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Sample records for matter pm including

  1. Danish emission inventory for particular matter (PM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M; Winther, M; Illerup, J B; Hjort Mikkelsen, M

    2003-11-01

    The first Danish emission inventory that was reported in 2002 was a provisional-estimate based on data presently available. This report documents methodology, emission factors and references used for an improved Danish emission inventory for particulate matter. Further results of the improved emission inventory for the year 2000 are shown. The particulate matter emission inventory includes TSP, PM,, and PM, The report covers emission inventories for transport and stationary combustion. An appendix covering emissions from agriculture is also included. For the transport sector, both exhaust and non-exhaust emission such as tyre and break wear and road abrasion are included. (au)

  2. Analysis of Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentration in Khorramabad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hamed Mirhosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In this study, the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 in eight station of Khorramabad city was analyzed. Materials and Methods: For this study, the data were taken from April 2010 to March 2011. The eight sampling point were chosen in account to Khorramabad maps. During this period, 240 daily PM samples including coarse particle (PM 10 and fine particle (PM 2.5 were collected. A two-part sampler was used to collect samples of PM. According to one-way ANOVA, multiple comparisons Scheffe, the obtained data were analyzed and then compared with the Environment protection organization standard rates. Khorramabad Results: The results revealed that during measuring the maximum concentration of PM 10 and PM 2.5 was respectively 120.9 and 101.09 μ/m 3 at Shamshirabad station. There was a significant difference between the mean values of PM 10 concentration (μg/m 3 in the seasons of summer. In addition, the mean concentrations of PM 10 in warmer months exceeded to the maximum permissible concentration. Conclusions: Year comparison of PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentration with standard were revealed particle matter concentration in summer season was higher than standard. Although total mean of particle matter was less than standard concentration.

  3. Spatiotemporal patterns of particulate matter (PM and associations between PM and mortality in Shenzhen, China

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    Fengying Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies on air pollution exposure and its associations with human health in China have focused on the heavily polluted industrial areas and/or mega-cities, and studies on cities with comparatively low air pollutant concentrations are still rare. Only a few studies have attempted to analyse particulate matter (PM for the vibrant economic centre Shenzhen in the Pearl River Delta. So far no systematic investigation of PM spatiotemporal patterns in Shenzhen has been undertaken and the understanding of pollution exposure in urban agglomerations with comparatively low pollution is still limited. Methods We analyze daily and hourly particulate matter concentrations and all-cause mortality during 2013 in Shenzhen, China. Temporal patterns of PM (PM2.5 and PM10 with aerodynamic diameters of 2.5 (10 μm or less (or less (including particles with a diameter that equals to 2.5 (10 μm are studied, along with the ratio of PM2.5 to PM10. Spatial distributions of PM10 and PM2.5 are addressed and associations of PM10 or PM2.5 and all-cause mortality are analyzed. Results Annual average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 61.3 and 39.6 μg/m3 in 2013. PM2.5 failed to meet the Class 2 annual limit of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard. PM2.5 was the primary air pollutant, with 8.8 % of days having heavy PM2.5 pollution. The daily PM2.5/PM10 ratios were high. Hourly PM2.5 concentrations in the tourist area were lower than downtown throughout the day. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were higher in western parts of Shenzhen than in eastern parts. Excess risks in the number of all-cause mortality with a 10 μg/m3 increase of PM were 0.61 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.50–0.72 for PM10, and 0.69 % (95 % CI: 0.55–0.83 for PM2.5, respectively. The greatest ERs of PM10 and PM2.5 were in 2-day cumulative measures for the all-cause mortality, 2-day lag for females and the young (0–65 years, and L02 for males and the elder (>65

  4. Modelling a linear PM motor including magnetic saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polinder, H.; Slootweg, J.G.; Compter, J.C.; Hoeijmakers, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of linear permanent-magnet (PM) actuators increases in a wide variety of applications because of the high force density, robustness and accuracy. The paper describes the modelling of a linear PM motor applied in, for example, wafer steppers, including magnetic saturation. This is important

  5. Fine Particle Matter (PM2.5) Design Value

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Fine particulate matter or PM2.5 (total mass of particles below 2.5 micron is diameter) is known to cause adverse health effects in humans.See the following websites...

  6. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Charles E. Kolb

    2008-03-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants designed to understand the atmospheric chemistry and aerosol particle microphysics impacting air quality in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its urban plume. The overall effort, titled MCMA- 2006, focused on: 1) the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles and 2) the measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine particular matter (PM) production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA). MCAM-2006 pursued it goals through three main activities: 1) performance and publication of detailed analyses of extensive MCMA trace gas and fine PM measurements made by the collaborating groups and others during earlier MCMA field campaigns in 2002 and 2003; 2) deployment and utilization of extensive real-time trace gas and fine PM instrumentation at urban and downwind MCMA sites in support of the MAX-Mex/MILAGRO field measurements in March, 2006; and, 3) analyses of the 2006 MCMA data sets leading to further publications that are based on new data as well as insights from analysis and publication of the 2002/2003 field data. Thirteen archival publications were coauthored with other MCMA-2003 participants. Documented findings included a significantly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles, a greatly enhanced understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds, a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources, a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distributions and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models, and evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for ozone and nitrogen

  7. PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) INHIBITS NEUROTROPHIN RELEASE FROM A549 CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several investigations have linked PM exposure to the exacerbation of allergic lung diseases. Many PM effects are mediated by cells within the lung including the airway epithelium, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. These cells also produce neurotophins such as NGF and/or express neur...

  8. Effects of Source-Apportioned Coarse Particulate Matter (PM) on Allergic Responses in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cleveland Multiple Air Pollutant Study (CMAPS) is one of the first comprehensive studies conducted to evaluate particulate matter (PM) over local and regional scales. Cleveland and the nearby Ohio River Valley impart significant regional sources of air pollution including coa...

  9. Preliminary analysis of variability in concentration of fine particulate matter - PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 in area of Poznań city

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    Sówka Izabela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly known, that suspended particulate matter pose a threat to human life and health, negatively influence the flora, climate and also materials. Especially dangerous is the presence of high concentration of particulate matter in the area of cities, where density of population is high. The research aimed at determining the variability of suspended particulate matter concentration (PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 in two different thermal seasons, in the area of Poznań city. As a part of carried out work we analyzed the variability of concentrations and also performed a preliminary analysis of their correlation. Measured concentrations of particulate matter were contained within following ranges: PM10 – 8.7-69.6 μg/m3, PM2.5 – 2.2-88.5 μg/m3, PM1.0 – 2.5-22.9 μg/m3 in the winter season and 1.0-42.8 μg/m3 (PM10, 1.2-40.3 μg/m3 (PM2.5 and 2.7-10.4 (PM1.0 in the summer season. Preliminary correlative analysis indicated interdependence between the temperature of air, the speed of wind and concentration of particulate matter in selected measurement points. The values of correlation coefficients between the air temperature, speed of wind and concentrations of particulate matter were respectively equal to: for PM10: -0.59 and -0.55 (Jana Pawła II Street, -0.53 and -0.53 (Szymanowskiego Street, for PM2.5: -0.60 and -0.53 (Jana Pawła II Street and for PM1.0 -0.40 and -0.59 (Jana Pawła II Street.

  10. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimont, Zbigniew; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Heyes, Chris; Purohit, Pallav; Cofala, Janusz; Rafaj, Peter; Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Schöpp, Wolfgang

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990-2010) global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM) emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10), as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC). The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping), presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5° × 0.5° longitude-latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global anthropogenic total, and residential combustion

  11. Global anthropogenic emissions of particulate matter including black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Klimont

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive assessment of historical (1990–2010 global anthropogenic particulate matter (PM emissions including the consistent and harmonized calculation of mass-based size distribution (PM1, PM2. 5, PM10, as well as primary carbonaceous aerosols including black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC. The estimates were developed with the integrated assessment model GAINS, where source- and region-specific technology characteristics are explicitly included. This assessment includes a number of previously unaccounted or often misallocated emission sources, i.e. kerosene lamps, gas flaring, diesel generators, refuse burning; some of them were reported in the past for selected regions or in the context of a particular pollutant or sector but not included as part of a total estimate. Spatially, emissions were calculated for 172 source regions (as well as international shipping, presented for 25 global regions, and allocated to 0.5°  ×  0.5° longitude–latitude grids. No independent estimates of emissions from forest fires and savannah burning are provided and neither windblown dust nor unpaved roads emissions are included. We estimate that global emissions of PM have not changed significantly between 1990 and 2010, showing a strong decoupling from the global increase in energy consumption and, consequently, CO2 emissions, but there are significantly different regional trends, with a particularly strong increase in East Asia and Africa and a strong decline in Europe, North America, and the Pacific region. This in turn resulted in important changes in the spatial pattern of PM burden, e.g. European, North American, and Pacific contributions to global emissions dropped from nearly 30 % in 1990 to well below 15 % in 2010, while Asia's contribution grew from just over 50 % to nearly two-thirds of the global total in 2010. For all PM species considered, Asian sources represented over 60 % of the global

  12. Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Sosa Echeverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P.; Krupa, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude urban areas in different countries, must consider the pressure and temperature due to the effect that these parameters have on the breath volume. This paper shows the importance to correct Air Quality Standards for PM considering pressure and temperature at different altitudes. Specific factors were suggested to convert the information concerning PM, from local to standard conditions, and adjust the Air Quality Standards for different high altitudes cities. The correction factors ranged from: 1.03 for Santiago de Chile to 1.47 for El Alto Bolivia. Other cities in this study include: Mexico City, México; La Paz, Bolivia; Bogota, Cali and Medellin, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador and Cuzco, Peru. If these corrections are not considered, the atmospheric concentrations will be underestimated. - Highlights: ► AQS for particulate matter concentrations adjusted by pressure and temperature. ► Particulate matter concentrations can be underestimated in high altitude Cities. ► Particulate matter concentrations must be compared under the same conditions. - In order to compare high altitude atmospheric PM concentrations with AQS, one must consider T and P of the sampling site.

  13. On the origin and variability of suspended particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10) concentrations in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikridas, Michael; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kizas, Christos; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Sciare, Jean

    2017-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean (EM) lies at the crossroad of three different continents (Europe, Asia, and Africa). EM is a densely populated region including several cities with 3M inhabitants or more (e.g. Athens, Istanbul, Izmir, and Cairo). It has been identified as the most polluted area in Europe with respect to particulate matter (PM) mainly due to the combination of high photochemical activity, which causes pollutants to oxidize and partitioning in the particle phase, with the elevated pollutants emissions from neighboring regions. In addition, the proximity to Africa and the Middle East allows frequent transport of dust particles. At the center of the Eastern Mediterranean lies the island of Cyprus, which has received very little attention regarding its PM levels despite being the location in Europe most frequently impacted by air masses from the Middle East. Herewith, we present a historical PM archive that spans 2 decades. It involves ongoing monitoring on a daily basis of particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 μm (PM10), 2.5 μm (PM2.5), and 1 μm (PM1) conducted in at least one, of the 12 currently existing air quality stations in Cyprus since 1997, 2005, and 2009, respectively. The most extended PM datasets correspond a) to the Agia Marina Xyliatou (AMX) monitoring station established at a remote area at the foothills of mount Troodos and b) that of the inland capital, Nicosia. Based on this long-term dataset, the diurnal, temporal and annual variability is assessed. Prior to 2010, PM10 concentration at all sites remained relatively constant, but at different levels, violating the annual EU legislated PM10 limit of 40 μg m-3. Since 2010, coarse mode levels have decreased at all sites. The reported decrease was equal to 30% at AMX. As a result, since 2010 the observed levels comply with the EU legislation threshold. Satellite observations of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard NASA

  14. Fine particulate matter (PM) and organic speciation of fireplace emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, C.R.; McCrillis, R.C.; Kariher, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of fireplace particle size and organic speciation data gathered to date in an ongoing project. Tests are being conducted in a residential wood combustion (RWC) laboratory on three factory-built fireplaces. RWC wood smoke particles <10 microm (PM10) consist primarily of a mixture of organic compounds that have condensed into droplets; therefore, the size distribution and total mass are influenced by temperature of the sample during its collection. During the series 1 tests (15 tests), the dilution tunnel used to cool and dilute the stack gases gave an average mixed gas temperature of 47.3 C and an average dilution ration of 4.3. Averages for the PM2.5 (particles <2.5 microm) and PM10 fractions were 74 and 84%, respectively. For the series 2 tests, the dilution tunnel was modified, reducing the average mixed gas temperatures to 33.8 C and increasing the average dilution ratio to 11.0 in tests completed to date. PM2.5 and PM10 fractions were 83 and 91%, respectively. Since typical winter-time mixed gas temperatures would usually be less than 10 C, these size fraction results probably represent the lower bound; the PM10 and PM2.5 size fraction results might be higher at typical winter temperatures. The particles collected on the first stage were light gray and appeared to include inorganic ash. Particles collected on the remainder of the stages were black and appeared to be condensed organics because there was noticeable lateral bleeding of the collected materials into the filter substrate. Total particulate emission rates ranged from 10.3 to 58.4 g/h; corresponding emission factors ranged from 3.3 to 14.9 g/kg of dry wood burned. A wide range of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 8270 semivolatile organic compounds were found in the emissions; of the 17 target compounds quantified, major constituents are phenol, 2-methylphenol, 4-methylphenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, and naphthalene

  15. Multifaceted health impacts of Particulate Matter (PM and its management: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban air quality is becoming a serious public health concern at global scale. Particulate matter (PM pollution is intimately linked with human health. Present review describes the different human health implications associated with PM pollution. PM may derive its origin from natural and anthropogenic sources. Vehicle derived pollutants as well as industrial emissions simultaneously release deleterious fine-grained PM into the atmosphere. Fine PM especially PM2.5 and PM10 are particularly deleterious to human health. Air pollution PM is an important environmental health risk factor for several respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Further, PM is inextricably linked with genotoxicity and mutations. Literature review of the cellular and molecular basis of adverse effects associated with PM is presented in this paper. Finally, management, existing technologies and policy options to reduce or mitigate the adverse health impacts of PM pollution is discussed as an eco-sustainable approach.

  16. The Concentrations and Reduction of Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1 at Shelterbelt Site in Beijing

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    Jungang Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter is a serious source of air pollution in urban areas, where it exerts adverse effects on human health. This article focuses on the study of subduction of shelterbelts for atmospheric particulates. The results suggest that (1 the PM mass concentration is higher in the morning or both morning and noon inside the shelterbelts and lower mass concentrations at other times; (2 the particle mass concentration inside shelterbelt is higher than outside; (3 the particle interception efficiency of the two forest belts over the three months in descending order was PM10 > PM1 > PM2.5; and (4 the two shelterbelts captured air pollutants at rates of 1496.285 and 909.075 kg/month and the major atmospheric pollutant in Beijing city is PM10. Future research directions are to study PM mass concentration variation of shelterbelt with different tree species and different configuration.

  17. ASSOCIATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM WITH RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AMONG CHILDREN IN SELECTED PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN PAHANG

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    Maryam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM is one of the primary pollutants found in the indoor environment. It can cause deterioration of the indoor air quality (IAQ and is often linked with adverse health effects especially towards susceptible subgroup of the population like children. School children are exposed to PM inside the classroom, as this indoor PM may originate from both indoor and outdoor sources. Furthermore, ambient surrounding could be one of the major factors that contribute to its high concentration, specifically for school environment like government-subsidized schools in Malaysia whereby the schools are using natural ventilation systems to control the thermal comfort inside the classrooms. Hence the infiltration of outdoor PM into the indoor is probably high and significant. The high concentration of PM may affect the children’s health and learning performances. Due to this reason, it is important to study the effects of PM towards children. Thus, this study aims to assess the concentrations of PM and selected IAQ parameters in the school indoor environment with distinct background characteristics including residential, industrial, and rural areas. PM and IAQ parameters (temperature, relative humidity (RH, carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2 were assessed for 8-hours duration via DustMate Environmental Dust Detector (Turnkey Instruments, USA and VelociCalc® Multi-Function Ventilation Meter 9565 (TSI®, USA respectively, during occupied and non-occupied time in the classrooms. Second, considering the children’s prolonged and repetitive exposure towards PM in school indoor environment and their body sensitivity, this study also screened for the prevalence of non-specific respiratory disease (NSRD and persistent cough and phlegm (PCP among children via structured questionnaire developed by American Thoracic Society’s Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD-78-C. Higher concentrations of PM and prevalence of respiratory symptoms in the

  18. Seasonal variation of the metal composition in particulate matter (PM) in Graz determined with ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartl, M.; Raber, G.; Goessler, W.; Licbinsky, R.; Pongratz, T.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Graz, the 2 nd biggest city of Austria, is not only famous for its cultural heritage but is also well known as one of the most heavily air-polluted cities of Austria. Samples of particulate matter (PM 1.0 , PM 2.5 , and PM 10 ), collected in Graz over a one year period, were analyzed for 36 metals by ICPMS following microwave-assisted acid digestion. Accumulation of PM in the city (Graz is located in a basin) and additional emissions (e.g. domestic combustion) during winter caused not only higher PM concentrations but also marked changes in the PM metal composition. (author)

  19. A multivariate study for characterizing particulate matter (PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1)) in Seoul metropolitan subway stations, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon-Bark; Jeong, Wootae; Park, Duckshin; Kim, Ki-Tae; Cho, Kyung Hwa

    2015-10-30

    Given that around eight million commuters use the Seoul Metropolitan Subway (SMS) each day, the indoor air quality (IAQ) of its stations has attracted much public attention. We have monitored the concentration of particulate matters (PMx) (i.e., PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) in six major transfer stations per minute for three weeks during the summer, autumn, and winter in 2014 and 2015. The data were analyzed to investigate the relationship between PMx concentration and multivariate environmental factors using statistical methods. The average PM concentration observed was approximately two or three times higher than outdoor PM10 concentration, showing similar temporal patterns at concourses and platforms. This implies that outdoor PM10 is the most significant factor in controlling indoor PM concentration. In addition, the station depth and number of trains passing through stations were found to be additional influences on PMx. Principal component analysis (PCA) and self-organizing map (SOM) were employed, through which we found that the number of trains influences PM concentration in the vicinity of platforms only, and PMx hotspots were determined. This study identifies the external and internal factors affecting PMx characteristics in six SMS stations, which can assist in the development of effective IAQ management plans to improve public health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The variability in iron speciation in size fractionated residual oil fly ash particulate matter (ROFA PM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanaik, Sidhartha; Huggins, Frank E; Huffman, Gerald P

    2016-08-15

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) containing iron can catalyze Fenton reaction leading to the production of reactive oxygen species in cells. It can also catalyze atmospheric redox reaction. These reactions are governed by the physicochemical characteristics of iron in ambient PM. As a surrogate for ambient PM, we prepared residual oil fly ash PM (ROFA PM) in a practical fire tube boiler firing residual oils with varying sulfur and ash contents. The ROFA particles were resolved into fine PM or PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter (AD)iron speciation in PM2.5+ was ascertained using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and leaching method while that in PM2.5 was reported earlier. The results of both studies are compared to get an insight into the variability in the iron speciation in different size fractions. The results show the predominance of ferric sulfate, with a minor spinal ferrite in both PM (i.e. ZnxNi1-xFe2O4 in PM2.5, ZnFe2O4 in PM2.5+). The iron solubility in ROFA PM depends on its speciation, mode of incorporation of iron into particle's carbonaceous matrix, the grade and composition of oils, and pH of the medium. The soluble fraction of iron in PM is critical in assessing its interaction with the biological systems and its toxic potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. In vitro investigations of platinum, palladium, and rhodium mobility in urban airborne particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) using simulated lung fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zereini, Fathi; Wiseman, Clare L S; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2012-09-18

    Environmental concentrations of platinum group elements (PGE) have been increasing since the introduction of automotive catalytic converters to control harmful emissions. Assessments of the human health risks of exposures to these elements, especially through the inhalation of PGE-associated airborne particulate matter (PM), have been hampered by a lack of data on their bioaccessibility. The purpose of this study is to apply in vitro methods using simulated human lung fluids [artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) and Gamble's solution] to assess the mobility of the PGE, platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), and rhodium (Rh) in airborne PM of human health concern. Airborne PM samples (PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1)) were collected in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. For comparison, the same extraction experiments were conducted using the standard reference material, Used Auto Catalyst (monolith) (NIST 2557). Pt and Pd concentrations were measured using isotope dilution ICP-Q-MS, while Rh was measured directly with ICP-Q-MS (in collision mode with He), following established matrix separation and enrichment procedures, for both solid (filtered residues) and extracted sample phases. The mobilized fractions measured for PGE in PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1) were highly variable, which can be attributed to the heterogenic nature of airborne PM and its composition. Overall, the mobility of PGE in airborne PM samples was notable, with a mean of 51% Rh, 22% Pt, and 29% Pd present in PM(1) being mobilized by ALF after 24 h. For PM(1) exposed to Gamble's solution, a mean of 44% Rh, 18% Pt, and 17% Pd was measured in solution after 24 h. The mobility of PGE associated with airborne PM was also determined to be much higher compared to that measured for the auto catalyst standard reference material. The results suggest that PGE emitted from automotive catalytic converters are likely to undergo chemical transformations during and/or after being emitted in the environment. This study highlights the need

  2. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavaka, Miguel; Velasco, Erik

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on

  3. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavala, Miguel; Velasco, Erik; Molina; Mario J.

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation.

  4. Health and Environmental Effects of Particulate Matter (PM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter pose the greatest problems, because they can get deep into your lungs, and some may even get into your bloodstream. Fine particles (PM2.5) are the main cause of reduced visibility (haze).

  5. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND ORGANIC SPECIATION OF FIREPLACE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a summary of fireplace particle size and organic speciation data gathered to date in an on-going project. Tests are being conducted in a residential wood combustion (RWC) laboratory on three factory-built fireplaces. RWC wood smoke particles <10?m (PM10) con...

  6. PIXE characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 particulate matter collected during the winter season in Shanghai city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanxun; Wang Yingsong; Li Delu; Li Aiguo; Li Yan; Zhang Guilin

    2006-01-01

    The samples of PM2.5 and PM10 inhalable particulate matter had been collected during the period of December 2002-January 2003 at nineteen representative sites of Shanghai urban and suburb area in order to investigate the chemical characterization of aerosol particle in winter. The samples were analyzed to determine the average concentrations for up to twenty elements by means of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). It was found that the average elemental concentrations in the urban center are higher than those in the suburb, except for Ti and P. The particulate mass data demonstrate that the ratio range of PM2.5/PM10 is from 0.32 to 0.85 and its average ratio is 0.6. The result of the enrichment factor shows that the inhalable particles may be divided into two categories, i.e., soil elements from the earth crust and anthropogenic pollution elements. It is noticed that toxic or harmful elements such as S, As, Pb, Ni, Mn and Se are enriched mainly in fine particles with diameter less than 2.5 μm. The fingerprints of major pollution sources such as coal (or oil) burning, vehicle exhaust emission and industry are also presented and discussed. (author)

  7. Sensorless Speed Control including zero speed of Non Salient PM Synchronous Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik

    This paper presents a position sensorless drive of non salient pole PM synchronous motors for all speeds including zero speed. Using adaptive Lyapunov design a new approach for the design of an observer is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the motor states...

  8. Sensorless Speed Control including zero speed of Non Salient PM Synchronous Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a position sensorless drive of non salient pole PM synchronous motors for all speeds including zero speed. Using adaptive Lyapunov design a new approach for the design of an observer is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the motor states...

  9. Sensorless speed Control including Zero Speed on Non Salient PM Synchronous Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a position sensorless drive of non salient pole PM synchronous motors for all speeds including zero speed. Using adaptive Lyapunov design a new approach for the design of an observer is developed. The resulting scheme leads to a nonlinear full order observer for the motor states...

  10. The relationship between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and schizophrenia severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Rika; Onozuka, Daisuke; Ikeda, Kouji; Kuroda, Kenji; Ieiri, Ichiro; Hagihara, Akihito

    2018-04-23

    Although particulate matter (PM) is reported to affect the rate of emergency admissions for schizophrenia, no study has examined the relationship between particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM 2.5 ) and the severity of schizophrenia. We obtained data on patients with schizophrenia at a psychiatric hospital, and on air pollution in Sakai, Japan between Feb 1, 2013 and April 30, 2016. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the relationship between PM 2.5 concentrations and scores on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) of schizophrenia patients at admission, with a lag of up to 7 days. During the study period, there were 1193 schizophrenia cases. The odds ratio (OR) for a BPRS score ≥ 50 at admission was 1.05 [95% confidence interval 1.00-1.10] and the effect of PM 2.5 concentration was significant for lag period of 2 days. The ORs associated with PM 2.5 concentration increased substantially for patients over 65 years of age. Ambient PM 2.5 concentration was associated with exacerbation of schizophrenia. Our results suggest that protection for several days should be considered for controlling PM 2.5 -related schizophrenia, especially among elderly patients.

  11. An association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels and emergency ambulance dispatches for cardiovascular diseases in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiki, Toshihiro; Onozuka, Daisuke; Kamouchi, Masahiro; Hagihara, Akihito

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is associated with emergency ambulance dispatches for cardiovascular diseases in Japan. The nationwide data on emergency dispatches of ambulance for cardiovascular diseases classified as I00-I99 by International Classification of Diseases-10th revision in 30 Japanese prefectures between April 1 and December 31, in 2010 were analyzed. Data on weather variability including PM 2.5 , temperature and relative humidity were acquired from ambient air pollution monitoring stations. Conditional Poisson regression models were used to estimate the prefecture-specific effects of PM 2.5 on morbidity, and adjust for confounding factors. A meta-analysis was then applied to pool estimates at the 30-prefecture level. A total of 160,566 emergency ambulance dispatches for cardiovascular diseases were reported during the study period. The risk of emergency ambulance dispatch for cardiovascular diseases significantly increased with an increase in the exposure to PM 2.5 in Fukuoka and Iwate Prefectures. However, we found no statistically significant associations between PM 2.5 and emergency ambulance dispatches in the pooled analysis (odds ratio 1.00, 95 % confidence interval 0.99-1.00). Heterogeneity was not observed between prefectures (Cochran Q test, p = 0.187, I 2  = 18.4 %). Exposure to PM 2.5 is not associated with overall emergency ambulance dispatches for cardiovascular diseases in Japan.

  12. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  13. Hydrophobic and porous cellulose nanofibrous screen for efficient particulate matter (PM2.5) blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liping; Guo, Yi; Peng, Xinsheng

    2017-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution in air seriously affects public health. However, both bulk thickness and the accumulation of PM particles typically lead to a quick decline in the air permeability and large pressure drops of the conventional air clean membranes. In this work, we choose cellulose nanofibers (CNFs, a low cost, biodegradable and sustainable material) to form a hydrophobic and porous CNF thin layer on a stainless steel screen (300 mesh with pore size of 48 µ m) through a simple filtration-assisted gelation process and subsequent polydimethylsiloxane modification. The prepared hydrophobic CNFs/stainless steel screen demonstrates highly efficient PM2.5 blocking based on size-sieving effect, fast air permeability and long-term durability under natural ventilation conditions in the relative humidity range from 45% to 93%. This technique holds great potential for indoor PM2.5 blocking under natural ventilation conditions. (paper)

  14. Hydrophobic and porous cellulose nanofibrous screen for efficient particulate matter (PM2.5) blocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liping; Guo, Yi; Peng, Xinsheng

    2017-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution in air seriously affects public health. However, both bulk thickness and the accumulation of PM particles typically lead to a quick decline in the air permeability and large pressure drops of the conventional air clean membranes. In this work, we choose cellulose nanofibers (CNFs, a low cost, biodegradable and sustainable material) to form a hydrophobic and porous CNF thin layer on a stainless steel screen (300 mesh with pore size of 48 µm) through a simple filtration-assisted gelation process and subsequent polydimethylsiloxane modification. The prepared hydrophobic CNFs/stainless steel screen demonstrates highly efficient PM2.5 blocking based on size-sieving effect, fast air permeability and long-term durability under natural ventilation conditions in the relative humidity range from 45% to 93%. This technique holds great potential for indoor PM2.5 blocking under natural ventilation conditions.

  15. Carbonaceous material in fine particulate matter (PM10) of urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocco, Domenico; Leonardi, Vittorio; Maso; Marco; Prignani, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    Total carbon (TC), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in the fine particulate matter (PM10) were measured in the urban areas of Rome and Marino (Castelli Romani) by means a thermal method with a non-dispersive infrared detector (NDIR). The results showed that carbonaceous material constitutes 30-40% of the total aerosols in Rome and about 20% in Marino [it

  16. Influence of background particulate matter (PM) on urban air quality in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, H; Wigder, N; Jaffe, D

    2013-11-15

    Elevated particulate matter concentrations due to Asian long-range transport (LRT) are frequently observed in the free troposphere (FT) above the Pacific Northwest, U.S. Transport of this aerosol from the FT to the boundary layer (BL) and its effect to local air quality remain poorly constrained. We used data collected at the Mount Bachelor observatory (MBO, 2.8 km a.s.l) and from ground stations in the Pacific Northwest to study transport of fine particulate matter (PM) from the FT to the BL. During Asian LRT episodes PM concentrations were clearly elevated above the corresponding monthly averages at MBO as well as at low elevation sites across Washington and Oregon. Also, a clear correlation between MBO and low elevation sites was observed, indicating that LRT episodes are seen in both the FT and BL. In addition, drum impactor measurements show that the chemical composition of PM at MBO was similar to that measured at the BL sites. Using a simple regression model, we estimate that during springtime, when the transport from Asia is most effective, the contribution of Asian sources to PM2.5 in clean background areas of the Pacific Northwest was on average 1.7 μg m(-3) (representing approximately 50-80% of PM). The influence of LRT PM was also seen in measurement stations situated in the urban and urban background areas. However, the fraction of LRT PM was less pronounced (36-50% of PM) due to larger local emissions in the urban areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of methods to examine the effects of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on human peripheral blood leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zussman, Lisa Ann

    In vitro methods to study the effect of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on leukocyte function using human peripheral blood were developed. These methods were demonstrated using the blood of 1-5 individuals and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) urban PM #1648, diesel PM #1650, silica PM, and a locally collected PM sample (New Jersey PM10). For the blood samples analyzed in this study NIST urban PM and New Jersey PM10 treatment mediated the release of granule contents from peripheral blood leukocytes and induced structural changes associated with degranulation. Flow cytometry revealed PM-induced changes in phagocytosis and cell structure associated with degranulation. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed NIST urban PM-induced cell structure changes were associated with PM internalization. Colorametric and electrophoretic methods showed no PM-induced release of primary granules and a slight PM-induced release of secondary granules associated with only NIST urban PM. Enzyme Immunosorbent Assays detected increased histamine release from basophils treated with NIST urban PM, a locally collected PM, and the soluble and insoluble components of these particles. NIST urban PM was found to be a potent inducer of histamine release in 4 out of 6 individuals tested. Fractionation studies revealed that soluble (aqueous) and insoluble fractions of NIST urban PM contain histamine-releasing activity. This was also demonstrated for the New Jersey PM10 sample for which the soluble fraction exhibited the most activity. Complementary studies with inhibitors of IgE-mediated histamine release conducted on one test subject suggest that PM-induced histamine release was partially mediated by IgE. A new hypothesis has been formed, suggesting that particle toxicity is related to PM-induced histamine release. Due to the bioactive nature of histamine and its association with many cardiopulmonary responses, the PM- mediated release of histamine should be investigated

  18. Outdoor particulate matter (PM) and associated cardiovascular diseases in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Zeina; Salameh, Pascale; Nasser, Wissam; Abou Abbas, Linda; Elias, Elias; Leveque, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a widespread environmental concern. Considerable epidemiological evidence indicates air pollution, particularly particulate matter (PM), as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the developed countries. The main objective of our review is to assess the levels and sources of PM across the Middle East area and to search evidence for the relationship between PM exposure and CVD. An extensive review of the published literature pertaining to the subject (2000-2013) was conducted using PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar databases. We reveal that low utilization of public transport, ageing vehicle fleet and the increasing number of personal cars in the developing countries all contribute to the traffic congestion and aggravate the pollution problem. The annual average values of PM pollutants in the Middle East region are much higher than the World Health Organization 2006 guidelines (PM2.5 = 10 μg/m(3), PM10 = 20 μg/m(3)). We uncover evidence on the association between PM and CVD in 4 Middle East countries: Iran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. The findings are in light of the international figures. Ambient PM pollution is considered a potential risk factor for platelet activation and atherosclerosis and has been found to be linked with an increased risk for mortality and hospital admissions due to CVD. This review highlights the importance of developing a strategy to improve air quality and reduce outdoor air pollution in the developing countries, particularly in the Middle East. Future studies should weigh the potential impact of PM on the overall burden of cardiac diseases. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  19. Outdoor particulate matter (PM and associated cardiovascular diseases in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeina Nasser

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a widespread environmental concern. Considerable epidemiological evidence indicates air pollution, particularly particulate matter (PM, as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD in the developed countries. The main objective of our review is to assess the levels and sources of PM across the Middle East area and to search evidence for the relationship between PM exposure and CVD. An extensive review of the published literature pertaining to the subject (2000–2013 was conducted using PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar databases. We reveal that low utilization of public transport, ageing vehicle fleet and the increasing number of personal cars in the developing countries all contribute to the traffic congestion and aggravate the pollution problem. The annual average values of PM pollutants in the Middle East region are much higher than the World Health Organization 2006 guidelines (PM2.5 = 10 μg/m3, PM10 = 20 μg/m3. We uncover evidence on the association between PM and CVD in 4 Middle East countries: Iran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. The findings are in light of the international figures. Ambient PM pollution is considered a potential risk factor for platelet activation and atherosclerosis and has been found to be linked with an increased risk for mortality and hospital admissions due to CVD. This review highlights the importance of developing a strategy to improve air quality and reduce outdoor air pollution in the developing countries, particularly in the Middle East. Future studies should weigh the potential impact of PM on the overall burden of cardiac diseases.

  20. Black carbon and particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in New York City's subway stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcassim, M J Ruzmyn; Thurston, George D; Peltier, Richard E; Gordon, Terry

    2014-12-16

    The New York City (NYC) subway is the main mode of transport for over 5 million passengers on an average weekday. Therefore, airborne pollutants in the subway stations could have a significant impact on commuters and subway workers. This study looked at black carbon (BC) and particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in selected subway stations in Manhattan. BC and PM2.5 levels were measured in real time using a Micro-Aethalometer and a PDR-1500 DataRAM, respectively. Simultaneous samples were also collected on quartz filters for organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) analysis and on Teflon filters for gravimetric and trace element analysis. In the underground subway stations, mean real time BC concentrations ranged from 5 to 23 μg/m(3), with 1 min average peaks >100 μg/m(3), while real time PM2.5 levels ranged from 35 to 200 μg/m(3). Mean EC levels ranged from 9 to 12.5 μg/m(3). At street level on the same days, the mean BC and PM2.5 concentrations were below 3 and 10 μg/m(3), respectively. This study shows that both BC soot and PM levels in NYC's subways are considerably higher than ambient urban street levels and that further monitoring and investigation of BC and PM subway exposures are warranted.

