nairobi, Kenya. The objective of the monitoring was to collect pilot data on air concentrations (PM2.5 and black carbon) encountered while driving in the Nairobi metropolitan area, and to compare those data to simultaneous 'urban background' concentrations measured in Nairobi but away from roadways. For both the background and roadway monitoring, we used portable air sampling systems that collect integrated filter samples. Results from this pilot study found that roadway concentrations of PM2.5 were approximately 20-fold higher than those from the urban background site, whereas black carbon concentrations differed by 10-fold. If confirmed by more extensive sampling, these data would underscore the need for air quality and transportation planning and management directed at mitigating roadway pollution.

  5. Autoxidation as a major player in the fate of terrestrial particulate organic matter in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeron, Marie-Aimée.; Radakovitch, Olivier; Charrière, Bruno; Vaultier, Frédéric; Rontani, Jean-François

    2017-05-01

    The Rhône River plays a major role in the Mediterranean Sea, being both its main freshwater source and its major particulate matter provider. This survey of the fate of terrestrial particulate organic matter (POM) was conducted along the salinity gradient of the Rhône River plume, between 2012 and 2014. It revealed that autoxidation acts rapidly and intensely upon the POM's arrival at sea, with α-amyrin and β-amyrin autoxidation rates going from 12.9 ± 2.9% to 45.0 ± 6.4% and 10.7 ± 4.0% to 50.3 ± 4.4%, respectively, between fresh water (salinity 0) and seawater (salinity 38). These compounds, being unambiguous markers of the terrestrial origin of POM, allow us to unequivocally characterize the POM as terrestrial. While it was originally believed that a desorption of redox-active trace metal ions was the favoring factor that kick-started this intense autoxidation, this study evidences no trace metal desorption in the Rhône River mixing zone and hence no correlation between high autoxidation rates and the presence of trace metal ions. Autoxidation rates however were very well correlated with salinity levels within the river plume, with r2 reaching 0.801, 0.962, and 0.943 for sitosterol, α-amyrin, and β-amyrin, respectively, in November 2014.

  6. Reductions in emissions of carbonaceous particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass pellets in comparison with raw fuel burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guofeng; Tao, Shu; Wei, Siye; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Chen, Yuanchen; Chen, Han; Yang, Yifeng; Wang, Wei; Wei, Wen; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxing; Wang, Xuejun; Masse Simonich, Staci L y

    2012-06-05

    Biomass pellets are emerging as a cleaner alternative to traditional biomass fuels. The potential benefits of using biomass pellets include improving energy utilization efficiency and reducing emissions of air pollutants. To assess the environmental, climate, and health significance of replacing traditional fuels with biomass pellets, it is critical to measure the emission factors (EFs) of various pollutants from pellet burning. However, only a few field measurements have been conducted on the emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the combustion of pellets. In this study, pine wood and corn straw pellets were burned in a pellet burner (2.6 kW), and the EFs of CO, organic carbon, elemental carbon, PM, and PAHs (EF(CO), EF(OC), EF(EC), EF(PM), and EF(PAH)) were determined. The average EF(CO), EF(OC), EF(EC), and EF(PM) were 1520 ± 1170, 8.68 ± 11.4, 11.2 ± 8.7, and 188 ± 87 mg/MJ for corn straw pellets and 266 ± 137, 5.74 ± 7.17, 2.02 ± 1.57, and 71.0 ± 54.0 mg/MJ for pine wood pellets, respectively. Total carbonaceous carbon constituted 8 to 14% of the PM mass emitted. The measured values of EF(PAH) for the two pellets were 1.02 ± 0.64 and 0.506 ± 0.360 mg/MJ, respectively. The secondary side air supply in the pellet burner did not change the EFs of most pollutants significantly (p > 0.05). The only exceptions were EF(OC) and EF(PM) for pine wood pellets because of reduced combustion temperatures with the increased air supply. In comparison with EFs for the raw pine wood and corn straw, EF(CO), EF(OC), EF(EC), and EF(PM) for pellets were significantly lower than those for raw fuels (p 0.05). Based on the measured EFs and thermal efficiencies, it was estimated that 95, 98, 98, 88, and 71% reductions in the total emissions of CO, OC, EC, PM, and PAHs could be achieved by replacing the raw biomass fuels combusted in traditional cooking stoves with pellets burned in modern pellet burners.

  7. Solid-state 13C NMR experiments reveal effects of aggregate size on the chemical composition of particulate organic matter in grazed steppe soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, M.; Kölbl, A.; Kögel-Knabner, I.

    2009-04-01

    Grazing is one of the most important factors that may reduce soil organic matter (SOM) stocks and subsequently deteriorate aggregate stability in grassland topsoils. Land use management and grazing reduction are assumed to increase the input of OM, improve the soil aggregation and change species composition of vegetation (changes depth of OM input). Many studies have evaluated the impact of grazing cessation on SOM quantity. But until today little is known about the impact of grazing cessation on the chemical quality of SOM in density fractions, aggregate size classes and different horizons. The central aim of this study was to analyse the quality of SOM fractions in differently sized aggregates and horizons as affected by increased inputs of organic matter due to grazing exclusion. We applied a combined aggregate size, density and particle size fractionation procedure to sandy steppe topsoils with different organic matter inputs due to different grazing intensities (continuously grazed = Cg, winter grazing = Wg, ungrazed since 1999 = Ug99, ungrazed since 1979 = Ug79). Three different particulate organic matter (POM; free POM, in aggregate occluded POM and small in aggregate occluded POM) and seven mineral-associated organic matter fractions were separated for each of three aggregate size classes (coarse = 2000-6300 m, medium = 630-2000 m and fine =

  8. Effect of biodiesel fuel on "real-world", nonroad heavy duty diesel engine particulate matter emissions, composition and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nathan; Lombard, Melissa; Jensen, Kirk R; Kelley, Patrick; Pratt, Tara; Traviss, Nora

    2017-05-15

    Biodiesel is regarded by many as a "greener" alternative fuel to petroleum diesel with potentially lower health risk. However, recent studies examining biodiesel particulate matter (PM) characteristics and health effects are contradictive, and typically utilize PM generated by passenger car engines in laboratory settings. There is a critical need to analyze diesel and biodiesel PM generated in a "real-world" setting where heavy duty-diesel (HDD) engines and commercially purchased fuel are utilized. This study compares the mass concentrations, chemical composition and cytotoxicity of real-world PM from combustion of both petroleum diesel and a waste grease 20% biodiesel blend (B20) at a community recycling center operating HDD nonroad equipment. PM was analyzed for metals, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (N-PAHs). Cytotoxicity in a human lung epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) following 24h exposure to the real-world particles was also evaluated. On average, higher concentrations for both EC and OC were measured in diesel PM. B20 PM contained significantly higher levels of Cu and Mo whereas diesel PM contained significantly higher concentrations of Pb. Principal component analysis determined Mo, Cu, and Ni were the metals with the greatest loading factor, suggesting a unique pattern related to the B20 fuel source. Total PAH concentration during diesel fuel use was 1.9 times higher than during B20 operations; however, total N-PAH concentration was 3.3 times higher during B20 use. Diesel PM cytotoxicity was 8.5 times higher than B20 PM (pengine sources of metals, PAH and N-PAH species, comparing tailpipe PM vs. PM collected inside the equipment cabin. Results suggest PM generated from burning petroleum diesel in nonroad engines may be more harmful to human health, but the links between exposure, composition and toxicity are not straightforward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  9. Characterizing fluorescent dissolved organic matter in a membrane bioreactor via excitation-emission matrix combined with parallel factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqbool, Tahir; Quang, Viet Ly; Cho, Jinwoo; Hur, Jin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we successfully tracked the dynamic changes in different constitutes of bound extracellular polymeric substances (bEPS), soluble microbial products (SMP), and permeate during the operation of bench scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) via fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Three fluorescent groups were identified, including two protein-like (tryptophan-like C1 and tyrosine-like C2) and one microbial humic-like components (C3). In bEPS, protein-like components were consistently more dominant than C3 during the MBR operation, while their relative abundance in SMP depended on aeration intensities. C1 of bEPS exhibited a linear correlation (R(2)=0.738; pbEPS amounts in sludge, and C2 was closely related to the stability of sludge. The protein-like components were more greatly responsible for membrane fouling. Our study suggests that EEM-PARAFAC can be a promising monitoring tool to provide further insight into process evaluation and membrane fouling during MBR operation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 78 FR 7487 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Area Sources: Industrial, Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... small coal-fired units (i.e., with a design heat input capacity of less than 10 MMBtu/hr) are subject to... existing area source coal-fired boilers with heat input capacity of 10 MMBtu/hr or greater may need to... most emissions from area source boilers, two pollutants emitted by coal-fired boilers, POM as 7-PAH and...

  11. Characterizing chromophoric dissolved organic matter in Lake Tianmuhu and its catchment basin using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence and parallel factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlin; Yin, Yan; Feng, Longqing; Zhu, Guangwei; Shi, Zhiqiang; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhang, Yuanzhi

    2011-10-15

    Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is an important optically active substance that transports nutrients, heavy metals, and other pollutants from terrestrial to aquatic systems and is used as a measure of water quality. To investigate how the source and composition of CDOM changes in both space and time, we used chemical, spectroscopic, and fluorescence analyses to characterize CDOM in Lake Tianmuhu (a drinking water source) and its catchment in China. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) identified three individual fluorophore moieties that were attributed to humic-like and protein-like materials in 224 water samples collected between December 2008 and September 2009. The upstream rivers contained significantly higher concentrations of CDOM than did the lake water (a(350) of 4.27±2.51 and 2.32±0.59 m(-1), respectively), indicating that the rivers carried a substantial load of organic matter to the lake. Of the three main rivers that flow into Lake Tianmuhu, the Pingqiao River brought in the most CDOM from the catchment to the lake. CDOM absorption and the microbial and terrestrial humic-like components, but not the protein-like component, were significantly higher in the wet season than in other seasons, indicating that the frequency of rainfall and runoff could significantly impact the quantity and quality of CDOM collected from the catchment. The different relationships between the maximum fluorescence intensities of the three PARAFAC components, CDOM absorption, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration in riverine and lake water indicated the difference in the composition of CDOM between Lake Tianmuhu and the rivers that feed it. This study demonstrates the utility of combining excitation-emission matrix fluorescence and PARAFAC to study CDOM dynamics in inland waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of primary and secondary air supply intensity in stove on emissions of size-segregated particulate matter and carbonaceous aerosols from apple tree wood burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Shen, Zhenxing; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Qian; Lei, Yali; Cao, Junji; Huang, Yu; Liu, Suixin; Zheng, Chunli; Xu, Hongmei; Liu, Hongxia; Pan, Hua; Liu, Pingping; Zhang, Renjian

    2018-04-01

    In order to assess emission factors (EF) more accurately from household biomass burning, a series of laboratory-controlled apple tree wood burning tests were conducted to measure the EFs of size-segregated particulate matter (PM) and carbonaceous aerosols. The controlled burning experiments were conducted with designed primary air (PA) and secondary air (SA) supply intensity. An optimum value of 7 m3·h- 1 was found for SA, resulting the highest modified combustion efficiency (92.4 ± 2.5%) as well as the lowest EFs of PM2.5 (0.13 ± 0.01 g·MJ- 1), OC (0.04 ± 0.03 g·MJ- 1) and EC (0.03 ± 0.01 g·MJ- 1). SA values of 7 and 10 m3·h- 1 resulted the lowest EFs for all the different PM sizes. In a test with PA of 6 m3·h- 1 and SA of 7 m3·h- 1, very low EFs were observed for OC1 (8.2%), OC2 (11.2%) and especially OP (Pyrolyzed OC) (0%, not detected), indicating nearly complete combustion under this air supply condition. Besides SA, higher PA was proved to have positive effects on PM and carbonaceous fraction emission reduction. For example, with a fixed SA of 1.5 m3·h- 1, EFs of PM2.5 decreased from 0.64 to 0.27 g·MJ- 1 when PA increased from 6 to 15 m3·h- 1 (P < 0.05). Similar reductions were also observed in EFs of OC, EC and size segregated PM.

  13. Volatile organo-selenium speciation in biological matter by solid phase microextraction-moderate temperature multicapillary gas chromatography with microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, C.; Sanz Landaluze, J.; Ximenez-Embun, P.; Madrid-Albarran, Y.; Camara, C

    2004-01-16

    Microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES) in combination with multicapillary (MC) gas chromatography could be proven to be useful for element specific detection of volatile species. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used for preconcentration and sample-matrix separation. The fiber desorption unit as well as the heating control for the MC column were in-house developed and multicapillary column was operated at moderate temperatures (30-100 deg. C). The method was optimized for organo-selenium species (dimethylselenide (DMSe), diethylselenide (DEtSe) and dimethyldiselenide (DMDSe)), using a chemometric approach. Stationary phases for the separation column were optimized using a conventional GC and contrasted with the results obtained with the MC. Application was focussed on selenium accumulating biological matter, such as lupine, yeast, Indian mustard and garlic. These samples were grown in hydroponic solution containing inorganic selenium (Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}). SPME sampling was carried out in fixed volume flow boxes in headspace above the living plants and in vials using treated samples. Results demonstrate inorganic selenium transformation into volatile organic species during metabolism. Separation is fast, a chromatogram can be obtained in less than 3 min and detection limits were at sub-ppb level for all investigated species. The system is independent from the use of a conventional gas chromatographic oven and can be used as a versatile alternative to highly cost intensive methods such as GC-ICP-MS.

  14. Diffuse X-ray emission from the NGC 2300 group of galaxies - Implications for dark matter and galaxy evolution in small groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulchaey, John S.; Davis, David S.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Burstein, David

    1993-01-01

    The discovery of diffuse X-ray emission from the NGC 2300 group of galaxies using the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter is reported. The gas distributions is roughly symmetric and extends to a radius of at least 0.2/h(50) Mpc. A Raymond-Smith hot plasma model provides an excellent fit the X-ray spectrum with a best-fit value temperature of 0.9 + -/15 or - 0.14 keV and abundance 0.06 + 0/.12 or - 0.05 solar. The assumption of gravitational confinement leads to a total mass of the group of 3.0 + 0.4 or - 0.5 x 10 exp 13 solar. Baryons can reasonably account for 4 percent of this mass, and errors could push this number not higher than 10-15 percent. This is one of the strongest pieces of evidence that dark matter dominates small groups such as this one. The intragroup medium in this system has the lowest metal abundance yet found in diffuse gas in a group or cluster.

  15. Enhanced Input of Terrestrial Particulate Organic Matter Reduces the Resilience of the Clear-Water State of Shallow Lakes: A Model Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lischke, B.; Hilt, S.; Janse, J.H.; Kuiper, J.J.; Mehner, T.; Mooij, W.M.; Gaedke, U.

    2014-01-01

    The amount of terrestrial particulate organic matter (t-POM) entering lakes is predicted to increase as a result of climate change. This may especially alter the structure and functioning of ecosystems in small, shallow lakes which can rapidly shift from a clear-water, macrophyte-dominated into a

  16. Emission Inventory for Fugitive Emissions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Nielsen, Malene

    This report presents the methodology and data used in the Danish inventory of fugitive emissions from fuels for the years until 2007. The inventory of fugitive emissions includes CO2, CH4, N2O, NOx, CO, NMVOC, SO2, dioxin, PAH and particulate matter. In 2007 the total Danish emission of greenhouse...

  17. Photochemical Reactions of Particulate Organic Matter: Deciphering the Role of Direct and Indirect Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasquillo, A. J.; Gelfond, C. E.; Kocar, B. D.

    2016-12-01

    Photochemical reactions of natural organic matter (NOM) represent potentially important pathways for biologically recalcitrant material to be chemically altered in aquatic systems. Irradiation can alter the physical state of organic matter by facilitating the cycling between the particulate (POM) and dissolved (DOM) pools, however, a molecular level understanding of this chemically dynamic system is currently lacking. Photochemical reactions of a target molecule proceed by the direct absorption of a photon, or through reaction with a second photolytically generated species (i.e. the hydroxyl radical, singlet oxygen, excited triplet state NOM, hydrogen peroxide, etc.). Here, we isolate the major direct and indirect photochemical reactions of a lignocellulose-rich POM material (Phragmites australis) to determine their relative importance in changing the the chemical structure of the parent POM, and in the production of DOM. We measured POM molecular structure using a combination of NMR and FTIR for bulk analyses and scanning transmission x-ray microscopy (STXM) for spatially resolved chemistry, while the chemical composition of photo-produced DOM was measured using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. Results are discussed in the context of the differences in chemical composition of both NOM pools resulting from the isolated photochemical pathways. All treatments result in an increase in DOM with reaction time, indicating that the larger POM matrix is likely fragmenting into smaller more soluble species. Spectroscopic measurements, on the other hand, point to functionalization reactions which increase the abundance of alcohol, acid, and carbonyl moieties in both carbon pools. This unique dataset provides new insight into how photochemical reactions alter the chemical composition of NOM while highlighting the relative importance of indirect pathways.

  18. Effects of climate and geochemistry on soil organic matter stabilization and greenhouse gas emissions along altitudinal transects in different mountain regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griepentrog, Marco; Bodé, Samuel; Boudin, Mathieu; Dercon, Gerd; Doetterl, Sebastian; Matulanya, Machibya; Msigwa, Anna; Vermeir, Pieter; Boeckx, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are strongly influenced by climate change and soils are key compartments of the global carbon (C) cycle in terms of their potential to store or release significant amounts of C. This study is part of the interregional IAEA Technical Cooperation Project ``Assessing the Impact of Climate Change and its Effects on Soil and Water Resources in Polar and Mountainous Regions (INT5153)'' aiming to improve the understanding of climate change impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) in fragile polar and high mountainous ecosystems at local and global scale for their better management and conservation. The project includes 13 benchmark sites situated around the world. Here we present novel data from altitudinal transects of three different mountain regions (Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania; Mount Gongga, China; Cordillera Blanca, Peru). All altitudinal transects cover a wide range of natural ecosystems under different climates and soil geochemistry. Bulk soil samples (four field replicates per ecosystem) were subjected to a combination of aggregate and particle-size fractionation followed by organic C, total nitrogen, stable isotope (13C, 15N) and radiocarbon (14C) analyses of all fractions. Bulk soils were further characterized for their geochemistry (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Fe, Mn, Si, P) and incubated for 63 days to assess greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, NO, N2O). Further, stable C isotopic signature of CO2 was measured to determine the isotopic signature of soil respiration (using Keeling plots) and to estimate potential respiration sources. The following four ecosystems were sampled at an altitudinal transect on the (wet) southern slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro: savannah (920m), lower montane rain forests with angiosperm trees (2020m), upper montane cloud forest with gymnosperm trees (2680m), subalpine heathlands (3660m). Both forests showed highest C contents followed by subalpine and savannah. The largest part of SOC was found in particulate organic matter

  19. Biogeochemical characteristics of suspended particulate matter in deep chlorophyll maximum layers in the southern East China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Continental shelves and marginal seas are key sites of particulate organic matter (POM production, remineralization and sequestration, playing an important role in the global carbon cycle. Elemental and stable isotopic compositions of organic carbon and nitrogen are thus frequently used to characterize and distinguish POM and its sources in suspended particles and surface sediments in the marginal seas. Here we investigated suspended particulate matter (SPM collected around deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM layers in the southern East China Sea for particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (POC and PN contents and their isotopic compositions (δ13CPOC and δ15NPN to understand provenance and dynamics of POM. Hydrographic parameters (temperature, salinity and turbidity indicated that the study area was weakly influenced by freshwater derived from the Yangtze River during summer 2013. Elemental and isotopic results showed a large variation in δ13CPOC (−25.8 to −18.2 ‰ and δ15NPN (3.8 to 8.0 ‰, but a narrow molar C ∕ N ratio (4.1–6.3 and low POC ∕ Chl a ratio ( <  200 g g−1 in POM, and indicated that the POM in DCM layers was newly produced by phytoplankton. In addition to temperature effects, the range and distribution of δ13CPOC were controlled by variations in primary productivity and phytoplankton species composition; the former explained  ∼  70 % of the variability in δ13CPOC. However, the variation in δ15NPN was controlled by the nutrient status and δ15NNO3− in seawater, as indicated by similar spatial distribution between δ15NPN and the current pattern and water masses in the East China Sea; although interpretations of δ15NPN data should be verified with the nutrient data in future studies. Furthermore, the POM investigated was weakly influenced by the terrestrial OM supplied by the Yangtze River during summer 2013 due to the reduced sediment supply by the Yangtze River and north

  20. Biogeochemical characteristics of suspended particulate matter in deep chlorophyll maximum layers in the southern East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianqian; Kandasamy, Selvaraj; Lin, Baozhi; Wang, Huawei; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur

    2018-04-01

    Continental shelves and marginal seas are key sites of particulate organic matter (POM) production, remineralization and sequestration, playing an important role in the global carbon cycle. Elemental and stable isotopic compositions of organic carbon and nitrogen are thus frequently used to characterize and distinguish POM and its sources in suspended particles and surface sediments in the marginal seas. Here we investigated suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected around deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) layers in the southern East China Sea for particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (POC and PN) contents and their isotopic compositions (δ13CPOC and δ15NPN) to understand provenance and dynamics of POM. Hydrographic parameters (temperature, salinity and turbidity) indicated that the study area was weakly influenced by freshwater derived from the Yangtze River during summer 2013. Elemental and isotopic results showed a large variation in δ13CPOC (-25.8 to -18.2 ‰) and δ15NPN (3.8 to 8.0 ‰), but a narrow molar C / N ratio (4.1-6.3) and low POC / Chl a ratio ( < 200 g g-1) in POM, and indicated that the POM in DCM layers was newly produced by phytoplankton. In addition to temperature effects, the range and distribution of δ13CPOC were controlled by variations in primary productivity and phytoplankton species composition; the former explained ˜ 70 % of the variability in δ13CPOC. However, the variation in δ15NPN was controlled by the nutrient status and δ15NNO3- in seawater, as indicated by similar spatial distribution between δ15NPN and the current pattern and water masses in the East China Sea; although interpretations of δ15NPN data should be verified with the nutrient data in future studies. Furthermore, the POM investigated was weakly influenced by the terrestrial OM supplied by the Yangtze River during summer 2013 due to the reduced sediment supply by the Yangtze River and north-eastward transport of riverine particles to the northern East China

  1. Tomographic-spectral approach for dark matter detection in the cross-correlation between cosmic shear and diffuse γ-ray emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camera, S. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, The University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Fornasa, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Campus, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Fornengo, N.; Regis, M., E-mail: stefano.camera@manchester.ac.uk, E-mail: fornasam@gmail.com, E-mail: fornengo@to.infn.it, E-mail: regis@to.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    We recently proposed to cross-correlate the diffuse extragalactic γ-ray background with the gravitational lensing signal of cosmic shear. This represents a novel and promising strategy to search for annihilating or decaying particle dark matter (DM) candidates. In the present work, we demonstrate the potential of a tomographic-spectral approach: measuring the cross-correlation in separate bins of redshift and energy significantly improves the sensitivity to a DM signal. Indeed, the technique proposed here takes advantage of the different scaling of the astrophysical and DM components with redshift and, simultaneously of their different energy spectra and different angular extensions. The sensitivity to a particle DM signal is extremely promising even when the DM-induced emission is quite faint. We first quantify the prospects of detecting DM by cross-correlating the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) diffuse γ-ray background with the cosmic shear expected from the Dark Energy Survey. Under the hypothesis of a significant subhalo boost, such a measurement can deliver a 5σ detection of DM, if the DM particle is lighter than 300 GeV and has a thermal annihilation rate. We then forecast the capability of the European Space Agency Euclid satellite (whose launch is planned for 2020), in combination with an hypothetical future γ-ray detector with slightly improved specifications compared to current telescopes. We predict that the cross-correlation of their data will allow a measurement of the DM mass with an uncertainty of a factor of 1.5–2, even for moderate subhalo boosts, for DM masses up to few hundreds of GeV and thermal annihilation rates.

  2. Tomographic-spectral approach for dark matter detection in the cross-correlation between cosmic shear and diffuse γ-ray emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, S.; Fornasa, M.; Fornengo, N.; Regis, M.

    2015-06-01

    We recently proposed to cross-correlate the diffuse extragalactic γ-ray background with the gravitational lensing signal of cosmic shear. This represents a novel and promising strategy to search for annihilating or decaying particle dark matter (DM) candidates. In the present work, we demonstrate the potential of a tomographic-spectral approach: measuring the cross-correlation in separate bins of redshift and energy significantly improves the sensitivity to a DM signal. Indeed, the technique proposed here takes advantage of the different scaling of the astrophysical and DM components with redshift and, simultaneously of their different energy spectra and different angular extensions. The sensitivity to a particle DM signal is extremely promising even when the DM-induced emission is quite faint. We first quantify the prospects of detecting DM by cross-correlating the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) diffuse γ-ray background with the cosmic shear expected from the Dark Energy Survey. Under the hypothesis of a significant subhalo boost, such a measurement can deliver a 5σ detection of DM, if the DM particle is lighter than 300 GeV and has a thermal annihilation rate. We then forecast the capability of the European Space Agency Euclid satellite (whose launch is planned for 2020), in combination with an hypothetical future γ-ray detector with slightly improved specifications compared to current telescopes. We predict that the cross-correlation of their data will allow a measurement of the DM mass with an uncertainty of a factor of 1.5-2, even for moderate subhalo boosts, for DM masses up to few hundreds of GeV and thermal annihilation rates.

  3. Tomographic-spectral approach for dark matter detection in the cross-correlation between cosmic shear and diffuse γ-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camera, S.; Fornasa, M.; Fornengo, N.; Regis, M.

    2015-01-01

    We recently proposed to cross-correlate the diffuse extragalactic γ-ray background with the gravitational lensing signal of cosmic shear. This represents a novel and promising strategy to search for annihilating or decaying particle dark matter (DM) candidates. In the present work, we demonstrate the potential of a tomographic-spectral approach: measuring the cross-correlation in separate bins of redshift and energy significantly improves the sensitivity to a DM signal. Indeed, the technique proposed here takes advantage of the different scaling of the astrophysical and DM components with redshift and, simultaneously of their different energy spectra and different angular extensions. The sensitivity to a particle DM signal is extremely promising even when the DM-induced emission is quite faint. We first quantify the prospects of detecting DM by cross-correlating the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) diffuse γ-ray background with the cosmic shear expected from the Dark Energy Survey. Under the hypothesis of a significant subhalo boost, such a measurement can deliver a 5σ detection of DM, if the DM particle is lighter than 300 GeV and has a thermal annihilation rate. We then forecast the capability of the European Space Agency Euclid satellite (whose launch is planned for 2020), in combination with an hypothetical future γ-ray detector with slightly improved specifications compared to current telescopes. We predict that the cross-correlation of their data will allow a measurement of the DM mass with an uncertainty of a factor of 1.5–2, even for moderate subhalo boosts, for DM masses up to few hundreds of GeV and thermal annihilation rates

  4. Characterizing the release of different composition of dissolved organic matter in soil under acid rain leaching using three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Song, Cunyi; Yan, Zengguang; Li, Fasheng

    2009-09-01

    Although excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMS) has been widely used to characterize dissolved organic matter (DOM), there has no report that EEMS has been used to study the effects of acid rain on DOM and its composition in soil. In this work, we employed three-dimensional EEMS to characterize the compositions of DOM leached by simulated acid rain from red soil. The red soil was subjected to leaching of simulated acid rain of different acidity, and the leached DOM presented five main peaks in its EEMS: peak-A, related to humic acid-like (HA-like) material, at Ex/Em of 310-330/395-420nm; peak-B, related to UV fulvic acid-like (FA-like) material, at Ex/Em of 230-280/400-435nm; peak-C and peak-D, both related to microbial byproduct-like material, at Ex/Em of 250-280/335-355nm and 260-280/290-320nm, respectively; and peak-E, related to simple aromatic proteins, at Ex/Em of 210-240/290-340nm. EEMS analysis results indicated that most DOM could be lost from red soil in the early phase of acid rain leaching. In addition to the effects of the pH of acid rain, the loss of DOM also depended on the properties of its compositions and the solubility of their complexes with aluminum. HA-like and microbial byproduct-like materials could be more easily released from red soil by acid rain at both higher pH (4.5 and 5.6) and lower pH (2.5 and 3) than that at middle pH (3.5). On the contrary, FA-like material lost in a similar manner under the action of different acid rains with pH ranging from 2.5 to 5.6.

  5. [Study on optical characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in rainwater by fluorescence excitation-emission matrix and absorbance spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan-yue; Guo, Wei-dong; Long, Ai-min; Chen, Shao-yong

    2010-09-01

    The optical characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were determined in rain samples collected in Xiamen Island, during a rainy season in 2007, using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy associated with UV-Vis absorbance spectra. Results showed that the absorbance spectra of CDOM in rain samples decreased exponentially with wavelength. The absorbance coefficient at 300 nm [a(300)] ranged from 0.27 to 3.45 m(-1), which would be used as an index of CDOM abundance, and the mean value was 1.08 m(-1). The content of earlier stage of precipitation events was higher than that of later stage of precipitation events, which implied that anthropogenic sources or atmospheric pollution or air mass types were important contributors to CDOM levels in precipitation. EEMs spectra showed 4 types of fluorescence signals (2 humic-like fluorescence peaks and 2 protein-like fluorescence peaks) in rainwater samples, and there were significant positive correlations of peak A with C and peak B with S, showing their same sources or some relationship of the two humic-like substance and the two protein-like substance. The strong positive correlations of the two humic-like fluorescence peaks with a(300), suggested that the chromophores responsible for absorbance might be the same as fluorophores responsible for fluorescence. Results showed that the presence of highly absorbing and fluorescing CDOM in rainwater is of significant importance in atmospheric chemistry and might play a previously unrecognized role in the wavelength dependent spectral attenuation of solar radiation by atmospheric waters.