  1. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Some Operating Diesel Engine Variables on Emitted Particulate Matters (PM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M. Saleh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engine is the most efficient prime mover commonly available today. Diesel engines move a large portion of the world’s goods, power much of the world’s equipment, and generate electricity more economically than any other device in their size range. But the diesel is one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution problems worldwide, and will remain so, with large increases expected in vehicle population. This experimental study has been conducted with direct injection diesel engine and particulate matters (PM concentrations were measured at variable operating variables. The results show that PM concentrations influence by changing equivalence ratio, load, engine speed and injection timing

  2. A five-year study of particulate matter (PM2.5) and cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva G, Manuel A.; Santibañez, Daniela A.; Ibarra E, Sergio; Matus C, Patricia; Seguel, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrovascular accidents, or strokes, are the second leading cause of mortality and the leading cause of morbidity in both Chile and the rest of the world. However, the relationship between particulate matter pollution and strokes is not well characterized. The association between fine particle concentration and stroke admissions was studied. Data on hospital admissions due to cerebrovascular accidents were collected from the Ministry of Health. Air quality and meteorological data were taken from the Air Quality database of the Santiago Metropolitan Area. Santiago reported 33,624 stroke admissions between January 1, 2002 and December 30, 2006. PM2.5 concentration was markedly seasonal, increasing during the winter. This study found an association between PM2.5 exposure and hospital admissions for stroke; for every PM2.5 concentration increase of 10 μg m −3 , the risk of emergency hospital admissions for cerebrovascular causes increased by 1.29% (95% CI 0.552%–2.03%). Highlights: •Particulate matter pollution – cerebrovascular diseases relationship is not well known. •Cerebrovascular diseases are the second leading cause of mortality and the leading cause of morbidity. •PM2.5 increase 10 μg/m 3 the risk of hospital admissions for stroke causes increases by 1.29%. •The results are similar to that of other cities worldwide. -- Relationship between PM pollution and strokes is not well characterized. In Santiago the risk of the stroke increased by 1.29%; for every increase of 10 μg m −3 in PM2.5

  3. Proinflammatory effects and oxidative stress within human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM>2.5) collected from Cotonou, Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachon, Boris Fresnel; Firmin, Stéphane; Verdin, Anthony; Ayi-Fanou, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    After particulate matter (PM) collection in Cotonou (Benin), a complete physicochemical characterization of PM 2.5 and PM >2.5 was led. Then, their adverse health effects were evaluated by using in vitro culture of human lung cells. BEAS-2B (bronchial epithelial cells) were intoxicated during short-term exposure at increasing PM concentrations (1.5–96 μg/cm 2 ) to determine global cytotoxicity. Hence, cells were exposed to 3 and 12 μg/cm 2 to investigate the potential biological imbalance generated by PM toxicity. Our findings showed the ability of both PM to induce oxidative stress and to cause inflammatory cytokines/chemokines gene expression and secretion. Furthermore, PM were able to induce gene expression of enzymes involved in the xenobiotic metabolism pathway. Strong correlations between gene expression of metabolizing enzymes, proinflammatory responses and cell cycle alteration were found, as well as between proinflammatory responses and cell viability. Stress oxidant parameters were highly correlated with expression and protein secretion of inflammatory mediators. Highlights: • The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic potential of collected particles. • Toxicological effects were determined by using human bronchial epithelial cells. • Both particles induced oxidative stress, proinflammatory response and cell alterations. • Metabolizing enzymes were linked to proinflammatory responses and cell alterations. • Oxidative stress was highly correlated to the proinflammatory mediators. -- This study evidences the toxic potential of African fine and coarse particulate matters on respiratory epithelial cells

  4. Spatial distribution of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in Seoul Metropolitan Subway stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Roh, Young Man; Lee, Cheol Min; Kim, Chi Nyon

    2008-06-15

    The aims of this study are to examine the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in areas within the Seoul Metropolitan Subway network and to provide fundamental data in order to protect respiratory health of subway workers and passengers from air pollutants. A total of 22 subway stations located on lines 1-4 were selected based on subway official's guidance. At these stations both subway worker areas (station offices, rest areas, ticket offices and driver compartments) and passengers areas (station precincts, subway carriages and platforms) were the sites used for measuring the levels of PM. The mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were relatively higher on platforms, inside subway carriages and in driver compartments than in the other areas monitored. The levels of PM10 and PM2.5 for station precincts and platforms exceeded the 24-h acceptable threshold limits of 150 microg/m3 for PM10 and 35 microg/m3 for PM2.5, which are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). However, levels measured in station and ticket offices fell below the respective threshold. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations on platforms located underground were significantly higher than those at ground level (p<0.05).

  5. Milano summer particulate matter (PM10 triggers lung inflammation and extra pulmonary adverse events in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Farina

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested a link between particulate matter (PM exposure and increased mortality and morbidity associated with pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases; accumulating evidences point to a new role for air pollution in CNS diseases. The purpose of our study is to investigate PM10sum effects on lungs and extra pulmonary tissues. Milano PM10sum has been intratracheally instilled into BALB/c mice. Broncho Alveolar Lavage fluid, lung parenchyma, heart and brain were screened for markers of inflammation (cell counts, cytokines, ET-1, HO-1, MPO, iNOS, cytotoxicity (LDH, ALP, Hsp70, Caspase8-p18, Caspase3-p17 for a putative pro-carcinogenic marker (Cyp1B1 and for TLR4 pathway activation. Brain was also investigated for CD68, TNF-α, GFAP. In blood, cell counts were performed while plasma was screened for endothelial activation (sP-selectin, ET-1 and for inflammation markers (TNF-α, MIP-2, IL-1β, MPO. Genes up-regulation (HMOX1, Cyp1B1, IL-1β, MIP-2, MPO and miR-21 have been investigated in lungs and blood. Inflammation in the respiratory tract of PM10sum-treated mice has been confirmed in BALf and lung parenchyma by increased PMNs percentage, increased ET-1, MPO and cytokines levels. A systemic spreading of lung inflammation in PM10sum-treated mice has been related to the increased blood total cell count and neutrophils percentage, as well as to increased blood MPO. The blood-endothelium interface activation has been confirmed by significant increases of plasma ET-1 and sP-selectin. Furthermore PM10sum induced heart endothelial activation and PAHs metabolism, proved by increased ET-1 and Cyp1B1 levels. Moreover, PM10sum causes an increase in brain HO-1 and ET-1. These results state the translocation of inflammation mediators, ultrafine particles, LPS, metals associated to PM10sum, from lungs to bloodstream, thus triggering a systemic reaction, mainly involving heart and brain. Our results provided additional insight into the toxicity

  6. The Effects of Bus Ridership on Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10 Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseok Her

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution caused by rapid urbanization and the increased use of private vehicles seriously affects citizens’ health. In order to alleviate air pollution, many cities have replaced diesel buses with compressed natural gas (CNG buses that emit less exhaust gas. Urban planning strategies such as transit-oriented development (TOD posit that reducing private vehicle use and increasing public transportation use would reduce air pollution levels. The present study examined the effects of bus ridership on airborne particulate matter (PM10 concentrations in the capital region of Korea. We interpolated the levels of PM10 from 128 air pollution monitoring stations, utilizing the Kriging method. Spatial regression models were used to estimate the impact of bus ridership on PM10 levels, controlling for physical environment attributes and socio-economic factors. The analysis identified that PM10 concentration levels tend to be lower in areas with greater bus ridership. This result implies that urban and transportation policies designed to promote public transportation may be effective strategies for reducing air pollution.

  7. Particulate Matter Dispersion (PM10, with interrelation of topographic and meteorological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Javier Arrieta-Fuentes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mining-industrial processes carried out by anthropic action, bring the generation of impacts to the environment. Between the impacts associated with mining is the involvement of the air quality produced by the release of atmospheric pollutants, being subject to study the behavior of the respirable fraction of particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10 with respect to meteorological and topographical factors. The analyzed scenarios in the study involved daily and annual exposure times of PM10, in wich modeling with AERMOD View Software was made. The model was carried out in two topographic zones, a complex area, located in the municipality of Socha and a simple area located in the municipality of Sogamoso. It was used meteorological data type satellite, in format .SAM for modeled areas. Three types of emission sources were identified in the areas; considering that the disperse fixed emission sources predominate, followed by the mobile sources and point sources were found in low proportion. PM10 dispersion models made for the zones of simple and complex topography, gave as result that direction and the wind speed is conditioned by the type of zone. It allowed a free flow in the predominant direction in wind rose to the area of simple topography and a turbulent flow in the complex area. It was determined that the sources of emission of PM10 in both cases are local scale; They presented a critical radius of drag and deposition of particles of 200 m approximately.

  8. Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    WP-201317) Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-volatile Particulate Matter (PM... Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions 6. AUTHOR(S) E. Corporan, M. DeWitt, C. Klingshirn, M.D. Cheng, R. Miake-Lye, J. Peck...the performance and viability of two devices to condition aircraft turbine engine exhaust to allow the accurate measurement of total (volatile and non

  9. Temporal and spatial analyses of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and its relationship with meteorological parameters over an urban city in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolan; Ma, Yanjun; Wang, Yangfeng; Liu, Ningwei; Hong, Ye

    2017-12-01

    Temporal and spatial characteristics of atmospheric particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and its relationship with meteorology over Shenyang, a city in northeast China, were statistically analyzed using hourly and daily averaged PM mass concentrations measured at 11 locations and surface meteorological parameters, from January 2014 to May 2016. Using averaged data from 11 stations in Shenyang, it was found that the monthly mean PM2.5 mass concentrations were higher in winter (97.2 ± 11.2 μg m- 3) and autumn (85.5 ± 42.9 μg m- 3), and lower in spring (62.0 ± 14.0 μg m- 3) and summer (42.5 ± 8.4 μg m- 3), similar to the seasonal variation in PM10 concentrations. The monthly ratios of PM2.5/PM10 ranged from 0.41 to 0.87, and were larger in autumn and winter but lowest in spring due to dust activities. PM pollution was concentrated mainly in the central, northern, and western areas of Shenyang in most seasons mainly due to anthropogenic activities such as traffic and residential emission and construction activity as well as natural dust emission. PM concentrations observed over different areas in all seasons generally exhibited two peaks, at 08:00-10:00 local time (LT) and 21:00-23:00 LT, with the exception of PM2.5 in summer, which showed only one peak during the daytime. In addition, PM10 concentrations peaked around 14:00 LT during spring in the western area of Shenyang because of strong thermal and dynamic turbulence, resulting in elevated dust emissions from adjacent dust sources. The relationship between daily PM concentrations and meteorological parameters showed both seasonal and annual variation. Overall, both PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were negatively correlated with atmospheric visibility, with correlation coefficients (R) of 0.71 and 0.56, respectively. In most seasons, PM concentrations also exhibited negative correlations with wind speed, but showed positive correlations with air pressure, air temperature, and relative humidity. Strong wind

  10. Level, potential sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter (PM10) in Naples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vaio, Paola; Cocozziello, Beatrice; Corvino, Angela; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Frecentese, Francesco; Magli, Elisa; Onorati, Giuseppe; Saccone, Irene; Santagada, Vincenzo; Settimo, Gaetano; Severino, Beatrice; Perissutti, Elisa

    2016-03-01

    In Naples, particulate matter PM10 associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined in urban background (NA01) and urban traffic (NA02) sites. The principal objective of the study was to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 for identification of their possible sources (through diagnostic ratio - DR and principal component analysis - PCA) and an estimation of the human health risk (from exposure to airborne TEQ). Airborne PM10 samples were collected on quartz filters using a Low Volume Sampler (LVS) for 24 h with seasonal samples (autumn, winter, spring and summer) of about 15 days each between October 2012 and July 2013. The PM10 mass was gravimetrically determined. The PM10 levels, in all seasons, were significantly higher (P gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis. The concentration of Benzo[a]Pyrene, BaP (EU and National limit value: 1 ng m-3 in PM10), varied from 0.065 ng m-3 during autumn time to 0.872 ng m-3 in spring time (NA01) and from 0.120 ng m-3 during autumn time to 1.48 ng m-3 of winter time (NA02) with four overshoots. In NA02 the trend of Σ12 PAHs was comparable to NA01 but were observed higher values than NA01. In fact, the mean concentration of Σ12 PAHs, in urban-traffic site was generally 2 times greater than in urban-background site in all the campaigns. PAHs with 5 and 6 ring, many of which are suspected carcinogens or genotoxic agents, (i.e Benzo[a]Pyrene, Indeno[1,2,3-cd]Pyrene, Benzo[b]Fluoranthene, Benzo[k]Fluoranthene and Benzo[g,h,i]Perylene), had a large contribution (∼50-55%) of total PAHs concentration in PM10 in two sites and in each of the campaigns. Diagnostic ratio analysis and PCA suggested a substantial contributions from traffic emission with minimal influence from coal combustion and natural gas emissions. In particular diesel vehicular emissions were the major source of PAHs at the studied sites. The use of Toxicity Equivalence Quantity (TEQ

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract in THP-1 Cells Exposed to Particulate Matter PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soojin Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental evidence support health risks associated with the exposure to airborne particulate matter with a diameter of <10 μM (PM10. PM10 stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and inflammatory mediators. Thus, we assumed that natural antioxidants might provide health benefits attenuating hazardous effects of PM10. In the present study, we examined the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PPE on THP-1 monocytic cells exposed to PM10. PM10 induced cytotoxicity and the production of ROS. It also increased the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, and cell adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1. PPE at 10–100 μg mL−1 attenuated the production of ROS and the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, and ICAM-1, but not VCAM-1, in THP-1 cells stimulated by PM10 (100 μg mL−1. PPE also attenuated the adhesion of PM10-stimulated THP-1 cells to EA.hy926 endothelial cells. PPE constituents, punicalagin and ellagic acid, attenuated PM10-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, and punicalagin was less cytotoxic compared to ellagic acid. The present study suggests that PPE and punicalagin may be useful in alleviating inflammatory reactions due to particulate matter.

  12. Growth, extracellular alkaline phosphatase activity, and kinetic characteristic responses of the bloom-forming toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5, PM2.5-10, and PM>10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ziran; Wang, Shoubing; Wang, Yuanan; Zhang, Jie

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (APM), commonly seen and widely excited in environment, appears great enough to influence the biochemical processes in aquatic microorganisms and phytoplankton. Understanding the response of cyanobacteria to various factors is fundamental for eutrophication control. To clarify the response of cyanobacteria to APM, the effects of PM 2.5 , PM 2.5-10 , and PM >10 on Microcystis aeruginosa were researched. Variabilities in cell density, chlorophyll a, soluble protein, malondialdehyde, extracellular activity, and kinetic parameters of alkaline phosphatase were evaluated by lab-cultured experiments. Results showed that the PM 2.5 had a slight stimulation impact on the growth and enhanced both of the 48- and 72-h extracellular alkaline phosphatase activity (APA), the affinity of alkaline phosphatase for substrate, and the 72-h maximum enzymatic reaction velocity (V max ). Moreover, the stimulations in extracellular APA and V max enhanced with the increasing exposure concentrations. We also found there were no obvious distinctions on the effects of growth and alkaline phosphatase in M. aeruginosa between PM 2.5-10 and PM >10 exposure groups. Obviously, inhibitory effects on growth existed in 4.0 and 8.0 mg/L PM 2.5-10 and 8.0 mg/L PM >10 at 120 h. Furthermore, PM 2.5-10 and PM >10 exerted inhibitory effects on the extracellular APA during the 72-h exposure. Simultaneously, the V max was notably inhibited and the affinity of alkaline phosphatase for substrate was more inseparable compared with control in PM 2.5-10 and PM >10 treatments. Nevertheless, the inhibitors in extracellular APA and kinetic parameters were unrelated to PM 2.5-10 and PM >10 exposure concentrations. Two-way ANOVA results revealed that there were significant interactions between exposure concentration and diameter of APM on the 120-h cell density, soluble protein content, APA, and 72 h APA of M. aeruginosa. These results in our study would be meaningful to further

  13. Ambient air quality of karachi city as reflected by atmospheric particulate matter (PM/sub 10/) concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, D.R.; Shareef, A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the variation of ambient aerosol (PM/sub 10/) concentrations in Karachi, city. Samples were collected from ten different locations, representative of urban background, residential, traffic and industrial areas from 2007 to 2011. At each location, PM/sub 10/) was measured continuously from 08:00 am to 06:00 pm at local time. The maximum 10 h average particulate matter (PM/sub 10/) mass concentrations were found at Tibet Centre (440.1 mg/m/sup 3/) and minimum at PCSIR Campus (21.7 mg/m/sup 3/) during 2008. A rising trend during 2008 may be due to the civil works for bridges and extension of roads at different locations in Karachi. The results also suggest that urban traffic and industrial areas appeared to have higher PM/sub 10/) concentration than residential and background areas. (author)

  14. Air quality in terms of particulate matter (PM10) and element components in Antananarivo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoelina Andriambololona; Rakotondramanana, H.T.; Rasoazanany, E.O.; Randriamanivo, L.V.; Rasolofonirina, M.; Razafy Andrianarivo, R.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to study the size distribution of toxic elements, undesirables ones and PM10 in the aerosols of Antananarivo urban areas using Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence. This work was carried out in the framework of Co-ordinated Research Program organised by the IAEA in 1998. The air sampler DICHOTOMOUS was used for sampling, with which two types of aerosols could be obtained: respirable aerosols or fine particles (aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 μm PM-2 ,5 ) and inhalable or coarse particles (aerodynamic diameter from 2.5 μm to 10μm PM 10 ). Samples were taken from six sampling sites, namely Ambohidahy tunnel, Ambanidia tunnel, Andravoahangy, Soarano, Mahamasina and Ankorondrano. Then, they were digested with acid digestion bomb. The results showed the presence of elements such as sulfur (S), chlorine (Cl), kalium (K), calcium (Ca), titanium (Ti), lead (Pb) in the aerosols. Their concentrations are higher in respirable particles. For classical air pollutant components, particularly lead and PM10, the 1.8 μg.m -3 mean concentration value of lead is largely higher than 0.5μg. m -3 , which is the WHO (World Health organization) adopted value, and above the USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) maximum admissible one (1.5 μg.m -3 ) as well. Regarding the size distribution of lead, the results showed that the small particles were mainly enriched in lead. The same observation can also be stated for PM10 with a 240 μg.m -3 mean concentration value , higher than 150 μg.m - 3 , adopted by the two above-mentioned organizations. Therefore, the Antananarivo urban area is classified as saturated zone for both parameters (lead and particulate matter). In addition, the results of Mason enrichment factors showed that the elements such as sulfur (S), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), bromine (Br), and lead (Pb) are from both natural and anthropogenic sources. The elements such as kalium (K), chlorine (Cl), calcium (Ca

  15. Evaluation of sampling inhalable PM10 particulate matter (≤ 10 μm) using co-located high volume samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajoy, R R S; Dias, J W C; Rego, E C P; Netto, A D Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the determination of the concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), collected simultaneously by six PM10 high volume samplers from two different manufacturers installed in the same location. Fifteen samples of 24 h were obtained with each equipment at a selected urban area of Rio de Janeiro city. The concentration of PM10 ranged between 10.73 and 54.04 μg m −3 . The samplers were considered comparable to each other, as the adopted methodology presented good repeatability

  16. Meteorological modes of variability for fine particulate matter (PM2.5 air quality in the United States: implications for PM2.5 sensitivity to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Fisher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We applied a multiple linear regression model to understand the relationships of PM2.5 with meteorological variables in the contiguous US and from there to infer the sensitivity of PM2.5 to climate change. We used 2004–2008 PM2.5 observations from ~1000 sites (~200 sites for PM2.5 components and compared to results from the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM. All data were deseasonalized to focus on synoptic-scale correlations. We find strong positive correlations of PM2.5 components with temperature in most of the US, except for nitrate in the Southeast where the correlation is negative. Relative humidity (RH is generally positively correlated with sulfate and nitrate but negatively correlated with organic carbon. GEOS-Chem results indicate that most of the correlations of PM2.5 with temperature and RH do not arise from direct dependence but from covariation with synoptic transport. We applied principal component analysis and regression to identify the dominant meteorological modes controlling PM2.5 variability, and show that 20–40% of the observed PM2.5 day-to-day variability can be explained by a single dominant meteorological mode: cold frontal passages in the eastern US and maritime inflow in the West. These and other synoptic transport modes drive most of the overall correlations of PM2.5 with temperature and RH except in the Southeast. We show that interannual variability of PM2.5 in the US Midwest is strongly correlated with cyclone frequency as diagnosed from a spectral-autoregressive analysis of the dominant meteorological mode. An ensemble of five realizations of 1996–2050 climate change with the GISS general circulation model (GCM using the same climate forcings shows inconsistent trends in cyclone frequency over the Midwest (including in sign, with a likely decrease in cyclone frequency implying an increase in PM2.5. Our results demonstrate the need for multiple GCM realizations (because of climate chaos when diagnosing

  17. CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY IN PHOENIX: PM1 IS A BETTER INDICATOR THAN PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has obtained a 3-year database of particulate matter (PM) in Phoenix, AZ from 1995 - 1997 that includes elemental analysis by XRF of daily PM2.5. During this time period PM1 and PM2.5 TEOMs were run simultaneously for about 7 months during two periods of the year. Regressio...

  18. Feasibility of including fugitive PM-10 emissions estimates in the EPA emissions trends report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, W.; Carlson, P.

    1990-09-01

    The report describes the results of Part 2 of a two part study. Part 2 was to evaluate the feasibility of developing regional emission trends for PM-10. Part 1 was to evaluate the feasibility of developing VOC emission trends, on a regional and temporal basis. These studies are part of the effort underway to improve the national emission trends. Part 1 is presented in a separate report. The categories evaluated for the feasibility of developing regional emissions estimates were: unpaved roads, paved roads, wind erosion, agricultural tilling, construction activities, feedlots, burning, landfills, mining and quarrying unpaved parking lots, unpaved airstrips and storage piles

  19. Source identification and long-term monitoring of airborne particulate matter (PM2.5/PM10) in an urban region of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Sam Chung; Sun-Ha Kim; Jong-Hwa Moon; Young-Jin Kim; Jong-Myoung Lim; Jin-Hong Lee

    2006-01-01

    For the identification of air pollution sources, about 500 airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) samples were collected by using a Gent air sampler and a polycarbonate filter in an urban region in the middle of Korea from 2000 to 2003. The concentrations of 25 elements in the samples were measured by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Receptor modeling was performed on the air monitoring data by using the positive matrix factorization (PMF2) method. According to this analysis, the existence of 6 to 10 PMF factors, such as metal-alloy, oil combustion, diesel exhaust, coal combustion, gasoline exhaust, incinerator, Cu-smelter, biomass burning, sea-salt, and soil dust were identified. (author)

  20. The Effect of Economic Growth, Urbanization, and Industrialization on Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Concentrations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangdong; Fang, Chuanglin; Wang, Shaojian; Sun, Siao

    2016-11-01

    Rapid economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization in China have led to extremely severe air pollution that causes increasing negative effects on human health, visibility, and climate change. However, the influence mechanisms of these anthropogenic factors on fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations are poorly understood. In this study, we combined panel data and econometric methods to investigate the main anthropogenic factors that contribute to increasing PM 2.5 concentrations in China at the prefecture level from 1999 to 2011. The results showed that PM 2.5 concentrations and three anthropogenic factors were cointegrated. The panel Fully Modified Least Squares and panel Granger causality test results indicated that economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization increased PM 2.5 concentrations in the long run. The results implied that if China persists in its current development pattern, economic growth, industrialization and urbanization will inevitably lead to increased PM 2.5 emissions in the long term. Industrialization was the principal factor that affected PM 2.5 concentrations for the total panel, the industry-oriented panel and the service-oriented panel. PM 2.5 concentrations can be reduced at the cost of short-term economic growth and industrialization. However, reducing the urbanization level is not an efficient way to decrease PM 2.5 pollutions in the short term. The findings also suggest that a rapid reduction of PM 2.5 concentrations relying solely on adjusting these anthropogenic factors is difficult in a short-term for the heavily PM 2.5 -polluted panel. Moreover, the Chinese government will have to seek much broader policies that favor a decoupling of these coupling relationships.

  1. Source apportionment of fine (PM1.8) and ultrafine (PM0.1) airborne particulate matter during a severe winter pollution episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeman, Michael J; Riddle, Sarah G; Robert, Michael A; Jakober, Chris A; Fine, Phillip M; Hays, Michael D; Schauer, James J; Hannigan, Michael P

    2009-01-15

    Size-resolved samples of airborne particulate matter (PM) collected during a severe winter pollution episode at three sites in the San Joaquin Valley of California were extracted with organic solvents and analyzed for detailed organic compounds using GC-MS. Six particle size fractions were characterized with diameter (Dp) < 1.8 microm; the smallest size fraction was 0.056 < Dp < 0.1 microm which accounts for the majority of the mass in the ultrafine (PM0.1) size range. Source profiles for ultrafine particles developed during previous studies were applied to the measurements at each sampling site to calculate source contributions to organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations. Ultrafine EC concentrations ranged from 0.03 microg m(-3) during the daytime to 0.18 microg m(-3) during the nighttime. Gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, and lubricating oil combustion products accounted for the majority of the ultrafine EC concentrations, with relatively minor contributions from biomass combustion and meat cooking. Ultrafine OC concentrations ranged from 0.2 microg m(-3) during the daytime to 0.8 microg m(-3) during the nighttime. Wood combustion was found to be the largest source of ultrafine OC. Meat cooking was also identified as a significant potential source of PM0.1 mass but further study is required to verify the contributions from this source. Gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, and lubricating oil combustion products made minor contributions to PM0.1 OC mass. Total ultrafine particulate matter concentrations were dominated by contributions from wood combustion and meat cooking during the current study. Future inhalation exposure studies may wish to target these sources as potential causes of adverse health effects.

  2. Including chemical-related impact categories in LCA on printed matter does it matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Hansen, Morten Søes; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2004-01-01

    global warming, acidification and nutrification. The studies focus on energy consumption including the emissions and impact categories related to energy. The chemical-related impact categories comprising ecotoxicity and human toxicity are not included at all or only to a limited degree. In this paper we...... include these chemical-related impact categories by making use of some of the newest knowledge about emissions from the production at the printing industry combined with knowledge about the composition of the printing materials used during the production of offset printed matter. This paper is based...... printed matter produced on a fictitious sheet feed offset printing industry in Europe has been identified and shown in Figure 1 (light bars). „Ï The effect of including the chemical related impact categories is substantial as shown in Figure 1, e.g. the importance of paper is reduced from 67% to 31...

  3. A weighted higher-order network analysis of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) transport in Yangtze River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yufang; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Shuhua

    2018-04-01

    Specification of PM2.5 transmission characteristics is important for pollution control, policymaking and prediction. In this paper, we propose weights for motif instances, thereby to implement a weighted higher-order clustering algorithm for a weighted, directed PM2.5 network in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of China. The weighted, directed network we create in this paper includes information on meteorological conditions of wind speed and wind direction, plus data on geographic distance and PM2.5 concentrations. We aim to reveal PM2.5 mobility between cities in the YRD. Major potential PM2.5 contributors and closely interacted clusters are identified in the network of 178 air quality stations in the YRD. To our knowledge, it is the first work to incorporate weight information into the higher-order network analysis to study PM2.5 transport.

  4. Removal of particulate matter (PM10) by air scrubbers at livestock facilities: results of an on-farm monitoring program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Hofschreuder, P.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Air scrubbers are commonly used for removal of ammonia and odor from exhaust air of animal houses in the Netherlands. In addition, air scrubbers remove a part of the particulate matter. In this article, the results of an on-farm monitoring are presented in which PM10 removal was monitored at 24

  5. Impact of 2000–2050 climate change on fine particulate matter (PM2.5 air quality inferred from a multi-model analysis of meteorological modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Jacob

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the effect of climate change on fine particulate matter (PM2.5 air quality using general circulation models (GCMs show inconsistent results including in the sign of the effect. This reflects uncertainty in the GCM simulations of the regional meteorological variables affecting PM2.5. Here we use the CMIP3 archive of data from fifteen different IPCC AR4 GCMs to obtain improved statistics of 21st-century trends in the meteorological modes driving PM2.5 variability over the contiguous US. We analyze 1999–2010 observations to identify the dominant meteorological modes driving interannual PM2.5 variability and their synoptic periods T. We find robust correlations (r > 0.5 of annual mean PM2.5 with T, especially in the eastern US where the dominant modes represent frontal passages. The GCMs all have significant skill in reproducing present-day statistics for T and we show that this reflects their ability to simulate atmospheric baroclinicity. We then use the local PM2.5-to-period sensitivity (dPM2.5/dT from the 1999–2010 observations to project PM2.5 changes from the 2000–2050 changes in T simulated by the 15 GCMs following the SRES A1B greenhouse warming scenario. By weighted-average statistics of GCM results we project a likely 2000–2050 increase of ~ 0.1 μg m−3 in annual mean PM2.5 in the eastern US arising from less frequent frontal ventilation, and a likely decrease albeit with greater inter-GCM variability in the Pacific Northwest due to more frequent maritime inflows. Potentially larger regional effects of 2000–2050 climate change on PM2.5 may arise from changes in temperature, biogenic emissions, wildfires, and vegetation, but are still unlikely to affect annual PM2.5 by more than 0.5 μg m−3.

  6. Estimation of local and external contributions of biomass burning to PM2.5 in an industrial zone included in a large urban settlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetello, Francesca; Squizzato, Stefania; Hofer, Angelika; Masiol, Mauro; Khan, Md Badiuzzaman; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Fermo, Paola; Formenton, Gian Maria; Rampazzo, Giancarlo; Pavoni, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    A total of 85 PM 2.5 samples were collected at a site located in a large industrial zone (Porto Marghera, Venice, Italy) during a 1-year-long sampling campaign. Samples were analyzed to determine water-soluble inorganic ions, elemental and organic carbon, and levoglucosan, and results were processed to investigate the seasonal patterns, the relationship between the analyzed species, and the most probable sources by using a set of tools, including (i) conditional probability function (CPF), (ii) conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF), (iii) concentration weighted trajectory (CWT), and (iv) potential source contribution function (PSCF) analyses. Furthermore, the importance of biomass combustions to PM 2.5 was also estimated. Average PM 2.5 concentrations ranged between 54 and 16 μg m -3 in the cold and warm period, respectively. The mean value of total ions was 11 μg m -3 (range 1-46 μg m -3 ): The most abundant ion was nitrate with a share of 44 % followed by sulfate (29 %), ammonium (14 %), potassium (4 %), and chloride (4 %). Levoglucosan accounted for 1.2 % of the PM 2.5 mass, and its concentration ranged from few ng m -3 in warm periods to 2.66 μg m -3 during winter. Average concentrations of levoglucosan during the cold period were higher than those found in other European urban sites. This result may indicate a great influence of biomass combustions on particulate matter pollution. Elemental and organic carbon (EC, OC) showed similar behavior, with the highest contributions during cold periods and lower during summer. The ratios between biomass burning indicators (K + , Cl - , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , levoglucosan, EC, and OC) were used as proxy for the biomass burning estimation, and the contribution to the OC and PM 2.5 was also calculated by using the levoglucosan (LG)/OC and LG/PM 2.5 ratios and was estimated to be 29 and 18 %, respectively.

  7. Extractable organic matter in PM10 from LiWan district of Guangzhou City, PR China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xinhui; Sheng, Guoying; Peng, Peng an; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Fu, Jiamo

    2002-12-02

    PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. The sigma(n)-alkane and sigmaPAHs ranged from 26.4 to 719.2 ng/m3 and 7.4 to 159.4 ng/m3, respectively. A seasonal fluctuation was clearly evident with higher concentrations occurring during the colder months (April). In addition, some compositional differences are observed for the organic compounds in samples collected from different heights above ground level. Higher sites had a significant contribution from vascular plant wax. The presence of petroleum products with no carbon number preference, pristane, phytane and a significant unresolved complex mixture (UCM) with unresolved to resolved components ratio (U/R) of 6.2-13.2 confirm the petroleum component. The relative distribution of n-alkanes and the values of molecular diagnostic ratio, such as carbon preference index (CPI) values ranging from 1.0 to 1.4 (for the whole range of n-alkanes), indicated the importance of petroleum and diesel residues and gasoline emissions, as well as the minor contribution of n-alkanes emitted directly from epicuticular waxes. Indeed, the percent contribution of leaf 'wax' n-alkanes (5.2-19.4%) indicated a low contribution of biogenic sources. The fossil fuel biomarkers, hopanes and steranes were observed in the PM10 samples, which indicate a petroleum origin. The distribution pattern of PAHs was characteristic of anthropogenic emissions. Coupling carbon number maximum (Cmax), CPI, U/R values, molecular marker and molecular diagnostic ratios for alkanes and PAHs revealed a classification of natural biogenic and anthropogenic components of atmospheric aerosols. These analyses support the conclusion that vehicular emission was the major source of organic compounds during the study period, while the contribution of epicuticular waxes emitted by terrestrial plants was minor.

  8. Toxic potential of organic constituents of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in an urban road site (Barcelona).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Sofia R; van Drooge, Barend L; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Grimalt, Joan O; Barata, Carlos; Vieira, Natividade; Guimarães, Laura; Piña, Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a recognized risk factor contributing to a number of diseases in human populations and wildlife globally. Organic matter is a major component of PM, but its contribution to overall toxicity of PM has not been thoroughly evaluated yet. In the present work, the biological activity of organic extracts from PM1 (particles with less than 1 μm of aerodynamic diameter) collected from an urban road site in the centre of Barcelona (NE Spain) was evaluated using a yeast-based assay (AhR-RYA) and different gene expression markers in zebrafish embryos. Dioxin-like activity of the extracts correlated to primary emissions from local traffic exhausts, reflecting weekday/weekend alternance. Expression levels of cyp1a and of gene markers for key cellular processes and development (ier2, fos) also correlated to vehicle emissions, whereas expression of gene markers related to antioxidant defence and endocrine effects (gstal, hao1, ttr) was strongly reduced in samples with strong contribution from regional air masses with aged secondary organic species or with strong influence of biomass burning emissions. Our data suggest that the toxic potential of PM1 organic chemical constituents strongly depends on the emission sources and on the process of ageing from primary to secondary organic aerosols.

  9. Black Carbon and Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Concentrations in New York City’s Subway Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The New York City (NYC) subway is the main mode of transport for over 5 million passengers on an average weekday. Therefore, airborne pollutants in the subway stations could have a significant impact on commuters and subway workers. This study looked at black carbon (BC) and particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in selected subway stations in Manhattan. BC and PM2.5 levels were measured in real time using a Micro-Aethalometer and a PDR-1500 DataRAM, respectively. Simultaneous samples were also collected on quartz filters for organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) analysis and on Teflon filters for gravimetric and trace element analysis. In the underground subway stations, mean real time BC concentrations ranged from 5 to 23 μg/m3, with 1 min average peaks >100 μg/m3, while real time PM2.5 levels ranged from 35 to 200 μg/m3. Mean EC levels ranged from 9 to 12.5 μg/m3. At street level on the same days, the mean BC and PM2.5 concentrations were below 3 and 10 μg/m3, respectively. This study shows that both BC soot and PM levels in NYC’s subways are considerably higher than ambient urban street levels and that further monitoring and investigation of BC and PM subway exposures are warranted. PMID:25409007

  10. A new technique for online measurement of total and water-soluble copper (Cu) in coarse particulate matter (PM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dongbin; Shafer, Martin M.; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a novel system for online, field measurement of copper (Cu) in ambient coarse (2.5–10 μm) particulate matter (PM). This new system utilizes two virtual impactors combined with a modified liquid impinger (BioSampler) to collect coarse PM directly as concentrated slurry samples. The total and water-soluble Cu concentrations are subsequently measured by a copper Ion Selective Electrode (ISE). Laboratory evaluation results indicated excellent collection efficiency (over 85%) for particles in the coarse PM size ranges. In the field evaluations, very good agreements for both total and water-soluble Cu concentrations were obtained between online ISE-based monitor measurements and those analyzed by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Moreover, the field tests indicated that the Cu monitor could achieve near-continuous operation for at least 6 consecutive days (a time resolution of 2–4 h) without obvious shortcomings. - Highlights: • A novel only PM sampling and Cu measuring technology is developed. • Very good particle collection efficiency for coarse PM is observed. • Excellent agreement is obtained between Cu ISE and offline ICP-MS measurements. • The new system can be continuously operated for at least 6 consecutive days. - A new technique for online measurements of Cu in coarse PM is described

  11. Chemical characterization of outdoor and subway fine (PM(2.5-1.0)) and coarse (PM(10-2.5)) particulate matter in Seoul (Korea) by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Sang-Hoon; Willis, Robert; Peters, Thomas M

    2015-02-13

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul (Korea) and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42%-60% (by weight) of fine particulate matter larger than 1 µm (PM(2.5-1.0)) in outdoor samples and 18% of PM2.5-1.0 in subway samples. Iron-containing particles accounted for only 3%-6% in outdoor samples but 69% in subway samples. Qualitatively similar results were found for coarse particulate matter (PM(10-2.5)) with soil/road dust particles dominating outdoor samples (66%-83%) and iron-containing particles contributing most to subway PM(10-2.5) (44%). As expected, soil/road dust particles comprised a greater mass fraction of PM(10-2.5) than PM(2.5-1.0). Also as expected, the mass fraction of iron-containing particles was substantially less in PM(10-2.5) than in PM(2.5-1.0). Results of this study are consistent with known emission sources in the area and with previous studies, which showed high concentrations of iron-containing particles in the subway compared to outdoor sites. Thus, passive sampling with CCSEM-EDX offers an inexpensive means to assess PM(2.5-1.0) and PM(10-2.5) simultaneously and by composition at multiple locations.

  12. Statins attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction induced by exposure to urban particulate matter (PM{sub 10})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Ryohei; Hiraiwa, Kunihiko; Cheng, Jui Chih [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Bai, Ni [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Vincent, Renaud [Environmental Health Sciences and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Francis, Gordon A.; Sin, Don D. [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Van Eeden, Stephan F., E-mail: Stephan.vanEeden@hli.ubc.ca [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (particles less than 10 μm or PM{sub 10}) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have well-established anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of statins on the adverse functional and morphological changes in blood vessels induced by PM{sub 10}. New Zealand White rabbits fed with a high fat diet were subjected to balloon injury to their abdominal aorta followed by PM{sub 10}/saline exposure for 4 weeks ± lovastatin (5 mg/kg/day) treatment. PM{sub 10} exposure accelerated balloon catheter induced plaque formation and increased intimal macrophages and lipid accumulation while lovastatin attenuated these changes and promoted smooth muscle cell recruitment into plaques. PM{sub 10} impaired vascular acetylcholine (Ach) responses and increased vasoconstriction induced by phenylephrine as assessed by wire myograph. Supplementation of nitric oxide improved the impaired Ach responses. PM{sub 10} increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in blood vessels and increased the plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1). Incubation with specific inhibitors for iNOS, COX-2 or ET-1 in the myograph chambers significantly improved the impaired vascular function. Lovastatin decreased the expression of these mediators in atherosclerotic lesions and improved endothelial dysfunction. However, lovastatin was unable to reduce blood lipid levels to the baseline level in rabbits exposed to PM{sub 10}. Taken together, statins protect against PM{sub 10}-induced cardiovascular disease by reducing atherosclerosis and improving endothelial function via their anti-inflammatory properties. - Highlights: • Coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) accelerated balloon injury-induced plaque formation. • Lovastatin decreased intimal

  13. Statins attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction induced by exposure to urban particulate matter (PM10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Ryohei; Hiraiwa, Kunihiko; Cheng, Jui Chih; Bai, Ni; Vincent, Renaud; Francis, Gordon A.; Sin, Don D.; Van Eeden, Stephan F.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (particles less than 10 μm or PM 10 ) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have well-established anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of statins on the adverse functional and morphological changes in blood vessels induced by PM 10 . New Zealand White rabbits fed with a high fat diet were subjected to balloon injury to their abdominal aorta followed by PM 10 /saline exposure for 4 weeks ± lovastatin (5 mg/kg/day) treatment. PM 10 exposure accelerated balloon catheter induced plaque formation and increased intimal macrophages and lipid accumulation while lovastatin attenuated these changes and promoted smooth muscle cell recruitment into plaques. PM 10 impaired vascular acetylcholine (Ach) responses and increased vasoconstriction induced by phenylephrine as assessed by wire myograph. Supplementation of nitric oxide improved the impaired Ach responses. PM 10 increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in blood vessels and increased the plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1). Incubation with specific inhibitors for iNOS, COX-2 or ET-1 in the myograph chambers significantly improved the impaired vascular function. Lovastatin decreased the expression of these mediators in atherosclerotic lesions and improved endothelial dysfunction. However, lovastatin was unable to reduce blood lipid levels to the baseline level in rabbits exposed to PM 10 . Taken together, statins protect against PM 10 -induced cardiovascular disease by reducing atherosclerosis and improving endothelial function via their anti-inflammatory properties. - Highlights: • Coarse particulate matter (PM 10 ) accelerated balloon injury-induced plaque formation. • Lovastatin decreased intimal macrophages, lipid accumulation, and

  14. Spatial Correlation Analysis between Particulate Matter 10 (PM10) Hazard and Respiratory Diseases in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, N. Ha; Tripathi, N. K.

    2014-11-01

    Every year, during dry season, Chiang Mai and other northern provinces of Thailand face the problem of haze which is mainly generated by the burning of agricultural waste and forest fire, contained high percentage of particulate matter. Particulate matter 10 (PM10), being very small in size, can be inhaled easily to the deepest parts of the human lung and throat respiratory functions. Due to this, it increases the risk of respiratory diseases mainly in the case of continuous exposure to this seasonal smog. MODIS aerosol images (MOD04) have been used for four weeks in March 2007 for generating the hazard map by linking to in-situ values of PM10. Simple linear regression model between PM10 and AOD got fair correlation with R2 = 0.7 and was applied to transform PM10 pattern. The hazard maps showed the dominance of PM10 in northern part of Chiang Mai, especially in second week of March when PM10 level was three to four times higher than standard. The respiratory disease records and public health station of each village were collected from Provincial Public Health Department in Chiang Mai province. There are about 300 public health stations out of 2070 villages; hence thiessen polygon was created to determine the representative area of each public health station. Within each thiessen polygon, respiratory disease incident rate (RDIR) was calculated based on the number of patients and population. Global Moran's I was computed for RDIR to explore spatial pattern of diseases through four weeks of March. Moran's I index depicted a cluster pattern of respiratory diseases in 2nd week than other weeks. That made sense for a relationship between PM10 and respiratory diseases infections. In order to examine how PM10 affect the human respiratory system, geographically weighted regression model was used to observe local correlation coefficient between RDIR and PM10 across study area. The result captured a high correlation between respiratory diseases and high level of PM10 in

  15. Short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2,5 and PM10) and the risk of heart rhythm abnormalities and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Małgorzata; Kocot, Krzysztof

    2016-09-28

    Results of epidemiological studies suggest a significant impact of ambient particulate matter air pollution (PM10 and PM2,5) on the health of the population. Increased level of these pollutants is connected with increased rate of daily mortality and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases. Among analyzed health effects, heart arrhythmias and stroke are mentioned most frequently. The aim of the study was to present the current knowledge of potential influence of the exposure to fine particulate matter on the presence of arrhythmias and strokes. Subject literature review suggests, that there is a link between short-term exposure to fine dust and the occurrence of arrhythmias. Results of previous studies indicates that this exposure may lead to significant electrophysiological changes in heart, resulting in higher susceptibility to cardiac rhythm abnormalities. In case of stroke, a stronger correlation between number of hospitalizations and death cases and exposure to fine dust was seen for ischaemic stroke than for haemorhhagic stroke. In addition, a significantly more harmful impact of the exposure to ultra particles (particles of aerodynamic diameter below 2,5 μm) has been confirmed. Among important mechanisms responsible for observed health impact of particulate matter there are: induction and intensification of inflammation, increased oxidative stress, increased autonomic nervous system activity, vasoconstriction, rheological changes and endothelial dysfunction. Among people of higher susceptibility to fine dust negative health impact are: elderly (over 65 years old), obese people, patients with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, patients with diabetes and those with coagulation disorders. For further improvement of general health status, actions aimed at reducing the risk associated with fine dust and at the same time at continuing studies to clarify the biological mechanisms explaining the influence of fine dust on human health are necessary.

  16. Short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2,5 and PM10 and the risk of heart rhythm abnormalities and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kowalska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of epidemiological studies suggest a significant impact of ambient particulate matter air pollution (PM10 and PM2,5 on the health of the population. Increased level of these pollutants is connected with increased rate of daily mortality and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases. Among analyzed health effects, heart arrhythmias and stroke are mentioned most frequently. The aim of the study was to present the current knowledge of potential influence of the exposure to fine particulate matter on the presence of arrhythmias and strokes. Subject literature review suggests, that there is a link between short-term exposure to fine dust and the occurrence of arrhythmias. Results of previous studies indicates that this exposure may lead to significant electrophysiological changes in heart, resulting in higher susceptibility to cardiac rhythm abnormalities. In case of stroke, a stronger correlation between number of hospitalizations and death cases and exposure to fine dust was seen for ischaemic stroke than for haemorhhagic stroke. In addition, a significantly more harmful impact of the exposure to ultra particles (particles of aerodynamic diameter below 2,5 μm has been confirmed. Among important mechanisms responsible for observed health impact of particulate matter there are: induction and intensification of inflammation, increased oxidative stress, increased autonomic nervous system activity, vasoconstriction, rheological changes and endothelial dysfunction. Among people of higher susceptibility to fine dust negative health impact are: elderly (over 65 years old, obese people, patients with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, patients with diabetes and those with coagulation disorders. For further improvement of general health status, actions aimed at reducing the risk associated with fine dust and at the same time at continuing studies to clarify the biological mechanisms explaining the influence of fine dust on human health

  17. LHCb: Measurements of the relative branching fractions of the decay channel $B^{\\pm}\\to p \\bar{p} K^{\\pm}$ including charmonium contributions at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Cardinale, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    The study of the $B^{\\pm}\\to p \\bar{p} K^{\\pm}$ decay channel at LHCb is of great interest since it gives the possibility to study different aspects of the Standard Model and possibly Beyond Standard Model physics. A measurement of the direct CP asymmetry can be performed. Moreover intermediate states such as charmonium and "charmonium-like" resonances in the $p \\bar{p}$ final state can be observed and studied along with their characteristics. A multivariate selection has been implemented to select the interesting events using kinematic and topological variables and the particle identification information using the Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. The selection has a high signal efficiency and high background rejection capability. The ratios of the branching fractions of the $B^{\\pm}\\to p \\bar{p} K^{\\pm}$ decay channel, of the charmless component with $M_{p \\bar{p}} < 2.85 \\,{\\rm GeV/}c^{2}$ and of the charmonium contribution $\\eta_{c}$, ${\\mathcal B} (B^{\\pm}\\to \\eta_{c} K^{\\pm})\\times {\\mathcal B} (\\eta...

  18. Nuclear matter descriptions including quark structure of the hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguet, R.

    2008-07-01

    It is nowadays well established that nucleons are composite objects made of quarks and gluons, whose interactions are described by Quantum chromodynamics (QCD). However, because of the non-perturbative character of QCD at the energies of nuclear physics, a description of atomic nuclei starting from quarks and gluons is still not available. A possible alternative is to construct effective field theories based on hadronic degrees of freedom, in which the interaction is constrained by QCD. In this framework, we have constructed descriptions of infinite nuclear matter in relativistic mean field theories taking into account the quark structure of hadrons. In a first approach, the in medium modifications of mesons properties is dynamically obtained in a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) quark model. This modification is taken into account in a relativistic mean field theory based on a meson exchange interaction between nucleons. The in-medium modification of mesons masses and the properties of infinite nuclear matter have been studied. In a second approach, the long and short range contributions to the in-medium modification of the nucleon are determined. The short range part is obtained in a NJL quark model of the nucleon. The long range part, related to pions exchanges between nucleons, has been determined in the framework of Chiral Perturbation theory. These modifications have been used to constrain the couplings of a point coupling relativistic mean field model. A realistic description of the saturation properties of nuclear matter is obtained. (author)

  19. Elemental characterization of New Year's Day PM10 and PM2.2 particulates matter at several sites in Metro Manila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Flora L; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B; Morco, Ryan P; Racho, Joseph Michael D [Analytical Measurements Research Group, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2007-07-01

    In the Philippines, it has been a yearly tradition to welcome the coming of the New Year with the loudest noise as can be achieved. Firecrackers and fireworks have been a necessity for Filipinos during this time despite bans on the use of most of these and despite the Department of Health (DOH) campaign to use alternative safe practices to welcome the New Year. Data for PM 10 samples (fractionated as PM 10-2.2 or the course fraction and PM2.2 or the fine fraction) collected in four PNRI sampling sites in Metro Manila show the air pollution impacts of fireworks on New Year's Eve. Samples were collected from 1998 to 2006 using a Gent dichotomous sampler in connection with the PNRI project {sup P}articulate Matter Source Apportionment Using Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques{sup .} Particulate mass was determined by gravimetry. Elemental analysis of the air filters was done using X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (X RF) or Particle induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), multielemental non-destructive nuclear analytical techniques. Black carbon was analyzed using reflectometry. PM 10 values increased by two to four times the usual averages (36.4 to 55.4 ug/cum) and in 2002 even exceeded the PNAAQ short-term guideline value of 150 ug/cum at the ADMU sampling station. PM2.2 values increased by two to six times the usual averages (15 to 28 ug/cum), even many times exceeding US EPA short-term guideline value of 65 ug/cum. The increase in the particulate mass of New Year's Day samples can be attributed more to an increase in the metal pollutants rather than the black carbon, with higher contribution to the fine fraction. Increase in the elemental concentrations of Al, S, Cl, K, Ba, Sr, Ti, V, Mn, Cu and Pb were observed with the highest contribution from K. Results show that the usual practices of burning firecrackers and fireworks during New Year's day celebration is a very strong source of air pollution which contributes significantly high amount of metal pollutants in the

  20. Elemental characterization of New Year's Day PM10 and PM2.2 particulates matter at several sites in Metro Manila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Morco, Ryan P.; Racho, Joseph Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    In the Philippines, it has been a yearly tradition to welcome the coming of the New Year with the loudest noise as can be achieved. Firecrackers and fireworks have been a necessity for Filipinos during this time despite bans on the use of most of these and despite the Department of Health (DOH) campaign to use alternative safe practices to welcome the New Year. Data for PM 10 samples (fractionated as PM 10-2.2 or the course fraction and PM2.2 or the fine fraction) collected in four PNRI sampling sites in Metro Manila show the air pollution impacts of fireworks on New Year's Eve. Samples were collected from 1998 to 2006 using a Gent dichotomous sampler in connection with the PNRI project P articulate Matter Source Apportionment Using Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques . Particulate mass was determined by gravimetry. Elemental analysis of the air filters was done using X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (X RF) or Particle induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), multielemental non-destructive nuclear analytical techniques. Black carbon was analyzed using reflectometry. PM 10 values increased by two to four times the usual averages (36.4 to 55.4 ug/cum) and in 2002 even exceeded the PNAAQ short-term guideline value of 150 ug/cum at the ADMU sampling station. PM2.2 values increased by two to six times the usual averages (15 to 28 ug/cum), even many times exceeding US EPA short-term guideline value of 65 ug/cum. The increase in the particulate mass of New Year's Day samples can be attributed more to an increase in the metal pollutants rather than the black carbon, with higher contribution to the fine fraction. Increase in the elemental concentrations of Al, S, Cl, K, Ba, Sr, Ti, V, Mn, Cu and Pb were observed with the highest contribution from K. Results show that the usual practices of burning firecrackers and fireworks during New Year's day celebration is a very strong source of air pollution which contributes significantly high amount of metal pollutants in the air

  1. Contributions to cities' ambient particulate matter (PM): A systematic review of local source contributions at global level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagulian, Federico; Belis, Claudio A.; Dora, Carlos Francisco C.; Prüss-Ustün, Annette M.; Bonjour, Sophie; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Amann, Markus

    2015-11-01

    For reducing health impacts from air pollution, it is important to know the sources contributing to human exposure. This study systematically reviewed and analysed available source apportionment studies on particulate matter (of diameter of 10 and 2.5 microns, PM10 and PM2.5) performed in cities to estimate typical shares of the sources of pollution by country and by region. A database with city source apportionment records, estimated with the use of receptor models, was also developed and available at the website of the World Health Organization. Systematic Scopus and Google searches were performed to retrieve city studies of source apportionment for particulate matter. Six source categories were defined. Country and regional averages of source apportionment were estimated based on city population weighting. A total of 419 source apportionment records from studies conducted in cities of 51 countries were used to calculate regional averages of sources of ambient particulate matter. Based on the available information, globally 25% of urban ambient air pollution from PM2.5 is contributed by traffic, 15% by industrial activities, 20% by domestic fuel burning, 22% from unspecified sources of human origin, and 18% from natural dust and salt. The available source apportionment records exhibit, however, important heterogeneities in assessed source categories and incompleteness in certain countries/regions. Traffic is one important contributor to ambient PM in cities. To reduce air pollution in cities and the substantial disease burden it causes, solutions to sustainably reduce ambient PM from traffic, industrial activities and biomass burning should urgently be sought. However, further efforts are required to improve data availability and evaluation, and possibly to combine with other types of information in view of increasing usefulness for policy making.

  2. Genotoxic effects and oxidative stress induced by organic extracts of particulate matter(PM 10)collected from a subway tunnel in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi Hyun; Kim, Ha Ryong; Park, Yong Joo; Park, Duck Shin; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Oh, Seung Min

    2012-12-12

    Particulate matter (PM) has become an important health risk factor in our society. PM can easily deposit in the bronchi and lungs, causing diverse diseases such as respiratory infections, lung cancers and cardiovascular diseases. In recent days, more and more toxicological studies have been dealing with air particles in distinctive areas including industrial areas, transportation sites, or indoors. Studies on subway PM in particular, have been recognizing PM as an important health risk factor because many people use subways as a major mode of public transportation (4 million people a day in Korea). The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of organic extract (OE) of subway PM10 and potential attribution of PAHs to these effects. Particles were collected in the subway tunnel at Kil-eum station(Line 4) for one month and then extracted with Dichloromethane (DCM). Chinese Hamster Ovary cells(CHO-K1) and human normal bronchial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to OE, and MN and Comet assays were conducted to analyze the genotoxicity. The results showed that OE increased DNA or chromosome damages in both cell lines. In the modified Comet assay and MN assay with free radical scavengers, we confirmed that the genotoxic effect of OE was partially due to the oxidative damage on DNA. DCFHD Aassay also indicated that OE induced ROS generation in BEAS-2B cells. PAHs [benzo(a)anthracene,benzo(k)fluoranthrene, etc.], the most well-known carcinogens in polluted air, were detected in Kil-eum PM10. In conclusion, our findings confirmed that OE of subway PM10 has genotoxic effects on normal human lung cells, and oxidative stress could be one of the major mechanisms of these genotoxic effects.In addition, some genotoxic and carcinogenic PAHs were detected in OE by GC/MS/MS, even though PAHs level was not enough to increase CYP1A1 gene. Therefore, we suggest that additive or synergistic effects by unidentified chemicals as well as PAHs contained in OE of subway

  3. Characterization of an area of reference for inhalable particulate matter (PM2.5) associated with genetic biomonitoring in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva da Silva, Cristiane; Rossato, Juliana Marzari; Vaz Rocha, Jocelita Aparecida; Vargas, Vera Maria Ferrão

    2015-01-15

    Humans are exposed to health-impairing air pollutants, especially children who are more sensitive to cancer-causing toxins. This study described an area of reference for inhalable particulates (PM2.5) by chemical (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and mutagenic characterization associated with the genetic biomonitoring of children (aged 5-11 years). The area studied was in a small town in Brazil, used as reference in previous studies. Organic matter of PM2.5 (extracted with dichloromethane) was evaluated for mutagenesis in a Salmonella/microsome (microsuspension) assay, in strains measuring frameshift error (TA98, YG1021 and YG1024) and base pair substitution (TA100) of DNA, in the presence and absence of rat liver metabolization fraction (S9). Exposure was studied analyzing a sample of 45 children using comet assay (peripheral blood lymphocytes) and micronucleus (exfoliated buccal mucosa cells). PM2.5 concentration for the period was 9% (25.89-64.71 μg/m3) events above WHO limit value (25 μg/m3). Mutagenesis responses (revertants/m3) varied from negative (spring) to 8.3±0.69 (autumn) (-S9) and 5.4±0.36 (winter) (+S9), in strain TA98, and for TA100, in spring, from negative to 14.8±4.23 (-S9) and 17.5±2.72 (+S9). YG strain results show mononitroarenes and aromatic amines. Mean biomonitoring values were established for MN, 0.3±0.41 (‰) and for other cell types a variation from 0.6±0.73 (‰), nuclear buds to 57.5±24.92 (‰), karyorrhexis. Comet assay means were 23.1±12.44; 7.3±11.66 and 0.9±2.30 for tail length, intensity and moment, respectively. There was no difference for sex and age for the different parameters. A significant difference in confounding factors was observed for passive smoking and MN induction. PAHs and mutagenesis in the air may be related to local vehicular emissions. These results challenge the definition of areas of reference for air pollution associated with human biomonitoring including the region studied. Copyright © 2014

  4. Assessment of life quality in patients with bronchial asthma residing in Krakow in the areas of varying concentrations of particulate matter (PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Ścibor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Asthma is a chronic disease, from which more and more people in the world suffer. It is connected with many bothersome symptoms and limitations, which result in decreased quality of life for the patient. Environmental and individual aspects do not necessarily affect individuals in the same way, so it is necessary to determine which factors have predominantly impacted on an individual, in order to minimize their impact and to take better control over treatment of asthma. The aim of this research was to compare the quality of life among patients with bronchial asthma living in Krakow in the areas where they get exposed to varying concentrations of particulate matter (PM10. Material and methods. The study included 98 adults diagnosed with bronchial asthma. The research was conducted using the AQLQ poll. PM10 concentration was measured in several Malopolska Air Pollution Monitoring Stations located throughout the city. Results. Analyzing the quality of life in the view of symptoms, activity limitations and emotional well being, there was a substantial statistical difference observed in people occupying the areas with different PM10 concentrations. No significant statistical difference was observed in the frequency of asthma symptoms caused by the environmental stimuli between the 2 discussed groups. One group of patients who came to the allergy clinic for control of asthma symptoms and the second group who live in the vicinity of the monitoring stations measuring PM10 concentrations. Conclusions. For many of the cases, the quality of life was not worse for patients with asthma living in an area with slightly elevated concentrations of PM10, and sometimes paradoxically the quality of life was improved. These results show that PM10 concentrations do not correlate with quality of life of asthma patients.

  5. Modelling of particulate matter pollution (PM10) over the Etang de Berre area Determination of areas of homogeneous pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocheton, F.; Poulet, D.; Mesbah, B.; Hourdin, G.

    2010-01-01

    AIRFOBEP is the association in charge of the air quality monitoring in the Etang de Berre area. AIRFOBEP is managing a network of ten sensors to monitor the PMI (particulate matter index) particulate pollution. This network is updated once a year according to the Air Quality Monitoring Plan (PSQA). Optimizing this network needs to know how the particulate pollution is distributed in the area. In other words, to determine the limits of homogeneous zones of PM 10 pollution. The aim of the project presented in this article is to produce a map of homogeneous zones of PM 10 pollution in the Etang de Berre area. The project was carried out in two steps: - PM 10 atmospheric dispersion modeling, using a ADMS-URBAN software, - Statistic classification, based on the well known Hierarchical Ascending Classification (HAC) technique. Results of the atmospheric dispersion modeling was namely adjusted using an original technique for the 'background PM 10 pollution' computation. Good performances have been obtained when comparing modeling and measurements data. Finally, a set of five homogeneous zones was found to well describe the PM 10 pollution level distribution in the Etang de Berre area. (author)

  6. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Matthew; Freer-Smith, Peter; Sinnett, Danielle; Aylott, Matthew; Taylor, Gail

    2010-05-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence created by the structure of the urban forest. In this context urban greening has long been known as a mechanism to contribute towards PM10 removal from the air, furthermore, tree canopy cover has a role in contributing towards a more sustainable urban environment. The work reported here has been carried out within the BRIDGE project (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism). The aim of this project is to assess the fluxes of energy, water, carbon dioxide and particulates within the urban environment and develope a DSS (Decision Support System) to aid urban planners in sustainable development. A combination of published urban canopy cover data from ground, airborne and satellite based surveys was used. For each of the 33 London boroughs the urban canopy was classified to three groups, urban woodland, street trees and garden trees and each group quantified in terms of ground cover. The total [PM10] for each borough was taken from the LAEI (London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2006) and the contribution to reducing [PM10] was assessed for each canopy type. Deposition to the urban canopy was assessed using the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) approach. Deposition to the canopy, boundary layer height and percentage reduction of the [PM10] in the atmosphere was assessed using both hourly meterological data and [PM10] and seasonal data derived from annual models. Results from hourly and annual data were compared with measured values. The model was then

  7. Determinants of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) for waiting passengers at bus stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Daniel Baldwin; Ray, Paul David; Stinson, Anne E.; Park, JiYoung

    2010-12-01

    This research evaluates commuter exposure to particulate matter during pre-journey commute segments for passengers waiting at bus stops by investigating 840 min of simultaneous exposure levels, both inside and outside seven bus shelters in Buffalo, New York. A multivariate regression model is used to estimate the relation between exposure to particulate matter (PM 2.5 measured in μg m -3) and three vectors of determinants: time and location, physical setting and placement, and environmental factors. Four determinants have a statistically significant effect on particulate matter: time of day, passengers' waiting location, land use near the bus shelter, and the presence of cigarette smoking at the bus shelter. Model results suggest that exposure to PM 2.5 inside a bus shelter is 2.63 μg m -3 (or 18 percent) higher than exposure outside a bus shelter, perhaps due in part to the presence of cigarette smoking. Morning exposure levels are 6.51 μg m -3 (or 52 percent) higher than afternoon levels. Placement of bus stops can affect exposure to particulate matter for those waiting inside and outside of shelters: air samples at bus shelters located in building canyons have higher particulate matter than bus shelters located near open space.

  8. Final report for "Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prof. Jose-Luis Jimenez

    2009-05-18

    The objectives of this funded project were (a) to further analyze the data collected by our group and collaborators in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 field campaign, with the goal of further our understanding of aerosol sources and processes; and (b) to deploy several advanced instruments, including the newly developed high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and thermal-denuder (TD), during the MILAGRO/MAX-Mex/MCMA-2006 field campaign, and to analyze those data (together with the 2003 data) to provide additional insights on the formation and transformation of aerosols in the Mexico City area. These goals were addressed in collaboration with our project partners, MIT/Molina Center, and Aerodyne Research. Overall this project was very successful, resulting on 22+ journal papers including six “highly cited papers” and three papers that are the most cited in their respective journals (out of several thousand papers) since the year in which they were published. Multiple discoveries, such as the the underestimation of SOA in urban areas even for short photochemical ages, the demonstration that urban POA is of similar or higher volatility than urban SOA, and the first analysis of organic aerosol elemental composition in real-time have been recently published. Several dozen presentations at major US and international conferences and seminars also acknowledged this grant.

  9. Laboratory Validation of Four Black Carbon Measurement Methods for Determination of the Nonvolatile Particulate Matter (nvPM) Mass Emissions from Commercial Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four candidate black carbon (BC) measurement techniques have been identified by the SAE International E-31 Committee for possible use in determining nonvolatile particulate matter (nvPM) mass emissions during commercial aircraft engine certification. These techniques are carbon b...

  10. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects - Part 1: Simple VOCs and model PM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersviller, S.; Lichtveld, K.; Sexton, K. G.; Zavala, J.; Lin, Y.-H.; Jaspers, I.; Jeffries, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    This is the first of a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOC), particulate matter (PM), and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model indicators. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects) from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. The exposure systems permit virtually gas-only- or PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure. Our simple experiments in this part of the study were designed to eliminate many competing atmospheric processes to reduce ambiguity in our results. Simple volatile and semi-volatile organic gases that have inherent cellular toxic properties were tested individually for biological effect in the dark (at constant humidity). Airborne mixtures were then created with each compound to which we added PM that has no inherent cellular toxic properties for another cellular exposure. Acrolein and p-tolualdehyde were used as model VOCs and mineral oil aerosol (MOA) was selected as a surrogate for organic-containing PM. MOA is appropriately complex in composition to represent ambient PM, and exhibits no inherent cellular toxic effects and thus did not contribute any biological detrimental effects on its own. Chemical measurements, combined with the responses of our biological exposures, clearly demonstrate that gas-phase pollutants can modify the composition of PM (and its resulting detrimental effects on lung cells). We observed that, even if the gas-phase pollutants are not

  11. Potential impact of particulate matter less than 10 micron (PM10) to ambient air quality of Jakarta and Palembang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustine, I.; Yulinawati, H.; Gunawan, D.; Suswantoro, E.

    2018-01-01

    Particulate is a main urban air pollutant affects the environment and human wellbeing. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of particulate matter less than 10 micron (PM10) to ambient air quality of Jakarta and Palembang. The analysis is done with calendarPlot Function of openair model, which is based on the calculation of Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) or better known as Air Quality Index (AQI). The AQI category of “moderate” dominates Jakarta’s calendar from 2015 to 2016, which indicates the impact of PM10 is the visibility reduction. There was one day with category “unhealthy” that indicates the impact of dust exposure everywhere in Jakarta during 2015. Similar to Jakarta, the AQI category “moderate” also dominates Palembang’s calendar during 2015. However, the AQI category “hazardous” happened for few days in September and October 2015 during forest fires, which indicates the more harmful impacts of PM10, such as reduced visibility, dust exposure everywhere, increased sensitivity in patients with asthma and bronchitis to respiratory illness in all exposed populations. During 2016, AQI category of Jakarta mostly “moderate”, while in Palembang was “good”. Dominant AQI category from 2015 to 2016 shows higher PM10 concentration occurred in Jakarta compared to Palembang.

  12. Atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Coupled With Point Measurement Air Quality Samplers to Measure Fine Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions From Agricultural Operations: The Los Banos CA Fall 2007 Tillage Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne particles, especially fine particulate matter 2.5 micrometers (μm) or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), are microscopic solids or liquid droplets that can cause serious health problems, including increased respiratory symptoms such as coughing or difficulty breathing...

  13. Trace Elements Speciation of Submicron Particulate Matter (PM1) Collected in the Surroundings of Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira; Kaczmarek, Konrad; Mainka, Anna

    2015-10-16

    This study reports the concentrations of PM1 trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se) content in highly mobile (F1), mobile (F2), less mobile (F3) and not mobile (F4) fractions in samples that were collected in the surroundings of power plants in southern Poland. It also reports source identification by enrichment factors (EF) and a principal component analysis (PCA). There is limited availability of scientific data concerning the chemical composition of dust, including fractionation analyses of trace elements, in the surroundings of power plants. The present study offers important results in order to fill this data gap. The data collected in this study can be utilized to validate air quality models in this rapidly developing area. They are also crucial for comparisons with datasets from similar areas all over the world. Moreover, the identification of the bioavailability of selected carcinogenic and toxic elements in the future might be used as output data for potential biological and population research on risk assessment. This is important in the context of air pollution being hazardous to human health.

  14. Trace Elements Speciation of Submicron Particulate Matter (PM1 Collected in the Surroundings of Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Zajusz-Zubek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the concentrations of PM1 trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se content in highly mobile (F1, mobile (F2, less mobile (F3 and not mobile (F4 fractions in samples that were collected in the surroundings of power plants in southern Poland. It also reports source identification by enrichment factors (EF and a principal component analysis (PCA. There is limited availability of scientific data concerning the chemical composition of dust, including fractionation analyses of trace elements, in the surroundings of power plants. The present study offers important results in order to fill this data gap. The data collected in this study can be utilized to validate air quality models in this rapidly developing area. They are also crucial for comparisons with datasets from similar areas all over the world. Moreover, the identification of the bioavailability of selected carcinogenic and toxic elements in the future might be used as output data for potential biological and population research on risk assessment. This is important in the context of air pollution being hazardous to human health.