  6. Self-organising maps and correlation analysis as a tool to explore patterns in excitation-emission matrix data sets and to discriminate dissolved organic matter fluorescence components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejarque-Gonzalez, Elisabet; Butturini, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex mixture of organic compounds, ubiquitous in marine and freshwater systems. Fluorescence spectroscopy, by means of Excitation-Emission Matrices (EEM), has become an indispensable tool to study DOM sources, transport and fate in aquatic ecosystems. However the statistical treatment of large and heterogeneous EEM data sets still represents an important challenge for biogeochemists. Recently, Self-Organising Maps (SOM) has been proposed as a tool to explore patterns in large EEM data sets. SOM is a pattern recognition method which clusterizes and reduces the dimensionality of input EEMs without relying on any assumption about the data structure. In this paper, we show how SOM, coupled with a correlation analysis of the component planes, can be used both to explore patterns among samples, as well as to identify individual fluorescence components. We analysed a large and heterogeneous EEM data set, including samples from a river catchment collected under a range of hydrological conditions, along a 60-km downstream gradient, and under the influence of different degrees of anthropogenic impact. According to our results, chemical industry effluents appeared to have unique and distinctive spectral characteristics. On the other hand, river samples collected under flash flood conditions showed homogeneous EEM shapes. The correlation analysis of the component planes suggested the presence of four fluorescence components, consistent with DOM components previously described in the literature. A remarkable strength of this methodology was that outlier samples appeared naturally integrated in the analysis. We conclude that SOM coupled with a correlation analysis procedure is a promising tool for studying large and heterogeneous EEM data sets.

  7. Indoor exposures to particulate matter emissions in various types of households using different cooking fuels in rural areas of south India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthi, Y.; Nagendra, S. S.; Gummadi, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Exposure to Particulate Matter (PM) that are typically generated from heavy biomass usage in cooking and from unpaved roads is a major health risk in the rural areas of developing countries. To understand the exposure levels in such areas, PM (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) characterizations was carried out through indoor monitoring in a rural site of south India with varied cooking fuels such as only biomass, biomass plus LPG and only LPG in different types of housing namely indoor kitchen without partition (IKWO), indoor kitchen with partition (IKWP), separate enclosed kitchen outside house (SEKO) and open kitchen (OK). Results indicated that use of biomass resulted in the highest PM10 concentrations of 179.51±21µg/m3 followed by combination of biomass and LPG (101.99±21 µg/m3) and LPG (77.48±9µg/m3). Similar patterns were observed in PM2.5 and PM1 with highest emissions from biomass burning. The PM concentrations of biomass households and combination of biomass and LPG households were 233.7 % and 80.2 % respectively higher than those using cleaner fuels (LPG). The monitoring also revealed that kitchen configuration is an important determinant for indoor exposures especially for biomass households. Among biomass users, average PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations in all type of houses were above the human permissible limit with IKWP having highest concentrations followed by IKWO>SEKO>OK. Thus, biomass household have high concentrations compared to LPG because of nature of combustion of solid biomass. Also, PM concentrations were higher in enclosed indoor kitchens (IKWO and IKWP) compared to SEKO and OK type kitchen configurations. It is evident from above discussions that type of fuel and kitchen setups are major attributes impacting Indoor air pollution (IAP) in rural areas and any policy intervention to minimize IAP must give due consideration to these two factors.

  8. The nuclear pore complex protein ALADIN is anchored via NDC1 but not via POM121 and GP210 in the nuclear envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kind, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.kind@uniklinikum-dresden.de [Children' s Hospital, Technical University Dresden, D-01307 Dresden (Germany); Koehler, Katrin, E-mail: katrin.koehler@uniklinikum-dresden.de [Children' s Hospital, Technical University Dresden, D-01307 Dresden (Germany); Lorenz, Mike, E-mail: mlorenz@mpi-cbg.de [Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, D-01307 Dresden (Germany); Huebner, Angela, E-mail: angela.huebner@uniklinikum-dresden.de [Children' s Hospital, Technical University Dresden, D-01307 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-12-11

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) consists of {approx}30 different proteins and provides the only sites for macromolecular transport between cytoplasm and nucleus. ALADIN was discovered as a new member of the NPC. Mutations in ALADIN are known to cause triple A syndrome, a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by adrenal insufficiency, alacrima, and achalasia. The function and exact location of the nucleoporin ALADIN within the NPC multiprotein complex is still unclear. Using a siRNA-based approach we downregulated the three known membrane integrated nucleoporins NDC1, GP210, and POM121 in stably expressing GFP-ALADIN HeLa cells. We identified NDC1 but not GP210 and POM121 as the main anchor of ALADIN within the NPC. Solely the depletion of NDC1 caused mislocalization of ALADIN. Vice versa, the depletion of ALADIN led also to disappearance of NDC1 at the NPC. However, the downregulation of two further membrane-integral nucleoporins GP210 and POM121 had no effect on ALADIN localization. Furthermore, we could show a direct association of NDC1 and ALADIN in NPCs by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements. Based on our findings we conclude that ALADIN is anchored in the nuclear envelope via NDC1 and that this interaction gets lost, if ALADIN is mutated. The loss of integration of ALADIN in the NPC is a main pathogenetic aspect for the development of the triple A syndrome and suggests that the interaction between ALADIN and NDC1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  9. Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Anion Exchange in a Gadolinium MOF: Incorporation of POMs and [AuCl4]−

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier López-Cabrelles

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The encapsulation of functional molecules inside porous coordination polymers (also known as metal-organic frameworks, MOFs has become of great interest in recent years at the field of multifunctional materials. In this article, we present a study of the effects of size and charge in the anion exchange process of a Gd based MOF, involving molecular species like polyoxometalates (POMs, and [AuCl4]−. This post-synthetic modification has been characterized by IR, EDAX, and single crystal diffraction, which have provided unequivocal evidence of the location of the anion molecules in the framework.

  10. Sea cucumbers reduce chromophoric dissolved organic matter in aquaculture tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Nassaj, Seyed Mohammad; Catalá, Teresa S; Álvarez, Pedro A; Reche, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    Mono-specific aquaculture effluents contain high concentrations of nutrients and organic matter, which affect negatively the water quality of the recipient ecosystems. A fundamental feature of water quality is its transparency. The fraction of dissolved organic matter that absorbs light is named chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). A sustainable alternative to mono-specific aquaculture is the multitrophic aquaculture that includes species trophically complementary named "extractive" species that uptake the waste byproducts. Sea cucumbers are recognized as efficient extractive species due to the consumption of particulate organic matter (POM). However, the effects of sea cucumbers on CDOM are still unknown. During more than one year, we monitored CDOM in two big-volume tanks with different trophic structure. One of the tanks (-holothurian) only contained around 810 individuals of Anemonia sulcata , whereas the other tank (+holothurian) also included 90 individuals of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria forskali . We routinely analyzed CDOM absorption spectra and determined quantitative (absorption coefficients at 325 nm) and qualitative (spectral slopes) optical parameters in the inlet waters, within the tanks, and in their corresponding effluents. To confirm the time-series results, we also performed three experiments. Each experiment consisted of two treatments: +holothurians (+H) and -holothurians (-H). We set up three +H tanks with 80 individuals of A. sulcata and 10 individuals of H. tubulosa in each tank and four -H tanks that contained only 80 individuals of A. sulcata . In the time-series, absorption coefficients at 325 nm ( a 325 ) and spectral slopes from 275 to 295 nm ( S 275-295 ) were significantly lower in the effluent of the +holothurian tank (average: 0.33 m -1 and 16 µm -1 , respectively) than in the effluent of the -holothurian tank (average: 0.69 m -1 and 34 µm -1 , respectively), the former being similar to those found in the inlet

  11. Impact of land use change on soil organic matter dynamics in subalpine grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stefanie; Leifeld, Jens; Bahn, Michael; Fuhrer, Jürg

    2010-05-01

    Information regarding the response of soil organic matter (SOM) in soils to past and expected future land use changes in the European Alps is scarce. Understanding this response requires knowledge of size and residence times of SOM fractions with distinct stabilities. In order to quantify differences between types of land use in the amount, distribution and turnover rates of soil organic carbon (SOC) in subalpine grassland soils, we used soil aggregate and SOM density fractionation in combination with 14C dating. Samples were taken along gradients of different types of land use from meadow (M) to pasture (P) and to abandoned grassland (A) in the Stubai Valley and in the Matsch Valley. Sampling sites in both areas were located at equal altitude (1880 m and 1820 m, respectively) with the same parent material and soil type, but the Matsch Valley receives 400-500 mm less annual rainfall. SOC stocks in the top 10 cm were 2.47 ± 0.32 (M), 2.75 ± 0.32 (P), and 2.50 ± 0.31 kg C/m2 (A) in the Stubai Valley and 2.25 ± 0.14 (M), 3.45 ± 0.22 (P), 3.16 ± 0.27 kg C/m2(A) in the Matsch Valley. Three aggregate size classes were separated by wet sieving: 2 mm. The light floating fraction (wPOM, ρ >1 g/cm3) was included in the analysis. Free (f-) and occluded particulate organic matter (oPOM) were isolated from each aggregate size class (ρ >1.6 g/cm3). At both locations, more than 80% of SOC was stored in small (0.25-2 mm) and large (>2 mm) macroaggregates, but no trend in relation to the different types of land use could be detected. The fraction of C in fPOM and in oPOM in all aggregate size classes was highest for soil from abandoned grasslands. The bulk soil of the abandoned site in the Stubai Valley showed a significantly higher share of fPOM-C and oPOM-C and a higher amount of wPOM-C as compared to the soil from managed grassland, whereas in the Matsch Valley pasture soil had a significantly higher wPOM-C content. At both sites, 13C natural abundance analyses revealed

  12. Real-time measurements of particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from stationary combustion sources used in oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, D. W.; Hencken, K. R.; Johnsen, H. A.; Ross, J. R.; Walsh, P. M.

    1998-01-01

    Particulate matter emissions and some components of the particles were measured in the exhaust from combustion equipment used in oil and gas production operations near Bakersfield, California. The combustion sources included a 22.5 MW (electric) turbine generator, a 342-Bhp rich-burn spark ignition engine, and a 50 million Btu/h steam generator, all fired using natural gas. The particle components and measurement techniques were as follows: (1) Calcium, magnesium, sodium, silicon, and iron were measured using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), (2) particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were detected using the charge produced by photoionization, (3) particles having sizes between 0.1 and 7.5 (micro)m were counted using an instrument based on light scattering, and (4) total particulate matter was measured according to US EPA Method 5. Not all of the methods were applied to all of the sources. Measurements were also made in the ambient air near the combustion air inlets to the units, for comparison with the concentrations in the exhaust, but the inlet and outlet measurements were not done simultaneously. Calcium, sodium, and silicon were found in the exhaust from the steam generator at concentrations similar to those in the ambient air near the inlet to the burner. Sodium and silicon were observed in the engine exhaust at levels a factor of four higher than their concentrations in the air. The principal metal observed in the engine exhaust was calcium, a component of the lubricating oil, at a concentration of 11.6 (micro)g/m 3 . The air entering the gas turbine is filtered, so the average concentrations of metals in the turbine exhaust under steady operating conditions were even lower than in the air. During start-up following a shut-down to wash the turbine, silicon and iron were the major species in the stack, at concentrations of 6.4 and 16.2 (micro)g/m 3 , respectively. A possible source of silicon is the water injected into the turbine

  13. [Characterizing chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in Lake Honghu, Lake Donghu and Lake Liangzihu using excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) fluorescence and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Yun-Lin; Niu, Cheng; Wang, Ming-Zhu

    2013-12-01

    Little is known about DOM characteristics in medium to large sized lakes located in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, like Lake Honghu, Lake Donghu and Lake Liangzihu. Absorption, fluorescence and composition characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) are presented using the absorption spectroscopy, the excitation-emission ma trices (EEMs) fluorescence and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) model based on the data collected in Sep-Oct. 2007 including 15, 9 and 10 samplings in Lake Honghu, Lake Donghu and Lake Liangzihu, respectively. CDOM absorption coefficient at 350 nm a(350) coefficient in Lake Honghu was significantly higher than those in Lake Donghu and Lake Liangzihu (t-test, pCDOM spectral slope in the wavelength range of 280-500 nm (S280-500) and a(350) (R2 =0. 781, p<0. 001). The mean value of S280-500 in Lake Honghu was significantly lower than those in Lake Donghu (t-test, p

  14. Influence of fossil-fuel power plant emissions on the surface fine particulate matter in the Seoul Capital Area, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Uk; Kim, Okgil; Kim, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Soontae

    2016-09-01

    The South Korean government plans to reduce region-wide annual PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) concentrations in the Seoul Capital Area (SCA) from 2010 levels of 27 µg/m(3) to 20 µg/m(3) by 2024. At the same time, it is inevitable that emissions from fossil-fuel power plants will continue to increase if electricity generation expands and the generation portfolio remains the same in the future. To estimate incremental PM2.5 contributions due to projected electricity generation growth in South Korea, we utilized an ensemble forecasting member of the Integrated Multidimensional Air Quality System for Korea based on the Community Multi-scale Air Quality model. We performed sensitivity runs with across-the-board emission reductions for all fossil-fuel power plants in South Korea to estimate the contribution of PM2.5 from domestic fossil-fuel power plants. We estimated that fossil-fuel power plants are responsible for 2.4% of the annual PM2.5 national ambient air quality standard in the SCA as of 2010. Based on the electricity generation and the annual contribution of fossil-fuel power plants in 2010, we estimated that annual PM2.5 concentrations may increase by 0.2 µg/m(3) per 100 TWhr due to additional electricity generation. With currently available information on future electricity demands, we estimated that the total future contribution of fossil-fuel power plants would be 0.87 µg/m(3), which is 12.4% of the target reduction amount of the annual PM2.5 concentration by 2024. We also approximated that the number of premature deaths caused by existing fossil-fuel power plants would be 736 in 2024. Since the proximity of power plants to the SCA and the types of fuel used significantly impact this estimation, further studies are warranted on the impact of physical parameters of plants, such as location and stack height, on PM2.5 concentrations in the SCA due to each precursor. Improving air quality by reducing fine particle

  15. Preparation of mesoporous Cs-POM@MOF-199@MCM-41 under two different synthetic methods for a highly oxidesulfurization of dibenzothiophene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si-Wen; Li, Jia-Rong; Jin, Qi-Ping; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Rong-Lan; Gao, Rui-Min; Zhao, Jian-She

    2017-09-05

    Two different synthetic methods, the direct method and the substitution method, were used to synthesize the Cs-POM@MOF-199@MCM-41 (Cs-PMM), in which the modified heteropolyacid with cesium salt has been encapsulated into the pores with the mixture of MOF and MCM-41. The structural properties of the as-prepared catalysts were characterized using various analytical techniques: powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, SEM, TEM, XPS and BET, confirming that the Cs-POM active species retained its Keggin structure after immobilization. The substitution method of Cs-PMM exhibited more excellent catalytic performance for oxidative desulfurization of dibenzothiophene in the presence of oxygen. Under optimal conditions, the DBT conversion rate reached up to 99.6% and could be recycled 10 times without significant loss of catalytic activity, which is mainly attributed to the slow leaching of the active heteropolyacid species from the strong fixed effect of the mixture porous materials. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Seasonal Variation in the Quality of Dissolved and Particulate Organic Matter Exchanged Between a Salt Marsh and Its Adjacent Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osburn, C. L.; Mikan, M.; Etheridge, J. R.; Burchell, M. R.; Birgand, F.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marshes are transitional ecosystems between terrestrial and marine environments. Along with mangroves and other vegetated coastal habitats, salt marshes rank among the most productive ecosystems on Earth, with critical global importance for the planet's carbon cycle. Fluorescence was used to examine the quality of dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM) exchanging between a tidal creek in a created salt marsh and its adjacent estuary in eastern North Carolina, USA. Samples from the creek were collected hourly over four tidal cycles in May, July, August, and October of 2011. Absorbance and fluorescence of chromophoric DOM (CDOM) and of base-extracted POM (BEPOM) served as the tracers for organic matter quality while dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and base-extracted particulate organic carbon (BEPOC) were used to compute fluxes. Fluorescence was modeled using parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and principle components analysis (PCA) of the PARAFAC results. Of nine PARAFAC components modeled, we used multiple linear regression to identify tracers for recalcitrant DOM; labile soil-derived source DOM; detrital POM; and planktonic POM. Based on mass balance, recalcitrant DOC export was 86 g C m-2 yr-1 and labile DOC export was 49 g C m-2 yr-1. The marsh also exported 41 g C m-2 yr-1 of detrital terrestrial POC, which likely originated from lands adjacent to the North River estuary. Planktonic POC export from the marsh was 6 g C m-2 yr-1. Using the DOM and POM quality results obtained via fluorescence measurements and scaling up to global salt marsh area, we estimated that the potential release of CO2 from the respiration of salt marsh DOC and POC transported to estuaries could be 11 Tg C yr-1, roughly 4% of the recently estimated CO2 release for marshes and estuaries globally.

  17. High reduction of ozone and particulate matter during the 2016 G-20 summit in Hangzhou by forced emission controls of industry and traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many regions in China experience air pollution episodes because of the rapid urbanization and industrialization over the past decades. Here we analyzed the effect of emission controls implemented during the G-20 2016 Hangzhou summit on air quality. Emission controls included a fo...

  18. Vertical Distributions of Macromolecular Composition of Particulate Organic Matter in the Water Column of the Amundsen Sea Polynya During the Summer in 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo Kyung; Lee, SangHoon; Ha, Sun-Yong; Jung, Jinyoung; Kim, Tae Wan; Yang, Eun Jin; Jo, Naeun; Lim, Yu Jeong; Park, Jisoo; Lee, Sang Heon

    2018-02-01

    Macromolecular compositions (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) of particulate organic matter (POM) are crucial as a basic marine food quality. To date, however, one investigation has been carried out in the Amundsen Sea. Water samples for macromolecular compositions were obtained at selected seven stations in the Amundsen Sea Polynya (AP) during the austral summer in 2014 to investigate vertical characteristics of POM. We found that a high proportion of carbohydrates (45.9 ± 11.4%) in photic layer which are significantly different from the previous result (27.9 ± 6.9%) in the AP, 2012. The plausible reason could be the carbohydrate content strongly associated with biomass of the dominant species (Phaeocystis antarctica). The calorific content of food material (FM) in the photic layer obtained in this study is similar with that of the Ross Sea as one of the highest primary productivity regions in the Southern Ocean. Total concentrations, calorific values, and calorific contents of FM were higher in the photic layer than the aphotic layer, which implies that a significant fraction of organic matter underwent degradation. A decreasing proteins/carbohydrates (PRT/CHO) ratio with depth could be caused by preferential nitrogen loss during sinking period. Since the biochemical compositions of POM mostly fixed in photic layers could play an important role in transporting organic carbon into the deep sea, further detail studies on the variations in biochemical compositions and main controlling factors are needed to understand sinking mechanisms of POM.

  19. Quantifying Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying Matter explains how scientists learned to measure matter and quantify some of its most fascinating and useful properties. It presents many of the most important intellectual achievements and technical developments that led to the scientific interpretation of substance. Complete with full-color photographs, this exciting new volume describes the basic characteristics and properties of matter. Chapters include:. -Exploring the Nature of Matter. -The Origin of Matter. -The Search for Substance. -Quantifying Matter During the Scientific Revolution. -Understanding Matter's Electromagnet

  20. [Characterization of Chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in Zhoushan fishery using excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMs) and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qian-qian; Su, Rong-guo; Bai, Ying; Zhang, Chuan-song; Shi, Xiao-yong

    2015-01-01

    The composition, distribution characteristics and sources of chromophoric dissolved organic matter(CDOM) in Zhoushan Fishery in spring were evaluated by fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) combined with parallel factor analysis (EEMs-PARAFAC). Three humic-like components [C1 (330/420 nm)], C2 [(290) 365/440 nm] and C3 [(260) 370/490 nm)] and two protein-like components [C4(285/340 nm) and C5 (270/310 nm)] were identified by EEMs-PARAFAC. The horizontal distribution patterns of the five components were almost the same with only slight differences, showing decreasing trends with increasing distance from shore. In the surface and middle layers, the high value areas were located in the north of Hangzhou Bay estuary and the outlet of Xiazhimen channel, and the former's was higher in the surface layer while the latter's was higher in the middle layer. In the bottom layer, CDOM decreased gradiently from the inshore to offshore, with higher CDOM near Zhoushan Island. The distributions of fluorescence components showed an opposite trend with salinity, and no significant linear relationship with Chl-a concentration was found, which indicated that CDOM in the surface and middle layers were dominated by terrestrial input and human activities of Zhoushan Island and that of the bottom layer was attribute to human activities of Zhoushan Island. The vertical distribution of five fluorescent components along 30.5 degrees N transect showed a decreasing trend from the surface and middle layers to bottom layer with high values in inshore and offshore areas, which were correlated with the lower salinity and higher Chl-a concentration, respectively. On this transect, CDOM was mainly affected by Yangtze River input in coastal area but by bioactivities in offshore waters. Along the 30 degrees N transect, the vertical distribution patterns of CDOM were similar to those of 30.5 degrees N transect but there was a high value area in the bottom layer near the shore, attributing to

  1. Particulate organic matter composition in a semi-enclosed Periantarctic system: the Straits of Magellan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fabiano

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The elemental and biochemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM was investigated in the Straits of Magellan during February-March 1991. Twenty-two stations were selected in order to identify different areas of the Magellan ecosystem from a trophic point of view. The Strait of Magellan can be divided into three subsystems characterized by different hydrological and geomorphological conditions. Seston concentrations were mostly constrained by physical events, particularly the influence of oceanic and land run-off water inputs and the strong vertical mixing and resuspension events. POM composition displayed quali-quantitative differences between the three areas. In the first subsystem, influenced by Pacific waters, the low seston and POM concentrations and the high POC/Chl-a ratio values indicated the general predominance of the detrital and heterotrophic fractions. In the second subsystem, characterized by superficial stratification, higher seston and organic matter concentrations and lower values of POC/Chl-a ratio were found, indicating that this subsystem was influenced by an active autotrophic component. Shallow waters with intense tidal regime and strong vertical mixing characterized the third subsystem, connected to the Atlantic Ocean, which displayed an increasing importance of the inorganic fraction (values of the POC/TSM ratio lower than in the other systems. Moreover, the third subsystem showed higher values of the RNA/DNA ratio, possibly indicating that resuspension events may enhance the metabolic state of the organic particles mainly dominated by heterotrophic components.

  2. Emission of particulate matter from ternary blends consisting of biodiesel, ethanol and vegetable oil: a comparison with conventional dieselEmissão de material particulado por misturas ternárias compostas de biodiesel, etanol e óleo vegetal: uma comparação com o óleo diesel convencional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murilo Daniel de Melo Innocentini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify the particulate matter emission from ternary blends comprehending biodiesel, ethanol and vegetable oil in a Diesel cycle engine, and an identical engine working with petrol diesel as control. To compare the fuels’ emissions, the particulate matter from the engine’s exhaust was collected, using a fiberglass circular filter paper, which was coupled by means of a steel flange at the end of the exhaust pipe. The results with ternary blends showed expressive reduction of particulate matter level exhausted by the engine, in its maximum load. We can conclude that the utilization of ternary blends, with the methods and conditions of this experiment, was efficient to reduce the emission of particulate matter contained in the exhaust gases of Diesel cycle engine.O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a emissão de material particulado de misturas ternárias compostas de biodiesel, etanol e óleo vegetal em um motor de ciclo Diesel, tendo como testemunha um motor idêntico funcionando com óleo diesel de petróleo. Para a comparação da emissão dos dois combustíveis, foi realizada a coleta de material particulado proveniente dos escapamentos dos motores com um filtro circular confeccionado de fibra de vidro, que foi acoplado com um flange de aço, no final da tubulação de escape. Os resultados obtidos com a utilização das misturas ternárias de biocombustíveis indicaram uma redução expressiva no nível de material particulado emitido pelo motor em sua carga máxima. Pode-se concluir que a utilização das misturas ternárias, nas condições e métodos de realização do experimento, foi eficiente na redução de emissão de material particulado presente nos gases de exaustão do motor de ciclo Diesel.

  3. Factors influencing the characteristics and distribution or surface organic matter in the Pacific-Atlantic connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Facundo; Lara, Rubén J.; Krock, Bernd; Garzón-Cardona, John Edison; Fabro, Elena; Koch, Boris P.

    2017-11-01

    The present work reports the first data set on particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PON), and the high-resolution modelling of their stable isotope variability in the Patagonian Cold Estuarine System (PCES), with focus on particulate organic matter (POM) origin and distribution in dependence on physical, chemical and biological parameters. POC, PON, stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen isotopes (δ15N), dissolved organic nitrogen, phaeopigments, diatom, dinoflagellate and heterotrophic bacteria (HB) abundance are reported for 17 stations in different waters masses in the southern end of the Argentine shelf in late summer 2012. Most parameters denote clear differences between Beagle - Magellan Water (BMW), Subantarctic Shelf Water (SSW) and Subantarctic Water (SAW). POC and PON decreased from maxima in BMW to intermediate values in SSW and minima in SAW. There was a highly significant correlation among POC, PON and fluorescence indicators of diagenetic maturity of dissolved humic matter. This, together with the inverse correlations of salinity with POC and PON, and the wide range of C:N ratios indicate that POM in the study area is partly derived from terrestrial runoff, superimposed by autochthonous components from plankton of different life stages. HB abundance was significantly correlated with POC and dissolved organic matter (DOM), likely reflecting a resource control of HB and a significant contribution of bacterial biomass to POM in the nanoparticle fraction. The direct relationship between HB and dissolved humics suggests bacterial uptake of DOM fractions otherwise considered refractory. POM complexity was reflected in a wide variation of δ13C, despite the narrow temperature range of this region. The variability of stable isotopes of POC could be accounted for by a model with a degree of detail hitherto not reported in the literature. A multiple regression including C:N ratio, ammonium and the quotient between log abundance of diatoms

  4. Effects of temperature and UVR on organic matter fluxes and the metabolic activity of Acropora muricata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucile Courtial

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Coral bleaching events are predicted to occur more frequently in the coming decades with global warming. The susceptibility of corals to bleaching during thermal stress episodes depends on many factors, including the magnitude of thermal stress and irradiance. The interactions among these two factors, and in particular with ultra-violet radiation (UVR, the most harmful component of light, are more complex than assumed, and are not yet well understood. This paper explores the individual and combined effects of temperature and UVR on the metabolism of Acropora muricata, one of the most abundant coral species worldwide. Particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM/DOM fluxes and organic matter (OM degradation by the mucus-associated bacteria were also monitored in all conditions. The results show that UVR exposure exacerbated the temperature-induced bleaching, but did not affect OM fluxes, which were only altered by seawater warming. Temperature increase induced a shift from POM release and DOM uptake in healthy corals to POM uptake and DOM release in stressed ones. POM uptake was linked to a significant grazing of pico- and nanoplankton particles during the incubation, to fulfil the energetic requirements of A. muricata in the absence of autotrophy. Finally, OM degradation by mucus-associated bacterial activity was unaffected by UVR exposure, but significantly increased under high temperature. Altogether, our results demonstrate that seawater warming and UVR not only affect coral physiology, but also the way corals interact with the surrounding seawater, with potential consequences for coral reef biogeochemical cycles and food webs.

  5. Quantum mechanical design of efficient second-order nonlinear optical materials based on heteroaromatic imido-substituted hexamolybdates: first theoretical framework of POM-based heterocyclic aromatic rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Muhammad Ramzan Saeed Ashraf

    2012-11-05

    This work was inspired by a previous report (Janjua et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113, 3576-3587) in which the nonlinear-optical (NLO) response strikingly improved with an increase in the conjugation path of the ligand and the nature of hexamolybdates (polyoxometalates, POMs) was changed into a donor by altering the direction of charge transfer with a second aromatic ring. Herein, the first theoretical framework of POM-based heteroaromatic rings is found to be another class of excellent NLO materials having double heteroaromatic rings. First hyperpolarizabilities of a large number of push-pull-substituted conjugated systems with heteroaromatic rings have been calculated. The β components were computed at the density functional theory (DFT) level (BP86 geometry optimizations and LB94 time-dependent DFT). The largest β values are obtained with a donor (hexamolybdates) on the benzene ring and an acceptor (-NO(2)) on pyrrole, thiophene, and furan rings. The pyrrole imido-substituted hexamolybdate (system 1c) has a considerably large first hyperpolarizability, 339.00 × 10(-30) esu, and it is larger than that of (arylimido)hexamolybdate, calculated as 0.302 × 10(-30) esu (reference system 1), because of the double aromatic rings in the heteroaromatic imido-substituted hexamolybdates. The heteroaromatic rings act as a conjugation bridge between the electron acceptor (-NO(2)) and donor (polyanion). The introduction of an electron donor into heteroaromatic rings significantly enhances the first hyperpolarizabilities because the electron-donating ability is substantially enhanced when the electron donor is attached to the heterocyclic aromatic rings. Interposing five-membered auxiliary fragments between strong donor (polyanion) or acceptor (-NO(2)) groups results in a large computed second-order NLO response. The present investigation provides important insight into the NLO properties of (heteroaromatic) imido-substituted hexamolybdate derivatives because these compounds

  6. Quantification of vehicle fleet PM_1_0 particulate matter emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources using tunnel measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-01-01

    Road tunnels act like large laboratories; they provide an excellent environment to quantify atmospheric particles emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources due to their known boundary conditions. Current work compares the High Volume, Dichotomous Stacked Filter Unit and Partisol Air Sampler for coarse, PM_1_0 and PM_2_._5 particle concentration measurement and found that they do not differ significantly (p = 95%). PM_2_._5 fraction contributes 66% of PM_1_0 proportions and significantly influenced by traffic (turbulence) and meteorological conditions. Mass emission factors for PM_1_0 varies from 21.3 ± 1.9 to 28.8 ± 3.4 mg/vkm and composed of Motorcycle (0.0003–0.001 mg/vkm), Cars (26.1–33.4 mg/vkm), LDVs (2.4–3.0 mg/vkm), HDVs (2.2–2.8 mg/vkm) and Buses (0.1 mg/vkm). Based on Lawrence et al. (2013), source apportionment modelling, the PM_1_0 emission of brake wear (3.8–4.4 mg/vkm), petrol exhaust (3.9–4.5 mg/vkm), diesel exhaust (7.2–8.3 mg/vkm), re-suspension (9–10.4 mg/vkm), road surface wear (3.9–4.5 mg/vkm), and unexplained (7.2 mg/vkm) were also calculated. The current study determined that the combined non-exhaust fleet PM_1_0 emission factor (16.7–19.3 mg/vkm) are higher than the combined exhaust emission factor (11.1–12.8 mg/vkm). Thus, highlight the significance of non-exhaust emissions and the need for legislation and abatement strategies to reduce their contributions to ambient PM concentrations. - Highlights: • Calculations of exhaust/non-exhaust particulate emission factors using tunnel sampling and source apportionment techniques. • Non-exhaust emission dominates in the fine particle fraction, considered responsible for adverse human health impacts. • Emission factors for non-exhaust sources (e.g. tyre and brake) were calculated. • Fleet source PM_1_0 emission factor were also calculated, which can be used in dispersion modelling and health risk assessment. • Tukey mean

  7. Influence of in-port ships emissions to gaseous atmospheric pollutants and to particulate matter of different sizes in a Mediterranean harbour in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merico, E.; Donateo, A.; Gambaro, A.; Cesari, D.; Gregoris, E.; Barbaro, E.; Dinoi, A.; Giovanelli, G.; Masieri, S.; Contini, D.