  15. [Exploration of a quantitative methodology to characterize the retention of PM2.5 and other atmospheric particulate matter by plant leaves: taking Populus tomentosa as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Xi, Ben-Ye; Cao, Zhi-Guo; Jia, Li-Ming

    2014-08-01

    Taking Populus tomentosa as an example, a methodology called elution-weighing-particle size-analysis (EWPA) was proposed to evaluate quantitatively the ability of retaining fine particulate matter (PM2.5, diameter d ≤ 2.5 μm) and atmospheric particulate matter by plant leaves using laser particle size analyzer and balance. This method achieved a direct, accurate measurement with superior operability about the quality and particle size distribution of atmospheric particulate matter retained by plant leaves. First, a pre-experiment was taken to test the stability of the method. After cleaning, centrifugation and drying, the particulate matter was collected and weighed, and then its particle size distribution was analyzed by laser particle size analyzer. Finally, the mass of particulate matter retained by unit area of leaf and stand was translated from the leaf area and leaf area index. This method was applied to a P. tomentosa stand which had not experienced rain for 27 days in Beijing Olympic Forest Park. The results showed that the average particle size of the atmospheric particulate matter retained by P. tomentosa was 17.8 μm, and the volume percentages of the retained PM2.5, inhalable particulate matter (PM10, d ≤ 10 μm) and total suspended particle (TSP, d ≤ 100 μm) were 13.7%, 47.2%, and 99.9%, respectively. The masses of PM2.5, PM10, TSP and total particulate matter were 8.88 x 10(-6), 30.6 x 10(-6), 64.7 x 10(-6) and 64.8 x 10(-6) g x cm(-2) respectively. The retention quantities of PM2.5, PM10, TSP and total particulate matter by the P. tomentosa stand were 0.963, 3.32, 7.01 and 7.02 kg x hm(-2), respectively.

  16. Modelling of a linear PM machine including magnetic saturation and end effects : maximum force to current ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polinder, H.; Slootweg, J.G.; Hoeijmakers, M.J.; Compter, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    The use of linear permanent-magnet (PM) actuators increases in a wide variety of applications because of their high force density, robustness and accuracy. These linear PM motors are often heavily loaded during short intervals of high acceleration, so that magnetic saturation occurs. This paper

  17. Chemical Characterization of Outdoor and Subway Fine (PM2.5–1.0) and Coarse (PM10–2.5) Particulate Matter in Seoul (Korea) by Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Sang-Hoon; Willis, Robert; Peters, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul (Korea) and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42%–60% (by weight) of fine particulate matter larger than 1 µm (PM2.5–1.0) in outdoor samples and 18% of PM2.5–1.0 in subway samples. Iron-containing particles accounted for only 3%–6% in outdoor samples but 69% in subway samples. Qualitatively similar results were found for coarse particulate matter (PM10–2.5) with soil/road dust particles dominating outdoor samples (66%–83%) and iron-containing particles contributing most to subway PM10–2.5 (44%). As expected, soil/road dust particles comprised a greater mass fraction of PM10–2.5 than PM2.5–1.0. Also as expected, the mass fraction of iron-containing particles was substantially less in PM10–2.5 than in PM2.5–1.0. Results of this study are consistent with known emission sources in the area and with previous studies, which showed high concentrations of iron-containing particles in the subway compared to outdoor sites. Thus, passive sampling with CCSEM-EDX offers an inexpensive means to assess PM2.5–1.0 and PM10-2.5 simultaneously and by composition at multiple locations. PMID:25689348

  18. Chemical Characterization of Outdoor and Subway Fine (PM2.5–1.0 and Coarse (PM10–2.5 Particulate Matter in Seoul (Korea by Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Byeon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor and indoor (subway samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul (Korea and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX. Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42%–60% (by weight of fine particulate matter larger than 1 µm (PM2.5–1.0 in outdoor samples and 18% of PM2.5–1.0 in subway samples. Iron-containing particles accounted for only 3%–6% in outdoor samples but 69% in subway samples. Qualitatively similar results were found for coarse particulate matter (PM10–2.5 with soil/road dust particles dominating outdoor samples (66%–83% and iron-containing particles contributing most to subway PM10–2.5 (44%. As expected, soil/road dust particles comprised a greater mass fraction of PM10–2.5 than PM2.5–1.0. Also as expected, the mass fraction of iron-containing particles was substantially less in PM10–2.5 than in PM2.5–1.0. Results of this study are consistent with known emission sources in the area and with previous studies, which showed high concentrations of iron-containing particles in the subway compared to outdoor sites. Thus, passive sampling with CCSEM-EDX offers an inexpensive means to assess PM2.5–1.0 and PM10-2.5 simultaneously and by composition at multiple locations.

  19. Neighborhood Perceptions and Cumulative Impacts of Low Level Chronic Exposure to Fine Particular Matter (PM2.5 on Cardiopulmonary Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M. C. Malecki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse perceptions of neighborhood safety, aesthetics and quality including access to resources can induce stress and may make individuals more sensitive to cardiopulmonary effects of air pollution exposure. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions as important and modifiable non-chemical stressors of the built environment that may exacerbate effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary health outcomes, particularly among general population based cohorts. This study examined associations between low-level chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and cardiopulmonary health, and the potential mediating or modifying effects of adverse neighborhood perceptions. Using data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW, 2230 non-asthmatic adults age 21–74 were included in the analyses. The overall goals of this study were to assess if individuals who experience stress from neighborhood environments in which they live were more sensitive to low levels of fine particular matter (PM2.5 μg/m3. Demographic predictors of air pollution exposure included younger age, non-White race, lower education and middle class income. After adjustments, objective lung function measures (FEV1 and FEV1 to FVC ratio were the only cardiopulmonary health indicators significantly associated with chronic three-year annual averages of PM2.5. Among all non-asthmatics, a ten unit increase in estimated three year annual average PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with lower forced expiratory volume (L in one second FEV1 (β = −0.40 μg/L; 95% CI −0.45, −0.06. Among all individuals, adverse perceptions of the neighborhood built environment did not appear to statistically moderate or mediate associations. However, stratified analysis did reveal significant associations between PM2.5 and lung function (FEV1 only among individuals with negative perceptions and increased reports of neighborhood stressors. These findings included individuals who

  20. Neighborhood Perceptions and Cumulative Impacts of Low Level Chronic Exposure to Fine Particular Matter (PM2.5) on Cardiopulmonary Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Kristen M C; Schultz, Amy A; Bergmans, Rachel S

    2018-01-06

    Adverse perceptions of neighborhood safety, aesthetics and quality including access to resources can induce stress and may make individuals more sensitive to cardiopulmonary effects of air pollution exposure. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions as important and modifiable non-chemical stressors of the built environment that may exacerbate effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary health outcomes, particularly among general population based cohorts. This study examined associations between low-level chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and cardiopulmonary health, and the potential mediating or modifying effects of adverse neighborhood perceptions. Using data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), 2230 non-asthmatic adults age 21-74 were included in the analyses. The overall goals of this study were to assess if individuals who experience stress from neighborhood environments in which they live were more sensitive to low levels of fine particular matter (PM 2.5 μg/m³). Demographic predictors of air pollution exposure included younger age, non-White race, lower education and middle class income. After adjustments, objective lung function measures (FEV1 and FEV1 to FVC ratio) were the only cardiopulmonary health indicators significantly associated with chronic three-year annual averages of PM 2.5 . Among all non-asthmatics, a ten unit increase in estimated three year annual average PM 2.5 exposure was significantly associated with lower forced expiratory volume (L) in one second FEV1 (β = -0.40 μg/L; 95% CI -0.45, -0.06). Among all individuals, adverse perceptions of the neighborhood built environment did not appear to statistically moderate or mediate associations. However, stratified analysis did reveal significant associations between PM 2.5 and lung function (FEV1) only among individuals with negative perceptions and increased reports of neighborhood stressors. These findings included individuals who felt their

  1. Temporal multiscaling characteristics of particulate matter PM 10 and ground-level ozone O3 concentrations in Caribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plocoste, Thomas; Calif, Rudy; Jacoby-Koaly, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    A good knowledge of the intermittency of atmospheric pollutants is crucial for air pollution management. We consider here particulate matter PM 10 and ground-level ozone O3 time series in Guadeloupe archipelago which experiments a tropical and humid climate in the Caribbean zone. The aim of this paper is to study their scaling statistics in the framework of fully developed turbulence and Kolmogorov's theory. Firstly, we estimate their Fourier power spectra and consider their scaling properties in the physical space. The power spectra computed follows a power law behavior for both considered pollutants. Thereafter we study the scaling behavior of PM 10 and O3 time series. Contrary to numerous studies where the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis is frequently applied, here, the classical structure function analysis is used to extract the scaling exponent or multifractal spectrum ζ(q) ; this function provides a full characterization of a process at all intensities and all scales. The obtained results show that PM 10 and O3 possess intermittent and multifractal properties. The singularity spectrum MS(α) also confirms both pollutants multifractal features. The originality of this work comes from a statistical modeling performed on ζ(q) and MS(α) by a lognormal model to compute the intermittency parameter μ. By contrast with PM 10 which mainly depends on puffs of Saharan dust (synoptic-scale), O3 is more intermittent due to variability of its local precursors. The results presented in this paper can help to better understand the mechanisms governing the dynamics of PM 10 and O3 in Caribbean islands context.

  2. Respiratory health risks and exposure to particulate matter (PM 2.5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A validated questionnaire for respiratory health was administered to 102 waste pickers and exposure to environmental and personal PM2.5 was evaluated. There was a relatively high prevalence of chronic cough and wheeze amongst all participants (57% and 51% respectively). Males reported a higher frequency of cough ...

  3. Environmental pollution: quantitative analysis of particulate matter (PM10) by SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Melo Junior, Ariston da Silva; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de

    2007-01-01

    The atmospheric pollution is a concern in the great urban centers, due its association with man pathologies. The Campinas region is one of the most urbanized of the Sao Paulo State and an important industrial center. Thus, due to its location and importance were installed three samplers for particulate material (PM 10 ). One sampler was located in downtown of Campinas city, in an avenue with high vehicular flow. Another sampler was installed in the UNICAMP campus and the third one in Paulinia city, near to REPLAN. For downtown of Campinas city PM 10 concentrations higher than regular air quality established by CETESB (150 μg.m -3 ) was observed. The PM 10 values for Paulinia and downtown of Campinas were higher than Barao Geraldo location. Employing SR-TXRF was possible identify and quantify 19 elements in the particulate material samples. All the measurements were performed at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, Campinas, SP. After statistics analysis by principal components and cluster analysis was possible to assemble the elements according emission sources. The dusty soil for coarse fraction contributed with 62%, 51% and 46% for Barao Geraldo, Paulinia and downtown of Campinas, respectively. The vehicular emission was responsible for 16% at downtown Campinas city as expected due to high vehicular flow at sampling place. The vehicular and industrial emissions contributed with 20% and 25%, respectively at Paulinia sampling site. The industrial emissions observed for Barao Geraldo and downtown of Campinas city were 27% and 33%, respectively. (author)

  4. PM-10 and heavy metals in particulate matter of the province of Lecce (Apulia, Southern Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buccolieri, Alessandro; Buccolieri, Giovanni [Lecce Univ., Lecce (Italy). Dipartimento di scienza dei materiali; Cardellicchio, Nicola [CNR-Istituto par l' ambiente marino costiero, Taranto (Italy); Dell' Atti, Angelo [Lecce Univ., Lecce (Italy). Dipartimento di scienza dei materiali; Osservatorio dell' inquinamento dell' atmosfera e dello spazio circumterrestre, Campi Salentina (Italy); Florio, Elena Tiziana [Osservatorio dell' inquinamento dell' atmosfera e dello spazio circumterrestre, Campi Salentina (Italy)

    2005-01-15

    This parer shows the results of a preliminary study of air monitoring in the province of Lecce (Apulia, Southem Italy). In particular, the attention has been focused on the determination of the PM-1O level and of the concentration of nine metals (C d, Cf, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) present on the filters which were collected in two towns (Lecce and Campi Salentina) from 2002 until 2003. The metals have been chosen on the basis of their toxicity and of their possible use as chemical tracers. The results have proved that PM-1O values and metals concentrations did not show substantial difference between the two towns and that PM-1O level and lead concentration are below the limit established by Italian law in force. The experiments have demonstrated a high correlation between iron and manganese in both sampling sites; this could be attributed to pollution of metallurgical origin. Multivariate statistical analysis, carried out by HCA and PCA methods, has been used in order to differentiate samples in relation to sampling sites, sampling period and meteorological conditions.

  5. Environmental pollution: quantitative analysis of particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Melo Junior, Ariston da Silva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mails: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; juniorariston@gmail.com; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br

    2007-07-01

    The atmospheric pollution is a concern in the great urban centers, due its association with man pathologies. The Campinas region is one of the most urbanized of the Sao Paulo State and an important industrial center. Thus, due to its location and importance were installed three samplers for particulate material (PM{sub 10}). One sampler was located in downtown of Campinas city, in an avenue with high vehicular flow. Another sampler was installed in the UNICAMP campus and the third one in Paulinia city, near to REPLAN. For downtown of Campinas city PM{sub 10} concentrations higher than regular air quality established by CETESB (150 {mu}g.m{sup -3}) was observed. The PM{sub 10} values for Paulinia and downtown of Campinas were higher than Barao Geraldo location. Employing SR-TXRF was possible identify and quantify 19 elements in the particulate material samples. All the measurements were performed at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, Campinas, SP. After statistics analysis by principal components and cluster analysis was possible to assemble the elements according emission sources. The dusty soil for coarse fraction contributed with 62%, 51% and 46% for Barao Geraldo, Paulinia and downtown of Campinas, respectively. The vehicular emission was responsible for 16% at downtown Campinas city as expected due to high vehicular flow at sampling place. The vehicular and industrial emissions contributed with 20% and 25%, respectively at Paulinia sampling site. The industrial emissions observed for Barao Geraldo and downtown of Campinas city were 27% and 33%, respectively. (author)

  6. 75 FR 36678 - In the Matter of Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-697] In the Matter of Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic Devices; Notice of Commission Decision Not to... importation of certain authentication systems, including software and handheld electronic devices, by reason...

  7. Mobile air quality studies (MAQS in inner cities: particulate matter PM10 levels related to different vehicle driving modes and integration of data into a geographical information program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uibel Stefanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate matter (PM is assumed to exert a major burden on public health. Most studies that address levels of PM use stationary measure systems. By contrast, only few studies measure PM concentrations under mobile conditions to analyze individual exposure situations. Methods By combining spatial-temporal analysis with a novel vehicle-mounted sensor system, the present Mobile Air Quality Study (MAQS aimed to analyse effects of different driving conditions in a convertible vehicle. PM10 was continuously monitored in a convertible car, driven with roof open, roof closed, but windows open, or windows closed. Results PM10 values inside the car were nearly always higher with open roof than with roof and windows closed, whereas no difference was seen with open or closed windows. During the day PM10 values varied with high values before noon, and occasional high median values or standard deviation values due to individual factors. Vehicle speed in itself did not influence the mean value of PM10; however, at traffic speed (10 – 50 km/h the standard deviation was large. No systematic difference was seen between PM10 values in stationary and mobile cars, nor was any PM10 difference observed between driving within or outside an environmental (low emission zone. Conclusions The present study has shown the feasibility of mobile PM analysis in vehicles. Individual exposure of the occupants varies depending on factors like time of day as well as ventilation of the car; other specific factors are clearly identifiably and may relate to specific PM10 sources. This system may be used to monitor individual exposure ranges and provide recommendations for preventive measurements. Although differences in PM10 levels were found under certain ventilation conditions, these differences are likely not of concern for the safety and health of passengers.

  8. Particulate matter (PM 10 ) in Istanbul: Origin, source areas and potential impact on surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, M.; Theodosi, C.; Zarmpas, P.; Im, U.; Bougiatioti, A.; Yenigun, O.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2011-12-01

    Water-soluble ions (Cl -, NO3-, SO42-, CO4-, Na +, NH4+, K +, Mg 2+,Ca 2+), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic and elemental carbon (OC, EC) and trace metals (Al, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) were measured in aerosol PM 10 samples above the megacity of Istanbul between November 2007 and June 2009. Source apportionment analysis using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) indicates that approximately 80% of the PM 10 is anthropogenic in origin (secondary, refuse incineration, fuel oil and solid fuel combustion and traffic). Crustal and sea salt account for 10.2 and 7.5% of the observed mass, respectively. In general, anthropogenic (except secondary) aerosol shows higher concentrations and contributions in winter. Mean concentration and contribution of crustal source is found to be more important during the transitional period due to mineral dust transport from North Africa. During the sampling period, 42 events exceeding the limit value of 50 μg m -3 are identified. A significant percentage (91%; n = 38) of these exceedances is attributed to anthropogenic sources. Potential Source Contribution Function analysis highlights that Istanbul is affected from distant sources from Balkans and Western Europe during winter and from Eastern Europe during summer. On the other hand, Istanbul sources influence western Black Sea and Eastern Europe during winter and Aegean and Levantine Sea during summer.

  9. Concentrations of Platinum Group Elements (Pt, Pd, Rh in Airborne Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Collected at Selected Canadian Urban Sites: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celo V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing environmental concentrations of platinum group elements (PGEs, in particular platinum (Pt, palladium (Pd and rhodium (Rh, from catalytic converters has been reported worldwide. Initially it was believed that the emitted PGEs remain in the roadside environment, but recent studies have shown that fine PGE-containing particles can be transported and distributed at regional and long-range levels. Therefore, the monitoring of PGEs in airborne particulate matter (PM is important for the estimation of potential risks to human health and to the ecosystem. The aim of this study is to present the first results from an analysis on the concentration and distribution of Pt, Pd and Rh in PM collected on Teflon filters at two selected urban sites (Toronto, Ontario; Edmonton, Alberta collected within the Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS network. In this work, a quadruple inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, combined with microwave assisted acid digestion using aqua regia was used. A cation exchange separation was used to alleviate the matrix-induced spectral and nonspectral interferences prior to ICP-MS analysis. To obtain sufficient material needed for PGEs analysis, fine PM (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mm; PM2.5 and coarse PM (with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 mm; PM10-2.5 samples were combined into composite samples on a seasonal basis. The obtained results will be discussed and compared with literature data.

  10. Activation of different pathways of apoptosis by air pollution particulate matter (PM2.5) in human epithelial lung cells (L132) in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagher, Zeina; Garcon, Guillaume; Billet, Sylvain; Gosset, Pierre; Ledoux, Frederic; Courcot, Dominique; Aboukais, Antoine; Shirali, Pirouz

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated the increase of respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity with high levels of air pollution particulate matter (PM). However, the underlying mechanisms of actions by which PM induce adverse health effects are still unclear. We have recently undertaken an extensive investigation of the adverse health effects of air pollution PM 2.5 , and shown that in vitro short-term exposure to PM 2.5 induced oxidative stress and inflammation in human lung epithelial cells (L132). Hence, it was convenient to complete the physical and chemical characterization of PM and to investigate whether in vitro short-term exposure to PM could be imply in the activation of apoptosis. Accordingly, we found that 92.15% of PM were equal or smaller than 2.5 μm and their specific surface area was 1 m 2 /g. Inorganic (i.e. Fe, Al, Ca, Na, K, Mg, Pb, etc.) and organic (i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) chemicals were found in PM, suggesting that much of them derived from wind-borne dust from the industrial complex and the heavy motor vehicle traffic. In other respects, we showed that PM exposure induced apoptosis by activating not only the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced pathway (i.e. TNF-α secretion, caspase-8 and -3 activation), but also the mitochondrial pathway (i.e. 8-hydroxy-2'-desoxyguanosine formation, cytochrome c release from mitochondria, caspase-9 and -3 activation). Moreover, changes in the transcription rates of p53, bcl-2, and bax genes, on the one hand, and DNA fragmentation, on the other hand, were reported in PM-exposed proliferating L132 cells, revealing the occurrence of apoptotic events. Taken together, these findings suggested that in vitro short-term exposure to PM 2.5 induced apoptosis in L132 cells

  11. TNFα and IL-6 Responses to Particulate Matter in Vitro: Variation According to PM Size, Season, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Soil Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano-León, Natalia; Serrano-Lomelin, Jesús; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Vega, Elizabeth; Vázquez-López, Inés; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; López-Villegas, Maria Tania; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Perez, Irma Rosas; O’Neill, Marie S.; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Observed seasonal differences in particulate matter (PM) associations with human health may be due to their composition and to toxicity-related seasonal interactions. Objectives: We assessed seasonality in PM composition and in vitro PM pro-inflammatory potential using multiple PM samples. Methods: We collected 90 weekly PM10 and PM2.5 samples during the rainy-warm and dry-cold seasons in five urban areas with different pollution sources. The elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and endotoxins identified in the samples were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). We tested the potential of the PM to induce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretion in cultured human monocytes (THP-1), and we modeled pro-inflammatory responses using the component scores. Results: PM composition varied by size and by season. PCA identified two main components that varied by season. Combustion-related constituents (e.g., vanadium, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene) mainly comprised component 1 (C1). Soil-related constituents (e.g., endotoxins, silicon, aluminum) mainly comprised component 2 (C2). PM from the rainy-warm season was high in C2. PM (particularly PM2.5) from the dry-cold season was rich in C1. Elevated levels of cytokine production were associated with PM10 and C2 (rainy-warm season), whereas reduced levels of cytokine production were associated with PM2.5 and C1 (dry-cold season). TNFα secretion was increased following exposure to PM with high (vs. low) C2 content, but TNFα secretion in response to PM was decreased following exposure to samples containing ≥ 0.1% of C1-related PAHs, regardless of C2 content. The results of the IL-6 assays suggested more complex interactions between PM components and particle size. Conclusions: Variations in PM soil and PAH content underlie seasonal and PM size–related patterns in TNFα secretion. These results suggest that the mixture of components in PM explains some

  12. 75 FR 49524 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions, Media Players, and Cameras; Notice...

  13. 76 FR 34101 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions, Media Players, and Cameras; Notice...

  14. 75 FR 65654 - In the Matter of: Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of: Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including Televisions, Media Players, and Cameras; Notice...

  15. Impact of the global economic crisis on metal levels in particulate matter (PM) at an urban area in the Cantabria Region (Northern Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruti, A.; Fernandez-Olmo, I.; Irabien, A.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution by particulate matter is well linked with anthropogenic activities; the global economic crisis that broke out in the last year may be a proper indicator of this close relationship. Some economic indicators show the regional effects of the crisis on the Cantabria Region. The present work aims to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on PM10 levels and composition at the major city of the region, Santander. Some metals linked to anthropogenic activities were measured at Santander and studied by Positive Matrix Factorization; this statistical analysis allowed to identify three main factors: urban background, industrial and molybdenum-related factor. The main results show that the temporal trend of the levels of the industrial tracers found in the present study are well agree with the evolution of the studied economic indicators; nevertheless, the urban background tracers and PM10 concentration levels are not well correlated with the studied economic indicators. - Highlights: → The impact of the crisis is higher on the PM-bound metal levels than on the PM levels. → The crisis effects on the trace metal associated to the urban background are negligible. → The temporal trend of the industrial trace metals levels and the studied economic indicators is similar. → The crisis effects on the main industrial tracer levels in PM2.5 and PM10 are similar. - The study presents an evaluation of the economic crisis impact on PM levels and composition at a coastal urban area in the Region of Cantabria (Northern Spain).

  16. Concentrations of Platinum Group Elements (Pt, Pd, Rh) in Airborne Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10-2.5) Collected at Selected Canadian Urban Sites: a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Celo V.; Zhao J. J.; Dabek-Zlotorzynska E.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing environmental concentrations of platinum group elements (PGEs), in particular platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh), from catalytic converters has been reported worldwide. Initially it was believed that the emitted PGEs remain in the roadside environment, but recent studies have shown that fine PGE-containing particles can be transported and distributed at regional and long-range levels. Therefore, the monitoring of PGEs in airborne particulate matter (PM) is important for...

  17. PREFACE: SPECIAL SECTION OF THE JOURNAL OF AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, EXPOSURE AND THE FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON PM AND HUMAN HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dedicated issue of the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association contains 17 peer-reviewed scientific papers that were presented at the specialty conference, “Particulate Matter: Atmospheric Sciences, Exposure and the Fourth Colloquium on PM and Human Health,” that w...

  18. A low-cost particulate matter (PM2.5) monitor for wildland fire smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Scott; Quinn, Casey; Miller-Lionberg, Daniel; Volckens, John

    2018-02-01

    Wildfires and prescribed fires produce emissions that degrade visibility and are harmful to human health. Smoke emissions and exposure monitoring is critical for public and environmental health protection; however, ground-level measurements of smoke from wildfires and prescribed fires has proven difficult, as existing (validated) monitoring technologies are expensive, cumbersome, and generally require line power. Few ground-based measurements are made during fire events, which limits our ability to assess the environmental and human health impacts of wildland fire smoke. The objective of this work was to develop and validate an Outdoor Aerosol Sampler (OAS) - a filter-based air sampler that has been miniaturized, solar powered, and weatherproofed. This sampler was designed to overcome several of the technical challenges of wildland fire monitoring by being relatively inexpensive and solar powered. The sampler design objectives were achieved by leveraging low-cost electronic components, open-source programming platforms, and in-house fabrication methods. A direct-reading PM2.5 sensor was selected and integrated with the OAS to provide time-resolved concentration data. Cellular communications established via short message service (SMS) technology were utilized in transmitting online sensor readings and controlling the sampling device remotely. A Monte Carlo simulation aided in the selection of battery and solar power necessary to independently power the OAS, while keeping cost and size to a minimum. Thirteen OAS were deployed to monitor smoke concentrations downwind from a large prescribed fire. Aerosol mass concentrations were interpolated across the monitoring network to depict smoke concentration gradients in the vicinity of the fire. Strong concentration gradients were observed (spatially and temporally) and likely present due to a combination of changing fire location and intensity, topographical features (e.g., mountain ridges), and diurnal weather patterns

  19. A low-cost particulate matter (PM2.5 monitor for wildland fire smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kelleher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires and prescribed fires produce emissions that degrade visibility and are harmful to human health. Smoke emissions and exposure monitoring is critical for public and environmental health protection; however, ground-level measurements of smoke from wildfires and prescribed fires has proven difficult, as existing (validated monitoring technologies are expensive, cumbersome, and generally require line power. Few ground-based measurements are made during fire events, which limits our ability to assess the environmental and human health impacts of wildland fire smoke. The objective of this work was to develop and validate an Outdoor Aerosol Sampler (OAS – a filter-based air sampler that has been miniaturized, solar powered, and weatherproofed. This sampler was designed to overcome several of the technical challenges of wildland fire monitoring by being relatively inexpensive and solar powered. The sampler design objectives were achieved by leveraging low-cost electronic components, open-source programming platforms, and in-house fabrication methods. A direct-reading PM2.5 sensor was selected and integrated with the OAS to provide time-resolved concentration data. Cellular communications established via short message service (SMS technology were utilized in transmitting online sensor readings and controlling the sampling device remotely. A Monte Carlo simulation aided in the selection of battery and solar power necessary to independently power the OAS, while keeping cost and size to a minimum. Thirteen OAS were deployed to monitor smoke concentrations downwind from a large prescribed fire. Aerosol mass concentrations were interpolated across the monitoring network to depict smoke concentration gradients in the vicinity of the fire. Strong concentration gradients were observed (spatially and temporally and likely present due to a combination of changing fire location and intensity, topographical features (e.g., mountain ridges, and

  20. A possible link between particulate matter air pollution and type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volders, Evelien

    2008-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is most commonly referred to as PM10 and can be subdivided into coarse particles, fine particles and ultrafine particles. Sources of PM air pollution include combustion from car engines and industrial processes. Expos

  1. 75 FR 448 - In the Matter of: Certain Authentication Systems, Including Software and Handheld Electronic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-697] In the Matter of: Certain Authentication... the sale within the United States after importation of certain authentication systems, including... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of authentication systems, including...

  2. Biomagnetic monitoring of particulate matter (PM through leaves of an invasive alien plant Lantana camara in an Indo-Burma hot spot region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Present study was performed in urban forests of Aizawl, Mizoram, North East India falling under an Indo-Burma hot spot region of existing ecological relevance and pristine environment. Phyto-sociolology of invasive weeds has been performed and results revealed that Lantana camara was the most dominant invasive weed. Further, the air quality studies revealed high suspended particulate matter (SPM as well as respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM in ambient air of Aizawl, Mizoram, North East India. Bio-magnetic monitoring through plant leaves has been recognised as recent thrust area in the field of particulate matter (PM science. We aimed to investigate that whether magnetic properties of Lantana camara leaves may act as proxy of PM pollution and hence an attempt towards it's sustainable management. Magnetic susceptibility (χ, Anhyste reticremanent magnetization (ARM and Saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM of Lantana camara plant leaves were assessed and concomitantly correlated these magnetic properties with ambient PM in order to screen this invasive plant which may act as proxy for ambient PM concentrations. Results revealed high χ, ARM, SIRM of Lantana camara leaves and moreover, these parameters were having significant and positive correlation with ambient SPM as well as RSPM. Therefore, present study recommended the use of Lantana camara as bio-magnetic monitor which may further have sustainable management implications of an invasive plant.

  3. Assessment of social losses of pollution's health caused by man-made pollution of atmospheric air with emissions of particulate matters (PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turos Ye.I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to available estimates, about 3% of lethal outcomes from cardiac-pulmonary pathology and 5% from lung cancer are related to the impact of patriculate matters (PM. In the course of the study there were assessed social losses of population’s health (additional death cases caused by risk conditions of atmospheric air pollution with PM of various air-dynamic diameter (PM10, proper to emissions of various industrial enterprises. It was established that 90% of population of cities under study live under high exposures (≥50 µg/m3 health and risks for population (IRM=10-3÷10-4, caused by PM10 emissions. Results showed that metallurgical industry is responsible for 7,2 to 2193 additional mortality cases. The impact of machine building enterprises – from 0.06 to 21 cases; coke and chemical – from 1.5 to 36 cases; mining – from 1.1 to 14,6 cases. The findings revealed 0.6 % increase in lifetime mortality for each 10 µg/m3 in 24-hour average PM10 concentration. Based on research outcomes, a set of instruments was developed for implementation of air pollution risk management programs aimed at mitigation of health risks from (PM10 in highly exposed groups.

  4. Punicalagin and (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Rescue Cell Viability and Attenuate Inflammatory Responses of Human Epidermal Keratinocytes Exposed to Airborne Particulate Matter PM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Jin Kyung; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Young Mi; Boo, Yong Chool

    2018-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter with a diameter of < 10 µm (PM10) causes oxidative damage, inflammation, and premature skin aging. In this study, we evaluated whether polyphenolic antioxidants attenuate the inflammatory responses of PM10-exposed keratinocytes. Primary human epidermal keratinocytes were exposed in vitro to PM10 in the absence or presence of punicalagin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which are the major polyphenolic antioxidants found in pomegranate and green tea, respectively. Assays were performed to determine cell viability, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and expression of NADPH oxidases (NOX), proinflammatory cytokines, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1. PM10 decreased cell viability and increased ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. It also increased the expression levels of NOX-1, NOX-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-1. Punicalagin was not cytotoxic up to 300 μM, and (-)-EGCG was cytotoxic above 30 μM, respectively. Further, punicalagin (3-30 μM) and EGCG (3-10 μM) rescued the viability of PM10-exposed cells. They also attenuated ROS production and the expression of NOX-1, NOX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-1 stimulated by PM10. This study demonstrates that polyphenolic antioxidants, such as punicalagin and (-)-EGCG, rescue keratinocyte viability and attenuate the inflammatory responses of these cells due to airborne particles. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) personal exposure evaluation on mechanics and administrative officers at the motor vehicle testing center at Pulo Gadung, DKI Jakarta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizky, Zuly Prima; Yolla, Patricia Bebby; Ramdhan, Doni Hikmat

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in both the short and long term has been known to cause deaths and health effects, especially related to the heart, blood vessels, and lungs. Based on this information, researchers conducted this study at a motor vehicle testing center unit at Pulo Gadung, in Jarkarta, to determine the concentration of PM2.5 that workers were exposed to. The major source of PM2.5 in this area is from the exhaust of gas emissions from motor vehicles, which is one of the largest contributors to the levels of PM in urban areas. Ten mechanics were picked from 16 mechanics that work in this station. Four administration workers from different posts were also picked to participate. The researcher conducted the PM2.5 personal exposure measurement during weekdays from 6 to 14 April 2015 (2 workers/day). This research was conducted to measure the particle number concentration with size Organization Air Quality Guidelines, the PM2.5 exposure of the mechanics and administrative officers exceeded the recommended exposure (25 μm/m3).

  6. Assessing the cytotoxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and its relationship with the PM chemical composition and oxidative potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixiang; Plewa, Michael J.; Mukherjee, Ujjal Kumar; Verma, Vishal

    2018-04-01

    We assessed mammalian cell cytotoxicity of ambient PM2.5 and investigated its association with the oxidative potential (OP) and chemical composition of the particles. Sixteen PM samples spanning in various seasons (fall, winter, spring and summer) were collected from an urban site in central Illinois. Cytotoxicity (LC50) in terms of the volume of air that kills 50% of the cells were calculated, which varied from 4.3 to 7.2 m3 of air. The OP was measured by two assays - the dithiothreitol (DTT) and the surrogate lung fluid (SLF) assay. In DTT assay, we measured two endpoints - hydroxyl radicals (•OH) generation and DTT consumption (the conventionally measured endpoint), while only •OH generation was measured in the SLF assay. Although, all three endpoints in the OP assays correlated significantly (P ≤ 0.05) with LC50, the correlation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in DTT and SLF assays was much higher (r > 0.80 for •OH generation versus LC50) than the DTT consumption (r = 0.58). To further understand the components in PM that drive cytotoxicity and OP, concentration of water-soluble metals (Fe, Cu, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Hg, and Zn), organic carbon (OC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and elemental carbon (EC) were measured. Among all the chemical components, Fe, Cu and WSOC correlated most (r > 0.70; P ≤ 0.01) with the cytotoxicity. DTT consumption correlated only with OC and WSOC (r > 0.80; P ≤ 0.01), while •OH generation in DTT and SLF assay correlated with both WSOC (r > 0.70; P ≤ 0.01) and metals (i.e. Fe and Cu; r > 0.75; P ≤ 0.01). Our results suggest a strong link between the PM2.5 OP and its cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the synergistic interactions among the organic compounds (i.e. WSOC) and metals (Fe and Cu) to enhance the ROS generation, which are more effectively captured in •OH generation endpoints in DTT and SLF assay than the DTT consumption, appear to be largely responsible for the observed mammalian cell

  7. 75 FR 10502 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Handheld Wireless Communications Devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-667; Investigation No. 337-TA-673] In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Handheld Wireless Communications Devices; Notice of... Entirety AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that...