    2016-08-01

    Ship emissions are a growing concern, especially in coastal areas, for potential impacts on human health and climate. International mitigation strategies to curb these emission, based on low-sulphur content fuels, have proven useful to improve local air quality. However, the effect on climate forcing is less obvious. Detailed information on the influence of shipping to particles of different sizes is needed to investigate air quality and climate interaction. In this work, the contributions of maritime emissions to atmospheric concentrations of gaseous pollutants (NO, NO2, SO2, and O3) and of particles (sizes from 0.009 μm to 30 μm) were investigated considering manoeuvring (arrival and departure of ships) and hotelling phases (including loading/unloading activities). Results showed that the size distributions of shipping contributions were different for the two phases and could be efficiently described, using measured data, considering four size-ranges. The largest contribution to particles concentration was observed for Dp hotelling for size range 0.4-1 μm. The comparison of 2012 and 2014 datasets showed no significant changes of gaseous and particulate pollutant emissions and of the contribution to particle mass concentration. However, an increase of the contribution to particle number concentration (PNC) was observed. Results suggested that harbour logistic has a relevant role in determining the total impact of shipping on air quality of the nearby coastal areas. Additionally, future policies should focus on PNC that represents an important fraction of emissions also for low-sulphur fuels. DOAS remote sensing proved a useful tool to directly measure NO2 and SO2 ship emissions giving estimates comparable with those of emission inventory approach.

  8. The impact of co-combustion of polyethylene plastics and wood in a small residential boiler on emissions of gaseous pollutants, particulate matter, PAHs and 1,3,5- triphenylbenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsej, Tomas; Horak, Jiri; Tomsejova, Sarka; Krpec, Kamil; Klanova, Jana; Dej, Milan; Hopan, Frantisek

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to simulate a banned but widely spread practice of co-combustion of plastic with wood in a small residential boiler and to quantify its impact on emissions of gaseous pollutants, particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene (135TPB), a new tracer of polyethylene plastic combustion. Supermarket polyethylene shopping bags (PE) and polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET) were burnt as supplementary fuels with beech logs (BL) in an old-type 20 kW over-fire boiler both at a nominal and reduced heat output. An impact of co-combustion was more pronounced at the nominal heat output: an increase in emissions of PM, total organic carbon (TOC), toxic equivalent (TEQ) of 7 carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs) and a higher ratio of c-PAHs TEQ in particulate phase was observed during co-combustion of both plastics. 135TPB was found in emissions from both plastics both at a nominal and reduced output. In contrast to findings reported in the literature, 135TPB was a dominant compound detected by mass spectrometry on m/z 306 exclusively in emissions from co-combustion of PE. Surprisingly, six other even more abundant compounds of unknown identity were found on this m/z in emissions from co-combustion of PET. One of these unknown compounds was identified as p-quaterphenyl (pQ). Principal component analysis revealed strong correlation among 135TPB, pQ and five unknown compounds. pQ seems to be suitable tracers of polyethylene terephthalate plastic co-combustion, while 135TPB proved its suitability to be an all-purpose tracer of polyethylene plastics combustion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of emissions change, climate change and long-range transport on regional modeling of future U.S. particulate matter pollution and speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the future U.S. PM2.5 pollution under multiple emissions scenarios, climate states, and long-range transport (LRT) effects using the regional Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model integrated with a regional climate model. CMAQ with fixed chemical lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) successfully reproduces the present-day PM2.5 pollution and its major species in rural and suburban areas, but has some discrepancies in urban areas such as the Los Angeles Basin, where detailed emissions and meteorology conditions cannot be resolved by the 30 km grid. Its performance is slightly worsened when using dynamic chemical LBCs from global chemical transport model (CTM) simulations, which provide cleaner conditions into the CMAQ lateral boundaries. Under future Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) emission scenarios, CMAQ projects large PM2.5 reductions (∼40% for A1B and ∼20% for A1Fi scenario) in the eastern United States, but slight to moderate increases (∼5% for A1B and ∼10% for A1Fi) in the western United States. The projected increases are particularly large (up to 30%) near the Mexico-U.S. border, suggesting that Mexico is a major source for future U.S. PM2.5 pollution. The effect from climate change alone is estimated to increase PM2.5 levels ubiquitously (∼5% for both A1B and A1Fi) over the United States, except for a small decrease in the Houston, Texas area, where anthropogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emissions dominate. This climate penalty, however, is substantially smaller than effects of emissions change, especially in the eastern United States. Future PM2.5 pollution is affected substantially (up to -20%) by changes in SO2 emissions and moderately (3-5%) by changes in NOx and NH3 emissions. The long-range transport (LRT) effects, which are estimated by comparing CMAQ simulations with fixed and dynamic LBCs, are regional dependent, causing up to 10-20% decrease over the western United

  10. INTERACTION OF LASER RADIATION WITH MATTER AND OTHER LASER APPLICATIONS: Changes in the emission properties of metal targets during pulse-periodic laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konov, Vitalii I.; Pimenov, S. M.; Prokhorov, A. M.; Chapliev, N. I.

    1988-02-01

    A scanning electron microscope was used with a pulse-periodic CO2 laser to discover the laws governing the correlation of the modified microrelief of metal surfaces, subjected to the action of multiple laser pulses, with the emission of charged particles and the luminescence of the irradiated zone. It was established that the influence of sorption and laser-induced desorption on the emission signals may be manifested differently depending on the regime of current generation in the "target-vacuum chamber" circuit.

  11. Effects of Climate Change and Organic Matter Amendments on the Fate of Soil Carbon and the Global Warming Potential of CO2, CH4, and N2O Emissions in an Upland Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, M.; Muehe, E. M.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2017-12-01

    Our current understanding of the mechanisms driving carbon stabilization in soil organic matter (SOM) and its release to the atmosphere is insufficient for predicting the response of soil carbon dynamics to future climatic conditions. The persistence of SOM has been studied primarily within the context of biochemical, physical, and geochemical protection from decomposition. More recently, bioenergetic constraints on SOM decomposition due to oxygen limitations have been demonstrated in submerged soils. However, the relevance of anaerobic domains in upland soils is uncertain. To better understand how upland soils will respond to climate change, we conducted a 52-day incubation of an upland soil at constant soil moisture (field capacity) under varying air temperatures (32°C and 37°C), CO2 concentrations (398 and 850 ppmv), and soil organic carbon contents (1.3%, 2.4%). Overall, we observed a stimulatory effect of future climate (elevated temperature and CO2) and higher carbon inputs on net SOM mineralization rates (higher CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions). Importantly, CH4 emissions were observed in the soils with added plant residue, indicating anaerobic microsites are relevant in upland soils, and significantly impact microbial respiration pathways, rates of SOM mineralization, and the global warming potential of trace gas emissions. These findings have important implications for positive soil carbon-climate feedbacks, and warrant further investigation into representing anaerobic soil domains of upland soils in biogeochemical models.

  12. In Vitro Comparison of Marginal and Internal Fit of Press-on-Metal Ceramic (PoM) Restorations with Zirconium-Supported and Conventional Metal Ceramic Fixed Partial Dentures Before and After Veneering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Seda; Kulak-Özkan, Yasemin

    2015-07-01

    To compare marginal and internal fit between 3- and 4-unit press-on-metal (PoM) ceramic, zirconia-supported, and conventional metal ceramic fixed partial dentures (FPDs) before and after veneering. Ten pieces for each 3- and 4-unit MC, IPS InLine PoM, and IPS e.max ZirCAD/Zir Press FPDs were produced. Cross-sections from silicone replicas were examined and measured with a light microscope. Occlusal, axial, intermarginal, and marginal mean adaptation scores of cross-sectioned replicas and means of measurements obtained from 4 sites were calculated independently. Mean values for molars were 78.44 ± 32.01 μm (MC), 89.84 ± 29.20 μm (PoM), and 85.17 ± 28.49 μm (Zir). Premolar values were 76.08 ± 27.92 μm (MC), 89.94 ± 23.49 μm (PoM), and 87.18 ± 28.25 μm (Zir). No difference existed between the means of 3- and 4-unit FPDs except the molar-intermarginal region. The mean value of 4-unit FPDs (93.88 ± 25.41 μm) was less than the 3-unit FPDs (103.68 ± 24.55 μm) at the molar-inter marginal region. A gap increase was observed in all sites except the molar-axio-occlusal region after veneering. According to the mean difference, gap increases at the molar-marginal, molar-intermarginal, and premolar-intermarginal regions were statistically significant. A statistical difference was found at the molar-marginal region for 4-unit MCR (p = 0.041) and 4-unit PoM FPDs (p = 0.042) before and after veneering. Gap increase after veneering of 4-unit metal ceramics at molar-intermarginal, premolar-marginal, and premolar-intermarginal regions (p = 0.020; p = 0.015; p = 0.004) was significant. The gap measurements of the IPS InLine PoM and IPS e.max ZirCAD/Zir Press groups were all clinically acceptable. No studies on marginal and internal fit in the IPS InLine PoM system have been published to date. This study should be supported with future studies. No significant increase was observed after press-veneering the IPS e.max ZirCAD frameworks with an IPS e.max ZirPress material

  13. Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einasto J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, thus properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic web.

  14. The mortality cost of particulate matter due to emissions in the Stockholm area : an investigation into harmfulness, sources and the geographical dimension of their impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    The findings in this report are that there is not an one-to-one correspondence between emissions and costs. The reason for this is that the cost is based on health impacts which in turn are related to population exposure. Combustion particulate matte...

  15. Little effects on soil organic matter chemistry of density fractions after seven years of forest soil warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnecker, Jörg; Borken, Werner; Schindlbacher, Andreas; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Rising temperatures enhance microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM) and thereby increase the soil CO 2 efflux. Elevated decomposition rates might differently affect distinct SOM pools, depending on their stability and accessibility. Soil fractions derived from density fractionation have been suggested to represent SOM pools with different turnover times and stability against microbial decomposition. To investigate the effect of soil warming on functionally different soil organic matter pools, we here investigated the chemical and isotopic composition of bulk soil and three density fractions (free particulate organic matter, fPOM; occluded particulate organic matter, oPOM; and mineral associated organic matter, MaOM) of a C-rich soil from a long-term warming experiment in a spruce forest in the Austrian Alps. At the time of sampling, the soil in this experiment had been warmed during the snow-free period for seven consecutive years. During that time no thermal adaptation of the microbial community could be identified and CO 2 release from the soil continued to be elevated by the warming treatment. Our results, which included organic carbon content, total nitrogen content, δ 13 C, Δ 14 C, δ 15 N and the chemical composition, identified by pyrolysis-GC/MS, showed no significant differences in bulk soil between warming treatment and control. Surprisingly, the differences in the three density fractions were mostly small and the direction of warming induced change was variable with fraction and soil depth. Warming led to reduced N content in topsoil oPOM and subsoil fPOM and to reduced relative abundance of N-bearing compounds in subsoil MaOM. Further, warming increased the δ 13 C of MaOM at both sampling depths, reduced the relative abundance of carbohydrates while it increased the relative abundance of lignins in subsoil oPOM. As the size of the functionally different SOM pools did not significantly change, we assume that the few and small

  16. Stabilization of ancient organic matter in deep buried paleosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin-Spiotta, E.; Chaopricha, N. T.; Mueller, C.; Diefendorf, A. F.; Plante, A. F.; Grandy, S.; Mason, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Buried soils representing ancient surface horizons can contain large organic carbon reservoirs that may interact with the atmosphere if exposed by erosion, road construction, or strip mining. Paleosols in long-term depositional sites provide a unique opportunity for studying the importance of different mechanisms on the persistence of organic matter (OM) over millennial time-scales. We report on the chemistry and bioavailability of OM stored in the Brady soil, a deeply buried (7 m) paleosol in loess deposits of southwestern Nebraska, USA. The Brady Soil developed 9,000-13,500 years ago during a time of warming and drying. The Brady soil represents a dark brown horizon enriched in C relative to loess immediately above and below. Spanning much of the central Great Plains, this buried soil contains large C stocks due to the thickness of its A horizon (0.5 to 1 m) and wide geographic extent. Our research provides a unique perspective on long-term OM stabilization in deep soils using multiple analytical approaches. Soils were collected from the Brady soil A horizon (at 7 m depth) and modern surface A horizons (0-15 cm) at two sites for comparison. Soils were separated by density fractionation using 1.85 g ml-1 sodium polytungstate into: free particulate organic matter (fPOM) and aggregate-occluded (oPOM) of two size classes (large: >20 μm, and small: separated into sand, silt, and clay size fractions. The distribution and age of C among density and particle-size fractions differed between surface and Brady soils. We isolated the source of the characteristic dark coloring of the Brady soil to the oPOM-small fraction, which also contained 20% of the total organic C pool in the Brady soil. The oPOM-small fraction and the bulk soil in the middle of the Brady A horizon had 14C ages of 10,500-12,400 cal yr BP, within the time that the soil was actively forming at the land surface. Surface soils showed modern ages. Lipid analyses of the Brady soil indicate a predominance of

  17. Photobleaching Response of Different Sources of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Exposed to Natural Solar Radiation Using Absorption and Excitation?Emission Matrix Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yunlin; Liu, Xiaohan; Osburn, Christopher L.; Wang, Mingzhu; Qin, Boqiang; Zhou, Yongqiang

    2013-01-01

    CDOM biogeochemical cycle is driven by several physical and biological processes such as river input, biogeneration and photobleaching that act as primary sinks and sources of CDOM. Watershed-derived allochthonous (WDA) and phytoplankton-derived autochthonous (PDA) CDOM were exposed to 9 days of natural solar radiation to assess the photobleaching response of different CDOM sources, using absorption and fluorescence (excitation-emission matrix) spectroscopy. Our results showed a marked decrea...

  18. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE: emissions of particulate matter from wood- and dung-fueled cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Jayarathne

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kilogram of fuel combusted were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5, organic carbon (OC, elemental carbon (EC, inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced-draft zigzag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 12 to 19 g kg−1 with major contributions from OC (7 %, sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %, and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle-bound water. For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 8 to 13 g kg−1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %, sulfate (23.4 %, and ammonium (16 %. Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg−1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg−1. Garbage burning emissions contained triphenylbenzene and relatively high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb, making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud

  19. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of particulate matter from wood- and dung-fueled cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, Thilina; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Bhave, Prakash V.; Praveen, Puppala S.; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Robiul Islam, Md.; Panday, Arnico K.; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; Goetz, J. Douglas; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Saikawa, Eri; Yokelson, Robert J.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2018-02-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE) characterized widespread and under-sampled combustion sources common to South Asia, including brick kilns, garbage burning, diesel and gasoline generators, diesel groundwater pumps, idling motorcycles, traditional and modern cooking stoves and fires, crop residue burning, and heating fire. Fuel-based emission factors (EFs; with units of pollutant mass emitted per kilogram of fuel combusted) were determined for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), inorganic ions, trace metals, and organic species. For the forced-draft zigzag brick kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 12 to 19 g kg-1 with major contributions from OC (7 %), sulfate expected to be in the form of sulfuric acid (31.9 %), and other chemicals not measured (e.g., particle-bound water). For the clamp kiln, EFPM2.5 ranged from 8 to 13 g kg-1, with major contributions from OC (63.2 %), sulfate (23.4 %), and ammonium (16 %). Our brick kiln EFPM2.5 values may exceed those previously reported, partly because we sampled emissions at ambient temperature after emission from the stack or kiln allowing some particle-phase OC and sulfate to form from gaseous precursors. The combustion of mixed household garbage under dry conditions had an EFPM2.5 of 7.4 ± 1.2 g kg-1, whereas damp conditions generated the highest EFPM2.5 of all combustion sources in this study, reaching up to 125 ± 23 g kg-1. Garbage burning emissions contained triphenylbenzene and relatively high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Sb), making these useful markers of this source. A variety of cooking stoves and fires fueled with dung, hardwood, twigs, and/or other biofuels were studied. The use of dung for cooking and heating produced higher EFPM2.5 than other biofuel sources and consistently emitted more PM2.5 and OC than burning hardwood and/or twigs; this trend was consistent across traditional mud stoves, chimney stoves, and three-stone cooking

  20. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  1. The linkages of anthropogenic emissions and meteorology in the rapid increase of particulate matter at a foothill city in the Arawali range of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ravi; Beig, G.; Jaaffrey, S. N. A.

    2014-03-01

    The city of Udaipur (24.58°N, 73.68°E) in the province of Rajasthan in the Western part of India has a special significance as it is surrounded by the Arawali mountain ranges on one side and desert on the other side. It is located around the foothills of the rocky Arawali range. It is on the world map due to its tourist attraction. The changing pattern in particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) during the past three years indicates an alarming increasing trend, posing a threat to its environment & tourism sector which regulates its economy to a period during the monsoon and distribution of particulate matter is found to be governed by the meteorology and changes the trend. The level of PM10, which was already above the threshold level in 2010, further increased in 2012. The trend is found to be rapid during the months of October & November where an increase by 37% is observed in 3 years. The level of PM2.5, which is the most hazardous for respiratory system diseases, has now started to cross the ambient air quality standards set by the World Health Organization. The impact is significant during winter when the inversion layer is down due to colder temperature and foreign tourists are a peak giving rise an increased morbidity rate. The linkages of local weather with an anthropogenically induced trend and long range transport of pollutants have been outlined.

  2. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  3. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Memory Matters KidsHealth / For Kids / Memory Matters What's in ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  4. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What You See Ain't What. You Got, Resonance, Vol.4,. No.9,1999. Dark Matter. 2. Dark Matter in the Universe. Bikram Phookun and Biman Nath. In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this.

  5. Emission factors of fine particulate matter, organic and elemental carbon, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide for four solid fuels commonly used in residential heating by the U.S. Navajo Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Wyatt M; Connors, Lea; Montoya, Lupita D

    2017-09-01

    Most homes in the Navajo Nation use wood as their primary heating fuel, often in combination with locally mined coal. Previous studies observed health effects linked to this solid-fuel use in several Navajo communities. Emission factors (EFs) for common fuels used by the Navajo have not been reported using a relevant stove type. In this study, two softwoods (ponderosa pine and Utah juniper) and two high-volatile bituminous coals (Black Mesa and Fruitland) were tested with an in-use residential conventional wood stove (homestove) using a modified American Society for Testing and Materials/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (ASTM/EPA) protocol. Filter sampling quantified PM 2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) and organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon in the emissions. Real-time monitoring quantified carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), and total suspended particles (TSP). EFs for these air pollutants were developed and normalized to both fuel mass and energy consumed. In general, coal had significantly higher mass EFs than wood for all pollutants studied. In particular, coal emitted, on average, 10 times more PM 2.5 than wood on a mass basis, and 2.4 times more on an energy basis. The EFs developed here were based on fuel types, stove design, and operating protocols relevant to the Navajo Nation, but they could be useful to other Native Nations with similar practices, such as the nearby Hopi Nation. Indoor wood and coal combustion is an important contributor to public health burdens in the Navajo Nation. Currently, there exist no emission factors representative of Navajo homestoves, fuels, and practices. This study developed emission factors for PM 2.5 , OC, EC, CO, and CO 2 using a representative Navajo homestove. These emission factors may be utilized in regional-, national-, and global-scale health and environmental models. Additionally, the protocols developed and results presented here may inform on-going stove design of

  6. Influence of Scots pine encroachment into alpine grassland in the quality and stability of soil organic matter aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Carlos; Díaz-Pinés, Eugenio; Benito, Marta; José Fernández, María; Rubio, Agustín

    2013-04-01

    Ecotone areas are dynamic zones potentially suitable for detecting ecosystem sensitivity to climate change effects. Climate change scenarios proposed by IPCC predict a temperature increase in Mediterranean areas with the consequent altitudinal advance of Scots pine treeline (Pinus sylvestris L.) at the extent of grassland-shrubland areas. Therefore, variations in physical, chemical and biological properties of soils due to plant dynamics are expected. We present a study located in the grassland-forest ecotone of Scots pine on a Mediterranean mountain in Central Spain, considering three different vegetation types: high mountain grassland-shrubland, shrubland-Scots pine high mountain forest and Scots pine mountain forest. We worked on the hypothesis that different plant species compositions influence both the size distribution and aggregate protection of the organic carbon (C), as a result of the different quality of C inputs to the soil from different vegetation types. To test this assumption, topsoil samples were firstly separated into four aggregate fractions (6-2 mm, 2-0.250 mm, 0.250-0.053 mm and centrifuging and decanting the supernatants; and thirdly, different iPOM (coarse iPOM and fine iPOM) and mineral associated soil organic C were released from each remaining aggregate fraction by sonication at 300 J ml-1 and further quantified by wet sieving. We expect differences between light fraction, different iPOM and mineral associated soil organic C from the different aggregates fractions obtained among vegetation types as a result of different quality and quantity organic matter inputs to the soil. Thus, we will be able to predict (i) the evolution of protected soil organic matter with the encroachment of Scots pine on Mediterranean mountains due to climate change effects, (ii) the rate of macroaggregate formation and degradation in those vegetation areas, and (iii) whether they will behave as source or sink of atmospheric C.

  7. Establishing the link between health effects and tire pyrolysis emissions through X RF spectrometry of particulate matter in the 2.5 range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Bautista VII, Angel T.; Bucal, Camille Grace DL.

    2011-01-01

    In July 2009, several tire pyrolysis facility started operations in Angat, Bulacan. Very soon after the facility in Pulong Yantok started operations, nearby residents noted oily effluents contaminating the surrounding area including a nearby creek and adjacent rice fields; sacks of dark ash stacked close just outside the facility; dark layers of soot on the ground, foliage and rooftops. Residents complained that they could no longer save rainwater for drinking because their rain gutters were contaminated by soot. The residents also complained of foul odor emanating from the facility. many of them has to stay indoors and close their windows to keep away tire pyrolysis emissions. In January, 2010, people became alarmed on realizing that they were exhibiting a communal reaction to airborne substances which they suspected were coming from the tire pyrolysis facility. Symptoms experienced were: tightening of the chest, asthma, excessive phlegm formation, coughing, allergic rhinitis, eye and skin irritation, headaches, stomach ache and even fever. At the time the exact nature of the facility was not yet clear to stake holders. Assistance was sought from the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) for the conduct of air particulate monitoring, in order to generate preliminary information on the nature of airborne pollutants. PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 monitoring was undertaken with the Gent sampler and subsequent elemental analysis by X RF spectrometry, in an attempt to identify possible signature elements. PM2.5 and PM10 levels were much below the WHO guideline values. Elements present above one percent in PM2.5 were: Black C, Na, S, Si, K, Ca, Al and Mg. Those present below one percent in PM2.5 were: Fe, Zn, Pb, P, and Ni, Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Cu were below detection limits. A drop in concentration was noted for elements present in tires (Zn, S, Pb, Al, Si, Mg and Black C) when the facility stopped operations after the implementation of the Cease and Desist Order (CDO). Zn

  8. Correlations between isospin dynamics and Intermediate Mass Fragments emission time scales: a probe for the symmetry energy in asymmetric nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Filippo, E; Cardella, G; Guidara, E La; Pagano, A; Papa, M; Amorini, F; Colonna, M; Gianì, S; Grassi, L; Han, J; Maiolino, C; Auditore, L; Minniti, T; Baran, V; Berceanu, I; Geraci, E; Grzeszczuk, A; Guazzoni, P; Lanzalone, G; Lombardo, I

    2013-01-01

    We show new data from the 64 Ni+ 124 Sn and 58 Ni+ 112 Sn reactions studied in direct kinematics with the CHIMERA detector at INFN-LNS and compared with the reverse kinematics reactions at the same incident beam energy (35 A MeV). Analyzing the data with the method of relative velocity correlations, fragments coming from statistical decay of an excited projectile-like (PLF) or target-like (TLF) fragments are discriminated from the ones coming from dynamical emission in the early stages of the reaction. By comparing data of the reverse kinematics experiment with a stochastic mean field (SMF) + GEMINI calculations our results show that observables from neck fragmentation mechanism add valuable constraints on the density dependence of symmetry energy. An indication is found for a moderately stiff symmetry energy potential term of EOS.

  9. Soil organic matter dynamics in a North America tallgrass prairie after 9 yr of experimental warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Cheng

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of global warming on soil organic matter (SOM dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems remains unclear. In this study, we combined soil fractionation with isotope analyses to examine SOM dynamics after nine years of experimental warming in a North America tallgrass prairie. Soil samples from the control plots and the warmed plots were separated into four aggregate sizes (>2000 μm, 250–2000 μm, 53–250 μm, and <53 μm, and three density fractions (free light fraction – LF, intra-aggregate particulate organic matter – iPOM, and mineral-associated organic matter – mSOM. All fractions were analyzed for their carbon (C and nitrogen (N content, and δ13C and δ15N values. Warming did not significantly effect soil aggregate distribution and stability but increased C4-derived C input into all fractions with the greatest in LF. Warming also stimulated decay rates of C in whole soil and all aggregate sizes. C in LF turned over faster than that in iPOM in the warmed soils. The δ15N values of soil fractions were more enriched in the warmed soils than those in the control, indicating that warming accelerated loss of soil N. The δ15N values changed from low to high, while C:N ratios changed from high to low in the order LF, iPOM, and mSOM due to increased degree of decomposition and mineral association. Overall, warming increased the input of C4-derived C by 11.6 %, which was offset by the accelerated loss of soil C. Our results suggest that global warming simultaneously stimulates C input via shift in species composition and decomposition of SOM, resulting in negligible net change in soil C.

  10. Humidity and Gravimetric Equivalency Adjustments for Nephelometer-Based Particulate Matter Measurements of Emissions from Solid Biomass Fuel Use in Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneja, Sutyajeet; Chen, Chen; Tielsch, James M.; Katz, Joanne; Zeger, Scott L.; Checkley, William; Curriero, Frank C.; Breysse, Patrick N.

    2014-01-01

    Great uncertainty exists around indoor biomass burning exposure-disease relationships due to lack of detailed exposure data in large health outcome studies. Passive nephelometers can be used to estimate high particulate matter (PM) concentrations during cooking in low resource environments. Since passive nephelometers do not have a collection filter they are not subject to sampler overload. Nephelometric concentration readings can be biased due to particle growth in high humid environments and differences in compositional and size dependent aerosol characteristics. This paper explores relative humidity (RH) and gravimetric equivalency adjustment approaches to be used for the pDR-1000 used to assess indoor PM concentrations for a cookstove intervention trial in Nepal. Three approaches to humidity adjustment performed equivalently (similar root mean squared error). For gravimetric conversion, the new linear regression equation with log-transformed variables performed better than the traditional linear equation. In addition, gravimetric conversion equations utilizing a spline or quadratic term were examined. We propose a humidity adjustment equation encompassing the entire RH range instead of adjusting for RH above an arbitrary 60% threshold. Furthermore, we propose new integrated RH and gravimetric conversion methods because they have one response variable (gravimetric PM2.5 concentration), do not contain an RH threshold, and is straightforward. PMID:24950062

  11. Humidity and gravimetric equivalency adjustments for nephelometer-based particulate matter measurements of emissions from solid biomass fuel use in cookstoves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneja, Sutyajeet; Chen, Chen; Tielsch, James M; Katz, Joanne; Zeger, Scott L; Checkley, William; Curriero, Frank C; Breysse, Patrick N

    2014-06-19

    Great uncertainty exists around indoor biomass burning exposure-disease relationships due to lack of detailed exposure data in large health outcome studies. Passive nephelometers can be used to estimate high particulate matter (PM) concentrations during cooking in low resource environments. Since passive nephelometers do not have a collection filter they are not subject to sampler overload. Nephelometric concentration readings can be biased due to particle growth in high humid environments and differences in compositional and size dependent aerosol characteristics. This paper explores relative humidity (RH) and gravimetric equivalency adjustment approaches to be used for the pDR-1000 used to assess indoor PM concentrations for a cookstove intervention trial in Nepal. Three approaches to humidity adjustment performed equivalently (similar root mean squared error). For gravimetric conversion, the new linear regression equation with log-transformed variables performed better than the traditional linear equation. In addition, gravimetric conversion equations utilizing a spline or quadratic term were examined. We propose a humidity adjustment equation encompassing the entire RH range instead of adjusting for RH above an arbitrary 60% threshold. Furthermore, we propose new integrated RH and gravimetric conversion methods because they have one response variable (gravimetric PM2.5 concentration), do not contain an RH threshold, and is straightforward.