  8. 76 FR 41521 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-786] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits... sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products... after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including...

  9. 75 FR 16837 - In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits, Chipsets, and Products Containing Same Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-709] In the Matter of Certain Integrated Circuits... importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets, and products containing same including televisions... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated circuits, chipsets...

  10. Estimating Landscape Fire Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions over Southern Africa using MSG-SEVIRI Fire Radiative Power (FRP) and MODIS Aerosol Optical Thickness Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Bernardo; Wooster, Martin J.

    2016-04-01

    The approach to estimating landscape fire fuel consumption based on the remotely sensed fire radiative power (FRP) thermal energy release rate, as opposed to burned area, is now relatively widely used in studies of fire emissions, including operationally within the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). Nevertheless, there are still limitations to the approach, including uncertainties associated with using only the few daily overpasses typically provided by polar orbiting satellite systems, the conversion between FRP and smoke emissions, and the increased likelihood that the more frequent data from geostationary systems fails to detect the (probably highly numerous) smaller (i.e. low FRP) component of a regions fire regime. In this study, we address these limitations to directly estimate fire emissions of Particular Matter (PM; or smoke aerosols) by presenting an approach combining the "bottom-up" FRP observations available every 15 minutes across Africa from the Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) Fire Radiative Product (FRP) processed at the EUMETSAT LSA SAF, and the "top-down" aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measures of the fire plumes themselves as measured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensors aboard the Terra (MOD04_L2) and Aqua (MYD04_L2) satellites. We determine PM emission coefficients that relate directly to FRP measures by combining these two datasets, and the use of the almost continuous geostationary FRP observations allows us to do this without recourse to (uncertain) data on wind speed at the (unknown) height of the matching plume. We also develop compensation factors to address the detection limitations of small/low intensity (low FRP) fires, and remove the need to estimate fuel consumption by going directly from FRP to PM emissions. We derive the smoke PM emissions coefficients per land cover class by comparing the total fire radiative energy (FRE) released from individual fires

  11. Development of a continuous monitoring system for PM10 and components of PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, M; Xiong, J Q; Li, W

    2000-01-01

    While particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters below 10 and 2.5 microns (PM10 and PM2.5) correlate with excess mortality and morbidity, there is evidence for still closer epidemiological associations with sulfate ion, and experimental exposure-response studies suggest that the hydrogen ion and ultrafine (PM0.15) concentrations may be important risk factors. Also, there are measurement artifacts in current methods used to measure ambient PM10 and PM2.5, including negative artifacts because of losses of sampled semivolatile components (ammonium nitrate and some organics) and positive artifacts due to particle-bound water. To study such issues, we are developing a semi-continuous monitoring system for PM10, PM2.5, semivolatiles (organic compounds and NH4NO3), particle-bound water, and other PM2.5 constituents that may be causal factors. PM10 is aerodynamically sorted into three size-fractions: (1) coarse (PM10-PM2.5); (2) accumulation mode (PM2.5-PM0.15); and (3) ultrafine (PM0.15). The mass concentration of each fraction is measured in terms of the linear relation between accumulated mass and pressure drop on polycarbonate pore filters. The PM0.15 mass, being highly correlated with the ultrafine number concentration, provides a good index of the total number concentration in ambient air. For the accumulation mode (PM2.5-PM0.15), which contains nearly all of the semivolatiles and particle-bound water by mass, aliquots of the aerosol stream flow into system components that continuously monitor sulfur (by flame photometry), ammonium and nitrate (by chemiluminescence following catalytic transformations to NO), organics (by thermal-optical analysis) and particle-bound water (by electrolytic hygrometer after vacuum evaporation of sampled particles). The concentration of H+ can be calculated (by ion balance using the monitoring data on NO3-, NH4+, and SO4=).

  12. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution (including PM1) and metabolic syndrome: The 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo-Yi; Qian, Zhengmin Min; Li, Shanshan; Fan, Shujun; Chen, Gongbo; Syberg, Kevin M; Xian, Hong; Wang, Si-Quan; Ma, Huimin; Chen, Duo-Hong; Yang, Mo; Liu, Kang-Kang; Zeng, Xiao-Wen; Hu, Li-Wen; Guo, Yuming; Dong, Guang-Hui

    2018-07-01

    Little evidence exists about the effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on metabolic syndrome (MetS). This study aimed to determine the association between long-term ambient air pollution and MetS in China. A total of 15,477 adults who participated in the 33 Communities Chinese Health Study (33CCHS) in 2009 were evaluated. MetS was defined based on the recommendation by the Joint Interim Societies. Exposure to air pollutants was assessed using data from monitoring stations and a spatial statistical model (including particles with diameters ≤ 1.0 µm (PM 1 ), ≤ 2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ), and ≤ 10 µm (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and ozone (O 3 )). Two-level logistic regression analyses were utilized to assess the associations between air pollutants and MetS. The prevalence of MetS was 30.37%. The adjusted odds ratio of MetS per 10 µg/m 3 increase in PM 1 , PM 2.5 , PM 10 , SO 2 , NO 2 , and O 3 were 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00-1.24), 1.09 (95% CI = 1.00-1.18), 1.13 (95% CI = 1.08-1.19), 1.10 (95% CI = 1.02-1.18), 1.33 (95% CI = 1.12-1.57), and 1.10 (95% CI = 1.01-1.18), respectively. Stratified analyses indicated that the above associations were stronger in participants with the demographic variables of males, < 50 years of age, and higher income, as well as with the behavioral characteristics of smoking, drinking, and consuming sugar-sweetened soft drinks frequently. This study indicates that long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants may increase the risk of MetS, especially among males, the young to middle aged, those of low income, and those with unhealthy lifestyles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-30

    emissions demonstration . 46 6 Figure 24. T63 engine with extension pipe to direct exhaust outside of the test cell for exhaust sampling with tip...to assess their effectiveness in conditioning turbine engine exhaust for total PM emissions measurements. Both were designed to promote the... effectively control and mitigate PM emissions. Aircraft PM is formed in the engine combustor due to incomplete combustion of fuel, and in the

  14. A statistical model for determining impact of wildland fires on Particulate Matter (PM2.5) in Central California aided by satellite imagery of smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preisler, Haiganoush K.; Schweizer, Donald; Cisneros, Ricardo; Procter, Trent; Ruminski, Mark; Tarnay, Leland

    2015-01-01

    As the climate in California warms and wildfires become larger and more severe, satellite-based observational tools are frequently used for studying impact of those fires on air quality. However little objective work has been done to quantify the skill these satellite observations of smoke plumes have in predicting impacts to PM 2.5 concentrations at ground level monitors, especially those monitors used to determine attainment values for air quality under the Clean Air Act. Using PM 2.5 monitoring data from a suite of monitors throughout the Central California area, we found a significant, but weak relationship between satellite-observed smoke plumes and PM 2.5 concentrations measured at the surface. However, when combined with an autoregressive statistical model that uses weather and seasonal factors to identify thresholds for flagging unusual events at these sites, we found that the presence of smoke plumes could reliably identify periods of wildfire influence with 95% accuracy. - Highlights: • Satellite observed smoke is useful for predicting wildfire impacts on Particulate Matter. • A metric was developed to flag ‘exceptional events’ days as defined by EPA. • We found significant impact of wildfires on PM 2.5 at various sites in Central California. • Fires in most years had no significant impact on compliance with EPA standards. - This work quantifies the skill of satellite observations of smoke plumes in predicting wildfire impacts on PM 2.5 concentrations at ground level monitors

  15. Magnetic properties of atmospheric particulate matter from automatic air sampler stations in Latium (Italy): Toward a definition of magnetic fingerprints for natural and anthropogenic PM10 sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Macrı, Patrizia; Egli, Ramon; Mondino, Manlio

    2006-12-01

    Environmental problems linked to the concentration of atmospheric particulate matter with dimensions less than 10 μm (PM10) in urban settings have stimulated a variety of scientific researches. This study reports a systematic analysis of the magnetic properties of PM10 samples collected by six automatic stations installed for air quality monitoring through the Latium Region (Italy). We measured the low-field magnetic susceptibility of daily air filters collected during the period July 2004 to July 2005. For each station, we derived an empirical linear correlation linking magnetic susceptibility to the concentration of PM10 produced by local sources (i.e., in absence of significant inputs of exogenous dust). An experimental approach is suggested for estimating the percentage of nonmagnetic PM10 transported from natural far-sided sources (i.e., dust from North Africa and marine aerosols). Moreover, we carried out a variety of additional magnetic measurements to investigate the magnetic mineralogy of selected air filters spanning representative periods. The results indicate that the magnetic fraction of PM10 is composed by a mixture of low-coercivity, magnetite-like, ferrimagnetic particles with a wide spectrum of grain sizes, related to a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources. The natural component of PM10 has a characteristic magnetic signature that is indistinguishable from that of eolian dust. The anthropogenic PM10 fraction is mostly originated from circulating vehicles and is a mixture of prevailing fine superparamagnetic particles and subordinate large multidomain grains; the former are more directly related to exhaust, whereas the latter may be associated to abrasion of metallic parts.

  16. Personal exposure measurements of school-children to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in winter of 2013, Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijun; Guo, Changyi; Jia, Xiaodong; Xu, Huihui; Pan, Meizhu; Xu, Dong; Shen, Xianbiao; Zhang, Jianghua; Tan, Jianguo; Qian, Hailei; Dong, Chunyang; Shi, Yewen; Zhou, Xiaodan; Wu, Chen

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform an exposure assessment of PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter) among children and to explore the potential sources of exposure from both indoor and outdoor environments. In terms of real-time exposure measurements of PM2.5, we collected data from 57 children aged 8-12 years (9.64 ± 0.93 years) in two schools in Shanghai, China. Simultaneously, questionnaire surveys and time-activity diaries were used to estimate the environment at home and daily time-activity patterns in order to estimate the exposure dose of PM2.5 in these children. Principle component regression analysis was used to explore the influence of potential sources of PM2.5 exposure. All the median personal exposure and microenvironment PM2.5 concentrations greatly exceeded the daily 24-h PM2.5 Ambient Air Quality Standards of China, the USA, and the World Health Organization (WHO). The median Etotal (the sum of the PM2.5 exposure levels in different microenvironment and fractional time) of all students was 3014.13 (μg.h)/m3. The concentration of time-weighted average (TWA) exposure of all students was 137.01 μg/m3. The median TWA exposure level during the on-campus period (135.81 μg/m3) was significantly higher than the off-campus period (115.50 μg/m3, P = 0.013 < 0.05). Besides ambient air pollution and meteorological conditions, storey height of the classroom and mode of transportation to school were significantly correlated with children's daily PM2.5 exposure. Children in the two selected schools were exposed to high concentrations of PM2.5 in winter of 2013 in Shanghai. Their personal PM2.5 exposure was mainly associated with ambient air conditions, storey height of the classroom, and children's transportation mode to school.

  17. The associations between birth weight and exposure to fine particulate matter (PM_2_._5) and its chemical constituents during pregnancy: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Luo, Xiping; Zhao, Chunmei; Zhang, Bo; Tao, Jun; Yang, Zuyao; Ma, Wenjun; Liu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    We performed this meta-analysis to estimate the associations of maternal exposure to PM_2_._5 and its chemical constituents with birth weight and to explore the sources of heterogeneity in regard to the findings of these associations. A total of 32 studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE, PUBMED, Embase, China Biological Medicine and Wanfang electronic databases before April 2015. We estimated the statistically significant associations of reduced birth weight (β = −15.9 g, 95% CI: −26.8, −5.0) and LBW (OR = 1.090, 95% CI: 1.032, 1.150) with PM_2_._5 exposure (per 10 μg/m"3 increment) during the entire pregnancy. Trimester-specific analyses showed negative associations between birth weight and PM_2_._5 exposure during the second (β = −12.6 g) and third (β = −10.0 g) trimesters. Other subgroup analyses indicated significantly different pooled-effect estimates of PM_2_._5 exposure on birth weight in studies with different exposure assessment methods, study designs and study settings. We further observed large differences in the pooled effect estimates of the PM_2_._5 chemical constituents for birth weight decrease and LBW. We concluded that PM_2_._5 exposure during pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight, and late pregnancy might be the critical window. Some specific PM_2_._5 constituents may have larger toxic effects on fetal weight. Exposure assessment methods, study designs and study settings might be important sources of the heterogeneity among the included studies. - Highlights: • Effects of prenatal PM_2_._5 exposure on birth weight were assessed. • A meta-analysis was performed on studies published before March 2015. • PM_2_._5 exposure during pregnancy might induce lower birth weight. • Late pregnancy might be the critical window of PM_2_._5 effects. • Some specific PM_2_._5 constituents may have larger toxic effects on fetal weight. - PM_2_._5 exposure during pregnancy was associated with lower birth

  18. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science Water A-Z Index Laws & Regulations By Business Sector By Topic Compliance Enforcement Laws and Executive ...

  19. RESPIRATORY EFFECTS OF INHALED METAL-RICH PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) IN RATS: INFLUENCE OF SYSTEMIC ANTIOXIDANT DEPLETION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species and resultant oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of emission-source PM toxicity. We hypothesized that inducing an antioxidant deficit prior to inhalation of metal-rich PM would worsen adverse health outcom...

  20. Electrocardiographic, hemodynamic, and biochemical responses to acute particulate matter (PM) exposure in aged heart failure-prone rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure to ambient PM from fossil-fuel emissions is linked to cardiovascular disease and death. This association strengthens in people with preexisting cardiac disease-especially heart failure (HF). The mechanisms explaining PM-induced exacerbation ofHF are unclear. Some o...

  1. Acute Exposure to Particulate Matter (PM) Alters Physiologic and Toxicologic Endpoints in a Rat Model of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure to ambient PM from fossil-fuel emissions is linked to cardiovascular disease and death. This association strengthens in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases—especially heart failure (HF). We previously examined the effects of PM on HF by exposing Sponta...

  2. Extension of Hartree-Fock theory including tensor correlation in nuclear matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinniu; Toki, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Yoko

    2013-10-01

    We study the properties of nuclear matter in the extension of Hartree-Fock theory including tensor correlation using a realistic nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction. The nuclear wave function consists of the Hartree-Fock and two-particle-two-hole (2p-2h) states, following the concept of the tensor-optimized shell model (TOSM) for light nuclei. The short range repulsion and strong tensor force of realistic NN interaction provide high momentum components, which are taken into account in a many-body framework by introducing 2p-2h states. Single particle states are determined by the variational principle of the total energy with respect to 2p-2h amplitudes and Hartree-Fock (HF) single-particle states. The resulting differential equation is almost identical with that of Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) theory by taking two-body scattering terms only. We calculate the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter in this framework with the Bonn potential as a realistic NN interaction. We found similar results to BHF theory with slightly repulsive effects in the total energy. The relativistic effect is discussed for the EOSs of nuclear matter in both non-relativistic and relativistic frameworks. The momentum distribution has large components at high momenta due to 2p-2h excitations. We also obtain the EOSs of pure neutron matter, where the tensor effect is small in the iso-vector channel.

  3. Distribution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in rural field, rural village and urban areas of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Chen; Wang, Hongqijie; Chen, Jiwei; Yuan, Chenyi; Li, Tongchao; Wang, Wentao; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Han; Chen, Yuanchen; Tang, Jianhui; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Coveney, Raymond M.; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric PM 10 were measured for 12 months at 18 sites along a 2500 km profile across northern China. Annual mean PM 10 concentrations in urban, rural village, and rural field sites were 180 ± 171, 182 ± 154, and 128 ± 89 μg/m 3 , respectively. The similarities in PM 10 concentrations between urban and rural village sites suggest that strong localized emissions and severe contamination in rural residential areas are derived from solid fuels combustion in households. High PM 10 concentrations in Wuwei and Taiyuan were caused by either sandstorms or industrial activities. Relatively low PM 10 concentrations were observed in coastal areas of Dalian and Yantai. Particulate air pollution was much higher in winter and spring than in summer and fall. Multiple regression analysis indicates that 35% of the total variance can be attributed to sandstorms, precipitation and residential energy consumption. Over 40% of the measurements in both urban and rural village areas exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. Highlights: • Spatial distribution of PM 10 concentrations in northern China was investigated. • High levels of PM 10 in rural villages were caused by solid fuel emission. • A strong seasonality with high levels of PM 10 in spring and winter was observed. • Influence of sandstorm, energy consumption, and precipitation were evaluated. • Over 40% of the measurements exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. -- PM 10 concentrations in rural villages of China were comparable with those in the cities, indicating severe air pollution in the rural villages caused by coal and biofuel combustion

  4. Characteristics and source apportionment of organic matter in PM(2.5) from cities in different climatic zones of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jialiang

    For the first time, the dependency of the characteristics of organic matter in PM2.5 on geographical and climatic zones in three metropolitan cities of China was studied. Seasonal samples were collected at suburban and urban sites in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou in 2002 and 2003. To further support the above study, seasonal samples were also collected at Changdao Island, a remote island, in Bohai Sea/Yellow Sea. Concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and solvent-extractable organic compounds (SEOC) were analyzed. The characteristics of the n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-fatty acids, n-alkanols and molecular markers such as triterpanes were determined and used for source identification. Source apportionment was complemented by Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) modeling using the measured organic species as tracers. The impact of wind speed and wind direction on air quality was studied by back trajectory calculations and analysis. In general, traffic emissions were the largest contributors of OC followed by coal burning, kitchen emissions, vegetative detritus and biomass burning. However, in the space-heating season in Northern China, coal burning was the most important contributor of OC in the suburban areas of Beijing and at Changdao. Beijing had the highest concentration of organic aerosol followed by Guangzhou and Shanghai, while seasonal variation was in reverse order. Dispersion conditions determined by local topographies and meteorology were responsible for this trend. Contrary to common understanding, pollutant concentrations at the suburban sites were higher than the urban sites in all three cities. The main reason was the rapid urbanization of the suburban areas in the immediate vicinity of urban centers since China opened up for economic development, in addition, large numbers of manufacturing plants were relocated from the cities to the countryside in an attempt to clean up the urban

  5. Spatiotemporal Association of Real-Time Concentrations of Black Carbon (BC with Fine Particulate Matters (PM2.5 in Urban Hotspots of South Korea

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    Sungroul Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the spatiotemporal distributions of black carbon (BC and particulate matters with aerodynamic diameters of less than 2.5 m (PM2.5 concentrations at urban diesel engine emission (DEE hotspots of South Korea. Concentrations of BC and PM2.5 were measured at the entrance gate of two diesel bus terminals and a train station, in 2014. Measurements were conducted simultaneously at the hotspot (Site 1 and at its adjacent, randomly selected, residential areas, apartment complex near major roadways, located with the same direction of 300 m (Site 2 and 500 m (Site 3 away from Site 1 on 4 different days over the season, thrice per day; morning (n = 120 measurements for each day and site, evening (n = 120, and noon (n = 120. The median (interquartile range PM2.5 ranged from 12.6 (11.3–14.3 to 60.1 (47.0–76.0 μg/m3 while those of BC concentrations ranged from 2.6 (1.9–3.7 to 6.3 (4.2–10.3 μg/m3. We observed a strong relationship of PM2.5 concentrations between sites (slopes 0.89–0.9, the coefficient of determination 0.89–0.96 while the relationship for BC concentrations between sites was relatively weak (slopes 0.76–0.85, the coefficient of determination 0.54–0.72. PM2.5 concentrations were changed from 4% to 140% by unit increase of BC concentration, depending on site and time while likely supporting the necessity of monitoring of BC as well as PM2.5, especially at urban DEE related hotspot areas.

  6. The exposure assessment of airborne particulates matter (PM10 and PM2.5) towards building occupants: A case study at KL Sentral, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohddin, S A; Aminuddin, N M

    2014-01-01

    Airborne particulates have been recognized as a crucial pollutant of indoor air. These pollutants can contribute towards poor indoor air quality (IAQ), which may affect human health in immediate or long term. This study aims to determine the level of IAQ and the effects of particulate towards occupants of office buildings (the office buildings selected for the case study are SSM, KTMB and MRCB at KL Sentral). The objectives of study are (i) to measure the level of airborne particulates that contribute to the IAQ during working hours, (ii) to compare the level of airborne particulates with the existing guidelines and standards of IAQ in Malaysia and other Asian countries and (iii) to assess the symptoms associated with airborne particulates among the building occupants, which were achieved through primary data collection (case study or site survey, structured interview and questionnaire survey) and supported by literature reviews. The results showed that the mass concentration level of airborne particulates within the areas has exceeded the allowable limit of 0.15mg/m 3 by IAQ Code of Practice, 2005 of the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia and 0.05mg/m 3 by the Department of Environmental (DOE) (outdoor) of 8 hours continuous sampling. Based on the findings, the highest mass concentration values measured is 2.581 mg/m 3 at lobby of SSM building which is the highest recorded 17 times higher from the maximum limit recommended by DOSH than the others. This is due to the nearby construction works and the high numbers of particulates are generated from various types of vehicles for transportation surrounding KL Sentral. Therefore, the development of Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines on PM 2.5 as one of the crucial parameters is highly recommended

  7. The exposure assessment of airborne particulates matter (PM10 & PM2.5) towards building occupants: A case study at KL Sentral, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohddin, S. A.; Aminuddin, N. M.

    2014-02-01

    Airborne particulates have been recognized as a crucial pollutant of indoor air. These pollutants can contribute towards poor indoor air quality (IAQ), which may affect human health in immediate or long term. This study aims to determine the level of IAQ and the effects of particulate towards occupants of office buildings (the office buildings selected for the case study are SSM, KTMB and MRCB at KL Sentral). The objectives of study are (i) to measure the level of airborne particulates that contribute to the IAQ during working hours, (ii) to compare the level of airborne particulates with the existing guidelines and standards of IAQ in Malaysia and other Asian countries and (iii) to assess the symptoms associated with airborne particulates among the building occupants, which were achieved through primary data collection (case study or site survey, structured interview and questionnaire survey) and supported by literature reviews. The results showed that the mass concentration level of airborne particulates within the areas has exceeded the allowable limit of 0.15mg/m3 by IAQ Code of Practice, 2005 of the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia and 0.05mg/m3 by the Department of Environmental (DOE) (outdoor) of 8 hours continuous sampling. Based on the findings, the highest mass concentration values measured is 2.581 mg/m3 at lobby of SSM building which is the highest recorded 17 times higher from the maximum limit recommended by DOSH than the others. This is due to the nearby construction works and the high numbers of particulates are generated from various types of vehicles for transportation surrounding KL Sentral. Therefore, the development of Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines on PM2.5 as one of the crucial parameters is highly recommended.

  8. Fractionation of trace elements and human health risk of submicron particulate matter (PM1) collected in the surroundings of coking plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira; Radko, Tomasz; Mainka, Anna

    2017-08-01

    Samples of PM1 were collected in the surroundings of coking plants located in southern Poland. Chemical fractionation provided information on the contents of trace elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se in all mobile (F1-F3) and not mobile (F4) fractions of PM1 in the vicinity of large sources of emissions related to energochemical processing of coal during the summer. The determined enrichment factors indicate the influence of anthropogenic sources on the concentration of the examined elements contained in PM1 in the areas subjected to investigation. The analysis of health risk for the assumed scenario of inhabitant exposure to the toxic effect of elements, based on the values of the hazard index, revealed that the absorption of the examined elements contained in the most mobile fractions of particulate matter via inhalation by children and adults can be considered potentially harmless to the health of people inhabiting the surroundings of coking plants during the summer (HI PM1, approximately four adults and one child out of one million people living in the vicinity of the coking plants may develop cancer.

  9. The impact of particulate matter (PM and nitric oxides (NOx on human health and an analysis of selected sources accounting for their emission in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krzeszowiak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: This paper is concerned with the harmful impact of nitric oxides (NOx and particulate matter (PM on humans. The objective was to determine which source of emission is the most urgent in terms of its reduction.Abbreviated description of the state of knowledge: In published epidemiological studies multiple notifications indicating the harmful impact of particulate matter on human health can be found. The harmful impact is underscored by the increase in the number of hospitalisations owing to diseases of respiratory and cardio-vascular systems, as well as by the rise in general fatality rate. The analysis of the PM impact on the human body is prompted by the fact that its detrimental effects are not clearly defined. Additionally, nitric oxides contribute to the increased number of exacerbations of respiratory disease and are a factor increasing susceptibility to development of local inflammation. Conclusions: The following study is meant to show that the air pollution which derives from vehicles (NOx and PM has a significant impact on human health. This applies particularly to residents of cities and big towns. This issue has gained special importance in Poland. According to the data from the Central Statistical Office, the increasing number of vehicles in use and their age lead to increased emission of the pollutants considered.

  10. Effect of Ambient Particulate Matter 2.5 Micrometer (PM2.5 to Prevalence of Impaired Lung Function and Asthma in Tangerang and Makassar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Haryanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter 2.5 micrometer (PM2.5 emission increased with increasing number of urban population as a result of increasing number of motor vehicles for their daily transportation. This study aimed to determine the level of impaired lung function and asthma and its relation to ambient levels of PM2.5 among migrant communities in Tangerang and Makassar and socioeconomic conditions. A cross-sectional design was implemented by involving 4,250 and 2,900 respondents in Tangerang and Makassar respectively on April to September 2010. Cluster sampling approach was applied. PM2.5 ambient measurements in each city were based on the coordinates of 40 global positioning system locations. The PM2.5 levels found higher in the morning than afternoon in both cities, with average about six folds of WHO guideline of 35 mg/m3. Asthma prevalence was found similar in both cities (1.3% and impaired lung function prevalence in Makassar was higher (24% than Tangerang (21%. Data showed there was no association between PM2.5 levels to the prevalence of asthma and impaired lung function in both cities. The study confirmed that exposure to PM2.5 is associated with prevalence of asthma and impaired lung function and provided evidence showed that the effect of air pollution was modified by certain living environment characteristics. These findings suggest the improvement of housing ventilations and larger space of living room for better oxygen circulation. AbstrakEmisi partikel debu 2,5 mikrometer (PM2.5 meningkat dengan bertambahnya jumlah penduduk kota akibat peningkatan angka kendaraan bermotor sebagai transportasi penduduk sehari-hari. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat gangguan fungsi paru dan asma serta hubungannya dengan kadar ambien PM2.5 pada masyarakat migran di Tangerang dan Makassar dan kondisi sosial ekonomi. Desain potong lintang digunakan dengan melibatkan 4.250 dan 2.900 responden di Tangerang dan Makassar pada bulan April sampai September

  11. Synoptic meteorological modes of variability for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality in major metropolitan regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Danny M.; Tai, Amos P. K.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Moch, Jonathan M.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Shen, Lu; Martin, Randall V.

    2018-05-01

    In his study, we use a combination of multivariate statistical methods to understand the relationships of PM2.5 with local meteorology and synoptic weather patterns in different regions of China across various timescales. Using June 2014 to May 2017 daily total PM2.5 observations from ˜ 1500 monitors, all deseasonalized and detrended to focus on synoptic-scale variations, we find strong correlations of daily PM2.5 with all selected meteorological variables (e.g., positive correlation with temperature but negative correlation with sea-level pressure throughout China; positive and negative correlation with relative humidity in northern and southern China, respectively). The spatial patterns suggest that the apparent correlations with individual meteorological variables may arise from common association with synoptic systems. Based on a principal component analysis of 1998-2017 meteorological data to diagnose distinct meteorological modes that dominate synoptic weather in four major regions of China, we find strong correlations of PM2.5 with several synoptic modes that explain 10 to 40 % of daily PM2.5 variability. These modes include monsoonal flows and cold frontal passages in northern and central China associated with the Siberian High, onshore flows in eastern China, and frontal rainstorms in southern China. Using the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region as a case study, we further find strong interannual correlations of regionally averaged satellite-derived annual mean PM2.5 with annual mean relative humidity (RH; positive) and springtime fluctuation frequency of the Siberian High (negative). We apply the resulting PM2.5-to-climate sensitivities to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate projections to predict future PM2.5 by the 2050s due to climate change, and find a modest decrease of ˜ 0.5 µg m-3 in annual mean PM2.5 in the BTH region due to more frequent cold frontal ventilation

  12. Including Effects of Water Stress on Dead Organic Matter Decay to a Forest Carbon Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Han, S. H.; Kim, S.; Son, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Decay of dead organic matter is a key process of carbon (C) cycling in forest ecosystems. The change in decay rate depends on temperature sensitivity and moisture conditions. The Forest Biomass and Dead organic matter Carbon (FBDC) model includes a decay sub-model considering temperature sensitivity, yet does not consider moisture conditions as drivers of the decay rate change. This study aimed to improve the FBDC model by including a water stress function to the decay sub-model. Also, soil C sequestration under climate change with the FBDC model including the water stress function was simulated. The water stress functions were determined with data from decomposition study on Quercus variabilis forests and Pinus densiflora forests of Korea, and adjustment parameters of the functions were determined for both species. The water stress functions were based on the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration. Including the water stress function increased the explained variances of the decay rate by 19% for the Q. variabilis forests and 7% for the P. densiflora forests, respectively. The increase of the explained variances resulted from large difference in temperature range and precipitation range across the decomposition study plots. During the period of experiment, the mean annual temperature range was less than 3°C, while the annual precipitation ranged from 720mm to 1466mm. Application of the water stress functions to the FBDC model constrained increasing trend of temperature sensitivity under climate change, and thus increased the model-estimated soil C sequestration (Mg C ha-1) by 6.6 for the Q. variabilis forests and by 3.1 for the P. densiflora forests, respectively. The addition of water stress functions increased reliability of the decay rate estimation and could contribute to reducing the bias in estimating soil C sequestration under varying moisture condition. Acknowledgement: This study was supported by Korea Forest Service (2017044B10-1719-BB01)

  13. Approximation of personal exposure to fine particulate matters (PM2.5) during cooking using solid biomass fuels in the kitchens of rural West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, Sukanta; Padhy, Pratap Kumar

    2018-03-27

    More than 85% of the rural Indian households use traditional solid biofuels (SBFs) for daily cooking. Burning of the easily available unprocessed solid fuels in inefficient earthen cooking stoves produce large quantities of particulate matters. Smaller particulates, especially with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM 2.5 ), largely generated during cooking, are considered to be health damaging in nature. In the present study, kitchen level exposure of women cooks to fine particulate matters during lunch preparation was assessed considering kitchen openness as surrogate to the ventilation condition. Two-way ANCOVA analysis considering meal quantity as a covariate revealed no significant interaction between the openness and the seasons explaining the variability of the personal exposure to the fine particulate matters in rural kitchen during cooking. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed the openness as the only significant predictor for personal exposure to the fine particulate matters. In the present study, the annual average fine particulate matter exposure concentration was found to be 974 μg m -3 .

  14. One year online chemical speciation of submicron particulate matter (PM1) sampled at a French industrial and coastal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shouwen; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Augustin, Patrick; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2015-04-01

    The harbor of Dunkirk (Northern France) is surrounded by different industrial plants (metallurgy, petrochemistry, food processing, power plant, etc.), which emit gaseous and particulate pollutants such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur (SO2), and submicron particles (PM1). These emissions are poorly characterized and their impact on neighboring urban areas has yet to be assessed. Studies are particularly needed in this type of complex environments to get a better understanding of PM1sources, especially from the industrial sector, their temporal variability, and their transformation. Several instruments, capable of real-time measurements (temporal resolution ≤ 30 min), were deployed at a site located downwind from the industrial area of Dunkirk for a one-year duration (July 2013-September 2014). An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and an Aethalometer monitored the main chemical species in the non-refractory submicron particles and black carbon, respectively. Concomitant measurements of trace gases and wind speed and direction were also performed. This dataset was analyzed considering four wind sectors, characteristics of marine, industrial, industrial-urban, and urban influences, and the different seasons. We will present a descriptive analysis of PM1, showing strong variations of ambient concentrations, as well as evidences of SO2 to SO4 gas-particle conversion when industrial plumes reached the monitoring site. The organic fraction measured by ACSM (37% of the total mass on average) was analyzed using a source-receptor model based on Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to identify chemical signatures of main emission sources and to quantify the contribution of each source to the PM1 budget given the wind sector. Four main factors were identified: hydrocarbon organic aerosol (HOA), oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) and cooking-like organic aerosol (COA). Overall, the total PM

  15. Sources and oxidative potential of water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS in fine particulate matter (PM2.5 in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS are a major redox-active component of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5; however, information on their sources and associated redox activity is limited. In this study, HULISWS mass concentration, various HULISWS species, and dithiothreitol (DTT activity of HULISWS were quantified in PM2.5 samples collected during a 1-year period in Beijing. Strong correlation was observed between HULISWS and DTT activity; both exhibited higher levels during the heating season than during the nonheating season. Positive matrix factorization analysis of both HULISWS and DTT activity was performed. Four combustion-related sources, namely coal combustion, biomass burning, waste incineration, and vehicle exhausts, and one secondary factor were resolved. In particular, waste incineration was identified as a source of HULISWS for the first time. Biomass burning and secondary aerosol formation were the major contributors ( >  59 % to both HULISWS and associated DTT activity throughout the year. During the nonheating season, secondary aerosol formation was the most important source, whereas during the heating season, the predominant contributor was biomass burning. The four combustion-related sources accounted for  >  70 % of HULISWS and DTT activity, implying that future reduction in PM2.5 emissions from combustion activities can substantially reduce the HULISWS burden and their potential health impact in Beijing.

  16. Effect of particulate matter less than 10μm (PM10 on mortality in Bogota, Colombia: a time-series analysis, 1998-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Camilo Blanco-Becerra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the association between daily mortality from different causes and acute exposure to particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10, in Bogota, Colombia. Materials and methods. A time-series ecological study was conducted from 1998 to 2006. The association between mortality (due to different causes and exposure was analyzed using single and distributed lag models and adjusting for potential confounders. Results. For all ages, the cumulative effect of acute mortality from all causes and respiratory causes increased 0.71% (95%CI 0.46-0.96 and 1.43% (95%CI 0.85-2.00, respectively, per 10μg/m3 increment in daily average PM10 with a lag of three days before death. Cumulative effect of mortality from cardiovascular causes was -0.03% (95%CI -0.49-0.44% with the same lag. Conclusions. The results suggest an association between an increase in PM10 concentrations and acute mortality from all causes and respiratory causes.