  12. Household preferences for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in four European high-income countries: Does health information matter? A mixed-methods study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Herrmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is now universally acknowledged that climate change constitutes a major threat to human health. At the same time, some of the measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, so-called climate change mitigation measures, have significant health co-benefits (e.g., walking or cycling more; eating less meat. The goal of limiting global warming to 1,5° Celsius set by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris in 2015 can only be reached if all stakeholders, including households, take actions to mitigate climate change. Results on whether framing mitigation measures in terms of their health co-benefits increases the likelihood of their implementation are inconsistent. The present study protocol describes the transdisciplinary project HOPE (HOuseholds’ Preferences for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in four European high-income countries that investigates the role of health co-benefits in households’ decision making on climate change mitigation measures in urban households in France, Germany, Norway and Sweden. Methods HOPE employs a mixed-methods approach combining status-quo carbon footprint assessments, simulations of the reduction of households’ carbon footprints, and qualitative in-depth interviews with a subgroup of households. Furthermore, a policy analysis of current household oriented climate policies is conducted. In the simulation of the reduction of households’ carbon footprints, half of the households are provided with information on health co-benefits of climate change mitigation measures, the other half is not. Households’ willingness to implement the measures is assessed and compared in between-group analyses of variance. Discussion This is one of the first comprehensive mixed-methods approaches to investigate which mitigation measures households are most willing to implement in order to reach the 1,5° target set by the Paris Agreement, and

  13. Household preferences for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in four European high-income countries: Does health information matter? A mixed-methods study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Alina; Fischer, Helen; Amelung, Dorothee; Litvine, Dorian; Aall, Carlo; Andersson, Camilla; Baltruszewicz, Marta; Barbier, Carine; Bruyère, Sébastien; Bénévise, Françoise; Dubois, Ghislain; Louis, Valérie R; Nilsson, Maria; Richardsen Moberg, Karen; Sköld, Bore; Sauerborn, Rainer

    2017-08-01

    It is now universally acknowledged that climate change constitutes a major threat to human health. At the same time, some of the measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, so-called climate change mitigation measures, have significant health co-benefits (e.g., walking or cycling more; eating less meat). The goal of limiting global warming to 1,5° Celsius set by the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Paris in 2015 can only be reached if all stakeholders, including households, take actions to mitigate climate change. Results on whether framing mitigation measures in terms of their health co-benefits increases the likelihood of their implementation are inconsistent. The present study protocol describes the transdisciplinary project HOPE (HOuseholds' Preferences for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in four European high-income countries) that investigates the role of health co-benefits in households' decision making on climate change mitigation measures in urban households in France, Germany, Norway and Sweden. HOPE employs a mixed-methods approach combining status-quo carbon footprint assessments, simulations of the reduction of households' carbon footprints, and qualitative in-depth interviews with a subgroup of households. Furthermore, a policy analysis of current household oriented climate policies is conducted. In the simulation of the reduction of households' carbon footprints, half of the households are provided with information on health co-benefits of climate change mitigation measures, the other half is not. Households' willingness to implement the measures is assessed and compared in between-group analyses of variance. This is one of the first comprehensive mixed-methods approaches to investigate which mitigation measures households are most willing to implement in order to reach the 1,5° target set by the Paris Agreement, and whether health co-benefits can serve as a motivator for households to

  14. Emissions of particulate matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from agricultural diesel engine fueled with degummed,deacidified mixed crude palm oil blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khamphe Phoungthong; Surajit Tekasakul; Perapong Tekasakul; Gumpon Prateepchaikul; Naret Jindapetch; Masami Furuuchi; Mitsuhiko Hata

    2013-01-01

    Mixed crude palm oil (MCPO),the mixture of palm fiber oil and palm kernel oil,has become of great interest as a renewable energy source.It can be easily extracted from whole dried palm fruits.In the present work,the degummed,deacidified MCPO was blended in petroleum diesel at portions of 30% and 40% by volume and then tested in agricultural diesel engines for long term usage.The particulates from the exhaust of the engines were collected every 500 hr using a four-stage cascade air sampler.The 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameters for the first three stages were 10,2.5 and 1 μm,while the last stage collected all particles smaller than 1 μm.Sixteen particle bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography.The results indicated that the size distribution of particulate matter was in the accumulation mode and the pattern of total PAHs associated with fine-particles (< 1 μm) showed a dominance of larger molecular weight PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings),especially pyrene.The mass median diameter,PM and total PAH concentrations decreased when increasing the palm oil content,but increased when the running hours of the engine were increased.In addition,Commercial petroleum diesel (PB0) gave the highest value of carcinogenic potency equivalent (BaPeq) for all particle size ranges.As the palm oil was increased,the BaPeq decreased gradually.Therefore the degummed-deacidified MCPO blends are recommended for diesel substitute.

  15. D matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, Gary; Wang Liantao

    2004-01-01

    We study the properties and phenomenology of particlelike states originating from D branes whose spatial dimensions are all compactified. They are nonperturbative states in string theory and we refer to them as D matter. In contrast to other nonperturbative objects such as 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles, D-matter states could have perturbative couplings among themselves and with ordinary matter. The lightest D particle (LDP) could be stable because it is the lightest state carrying certain (integer or discrete) quantum numbers. Depending on the string scale, they could be cold dark matter candidates with properties similar to that of WIMPs or wimpzillas. The spectrum of excited states of D matter exhibits an interesting pattern which could be distinguished from that of Kaluza-Klein modes, winding states, and string resonances. We speculate about possible signatures of D matter from ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and colliders

  16. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S. S.; Bennett, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Astrophysics conference in Maryland, organized by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland. The topics covered included low mass stars as dark matter, dark matter in galaxies and clusters, cosmic microwave background anisotropy, cold and hot dark matter, and the large scale distribution and motions of galaxies. There were eighty five papers presented. Out of these, 10 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  17. Evaluation of the new ESR network software for the retrieval of direct sun products from CIMEL CE318 and PREDE POM01 sun-sky radiometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Estellés

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The European Skynet Radiometers network (EuroSkyRad or ESR has been recently established as a research network of European PREDE sun-sky radiometers. Moreover, ESR is federated with SKYNET, an international network of PREDE sun-sky radiometers mostly present in East Asia. In contrast to SKYNET, the European network also integrates users of the CIMEL CE318 sky–sun photometer. Keeping instrumental duality in mind, a set of open source algorithms has been developed consisting of two modules for (1 the retrieval of direct sun products (aerosol optical depth, wavelength exponent and water vapor from the sun extinction measurements; and (2 the inversion of the sky radiance to derive other aerosol optical properties such as size distribution, single scattering albedo or refractive index. In this study we evaluate the ESR direct sun products in comparison with the AERosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET products. Specifically, we have applied the ESR algorithm to a CIMEL CE318 and PREDE POM simultaneously for a 4-yr database measured at the Burjassot site (Valencia, Spain, and compared the resultant products with the AERONET direct sun measurements obtained with the same CIMEL CE318 sky–sun photometer. The comparison shows that aerosol optical depth differences are mostly within the nominal uncertainty of 0.003 for a standard calibration instrument, and fall within the nominal AERONET uncertainty of 0.01–0.02 for a field instrument in the spectral range 340 to 1020 nm. In the cases of the Ångström exponent and the columnar water vapor, the differences are lower than 0.02 and 0.15 cm, respectively. Therefore, we present an open source code program that can be used with both CIMEL and PREDE sky radiometers and whose results are equivalent to AERONET and SKYNET retrievals.

  18. Fluctuación del Perfil de Estados de Ánimo (POMS en un periodo competitivo en judokas de élite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Torres-Luque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio es analizar la relación entre la evolución de la carga de entrenamiento y el perfil de los estados de ánimo a lo largo de un periodo competitivo en judokas de élite. Se seleccionaron 7 judokas de élite, a los que se les administró el cuestionario Profile of Mood States, POMS, adaptado al castellano (Balaguer et al., 1995 a lo largo de 6 semanas de un período competitivo. A su vez se controló el volumen de entrenamiento clasificado en específico (entrenamiento técnico-táctico en tatami, entrenamiento de fuerza (sala de musculación y entrenamiento aeróbico (fundamentalmente carrera continua, y se observaron la relación entre ambas variables. Los resultados indican cómo el tipo de carga de entrenamiento puede afectar directamente a los estados de ánimo, un incremento del entrenamiento aeróbico produce un incremento en la Tensión, Depresión y Hostilidad, así como un descenso del factor Vigor, el cual, a pesar de estar por encima del resto de factores, el tipo de entrenamiento realizado tiene una implicación directa sobre él. Este tipo de análisis contribuyen a un mejor conocimiento del deportista de élite y su respuesta ante períodos competitivos.

  19. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Cotti, U.; De Leon, C. L.; Raya, A; Villasenor, L.

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest scientific mysteries of our time resides in the identification of the particles that constitute a large fraction of the mass of our Universe, generically known as dark matter. We review the observations and the experimental data that imply the existence of dark matter. We briefly discuss the properties of the two best dark-matter candidate particles and the experimental techniques presently used to try to discover them. Finally, we mention a proposed project that has recently emerged within the Mexican community to look for dark matter

  20. Chemically and size-resolved particulate matter dry deposition on stone and surrogate surfaces inside and outside the low emission zone of Milan: application of a newly developed "Deposition Box".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Luca; Casati, Marco; Nobili, Lara; D'Angelo, Luca; Rovelli, Grazia; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Rizzi, Cristiana; Perrone, Maria Grazia; Sansonetti, Antonio; Conti, Claudia; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Bernardi, Elena; Vassura, Ivano

    2018-04-01

    The collection of atmospheric particles on not-filtering substrates via dry deposition, and the subsequent study of the particle-induced material decay, is trivial due to the high number of variables simultaneously acting on the investigated surface. This work reports seasonally resolved data of chemical composition and size distribution of particulate matter deposed on stone and surrogate surfaces obtained using a new method, especially developed at this purpose. A "Deposition Box" was designed allowing the particulate matter dry deposition to occur selectively removing, at the same time, variables that can mask the effect of airborne particles on material decay. A pitched roof avoided rainfall and wind variability; a standardised gentle air exchange rate ensured a continuous "sampling" of ambient air leaving unchanged the sampled particle size distribution and, at the same time, leaving quite calm condition inside the box, allowing the deposition to occur. Thus, the "Deposition Box" represents an affordable tool that can be used complementary to traditional exposure systems. With this system, several exposure campaigns, involving investigated stone materials (ISMs) (Carrara Marble, Botticino limestone, Noto calcarenite and Granite) and surrogate (Quartz, PTFE, and Aluminium) substrates, have been performed in two different sites placed in Milan (Italy) inside and outside the low emission zone. Deposition rates (30-90 μg cm -2  month -1 ) showed significant differences between sites and seasons, becoming less evident considering long-period exposures due to a positive feedback on the deposition induced by the deposited particles. Similarly, different stone substrates influenced the deposition rates too. The collected deposits have been observed with optical and scanning electron microscopes and analysed by ion chromatography. Ion deposition rates were similar in the two sites during winter, whereas it was greater outside the low emission zone during summer and

  1. Photobleaching response of different sources of chromophoric dissolved organic matter exposed to natural solar radiation using absorption and excitation-emission matrix spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlin; Liu, Xiaohan; Osburn, Christopher L; Wang, Mingzhu; Qin, Boqiang; Zhou, Yongqiang

    2013-01-01

    CDOM biogeochemical cycle is driven by several physical and biological processes such as river input, biogeneration and photobleaching that act as primary sinks and sources of CDOM. Watershed-derived allochthonous (WDA) and phytoplankton-derived autochthonous (PDA) CDOM were exposed to 9 days of natural solar radiation to assess the photobleaching response of different CDOM sources, using absorption and fluorescence (excitation-emission matrix) spectroscopy. Our results showed a marked decrease in total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) concentration under natural sunlight exposure for both WDA and PDA CDOM, indicating photoproduction of ammonium from TDN. In contrast, photobleaching caused a marked increase in total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) concentration for both WDA and PDA CDOM. Thus TDN:TDP ratios decreased significantly both for WDA and PDA CDOM, which partially explained the seasonal dynamic of TDN:TDP ratio in Lake Taihu. Photobleaching rate of CDOM absorption a(254), was 0.032 m/MJ for WDA CDOM and 0.051 m/MJ for PDA CDOM from days 0-9, indicating that phototransformations were initially more rapid for the newly produced CDOM from phytoplankton than for the river CDOM. Extrapolation of these values to the field indicated that 3.9%-5.1% CDOM at the water surface was photobleached and mineralized every day in summer in Lake Taihu. Photobleaching caused the increase of spectral slope, spectral slope ratio and molecular size, indicating the CDOM mean molecular weight decrease which was favorable to further microbial degradation of mineralization. Three fluorescent components were validated in parallel factor analysis models calculated separately for WDA and PDA CDOM. Our study suggests that the humic-like fluorescence materials could be rapidly and easily photobleached for WDA and PDA CDOM, but the protein-like fluorescence materials was not photobleached and even increased from the transformation of the humic-like fluorescence substance to the protein

  2. Assessment of relative accuracy in the determination of organic matter concentrations in aquatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, G.; Kaplan, L.A.; Weishaar, J.

    2002-01-01

    Accurate determinations of total (TOC), dissolved (DOC) and particulate (POC) organic carbon concentrations are critical for understanding the geochemical, environmental, and ecological roles of aquatic organic matter. Of particular significance for the drinking water industry, TOC measurements are the basis for compliance with US EPA regulations. The results of an interlaboratory comparison designed to identify problems associated with the determination of organic matter concentrations in drinking water supplies are presented. The study involved 31 laboratories and a variety of commercially available analytical instruments. All participating laboratories performed well on samples of potassium hydrogen phthalate (KHP), a compound commonly used as a standard in carbon analysis. However, problems associated with the oxidation of difficult to oxidize compounds, such as dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid and caffeine, were noted. Humic substances posed fewer problems for analysts. Particulate organic matter (POM) in the form of polystyrene beads, freeze-dried bacteria and pulverized leaf material were the most difficult for all analysts, with a wide range of performances reported. The POM results indicate that the methods surveyed in this study are inappropriate for the accurate determination of POC and TOC concentration. Finally, several analysts had difficulty in efficiently separating inorganic carbon from KHP solutions, thereby biasing DOC results.

  3. Sea cucumbers reduce chromophoric dissolved organic matter in aquaculture tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Sadeghi-Nassaj

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Mono-specific aquaculture effluents contain high concentrations of nutrients and organic matter, which affect negatively the water quality of the recipient ecosystems. A fundamental feature of water quality is its transparency. The fraction of dissolved organic matter that absorbs light is named chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM. A sustainable alternative to mono-specific aquaculture is the multitrophic aquaculture that includes species trophically complementary named “extractive” species that uptake the waste byproducts. Sea cucumbers are recognized as efficient extractive species due to the consumption of particulate organic matter (POM. However, the effects of sea cucumbers on CDOM are still unknown. Methods During more than one year, we monitored CDOM in two big-volume tanks with different trophic structure. One of the tanks (−holothurian only contained around 810 individuals of Anemonia sulcata, whereas the other tank (+holothurian also included 90 individuals of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria forskali. We routinely analyzed CDOM absorption spectra and determined quantitative (absorption coefficients at 325 nm and qualitative (spectral slopes optical parameters in the inlet waters, within the tanks, and in their corresponding effluents. To confirm the time-series results, we also performed three experiments. Each experiment consisted of two treatments: +holothurians (+H and –holothurians (−H. We set up three +H tanks with 80 individuals of A. sulcata and 10 individuals of H. tubulosa in each tank and four –H tanks that contained only 80 individuals of A. sulcata. Results In the time-series, absorption coefficients at 325 nm (a325 and spectral slopes from 275 to 295 nm (S275−295 were significantly lower in the effluent of the +holothurian tank (average: 0.33 m−1 and 16 µm−1, respectively than in the effluent of the −holothurian tank (average: 0.69 m−1 and 34 µm−1, respectively, the former

  4. Photobleaching Response of Different Sources of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter Exposed to Natural Solar Radiation Using Absorption and Excitation–Emission Matrix Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlin; Liu, Xiaohan; Osburn, Christopher L.; Wang, Mingzhu; Qin, Boqiang; Zhou, Yongqiang

    2013-01-01

    CDOM biogeochemical cycle is driven by several physical and biological processes such as river input, biogeneration and photobleaching that act as primary sinks and sources of CDOM. Watershed-derived allochthonous (WDA) and phytoplankton-derived autochthonous (PDA) CDOM were exposed to 9 days of natural solar radiation to assess the photobleaching response of different CDOM sources, using absorption and fluorescence (excitation-emission matrix) spectroscopy. Our results showed a marked decrease in total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) concentration under natural sunlight exposure for both WDA and PDA CDOM, indicating photoproduction of ammonium from TDN. In contrast, photobleaching caused a marked increase in total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) concentration for both WDA and PDA CDOM. Thus TDN∶TDP ratios decreased significantly both for WDA and PDA CDOM, which partially explained the seasonal dynamic of TDN∶TDP ratio in Lake Taihu. Photobleaching rate of CDOM absorption a(254), was 0.032 m/MJ for WDA CDOM and 0.051 m/MJ for PDA CDOM from days 0–9, indicating that phototransformations were initially more rapid for the newly produced CDOM from phytoplankton than for the river CDOM. Extrapolation of these values to the field indicated that 3.9%–5.1% CDOM at the water surface was photobleached and mineralized every day in summer in Lake Taihu. Photobleaching caused the increase of spectral slope, spectral slope ratio and molecular size, indicating the CDOM mean molecular weight decrease which was favorable to further microbial degradation of mineralization. Three fluorescent components were validated in parallel factor analysis models calculated separately for WDA and PDA CDOM. Our study suggests that the humic-like fluorescence materials could be rapidly and easily photobleached for WDA and PDA CDOM, but the protein-like fluorescence materials was not photobleached and even increased from the transformation of the humic-like fluorescence substance to the protein

  5. Dark Matter Annihilation at the Galactic Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, Timothy Ryan [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Observations by the WMAP and PLANCK satellites have provided extraordinarily accurate observations on the densities of baryonic matter, dark matter, and dark energy in the universe. These observations indicate that our universe is composed of approximately ve times as much dark matter as baryonic matter. However, e orts to detect a particle responsible for the energy density of dark matter have been unsuccessful. Theoretical models have indicated that a leading candidate for the dark matter is the lightest supersymmetric particle, which may be stable due to a conserved R-parity. This dark matter particle would still be capable of interacting with baryons via weak-force interactions in the early universe, a process which was found to naturally explain the observed relic abundance of dark matter today. These residual annihilations can persist, albeit at a much lower rate, in the present universe, providing a detectable signal from dark matter annihilation events which occur throughout the universe. Simulations calculating the distribution of dark matter in our galaxy almost universally predict the galactic center of the Milky Way Galaxy (GC) to provide the brightest signal from dark matter annihilation due to its relative proximity and large simulated dark matter density. Recent advances in telescope technology have allowed for the rst multiwavelength analysis of the GC, with suitable e ective exposure, angular resolution, and energy resolution in order to detect dark matter particles with properties similar to those predicted by the WIMP miracle. In this work, I describe ongoing e orts which have successfully detected an excess in -ray emission from the region immediately surrounding the GC, which is di cult to describe in terms of standard di use emission predicted in the GC region. While the jury is still out on any dark matter interpretation of this excess, I describe several related observations which may indicate a dark matter origin. Finally, I discuss the

  6. Origin and composition of particulate organic matter in a macrotidal turbid estuary: The Gironde Estuary, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoye, Nicolas; David, Valérie; Morisseau, François; Etcheber, Henri; Abril, Gwenaël; Billy, Isabelle; Charlier, Karine; Oggian, Georges; Derriennic, Hervé; Sautour, Benoît

    2012-08-01

    At the interface between continent and ocean, estuaries receive particles, and especially particulate organic matter (POM) originating from these two reservoirs, but also produce POM, through autochthonous primary production. The origin and composition of surface POM in the Gironde Estuary (SW France) and the environmental forcing of its variability was investigated using the data set produced by the French Coastal Monitoring Network SOMLIT (Service d'Observation en Milieu LITtoral; monthly like sampling during years 2007-2009). This estuary is considered as a model of macrotidal turbid estuaries. Using elemental and isotopic composition of the POM, we estimated that, at the inner estuary space scale and inter-annual time scale, surface particulate organic carbon (POC) was composed of terrestrial POM originated from the turbidity maximum (96.4%; refractory POC) and flood events (1.6%; labile and refractory POC), and of riverine (0.1%), estuarine (0.8%) and marine (1.1%) phytoplankton, i.e. that POC was 98% and 2% of terrestrial and phytoplankton origin, respectively. However, there was a clear spatial gradient: the phytoplankton contribution increases from ca. 1% in the upper and middle estuary to 8.5% in the lower estuary, where light condition is more favourable to plankton growth. The low contribution of phytoplankton to the POC is a characteristic of the Gironde estuary and contrast with other large temperate estuaries. Statistical analysis indicates that salinity, river flow and SPM concentration, and thus associated hydro-dynamic and sedimentary processes, were the only environmental forcings to the composition of surface POC in this system, at intra- and inter-annual time scale. In contrast, temperature and nutrient concentrations, and thus associated processes, do not force this composition of POC. By combining POC fluxes entering the inner estuary (literature data), POC loss as dissolved organic carbon and CO2 and as sediment trapping within the inner

  7. Hurricane Matthew's Effects on Wetland Sources of Organic Matter to North Carolina Coastal Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, J. C.; Osburn, C. L.; Paerl, H. W.; Hounshell, A.

    2017-12-01

    Increased frequency and intensity of storm events such as tropical cyclones will have a major impact on estuarine and coastal biogeochemical cycling. Here, we determined the sources of dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM and POM) as part of a larger study to quantify the short-term (several months) response of carbon and nitrogen cycling in the Neuse River Estuary-Pamlico Sound (NRE-PS) ecosystem to floodwaters associated with Hurricane Matthew. Sampling was conducted weekly in both the NRE-PS (October 2016 to January 2017), the Neuse River (NR) (October to December 2016) and in freshwater wetlands of the Neuse River above head of tide in March 2017. Specific ultraviolet (UV) absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254) and stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C-DOC) were used to determine the sources of DOM and POM transported to the NRE-PS in post-hurricane floodwaters. For DOM, SUVA254 values increased from 3.23 ±0.52 mg C L-1 m-1 in the NR to 4.14±0.52 mg C L-1 m-1 in the NRE and then declined to 3.63±0.32 mg C L-1 m-1 in PS. Combined with depleted δ13C-DOC values (-26 to -32‰) and elevated C:N values in the estuary and sound, these results confirm continued loading of fresh terrestrial organic matter into NRE-PS weeks after the storm. For POM, δ13C-POC and C:N ratio results likewise indicated a terrestrial source in floodwaters. SUVA254 values >3.5 mg C L-1 m-1 coupled with the depleted δ13C values and large C:N values were consistent with DOM primarily sourced from wetlands (e.g., wetland SUVA254 = 3.77±0.52 mg C L-1 m-1 in March 2017). We hypothesize that floodwaters connected riverine wetlands to the main channel of the NR, exporting DOM and POM into the NRE-PS. Our results indicate that upstream wetlands play a central and potentially significant role in organic matter enrichment and metabolism of estuarine and coastal waters, in light of increasing frequencies and intensities of tropical cyclones impacting coastal watersheds.

  8. Peatland use and transport of particulate organic matter in boreal headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marttila, Hannu; Karjalainen, Satu-Maaria; Nieminen, Mika; Kløve, Bjørn

    2014-05-01

    Peatland use can cause increased transport of particulate organic matter (POM) causing deteriorated water quality and especially siltation of stream beds. Even though topic has gained major attention among stakeholders it has received only minor efforts to solve the main sources and properties of transported particles. The development of effective management practices and evaluation of purification efficiency demands understanding of the sources of particulate matter in peat dominated catchments with various land uses and hydrological conditions. The objectives of this study were: (1) to determinate physical properties of POM in headwater brooks affected by different peatland uses, and; (2) to identity the sources of transported material by using sediment fingerprinting methods. For this purpose, two headwater catchments under peat extraction and peatland forestry land uses with 8 sampling points were monitored for 2 years using time integrated suspended sediment samplers. Data was completed by gap samples from 50 other headwater locations with different upstream land uses: pristine, peatland forestry and peat extraction. For the sources analysis, disturbed topsoil, stream bed sediment, banks of ditches and brooks, algae and various vegetation types were identified as the potential sediment sources. Stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) and C/N ratio were analyzed to discriminate between the possible sources. Results are further scaled against different land uses, landscape elements and seasonal hydrological conditions in headwaters. This paper presents the preliminary results from a two year study aiming to show various patterns in transport of POM in boreal headwater catchments. Due to strong land-water relationship in headwaters, further information on the properties of particles is needed to assess the downstream impacts of land use.

  9. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  10. Origin and fate of particulate and dissolved organic matter in a naturally iron-fertilized region of the Southern Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, L.; Caparros, J.; Leblanc, K.; Obernosterer, I.

    2015-01-01

    Natural iron fertilization of high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) waters induces annually occurring spring phytoplankton blooms off the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean). To examine the origin and fate of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM and DOM), D- and L-amino acids (AA) were quantified at bloom and HNLC stations. Total hydrolyzable AA accounted for 21-25% of surface particulate organic carbon (%POCAA) at the bloom sites, but for 10% at the HNLC site. A marked decrease in %POCAA with depth was observed at the most productive stations leading to values between 3 and 5% below 300 m depth. AA contributed to only 0.9-4.4% of dissolved organic carbon (%DOCAA) at all stations. The only consistent vertical trend was observed at the most productive station (A3-2) where %DOCAA decreased from ~ 2% in the surface waters to 0.9% near 300 m. These AA yields revealed that POM and DOM were more rapidly altered or mineralized at the bloom sites compared to the HNLC site. Alteration state was also assessed by trends in C / N ratio, %D-AA and degradation index. Different molecular markers indicated that POM mostly originated from diatoms and bacteria. The estimated average proportion of POM from intact phytoplankton cells in surface waters was 45% at the bloom station A3-2, but 14% at the HNLC site. Estimates based on D-AA yields indicated that ~ 15% of POM and ~ 30% of DOM was of bacterial origin (cells and cell fragments) at all stations. Surprisingly, the DOM in HNLC waters appeared less altered than the DOM from the bloom, had slightly higher dissolved AA concentrations, and showed no sign of alteration within the water column. Unfavorable conditions for bacterial degradation in HNLC regions can explain these findings. In contrast, large inputs of labile organic molecules and iron likely stimulate the degradation of organic matter (priming effect) and the production of more recalcitrant DOM (microbial carbon pump) during iron-fertilized blooms.

  11. Dark matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark. That is, not only is the night sky dark, but also most of the matter and the energy in the universe is dark. For every atom visible in planets, stars and galaxies today there exists at least five or six times as much 'Dark Matter' in the universe. Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious but pervasive dark matter, which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe. Dark energy remains even more elusive, as we lack candidate fields that emerge from well established physics. I will describe various attempts to measure dark matter by direct and indirect means, and discuss the prospects for progress in unravelling dark energy.

  12. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel

    2017-01-01

    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  13. The flux of organic matter through a peatland ecosystem: The role of cellulose, lignin, and their control of the ecosystem oxidation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; Moody, Catherine S.; Clay, Gareth D.; Burt, Tim P.; Rose, Rob

    2017-07-01

    This study used thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to study the transit of organic C through a peatland ecosystem. The biomass, litter, peat soil profile, particulate organic matter (POM), and dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluxes were sampled from the Moor House National Nature Reserve, a peat-covered catchment in northern England where both the dry matter and carbon budget for the catchment were known. The study showed that although TGA traces showed distinct differences between organic matter reservoirs and fluxes, the traces could not readily be associated with particular functionalities or elemental properties. The TGA trace shows that polysaccharides are preferentially removed by humification and degradation with residual peat being dominated by lignin compositions. The DOM is derived from the degradation of lignin while the POM is derived from erosion of the peat profile. The carbon lost as gases (CO2 and CH4) was estimated to be composed of 92 to 95% polysaccharide carbon. The composition of the organic matter lost from the peat ecosystem means that the oxidative ratio (OR) of the ecosystem experienced by the atmosphere was between 0.96 and 0.99: currently, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change uses an OR value of 1.1 for all ecosystems.

  14. Isotopic composition of nitrate and particulate organic matter in a pristine dam reservoir of western India: Implications for biogeochemical processes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bardhan, P.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Karapurkar, S.G.; Shenoy, D.M.; Kurian, S.; Naik, H.

    , 767–779, 2017 www.biogeosciences.net/14/767/2017/ doi:10.5194/bg-14-767-2017 © Author(s) 2017. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Isotopic composition of nitrate and particulate organic matter in a pristine dam reservoir of western India: implications... basis. Samples for nitrate isotopic measurements were col- lected from 2011. The facility for nitrate isotope analysis was Biogeosciences, 14, 767–779, 2017 www.biogeosciences.net/14/767/2017/ P. Bardhan et al.: Isotopic composition of nitrate and POM...

  15. The condensed matter physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapoval, B.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the laboratory of the Condensed Matter Physics (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The Laboratory activities are related to the physics of semiconductors and disordered phases. The electrical and optical properties of the semiconductors, mixed conductor, superionic conductors and ceramics, are studied. Moreover, the interfaces of those systems and the sol-gel inorganic polymerization phenomena, are investigated. The most important results obtained, concern the following investigations: the electrochemical field effect transistor, the cathodoluminescence, the low energy secondary electrons emission, the fluctuations of a two-dimensional diffused junction and the aerogels [fr

  16. Danish emission inventories for agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth; Albrektsen, Rikke; Gyldenkærne, Steen

    . This report contains a description of the emissions from the agricultural sector from 1985 to 2009. Furthermore, the report includes a detailed description of methods and data used to calculate the emissions, which is based on national methodologies as well as international guidelines. For the Danish...... emissions calculations and data management an Integrated Database model for Agricultural emissions (IDA) is used. The emission from the agricultural sector includes emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3), particulate matter (PM), non-methane volatile organic...... compounds (NMVOC) and other pollutants related to the field burning of agricultural residue such as NOx, CO2, CO, SO2, heavy metals, dioxin and PAH. The ammonia emission from 1985 to 2009 has decreased from 119 300 tonnes of NH3 to 73 800 tonnes NH3, corresponding to a 38 % reduction. The emission...

  17. Quark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csernai, L.; Kampert, K. H.

    1994-10-15

    Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June.

  18. The Role of Physical and Human Landscape Properties on Carbon Composition of Organic Matter in Tropical Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, M. R.; Krusche, A. V.; Victoria, R. L.; Richey, J. E.; Deegan, L.; Neill, C.