  17. Sources and oxidative potential of water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS) in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yiqiu; Cheng, Yubo; Qiu, Xinghua; Cao, Gang; Fang, Yanhua; Wang, Junxia; Zhu, Tong; Yu, Jianzhen; Hu, Di

    2018-04-01

    Water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS) are a major redox-active component of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5); however, information on their sources and associated redox activity is limited. In this study, HULISWS mass concentration, various HULISWS species, and dithiothreitol (DTT) activity of HULISWS were quantified in PM2.5 samples collected during a 1-year period in Beijing. Strong correlation was observed between HULISWS and DTT activity; both exhibited higher levels during the heating season than during the nonheating season. Positive matrix factorization analysis of both HULISWS and DTT activity was performed. Four combustion-related sources, namely coal combustion, biomass burning, waste incineration, and vehicle exhausts, and one secondary factor were resolved. In particular, waste incineration was identified as a source of HULISWS for the first time. Biomass burning and secondary aerosol formation were the major contributors ( > 59 %) to both HULISWS and associated DTT activity throughout the year. During the nonheating season, secondary aerosol formation was the most important source, whereas during the heating season, the predominant contributor was biomass burning. The four combustion-related sources accounted for > 70 % of HULISWS and DTT activity, implying that future reduction in PM2.5 emissions from combustion activities can substantially reduce the HULISWS burden and their potential health impact in Beijing.

  18. Chemical characterization and sources of personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the megacity of Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Cui; Jahn, Heiko J; Engling, Guenter; Ward, Tony J; Kraemer, Alexander; Ho, Kin-Fai; Yim, S H L; Chan, Chuen-Yu

    2017-12-01

    Concurrent ambient and personal measurements of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) were conducted in eight districts of Guangzhou during the winter of 2011. Personal-to-ambient (P-C) relationships of PM 2.5 chemical components were determined and sources of personal PM 2.5 exposures were evaluated using principal component analysis and a mixed-effects model. Water-soluble inorganic ions (e.g., SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , NH 4 + , C 2 O 4 2- ) and anhydrosugars (e.g., levoglucosan, mannosan) exhibited median personal-to-ambient (P/C) ratios personal PM 2.5 were significantly affected by ambient sources. Conversely, elemental carbon (EC) and calcium (Ca 2+ ) showed median P/C ratios greater than unity, illustrating significant impact of local traffic, indoor sources, and/or personal activities on individual's exposure. SO 4 2- displayed very low coefficient of divergence (COD) values coupled with strong P-C correlations, implying a uniform distribution of SO 4 2- in the urban area of Guangzhou. EC, Ca 2+ , and levoglucosan were otherwise heterogeneously distributed across individuals in different districts. Regional air pollution (50.4 ± 0.9%), traffic-related particles (8.6 ± 0.7%), dust-related particles (5.8 ± 0.7%), and biomass burning emissions (2.0 ± 0.2%) were moderate to high positive sources of personal PM 2.5 exposure in Guangzhou. The observed positive and significant contribution of Ca 2+ to personal PM 2.5 exposure, highlighting indoor sources and/or personal activities, were driving factors determining personal exposure to dust-related particles. Considerable discrepancies (COD values ranging from 0.42 to 0.50) were shown between ambient concentrations and personal exposures, indicating caution should be taken when using ambient concentrations as proxies for personal exposures in epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of water containing acetone–butanol–ethanol for NOx-PM (nitrogen oxide-particulate matter) trade-off in the diesel engine fueled with biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wu, Tser Son; Wu, Chang-Yu; Chen, Shui-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Fuel blends that contain biodiesel are known to produce greater NO x (nitrogen oxide) emissions in diesel engine exhaust than regular diesel, and this is one of the key barriers to the wider adoption of biodiesel as an alternative fuel. In this study, a water-containing ABE (acetone–butanol–ethanol) solution, which simulates products that are produced from biomass fermentation without dehydration processing, was tested as a biodiesel-diesel blend additive to lower NO x emissions from diesel engines. The energy efficiency and the PM (particulate matter) and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) emissions were investigated and compared under various operating conditions. Although biodiesel had greater NO x emissions, the blends that contained 25% of the water-containing ABE solution had significantly lower NO x (4.30–30.7%), PM (10.9–63.1%), and PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) emissions (26.7–67.6%) than the biodiesel–diesel blends and regular diesel, respectively. In addition, the energy efficiency of this new blend was 0.372–7.88% higher with respect to both the biodiesel–diesel blends and regular diesel. Because dehydration and surfactant addition are not necessary, the application of ABE–biodiesel–diesel blends can simplify fuel production processes, reduce energy consumption, and lower pollutant emissions, meaning that the ABE–biodiesel–diesel blend is a promising green fuel. - Highlights: • Water-containing ABE (acetone–butanol–ethanol)–biodiesel–diesel was tested in a diesel engine. • The addition of ABE to biodiesel–diesel blends can enhance the energy efficiency. • The addition of ABE can solve the problem of NO x -PM (nitrogen oxide-particulate matter) trade-off when using biodiesel. • PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) can be further reduced by adding ABE in biodiesel–diesel blends. • Fuel production was simplified due to the acceptance of water in ABE

  20. NAAQS Designated Area Polygons - Fine Particulate Matter (24-Hr, PM-2.5), Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Designated Areas for Particulate Matter < 2.5 microns, according to the 24-Hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Nonattainment areas are geographic...

  1. Respiratory hospitalizations in association with fine PM and its ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite observed geographic and temporal variation in particulate matter (PM)-related health morbidities, only a small number of epidemiologic studies have evaluated the relation between PM2.5 chemical constituents and respiratory disease. Most assessments are limited by inadequate spatial and temporal resolution of ambient PM measurements and/or by their approaches to examine the role of specific PM components on health outcomes. In a case-crossover analysis using daily average ambient PM2.5 total mass and species estimates derived from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and available observations, we examined the association between the chemical components of PM (including elemental and organic carbon, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and other remaining) and respiratory hospitalizations in New York State. We evaluated relationships between levels (low, medium, high) of PM constituent mass fractions, and assessed modification of the PM2.5–hospitalization association via models stratified by mass fractions of both primary and secondary PM components. In our results, average daily PM2.5 concentrations in New York State were generally lower than the 24-hr average National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). Year-round analyses showed statistically significant positive associations between respiratory hospitalizations and PM2.5 total mass, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium concentrations at multiple exposure lags (0.5–2.0% per interquartile range [IQR

  2. Using support vector regression to predict PM10 and PM2.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizhen, Hou; Zhengqiang, Li; Yuhuan, Zhang; Hua, Xu; Ying, Zhang; Kaitao, Li; Donghui, Li; Peng, Wei; Yan, Ma

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machine (SVM), as a novel and powerful machine learning tool, can be used for the prediction of PM 10 and PM 2.5 (particulate matter less or equal than 10 and 2.5 micrometer) in the atmosphere. This paper describes the development of a successive over relaxation support vector regress (SOR-SVR) model for the PM 10 and PM 2.5 prediction, based on the daily average aerosol optical depth (AOD) and meteorological parameters (atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, air temperature, wind speed), which were all measured in Beijing during the year of 2010–2012. The Gaussian kernel function, as well as the k-fold crosses validation and grid search method, are used in SVR model to obtain the optimal parameters to get a better generalization capability. The result shows that predicted values by the SOR-SVR model agree well with the actual data and have a good generalization ability to predict PM 10 and PM 2.5 . In addition, AOD plays an important role in predicting particulate matter with SVR model, which should be included in the prediction model. If only considering the meteorological parameters and eliminating AOD from the SVR model, the prediction results of predict particulate matter will be not satisfying

  3. White matter microstructural changes in adolescent anorexia nervosa including an exploratory longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Katja; Timmers, Inge; Kumar, Vinod; Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Bastiani, Matteo; Roebroek, Alard; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin; Goebel, Rainer; Seitz, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) often begins in adolescence, however, the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology at this developmentally important age is scarce, impeding early interventions. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate microstructural white matter (WM) brain changes including an experimental longitudinal follow-up. Methods We acquired whole brain diffusion-weighted brain scans of 22 adolescent female hospitalized patients with AN at admission and nine patients longitudinally at discharge after weight rehabilitation. Patients (10–18 years) were compared to 21 typically developing controls (TD). Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were applied to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) across groups and time points. Associations between average FA values of the global WM skeleton and weight as well as illness duration parameters were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Results We observed increased FA in bilateral frontal, parietal and temporal areas in AN patients at admission compared to TD. Higher FA of the global WM skeleton at admission was associated with faster weight loss prior to admission. Exploratory longitudinal analysis showed this FA increase to be partially normalized after weight rehabilitation. Conclusions Our findings reveal a markedly different pattern of WM microstructural changes in adolescent AN compared to most previous results in adult AN. This could signify a different susceptibility and reaction to semi-starvation in the still developing brain of adolescents or a time-dependent pathomechanism differing with extend of chronicity. Higher FA at admission in adolescents with AN could point to WM fibers being packed together more closely. PMID:27182488

  4. Semivolatile Organic Compounds (SOCs) in Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) during Clear, Fog, and Haze Episodes in Winter in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Tian, Mi; Ding, Nan; Yan, Xiao; Chen, She-Jun; Mo, Yang-Zhi; Yang, Wei-Qiang; Bi, Xin-Hui; Wang, Xin-Ming; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2018-05-01

    Few efforts have been made to elucidate the influence of weather conditions on the fate of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs). Here, daily fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) during clear, haze, and fog episodes collected in the winter in Beijing, China was analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs). The total concentrations of PAHs, OPFRs, and BFRs had medians of 45.1 ng/m 3 and 1347 and 46.7 pg/m 3 , respectively. The temporal pattern for PAH concentrations was largely dependent on coal combustion for residential heating. OPFR compositions that change during colder period were related to enhanced indoor emissions due to heating. The mean concentrations of SOCs during haze and fog days were 2-10 times higher than those during clear days. We found that BFRs with lower octanol and air partition coefficients tended to increase during haze and fog episodes, be removed from PM 2.5 during clear episodes, or both. For PAHs and OPFRs, pollutants that are more recalcitrant to degradation were prone to accumulate during haze and fog days. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) model indicated that southern and eastern cities were major source regions of SOCs at this site.

  5. Modelos lineares aplicados à estimativa da concentração do material particulado (PM10 na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ Linear models applied to the assessment of daily concentration of particulate matter (PM10 in Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bastos Lyra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Regressão linear múltipla foi aplicada para ajustar dois modelos à concentração média de 24 h do material particulado com diâmetro inferior a 10 µm (PM10. As variáveis explanatórias no primeiro modelo (M1 foram os elementos meteorológicos (temperatura e umidade do ar, precipitação pluvial, velocidade do vento e pressão atmosférica e o índice de direção do vento (IDV. No segundo (M2, além dos elementos meteorológicos e do IDV, foi incluído como variável explanatória, a concentração de PM10 do dia anterior (PM10,i-1. Para a seleção das variáveis explanatórias a serem incluídas no modelo, utilizou-se a técnica stepwise. Medidas da concentração de PM10 e dos elementos meteorológicos foram realizadas entre 01/05/02 e 31/08/03 em São Cristóvão (22º 53´ S; 43º 13´ W e 24 m na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. O coeficiente de determinação (r² para o ajuste dos modelos foi razoável, sendo que o modelo M2 (r² = 0,557 mostrou ajuste superior ao modelo M1 (r² = 0,334. Os elementos meteorológicos tiveram correlação negativa com PM10, com exceção do índice de direção do vento, que da mesma forma de PM10,i-1, apresentou correlação positiva. A umidade relativa do ar e a precipitação pluvial mostraram-se os elementos meteorológicos mais significativos nos modelos. Contudo, quando PM10,i-1 é considerada, esta variável se mostrou a mais significativa no modelo. Independente do modelo, a inclusão da temperatura do ar não foi significativa (p > 0,05. O modelo M2 teve concordância entre os valores estimados e observados e precisão superior ao modelo M1. Em termos de previsão da qualidade do ar, os modelos mostraram resultados satisfatórios, sobressaindo-se o modelo M2.Multiple linear regression was used to fit two models to the daily average concentration of particulate matter with diameter lower than 10 µm (PM10. The explanatory variables in the first model (M1 were the weather variables (air temperature

  6. Including the temporal change in PM{sub 2.5} concentration in the assessment of human health impact: Illustration with renewable energy scenarios to 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gschwind, Benoit, E-mail: benoit.gschwind@mines-paristech.fr [Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy, MINES ParisTech, 1 rue Claude Daunesse, CS 10207, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Lefevre, Mireille, E-mail: mireille.lefevre@mines-paristech.fr [Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy, MINES ParisTech, 1 rue Claude Daunesse, CS 10207, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Blanc, Isabelle, E-mail: isabelle.blanc@mines-paristech.fr [Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy, MINES ParisTech, 1 rue Claude Daunesse, CS 10207, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Ranchin, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.ranchin@mines-paristech.fr [Centre Observation, Impacts, Energy, MINES ParisTech, 1 rue Claude Daunesse, CS 10207, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Wyrwa, Artur, E-mail: awyrwa@agh.edu.pl [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow 30-059 (Poland); Drebszok, Kamila [AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, Krakow 30-059 (Poland); Cofala, Janusz, E-mail: cofala@iiasa.ac.at [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2067 Laxenburg (Austria); Fuss, Sabine, E-mail: fuss@mcc-berlin.net [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Schlossplatz 1, 2067 Laxenburg (Austria); Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change, Torgauer Str. 12-15, 10829 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    This article proposes a new method to assess the health impact of populations exposed to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) during their whole lifetime, which is suitable for comparative analysis of energy scenarios. The method takes into account the variation of particle concentrations over time as well as the evolution of population cohorts. Its capabilities are demonstrated for two pathways of European energy system development up to 2050: the Baseline (BL) and the Low Carbon, Maximum Renewable Power (LC-MRP). These pathways were combined with three sets of assumptions about emission control measures: Current Legislation (CLE), Fixed Emission Factors (FEFs), and the Maximum Technically Feasible Reductions (MTFRs). Analysis was carried out for 45 European countries. Average PM{sub 2.5} concentration over Europe in the LC-MRP/CLE scenario is reduced by 58% compared with the BL/FEF case. Health impacts (expressed in days of loss of life expectancy) decrease by 21%. For the LC-MRP/MTFR scenario the average PM{sub 2.5} concentration is reduced by 85% and the health impact by 34%. The methodology was developed within the framework of the EU's FP7 EnerGEO project and was implemented in the Platform of Integrated Assessment (PIA). The Platform enables performing health impact assessments for various energy scenarios. - Highlights: • A new method to assess health impact of PM{sub 2.5} for energy scenarios is proposed. • An algorithm to compute Loss of Life Expectancy attributable to exposure to PM{sub 2.5} is depicted. • Its capabilities are demonstrated for two pathways of European energy system development up to 2050. • Integrating the temporal evolution of PM{sub 2.5} is of great interest for assessing the potential impacts of energy scenarios.

  7. Spatial and temporal variation of sources contributing to quasi-ultrafine particulate matter PM0.36 in Augsburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengxia; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Cyrys, Josef; Wolf, Kathrin; Karg, Erwin; Gu, Jianwei; Orasche, Jürgen; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Peters, Annette; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2018-08-01

    to study the sources contributing to quasi-ultrafine particle (UFP) organic carbon and the spatial temporal variability of the sources. 24h quasi-UFP (particulate matter quasi-UFP vary among sites and source types and show source-specific characteristics. Therefore, caution should be taken when using one monitor site measurement to assess human exposure in health effect studies of quasi-UFP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characteristics of organic matter in PM2.5 from an e-waste dismantling area in Taizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zeping; Feng, Jialiang; Han, Wenliang; Wu, Minghong; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying

    2010-08-01

    Solvent extractable organic compounds in PM(2.5) samples collected in Taizhou, a city famous for its electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling industry in Zhejiang province of China, were analyzed to identify the main emission sources based on molecular markers. Two types of plastics which were most frequently contained in the e-wastes, wires/cables and plastic blocks, were burned in the lab and the particles emitted analyzed. The concentrations of PAHs and phthalate esters at the e-waste dismantling area during our sampling periods were about two times of that at the reference urban site, indicating the high pollution level there. The high concentrations of quaterphenyl found at the dismantling area indicated that burning of plastics or polymers was an important emission source of the PAHs in the fine particles. The diagnostic analysis based on the compositions of alkanes, hopanes and other molecular markers showed that engine exhaust, biomass burning and kitchen emissions were also important emission sources at the e-waste dismantling area. Our results suggested that more effort should be paid to control the correlative emission sources such as transportation and kitchen to achieve better air quality at the e-waste dismantling area besides regulating the recycling activities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing the impact of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on respiratory-cardiovascular chronic diseases in the New York City Metropolitan area using Hierarchical Bayesian Model estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    An enhanced research paradigm is presented to address the spatial and temporal gaps in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements and generate realistic and representative concentration fields for use in epidemiological studies of human exposure to ambient air particulate conce...

  10. PM2.5 Chemical Composition at a Rural Background Site in Central Europe, Including Correlation and Air Mass Back Trajectory Analysis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarz, Jaroslav; Cusack, Michael; Karban, Jindřich; Chalupníčková, E.; Havránek, Vladimír; Smolík, Jiří; Ždímal, Vladimír

    176-177, JUL 1 (2016), s. 108-120 ISSN 0169-8095 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/11/1342; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 262254 - ACTRIS Institutional support: RVO:67985858 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : rural aerosol * PM2.5 * chemical composition Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders (UJF-V) Impact factor: 3.778, year: 2016

  11. Relationships of relative humidity with PM2.5 and PM10 in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Cairong; Liu, Hongyu; Li, Yufeng; Peng, Yan; Wang, Juan; Dai, Lingjun

    2017-10-23

    Severe particulate matter (PM, including PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) pollution frequently impacts many cities in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in China, which has aroused growing concern. In this study, we examined the associations between relative humidity (RH) and PM pollution using the equal step-size statistical method. Our results revealed that RH had an inverted U-shaped relationship with PM 2.5 concentrations (peaking at RH = 45-70%), and an inverted V-shaped relationship (peaking at RH = 40 ± 5%) with PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 . The trends of polluted-day number significantly changed at RH = 70%. The very-dry (RH humidity (RH = 60-70%) conditions positively affected PM 2.5 and exerted an accumulation effect, while the mid-humidity (RH = 70-80%), high-humidity (RH = 80-90%), and extreme-humidity (RH = 90-100%) conditions played a significant role in reducing particle concentrations. For PM 10 , the accumulation and reduction effects of RH were split at RH = 45%. Moreover, an upward slope in the PM 2.5 /PM 10 ratio indicated that the accumulation effects from increasing RH were more intense on PM 2.5 than on PM 10 , while the opposite was noticed for the reduction effects. Secondary transformations from SO 2 and NO 2 to sulfate and nitrate were mainly responsible for PM 2.5 pollution, and thus, controlling these precursors is effective in mitigating the PM pollution in the YRD, especially during winter. The conclusions in this study will be helpful for regional air-quality management.

  12. Induction of IL-6 and inhibition of IL-8 secretion in the human airway cell line Calu-3 by urban particulate matter collected with a modified method of PM sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto; Torres, Victor; Miranda, Javier; Martinez, Leticia; Garcia-Cuellar, Claudia; Nawrot, Tim S.; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Hoet, Peter; Ramirez-Lopez, Pavel; Rosas, Irma; Nemery, Benoit; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro Roman

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) induces inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, we evaluated the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by an airway cell line exposed to PM with a mean aerodynamic size equal to or less than 10 or 2.5 μm (PM 10 and PM 2.5 , respectively) collected in Mexico City, using a modified high-volume sampling method avoiding the use of solvents or introducing membrane components into the samples. PM was collected on cellulose-nitrate (CN) membranes modified for collection on high-volume samplers. Composition of the particles was evaluated by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and scanning electron microscopy. The particles (10-160 μg/cm 2 ) were tested on Calu-3 cells. Control cultures were exposed to LPS (10 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL) or silica (10-160 μg/cm 2 ). IL-6 and IL-8 secretions were evaluated by ELISA. An average of 10 mg of PM was recovered form each cellulose-nitrate filter. No evidence of contamination from the filter was found. Cells exposed to PM 10 presented an increase in the secretion of IL-6 (up to 400%), while IL-8 decreased (from 40% to levels below the detection limit). A similar but weaker effect was observed with PM 2.5 . In conclusion, our modified sampling method provides a large amount of urban PM free of membrane contamination. The urban particles induce a decrease in IL-8 secretion that contrasts with the LPS and silica effects. These results suggest that the regulation of IL-8 expression is different for urban particles (complex mixture containing combustion-related particles, soil and biologic components) than for biogenic compounds or pure mineral particles.

  13. Induction of IL-6 and inhibition of IL-8 secretion in the human airway cell line Calu-3 by urban particulate matter collected with a modified method of PM sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto, E-mail: ealfaro.incan@gmail.com [Lung Toxicology Unit, Pneumology Section, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Subdireccion de Investigacion Basica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Avenida San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Torres, Victor [Departamento Farmacologia, Facultad de Medicina, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Miranda, Javier [Departamento de Fisica Experimental, Instituto de Fisca, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Martinez, Leticia [Deparatmento de Aerobiologia, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera - Facultad de Medicina, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Garcia-Cuellar, Claudia [Subdireccion de Investigacion Basica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Avenida San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Nawrot, Tim S.; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Hoet, Peter [Lung Toxicology Unit, Pneumology Section, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Ramirez-Lopez, Pavel [Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas, I.P.N. (Mexico); Rosas, Irma [Deparatmento de Aerobiologia, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera - Facultad de Medicina, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Nemery, Benoit [Lung Toxicology Unit, Pneumology Section, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro Roman [Subdireccion de Investigacion Basica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Avenida San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) induces inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, we evaluated the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by an airway cell line exposed to PM with a mean aerodynamic size equal to or less than 10 or 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively) collected in Mexico City, using a modified high-volume sampling method avoiding the use of solvents or introducing membrane components into the samples. PM was collected on cellulose-nitrate (CN) membranes modified for collection on high-volume samplers. Composition of the particles was evaluated by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and scanning electron microscopy. The particles (10-160 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}) were tested on Calu-3 cells. Control cultures were exposed to LPS (10 ng/mL to 100 {mu}g/mL) or silica (10-160 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}). IL-6 and IL-8 secretions were evaluated by ELISA. An average of 10 mg of PM was recovered form each cellulose-nitrate filter. No evidence of contamination from the filter was found. Cells exposed to PM{sub 10} presented an increase in the secretion of IL-6 (up to 400%), while IL-8 decreased (from 40% to levels below the detection limit). A similar but weaker effect was observed with PM{sub 2.5}. In conclusion, our modified sampling method provides a large amount of urban PM free of membrane contamination. The urban particles induce a decrease in IL-8 secretion that contrasts with the LPS and silica effects. These results suggest that the regulation of IL-8 expression is different for urban particles (complex mixture containing combustion-related particles, soil and biologic components) than for biogenic compounds or pure mineral particles.

  14. Indoor pollution: PM2.5 and PM10 from cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chianese, E.; Barone, G.; Castaldo, R.M.; Riccio, A.

    2009-01-01

    This work is aimed to establishing the temporal and spatial dispersion of PM 10 and PM 2.5 particulate matter fractions generated by cigarettes smoking in an indoor ambient. To this purpose, PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations were collected with a mobile instrument positioned in a room accommodating a smoking machine. [it

  15. Observation of $C\\!P$ violation in $B^\\pm \\to D K^\\pm$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of $B^{\\pm}\\to DK^{\\pm}$ and $B^{\\pm}\\to D\\pi^{\\pm}$ decays is presented where the $D$ meson is reconstructed in the two-body final states:$K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}$, $K^+K^-$, $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $\\pi^{\\pm}K^{\\mp}$. Using $1.0{\\rm \\,fb}^{-1}$ of LHCb data, measurements of several observables are made including the first observation of the suppressed mode $B^{\\pm}\\to[\\pi^{\\pm}K^{\\mp}]_DK^{\\pm}$. $C\\!P$ violation in $B^{\\pm}\\to DK^{\\pm}$ decays is observed with $5.8\\,\\sigma$ significance.

  16. A study of uniformity of elements deposition on glass fiber filters after collection of airborne particulate matter (PM-10), using a high-volume sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Julieta; Rebagliati, Raúl Jiménez; Gómez, Darío; Smichowski, Patricia

    2005-12-15

    A study was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of the distribution of metals and metalloids deposited on glass fiber filters collected using a high-volume sampler equipped with a PM-10 sampling head. The airborne particulate matter (APM)-loaded glass fiber filters (with an active surface of about 500cm(2)) were weighed and then each filter was cut in five small discs of 6.5cm of diameter. Each disk was mineralized by acid-assisted microwave (MW) digestion using a mixture of nitric, perchloric and hydrofluoric acids. Analysis was performed by axial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and the elements considered were: Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti and V. The validation of the procedure was performed by the analysis of the standard reference material NIST 1648, urban particulate matter. As a way of comparing the possible variability in trace elements distribution in a particular filter, the mean concentration for each element over the five positions (discs) was calculated and each element concentration was normalized to this mean value. Scatter plots of the normalized concentrations were examined for all elements and all sub-samples. We considered that an element was homogeneously distributed if its normalized concentrations in the 45 sub-samples were within +/-15% of the mean value ranging between 0.85 and 1.15. The study demonstrated that the 12 elements tested showed different distribution pattern. Aluminium, Cu and V showed the most homogeneous pattern while Cd and Ni exhibited the largest departures from the mean value in 13 out of the 45 discs analyzed. No preferential deposition was noticed in any sub-sample.

  17. 76 FR 8300 - Finding of Failure To Submit State Implementation Plan Revisions for Particulate Matter, PM-10...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-14

    ... comment would be contrary to the public interest because it would divert Agency resources from the... entities include small businesses, small not-for-profit enterprises, and small governmental jurisdictions...

  18. Impacts of 2000-2050 Climate Change on Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Air Quality in China Based on Statistical Projections Using an Ensemble of Global Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, D. M.; Tai, A. P. K.; Shen, L.; Moch, J. M.; van Donkelaar, A.; Mickley, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality is strongly dependent on not only on emissions but also meteorological conditions. Here we examine the dominant synoptic circulation patterns that control day-to-day PM2.5 variability over China. We perform principal component (PC) analysis on 1998-2016 NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis I daily meteorological fields to diagnose distinct synoptic meteorological modes, and perform PC regression on spatially interpolated 2014-2016 daily mean PM2.5 concentrations in China to identify modes dominantly explaining PM2.5 variability. We find that synoptic systems, e.g., cold-frontal passages, maritime inflow and frontal precipitation, can explain up to 40% of the day-to-day PM2.5 variability in major metropolitan regions in China. We further investigate how annually changing frequencies of synoptic systems, as well as changing local meteorology, drive interannual PM2.5 variability. We apply a spectral analysis on the PC time series to obtain the 1998-2016 annual median synoptic frequency, and use a forward-selection multiple linear regression (MLR) model of satellite-derived 1998-2015 annual mean PM2.5 concentrations on local meteorology and synoptic frequency, selecting predictors that explain the highest fraction of interannual PM2.5 variability while guarding against multicollinearity. To estimate the effect of climate change on future PM2.5 air quality, we project a multimodel ensemble of 15 CMIP5 models under the RCP8.5 scenario on the PM2.5-to-meteorology sensitivities derived for the present-day from the MLR model. Our results show that climate change could be responsible for increases in PM2.5 of more than 25 μg m-3 in northwestern China and 10 mg m-3 in northeastern China by the 2050s. Increases in synoptic frequency of cold-frontal passages cause only a modest 1 μg m-3 decrease in PM2.5 in North China Plain. Our analyses show that climate change imposes a significant penalty on air quality over China and poses serious threat on

  19. A comparative study of the organic matter in PM 2.5 from three Chinese megacities in three different climatic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jialiang; Hu, Min; Chan, Chak K.; Lau, P. S.; Fang, Ming; He, Lingyan; Tang, Xiaoyan

    Organic matter in PM 2.5 collected in 2002 and 2003 from three megacities in different climatic zones in China, Beijing (40°N), Shanghai (31°N) and Guangzhou (23°N), was characterized. The focus was on solvent-extractable organic compounds (SEOC), which were used to identify the influences of geography, variation of the season, sources and transport on the concentration and distribution of these homologues. Organic carbon, elemental carbon, and water-soluble organic carbon concentrations were analyzed only for the substantiation of the SEOC findings. Analysis of the fossil fuel residues and the plant wax components in n-alkanes, PAHs, fatty acids and n-alkanols allowed the identification of anthropogenic (coal and petroleum combustion processes, and kitchen emissions) and biogenic (vegetation and microbial) sources. The influence of temperature on the distribution of the SEOC was exemplified by the negative correlation between the relative concentrations of the semivolatile homologues (alkanes and PAHs) and ambient temperature. This is attributable to gas-particle partitioning. Indirectly, ambient temperature dictates the type of vegetation that can grow in a geographical zone. This would influence the distribution of the plant waxes, and finally, it plays a role in the aerosol loading due to energy usage.

  20. 76 FR 24051 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Mobile Tablets, Portable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ..., Including Mobile Phones, Mobile Tablets, Portable Music Players, and Computers, and Components Thereof... certain electronic devices, including mobile phones, mobile tablets, portable music players, and computers...''). The complaint further alleges that an industry in the United States exists or is in the process of...

  1. 76 FR 45860 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ..., Including Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, and Tablet Computers... electronic devices, including wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, and...''). The complaint further alleges that an industry in the United States exists or is in the process of...

  2. 75 FR 4583 - In the Matter of: Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ..., Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and Computers; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: U.S... music players, and computers, by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 6,714,091... importation of certain electronic devices, including mobile phones, portable music players, or computers that...

  3. 76 FR 41522 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Mobile Tablets, Portable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Mobile Tablets, Portable Music Players, and Computers, and Components.... 1337, in the importation, sale for importation and sale within the United States after importation of certain mobile phones, mobile tablets, portable music players, and computers. 76 FR 24051 (Apr. 29, 2011...

  4. PM levels in urban area of Bejaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaissa, Fatima; Maesano, Cara Nichole; Alkama, Rezak; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is not routinely measured in Bejaia City, Algeria, an urban area of around 200,000 inhabitants. We present first time measurements of particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations for this city (PM10, PM7, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1) over the course of one week, from July 8 to July 14, 2015. This study covered eight urban sampling sites and 169 measurements were obtained to determine mass concentration levels. Air pollution is not routinely measured in Bejaia City, Algeria, an urban area of around 200,000 inhabitants. We present first time measurements of particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations for this city (PM10, PM7, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1) over the course of one week, from July 8 to July 14, 2015. This study covered eight urban sampling sites and 169 measurements were obtained to determine mass concentration levels. The average city-wide PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations measured during this sampling were 87.8 ± 33.9 and 28.7 ± 10.6 µg/m3 respectively. These results show that particulate matter levels are high and exceed Algerian ambient air quality standards (maximum 80 µg/m3, without specifying the particle size). Further, PM10 and PM2.5 averages were well above the prescribed 24-hour average World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines (WHO AQG) (50 µg/m3 for PM10 and 25 µg/m3 for PM2.5). The PM1, PM2,5, PM4 and PM7 fractions accounted for 15%, 32 %, 56% and 78% respectively of the PM10 measurements. Our analysis reveals that PM concentration variations in the study region were influenced primarily by traffic. In fact, lower PM10 concentrations (21.7 and 33.1 µg/m3) were recorded in residential sites while higher values (53.1, and 45.2 µg/m3) were registered in city centers. Keywords: Particulate matter, Urban area, vehicle fleet, Bejaia.

  5. Airborne particulate matter PM2.5 from Mexico City affects the generation of reactive oxygen species by blood neutrophils from asthmatics: an in vitro approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceballos Guillermo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is densely populated, and toxic air pollutants are generated and concentrated at a higher rate because of its geographic characteristics. It is well known that exposure to particulate matter, especially to fine and ultra-fine particles, enhances the risk of cardio-respiratory diseases, especially in populations susceptible to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fine particles on the respiratory burst of circulating neutrophils from asthmatic patients living in Mexico City. Methods In total, 6 subjects diagnosed with mild asthma and 11 healthy volunteers were asked to participate. Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral venous blood and incubated with fine particles, and the generation of reactive oxygen species was recorded by chemiluminescence. We also measured plasma lipoperoxidation susceptibility and plasma myeloperoxidase and paraoxonase activities by spectrophotometry. Results Asthmatic patients showed significantly lower plasma paraoxonase activity, higher susceptibility to plasma lipoperoxidation and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity that differed significantly from the control group. In the presence of fine particles, neutrophils from asthmatic patients showed an increased tendency to generate reactive oxygen species after stimulation with fine particles (PM2.5. Conclusion These findings suggest that asthmatic patients have higher oxidation of plasmatic lipids due to reduced antioxidant defense. Furthermore, fine particles tended to increase the respiratory burst of blood human neutrophils from the asthmatic group. On the whole, increased myeloperoxidase activity and susceptibility to lipoperoxidation with a concomitant decrease in paraoxonase activity in asthmatic patients could favor lung infection and hence disrupt the control of asthmatic crises.

  6. Characteristics of lead isotope ratios and elemental concentrations in PM 10 fraction of airborne particulate matter in Shanghai after the phase-out of leaded gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Tan, Mingguang; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Guilin; Zhang, Yuanmao; Shan, Zuci

    The stable lead (Pb) isotope ratios and the concentrations of 23 elements, including heavy metals and toxic elements, were measured in the PM 10 airborne particle samples collected at seven monitoring sites in Shanghai, China, to evaluate the current elemental compositions and local airborne Pb isotope ratio characteristics. Some source-related samples, such as cement, coal and oil combustion dust, metallurgic dust, vehicle exhaust particles derived from leaded gasoline and unleaded gasoline, and polluted soils were analyzed for their Pb content and isotope ratio and compared to those observed in PM 10 samples. Airborne Pb concentration ranged from 167 to 854 ng/m 3 in the seven monitored sites with an average of 515 ng/m 3 in Shanghai, indicating that a high concentration of Pb remains in the air after the phasing out of leaded gasoline. Lead isotopic compositions in airborne particles ( 207Pb/ 206Pb, 0.8608±0.0018; 208Pb/ 206Pb, 2.105±0.005) are clearly distinct from the vehicle exhaust particles ( 207Pb/ 206Pb, 0.8854±0.0075; 208Pb/ 206Pb, 2.145±0.006), suggesting that the automotive lead is not currently the major component of Pb in the air. By using a binary mixing equation, a source apportionment based on 207Pb/ 206Pb ratios, indicates that the contribution from automotive emission to the airborne Pb is around 20%. The Pb isotope ratios obtained in the source-related samples confirmed that the major emission sources are metallurgic dust, coal combustion, and cement.