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate physical and human controls organic matter carbon composition in tropical rivers, we applied an integrated analysis of landscape properties and riverine isotopic composition. Our goal was to establish the relationships between basin attributes and forms and composition of dissolved and particulate organic matter in rivers. A GIS template was developed as tool to support the understanding of the biogeochemistry of the surface waters of the Ji-Paraná (Western Amazonia) and the Piracicaba (southeastern of Brazil)rivers. Each basin was divided into drainage units, organized according to river network morphology and degree of land-use impact. The delineated drainage areas were individually characterized in terms of topography, soils and land use using data sets compiled as layers in ArcGis and ERDAS-IMAGINE software. DOM and POM carbon stable isotopic composition were determined at several sites along the main tributaries and small streams. The effects of these drivers on the fluvial carbon was quantified by a multiple linear regression analysis, relating basin characteristics and river isotopic composition. The results showed that relatively recent land cover changes have already had an impact on the composition of the riverine DOM and POM, indicating that, as in natural ecosystems, the vegetation plays a key role in the composition of the riverine organic matter in agricultural systems.

  19. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    As if this was not enough, it turns out that if our knowledge of ... are thought to contain dark matter, although the evidences from them are the .... protons, electrons, neutrons ... ratio of protons to neutrons was close to unity then as they were in ...

  20. Quantum matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechler, Hans Peter; Calcarco, Tommaso; Dressel, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Artificial atoms and molecules, tailored from solids, fractional flux quanta, molecular magnets, controlled interaction in quantum gases, the theory of quantum correlations in mott matter, cold gases, and mesoscopic systems, Bose-Einstein condensates on the chip, on the route to the quantum computer, a quantum computer in diamond. (HSI)

  1. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 4. Molecule Matters – van der Waals Molecules - History and Some Perspectives on Intermolecular Forces. E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 4 April 2009 pp 346-356 ...

  2. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. Molecule Matters - Dinitrogen. A G Samuelson J Jabadurai. Volume 16 Issue 12 ... Author Affiliations. A G Samuelson1 J Jabadurai1. Department of Inroganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, India.

  3. Interstellar matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezger, P.G.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of the formation of our galaxy is presented followed by a summary of recent work in star formation and related topics. Selected discussions are given on interstellar matter including absorption characteristics of dust, the fully ionised component of the ISM and the energy density of lyc-photons in the solar neighbourhood and the diffuse galactic IR radiation

  4. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of gas clouds orbiting in the outer regions of spiral galaxies has revealed that their gravitational at- traction is much larger than the stars alone can provide. Over the last twenty years, astronomers have been forced to postulate the presence of large quantities of 'dark matter' to explain their observations. They are ...

  5. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Molecule Matters - A Chromium Compound with a Quintuple Bond. K C Kumara Swamy. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 72-75. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  6. A study to estimate and compare the total particulate matter emission indices (EIN) between traditional jet fuel and two blends of Jet A/Camelina biofuel used in a high by-pass turbofan engine: A case study of Honeywell TFE-109 engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shila, Jacob Joshua Howard

    The aviation industry is expected to grow at an annual rate of 5% until the year 2031 according to Boeing Outlook Report of 2012. Although the aerospace manufacturers have introduced new aircraft and engines technologies to reduce the emissions generated by aircraft engines, about 15% of all aircraft in 2032 will be using the older technologies. Therefore, agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Astronautics Administration (NASA), Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) among others together with some academic institutions have been working to characterize both physical and chemical characteristics of the aircraft particulate matter emissions to further understand their effects to the environment. The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is also working to establish an inventory with Particulate Matter emissions for all the aircraft turbine engines for certification purposes. This steps comes as a result of smoke measurements not being sufficient to provide detailed information on the effects of Particulate Matter (PM) emissions as far as the health and environmental concerns. The use of alternative fuels is essential to reduce the impacts of emissions released by Jet engines since alternative aviation fuels have been studied to lower particulate matter emissions in some types of engines families. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the emission indices of the biofuel blended fuels were lower than the emission indices of the traditional jet fuel at selected engine thrust settings. The biofuel blends observed were 75% Jet A-25% Camelina blend biofuel, and 50% Jet A-50% Jet A blend biofuel. The traditional jet fuel in this study was the Jet A fuel. The results of this study may be useful in establishing a baseline for aircraft engines' PM inventory. Currently the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) engines emissions database contains only gaseous emissions data for only the TFE 731

  7. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.; Tran Thanh Van, J.

    1988-01-01

    The book begins with the papers devoted to the experimental search of signatures of the dark matter which governs the evolution of the Universe as a whole. A series of contributions describe the presently considered experimental techniques (cryogenic detectors, supraconducting detectors...). A real dialogue concerning these techniques has been instaured between particle physicists and astrophysicists. After the progress report of the particle physicists, the book provides the reader with an updated situation concerning the research in cosmology. The second part of the book is devoted to the analysis of the backgrounds at different energies such as the possible role of the cooling flows in the constitution of massive galactic halos. Any search of dark matter implies necessarily the analysis of the spatial distributions of the large scale structures of the Universe. This report is followed by a series of statistical analyses of these distributions. These analyses concern mainly universes filled up with cold dark matter. The last paper of this third part concerns the search of clustering in the spatial distribution of QSOs. The presence of dark matter should affect the solar neighborhood and related to the existence of galactic haloes. The contributions are devoted to the search of such local dark matter. Primordial nucleosynthesis provides a very powerful tool to set up quite constraining limitations on the overall baryonic density. Even if on takes into account the inhomogeneities in density possibly induced by the Quark-Hadron transition, this baryonic density should be much lower than the overall density deduced from the dynamical models of Universe or the inflationary theories

  8. Acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The volume contains six papers which together provide an overall review of the inspection technique known as acoustic emission or stress wave emission. The titles are: a welder's introduction to acoustic emission technology; use of acoustic emission for detection of defects as they arise during fabrication; examples of laboratory application and assessment of acoustic emission in the United Kingdom; (Part I: acoustic emission behaviour of low alloy steels; Part II: fatigue crack assessment from proof testing and continuous monitoring); inspection of selected areas of engineering structures by acoustic emission; Japanese experience in laboratory and practical applications of acoustic emission to welded structures; and ASME acoustic emission code status. (U.K.)

  9. Nanoparticle emissions from combustion engines

    CERN Document Server

    Merkisz, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

     This book focuses on particulate matter emissions produced by vehicles with combustion engines. It describes the physicochemical properties of the particulate matter, the mechanisms of its formation and its environmental impacts (including those on human beings). It discusses methods for measuring particulate mass and number, including the state-of-the-art in Portable Emission Measurement System (PEMS) equipment for measuring the exhaust emissions of both light and heavy-duty vehicles and buses under actual operating conditions. The book presents the authors’ latest investigations into the relations between particulate emission (mass and number) and engine operating parameters, as well as their new findings obtained through road tests performed on various types of vehicles, including those using diesel particulate filter regeneration. The book, which addresses the needs of academics and professionals alike, also discusses relevant European regulations on particulate emissions and highlights selected metho...

  10. Can particulate organic matter reveal emerging changes in soil organic carbon?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsson, Magnus; Kirchmann, Holger; Magid, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    different cropping systems, N fertilizer applications, and organic amendments, we found that C and N in the fine to medium sand fraction (0.063-0.600 mm, "Fraction B") showed considerably larger relative errors according to ANOVA (RMSE was 11-20% of the mean), slightly lower values of the F statistic......This study assessed whether particulate organic matter (POM) in sand fractions, isolated by wet sieving after treatment with Na hexametaphosphate, can be a sensitive indicator of incipient changes in the content and composition of soil organic matter. In five long-term field experiments including......, and slightly less contrast between treatments than total organic C and N (RMSE 3-9% of the mean). Imprecision in laboratory procedures only explained part of the increase in RMSE for C and N in Fraction B compared with total C and N; within-field spatial variability most likely had a greater influence...

  11. Emission inventory for fugitive emissions from fuel in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Nielsen, Malene

    This report presents the methodology and data used in the Danish inventory of fugitive emissions from fuels for the years until 2013. The inventory of fugitive emissions includes CO2, CH4, N2O, SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CO, particulate matter, Black carbon, heavy metals, dioxin and PAHs. In 2013 the total...... Danish emission of greenhouse gasses was 54 584 Gg CO2 equivalents. Fugitive emissions from fuels account for 387 Gg CO2 equivalents or approximately 1 %. The major part of the fugitive emissions are emitted as CO2 (61 %) mainly from flaring in upstream oil and gas production. The major source...... of fugitive CH4 emission is production of oil and gas in the North Sea, refining of oil and loading of oil onto ships both offshore and onshore. The fugitive emissions of NMVOC originate for the major part from oil and gas production, loading of ships, transmission and distribution of oil, and to a less...

  12. Disposal Of Waste Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Seung Mu

    1989-02-01

    This book deals with disposal of waste matter management of soiled waste matter in city with introduction, definition of waste matter, meaning of management of waste matter, management system of waste matter, current condition in the country, collect and transportation of waste matter disposal liquid waste matter, industrial waste matter like plastic, waste gas sludge, pulp and sulfuric acid, recycling technology of waste matter such as recycling system of Black clawson, Monroe and Rome.

  13. Particle number emissions of gasoline hybrid electric vehicles; Partikelanzahl-Emission bei Hybridfahrzeugen mit Ottomotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Scott [Horiba Instruments Inc., Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) are commonly reputed to be environmentally friendly. Different studies show that this assumption raises some questions in terms of particle number emissions. Against the background that upcoming emission standards will not only limit particle matter emissions but also particle number emissions for gasoline engines, the exhaust behaviour of downsized gasoline engines used in HEV should be investigated more extensively. A Horiba study compares the particle number emissions of a gasoline vehicle to those of a gasoline powered HEV. (orig.)

  14. Light and heavy dark matter particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, C.; Fayet, P.; Silk, J.

    2004-01-01

    It has recently been pointed out that the 511 keV emission line detected by integral/SPI from the bulge of our galaxy could be explained by annihilations of light dark matter particles into e + e - . If such a signature is confirmed, then one might expect a conflict with the interpretation of very high energy gamma rays if they also turn out to be due to dark matter annihilations. Here, we propose a way to accommodate the existence of both signals being produced by dark matter annihilations through the existence of two stable (neutral) dark matter particles, as is possible in theories inspired from N=2 supersymmetry

  15. First Evidence of an Important Organic Matter Trophic Pathway between Temperate Corals and Pelagic Microbial Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J A Fonvielle

    Full Text Available Mucus, i.e., particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM, DOM released by corals, acts as an important energy carrier in tropical ecosystems, but little is known on its ecological role in temperate environments. This study assessed POM and DOM production by the temperate coral Cladocora caespitosa under different environmental conditions. The subsequent enzymatic degradation, growth of prokaryotes and virus-like particles (VLPs as well as changes in the structure of the prokaryotic communities were also monitored. C. caespitosa produced an important quantity of mucus, which varied according to the environmental conditions (from 37.8 to 67.75 nmol carbon h-1 cm-2, but remained higher or comparable to productions observed in tropical corals. It has an important nutritional value, as highlighted by the high content in dissolved nitrogen (50% to 90% of the organic matter released. Organic matter was rapidly degraded by prokaryotes' enzymatic activities, and due to its nitrogen content, aminopeptidase activity was 500 fold higher than the α-glucosidase activity. Prokaryotes, as well as VLPs, presented a rapid growth in the mucus, with prokaryote production rates as high as 0.31 μg h-1 L-1. Changes in bacterial and archaeal communities were observed in the ageing mucus and between mucus and the water column, suggesting a clear impact of mucus on microorganism diversity. Overall, our results show that the organic matter released by temperate corals, such as C. caespitosa, which can form reef structures in the Mediterranean Sea, stimulates microbial activity and thereby functions as a significant carbon and nitrogen supplier to the microbial loop.

  16. Quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csernai, L.; Kampert, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    Precisely one decade ago the GSI (Darmstadt)/LBL (Berkeley) Collaboration at the Berkeley Bevalac reported clear evidence for collective sidewards flow in high energy heavy ion collisions. This milestone observation clearly displayed the compression and heating up of nuclear matter, providing new insights into how the behaviour of nuclear matter changes under very different conditions. This year, evidence for azimuthally asymmetric transverse flow at ten times higher projectile energy (11 GeV per nucleon gold on gold collisions) was presented by the Brookhaven E877 collaboration at the recent European Research Conference on ''Physics of High Energy Heavy Ion Collisions'', held in Helsinki from 17-22 June

  17. Carbon emissions and income inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravallion, M.; Heil, M.; Jalan, J.

    2000-01-01

    We find that the distribution of income matters to aggregate carbon dioxide emissions and hence global warming. Higher inequality, both between and within countries is associated with lower carbon emissions at given average incomes. We also confirm that economic growth generally comes with higher emissions. Thus our results suggest that trade-offs exist between climate control (on the one hand) and both social equity and economic growth (on the other). However, economic growth improves the trade off with equity, and lower inequality improves the trade off with growth. By combining growth with equity, more pro-poor growth processes yield better longer-term trajectories of carbon emissions. (Author)

  18. Pyrogenic organic matter accumulation after density and particle size fractionation of burnt Cambisol using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, María; Knicker, Heike

    2017-04-01

    Fires lead to formation of the pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) which is quickly incorporated into the soil. The charring process involves chemical alterations of the litter material, where biologically available structures are transferred into aromatic polymers, such as black carbon (BC) and black nitrogen (BN). In order to reveal the medium term fate of BC and BN in soils, the top 5 cm of A horizons from unburnt, single and double burnt Cambisols of the Sierra de Aznalcóllar (Southern Spain) were collected 7 year after an intense fire and separated according to their density and their size (Golchin et al., 1994; Sohi et al., 2001). The density fractionation yielded in the free (fPOM), occluded particulate organic matter (oPOM) and the mineral-association organic fraction (MAF) and was performed using a sodium polytungstate solution with a density of 1.8 g cm-3. The MAF was further separated into the sand (2 mm to 63 μm) and coarse silt (63 to 20 μm) and fine fraction (solid-state 13C and 15N NMR spectroscopy. The 13C and 15N NMR spectra of all fPOM and oPOM fractions are dominated by signals assignable to O-alkyl C followed by resonance lines of alkyl C. The spectra indicate that fPOM is mainly composed of undecomposed plant debris whereas oPOM is rich in unsubstituted-aliphatic material. The lack of intensity in the chemical shift region from 160 to140 ppm in the spectra of the small size fractions reveals the absence of lignin residues. This, their low C/N ratios and the clear 13C-signal attributed to carboxylic C allows the conclusion that this fraction mainly composed of microbial residues. Former studies evidenced that aromaticity of the burnt bulk soil decreased with elapsing time after the fire. The present investigation revealed that most of the remaining aromatic C accumulated in the POM fractions, which is in contrast to other studies showing a preferential recovery of BC in the fine particle size fractions. Possibly, the poor interaction between Py

  19. A more holistic understanding of soil organic matter pools of alpine and pre-alpine grassland soils in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Franco, Noelia; Wiesmeier, Martin; Kiese, Ralf; Dannenmann, Michael; Wolf, Benjamin; Brandhuber, Robert; Beck, Robert; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2016-04-01

    In southern Germany, the alpine and pre-alpine grassland systems (> 1 Mio ha) provide an important economic value via fodder used for milk and meat production and grassland soils support environmental key functions (C and N storage, water retention, erosion control and biodiversity hot spot). In addition, these grassland soils constitute important regions for tourism and recreation. However, the different land use and management practices in this area introduce changes which are likely to accelerate due to climate change. The newly launched SUPSALPS project within the BonaRes Initiative of the German Ministry for Education and Research is focused on the development and evaluation of innovative grassland management strategies under climate change with an emphasis on soil functions, which are on the one hand environmental sustainable and on the other hand economically viable. Several field experiments of the project will be initialized in order to evaluate grassland soil functioning for a range of current and climate adapted management practices. A multi-factorial design combines ongoing and new plant-soil meso-/macrocosm and field studies at a multitude of existing long-term research sites along an elevation gradient in Bavaria. One of the specific objectives of the project is to improve our knowledge on the sensitivity of specific soil organic matter (SOM) fractions to climate change. Moreover, the project aims to determine the processes and mechanisms involved in the build-up and stabilization of C and N pools under different management practices. In order to derive sensitive SOM pools, a promising physical fractionation method was developed that enables the separation of five different SOM fractions by density, ultrasonication and sieving separation: fine particulate organic matter (fPOM), occluded particulate organic matter (oPOM>20μm and oPOM 20 μm; medium + fine silt and clay, management changes.

  20. Galactic signatures of decaying dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Le; Sigl, Guenter

    2009-05-01

    If dark matter decays into electrons and positrons, it can affect Galactic radio emissions and the local cosmic ray fluxes. We propose a new, more general analysis of constraints on dark matter. The constraints can be obtained for any decaying dark matter model by convolving the specific dark matter decay spectrum with a response function. We derive this response function from full-sky radio surveys at 408 MHz, 1.42 GHz and 23 GHz, as well as from the positron flux recently reported by PAMELA. We discuss the influence of astrophysical uncertainties on the response function, such as from propagation and from the profiles of the dark matter and the Galactic magnetic field. As an application, we find that some widely used dark matter decay scenarios can be ruled out under modest assumptions. (orig.)

  1. Galactic signatures of decaying dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Le; Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Redondo, Javier [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    If dark matter decays into electrons and positrons, it can affect Galactic radio emissions and the local cosmic ray fluxes. We propose a new, more general analysis of constraints on dark matter. The constraints can be obtained for any decaying dark matter model by convolving the specific dark matter decay spectrum with a response function. We derive this response function from full-sky radio surveys at 408 MHz, 1.42 GHz and 23 GHz, as well as from the positron flux recently reported by PAMELA. We discuss the influence of astrophysical uncertainties on the response function, such as from propagation and from the profiles of the dark matter and the Galactic magnetic field. As an application, we find that some widely used dark matter decay scenarios can be ruled out under modest assumptions. (orig.)

  2. Media Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Pötzsch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution maps materialist advances in media studies. Based on the assumption that matter and materiality constitute significant aspects of communication processes and practices, I introduce four fields of inquiry - technology, political economy, ecology, and the body - and argue that these perspectives enable a more comprehensive understanding of the implications of contemporary technologically afforded forms of interaction. The article shows how each perspective can balance apologetic and apocalyptic approaches to the impact of in particular digital technologies, before it demonstrates the applicability of an integrated framework with reference to the techno-politics of NSA surveillance and the counter-practices of WikiLeaks.

  3. Play Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart (Vila), Miguel Angel

    ? In Play Matters, Miguel Sicart argues that to play is to be in the world; playing is a form of understanding what surrounds us and a way of engaging with others. Play goes beyond games; it is a mode of being human. We play games, but we also play with toys, on playgrounds, with technologies and design......, but not necessarily fun. Play can be dangerous, addictive, and destructive. Along the way, Sicart considers playfulness, the capacity to use play outside the context of play; toys, the materialization of play--instruments but also play pals; playgrounds, play spaces that enable all kinds of play; beauty...

  4. Estructura de tallas, madurez gonádica y alimentación del pez Diapterus rhombeus (Gerreidae) en el sistema fluvio-deltaico Pom-Atasta, Campeche, México

    OpenAIRE

    Arturo Aguirre-León; Silvia Díaz-Ruiz

    2006-01-01

    Se estudió el pez D. rhombeus en el sistema fluviodeltaico Pom-Atasta, asociado a la Laguna de Términos Campeche, en un ciclo anual de 1992 a 1993. Esta especie es dominante en el sistema por su abundancia numérica, peso, frecuencia y amplia distribución. Se obtuvieron 745 individuos con un peso total de 2 890.2 g y un intervalo de longitud total de 3.0 a 16.7 cm. La variación anual del coeficiente alométrico b fue de 2.71 a 3.45. El factor de condición varió de 0.711 a 0.934. Fueron obtenida...

  5. Internal tide—shelf topography interactions as a forcing factor governing the large-scale distribution and burial fluxes of particulate organic matter (POM) in the Benguela upwelling system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Monteiro, PMS

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available are at the inner and outer shelf break zones, respectively. The moorings at stations 2 and 3 were lost. P.M.S. Monteiro et al. / Continental Shelf Research 25 (2005) 1864–18761866 respectively (Fig. 1b). The deepest mooring at station 5 had a current meter only... 20001227 20010103 Dat m the d 5) P.M.S. Monteiro et al. / Continental Shelf Research 25 (2005) 1864–1876 1867 Temperature at Mooring 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 20001004 20001011 20001018 20001025 20001101 20001108 20001115...

  6. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, NH3, particulate matter, heavy metals, PCDD/F, HCB and PAH. The CO2 emission in 2011...... of decreased emissions from large power plants and waste incineration plants. The combustion of wood in residential plants has increased considerably until 2007 resulting in increased emission of PAH and particulate matter. The emission of NMVOC has increased since 1990 as a result of both the increased...... combustion of wood in residential plants and the increased emission from lean-burn gas engines. The PCDD/F emission decreased since 1990 due to flue gas cleaning on waste incineration plants....

  7. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, NH3, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins, HCB and PAH. The CO2 emission in 2008...... incineration plants. The combustion of wood in residential plants has increased considerably in recent years resulting in increased emission of PAH, particulate matter and CO. The emission of NMVOC has increased since 1990 as a result of both the increased combustion of wood in residential plants...... and the increased emission from lean-burn gas engines. The dioxin emission decreased since 1990 due to flue gas cleaning on waste incineration plants. However in recent years the emission has increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential plants....

  8. Danish emission inventories for stationary combustion plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt

    Emission inventories for stationary combustion plants are presented and the methodologies and assumptions used for the inventories are described. The pollutants considered are SO2, NOx, NMVOC, CH4, CO, CO2, N2O, particulate matter, heavy metals, dioxins, HCB and PAH. The CO2 emission in 2007 was 10...... incineration plants. The combustion of wood in residential plants has increased considerably in recent years resulting in increased emission of PAH, particulate matter and CO. The emission of NMVOC has increased since 1990 as a result of both the increased combustion of wood in residential plants...... and the increased emission from lean-burn gas engines. The dioxin emission decreased since 1990 due to flue gas cleaning on waste incineration plants. However in recent years the emission has increased as a result of the increased combustion of wood in residential plants....

  9. Modelling the interaction of high energy ions with inert matter, living matter, and moving matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuve, Michael

    2007-01-01

    In this report for accreditation to supervise research (HDR), the author proposes a synthetic (and however relatively detailed) overview of his research works in the fields of physics and radiology. The first part addresses works in the field of interaction between ions and inert matter (Monte Carlo simulation of emission induced by ion-solid interaction, simulation by molecular dynamics of pulverization). The second part addresses the interaction between ions and living matter: research strategy, principle of the Local Effect Model (LEM) and influence of its main parameters, LEM experimental assessment, LEM theoretical analysis, role of the cell oxidizing and anti-oxidizing system. The next part addresses the interaction of ions with moving matter: research strategy, lung mechanics modelling and clinical assessments, chest wall mechanics, transformation of movements simulated in 4D scanner imagery

  10. Marginal Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hecke, Martin

    2013-03-01

    All around us, things are falling apart. The foam on our cappuccinos appears solid, but gentle stirring irreversibly changes its shape. Skin, a biological fiber network, is firm when you pinch it, but soft under light touch. Sand mimics a solid when we walk on the beach but a liquid when we pour it out of our shoes. Crucially, a marginal point separates the rigid or jammed state from the mechanical vacuum (freely flowing) state - at their marginal points, soft materials are neither solid nor liquid. Here I will show how the marginal point gives birth to a third sector of soft matter physics: intrinsically nonlinear mechanics. I will illustrate this with shock waves in weakly compressed granular media, the nonlinear rheology of foams, and the nonlinear mechanics of weakly connected elastic networks.

  11. Particulate matter (PM 2.5 levels in ETS emissions of a Marlboro Red cigarette in comparison to the 3R4F reference cigarette under open- and closed-door condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Potential health damage by environmental emission of tobacco smoke (environmental tobacco smoke, ETS has been demonstrated convincingly in numerous studies. People, especially children, are still exposed to ETS in the small space of private cars. Although major amounts of toxic compounds from ETS are likely transported into the distal lung via particulate matter (PM, few studies have quantified the amount of PM in ETS. Study aim The aim of this study was to determine the ETS-dependent concentration of PM from both a 3R4F reference cigarette (RC as well as a Marlboro Red brand cigarette (MRC in a small enclosed space under different conditions of ventilation to model car exposure. Method In order to create ETS reproducibly, an emitter (ETSE was constructed and mounted on to an outdoor telephone booth with an inner volume of 1.75 m3. Cigarettes were smoked under open- and closed-door condition to imitate different ventilation scenarios. PM2.5 concentration was quantified by a laser aerosol spectrometer (Grimm; Model 1.109, and data were adjusted for baseline values. Simultaneously indoor and outdoor climate parameters were recorded. The time of smoking was divided into the ETS generation phase (subset “emission” and a declining phase of PM concentration (subset “elimination”; measurement was terminated after 10 min. For all three time periods the average concentration of PM2.5 (Cmean-PM2.5 and the area under the PM2.5 concentration curve (AUC-PM2.5 was calculated. The maximum concentration (Cmax-PM2.5 was taken from the total interval. Results For both cigarette types open-door ventilation reduced the AUC-PM2.5 (RC: from 59 400 ± 14 600 to 5 550 ± 3 900 μg*sec/m3; MRC: from 86 500 ± 32 000 to 7 300 ± 2 400 μg*sec/m3; p mean-PM2.5 (RC: from 600 ± 150 to 56 ± 40 μg/m3, MRC from 870 ± 320 to 75 ± 25 μg/m3; p max-PM2.5 was reduced by about 80% (RC: from 1 050 ± 230 to

  12. Ordinary Dark Matter versus Mysterious Dark Matter in Galactic Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, C. F.; Feng, James

    2008-04-01

    To theoretically describe the measured rotational velocity curves of spiral galaxies, there are two different approaches and conclusions. (1) ORDINARY DARK MATTER. We assume Newtonian gravity/dynamics and successfully find (via computer) mass distributions in bulge/disk configurations that duplicate the measured rotational velocities. There is ordinary dark matter within the galactic disk towards the cooler periphery which has lower emissivity/opacity. There are no mysteries in this scenario based on verified physics. (2) MYSTERIOUS DARK MATTER. Others INaccurately assume the galactic mass distributions follow the measured light distributions, and then the measured rotational velocity curves are NOT duplicated. To alleviate this discrepancy, speculations are invoked re ``Massive Peripheral Spherical Halos of Mysterious Dark Matter.'' But NO matter has been detected in this UNtenable Halo configuration. Many UNverified ``Mysteries'' are invoked as necessary and convenient. CONCLUSION. The first approach utilizing Newtonian gravity/dynamics and searching for the ordinary mass distributions within the galactic disk simulates reality and agrees with data.

  13. Revealing dark matter substructure with anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background

    OpenAIRE

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of gamma-ray emission from Galactic dark matter annihilation is likely to be detected as a contribution to the diffuse gamma-ray background. I show that dark matter substructure in the halo of the Galaxy induces characteristic anisotropies in the diffuse background that could be used to determine the small-scale dark matter distribution. I calculate the angular power spectrum of the emission from dark matter substructure for several models of the subhalo population, and show that...

  14. Did LIGO Detect Dark Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Simeon; Cholis, Ilias; Muñoz, Julian B; Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Kamionkowski, Marc; Kovetz, Ely D; Raccanelli, Alvise; Riess, Adam G

    2016-05-20

    We consider the possibility that the black-hole (BH) binary detected by LIGO may be a signature of dark matter. Interestingly enough, there remains a window for masses 20M_{⊙}≲M_{bh}≲100M_{⊙} where primordial black holes (PBHs) may constitute the dark matter. If two BHs in a galactic halo pass sufficiently close, they radiate enough energy in gravitational waves to become gravitationally bound. The bound BHs will rapidly spiral inward due to the emission of gravitational radiation and ultimately will merge. Uncertainties in the rate for such events arise from our imprecise knowledge of the phase-space structure of galactic halos on the smallest scales. Still, reasonable estimates span a range that overlaps the 2-53  Gpc^{-3} yr^{-1} rate estimated from GW150914, thus raising the possibility that LIGO has detected PBH dark matter. PBH mergers are likely to be distributed spatially more like dark matter than luminous matter and have neither optical nor neutrino counterparts. They may be distinguished from mergers of BHs from more traditional astrophysical sources through the observed mass spectrum, their high ellipticities, or their stochastic gravitational wave background. Next-generation experiments will be invaluable in performing these tests.

  15. Emissions Trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Backhaus, Juergen

    2014-01-01

    Emissions trading is a market-based instrument to achieve environmental targets in a cost-effective way by allowing legal entities to buy and sell emission rights. The current international dissemination and intended linking of emissions trading schemes underlines the growing relevance of this

  16. Input related microbial carbon dynamic of soil organic matter in particle size fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, A.; Kandeler, E.; Gleixner, G.

    2012-04-01

    This paper investigated the flow of carbon into different groups of soil microorganisms isolated from different particle size fractions. Two agricultural sites of contrasting organic matter input were compared. Both soils had been submitted to vegetation change from C3 (Rye/Wheat) to C4 (Maize) plants, 25 and 45 years ago. Soil carbon was separated into one fast-degrading particulate organic matter fraction (POM) and one slow-degrading organo-mineral fraction (OMF). The structure of the soil microbial community were investigated using phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA), and turnover of single PLFAs was calculated from the changes in their 13C content. Soil enzyme activities involved in the degradation of carbohydrates was determined using fluorogenic MUF (methyl-umbelliferryl phosphate) substrates. We found that fresh organic matter input drives soil organic matter dynamic. Higher annual input of fresh organic matter resulted in a higher amount of fungal biomass in the POM-fraction and shorter mean residence times. Fungal activity therefore seems essential for the decomposition and incorporation of organic matter input into the soil. As a consequence, limited litter input changed especially the fungal community favouring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Altogether, supply and availability of fresh plant carbon changed the distribution of microbial biomass, the microbial community structure and enzyme activities and resulted in different priming of soil organic matter. Most interestingly we found that only at low input the OMF fraction had significantly higher calculated MRT for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria suggesting high recycling of soil carbon or the use of other carbon sources. But on average all microbial groups had nearly similar carbon uptake rates in all fractions and both soils, which contrasted the turnover times of bulk carbon. Hereby the microbial carbon turnover was always faster than the soil organic carbon turnover and higher carbon input

  17. Atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Coupled With Point Measurement Air Quality Samplers to Measure Fine Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions From Agricultural Operations: The Los Banos CA Fall 2007 Tillage Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne particles, especially fine particulate matter 2.5 micrometers (μm) or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), are microscopic solids or liquid droplets that can cause serious health problems, including increased respiratory symptoms such as coughing or difficulty breathing...

  18. Strange Hadronic Matter in a Chiral Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-Liang; SONG Hong-Qiu; WANG Ping; SU Ru-Keng

    2000-01-01

    The strange hadronic matter with nucleon, Λ-hyperon and E-hyperon is studied by using a chiral symmetry model in a mean-field approximation. The saturation properties and stabilities of the strange hadronic matter are discussed. The result indicates a quite large strangeness fraction (fs) region where the strange hadronic matter is stable against particle emission. In the large fs region, the component dominates, resulting in a deep minimum in the curve of the binding energy per baryon EB versus the strangeness fraction fs with (EB, fs) -~ (-26.0MeV, 1.23).

  19. Vector dark matter annihilation with internal bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambhaniya, Gulab, E-mail: gulab@prl.res.in [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India); Kumar, Jason, E-mail: jkumar@hawaii.edu [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Marfatia, Danny, E-mail: dmarf8@hawaii.edu [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Nayak, Alekha C., E-mail: acnayak@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India); Tomar, Gaurav, E-mail: tomar@prl.res.in [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India)

    2017-03-10

    We consider scenarios in which the annihilation of self-conjugate spin-1 dark matter to a Standard Model fermion–antifermion final state is chirality suppressed, but where this suppression can be lifted by the emission of an additional photon via internal bremsstrahlung. We find that this scenario can only arise if the initial dark matter state is polarized, which can occur in the context of self-interacting dark matter. In particular, this is possible if the dark matter pair forms a bound state that decays to its ground state before the constituents annihilate. We show that the shape of the resulting photon spectrum is the same as for self-conjugate spin-0 and spin-1/2 dark matter, but the normalization is less heavily suppressed in the limit of heavy mediators.

  20. Global Particulate Matter Source Apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamancusa, C.; Wagstrom, K.

    2017-12-01

    As our global society develops and grows it is necessary to better understand the impacts and nuances of atmospheric chemistry, in particular those associated with atmospheric particulate matter. We have developed a source apportionment scheme for the GEOS-Chem global atmospheric chemical transport model. While these approaches have existed for several years in regional chemical transport models, the Global Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (GPSAT) represents the first incorporation into a global chemical transport model. GPSAT runs in parallel to a standard GEOS-Chem run. GPSAT uses the fact that all molecules of a given species have the same probability of undergoing any given process as a core principle. This allows GPSAT to track many different species using only the flux information provided by GEOS-Chem's many processes. GPSAT accounts for the change in source specific concentrations as a result of aqueous and gas-phase chemistry, horizontal and vertical transport, condensation and evaporation on particulate matter, emissions, and wet and dry deposition. By using fluxes, GPSAT minimizes computational cost by circumventing the computationally costly chemistry and transport solvers. GPSAT will allow researchers to address many pertinent research questions about global particulate matter including the global impact of emissions from different source regions and the climate impacts from different source types and regions. For this first application of GPSAT, we investigate the contribution of the twenty largest urban areas worldwide to global particulate matter concentrations. The species investigated include: ammonium, nitrates, sulfates, and the secondary organic aerosols formed by the oxidation of benzene, isoprene, and terpenes. While GPSAT is not yet publically available, we will incorporate it into a future standard release of GEOS-Chem so that all GEOS-Chem users will have access to this new tool.

  1. Emission Facilities - Air Emission Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Represents the Primary Facility type Air Emission Plant (AEP) point features. Air Emissions Plant is a DEP primary facility type related to the Air Quality Program....

  2. Baryonic matter and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We summarize recent developments in identifying the ground state of dense baryonic matter and beyond. The topics include deconfinement from baryonic matter to quark matter, a diquark mixture, topological effect coupled with chirality and density, and inhomogeneous chiral condensates.

  3. Emission inventory; Inventaire des emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontelle, J.P. [CITEPA, Centre Interprofessionnel Technique d`Etudes de la Pollution Atmospherique, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    Statistics on air pollutant (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and ammonium) emissions, acid equivalent emissions and their evolution since 1990 in the various countries of Europe and the USA, are presented. Emission data from the industrial, agricultural, transportation and power sectors are given, and comparisons are carried out between countries based on Gnp and population, pollution import/export fluxes and compliance to the previous emission reduction objectives

  4. Characteristics of sedimentary organic matter in coastal and depositional areas in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winogradow, A.; Pempkowiak, J.

    2018-05-01

    As organic matter (OM) is readily mineralized to carbon dioxide (Smith and Hollibangh, 1993; Emerson and Hedges, 2002; Szymczycha et al., 2017) it has a direct link to the carbon dioxide abundance in seawater and an indirect influence on the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere (Emerson and Hedges, 2002; Schulz and Zabel, 2006). OM is a quantitatively minor yet important component of seawater. OM in seawater can originate from internal sources (marine, or planktonic, or autochthonous OM) or external sources (terrestrial, or allochtonous OM) (Maksymowska et al., 2000; Emerson and Hedges, 2002; Turnewitsch et al., 2007; Arndt et al., 2013). It is commonly divided into two fractions: dissolved (DOM) and particulate (POM). Organic carbon (OC) is, most often, used as a measure of OM.

  5. Front Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HLRC Editor

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher Learning Research Communications (HLRC, ISSN: 2157-6254 [Online] is published collaboratively by Walden University (USA, Universidad Andrés Bello (Chile, Universidad Europea de Madrid (Spain and Istanbul Bilgi University (Turkey. Written communication to HLRC should be addressed to the office of the Executive Director at Laureate Education, Inc. 701 Brickell Ave Ste. 1700, Miami, FL 33131, USA. HLRC is designed for open access and online distribution through www.hlrcjournal.com. The views and statements expressed in this journal do not necessarily reflect the views of Laureate Education, Inc. or any of its affiliates (collectively “Laureate”. Laureate does not warrant the accuracy, reliability, currency or completeness of those views or statements and does not accept any legal liability arising from any reliance on the views, statements and subject matter of the journal. Acknowledgements The Guest Editors gratefully acknowledge the substantial contribution of the readers for the blind peer review of essays submitted for this special issue as exemplars of individuals from around the world who have come together in a collective endeavor for the common good: Robert Bringle (Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, US, Linda Buckley (University of the Pacific, US, Guillermo Calleja (Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Spain, Eva Egron-Polak (International Association of Universities, France, Heather Friesen (Abu Dhabi University, UAE, Saran Gill (National University of Malaysia, Malaysia, Chester Haskell (higher education consultant, US, Kanokkarn Kaewnuch (National Institute for Development Administration, Thailand, Gil Latz (Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, US, Molly Lee (higher education consultant, Malaysia, Deane Neubauer (East-West Center at University of Hawaii, US, Susan Sutton (Bryn Mawr College, US, Francis Wambalaba (United States International University, Kenya, and Richard Winn (higher education

  6. EMISSIONS CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESIDENTIAL PELLET BOILER AND A STOVE

    OpenAIRE

    Win, Kaung Myat; Persson, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Gaseous and particulate emissions from a residential pellet boiler and a stove are measured at a realistic 6-day operation sequence and during steady state operation. The aim is to characterize the emissions during each phase in order to identify when the major part of the emissions occur to enable actions for emission reduction where the savings can be highest. The characterized emissions comprised carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), total organic carbon (TOC) and particulate matter (...

  7. Estimation of Turkish road transport emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soylu, Seref

    2007-01-01

    Using the COPERT III program, an inventory of Turkish road transport emissions was calculated and the contributions of road transport to global and local air pollutant emissions were examined for the year 2004. It was observed that passenger cars are the main source of CO, HC, and Pb emissions while heavy duty vehicles are mainly responsible for NO x , particulate matter (PM), and SO 2 emissions. Taking the emissions for the year 2004 as the baseline, a parametric study was conducted to determine the emission reduction potentials of different road transport strategies. The results indicated that the following road transport strategies; fleet renewal, promotion of public transportation, and faster urban traffic speed are very effective strategies for reducing regulated emissions and fuel consumption (FC) from a technical point of view. It was also noted that replacement of two-stroke motorcycles with four-stroke motorcycles is as effective as fleet renewal in reducing HC emissions

  8. Stable isotopes of bulk organic matter to trace carbon and nitrogen dynamics in an estuarine ecosystem in Babitonga Bay (Santa Catarina, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Grace Virginia; Martinelli, Luiz Antonio; Oliveira Novais, Therezinha M.; Ometto, Jean Pierre H.B.; Zuppi, Gian Maria

    2010-01-01

    The biogeochemical processes affecting the transport and cycling of terrestrial organic carbon in coastal and transition areas are still not fully understood. One means of distinguishing between the sources of organic materials contributing to particulate organic matter (POM) in Babitonga Bay waters and sediments is by the direct measurement of δ 13 C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and δ 13 C and δ 15 N in the organic constituents. An isotopic survey was taken from samples collected in the Bay in late spring of 2004. The results indicate that the δ 13 C and δ 15 N compositions of OM varied from - 21.7 per mille to - 26.2 per mille and from + 9.2 per mille to - 0.1 per mille , respectively. δ 13 C from DIC ranges from + 0.04 per mille to - 12.7 per mille . The difference in the isotope compositions enables the determination of three distinct end-members: terrestrial, marine and urban. Moreover, the evaluation of source contribution to the particulate organic matter (POM) in the Bay, enables assessment of the anthropogenic impact. Comparing the depleted values of δ 13 C DIC and δ 13 C POC it is possible to further understand the carbon dynamic within Babitonga Bay.

  9. Nitrogen Alters Initial Growth, Fine-Root Biomass and Soil Organic Matter Properties of a Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden Plantation in a Recently Afforested Grassland in Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel W. D. Ferreira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N fertilization effects on Eucalyptus growth and soil carbon (C stocks are still controversial. We set up an N fertilization experiment in southern Brazil to evaluate initial tree growth and changes in soil organic matter (SOM. Four N levels (24–Reference, 36, 48 and 108 kg ha−1 of N were tested and tree growth was assessed during the first two years. Afterwards, representative trees were chosen to evaluate fine-root biomass (FRB and its spatial distribution. Soil was sampled to a 40-cm depth and SOM was fractionated in Particulate (POM and Mineral-Associated Organic Matter (MAOM for C and N content, and δ13C determination. Positive N effect on tree growth was seen only for tree height. N addition resulted in higher FRB. Changes in SOM were more expressive in top-soil layers. Overall, afforestation had positive effects on soil C. Increasing reference N dose resulted in higher C and N content in both SOM fractions. C and N dynamics were tightly correlated, especially in MAOM. Eucalypt-derived C was on average three-fold higher in POM. In summary, we showed that N fertilization may have positive but limited effects on tree growth, nevertheless it enhances fine-root biomass and C and N accumulation in SOM pools.

  10. White matter abnormalities of microstructure and physiological noise in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Hu; Newman, Sharlene D.; Kent, Jerillyn S.; Bolbecker, Amanda; Klaunig, Mallory J.; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Puce, Aina; Hetrick, William P.

    2015-01-01

    White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia have been revealed by many imaging techniques and analysis methods. One of the findings by diffusion tensor imaging is a decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA), which is an indicator of white matter integrity. On the other hand, elevation of metabolic rate in white matter was observed from positron emission tomography (PET) studies. In this report, we aim to compare the two structural and functional effects on the same subjects. Our comparison is ba...

  11. In Vitro Antifungal, Anticancer Activities and POM Analyses of a Novel Bioactive Schiff Base 4-(((E)-furan-2-ylmethylidene)amino)p-henol: Synthesis, Characterization and Crystal Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighadouni, S.; Radi, S.; Sirajuddin, M.; Akkurt, M.; Ozdemir, N.; Mabkhot, Y. N.; Hadda, T. B.

    2016-01-01

    The title compound (1), C/sub 11/H/sub 9/NO/sub 2/, was synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, /sup 13/C NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and single crystal analysis. It was crystallized in a monoclinic system with a space group P21/n. The dihedral angle between the planes of furan and benzene ring is 21.24 (11)Degree. The torsion angle of bridge C-C-N-C is -177.81(15) Degree. The crystal structure is stabilized by intermolecular hydrogen bonds between O-H-N and C-H-O forming a three dimensional network. The synthesized compound was screened for the in vitro antifungal against the Fusarium oxysporum f.sp albedinis FAO fungal strains and showed good activity. It was also tested for the anticancer activities against breast (MDA-MB231) and colorectal (LOVO) cancer cell lines and exhibited IC50 values of 6.9 μg/mL and 14.6 μg/mL, respectively. POM calculations of molecular properties of 1 are in good agreement with the mode of antifungal action of the compound bearing (XδYδ) pharmacophore site. Also it shows a drug score of 43 percent which is an important parameter for the compound possessing the drug character. (author)

  12. Conducting compositions of matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides conductive compositions of matter, as well as methods for the preparation of the conductive compositions of matter, solutions comprising the conductive compositions of matter, and methods of preparing fibers or fabrics having improved anti-static properties employing the conductive compositions of matter.

  13. Condensed elementary particle matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajantie, K.

    1996-01-01

    Quark matter is a special case of condensed elementary particle matter, matter governed by the laws of particle physics. The talk discusses how far one can get in the study of particle matter by reducing the problem to computations based on the action. As an example the computation of the phase diagram of electroweak matter is presented. It is quite possible that ultimately an antireductionist attitude will prevail: experiments will reveal unpredicted phenomena not obviously reducible to the study of the action. (orig.)

  14. Physical and Human Controls on the Carbon Composition of Organic Matter in Tropical Rivers: An Integrated Analysis of Landscape Properties and River Isotopic Composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballester, M. V.R.; Victoria, R. L.; Krusche, A. V. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Piracicaba (Brazil); Bernardes, M. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Neill, C.; Deegan, L. [Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Richey, J. E. [University of Washington, Seatle, WA (United States)

    2013-05-15

    We applied an integrated analysis of landscape properties including soil properties, land cover and riverine isotopic composition. To evaluate physical and human controls on the carbon composition of organic matter in tropical rivers, we applied an integrated analysis of landscape properties including soil properties, land cover and riverine isotopic composition. Our main objective was to establish the relationship between basin attributes and forms, fluxes and composition of dissolved and particulate organic matter in river channels. A physical template was developed as a GIS-based comprehensive tool to support the understanding of the biogeochemistry of the surface waters of two tropical rivers: the Ji-Parana (Western Amazonia) and the Piracicaba (southeastern of Brazil). For each river we divided the basin into drainage units, organized according to river network morphology and degree of land use impact. Each sector corresponded to a sampling point where river isotopic composition was analysed. River sites and basin characteristics were calculated using datasets compiled as layers in ArcGis Geographical Information System and ERDAS-IMAGINE (Image Processing) software. Each delineated drainage area was individually characterized in terms of topography, soils, river network and land use. Carbon stable isotopic composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and particulate organic matter (POM) was determined at several sites along the main tributaries and small streams. The effects of land use on fluvial carbon composition were quantified by a linear regression analysis, relating basin cover and river isotopic composition. The results showed that relatively recent land cover changes have already had an impact on the composition of the riverine DOM and POM, indicating that, as in natural ecosystems, vegetation plays a key role in the composition of riverine organic matter in agricultural ecosystems. (author)

  15. Transport and Breakdown of Organic Matter in Urban and Forested Streams: The Effects of Altered Hydrology and Landscape Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, K. T.; Swan, C. M.; Pouyat, R. V.; Kaushal, S.; Groffman, P. M.; Stack, W. P.; Fisher, G. T.

    2006-05-01

    A better understanding of how urbanization and trees interact to alter organic matter transport and cycling is needed to assess retention in catchments and streams, as well as to estimate the magnitude of carbon fluxes to the atmosphere and to downstream aquatic ecosystems. The influx of particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM/DOC) to headwater streams normally originates within or near riparian areas, and is important to aquatic food webs in stream ecosystems. Urban catchments, however, have huge effective drainage densities (due to storm drainage infrastructure), which facilitate a POM/DOC "gutter subsidy" to streams that dwarfs riparian inputs and alters benthic litter quality (and represents a major short-circuit in the carbon vegetation-soil cycle.) We measured in-situ leaf litter breakdown rates, flows, DOC, BOD and nutrients in forested, suburban and urban streams of the BES LTER and Baltimore City DPW sampling networks, which encompassed a variety of urban and rural landscapes. Sycamore and Planetree leaf litter in-situ experiments revealed faster breakdown rates for suburban and urban landscape litter than for riparian litter, with rates being much faster than literature values for forested catchments. DOC, BOD and nutrient data (storm and dry weather) from BES/DPW stream sites showed much higher concentrations and loads in the more urbanized catchments and indicate the streams are likely heterotrophic and experience transient but high dissolved oxygen demands. High nutrient concentrations, faster litter breakdown rates, and substantially higher upland urban fluxes of organic matter (particulate and dissolved) in urban streams suggest that export rates are likely substantially higher than in forested systems and that carbon loads to both downstream aquatic systems and to the atmosphere (as CO2) are substantial.

  16. GRANULOMETRIC AND HUMIC FRACTIONS CARBON STOCKS OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER UNDER NO-TILLAGE SYSTEM IN UBERABA, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gervasio Pereira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The cover plant use preceding grain crops in Cerrado soil can increase the carbon stocks of chemical and physical fractions of soil organic matter (SOM. The present study aimed to quantify the carbon stocks of SOM granulometric and humic fractions in a Cerrado area under no-tillage system with different cover plant, and compare the results with those from conventional tillage and fallow areas, in Uberaba, MG, Brazil. The implemented cover crops were: millet, tropical grass and sunn hemp. Furthermore, an area was used in fallow and another as a control area (conventional tillage. After cover crop removal, the areas were subdivided for the corn and soybean plantation. Soil samples were collected in the 0.0-0.025, 0.025-0.05, 0.05-0.10 and 0.10-0.20 m depths, with posterior quantification of total organic carbon (TOC levels and chemical and granulometric fractionation of SOM. Humic acid carbon (C-HAF, fulvic acids (C-FAF and humin (C-HUM were quantified through these fractionations. The granulometric fractions consisted in particulate organic matter (POM and mineral organic matter (MOM. Using the carbon levels for each fraction, the respective stocks for each depth were calculated, including the 0.0-0.20 m layer. In the 0.0-0.20 m layer, TOC had the highest stocks for the millet area. The highest POM stocks were found for the corn plantation over sunn hemp and the fallow and soybean area over millet and tropical grass (0.0-0.20 m. In relation to the MOM stocks, the highest values were observed in the areas with millet, sunn hemp and tropical (palisade grass, all superior to those found in the conventional tillage and fallow areas, independent of evaluated culture (0.10-0.20 m. The highest C-HUM stocks were observed in the area with tropical grass (0.025-0.05 m and areas with tropical grass and sunn hemp (0.10-0.20 m, when compared to conventional tillage, independent of evaluated culture (corn and soybean. The highest C-FAH stocks in the depth of 0

  17. Emissions from laboratory combustion of wildland fuels: Emission factors and source profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.-W. Anthony Chen; Hans Moosmuller; W. Patrick Arnott; Judith C. Chow; John G. Watson; Ronald A. Susott; Ronald E. Babbitt; Cyle E. Wold; Emily N. Lincoln; Wei Min Hao

    2007-01-01

    Combustion of wildland fuels represents a major source of particulate matter (PM) and light-absorbing elemental carbon (EC) on a national and global scale, but the emission factors and source profiles have not been well characterized with respect to different fuels and combustion phases. These uncertainties limit the accuracy of current emission inventories, smoke...

  18. Quark nugget dark matter: Comparison with radio observations of nearby galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, K., E-mail: klawson@phas.ubc.ca; Zhitnitsky, A.R.

    2016-06-10

    It has been recently claimed that radio observations of nearby spiral galaxies essentially rule out a dark matter source for the galactic haze [1]. Here we consider the low energy thermal emission from a quark nugget dark matter model in the context of microwave emission from the galactic centre and radio observations of nearby Milky Way like galaxies. We demonstrate that observed emission levels do not strongly constrain this specific dark matter candidate across a broad range of the allowed parameter space in drastic contrast with conventional dark matter models based on the WIMP paradigm.

  19. Soil organic matter studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A total of 77 papers were presented and discussed during this symposium, 37 are included in this Volume II. The topics covered in this volume include: biochemical transformation of organic matter in soils; bitumens in soil organic matter; characterization of humic acids; carbon dating of organic matter in soils; use of modern techniques in soil organic matter research; use of municipal sludge with special reference to heavy metals constituents, soil nitrogen, and physical and chemical properties of soils; relationship of soil organic matter and plant metabolism; interaction between agrochemicals and organic matter; and peat. Separate entries have been prepared for those 20 papers which discuss the use of nuclear techniques in these studies

  20. Benthic response to the sedimentation of particulate organic matter at the BIOTRANS station, 47°N, 20°W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuche, O.

    The benthic response to the sedimentation of particulate organic matter (POM) was investigated during 1985-1990 at 47°N, 20°W (BIOTRANS station). The first noticeable annual sedimentation of phytodetritus, as indicated by chlorophyll a concentrations in the sediment, occurred as early as late April-early May. Maximum amounts were found in June-July. Two different sedimentation pulses to the sea bed are described that demonstrate interannual variation: the occurrence of salp faecal pellets early in the year 1988 and the massive fall out of a plankton bloom in summer 1986, which deposited approximately 15 mmol C m -2. The benthic reaction to POM pulses was quite diverse. The mega-, macro- and meiobenthos showed no change in biomass, whereas bacterial biomass doubled between March and July. This corresponds to a seasonal maximum of total adenylate biomass. The relative abundance of Foraminifera among the meiobenthos increased during the summer. Benthic activity (ATP, ratio ATP/ETSA), as well as in situ sediment community oxygen consumption rates (SCOC), showed distinct seasonal maxima in July-August of 0.75 mmol C m -2 day -1. Based on SCOC and the carbon demand for growth, a benthic carbon consumption of 0.94 mmol C m -2 day -1 was estimated. This represents about 1.1% of spring bloom primary production and 9.6% of the export flux beneath the 150 m layer, measured during the North Atlantic Bloom Experiment. Bacteria and protozoans colonizing the epibenthic phytodetrital layer were responsible for 60-80% of the seasonal increase in SCOC. The strong reaction of the smaller benthic size groups (bacteria, protozoans) to POM pulses stresses their particular importance for sediment-water interface flux rates.

  1. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10% and 30% moisture content on a wet basis) in a forced-draft fan stove, and (iv) wood in a natural-draft rocket cookstove. LPG combustion had the highest thermal efficiency (~57%) and the lowest PAH emissions per unit fuel energy, resulting in the lowest PAH emissions per useful energy delivered (MJd). The average benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) emission factor for LPG was 0.842 µg/MJd; the emission rate was 0.043 µg/min. The highest PAH emissions were from wood burning in the natural-draft stove (209-700 µg B[a]P/MJd). PAH emissions from kerosene were significantly lower than those from the wood burning in the natural-draft cookstove, but higher than those from LPG. It is expected that in rural regions where LPG and kerosene are unavailable or unaffordable, the forced-draft fan stove may be an alternative because its emission factor (5.17-8.07 µg B[a]P/MJd) and emission rate (0.52-0.57 µg/min) are similar to kerosene (5.36 µg B[a]P/MJd and 0.45 µg/min). Compared with wood combustion emissions, LPG stoves emit less total PAH emissions and less fractions of high molecular weight PAHs. Relatively large variations in PAH emissions from LPG call for additional future tests to identify the major

  2. Power station stack gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunwick, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    There are increasing awareness and pressure to reduce emissions of acid rain and photochemical smog. There is a need to produce new control system and equipment to capture those emissions. The most visible form of pollutions are the chimney smoke, dust and particles of fly ash from mineral matter in the fuel. Acid gases are hard on structures and objects containing limestone. Coal fired power generation is likely to be able to sustain its competitive advantage as a clean source of electricity in comparison with nuclear power and natural gas

  3. Reducing emissions from diesel combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper contains information dealing with engine design to reduce emissions and improve or maintain fuel economy. Topics include: Observation of High Pressure Fuel Spray with Laser Light Sheet Method; Determination of Engine Cylinder Pressures from Crankshaft Speed Fluctuations; Combustion Similarity for Different Size Diesel Engines: Theoretical Prediction and Experimental Results; Prediction of Diesel Engine Particulate Emission During Transient Cycles; Characteristics and Combustibility of Particulate Matter; Dual-Fuel Diesel Engine Using Butane; Measurement of Flame Temperature Distribution in D.I. Diesel Engine with High Pressure Fuel Injection: and Combustion in a Small DI Diesel Engine at Starting

  4. Radiotracers in the study of marine food chains. The use of compartmental analysis and analog modelling in measuring utilization rates of particulate organic matter by benthic invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gremare, A.; Amouroux, J.M.; Charles, F.

    1991-01-01

    The present study assesses the problem of recycling when using radiotracers to quantify ingestion and assimilation rates of particulate organic matter by benthic invertebrates. The rapid production of dissolved organic matter and its subsequent utilization by benthic invertebrates constitutes a major bias in this kind of study. However recycling processes may also concern POM through the production and reingestion of faeces. The present paper shows that compartmental analysis of the diffusion kinetics of the radiotracer between the different compartments of the system studied and the analog modelling of the exchanges of radioactivity between compartments may be used in order to determine ingestion and assimilation rates. This method is illustrated by the study of a system composed of the bacteria Lactobacillus sp. and the filter-feeding bivalve Venerupis decussata. The advantages and drawbacks of this approach relative to other existing methods are briefly discussed. (Author)

  5. Nutrient variations and isotopic evidences of particulate organic matter provenance in fringing reefs, South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Di; Cao, Wenzhi; Liang, Ying; Huang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient over-enrichment is considered to be one of the causes of coral decline. Increase in traditional fishing in the Xuwen National Coral Reefs Reserve tract (XW) and tourism around the Sanya National Coral Reefs Reserve tract (SY) are causing this coral decline. This study reviews the current state of knowledge of the nutrient status of coastal fringing reefs in South China and evaluates the primary sources of nutrients using stable isotope method. Surveys of seawater nutrients showed that the seawater remained clean in both the XW and SY coastal coral reef areas. Based on the isotopic differences between anthropogenic sewage and naturally occurring aquatic nutrients, the isotopic values of particulate organic matter (POM) and the C/N ratios were successfully used to identify the presence of anthropogenic nutrients in aquatic environments. The δ"1"3C, δ"1"5N and C/N compositions of POM from XW and SY (− 21.18 ± 2.11‰, 10.30 ± 5.54‰, and 5.35 ± 0.69 and − 20.80 ± 1.34‰, 7.06 ± 3.95‰, and 5.77 ± 2.15, respectively) showed statistically significant variations with the season. The δ"1"3C and δ"1"5N values of POM suggest marine and terrestrial-derived nutrient sources. Organic carbon is a mixture of marine phytoplankton, marine benthic algae and terrestrial-derived plants. The δ"1"5N values suggest terrestrial-derived sewage and upwelling-dominated nitrogen sources. In the presence of natural upwelling and coastal currents, coastal coral reef areas are more vulnerable to the increasing anthropogenic nutrient inputs. Anthropogenic activities might lead to large increases in the nutrient concentrations and could trigger the shift from coral- to macroalgae-dominated ecosystems, which would ultimately result in the degradation of the coastal coral reef ecosystem. These results provide some understanding of the declining coral reef ecosystem and the importance of conservation areas and coastal coral reef resource management. - Highlights: • The

  6. Nutrient variations and isotopic evidences of particulate organic matter provenance in fringing reefs, South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Di; Cao, Wenzhi, E-mail: wzcao@xmu.edu.cn; Liang, Ying; Huang, Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Nutrient over-enrichment is considered to be one of the causes of coral decline. Increase in traditional fishing in the Xuwen National Coral Reefs Reserve tract (XW) and tourism around the Sanya National Coral Reefs Reserve tract (SY) are causing this coral decline. This study reviews the current state of knowledge of the nutrient status of coastal fringing reefs in South China and evaluates the primary sources of nutrients using stable isotope method. Surveys of seawater nutrients showed that the seawater remained clean in both the XW and SY coastal coral reef areas. Based on the isotopic differences between anthropogenic sewage and naturally occurring aquatic nutrients, the isotopic values of particulate organic matter (POM) and the C/N ratios were successfully used to identify the presence of anthropogenic nutrients in aquatic environments. The δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N and C/N compositions of POM from XW and SY (− 21.18 ± 2.11‰, 10.30 ± 5.54‰, and 5.35 ± 0.69 and − 20.80 ± 1.34‰, 7.06 ± 3.95‰, and 5.77 ± 2.15, respectively) showed statistically significant variations with the season. The δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of POM suggest marine and terrestrial-derived nutrient sources. Organic carbon is a mixture of marine phytoplankton, marine benthic algae and terrestrial-derived plants. The δ{sup 15}N values suggest terrestrial-derived sewage and upwelling-dominated nitrogen sources. In the presence of natural upwelling and coastal currents, coastal coral reef areas are more vulnerable to the increasing anthropogenic nutrient inputs. Anthropogenic activities might lead to large increases in the nutrient concentrations and could trigger the shift from coral- to macroalgae-dominated ecosystems, which would ultimately result in the degradation of the coastal coral reef ecosystem. These results provide some understanding of the declining coral reef ecosystem and the importance of conservation areas and coastal coral reef resource management

  7. Fate of lignin, cutin and suberin in soil organic matter fractions - an incubation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Carsten W.; Mueller, Kevin E.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Ingrid, Kögel-Knabner

    2010-05-01

    The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) is controlled by its chemical composition, its spatial accessibility and the association with the mineral phase. Separation of bulk soils by physical fractionation and subsequent chemical analysis of these fractions should give insights to how compositional differences in SOM drive turnover rates of different size-defined carbon pools. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the relative abundance and recalcitrance of lignin, cutin and suberin in aggregated bulk soils and SOM fractions in the course of SOM decomposition. Bulk soils and physically-separated size fractions (sand, silt and clay) of the Ah horizon of a forest soil (under Picea abies L.Karst) were parallel incubated over a period of one year. In order to differentiate between particulate OM (POM) and mineral-associated SOM the particle size fractions were additionally separated by density after the incubation experiment. We used solid-state 13C-CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and GC-MS (after copper oxide oxidation and solvent extraction) to analyze the composition of the incubated samples. The abundance and isotopic composition (including 13C and 14C) of the respired CO2 further enabled us to monitor the dynamics of SOM mineralization. This approach allowed for differentiating between C stabilization of soil fractions due to accessibility/aggregation and to biochemical recalcitrance at different scales of resolution (GC-MS, NMR). We found a relative enrichment of alkyl C and decreasing lignin contents in the order of sand particulate OM (POM). For the fresh particulate OM (POM) of the sand fraction a clear decay of lignin was observed in the course of the incubation experiment, indicated by decreasing C/V and increasing ac/alV ratios. A relative decrease of aliphatic C in the incubated fractions compared to the incubated bulk soils showed the preferential mineralization of less recalcitrant C compounds that were spatially inaccessible in aggregates of the bulk

  8. IMPROVING EMISSION INVENTORIES FOR EFFECTIVE AIR-QUALITY MANAGMENT ACROSS NORTH AMERICA - A NARSTO ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NARSTO Ozone and Particulate Matter Assessments emphasized that emission inventories are critical to the success of air quality management programs and that emissions inventories in Canada, Mexico, and the United States need improvement to meet expectations for quality, timel...