  7. Study on Concentration of Particulate Matter with Diameter Less than 10 Microns, Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Related to PM2.5 in the Ambient Air of Sina Hospital District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Kermani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:In recent decades, extensive studies have shown a number of short and long-term health effects of particle matters. In addition to particle matters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heavy metals in airborne particles due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic properties are considered major air pollutants. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of PM2.5particulate, 7heavy metal concentrations and 13 PAHs compound associated with fine particles (PM2.5-boud PAHs in the district of Sina hospital, Tehran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in air of Sina Hospital district in Tehran. Concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 were determined by gravimetric. Also heavy metal concentrations in samples after digestion were determined with ICP-AES instrument through injection. Then the PAHs compounds from each sample were extracted by ultrasonic method. After this step, extracted sample was injected for analysis by GC-MS and concentration of each compound was read. Results: The daily average concentration of PM2.5 during the study was 41.19 µg/m3.Concentration values for zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel and arsenic, were 92/69, 05/38, 2/18, 24/4, 19/4 and 34/1 ng/m3 respectively but mercury not found in this study. Average concentrations of PAHs compounds have been variable from0.07 ng/m3 for Chrysene to 1.21ng/m3 for Dibenzo(ahanthracene. Conclusion: In this study, the daily average of PM2.5 concentrations was above the Iranian National PM, WHO (25 µg/m3 and EPA (35 µg/m3 standards established for PM2.5 particles. Heavy metal concentrations in this study were lower than values reported in previous studies in Tehran. The highest concentrations among PAHs compounds belonging toIndeo(cd 1,2,3pyren, Dibenzo(ah anthracene, Benzo (B flouranthin and Benzo (Kflouranthin that all of these compounds are related to vehicle emissions.

  8. Toxicological Impact of Air Pollution Particulate Matter PM 2.5 Collected under Urban Industrial or Rural Influence Occurrence of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Reaction in BEAS 2B Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Corrected Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dergham, M.; Billet, S; Verdin, A.; Courcot, D.; Cazier, F.; Pirouz, Sh.; Garcon, G.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution Particulate Matter (PM) is one of the risk factors involved in the high incidence of respiratory and cardio-vascular diseases. In this work, to integrate inter-seasonal and inter-site variations, fine particle (PM2.5) samples have been collected in spring-summer 2008) and autumn 2008-winter 2009, in Dunkerque (France) under urban or industrial influence, and in Rubrouck (France), under rural influence. Attention was paid to characterize their physico-chemical characteristics, and to determine their ability to induce oxidative stress and inflammatory response in a human bronchial epithelial cell model (BEAS-2B cell line). Physico-chemical characterization of the six PM samples showed their heterogeneities and complexities depending upon their respective natural and/or anthropogenic emission sources. Lung cytotoxicity of these air pollution PM2.5 samples, as shown in BEAS-2B cells, might rely on the induction of oxidative stress conditions and particularly on the excessive inflammatory response. (author)

  9. Will PM control undermine China's efforts to reduce soil acidification?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yu; Duan Lei; Lei Yu; Xing Jia; Nielsen, Chris P.; Hao Jiming

    2011-01-01

    China's strategies to control acidifying pollutants and particulate matter (PM) may be in conflict for soil acidification abatement. Acidifying pollutant emissions are estimated for 2005 and 2020 with anticipated control policies. PM emissions including base cations (BCs) are evaluated with two scenarios, a base case applying existing policy to 2020, and a control case including anticipated tightened measures. Depositions of sulfur (S), nitrogen (N) and BCs are simulated and their acidification risks are evaluated with critical load (CL). In 2005, the area exceeding CL covered 15.6% of mainland China, with total exceedance of 2.2 Mt S. These values decrease in the base scenario 2020, implying partial recovery from acidification. Under more realistic PM control, the respective estimates are 17.9% and 2.4 Mt S, indicating increased acidification risks due to abatement of acid-neutralizing BCs. China's anthropogenic PM abatement will have potentially stronger chemical implications for acidification than developed countries. - Highlights: → We model the emission and deposition of base cations and acid precursors in China. → Soil acidification in China is analyzed with exceedance of critical load. → China's PM control increases the acidification risk even with reduced SO 2 emission. → The impact of PM for acidification is stronger than that in developed countries. - The control of anthropogenic PM emission in China will increase the risk of soil acidification even with reduced SO 2 emission. Such implication is stronger than that in developed countries.

  10. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated in barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention.

  11. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinson, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, and one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention. 3 figs

  12. Chiral effective field theory for nuclear matter including long- and short-range multi-nucleon interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oller J.A.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We review on a novel chiral power counting scheme for in-medium chiral perturbation theory with nucleons and pions as degrees of freedom. It allows for a systematic expansion taking into account local as well as pion-mediated inter-nucleon interactions. Based on this power counting, one can identify classes of nonperturbative diagrams that require a resummation. As a method for performing those resummations we review on the techniques of Unitary Chiral Pertubation Theory for nucleon-nucleon interactions. We then apply both power counting and non-perturbative methods to the example of calculating the pion self-energy in asymmetric nuclear matter up-to-and-including next-to-leading order. It is shown that the leading corrections involving in-medium nucleon-nucleon interactions cancel between each other at given chiral orders.

  13. Characterization of PM2.5 and the major chemical components during a 1-year campaign in rural Guangzhou, Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Senchao; Zhao, Yan; Ding, Aijun; Zhang, Yingyi; Song, Tianli; Zheng, Junyu; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun-cheng; Zhong, Liuju

    2016-01-01

    A 1-year campaign was conducted in the rural area of Guangzhou, a megacity in southern China, to collect fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from March 2012 to February 2013. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and the major chemical components including 6 water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and 13 additional elements were measured. The annual average concentration of PM2.5 was 44.2 ± 25.8 μg/m3. Sulfate was the most dominant component, accounting for 28.6% of PM2.5, followed by organic matter (21.9%). Both sea salt and crustal material accounted for only a small fraction of PM2.5 (burning. Two high-PM2.5 case studies show that both local and long-range transport can play important roles in the PM2.5 elevation episode.

  14. Fast Inverse Distance Weighting-Based Spatiotemporal Interpolation: A Web-Based Application of Interpolating Daily Fine Particulate Matter PM2.5 in the Contiguous U.S. Using Parallel Programming and k-d Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have identified associations between mortality and changes in concentration of particulate matter. These studies have highlighted the public concerns about health effects of particulate air pollution. Modeling fine particulate matter PM2.5 exposure risk and monitoring day-to-day changes in PM2.5 concentration is a critical step for understanding the pollution problem and embarking on the necessary remedy. This research designs, implements and compares two inverse distance weighting (IDW-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods, in order to assess the trend of daily PM2.5 concentration for the contiguous United States over the year of 2009, at both the census block group level and county level. Traditionally, when handling spatiotemporal interpolation, researchers tend to treat space and time separately and reduce the spatiotemporal interpolation problems to a sequence of snapshots of spatial interpolations. In this paper, PM2.5 data interpolation is conducted in the continuous space-time domain by integrating space and time simultaneously, using the so-called extension approach. Time values are calculated with the help of a factor under the assumption that spatial and temporal dimensions are equally important when interpolating a continuous changing phenomenon in the space-time domain. Various IDW-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods with different parameter configurations are evaluated by cross-validation. In addition, this study explores computational issues (computer processing speed faced during implementation of spatiotemporal interpolation for huge data sets. Parallel programming techniques and an advanced data structure, named k-d tree, are adapted in this paper to address the computational challenges. Significant computational improvement has been achieved. Finally, a web-based spatiotemporal IDW-based interpolation application is designed and implemented where users can visualize and animate

  15. Fast Inverse Distance Weighting-Based Spatiotemporal Interpolation: A Web-Based Application of Interpolating Daily Fine Particulate Matter PM2.5 in the Contiguous U.S. Using Parallel Programming and k-d Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixin; Losser, Travis; Yorke, Charles; Piltner, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified associations between mortality and changes in concentration of particulate matter. These studies have highlighted the public concerns about health effects of particulate air pollution. Modeling fine particulate matter PM2.5 exposure risk and monitoring day-to-day changes in PM2.5 concentration is a critical step for understanding the pollution problem and embarking on the necessary remedy. This research designs, implements and compares two inverse distance weighting (IDW)-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods, in order to assess the trend of daily PM2.5 concentration for the contiguous United States over the year of 2009, at both the census block group level and county level. Traditionally, when handling spatiotemporal interpolation, researchers tend to treat space and time separately and reduce the spatiotemporal interpolation problems to a sequence of snapshots of spatial interpolations. In this paper, PM2.5 data interpolation is conducted in the continuous space-time domain by integrating space and time simultaneously, using the so-called extension approach. Time values are calculated with the help of a factor under the assumption that spatial and temporal dimensions are equally important when interpolating a continuous changing phenomenon in the space-time domain. Various IDW-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods with different parameter configurations are evaluated by cross-validation. In addition, this study explores computational issues (computer processing speed) faced during implementation of spatiotemporal interpolation for huge data sets. Parallel programming techniques and an advanced data structure, named k-d tree, are adapted in this paper to address the computational challenges. Significant computational improvement has been achieved. Finally, a web-based spatiotemporal IDW-based interpolation application is designed and implemented where users can visualize and animate spatiotemporal interpolation

  16. Fast inverse distance weighting-based spatiotemporal interpolation: a web-based application of interpolating daily fine particulate matter PM2:5 in the contiguous U.S. using parallel programming and k-d tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixin; Losser, Travis; Yorke, Charles; Piltner, Reinhard

    2014-09-03

    Epidemiological studies have identified associations between mortality and changes in concentration of particulate matter. These studies have highlighted the public concerns about health effects of particulate air pollution. Modeling fine particulate matter PM2.5 exposure risk and monitoring day-to-day changes in PM2.5 concentration is a critical step for understanding the pollution problem and embarking on the necessary remedy. This research designs, implements and compares two inverse distance weighting (IDW)-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods, in order to assess the trend of daily PM2.5 concentration for the contiguous United States over the year of 2009, at both the census block group level and county level. Traditionally, when handling spatiotemporal interpolation, researchers tend to treat space and time separately and reduce the spatiotemporal interpolation problems to a sequence of snapshots of spatial interpolations. In this paper, PM2.5 data interpolation is conducted in the continuous space-time domain by integrating space and time simultaneously, using the so-called extension approach. Time values are calculated with the help of a factor under the assumption that spatial and temporal dimensions are equally important when interpolating a continuous changing phenomenon in the space-time domain. Various IDW-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods with different parameter configurations are evaluated by cross-validation. In addition, this study explores computational issues (computer processing speed) faced during implementation of spatiotemporal interpolation for huge data sets. Parallel programming techniques and an advanced data structure, named k-d tree, are adapted in this paper to address the computational challenges. Significant computational improvement has been achieved. Finally, a web-based spatiotemporal IDW-based interpolation application is designed and implemented where users can visualize and animate spatiotemporal interpolation

  17. Preliminary PM2.5 and PM10 fractions source apportionment complemented by statistical accuracy determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samek Lucyna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of PM10 and PM2.5 fractions were collected between the years 2010 and 2013 at the urban area of Krakow, Poland. Numerous types of air pollution sources are present at the site; these include steel and cement industries, traffic, municipal emission sources and biomass burning. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the concentrations of the following elements: Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, As and Pb within the collected samples. Defining the elements as indicators, airborne particulate matter (APM source profiles were prepared by applying principal component analysis (PCA, factor analysis (FA and multiple linear regression (MLR. Four different factors identifying possible air pollution sources for both PM10 and PM2.5 fractions were attributed to municipal emissions, biomass burning, steel industry, traffic, cement and metal industry, Zn and Pb industry and secondary aerosols. The uncertainty associated with each loading was determined by a statistical simulation method that took into account the individual elemental concentrations and their corresponding uncertainties. It will be possible to identify two or more sources of air particulate matter pollution for a single factor in case it is extremely difficult to separate the sources.

  18. Vertical characteristics and source identification of PM10 in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhimei Xiao; Jianhui Wu; Suqin Han; Yufen Zhang; Hong Xu; Xiaoyong Zhang; Guoliang Shi; Yinchang Feng

    2012-01-01

    Ambient PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm) concentrations were measured on a 255 meter tower in Tianjin,China.The samples were collected at four vertical levels (10,40,120 and 220 m).Vertical characteristics for PM10 samples were studied.The results showed that the concentrations of PM10 and constituent species had a negative correlation with the sampling height.The highest concentrations of PM10 and species were obtained at the 10 m level,and the lowest concentrations were measured at the 220 m level.For the fractions of species to total mass,SO42- and NO3- had higher values (fraction) at greater height; while Ca had a higher fraction at lower height.Possible source categories for the PM10 ambient dataset were identified by the principal component analysis method.The possible source categories included crustal dust,vehicles,cement dust,and incineration as well as secondary sulfate and nitrate sources.Analysis of meteorological factors on PM10 concentrations indicated that wind speed and inversion may be the main factors contributing to different concentrations of PM10 at different heights.

  19. Inhalable microorganisms in Beijing's PM2.5 and PM10 pollutants during a severe smog event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chen; Jiang, Wenjun; Wang, Buying; Fang, Jianhuo; Lang, Jidong; Tian, Geng; Jiang, Jingkun; Zhu, Ting F

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution poses a formidable public health threat to the city of Beijing. Among the various hazards of PM pollutants, microorganisms in PM2.5 and PM10 are thought to be responsible for various allergies and for the spread of respiratory diseases. While the physical and chemical properties of PM pollutants have been extensively studied, much less is known about the inhalable microorganisms. Most existing data on airborne microbial communities using 16S or 18S rRNA gene sequencing to categorize bacteria or fungi into the family or genus levels do not provide information on their allergenic and pathogenic potentials. Here we employed metagenomic methods to analyze the microbial composition of Beijing's PM pollutants during a severe January smog event. We show that with sufficient sequencing depth, airborne microbes including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and dsDNA viruses can be identified at the species level. Our results suggested that the majority of the inhalable microorganisms were soil-associated and nonpathogenic to human. Nevertheless, the sequences of several respiratory microbial allergens and pathogens were identified and their relative abundance appeared to have increased with increased concentrations of PM pollution. Our findings may serve as an important reference for environmental scientists, health workers, and city planners.

  20. Inhalable Microorganisms in Beijing’s PM2.5 and PM10 Pollutants during a Severe Smog Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution poses a formidable public health threat to the city of Beijing. Among the various hazards of PM pollutants, microorganisms in PM2.5 and PM10 are thought to be responsible for various allergies and for the spread of respiratory diseases. While the physical and chemical properties of PM pollutants have been extensively studied, much less is known about the inhalable microorganisms. Most existing data on airborne microbial communities using 16S or 18S rRNA gene sequencing to categorize bacteria or fungi into the family or genus levels do not provide information on their allergenic and pathogenic potentials. Here we employed metagenomic methods to analyze the microbial composition of Beijing’s PM pollutants during a severe January smog event. We show that with sufficient sequencing depth, airborne microbes including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and dsDNA viruses can be identified at the species level. Our results suggested that the majority of the inhalable microorganisms were soil-associated and nonpathogenic to human. Nevertheless, the sequences of several respiratory microbial allergens and pathogens were identified and their relative abundance appeared to have increased with increased concentrations of PM pollution. Our findings may serve as an important reference for environmental scientists, health workers, and city planners. PMID:24456276

  1. Particulate matter (PM 2.5 levels in ETS emissions of a Marlboro Red cigarette in comparison to the 3R4F reference cigarette under open- and closed-door condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Potential health damage by environmental emission of tobacco smoke (environmental tobacco smoke, ETS has been demonstrated convincingly in numerous studies. People, especially children, are still exposed to ETS in the small space of private cars. Although major amounts of toxic compounds from ETS are likely transported into the distal lung via particulate matter (PM, few studies have quantified the amount of PM in ETS. Study aim The aim of this study was to determine the ETS-dependent concentration of PM from both a 3R4F reference cigarette (RC as well as a Marlboro Red brand cigarette (MRC in a small enclosed space under different conditions of ventilation to model car exposure. Method In order to create ETS reproducibly, an emitter (ETSE was constructed and mounted on to an outdoor telephone booth with an inner volume of 1.75 m3. Cigarettes were smoked under open- and closed-door condition to imitate different ventilation scenarios. PM2.5 concentration was quantified by a laser aerosol spectrometer (Grimm; Model 1.109, and data were adjusted for baseline values. Simultaneously indoor and outdoor climate parameters were recorded. The time of smoking was divided into the ETS generation phase (subset “emission” and a declining phase of PM concentration (subset “elimination”; measurement was terminated after 10 min. For all three time periods the average concentration of PM2.5 (Cmean-PM2.5 and the area under the PM2.5 concentration curve (AUC-PM2.5 was calculated. The maximum concentration (Cmax-PM2.5 was taken from the total interval. Results For both cigarette types open-door ventilation reduced the AUC-PM2.5 (RC: from 59 400 ± 14 600 to 5 550 ± 3 900 μg*sec/m3; MRC: from 86 500 ± 32 000 to 7 300 ± 2 400 μg*sec/m3; p mean-PM2.5 (RC: from 600 ± 150 to 56 ± 40 μg/m3, MRC from 870 ± 320 to 75 ± 25 μg/m3; p max-PM2.5 was reduced by about 80% (RC: from 1 050 ± 230 to

  2. A statistical model for determining impact of wildland fires on Particulate Matter (PM2.5) in Central California aided by satellite imagery of smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Donald Schweizer; Ricardo Cisneros; Trent Procter; Mark Ruminski; Leland Tarnay

    2015-01-01

    As the climate in California warms and wildfires become larger and more severe, satellite-based observational tools are frequently used for studying impact of those fires on air quality. However little objective work has been done to quantify the skill these satellite observations of smoke plumes have in predicting impacts to PM2.5 concentrations...

  3. Quantification of vehicle fleet PM_1_0 particulate matter emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources using tunnel measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-01-01

    Road tunnels act like large laboratories; they provide an excellent environment to quantify atmospheric particles emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources due to their known boundary conditions. Current work compares the High Volume, Dichotomous Stacked Filter Unit and Partisol Air Sampler for coarse, PM_1_0 and PM_2_._5 particle concentration measurement and found that they do not differ significantly (p = 95%). PM_2_._5 fraction contributes 66% of PM_1_0 proportions and significantly influenced by traffic (turbulence) and meteorological conditions. Mass emission factors for PM_1_0 varies from 21.3 ± 1.9 to 28.8 ± 3.4 mg/vkm and composed of Motorcycle (0.0003–0.001 mg/vkm), Cars (26.1–33.4 mg/vkm), LDVs (2.4–3.0 mg/vkm), HDVs (2.2–2.8 mg/vkm) and Buses (0.1 mg/vkm). Based on Lawrence et al. (2013), source apportionment modelling, the PM_1_0 emission of brake wear (3.8–4.4 mg/vkm), petrol exhaust (3.9–4.5 mg/vkm), diesel exhaust (7.2–8.3 mg/vkm), re-suspension (9–10.4 mg/vkm), road surface wear (3.9–4.5 mg/vkm), and unexplained (7.2 mg/vkm) were also calculated. The current study determined that the combined non-exhaust fleet PM_1_0 emission factor (16.7–19.3 mg/vkm) are higher than the combined exhaust emission factor (11.1–12.8 mg/vkm). Thus, highlight the significance of non-exhaust emissions and the need for legislation and abatement strategies to reduce their contributions to ambient PM concentrations. - Highlights: • Calculations of exhaust/non-exhaust particulate emission factors using tunnel sampling and source apportionment techniques. • Non-exhaust emission dominates in the fine particle fraction, considered responsible for adverse human health impacts. • Emission factors for non-exhaust sources (e.g. tyre and brake) were calculated. • Fleet source PM_1_0 emission factor were also calculated, which can be used in dispersion modelling and health risk assessment. • Tukey mean

  4. Levels of PM2.5/PM10 and associated metal(loid)s in rural households of Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuyong; Wang, Wei; Man, Yu Bon; Chan, Chuen Yu; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-04-15

    Although a majority of China's rural residents use solid fuels (biomass and coal) for household cooking and heating, clean energy such as electricity and liquid petroleum gas is becoming more popular in the rural area. Unfortunately, both solid fuels and clean energy could result in indoor air pollution. Daily respirable particulate matter (PM≤10 μm) and inhalable particulate matter (PM≤2.5 μm) were investigated in kitchens, sitting rooms and outdoor area in rural Henan during autumn (Sep to Oct 2012) and winter (Jan 2013). The results showed that PM (PM2.5 and PM10) and associated metal(loid)s varied among the two seasons and the four types of domestic energy used. Mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in kitchens during winter were 59.2-140.4% and 30.5-145.1% higher than those during autumn, respectively. Similar with the trends of PM2.5 and PM10, concentrations of As, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni and Mn in household PM2.5 and PM10 were apparently higher in winter than those in autumn. The highest mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 (368.5 and 588.7 μg m(-3)) were recorded in sitting rooms in Baofeng during winter, which were 5.7 and 3.9 times of corresponding health based guidelines for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Using coal can result in severe indoor air pollutants including PM and associated metal(loid)s compared with using crop residues, electricity and gas in rural Henan Province. Rural residents' exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 would be roughly reduced by 13.5-22.2% and 8.9-37.7% via replacing coal or crop residues with electricity. The present study suggested that increased use of electricity as domestic energy would effectively improve indoor air quality in rural China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Variations in some environmental characteristics including C and N stable isotopic composition of suspended organic matter in the Mandovi estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maya, M.V.; Soares, M.A.; Agnihotri, R.; Pratihary, A.K.; Karapurkar, S.; Naik, H.; Naqvi, S.W.A.

    ) of suspended organic matter produced/transported during the monsoon and post-monsoon seasons of year 2007 provides a baseline dataset for future isotopic studies in such type of tropical estuaries...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Fine Particulate Matter as PM2.5 in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and 1000 W/m2 solar radiation intensity. 7.4.8.2 The ambient temperature sensor shall be of such a... measurement of the mass concentration of fine particulate matter having an aerodynamic diameter less than or... matter specified in § 50.7 and § 50.13 of this part are met. The measurement process is considered to be...

  7. Characterization of metal and trace element contents of particulate matter (PM10) emitted by vehicles running on Brazilian fuels-hydrated ethanol and gasoline with 22% of anhydrous ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silva, Moacir; Vicente de Assunção, João; de Fátima Andrade, Maria; Pesquero, Célia R

    2010-01-01

    Emission of fine particles by mobile sources has been a matter of great concern due to its potential risk both to human health and the environment. Although there is no evidence that one sole component may be responsible for the adverse health outcomes, it is postulated that the metal particle content is one of the most important factors, mainly in relation to oxidative stress. Data concerning the amount and type of metal particles emitted by automotive vehicles using Brazilian fuels are limited. The aim of this study was to identify inhalable particles (PM(10)) and their trace metal content in two light-duty vehicles where one was fueled with ethanol while the other was fueled with gasoline mixed with 22% of anhydrous ethanol (gasohol); these engines were tested on a chassis dynamometer. The elementary composition of the samples was evaluated by the particle-induced x-ray emission technique. The experiment showed that total emission factors ranged from 2.5 to 11.8 mg/km in the gasohol vehicle, and from 1.2 to 3 mg/km in the ethanol vehicle. The majority of particles emitted were in the fine fraction (PM(2.5)), in which Al, Si, Ca, and Fe corresponded to 80% of the total weight. PM(10) emissions from the ethanol vehicle were about threefold lower than those of gasohol. The elevated amount of fine particulate matter is an aggravating factor, considering that these particles, and consequently associated metals, readily penetrate deeply into the respiratory tract, producing damage to lungs and other tissues.

  8. Toxicological and epidemiological studies of cardiovascular effects of ambient air fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its chemical components: coherence and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, Morton

    2014-04-01

    Recent investigations on PM2.5 constituents' effects in community residents have substantially enhanced our knowledge on the impacts of specific components, especially the HEI-sponsored National Particle Toxicity Component (NPACT) studies at NYU and UW-LRRI that addressed the impact of long-term PM2.5 exposure on cardiovascular disease (CVD) effects. NYU's mouse inhalation studies at five sites showed substantial variations in aortic plaque progression by geographic region that was coherent with the regional variation in annual IHD mortality in the ACS-II cohort, with both the human and mouse responses being primarily attributable to the coal combustion source category. The UW regressions of associations of CVD events and mortality in the WHI cohort, and of CIMT and CAC progression in the MESA cohort, indicated that [Formula: see text] had stronger associations with CVD-related human responses than OC, EC, or Si. The LRRI's mice had CVD-related biomarker responses to [Formula: see text]. NYU also identified components most closely associated with daily hospital admissions (OC, EC, Cu from traffic and Ni and V from residual oil). For daily mortality, they were from coal combustion ([Formula: see text], Se, and As). While the recent NPACT research on PM2.5 components that affect CVD has clearly filled some major knowledge gaps, and helped to define remaining uncertainties, much more knowledge is needed on the effects in other organ systems if we are to identify and characterize the most effective and efficient means for reducing the still considerable adverse health impacts of ambient air PM. More comprehensive speciation data are needed for better definition of human responses.

  9. Characterization of traffic-related ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in an Asian city: Environmental and health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Khlystov, Andrey; Norford, Leslie K.; Tan, Zhen-Kang; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2017-07-01

    Vehicular traffic emission is an important source of particulate pollution in most urban areas. The detailed chemical speciation of traffic-related PM2.5 (fine particles) is relatively sparse in the literature, especially in Asian cities. To fill this knowledge gap, we carried out an intensive field study in Singapore from November 2015 to February 2016. PM2.5 samples were collected concurrently at a typical roadside microenvironment and at an urban background site. A detailed chemical speciation of PM2.5 samples was conducted to gain insights into the emission characteristics of traffic-related fine aerosols. Analyses of diagnostic ratios and molecular markers of selected chemical species were explored for source attribution of different classes of chemical constituents in traffic-related PM2.5. The human health risk due to inhalation of the particulate-bound PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and toxic trace elements was estimated for both adults and children. The overall results of the study indicate that gasoline-powered vehicles make a higher contribution to traffic-related fine aerosol components such as organic carbon (OC), particle-bound PAHs and particulate ammonium than that of diesel-powered vehicles. However, both types of vehicles contribute to traffic-related EC emissions significantly. The combustion of petroleum fuels and lubricating oil make significant contributions to the emission of n-alkanes and hopanes into the urban atmosphere, respectively. The study further reveals that some toxic trace elements are emitted from non-exhaust sources and that aromatic acids represent an important component of secondary organic aerosols. The emission of toxic trace elements from non-exhaust sources is of particular concern as they could pose a higher carcinogenic risk to both adults and children than other chemical species.

  10. Human health risk due to variations in PM10-PM2.5 and associated PAHs levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Beatriz S.; Porta, Andrés; Colman Lerner, Jorge Esteban; Banda Noriega, Roxana; Massolo, Laura

    2017-07-01

    WHO (2012) reports that chronic exposure to air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), causes the death of 7 million people, constituting the most important environmental risk for health in the world. IARC classifies contaminated outdoor air as carcinogenic, Group 1 category. However, in our countries there are few studies regarding air pollution levels and possible associated effects on public health. The current study determined PM and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels in outdoor air, identified their possible emission sources and analysed health risks in the city of Tandil (Argentina). PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected using a low volume sampler (MiniVol TAS) in three areas: city centre, industrial and residential. Concentrations were determined by gravimetric methods and the content of the US EPA 16 priority PAHs was found by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Description of the main emission sources and selection of monitoring sites resulted from spatial analysis and the IVE (International Vehicle Emissions) model was used in the characterisation of the traffic flow. Median values of 35.7 μgm-3 and 9.6 μgm-3 in PM10 and PM2.5 respectively and characteristic profiles were found for each area. Local values PAHs associated to PM10 and PM2.5, in general, were lower than 10ngm-3. The estimated Unit Risk for the three areas exceeds US EPA standards (9 × 10-5). The number of deaths attributable to short term exposure to outdoor PM10 was 4 cases in children under 5 years of age, and 21 cases in total population, for a relative risk of 1.037.

  11. PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1.0—Emissions from industrial plants—Results from measurement programmes in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, C.; Noll, G.; Kalkoff, W.-D.; Baumbach, G.; Dreiseidler, A.

    Emission measurement programmes were carried out at industrial plants in several regions of Germany to determine the fine dust in the waste gases; the PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 fractions were sampled using a cascade impactor technique. The installations tested included plants used for: combustion (brown coal, heavy fuel oil, wood), cement production, glass production, asphalt mixing, and processing plants for natural stones and sand, ceramics, metallurgy, chemical production, spray painting, wood processing/chip drying, poultry farming and waste treatment. In addition waste gas samples were taken from small-scale combustion units, like domestic stoves, firing lignite briquettes or wood. In total 303 individual measurement results were obtained during 106 different measurement campaigns. In the study it was found that in more than 70% of the individual emission measurement results from industrial plants and domestic stoves the PM 10 portion amounted to more than 90% and the PM 2.5 portion between 50% and 90% of the total PM (particulate matter) emission. For thermal industrial processes the PM 1.0 portion constituted between 20% and 60% of the total PM emission. Typical particle size distributions for different processes were presented as cumulative frequency distributions and as frequency distributions. The particle size distributions determined for the different plant types show interesting similarities and differences depending on whether the processes are thermal, mechanical, chemical or mixed. Consequently, for the groups of plant investigated, a major finding of this study has been that the particle size distribution is a characteristic of the industrial process. Attempts to correlate particle size distributions of different plants to different gas cleaning technologies did not lead to usable results.

  12. The satellite-based remote sensing of particulate matter (PM) in support to urban air quality: PM variability and hot spots within the Cordoba city (Argentina) as revealed by the high-resolution MAIAC-algorithm retrievals applied to a ten-years dataset (2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Ceca, Lara Sofia; Carreras, Hebe A.; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Barnaba, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is one of the major harmful pollutants to public health and the environment [1]. In developed countries, specific air-quality legislation establishes limit values for PM metrics (e.g., PM10, PM2.5) to protect the citizens health (e.g., European Commission Directive 2008/50, US Clean Air Act). Extensive PM measuring networks therefore exist in these countries to comply with the legislation. In less developed countries air quality monitoring networks are still lacking and satellite-based datasets could represent a valid alternative to fill observational gaps. The main PM (or aerosol) parameter retrieved from satellite is the 'aerosol optical depth' (AOD), an optical parameter quantifying the aerosol load in the whole atmospheric column. Datasets from the MODIS sensors on board of the NASA spacecrafts TERRA and AQUA are among the longest records of AOD from space. However, although extremely useful in regional and global studies, the standard 10 km-resolution MODIS AOD product is not suitable to be employed at the urban scale. Recently, a new algorithm called Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) was developed for MODIS, providing AOD at 1 km resolution [2]. In this work, the MAIAC AOD retrievals over the decade 2003-2013 were employed to investigate the spatiotemporal variation of atmospheric aerosols over the Argentinean city of Cordoba and its surroundings, an area where a very scarce dataset of in situ PM data is available. The MAIAC retrievals over the city were firstly validated using a 'ground truth' AOD dataset from the Cordoba sunphotometer operating within the global AERONET network [3]. This validation showed the good performances of the MAIAC algorithm in the area. The satellite MAIAC AOD dataset was therefore employed to investigate the 10-years trend as well as seasonal and monthly patterns of particulate matter in the Cordoba city. The first showed a marked increase of AOD over time, particularly evident in

  13. Effect of exposure to ambient PM2.5 pollution on the risk of respiratory tract diseases: a meta-analysis of cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qian; Xu, Cheng; Ji, Guixiang; Liu, Hui; Shao, Wentao; Zhang, Chunlan; Gu, Aihua; Zhao, Peng

    2017-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the World Health Organization have designated airborne particulates, including particulates of median aerodynamic diameter ? 2.5 ?m (PM2.5), as Group 1 carcinogens. It has not been determined, however, whether exposure to ambient PM2.5 is associated with an increase in respiratory related diseases. This meta-analysis assessed the association between exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and the risk of respiratory tract disease...

  14. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHI, M.; Wu, H.; Zhang, S.; Li, H.; Yang, T.