  9. Baryonic Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    In the first two of these lectures, I present the evidence for baryonic dark matter and describe possible forms that it may take. The final lecture discusses formation of baryonic dark matter, and sets the cosmological context.

  10. Grammar of the matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the author describes the structure of the matter and presents the families of elementary particles (fermions) and the interaction messengers (bosons) with their properties. He presents the actual status and future trends of research on nuclear matter

  11. Dark matter detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, G.

    1995-01-01

    A fundamental question of astrophysics and cosmology is the nature of dark matter. Astrophysical observations show clearly the existence of some kind of dark matter, though they cannot yet reveal its nature. Dark matter can consist of baryonic particles, or of other (known or unknown) elementary particles. Baryonic dark matter probably exists in the form of dust, gas, or small stars. Other elementary particles constituting the dark matter can possibly be measured in terrestrial experiments. Possibilities for dark matter particles are neutrinos, axions and weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). While a direct detection of relic neutrinos seems at the moment impossible, there are experiments looking for baryonic dark matter in the form of Massive Compact Halo Objects, and for particle dark matter in the form of axions and WIMPS. (orig.)

  12. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Costantini, Maria; Van Erp, Annemoon; Shaikh, Rashid; Bailey, Brent; Tennant, Chris; Khalek, Imad; Mauderly, Joe; McDonald, Jacob; Zielinska, Barbara; Bemis, Jeffrey; Storey, John; Hallberg, Lance; Clark, Nigel

    2013-12-31

    The objective of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was to determine before widespread commercial deployment whether or not the new, energy-efficient, heavy duty diesel engines (2007 and 2010 EPA Emissions Standards Compliant) may generate anticipated toxic emissions that could adversely affect the environment and human health. ACES was planned to take place in three phases. In Phase 1, extensive emissions characterization of four production-intent prototype engine and control systems designed to meet 2007 standards for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was conducted at an existing emissions characterization facility: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). One of the tested engines was selected (at random, after careful comparison of results) for health testing in Phase 3. In Phase 2, extensive emission characterization of three production-intent prototype engine and control systems meeting the 2010 standards (including more advanced NOx controls to meet the more stringent 2010 NOx standards) was conducted at the same test facility. In Phase 3, one engine/aftertreatment system selected from Phase 1 was further characterized during health effects studies (at an existing inhalation toxicology laboratory: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, [LRRI]) to form the basis of the ACES safety assessment. The Department of Energy (DOE) award provided funding for emissions characterization in Phases 1 and 2 as well as exposure characterization in Phase 3. The main health analyses in Phase 3 were funded separately and are not reported here.

  13. Dence Cold Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavinskiy Alexey

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Possible way to create dense cold baryonic matter in the laboratory is discussed. The density of this matter is comparable or even larger than the density of neutron star core. The properties of this matter can be controlled by trigger conditions. Experimental program for the study of properties of dense cold matter for light and heavy ion collisions at initial energy range √sNN~2-3GeV is proposed..

  14. Dark Matter Effective Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Del Nobile, Eugenio; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We organize the effective (self)interaction terms for complex scalar dark matter candidates which are either an isosinglet, isodoublet or an isotriplet with respect to the weak interactions. The classification has been performed ordering the operators in inverse powers of the dark matter cutoff...... scale. We assume Lorentz invariance, color and charge neutrality. We also introduce potentially interesting dark matter induced flavor-changing operators. Our general framework allows for model independent investigations of dark matter properties....

  15. Cosmic ray-dark matter scattering: a new signature of (asymmetric) dark matter in the gamma ray sky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profumo, Stefano; Ubaldi, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    We consider the process of scattering of Galactic cosmic-ray electrons and protons off of dark matter with the radiation of a final-state photon. This process provides a novel way to search for Galactic dark matter with gamma rays. We argue that for a generic weakly interacting massive particle, barring effects such as co-annihilation or a velocity-dependent cross section, the gamma-ray emission from cosmic-ray scattering off of dark matter is typically smaller than that from dark matter pair-annihilation. However, if dark matter particles cannot pair-annihilate, as is the case for example in asymmetric dark matter scenarios, cosmic-ray scattering with final state photon emission provides a unique window to detect a signal from dark matter with gamma rays. We estimate the expected flux level and its spectral features for a generic supersymmetric setup, and we also discuss dipolar and luminous dark matter. We show that in some cases the gamma-ray emission might be large enough to be detectable with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

  16. Condensed Matter Nuclear Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biberian, Jean-Paul

    2006-02-01

    into characteristics of X-ray emission laser beams from solidstate cathode medium of high-current glow discharge / A. B. Karabut. Charged particles from Ti and Pd foils / L. Kowalski ... [et al.]. Cr-39 track detectors in cold fusion experiments: review and perspectives / A. S. Roussetski. Energetic particle shower in the vapor from electrolysis / R. A. Oriani and J. C. Fisher. Nuclear reactions produced in an operating electrolysis cell / R. A. Oriani and J. C. Fisher. Evidence of microscopic ball lightning in cold fusion experiments / E. H. Lewis. Neutron emission from D[symbol] gas in magnetic fields under low temperature / T. Mizuno ... [et al.]. Energetic charged particle emission from hydrogen-loaded Pd and Ti cathodes and its enhancement by He-4 implantation / A. G. Lipson ... [et al.]. H-D permeation. Observation of nuclear transmutation reactions induced by D[symbol] gas permeation through Pd complexes / Y. Iwamura ... [et al.]. Deuterium (hydrogen) flux permeating through palladium and condensed matter nuclear science / Q. M. Wei ... [et al.]. Triggering. Precursors and the fusion reactions in polarized Pd/D-D[symbol]O system: effect of an external electric field / S. Szpak, P. A. Mosier-Boss, and F. E. Gordon. Calorimetric and neutron diagnostics of liquids during laser irradiation / Yu. N. Bazhutov ... [et al.]. Anomalous neutron capture and plastic deformation of Cu and Pd cathodes during electrolysis in a weak thermalized neutron field: evidence of nuclei-lattice exchange / A. G. Lipson and G. H. Miley. H-D loading. An overview of experimental studies on H/Pd over-loading with thin Pd wires and different electrolytic solutions / A. Spallone ... [et al.] -- 3. Transmutations. Photon and particle emission, heat production, and surface transformation in Ni-H system / E. Campari ... [et al.]. Surface analysis of hydrogen-loaded nickel alloys / E. Campari ... [et al.]. Low-energy nuclear reactions and the leptonic monopole / G. Lochak and L. Urutskoev. Results

  17. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may he elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should ma be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.

  18. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.J.; Chung, D.J.; Kolb, E.W.; Kolb, E.W.; Riotto, A.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may be elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should not be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  19. Nonthermal Supermassive Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    We discuss several cosmological production mechanisms for nonthermal supermassive dark matter and argue that dark matter may be elementary particles of mass much greater than the weak scale. Searches for dark matter should not be limited to weakly interacting particles with mass of the order of the weak scale, but should extend into the supermassive range as well.

  20. Matter and Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2011-01-01

    In Matter and Energy, readers will learn about the many forms of energy, the wide variety of particles in nature, and Albert Einstein's world-changing realization of how matter can be changed into pure energy. The book also examines the recent discoveries of dark matter and dark energy and the future of the universe.

  1. The PolicyRelevance of WearEmissions fromRoad Transport,Nowand in the Future-An InternationalWorkshop Report and Consensus Statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Gerlofs-Nijland, M.E.; Gehrig, R.; Gustafsson, M.; Janssen, N.; Harrison, R.M.; Hulskotte, J.; Johansson, C.; Jozwicka, M.; Keuken, M.; Krijgsheld, K.; Ntziachristos, L.; Riediker, M.; Cassee, F.R.

    2013-01-01

    Road transport emissions are a major contributor to ambient particulate matter concentrations and have been associated with adverse health effects. Therefore, these emissions are targeted through increasingly stringent European emission standards. These policies succeed in reducing exhaust

  2. Secretly asymmetric dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Kilic, Can; Swaminathan, Sivaramakrishnan; Trendafilova, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    We study a mechanism where the dark matter number density today arises from asymmetries generated in the dark sector in the early Universe, even though the total dark matter number remains zero throughout the history of the Universe. The dark matter population today can be completely symmetric, with annihilation rates above those expected from thermal weakly interacting massive particles. We give a simple example of this mechanism using a benchmark model of flavored dark matter. We discuss the experimental signatures of this setup, which arise mainly from the sector that annihilates the symmetric component of dark matter.

  3. Dark Matter Caustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, Aravind

    2010-01-01

    The continuous infall of dark matter with low velocity dispersion in galactic halos leads to the formation of high density structures called caustics. Dark matter caustics are of two kinds : outer and inner. Outer caustics are thin spherical shells surrounding galaxies while inner caustics have a more complicated structure that depends on the dark matter angular momentum distribution. The presence of a dark matter caustic in the plane of the galaxy modifies the gas density in its neighborhood which may lead to observable effects. Caustics are also relevant to direct and indirect dark matter searches.

  4. Dark Matter Searches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, Shigetaka

    2008-01-01

    Recent cosmological as well as historical observations of rotational curves of galaxies strongly suggest the existence of dark matter. It is also widely believed that dark matter consists of unknown elementary particles. However, astrophysical observations based on gravitational effects alone do not provide sufficient information on the properties of dark matter. In this study, the status of dark matter searches is investigated by observing high-energy neutrinos from the sun and the earth and by observing nuclear recoils in laboratory targets. The successful detection of dark matter by these methods facilitates systematic studies of its properties. Finally, the XMASS experiment, which is due to start at the Kamioka Observatory, is introduced

  5. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  6. Impeded Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Slatyer, Tracy R. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Wang, Xiao-Ping [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics,Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 7, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Xue, Wei [Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-12

    We consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario “Impeded Dark Matter”. We demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  7. Impeded Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Slatyer, Tracy R.; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Xue, Wei

    2016-01-01

    We consider dark matter models in which the mass splitting between the dark matter particles and their annihilation products is tiny. Compared to the previously proposed Forbidden Dark Matter scenario, the mass splittings we consider are much smaller, and are allowed to be either positive or negative. To emphasize this modification, we dub our scenario “Impeded Dark Matter”. We demonstrate that Impeded Dark Matter can be easily realized without requiring tuning of model parameters. For negative mass splitting, we demonstrate that the annihilation cross-section for Impeded Dark Matter depends linearly on the dark matter velocity or may even be kinematically forbidden, making this scenario almost insensitive to constraints from the cosmic microwave background and from observations of dwarf galaxies. Accordingly, it may be possible for Impeded Dark Matter to yield observable signals in clusters or the Galactic center, with no corresponding signal in dwarfs. For positive mass splitting, we show that the annihilation cross-section is suppressed by the small mass splitting, which helps light dark matter to survive increasingly stringent constraints from indirect searches. As specific realizations for Impeded Dark Matter, we introduce a model of vector dark matter from a hidden SU(2) sector, and a composite dark matter scenario based on a QCD-like dark sector.

  8. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-02

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  9. Collapsed Dark Matter Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Matthew R.; DiFranzo, Anthony

    2018-02-01

    The distributions of dark matter and baryons in the Universe are known to be very different: The dark matter resides in extended halos, while a significant fraction of the baryons have radiated away much of their initial energy and fallen deep into the potential wells. This difference in morphology leads to the widely held conclusion that dark matter cannot cool and collapse on any scale. We revisit this assumption and show that a simple model where dark matter is charged under a "dark electromagnetism" can allow dark matter to form gravitationally collapsed objects with characteristic mass scales much smaller than that of a Milky-Way-type galaxy. Though the majority of the dark matter in spiral galaxies would remain in the halo, such a model opens the possibility that galaxies and their associated dark matter play host to a significant number of collapsed substructures. The observational signatures of such structures are not well explored but potentially interesting.

  10. Sterile neutrino dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Merle, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    This book is a new look at one of the hottest topics in contemporary science, Dark Matter. It is the pioneering text dedicated to sterile neutrinos as candidate particles for Dark Matter, challenging some of the standard assumptions which may be true for some Dark Matter candidates but not for all. So, this can be seen either as an introduction to a specialized topic or an out-of-the-box introduction to the field of Dark Matter in general. No matter if you are a theoretical particle physicist, an observational astronomer, or a ground based experimentalist, no matter if you are a grad student or an active researcher, you can benefit from this text, for a simple reason: a non-standard candidate for Dark Matter can teach you a lot about what we truly know about our standard picture of how the Universe works.

  11. Bremsstrahlung from relativistic heavy ions in matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan Hvidkjær

    2010-01-01

    The emission of electromagnetic radiation by relativistic bare heavy ions penetrating ordinary matter is investigated. Our main aim is to determine the bremsstrahlung which we define as the radiation emitted when the projectile does not break up. It pertains to collisions without nuclear contact....... As a result of its relative softness, bremsstrahlung never dominates the energy-loss process for heavy ions. As to the emission of electromagnetic radiation in collisions with nuclear break-up, it appears modest when pertaining to incoherent action of the projectile nucleons in noncontact collisions...

  12. Influence of combustion air guidance on solid matter burnout and on pollutant emissions in grid incinerators; Einfluss der Verbrennungsluftfuehrung auf den Feststoffabbrand und auf das Schadstoffverhalten bei der Hausmuellverbrennung auf dem Rost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsinger, H.; Seifert, H. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie

    2003-07-01

    The contribution investigates the influence of combustion air guidance strategies on process optimisation. In particular, it is investigated if efficient burnout correlates with low pollutant emissions and if the effects are similar or contrary for the different process goals. (orig.) [German] Der Einfluss von Brennstoffqualitaeten, der Ofengeometrie sowie von Feuerungsbetriebsparametern auf die Bildungsraten von Schadstoffen wie PCDD/F und NO{sub x} und auf die Transferraten von Schwermetallen, Chlor- und Schwefelverbindungen aus dem Brennstoffbett ins Rauchgas ist zur Zeit nur ungenuegend bekannt. Besonders die Frage, wie die primaere Forderung nach moeglichst vollstaendigem Ausbrand von Rauchgas und Rostasche mit weiteren Zielen wie niedrige Bildungsraten von Schadstoffen und Inertisierung der Rostasche korreliert, zeigt den Bedarf umfassender systematischer Untersuchungen auf. Im Rahmen dieses Beitrags soll als Beispiel fuer Modifikationen des Verbrennungsprozesses der Einfluss unterschiedlicher Verbrennungsluftfuehrungen auf die aufgefuehrten Optimierungsziele vorgestellt werden. Insbesondere soll der Frage nachgegangen werden, ob ein effizienter Ausbrand mit niedrigen Schadstoffbildungsraten korreliert und ob zwischen den Zielgroessen gleiche oder kontraere Wirkungen auftreten. (orig.)

  13. Acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straus, A.; Lopez Pumarega, M.I.; Di Gaetano, J.O.; D'Atellis, C.E.; Ruzzante, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is related to our activities on acoustic emission (A.E.). The work is made with different materials: metals and fibre reinforced plastics. At present, acoustic emission transducers are being developed for low and high temperature. A test to detect electrical discharges in electrical transformers was performed. Our experience in industrial tests to detect cracks or failures in tanks or tubes is also described. The use of A.E. for leak detection is considered. Works on pattern recognition of A.E. signals are also being performed. (Author)

  14. Response functions of superfluid neutron matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jochen; Sedrakian, Armen [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universitaet, 60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the response of pair-correlated neutron matter under conditions relevant to neutron stars to external weak probes and compute its neutrino emissivity in vector and axialvector channels. To derive the response functions we sum up an infinite chain of particle-hole ladder diagrams within finite-temperature Green's function theory. The polarization tensor of matter is evaluated in the limit of small momentum transfers. The calculated neutrino emission via the weak neutral current processes of pair-breaking and recombination of Cooper-pairs in neutron stars causes a cooling of their baryonic interior, and represents an important mechanism for the thermal evolution of the star within a certain time domain.

  15. Probing Sub-GeV Dark Matter with Conventional Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvaris, Chris; Pradler, Josef

    2017-01-20

    The direct detection of dark matter particles with mass below the GeV scale is hampered by soft nuclear recoil energies and finite detector thresholds. For a given maximum relative velocity, the kinematics of elastic dark matter nucleus scattering sets a principal limit on detectability. Here, we propose to bypass the kinematic limitations by considering the inelastic channel of photon emission from bremsstrahlung in the nuclear recoil. Our proposed method allows us to set the first limits on dark matter below 500 MeV in the plane of dark matter mass and cross section with nucleons. In situations where a dark-matter-electron coupling is suppressed, bremsstrahlung may constitute the only path to probe low-mass dark matter awaiting new detector technologies with lowered recoil energy thresholds.

  16. Probing Sub-GeV Dark Matter with Conventional Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, Chris; Pradler, Josef

    2017-01-01

    The direct detection of dark matter particles with mass below the GeV scale is hampered by soft nuclear recoil energies and finite detector thresholds. For a given maximum relative velocity, the kinematics of elastic dark matter nucleus scattering sets a principal limit on detectability. Here, we...... propose to bypass the kinematic limitations by considering the inelastic channel of photon emission from bremsstrahlung in the nuclear recoil. Our proposed method allows us to set the first limits on dark matter below 500 MeV in the plane of dark matter mass and cross section with nucleons. In situations...... where a dark-matter-electron coupling is suppressed, bremsstrahlung may constitute the only path to probe low-mass dark matter awaiting new detector technologies with lowered recoil energy thresholds....

  17. Strategies for dark matter detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.

    1988-01-01

    The present status of alternative forms of dark matter, both baryonic and nonbaryonic, is reviewed. Alternative arguments are presented for the predominance of either cold dark matter (CDM) or of baryonic dark matter (BDM). Strategies are described for dark matter detection, both for dark matter that consists of weakly interacting relic particles and for dark matter that consists of dark stellar remnants

  18. Stars of strange matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethe, H.A.; Brown, G.E.; Cooperstein, J.

    1987-01-01

    We investigate suggestions that quark matter with strangeness per baryon of order unity may be stable. We model this matter at nuclear matter densities as a gas of close packed Λ-particles. From the known mass of the Λ-particle we obtain an estimate of the energy and chemical potential of strange matter at nuclear densities. These are sufficiently high to preclude any phase transition from neutron matter to strange matter in the region near nucleon matter density. Including effects from gluon exchange phenomenologically, we investigate higher densities, consistently making approximations which underestimate the density of transition. In this way we find a transition density ρ tr > or approx.7ρ 0 , where ρ 0 is nuclear matter density. This is not far from the maximum density in the center of the most massive neutron stars that can be constructed. Since we have underestimated ρ tr and still find it to be ∝7ρ 0 , we do not believe that the transition from neutron to quark matter is likely in neutron stars. Moreover, measured masses of observed neutron stars are ≅1.4 M sun , where M sun is the solar mass. For such masses, the central (maximum) density is ρ c 0 . Transition to quark matter is certainly excluded for these densities. (orig.)

  19. Hidden charged dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Tu, Huitzu; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2009-01-01

    Can dark matter be stabilized by charge conservation, just as the electron is in the standard model? We examine the possibility that dark matter is hidden, that is, neutral under all standard model gauge interactions, but charged under an exact (\\rm U)(1) gauge symmetry of the hidden sector. Such candidates are predicted in WIMPless models, supersymmetric models in which hidden dark matter has the desired thermal relic density for a wide range of masses. Hidden charged dark matter has many novel properties not shared by neutral dark matter: (1) bound state formation and Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation after chemical freeze out may reduce its relic density, (2) similar effects greatly enhance dark matter annihilation in protohalos at redshifts of z ∼ 30, (3) Compton scattering off hidden photons delays kinetic decoupling, suppressing small scale structure, and (4) Rutherford scattering makes such dark matter self-interacting and collisional, potentially impacting properties of the Bullet Cluster and the observed morphology of galactic halos. We analyze all of these effects in a WIMPless model in which the hidden sector is a simplified version of the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the dark matter is a hidden sector stau. We find that charged hidden dark matter is viable and consistent with the correct relic density for reasonable model parameters and dark matter masses in the range 1 GeV ∼ X ∼< 10 TeV. At the same time, in the preferred range of parameters, this model predicts cores in the dark matter halos of small galaxies and other halo properties that may be within the reach of future observations. These models therefore provide a viable and well-motivated framework for collisional dark matter with Sommerfeld enhancement, with novel implications for astrophysics and dark matter searches

  20. New relations for graviton-matter amplitudes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    I report on recent progress in finding compact expressions for scattering amplitudes involving gravitons and gluons as well as massive scalar and fermionic matter particles. At tree level the single graviton emission amplitudes may be expressed as linear combination of purely non-gravitational ones. At the one-loop level recent results on all four point Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes with at most one opposite helicity state using unitarity methods are reported. 

  1. Dark matter implications of the WMAP-Planck Haze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Andrey E.; Pierpaoli, Elena; Gaskins, Jennifer M.; Pietrobon, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Gamma rays and microwave observations of the Galactic Center and surrounding areas indicate the presence of anomalous emission, whose origin remains ambiguous. The possibility of dark matter annihilation explaining both signals through prompt emission at gamma rays and secondary emission at microwave frequencies from interactions of high-energy electrons produced in annihilation with the Galactic magnetic fields has attracted much interest in recent years. We investigate the dark matter interpretation of the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess by searching for the associated synchrotron emission in the WMAP and Planck microwave data. Considering various magnetic field and cosmic-ray propagation models, we predict the synchrotron emission due to dark matter annihilation in our Galaxy, and compare it with the WMAP and Planck data at 23–70 GHz. In addition to standard microwave foregrounds, we separately model the microwave counterpart to the Fermi Bubbles and the signal due to dark matter annihilation, and use component separation techniques to extract the signal associated with each template from the total emission. We confirm the presence of the Haze at the level of ≈7% of the total sky intensity at 23 GHz in our chosen region of interest, with a harder spectrum (I ∼ ν −0.8 ) than the synchrotron from regular cosmic-ray electrons. The data do not show a strong preference towards fitting the Haze by either the Bubbles or dark matter emission only. Inclusion of both components provides a better fit with a dark matter contribution to the Haze emission of ≈20% at 23 GHz, however, due to significant uncertainties in foreground modeling, we do not consider this a clear detection of a dark matter signal. We set robust upper limits on the annihilation cross section by ignoring foregrounds, and also report best-fit dark matter annihilation parameters obtained from a complete template analysis. We conclude that the WMAP and Planck data are consistent with a dark

  2. Dark matter implications of the WMAP-Planck Haze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egorov, Andrey E.; Pierpaoli, Elena [University of Southern California, 3620 McClintock Ave., SGM 408, Los Angeles, CA 90089 (United States); Gaskins, Jennifer M. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pietrobon, Davide, E-mail: egorov@usc.edu, E-mail: jgaskins@uva.nl, E-mail: pierpaol@usc.edu, E-mail: daddeptr@gmail.com [University of California, Berkeley, Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Rd, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Gamma rays and microwave observations of the Galactic Center and surrounding areas indicate the presence of anomalous emission, whose origin remains ambiguous. The possibility of dark matter annihilation explaining both signals through prompt emission at gamma rays and secondary emission at microwave frequencies from interactions of high-energy electrons produced in annihilation with the Galactic magnetic fields has attracted much interest in recent years. We investigate the dark matter interpretation of the Galactic Center gamma-ray excess by searching for the associated synchrotron emission in the WMAP and Planck microwave data. Considering various magnetic field and cosmic-ray propagation models, we predict the synchrotron emission due to dark matter annihilation in our Galaxy, and compare it with the WMAP and Planck data at 23–70 GHz. In addition to standard microwave foregrounds, we separately model the microwave counterpart to the Fermi Bubbles and the signal due to dark matter annihilation, and use component separation techniques to extract the signal associated with each template from the total emission. We confirm the presence of the Haze at the level of ≈7% of the total sky intensity at 23 GHz in our chosen region of interest, with a harder spectrum (I ∼ ν{sup −0.8}) than the synchrotron from regular cosmic-ray electrons. The data do not show a strong preference towards fitting the Haze by either the Bubbles or dark matter emission only. Inclusion of both components provides a better fit with a dark matter contribution to the Haze emission of ≈20% at 23 GHz, however, due to significant uncertainties in foreground modeling, we do not consider this a clear detection of a dark matter signal. We set robust upper limits on the annihilation cross section by ignoring foregrounds, and also report best-fit dark matter annihilation parameters obtained from a complete template analysis. We conclude that the WMAP and Planck data are consistent with a

  3. WMAP haze: Directly observing dark matter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, Michael McNeil; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we show that dark matter in the form of dense matter/antimatter nuggets could provide a natural and unified explanation for several distinct bands of diffuse radiation from the core of the Galaxy spanning over 13 orders of magnitude in frequency. We fix all of the phenomenological properties of this model by matching to x-ray observations in the keV band, and then calculate the unambiguously predicted thermal emission in the microwave band, at frequencies smaller by 11 orders of magnitude. Remarkably, the intensity and spectrum of the emitted thermal radiation are consistent with - and could entirely explain - the so-called 'WMAP haze': a diffuse microwave excess observed from the core of our Galaxy by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). This provides another strong constraint of our proposal, and a remarkable nontrivial validation. If correct, our proposal identifies the nature of the dark matter, explains baryogenesis, and provides a means to directly probe the matter distribution in our Galaxy by analyzing several different types of diffuse emissions.

  4. MR imaging and positron emission tomography of cortical heterotopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bairamian, D.; Di Chiro, G.; Theodore, W.H.; Holmes, M.D.; Dorwart, R.H.; Larson, S.M.

    1985-11-01

    Heterotopia of the gray matter is a developmental malformation in which ectopic cortex is found in the white matter of the brain. A case of a 33-year-old man with cortical heterotopia who had a lifelong history of seizures and psychomotor retardation is reported, including the results of cerebral CT, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography using YF-2-deoxyglucose.

  5. MR imaging and positron emission tomography of cortical heterotopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairamian, D.; Di Chiro, G.; Theodore, W.H.; Holmes, M.D.; Dorwart, R.H.; Larson, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Heterotopia of the gray matter is a developmental malformation in which ectopic cortex is found in the white matter of the brain. A case of a 33-year-old man with cortical heterotopia who had a lifelong history of seizures and psychomotor retardation is reported, including the results of cerebral CT, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography using 18 F-2-deoxyglucose

  6. Codecaying Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Jeff Asaf; Kuflik, Eric; Ng, Wee Hao

    2016-11-18

    We propose a new mechanism for thermal dark matter freeze-out, called codecaying dark matter. Multicomponent dark sectors with degenerate particles and out-of-equilibrium decays can codecay to obtain the observed relic density. The dark matter density is exponentially depleted through the decay of nearly degenerate particles rather than from Boltzmann suppression. The relic abundance is set by the dark matter annihilation cross section, which is predicted to be boosted, and the decay rate of the dark sector particles. The mechanism is viable in a broad range of dark matter parameter space, with a robust prediction of an enhanced indirect detection signal. Finally, we present a simple model that realizes codecaying dark matter.

  7. Diseases of white matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    The diagnosis of white matter abnormalities was revolutionized by the advent of computed tomography (CT), which provided a noninvasive method of detection and assessment of progression of a variety of white matter processes. However, the inadequacies of CT were recognized early, including its relative insensitivity to small foci of abnormal myelin in the brain when correlated with autopsy findings and its inability to image directly white matter diseases of the spinal cord. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), on the other hand, sensitive to the slight difference in tissue composition of normal gray and white matter and to subtle increase in water content associated with myelin disorders, is uniquely suited for the examination of white matter pathology. Its clinical applications include the evaluation of the normal process of myelination in childhood and the various white matter diseases, including disorders of demyelination and dysmyelination

  8. Detecting dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Roger L.

    2000-01-01

    Dark matter is one of the most pressing problems in modern cosmology and particle physic research. This talk will motivate the existence of dark matter by reviewing the main experimental evidence for its existence, the rotation curves of galaxies and the motions of galaxies about one another. It will then go on to review the corroborating theoretical motivations before combining all the supporting evidence to explore some of the possibilities for dark matter along with its expected properties. This will lay the ground work for dark matter detection. A number of differing techniques are being developed and used to detect dark matter. These will be briefly discussed before the focus turns to cryogenic detection techniques. Finally, some preliminary results and expectations will be given for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment

  9. Clumpy cold dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Joseph; Stebbins, Albert

    1993-01-01

    A study is conducted of cold dark matter (CDM) models in which clumpiness will inhere, using cosmic strings and textures suited to galaxy formation. CDM clumps of 10 million solar mass/cu pc density are generated at about z(eq) redshift, with a sizable fraction surviving. Observable implications encompass dark matter cores in globular clusters and in galactic nuclei. Results from terrestrial dark matter detection experiments may be affected by clumpiness in the Galactic halo.

  10. Mortalidade do ácaro predador Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae em testes de toxicidade residual de inseticidas e acaricidas usuais em pomáceas Mortality of predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae in residual toxicity persistence tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gustavo Ruiz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os ácaros fitoseídeos, especialmente Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, são importantes agentes de controle biológico de ácaros tetraniquídeos-praga nas culturas de pomáceas no "Alto Valle del Río Negro y Neuquén", Argentina. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a mortalidade de N. californicus quando exposto a resíduos dos inseticidas azimphos-methyl, carbaryl e cyfluthrin, e dos acaricidas cyhexatin e propargite. Os produtos foram aplicados às concentrações recomendadas em plantas de pereira. Um, três, seis e dez dias após a aplicação (DAA, folhas tratadas foram retiradas das plantas para a preparação de unidades experimentais. Cinco adultos de N. californicus, provenientes de criação-estoque, foram transferidos para cada unidade, onde pólen de taboa foi fornecido como alimento. As unidades foram mantidas a 25 ± 2 ºC, 60 ± 10% de umidade relativa e fotoperíodo de 14 h. A mortalidade do ácaro foi avaliada 24 h após o confinamento. As médias de mortalidade foram comparadas pelo teste de Dunnett, a 5% de probabilidade. A progressão do declínio do efeito dos produtos testados foi submetida à análise de regressão. Nas duas primeiras datas de avaliação, todos os produtos apresentaram valores de mortalidade significativamente diferentes da testemunha tratada com água. Seis dias após a aplicação, propargite, cyhexatin e cyfluthrin apresentaram mortalidade de aproximadamente 30%, enquanto a mortalidade nos tratamentos azimphos-methyl e carbaryl apresentou níveis estatisticamente similares aos da testemunha. Dez dias após a aplicação, a mortalidade em todos os tratamentos não diferiu significativamente da testemunha. O efeito de todos os produtos apresentou declínio progressivo ao longo do período de observação, sendo significativa a 1% de probabilidade a regressão linear negativa para os valores obtidos. Os maiores efeitos negativos sobre a sobrevivência de N. californicus corresponderam aos acaricidas testados

  11. 78 FR 11758 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; Restriction of Emission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... amendments to rule 10 CSR 10-6.400 Restriction of Emission of Particulate Matter from Industrial Processes... amend 10 CSR 10-6.400 Restriction of Emission of Particulate Matter from Industrial Processes. EPA has...: Is not a ``significant regulatory action'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget...

  12. Hybrid Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Dark matter can be produced in the early universe via the freeze-in or freeze-out mechanisms. Both scenarios were investigated in references, but the production of dark matters via the combination of these two mechanisms are not addressed. In this paper we propose a hybrid dark matter model where dark matters have two components with one component produced thermally and the other one produced non-thermally. We present for the first time the analytical calculation for the relic abundance of th...

  13. The quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Mannque.

    1980-04-01

    The present status of our understanding of the physics of hadronic (nuclear or neutron) matter under extreme conditions, in particular at high densities is discussed. This is a problem which challenges three disciplines of physics: nuclear physics, astrophysics and particle physics. It is generally believed that we now have a correct and perhaps ultimate theory of the strong interactions, namely quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The constituents of this theory are quarks and gluons, so highly dense matters should be describable in terms of these constituents alone. This is a question that addresses directly to the phenomenon of quark confinement, one of the least understood aspects in particle physics. For nuclear physics, the possibility of a phase change between nuclear matter and quark matter introduces entirely new degrees of freedom in the description of nuclei and will bring perhaps a deeper understanding of nuclear dynamics. In astrophysics, the properties of neutron stars will be properly understood only when the equation of state of 'neutron' matter at densities exceeding that of nuclear matter can be realiably calculated. Most fascinating is the possibility of quark stars existing in nature, not entirely an absurd idea. Finally the quark matter - nuclear matter phase transition must have occured in the early stage of universe when matter expanded from high temperature and density; this could be an essential ingredient in the big-bang cosmology

  14. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  15. Searching for dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Mario

    1994-01-01

    Three teams of astronomers believe they have independently found evidence for dark matter in our galaxy. A brief history of the search for dark matter is presented. The use of microlensing-event observation for spotting dark matter is described. The equipment required to observe microlensing events and three groups working on dark matter detection are discussed. The three groups are the Massive Compact Halo Objects (MACHO) Project team, the Experience de Recherche d'Objets Sombres (EROS) team, and the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) team. The first apparent detections of microlensing events by the three teams are briefly reported.

  16. Isotropic radio background from quark nugget dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, Kyle; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R., E-mail: arz@physics.ubc.ca

    2013-07-09

    Recent measurements by the ARCADE2 experiment unambiguously show an excess in the isotropic radio background at frequencies below the GHz scale. We argue that this excess may be a natural consequence of the interaction of visible and dark matter in the early universe if the dark matter consists of heavy nuggets of quark matter. Explanation of the observed radio band excess requires the introduction of no new parameters, rather we exploit the same dark matter model and identical normalization parameters to those previously used to explain other excesses of diffuse emission from the centre of our galaxy. These previously observed excesses include the WMAP Haze of GHz radiation, keV X-ray emission and MeV gamma-ray radiation.

  17. Isotropic radio background from quark nugget dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, Kyle; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2013-01-01

    Recent measurements by the ARCADE2 experiment unambiguously show an excess in the isotropic radio background at frequencies below the GHz scale. We argue that this excess may be a natural consequence of the interaction of visible and dark matter in the early universe if the dark matter consists of heavy nuggets of quark matter. Explanation of the observed radio band excess requires the introduction of no new parameters, rather we exploit the same dark matter model and identical normalization parameters to those previously used to explain other excesses of diffuse emission from the centre of our galaxy. These previously observed excesses include the WMAP Haze of GHz radiation, keV X-ray emission and MeV gamma-ray radiation

  18. Can rapeseed lower methane emission from heifers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    Twelve heifers were assigned to either a control diet (CON) with 26 g fat per kg dry matter (DM) or a supplemented diet (FAT) with crushed rapeseed with 53 g fat per kg DM. Methane (CH4) emission was measured by open-circuit indirect calorimetry for four days when the heifers weighed approximately...

  19. Chemical composition of wildland fire emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn P. Urbanski; Wei Min Hao; Stephen Baker

    2009-01-01

    Wildland fires are major sources of trace gases and aerosol, and these emissions are believed to significantly influence the chemical composition of the atmosphere and the earth's climate system. The wide variety of pollutants released by wildland fire include greenhouse gases, photochemically reactive compounds, and fine and coarse particulate matter. Through...

  20. Monotonous braking of high energy hadrons in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1979-01-01

    Propagation of high energy hadrons in nuclear matter is discussed. The possibility of the existence of the monotonous energy losses of hadrons in nuclear matter is considered. In favour of this hypothesis experimental facts such as pion-nucleus interactions (proton emission spectra, proton multiplicity distributions in these interactions) and other data are presented. The investigated phenomenon in the framework of the hypothesis is characterized in more detail

  1. Syncrude emissions reduction project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiedler, M.A. [Alstom Power Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States); Ibbotson, P. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper described an emissions reduction project conducted by Syncrude Canada and various other companies currently developing and processing oil sands in Alberta. Syncrude's upgrader expansion program included the installation of an ammonia-based wet flue gas desulfurizer (FGD) designed to remove sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) from a coker train. Syncrude is also installing the FGD technology at its existing plants. It is expected that installation of the FGDs will reduced total site emissions of SO{sub 2} by 60 per cent. The fluid cokers are used to crack the long hydrocarbon chain bitumen molecules into shorter molecules. It is expected that the FGD system will also reduce particulate and SO{sub 3} levels. The FGD system was selected after an evaluation of technologies used by the coal-fired power industry. A dry FGD system was selected to operate above the water saturation temperature of the flue gas. Calcium oxide was used as a reagent. Hot gas was quenched in a spray dryer absorber with a slurry of calcium hydroxide. Rotary atomizers were used to developer uniform droplets of slurry. The system's fabric filter was a low ratio reverse gas-cleaned unit. Particulate matter from the gases was deposited on the interior of the filter bags. Clean hot gas was drawn through reverse gas fans into a reverse gas manifold. A timeline of the FGD technology installation process was included. 3 tabs., 28 figs.

  2. Aerial Sampling of Emissions from Biomass Pile Burns in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5 µm), ...

  3. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ``cold`` and ``hot`` non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ``seeds`` that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  4. Dark matter and cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the {Omega} = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between cold'' and hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed.

  5. Superball dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kusenko, A

    1999-01-01

    Supersymmetric models predict a natural dark-matter candidate, stable baryonic Q-balls. They could be copiously produced in the early Universe as a by-product of the Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. I review the cosmological and astrophysical implications, methods of detection, and the present limits on this form of dark matter.

  6. Baryonic Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    De Paolis, F.; Jetzer, Ph.; Ingrosso, G.; Roncadelli, M.

    1997-01-01

    Reasons supporting the idea that most of the dark matter in galaxies and clusters of galaxies is baryonic are discussed. Moreover, it is argued that most of the dark matter in galactic halos should be in the form of MACHOs and cold molecular clouds.

  7. Dark matter detection - II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The quest for the mysterious missing mass of the universe has become one of the big challenges of today's particle physics and cosmology. Astronomical observations show that only 1% of the matter of the universe is luminous. Moreover there is now convincing evidence that 85% of all gravitationally observable matter in the universe is of a new exotic kind, different from the 'ordinary' matter surrounding us. In a series of three lectures we discuss past, recent and future efforts made world-wide to detect and/or decipher the nature of Dark Matter. In Lecture I we review our present knowledge of the Dark Matter content of the Universe and how experimenters search for it's candidates; In Lecture II we discuss so-called 'direct detection' techniques which allow to search for scattering of galactic dark matter particles with detectors in deep-underground laboratories; we discuss the interpretation of experimental results and the challenges posed by different backgrounds; In Lecture III we take a look at the 'indirect detection' of the annihilation of dark matter candidates in astrophysical objects, such as our sun or the center of the Milky Way; In addition we will have a look at efforts to produce Dark Matter particles directly at accelerators and we shall close with a look at alternative nonparticle searches and future prospects. (author)

  8. Dark matter and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1992-03-01

    The cosmological dark matter problem is reviewed. The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis constraints on the baryon density are compared with the densities implied by visible matter, dark halos, dynamics of clusters, gravitational lenses, large-scale velocity flows, and the Ω = 1 flatness/inflation argument. It is shown that (1) the majority of baryons are dark; and (2) non-baryonic dark matter is probably required on large scales. It is also noted that halo dark matter could be either baryonic or non-baryonic. Descrimination between ''cold'' and ''hot'' non-baryonic candidates is shown to depend on the assumed ''seeds'' that stimulate structure formation. Gaussian density fluctuations, such as those induced by quantum fluctuations, favor cold dark matter, whereas topological defects such as strings, textures or domain walls may work equally or better with hot dark matter. A possible connection between cold dark matter, globular cluster ages and the Hubble constant is mentioned. Recent large-scale structure measurements, coupled with microwave anisotropy limits, are shown to raise some questions for the previously favored density fluctuation picture. Accelerator and underground limits on dark matter candidates are also reviewed

  9. Matter in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Lara B.; Gray, James; Raghuram, Nikhil; Taylor, Washington

    2016-01-01

    We explore a novel type of transition in certain 6D and 4D quantum field theories, in which the matter content of the theory changes while the gauge group and other parts of the spectrum remain invariant. Such transitions can occur, for example, for SU(6) and SU(7) gauge groups, where matter fields in a three-index antisymmetric representation and the fundamental representation are exchanged in the transition for matter in the two-index antisymmetric representation. These matter transitions are realized by passing through superconformal theories at the transition point. We explore these transitions in dual F-theory and heterotic descriptions, where a number of novel features arise. For example, in the heterotic description the relevant 6D SU(7) theories are described by bundles on K3 surfaces where the geometry of the K3 is constrained in addition to the bundle structure. On the F-theory side, non-standard representations such as the three-index antisymmetric representation of SU(N) require Weierstrass models that cannot be realized from the standard SU(N) Tate form. We also briefly describe some other situations, with groups such as Sp(3), SO(12), and SU(3), where analogous matter transitions can occur between different representations. For SU(3), in particular, we find a matter transition between adjoint matter and matter in the symmetric representation, giving an explicit Weierstrass model for the F-theory description of the symmetric representation that complements another recent analogous construction.

  10. CONFERENCE: Quark matter 88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Maurice

    1988-01-01

    The 'Quark Matter' Conference caters for physicists studying nuclear matter under extreme conditions. The hope is that relativistic (high energy) heavy ion collisions allow formation of the long-awaited quark-gluon plasma, where the inter-quark 'colour' force is no longer confined inside nucleon-like dimensions

  11. Dark matter detection - I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The quest for the mysterious missing mass of the universe has become one of the big challenges of today's particle physics and cosmology. Astronomical observations show that only 1% of the matter of the universe is luminous. Moreover there is now convincing evidence that 85% of all gravitationally observable matter in the universe is of a new exotic kind, different from the 'ordinary' matter surrounding us. In a series of three lectures we discuss past, recent and future efforts made world-wide to detect and/or decipher the nature of Dark Matter. In Lecture I we review our present knowledge of the Dark Matter content of the Universe and how experimenters search for it's candidates; In Lecture II we discuss so-called 'direct detection' techniques which allow to search for scattering of galactic dark matter particles with detectors in deep-underground laboratories; we discuss the interpretation of experimental results and the challenges posed by different backgrounds; In Lecture III we take a look at the 'indirect detection' of the annihilation of dark matter candidates in astrophysical objects, such as our sun or the center of the Milky Way; In addition we will have a look at efforts to produce Dark Matter particles directly at accelerators and we shall close with a look at alternative nonparticle searches and future prospects. (author)

  12. Dark matter detection - III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacek, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    The quest for the missing mass of the universe has become one of the big challenges of todays particle physics and cosmology. Astronomical observations show that only 1% of the matter of the Universe is luminous. Moreover there is now convincing evidence that 85% of all gravitationally observable matter in the Universe is of a new exotic kind, different from the 'ordinary' matter surrounding us. In a series of three lectures we discuss past, recent and future efforts made world- wide to detect and/or decipher the nature of Dark Matter. In Lecture I we review our present knowledge of the Dark Matter content of the Universe and how experimenters search for it's candidates; In Lecture II we discuss so-called 'direct detection' techniques which allow to search for scattering of galactic dark matter particles with detectors in deep-underground laboratories; we discuss the interpretation of experimental results and the challenges posed by different backgrounds; In Lecture III we take a look at the 'indirect detection' of the annihilation of dark matter candidates in astrophysical objects, such as our sun or the center of the Milky Way; In addition we will have a look at efforts to produce Dark Matter particles directly at accelerators and we shall close with a look at alternative nonparticle searches and future prospects. (author)

  13. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  14. Asymmetric dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, David E.; Luty, Markus A.; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a simple class of models in which the relic density of dark matter is determined by the baryon asymmetry of the Universe. In these models a B-L asymmetry generated at high temperatures is transferred to the dark matter, which is charged under B-L. The interactions that transfer the asymmetry decouple at temperatures above the dark matter mass, freezing in a dark matter asymmetry of order the baryon asymmetry. This explains the observed relation between the baryon and dark matter densities for the dark matter mass in the range 5-15 GeV. The symmetric component of the dark matter can annihilate efficiently to light pseudoscalar Higgs particles a or via t-channel exchange of new scalar doublets. The first possibility allows for h 0 →aa decays, while the second predicts a light charged Higgs-like scalar decaying to τν. Direct detection can arise from Higgs exchange in the first model or a nonzero magnetic moment in the second. In supersymmetric models, the would-be lightest supersymmetric partner can decay into pairs of dark matter particles plus standard model particles, possibly with displaced vertices.

  15. Emissions from Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) During Real World Driving Under Various Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) and pollutant gas (NOx) is associated with increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Mobile source emissions contribute to PM and NOx emissions significantly in urban areas. Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs)...

  16. Assessing stationary laboratory test methods for underground mining vehicles to determine their suitability in replicating real-world emissions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wattrus, MC

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fuel, engine and after-treatment technologies are powerful levers to reduce diesel particulate matter emissions, however these benefits can only be guaranteed through routine maintenance and equipment monitoring. Portable emissions measurement...

  17. Inelastic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, David; Weiner, Neal

    2001-01-01

    Many observations suggest that much of the matter of the universe is nonbaryonic. Recently, the DAMA NaI dark matter direct detection experiment reported an annual modulation in their event rate consistent with a WIMP relic. However, the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) Ge experiment excludes most of the region preferred by DAMA. We demonstrate that if the dark matter can only scatter by making a transition to a slightly heavier state (Δm∼100 keV), the experiments are no longer in conflict. Moreover, differences in the energy spectrum of nuclear recoil events could distinguish such a scenario from the standard WIMP scenario. Finally, we discuss the sneutrino as a candidate for inelastic dark matter in supersymmetric theories

  18. Baryonic dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uson, Juan M.

    2000-01-01

    Many searches for baryonic dark matter have been conducted but, so far, all have been unsuccessful. Indeed, no more than 1% of the dark matter can be in the form of hydrogen burning stars. It has recently been suggested that most of the baryons in the universe are still in the form of ionized gas so that it is possible that there is no baryonic dark matter. Although it is likely that a significant fraction of the dark matter in the Milky Way is in a halo of non-baryonic matter, the data do not exclude the possibility that a considerable amount, perhaps most of it, could be in a tenuous halo of diffuse ionized gas

  19. Macro Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, David M; Lynn, Bryan W.

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter is a vital component of the current best model of our universe, $\\Lambda$CDM. There are leading candidates for what the dark matter could be (e.g. weakly-interacting massive particles, or axions), but no compelling observational or experimental evidence exists to support these particular candidates, nor any beyond-the-Standard-Model physics that might produce such candidates. This suggests that other dark matter candidates, including ones that might arise in the Standard Model, should receive increased attention. Here we consider a general class of dark matter candidates with characteristic masses and interaction cross-sections characterized in units of grams and cm$^2$, respectively -- we therefore dub these macroscopic objects as Macros. Such dark matter candidates could potentially be assembled out of Standard Model particles (quarks and leptons) in the early universe. A combination of earth-based, astrophysical, and cosmological observations constrain a portion of the Macro parameter space; ho...

  20. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) in fireplaces and conventional appliances is the main contributor to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Denmark and Portugal representing more than 30% of the total emissions [1;2]. Such estimations are uncertain concerning the wood consumption...... and official emission factors, not taking into account actual burning conditions in dwellings [3]. There is limited knowledge on the real-life performance and spatial distribution of existing appliance types. Few studies have been targeting to understand the influence of fuel operation habits on PM2...... the available estimations for Denmark and Portugal, suggesting a methodology to increase the accuracy of activity data and emission factors. This work is based on new studies carried out to quantify the PM2.5 emissions in daily life through field experiments in Danish dwellings and by considering typical...

  1. Fugitive emissions from nanopowder manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trompetter, W. J.; Ancelet, T.; Davy, P. K.; Kennedy, J.

    2016-01-01

    In response to health and safety questions and concerns regarding particulate matter emissions from equipment used for synthesizing NiFe and TiO 2 nanopowders, a study was undertaken to assess their impact on the air quality inside and outside a laboratory where the manufacturing equipment is operated. Elemental concentrations determined by ion beam analysis (IBA) of air particulate matter (PM) samples collected hourly with a Streaker TM sampler were used to identify possible sources and estimate contributions from nanopowder production and other sources. The fugitive nanopowder emissions were the highest at the indoor sampling location when powders were being manufactured. Average fugitive emissions of 210 ng m −3 (1-h average) (maximum 2163 ng m −3 1-h average) represented 2 % (maximum 20 %) of the average PM collected (9359 ng m −3 1-h average). The measured NiFe alloy or TiO 2 PM concentrations were much smaller than the 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) workplace exposure standards (WES) for these materials (≥1,000,000 ng m −3 ). Most PM was found to be from infiltrated outdoor ambient sources. This suggests that nanopowder production in the laboratory is not likely to have adverse health effects on individuals using the equipment, although further improvements can be made to further limit exposure.Graphical abstract

  2. Trace element emissions from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    Trace elements are emitted during coal combustion. The quantity, in general, depends on the physical and chemical properties of the element itself, the concentration of the element in the coal, the combustion conditions and the type of particulate control device used, and its collection efficiency as a function of particle size. Some trace elements become concentrated in certain particle streams following combustion such as bottom ash, fly ash, and flue gas particulate matter, while others do not. Various classification schemes have been developed to describe this partitioning behaviour. These classification schemes generally distinguish between: Class 1: elements that are approximately equally concentrated in the fly ash and bottom ash, or show little or no fine particle enrichment, examples include Mn, Be, Co and Cr; Class 2: elements that are enriched in the fly ash relative to bottom ash, or show increasing enrichment with decreasing particle size, examples include As, Cd, Pb and Sb; Class 3: elements which are emitted in the gas phase (primarily Hg (not discussed in this review), and in some cases, Se). Control of class 1 trace elements is directly related to control of total particulate matter emissions, while control of the class 2 elements depends on collection of fine particulates. Due to the variability in particulate control device efficiencies, emission rates of these elements can vary substantially. The volatility of class 3 elements means that particulate controls have only a limited impact on the emissions of these elements.

  3. Fugitive emissions from nanopowder manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trompetter, W. J., E-mail: b.trompetter@gns.cri.nz; Ancelet, T.; Davy, P. K.; Kennedy, J. [GNS Science (New Zealand)

    2016-07-15

    In response to health and safety questions and concerns regarding particulate matter emissions from equipment used for synthesizing NiFe and TiO{sub 2} nanopowders, a study was undertaken to assess their impact on the air quality inside and outside a laboratory where the manufacturing equipment is operated. Elemental concentrations determined by ion beam analysis (IBA) of air particulate matter (PM) samples collected hourly with a Streaker{sup TM} sampler were used to identify possible sources and estimate contributions from nanopowder production and other sources. The fugitive nanopowder emissions were the highest at the indoor sampling location when powders were being manufactured. Average fugitive emissions of 210 ng m{sup −3} (1-h average) (maximum 2163 ng m{sup −3} 1-h average) represented 2 % (maximum 20 %) of the average PM collected (9359 ng m{sup −3} 1-h average). The measured NiFe alloy or TiO{sub 2} PM concentrations were much smaller than the 8-h time-weighted average (TWA) workplace exposure standards (WES) for these materials (≥1,000,000 ng m{sup −3}). Most PM was found to be from infiltrated outdoor ambient sources. This suggests that nanopowder production in the laboratory is not likely to have adverse health effects on individuals using the equipment, although further improvements can be made to further limit exposure.Graphical abstract.

  4. Austrian emission inventory for dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winiwarter, W.; Trenker, C.; Hoeflinger, W.

    2001-09-01

    For the first time, Austrian emissions of anthropogenic particulate matter emissions to the atmosphere have been estimated. Results have been reported as total suspended particles (TSP) as well as for the fractions of particles smaller than 10 μm or 2.5 μm aerodynamic diameter (PM 10 , PM 2.5 ), respectively. Base years for the inventory were 1990, 1995 and 1999. Excluded from this assessment is wind blown dust, which has been considered a natural source here. National statistics have been applied, specifically those also used previously in the Austrian air pollution inventory (OLI). Emission factors have been taken from literature compilations, only for exceptional cases specific Austrian assessments were performed or original literature on emission measurements was consulted. Resuspension of dust by road traffic emerged as the most important source. For the size fraction of PM 10 this source contributed about half of the emissions, when applying the calculation scheme by the U.S. EPA. While this scheme is widely used and well documented, its validity is currently subject of intense scientific debate. As these results do not seem to coincide with ambient air measurements, resuspension of road dust is considered separately and not now included in the national total. The sum of all other sources increases from 75,000 t of TSP in 1990 and 1995 to 77,000 t in 1999, while both PM 10 and PM 2.5 exhibit decreasing tendency (at 45,000 t and 26,000 t in 1999, respectively). The increase in TSP derives from increasing traffic and friction related emissions (tire wear, break wear), decrease of the finer particulate matter is due to reductions in firewood consumption for domestic heating. Most important source sectors are fugitive emissions from material transfer in industry as well as the building industry and the tilling of agricultural land. Common to these sources is the high uncertainty of available data. Wood combustion is the most important of the non

  5. Dark matter universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, Neta A

    2015-10-06

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter--a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations--from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology--a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)--fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle.

  6. Quantity and biochemical composition of particulate organic matter in a highly trawled area (Thermaikos Gulf, Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pusceddu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bottom trawling represents nowadays one of the most severe anthropogenic disturbances at sea, and determines large impacts on benthic communities and processes. Bottom trawling determines also local sediment resuspension and the effects of the injection of large amounts of surface sediments into the water column have been repeatedly investigated. Few studies have assessed the consequences of sediment resuspension caused by bottom trawling on the quantity, biochemical composition and bioavailability of suspended organic particles and how these eventually rival those exerted by natural storms. To provide insights on this poorly addressed issue, we investigated concentrations and biochemical composition of total and enzymatically digestible pools of particulate organic matter (POM in the Thermaikos Gulf (Mediterranean Sea under calm sea conditions, during intensive trawling activities, and after a severe storm. We show here that sediment resuspension caused by trawling can cause large effects on POM quantity, biochemical composition and bioavailability. Both during trawling and after the storm, the relative importance of the carbohydrate pools increased (in the upper water column and the total lipid concentrations decreased (in the intermediate and bottom layers when compared to values measured during calm conditions. These results would suggest that bottom trawling could inject in the upper water column POM pools more refractory in nature (e.g., carbohydrates than those present in calm or after-storm conditions. By contrast, we show also that the bioavailable fraction of biopolymeric C increased significantly during trawling in the upper water column of the shallowest stations and in the bottom water column layer of the deepest ones. These results provide evidence that bottom trawling can influence the overall trophic status of coastal waters, exerting effects similar or stronger than those caused by natural storms, though of variable amplitude

  7. Ammonia and nitrous oxide interactions - importance of organic matter management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Søren O; Sommer, Sven G.

    Intensification of livestock production in many parts of the world has led to increasing atmospheric losses of N in connection with storage and field application of manure. Both types of emissions are influenced by manure organic matter content via mechanisms such as composting, crust formation......, mineralization–immobilization turnover, and water retention. Manure management affects the potential for, and balance between, NH3 and N2O emissions. The interaction between NH3 and N2O may be positive (e.g., both emissions are reduced by an airtight cover during storage and stimulated by composting......), or negative (e.g., direct N2O emissions from soil will potentially increase if losses of NH3 are prevented during storage or field application). Emissions of NH3 and N2O negatively affect N use efficiency and the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of livestock production. Ammonia and N2O emissions and GHG balances...

  8. Emissions Characterisation of residential pellet boilers during start-up and stop periods

    OpenAIRE

    Win, Kaung Myat; Paavilainen, Janne; Persson, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    In this study, gaseous emissions and particles are measured during start-up and stop periods for an over-fed boiler and an under-fed boiler. Both gaseous and particulate matter emissions are continuously measured in the laboratory. The measurement of gaseous emissions includes oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide and (NO). The emissions rates are calculated from measured emissions concentrations and flue gas flow. The behaviours of the boilers during start-u...

  9. The angular power spectrum of the diffuse gamma-ray background as a probe of Galactic dark matter substructure

    OpenAIRE

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    Dark matter annihilation in Galactic substructure produces diffuse gamma-ray emission of remarkably constant intensity across the sky, and in general this signal dominates over the smooth halo signal at angles greater than a few tens of degrees from the Galactic Center. The large-scale isotropy of the emission from substructure suggests that it may be difficult to extract this Galactic dark matter signal from the extragalactic gamma-ray background. I show that dark matter substructure induces...

  10. Solar Extreme UV radiation and quark nugget dark matter model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitnitsky, Ariel

    2017-10-01

    We advocate the idea that the surprising emission of extreme ultra violet (EUV) radiation and soft x-rays from the Sun are powered externally by incident dark matter (DM) particles. The energy and the spectral shape of this otherwise unexpected solar irradiation is estimated within the quark nugget dark matter model. This model was originally invented as a natural explanation of the observed ratio Ωdark ~ Ωvisible when the DM and visible matter densities assume the same order of magnitude values. This generic consequence of the model is a result of the common origin of both types of matter which are formed during the same QCD transition and both proportional to the same fundamental dimensional parameter ΛQCD. We also present arguments suggesting that the transient brightening-like "nanoflares" in the Sun may be related to the annihilation events which inevitably occur in the solar atmosphere within this dark matter scenario.

  11. Understanding Emissions in East Asia - The KORUS 2015 Emissions Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, J. H.; Kim, Y.; Park, R.; Choi, Y.; Simpson, I. J.; Emmons, L. K.; Streets, D. G.

    2017-12-01

    The air quality over Northeast Asia have been deteriorated for decades due to high population and energy use in the region. Despite of more stringent air pollution control policies by the governments, air quality over the region seems not been improved as much - even worse sometimes. The needs of more scientific understanding of inter-relationship among emissions, transport, chemistry over the region are much higher to effectively protect public health and ecosystems. Two aircraft filed campaigns targeting year 2016, MAPS-Seoul and KORUS-AQ, have been organized to study the air quality of over Korea and East Asia relating to chemical evolution, emission inventories, trans-boundary contribution, and satellite application. We developed a new East-Asia emissions inventory, named KORUS2015, based on NIER/KU-CREATE (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Transport Experiment), in support of the filed campaigns. For anthropogenic emissions, it has 54 fuel classes, 201 sub-sectors and 13 pollutants, including CO2, SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, PM10, and PM2.5. Since the KORUS2015 emissions framework was developed using the integrated climate and air quality assessment modeling framework (i.e. GAINS) and is fully connected with the comprehensive emission processing/modeling systems (i.e. SMOKE, KU-EPS, and MEGAN), it can be effectively used to support atmospheric field campaigns for science and policy. During the field campaigns, we are providing modeling emissions inventory to participating air quality models, such as CMAQ, WRF-Chem, CAMx, GEOS-Chem, MOZART, for forecasting and post-analysis modes. Based on initial assessment of those results, we are improving our emissions, such as VOC speciation, biogenic VOCs modeling. From the 2nditeration between emissions and modeling/measurement, further analysis results will be presented at the conference. Acknowledgements : This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "Climate Change

  12. Particle dark matter searches in the anisotropic sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco

    2014-02-01

    Anisotropies in the electromagnetic emission produced by dark matter annihilation or decay in the extragalactic sky are a recent tool in the quest for a particle dark matter evidence. We review the formalism to compute the two-point angular power spectrum in the halo-model approach and discuss the features and the relative size of the various auto- and cross-correlation signa