    2013-12-01

    In urban areas,fine particle matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 um and 10 um (PM2.5-10), and 2.5 um (PM2.5), as an important source of urban particulate matter (PM) pollutants, have significant negative effects on health, atmospheric visibility and climate. PM has increasingly become a significant index of indicating the atmospheric pollution of city. In recent years, Beijing, China has been listed as one of the most serious air pollution city in the world. In order to investigate the sources of air pollutants, a total of 283 pairs of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 samples were collected daily from July, 2010 to June, 2011 in Beijing. Mineral magnetic properties and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were measured to verify the magnetic materials. Magnetic measures for PM indicated that the major magnetic phase was coarse-grained magnetite-like material. The χlf, χarm, SIRM and χarm/SIRM series of the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show seasonal dependences: high values in winter and low values in summer. In additional the parameters analyzed by Time-series methods show a strong cycle about 7 days above 95% confidence level. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show different pattern: the concentration of magnetic particles in PM2.5-10 show high values in mid-week, and particle sizes is steady, while the concentration of magnetic particles in PM2.5 show reverse a weekly cycle pattern, and particle sizes is smaller in the mid-week.Microscopy analyses reveal basically three morphologies of magnetic grains: aggregate, spherules and angular particles. The ultrafine carbonaceous particles which tend to form complex clusters and chain-like structures, most likely come from coal burning and motor vehicle exhaust. Spherical particles in PM2.5 are dominantly composed of Fe, O and C, grain-diameters of particles range from 0.3 to 2 um. Angular particles of Fe

  15. Cytogenetic instability in populations with residential proximity to open-pit coal mine in Northern Colombia in relation to PM10 and PM2.5 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; da Silva, Juliana; Espitia-Pérez, Pedro; Brango, Hugo; Salcedo-Arteaga, Shirley; Hoyos-Giraldo, Luz Stella; de Souza, Claudia T; Dias, Johnny F; Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana; Valdés Toscano, Ana; Gómez-Pérez, Miguel; Henriques, João A P

    2018-02-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that living in proximity to coal mines is correlated with numerous diseases including cancer, and that exposure to PM 10 and PM 2.5 components could be associated with this phenomenon. However, the understanding of the mechanisms by which PM exerts its adverse effects is still incomplete and comes mainly from studies in occupationally exposed populations. The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate DNA damage in lymphocytes assessing the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay (CBMN-cyt) parameters; (2) identify aneugenic or clastogenic effects in lymphocytes of exposed populations using CREST immunostaining for micronuclei; (3) evaluate multi-elemental composition of atmospheric particulate matter; and (4) verify relation between the DNA damage and PM 2.5 and PM 10 levels around the mining area. Analysis revealed a significant increase in micronuclei frequency in binucleated (MNBN) and mononucleated (MNMONO) cells of individuals with residential proximity to open-pit coal mines compared to residents from non-mining areas. Correlation analysis demonstrated a highly significant association between PM 2.5 levels, MNBN frequencies and CREST+ micronuclei induction in exposed residents. These results suggest that PM 2.5 fraction generated in coal mining activities may induce whole chromosome loss (aneuploidy) preferentially, although there are also chromosome breaks. Analysis of the chemical composition of PM 2.5 by PIXE demonstrated that Si, S, K and Cr concentrations varied significantly between coal mining and reference areas. Enrichment factor values (EF) showed that S, Cr and Cu were highly enriched in the coal mining areas. Compared to reference area, mining regions had also higher concentrations of extractable organic matter (EOM) related to nonpolar and polar compounds. Our results demonstrate that PM 2.5 fraction represents the most important health risk for residents living near open-pit mines, underscoring the need for

  16. Effects of Urban Landscape Pattern on PM2.5 Pollution—A Beijing Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiansheng; Xie, Wudan; Li, Weifeng; Li, Jiacheng

    2015-01-01

    PM2.5 refers to particulate matter (PM) in air that is less than 2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter, which has negative effects on air quality and human health. PM2.5 is the main pollutant source in haze occurring in Beijing, and it also has caused many problems in other cities. Previous studies have focused mostly on the relationship between land use and air quality, but less research has specifically explored the effects of urban landscape patterns on PM2.5. This study considered the rapidly growing and heavily polluted Beijing, China. To better understand the impact of urban landscape pattern on PM2.5 pollution, five landscape metrics including PLAND, PD, ED, SHEI, and CONTAG were applied in the study. Further, other data, such as street networks, population density, and elevation considered as factors influencing PM2.5, were obtained through RS and GIS. By means of correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression, the effects of landscape pattern on PM2.5 concentration was explored. The results showed that (1) at class-level, vegetation and water were significant landscape components in reducing PM2.5 concentration, while cropland played a special role in PM2.5 concentration; (2) landscape configuration (ED and PD) features at class-level had obvious effects on particulate matter; and (3) at the landscape-level, the evenness (SHEI) and fragmentation (CONTAG) of the whole landscape related closely with PM2.5 concentration. Results of this study could expand our understanding of the role of urban landscape pattern on PM2.5 and provide useful information for urban planning. PMID:26565799

  17. Effects of Urban Landscape Pattern on PM2.5 Pollution--A Beijing Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiansheng; Xie, Wudan; Li, Weifeng; Li, Jiacheng

    2015-01-01

    PM2.5 refers to particulate matter (PM) in air that is less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter, which has negative effects on air quality and human health. PM2.5 is the main pollutant source in haze occurring in Beijing, and it also has caused many problems in other cities. Previous studies have focused mostly on the relationship between land use and air quality, but less research has specifically explored the effects of urban landscape patterns on PM2.5. This study considered the rapidly growing and heavily polluted Beijing, China. To better understand the impact of urban landscape pattern on PM2.5 pollution, five landscape metrics including PLAND, PD, ED, SHEI, and CONTAG were applied in the study. Further, other data, such as street networks, population density, and elevation considered as factors influencing PM2.5, were obtained through RS and GIS. By means of correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression, the effects of landscape pattern on PM2.5 concentration was explored. The results showed that (1) at class-level, vegetation and water were significant landscape components in reducing PM2.5 concentration, while cropland played a special role in PM2.5 concentration; (2) landscape configuration (ED and PD) features at class-level had obvious effects on particulate matter; and (3) at the landscape-level, the evenness (SHEI) and fragmentation (CONTAG) of the whole landscape related closely with PM2.5 concentration. Results of this study could expand our understanding of the role of urban landscape pattern on PM2.5 and provide useful information for urban planning.

  18. Exposure to particulate matters (PM2.5) and airborne nicotine in computer game rooms after implementation of smoke-free legislation in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungroul; Sohn, Jongryeul; Lee, Kiyoung

    2010-12-01

    In South Korea, computer game rooms are subject to regulations mandating a designated nonsmoking area pursuant to Article 7 of the Enforcement Rules of the National Health Promotion Act; nonsmoking areas must be enclosed on all sides by solid and impermeable partitions. Using PM(2.5) monitors (SidePak AM510) and airborne nicotine monitors, we measured concentrations in smoking and nonsmoking areas to examine whether separation of the nonsmoking areas as currently practiced is a viable way to protect the nonsmoking area from secondhand smoke exposure. Convenient samplings were conducted at 28 computer game rooms randomly selected from 14 districts in Seoul, South Korea between August and September 2009. The medians (interquartile range) of PM(2.5) concentrations in smoking and nonsmoking areas were 69.3 μg/m(3) (34.5-116.5 μg/m(3)) and 34 μg/m(3) (15.0-57.0 μg/m(3)), while those of airborne nicotine were 0.41 μg/m(3) (0.25-0.69 μg/m(3)) and 0.12 μg/m(3) (0.06-0.16 μg/m(3)), respectively. Concentrations of airborne nicotine and PM(2.5) in nonsmoking areas were substantially positively associated with those in smoking areas. The Spearman correlation coefficients for them were 0.68 (p = .02) and 0.1 (p = 0.7), respectively. According to our modeling result, unit increase of airborne nicotine concentration in a smoking area contributed to 7 (95% CI = 2.5-19.8) times increase of the concentration in the adjacent nonsmoking area after controlling for the degree of partition left closed and the indoor space volume. Our study thus provides evidence for the introduction of more rigorous policy initiatives aimed at encouraging a complete smoking ban in such venues.

  19. Local contribution of wood combustion to PM10 and PM2.5; Lokale bijdrage van houtverbranding aan PM10 en PM2,5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, G.; Weijers, E. [ECN Biomassa, Kolen en Milieuonderzoek, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    In February 2009 the concentration of wood smoke in a residential area in Schoorl (Noord-Holland, Netherlands) was investigated over a period of three weeks. The aim was to assess the effect of local particulate matter (PM) emissions - caused by heating with wood stoves in this area - on local PM concentration. [Dutch] In februari 2009 zijn in Schoorl in Noord-Holland concentraties houtrook bepaald door levoglucosanmetingen (een voor houtrook kenmerkende koolwaterstofverbinding). Lokale houtrook draagt daar significant bij aan de concentratie fijn stof: tussen 9% en 27% voor PM10 en tussen 30% en 39% voor PM2,5.

  20. The local contribution of wood burning to PM10 and PM2.5; De lokale bijdrage van houtverbranding aan PM10 en PM2,5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, G.; Weijers, E. [ECN Biomassa, Kolen en Milieuonderzoek, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    In January 2009, the concentrations of wood smoke in Schoorl, the Netherlands, were established by means of levoglucosan measurements (a hydrocarbon compound that is characteristic for wood smoke). Local wood smoke contributes significantly to the concentration of particulate matter: between 9% and 27% for PM10 and between 30% and 29% for PM2.5. [Dutch] In februari 2009 zijn in Schoorl in Noord-Holland concentraties houtrook bepaald door levoglucosanmetingen (een voor houtrook kenmerkende koolwaterstofverbinding). Lokale houtrook draagt daar significant bij aan de concentratie fijn stof: tussen 9% en 27% voor PM10 en tussen 30% en 39% voor PM2,5.

  1. Multiple linear regression and regression with time series error models in forecasting PM10 concentrations in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kar Yong; Awang, Norhashidah

    2018-01-06

    Frequent haze occurrences in Malaysia have made the management of PM 10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic less than 10 μm) pollution a critical task. This requires knowledge on factors associating with PM 10 variation and good forecast of PM 10 concentrations. Hence, this paper demonstrates the prediction of 1-day-ahead daily average PM 10 concentrations based on predictor variables including meteorological parameters and gaseous pollutants. Three different models were built. They were multiple linear regression (MLR) model with lagged predictor variables (MLR1), MLR model with lagged predictor variables and PM 10 concentrations (MLR2) and regression with time series error (RTSE) model. The findings revealed that humidity, temperature, wind speed, wind direction, carbon monoxide and ozone were the main factors explaining the PM 10 variation in Peninsular Malaysia. Comparison among the three models showed that MLR2 model was on a same level with RTSE model in terms of forecasting accuracy, while MLR1 model was the worst.

  2. Monetary Valuation of PM10-Related Health Risks in Beijing China: The Necessity for PM10 Pollution Indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Xu, Linyu; Cai, Yanpeng

    2015-08-21

    Severe health risks caused by PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm) pollution have induced inevitable economic losses and have rendered pressure on the sustainable development of society as a whole. In China, with the "Polluters Pay Principle", polluters should pay for the pollution they have caused, but how much they should pay remains an intractable problem for policy makers. This paper integrated an epidemiological exposure-response model with economics methods, including the Amended Human Capital (AHC) approach and the Cost of Illness (COI) method, to value the economic loss of PM10-related health risks in 16 districts and also 4 functional zones in Beijing from 2008 to 2012. The results show that from 2008 to 2012 the estimated annual deaths caused by PM10 in Beijing are around 56,000, 58,000, 63,000, 61,000 and 59,000, respectively, while the economic losses related to health damage increased from around 23 to 31 billion dollars that PM10 polluters should pay for pollution victims between 2008 and 2012. It is illustrated that not only PM10 concentration but also many other social economic factors influence PM10-related health economic losses, which makes health economic losses show a time lag discrepancy compared with the decline of PM10 concentration. In conclusion, health economic loss evaluation is imperative in the pollution indemnity system establishment and should be considered for the urban planning and policy making to control the burgeoning PM10 health economic loss.

  3. 40 CFR Appendix Q to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Lead in Particulate Matter as PM10 Collected From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....5Quality assurance (QA) procedures for the collection of monitoring data are contained in Part 58, Appendix... set forth in Appendix A of part 58. The bias is assessed through an audit using spiked filters. The... Particulate Matter,” in Advances in X-Ray Analysis, J.R. Rhodes, Ed., Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York...

  4. Performance characteristics of a low-volume PM10 sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four identical PM10 pre-separators, along with four identical low-volume (1m3 hr-1) total suspended particulate (TSP) samplers were tested side-by-side in a controlled laboratory particulate matter (PM) chamber. The four PM10 and four TSP samplers were also tested in an oil pipe-cleaning field to ev...

  5. Investigation of Air Quality Index and PM10 and PM2.5 in Arak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fazelinia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: In this study, the air quality index and concentration of particles such as PM10 and PM2.5 were investigated in Arak. Materials and Methods: To determine the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5, 60 samples were collected by laser TSI model 8520 in summer and winter 2012. The collection site was around Arak city center. Results: during the sampling period, as a matter of PM10, the cleanest and the most polluted month were December and June with the average of 34.33 µg m-3 and 100.1 µg m-3, respectively. The concentration of PM2.5 was 12.93 and 53.17 µg m-3 for December and June, respectively. Meanwhile, in terms of air quality index (AQI, in 98.3% and 70% of cases, the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5, respectively were less than normal (AQI100. Conclusion: The concentration of PM10 in the study period was less than Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 2006 guideline. Meanwhile, the concentrations of PM2.5 in 30% of air samples were greater than EPA guideline. The average PM2.5/PM10 ratio during the sampling period was 0.41 compared to range 0.15 to 0.25 reported by EPA.

  6. PM2.5 and PM10 Emission from agricultural soils by wind erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil tillage and wind erosion are a major source of particulate matter less than 2.5 and 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10) emission from cultivated soil. Fifteen cultivated soils collected from 5 states were tested as crushed (<2.0 mm) and uncrushed (natural aggregation) at 8, 10, and 13 m s-1 wind velocity in...

  7. A framework for delineating the regional boundaries of PM2.5 pollution: A case study of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Weifeng; Wu, Jiansheng

    2018-04-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution has been a major issue in many countries. Considerable studies have demonstrated that PM 2.5 pollution is a regional issue, but little research has been done to investigate the regional extent of PM 2.5 pollution or to define areas in which PM 2.5 pollutants interact. To allow for a better understanding of the regional nature and spatial patterns of PM 2.5 pollution, This study proposes a novel framework for delineating regional boundaries of PM 2.5 pollution. The framework consists of four steps, including cross-correlation analysis, time-series clustering, generation of Voronoi polygons, and polygon smoothing using polynomial approximation with exponential kernel method. Using the framework, the regional PM 2.5 boundaries for China are produced and the boundaries define areas where the monthly PM 2.5 time series of any two cities show, on average, more than 50% similarity with each other. These areas demonstrate straightforwardly that PM 2.5 pollution is not limited to a single city or a single province. We also found that the PM 2.5 areas in China tend to be larger in cold months, but more fragmented in warm months, suggesting that, in cold months, the interactions between PM 2.5 concentrations in adjacent cities are stronger than in warmer months. The proposed framework provides a tool to delineate PM 2.5 boundaries and identify areas where PM 2.5 pollutants interact. It can help define air pollution management zones and assess impacts related to PM 2.5 pollution. It can also be used in analyses of other air pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Controlling particulate matter under the Clean Air Act: a menu of options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document was prepared by STAPPA and ALAPCO to help US state and local air pollution control officials understand the effects of particulate matter (PM) on human health and air quality, the relative contribution of various sources to particulate emissions, and the effectiveness and costs of various approaches - including innovative ones - to minimizing these emissions. The document covers particulate matter with a nominal diameter of 10 microns ({mu}m) or less (PM{sub 10}), including `fine` PM of 2.5 microns or less in diameter (PM{sub 2.5}). Sections cover: the effects of particulate matter on human health; regulatory issues; characterization of particulate matter; emission control strategies for mobile sources (diesel engines, small nonroad engines, alternative fuels etc.), particulates from stationary sources (electric utilities, industry and commercial fuel combustion; mineral products industry, metallurgical industry etc.); particulates from area sources; and market-based strategies for controlling particulate matter. 2 apps.

  9. Elevated exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Bhatia, Garima [Bangalore, IN

    2012-04-17

    A system includes an electrical heater and a particulate matter (PM) filter that is arranged one of adjacent to and in contact with the electrical heater. A control module selectively increases an exhaust gas temperature of an engine to a first temperature and that initiates regeneration of the PM filter using the electrical heater while the exhaust gas temperature is above the first temperature. The first temperature is greater than a maximum exhaust gas temperature at the PM filter during non-regeneration operation and is less than an oxidation temperature of the PM.

  10. Particulate matter emissions of different brands of mentholated cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerharz, Julia; Bendels, Michael H K; Braun, Markus; Klingelhöfer, Doris; Groneberg, David A; Mueller, Ruth

    2018-01-09

    Inhaling particulate matter (PM) in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) endangers the health of nonsmokers. Menthol, an additive in cigarettes, attenuates respiratory irritation of tobacco smoke. It reduces perceptibility of smoke and therefore passive smokers may inhale ETS unnoticed. To investigate a possible effect of menthol on PM concentrations (PM 10 , PM 2.5 , and PM 1 ), ETS of four mentholated cigarette brands (Elixyr Menthol, Winston Menthol, Reyno Classic, and Pall Mall Menthol Blast) with varying menthol content was analyzed. ETS was generated in a standardized way using an automatic environmental tobacco smoke emitter (AETSE), followed by laser aerosol spectrometry. This analysis shows that the tested cigarette brands, despite having different menthol concentrations, do not show differences with regard to PM emissions, with the exception of Reyno Classic, which shows an increased emission, although the menthol level ranged in the midfield. More than 90% of the emitted particles had a size smaller than or equal to 1 µm. Regardless of the menthol level, the count median diameter (CMD) and the mass median diameter (MMD) were found to be 0.3 µm and 0.5 µm, respectively. These results point out that there is no effect of menthol on PM emission and that other additives might influence the increased PM emission of Reyno Classic. Particulate matter (PM) in ETS endangers the health of nonsmokers and smokers. This study considers the effect of menthol, an additive in cigarettes, on PM emissions. Does menthol increase the amount of PM? Due to the exposure to secondhand smoke nearly 900,000 people die each year worldwide. The aim of the study is to measure the particle concentration (L -1 ), mass concentration (µg m -3 ), and dust mass fractions shown as PM 10 , PM 2.5 , and PM 1 of five different cigarette brands, including four with different menthol concentrations and one menthol-free reference cigarette, in a well-established standardized system.

  11. Bufei Huoxue Capsule Attenuates PM2.5-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Jing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric fine particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5 may carry many toxic substances on its surface and this may pose a public health threat. Epidemiological research indicates that cumulative ambient PM2.5 is correlated to morbidity and mortality due to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Mitigating the toxic effects of PM2.5 is therefore highly desired. Bufei Huoxue (BFHX capsules have been used in China to treat pulmonary heart disease (cor pulmonale. Thus, we assessed the effects of BFHX capsules on PM2.5-induced pulmonary inflammation and the underlying mechanisms of action. Using Polysearch and Cytoscape 3.2.1 software, pharmacological targets of BFHX capsules in atmospheric PM2.5-related respiratory disorders were predicted and found to be related to biological pathways of inflammation and immune function. In a mouse model of PM2.5-induced inflammation established with intranasal instillation of PM2.5 suspension, BFHX significantly reduced pathological response and inflammatory mediators including IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-1β. BFHX also reduced keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA, and collagen fibers deposition in lung and improved lung function. Thus, BFHX reduced pathological responses induced by PM2.5, possibly via regulation of inflammatory mediators in mouse lungs.

  12. The reduction of summer sulfate and switch from summertime to wintertime PM2.5 concentration maxima in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Elizabeth A. W.; Gantt, Brett; McDow, Stephen

    2018-02-01

    Exposure to particulate matter air pollution with a nominal mean aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5) has been associated with health effects including cardiovascular disease and death. Here, we add to the understanding of urban and rural PM2.5 concentrations over large spatial and temporal scales in recent years. We used high-quality, publicly-available air quality monitoring data to evaluate PM2.5 concentration patterns and changes during the years 2000-2015. Compiling and averaging measurements collected across the U.S. revealed that PM2.5 concentrations from urban sites experienced seasonal maxima in both winter and summer. Within each year from 2000 to 2008, the maxima of urban summer peaks were greater than winter peaks. However, from 2012 to 2015, the maxima of urban summertime PM2.5 peaks were smaller than the urban wintertime PM2.5 maxima, due to a decrease in the magnitude of summertime maxima with no corresponding decrease in the magnitude of winter maxima. PM2.5 measurements at rural sites displayed summer peaks with magnitudes relatively similar to those of urban sites, and negligible to no winter peaks through the time period analyzed. Seasonal variations of urban and rural PM2.5 sulfate, PM2.5 nitrate, and PM2.5 organic carbon (OC) were also assessed. Summer peaks in PM2.5 sulfate decreased dramatically between 2000 and 2015, whereas seasonal PM2.5 OC and winter PM2.5 nitrate concentration maxima remained fairly consistent. These findings demonstrate that PM2.5 concentrations, especially those occurring in the summertime, have declined in the U.S. from 2000 to 2015. In addition, reduction strategies targeting sulfate have been successful and the decrease in PM2.5 sulfate contributed to the decline in total PM2.5.

  13. Receptor modeling of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP in different seasons and long-range transport analysis at a coastal site of Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shaofei; Han, Bin; Bai, Zhipeng; Chen, Li; Shi, Jianwu; Xu, Zhun

    2010-09-15

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM(2.5), PM(10) and TSP) were sampled synchronously during three monitoring campaigns from June 2007 to February 2008 at a coastal site in TEDA of Tianjin, China. Chemical compositions including 19 elements, 6 water-solubility ions, organic and elemental carbon were determined. principle components analysis (PCA) and chemical mass balance modeling (CMB) were applied to determine the PM sources and their contributions with the assistance of NSS SO(4)(2)(-), the mass ratios of NO(3)(-) to SO(4)(2)(-) and OC to EC. Air mass backward trajectory model was compared with source apportionment results to evaluate the origin of PM. Results showed that NSS SO(4)(2)(-) values for PM(2.5) were 2147.38, 1701.26 and 239.80 ng/m(3) in summer, autumn and winter, reflecting the influence of sources from local emissions. Most of it was below zero in summer for PM(10) indicating the influence of sea salt. The ratios of NO(3)(-) to SO(4)(2)(-) was 0.19 for PM(2.5), 0.18 for PM(10) and 0.19 for TSP in winter indicating high amounts of coal consumed for heating purpose. Higher OC/EC values (mostly larger than 2.5) demonstrated that secondary organic aerosol was abundant at this site. The major sources were construction activities, road dust, vehicle emissions, marine aerosol, metal manufacturing, secondary sulfate aerosols, soil dust, biomass burning, some pharmaceutics industries and fuel-oil combustion according to PCA. Coal combustion, marine aerosol, vehicular emission and soil dust explained 5-31%, 1-13%, 13-44% and 3-46% for PM(2.5), PM(10) and TSP, respectively. Backward trajectory analysis showed air parcels originating from sea accounted for 39% in summer, while in autumn and winter the air parcels were mainly related to continental origin. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Wintertime indoor air levels of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 at public places and their contributions to TSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangsheng; Chen, Rui; Shen, Xingxing; Mao, Xiaoling

    2004-04-01

    From 26 October 2002 to 8 March 2003, particulate matter (PM) concentrations (total suspended particles [TSP], PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) were measured at 49 public places representing different environments in the urban area of Beijing. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the indoor PM concentrations in public places, (2) to evaluate the potential indoor sources and (3) to investigate the contribution of PM10 to TSP and the contributions of PM2.5 and PM1 to PM10. Additionally, The indoor and outdoor particle concentrations in the same type of indoor environment were employed to investigate the I/O level, and comparison was made between I/O levels in different types of indoor environment. Construction activities and traffic condition were the major outdoor sources to influence the indoor particle levels. The contribution of PM10 to TSP was even up to 68.8%, while the contributions of PM2.5 and PM1 to PM10 were not as much as that of PM10 to TSP.

  15. Improvement of PM10 prediction in East Asia using inverse modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Youn-Seo; Choi, Dae-Ryun; Kwon, Hi-Yong; Jang, Young-Kee; Han, Jin-Seok

    2015-04-01

    Aerosols from anthropogenic emissions in industrialized region in China as well as dust emissions from southern Mongolia and northern China that transport along prevailing northwestern wind have a large influence on the air quality in Korea. The emission inventory in the East Asia region is an important factor in chemical transport modeling (CTM) for PM10 (particulate matters less than 10 ㎛ in aerodynamic diameter) forecasts and air quality management in Korea. Most previous studies showed that predictions of PM10 mass concentration by the CTM were underestimated when comparing with observational data. In order to fill the gap in discrepancies between observations and CTM predictions, the inverse Bayesian approach with Comprehensive Air-quality Model with extension (CAMx) forward model was applied to obtain optimized a posteriori PM10 emissions in East Asia. The predicted PM10 concentrations with a priori emission were first compared with observations at monitoring sites in China and Korea for January and August 2008. The comparison showed that PM10 concentrations with a priori PM10 emissions for anthropogenic and dust sources were generally under-predicted. The result from the inverse modeling indicated that anthropogenic PM10 emissions in the industrialized and urbanized areas in China were underestimated while dust emissions from desert and barren soil in southern Mongolia and northern China were overestimated. A priori PM10 emissions from northeastern China regions including Shenyang, Changchun, and Harbin were underestimated by about 300% (i.e., the ratio of a posteriori to a priori PM10 emission was a factor of about 3). The predictions of PM10 concentrations with a posteriori emission showed better agreement with the observations, implying that the inverse modeling minimized the discrepancies in the model predictions by improving PM10 emissions in East Asia.

  16. Industrial PM2.5 cause pulmonary adverse effect through RhoA/ROCK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junyan; Lai, Chia-Hsiang; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Chen, Chongjun; Wang, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Pin-I; Lin, Chia-Hua

    2017-12-01

    According to the Chinese Ministry of Health, industrial pollution-induced health impacts have been the leading cause of death in China. While industrial fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is associated with adverse health effects, the major action mechanisms of different compositions of PM 2.5 are currently unclear. In this study, we treated normal human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells with industrial organic and water-soluble PM 2.5 extracts under daily alveolar deposition dose to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying adverse pulmonary effects induced by PM 2.5 , including oxidative damage, inflammatory response, lung epithelial barrier dysfunction, and the recruitment of macrophages. We found that water-soluble PM 2.5 extracts caused more severe cytotoxic effects on BEAS-2B cells compared with that of organic extracts. Both organic and water-soluble PM 2.5 extracts induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway. Inflammatory response, epithelial barrier dysfunction, and the activation of NF-кB caused by both PM 2.5 extracts were attenuated by ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. This indicated that both PM 2.5 extracts could cause damage to epithelial cells through RhoA/ROCK-dependent NF-кB activation. Furthermore, the upregulation of macrophage adhesion induced by both PM 2.5 extracts was also attenuated by Y-27632 in a co-culture model of macrophages and the epithelial cells. Therefore, our results support that industrial PM 2.5 extracts-induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK-dependent NF-кB pathway induces pulmonary adverse effect. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of ROCK activation might have therapeutic potential in preventing lung disease associated with PM 2.5 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Variations in some environmental characteristics including C and N stable isotopic composition of suspended organic matter in the Mandovi estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, M V; Soares, Melena A; Agnihotri, Rajesh; Pratihary, A K; Karapurkar, Supriya; Naik, Hema; Naqvi, S W A

    2011-04-01

    Chemical and isotopic (δ13C and δ15N) investigation of the Mandovi estuary along the Indian west coast affected strongly by the seasonal monsoon cycle was carried out. The Mandovi estuary is a major waterway for Goa and extensively used for transportation of iron and manganese ore. In addition, with large population centers as well as agricultural fields located on its shores, the estuary is assumed to have been influenced by human activities. Measurements of chemical and isotopic parameters made in the lower part of the estuary during the southwest (SW) monsoon and post-monsoon seasons reveal distinct changes, and it is observed that despite considerable enrichment of macronutrients during the SW monsoon, productivity of the estuary (phytoplankton biomass), as inferred from the chlorophyll-a content, is not as high as expected. This is due to occurrences of high turbidity and cloud cover that limits photosynthetic productivity. The isotopic characterization (C and N isotopes) of suspended organic matter produced/transported during the monsoon and post-monsoon seasons of year 2007 provides a baseline dataset for future isotopic studies in such type of tropical estuaries.

  18. 76 FR 31983 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and Computers; Notice of Commission... States after importation of certain electronic devices, including mobile phones, portable music players... rendered asserted claim 5 invalid. The ALJ concluded that an industry exists within the United States that...

  19. 76 FR 40930 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... Devices, Including Mobile Phones, Portable Music Players, and Computers; Notice of Commission....S.C. 1337) in the importation into the United States, the sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic devices, including mobile phones, portable...

  20. Application of Positive Matrix Factorization in the Identification of the Sources of PM2.5 in Taipei City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yuan Ho

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 has a small particle size, which allows it to directly enter the respiratory mucosa and reach the alveoli and even the blood. Many countries are already aware of the adverse effects of PM2.5, and determination of the sources of PM2.5 is a critical step in reducing its concentration to protect public health. This study monitored PM2.5 in the summer (during the southwest monsoon season of 2017. Three online monitoring systems were used to continuously collect hourly concentrations of key chemical components of PM2.5, including anions, cations, carbon, heavy metals, and precursor gases, for 24 h per day. The sum of the concentrations of each compound obtained from the online monitoring systems is similar to the actual PM2.5 concentration (98.75%. This result suggests that the on-line monitoring system of this study covers relatively complete chemical compounds. Positive matrix factorization (PMF was adopted to explore and examine the proportion of each source that contributed to the total PM2.5 concentration. According to the source contribution analysis, 55% of PM2.5 can be attributed to local pollutant sources, and the remaining 45% can be attributed to pollutants emitted outside Taipei City. During the high-PM2.5-concentration (episode period, the pollutant conversion rates were higher than usual due to the occurrence of vigorous photochemical reactions. Moreover, once pollutants are emitted by external stationary pollutant sources, they move with pollution air masses and undergo photochemical reactions, resulting in increases in the secondary pollutant concentrations of PM2.5. The vertical monitoring data indicate that there is a significant increase in PM2.5 concentration at high altitudes. High-altitude PM2.5 will descend to the ground and thereby affect the ground-level PM2.5 concentration.

  1. Chemical profiling of PM10 from urban road dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, C A; Evtyugina, M; Vicente, A M P; Vicente, E D; Nunes, T V; Silva, P M A; Duarte, M A C; Pio, C A; Amato, F; Querol, X

    2018-09-01

    Road dust resuspension is one of the main sources of particulate matter with impacts on air quality, health and climate. With the aim of characterising the thoracic fraction, a portable resuspension chamber was used to collect road dust from five main roads in Oporto and an urban tunnel in Braga, north of Portugal. The PM 10 samples were analysed for: i) carbonates by acidification and quantification of the evolved CO 2 , ii) carbonaceous content (OC and EC) by a thermo-optical technique, iii) elemental composition by ICP-MS and ICP-AES after acid digestion, and iv) organic speciation by GC-MS. Dust loadings of 0.48±0.39mgPM 10 m -2 were obtained for asphalt paved roads. A much higher mean value was achieved in a cobbled pavement (50mgPM 10 m -2 ). In general, carbonates were not detected in PM 10 . OC and EC accounted for PM 10 mass fractions up to 11% and 5%, respectively. Metal oxides accounted for 29±7.5% of the PM 10 mass from the asphalt paved roads and 73% in samples from the cobbled street. Crustal and anthropogenic elements, associated with tyre and brake wear, dominated the inorganic fraction. PM 10 comprised hundreds of organic constituents, including hopanoids, n-alkanes and other aliphatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), alcohols, sterols, various types of acids, glycerol derivatives, lactones, sugars and derivatives, phenolic compounds and plasticizers. In samples from the cobbled street, these organic classes represented only 439μgg -1 PM 10 , while for other pavements mass fractions up to 65mgg -1 PM 10 were obtained. Except for the cobbled street, on average, about 40% of the analysed organic fraction was composed of plasticizers. Although the risk via inhalation of PAH was found to be insignificant, the PM 10 from some roads can contribute to an estimated excess of 332 to 2183 per million new cancer cases in adults exposed via ingestion and dermal contact. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF POSSIBLE SOURCES OF PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE PERSONAL CLOUD USING SEM/EDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) conducted the Baltimore Particulate Matter (PM) Epidemiology-Exposure Study of the Elderly during the summer of 1998. The study design included PM2.5 samples obtained from elderly (65+ years of age) retirement facility ...

  3. Is welfare all that matters? A discussion of what should be included in policy-making regarding animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeates, J.W.; Röcklinsberg, H.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2011-01-01

    Policy-making concerned with animals often includes human interests, such as economy, trade, environmental protection, disease control, species conservation etc. When it comes to the interests of the animals, such policy-making often makes use of the results of animal welfare science to provide...... assessments of ethically relevant concerns for animals. This has provided a scientific rigour that has helped to overcome controversies and allowed debates to move forward according to generally agreed methodologies. However, this focus can lead to policies leaving out other important issues relevant...... to animals. This can be considered as a problem of what is included in welfare science, or of what is included in policy. This suggests two possible solutions: expanding animal welfare science to address all ethical concerns about animals’ interests or widening the perspective considered in policy...

  4. Variations of PM2.5, PM10 mass concentration and health assessment in Islamabad, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memhood, Tariq; Tianle, Z.; Ahmad, I.; Li, X.; Shen, F.; Akram, W.; Dong, L.

    2018-04-01

    Sparse information appears in lack of awareness among the people regarding the linkage between particulate matter (PM) and mortality in Pakistan. The current study is aimed to investigate the seasonal mass concentration level of PM2.5 and PM10 in ambient air of Islamabad to assess the health risk of PM pollution. The sampling was carried out with two parallel medium volume air samplers on Whatman 47 mm quartz filter at a flow rate of 100L/min. Mass concentration was obtained by gravimetric analysis. A noticeable seasonal change in PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration was observed. In case of PM2.5, the winter was a most polluted and spring was the cleanest season of 2017 in Islamabad with 69.97 and 40.44 μgm‑3 mean concentration. Contrary, highest (152.42 μgm‑3) and lowest (74.90 μgm‑3) PM10 mass concentration was observed in autumn and summer respectively. Air Quality index level for PM2.5 and PM10 was remained moderated to unhealthy and good to sensitive respectively. Regarding health risk assessment, using national data for mortality rates, the excess mortality due to PM2.5 and PM10 exposure has been calculated and amounts to over 198 and 98 deaths annually for Islamabad. Comparatively estimated lifetime risk for PM2.5 (1.16×10-6) was observed higher than PM10 (7.32×10-8).

  5. PM EMISSIONS PRODUCED BY AIRCRAFT UNDER THE OPERATIONS AT THE AIRPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Zaporozhets

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The effects of aircraft engine emissions within the planetary boundary layer under the landing/ take-off operations contribute sufficiently to deterioration of air pollution in the vicinity of the airports and nearby residential areas. Currently the primary object of airport air quality are the nitrogen oxides and particle matter (PM10, PM2.5 and ultrafine PM emissions from aircraft engine exhausts as initiators of photochemical smog and regional haze, which may further impact on human health. Analysis of PM emission inventory results at major European airports highlighted on sufficiently high contribution of aircraft engines and APU. The paper aims to summarize the knowledge on particle size distributions, particle effective density, morphology and internal structure of aircraft PM, these properties are critical for understanding of the fate and potential health impact of PM. It also aims to describe the basic methods for calculation of emission and dispersion of PM, produced by aircrafts under the LTO operations. Methods: analytical solution of the atmospheric diffusion equation is used to calculate the maximum PM concentration from point emission source. The PM concentration varies inversely proportional to the wind velocity u1 and directly proportional to the vertical component of the turbulent exchange coefficient k1/u1. The evaluation of non-volatile PM concentration includes the size and shape of PM. PolEmiCa calculates the distributions of PM fractions for aircraft and APU exhausts (height of installation was given H=4,5m like for Tupolev-154. Results: The maximum concentration of PM in exhaust from APU is higher and appropriate distance is less than in case for gas. PM polydispersity leads to the separation of maximums concentration in space for individual fractions on the wind direction and therefore it contributes to the reduction of maximum total concentration. Discussion:But although the APU has contributed significantly to

  6. Identification of the sources of PM10 in a subway tunnel using positive matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Duckshin; Lee, Taejeong; Hwang, Doyeon; Jung, Wonseok; Lee, Yongil; Cho, KiChul; Kim, Dongsool; Lees, Kiyoung

    2014-12-01

    The level of particulate matter of less than 10 μm diameter (PM10) at subway platforms can be significantly reduced by installing a platform screen-door system. However, both workers and passengers might be exposed to higher PM10 levels while the cars are within the tunnel because it is a more confined environment. This study determined the PM10 levels in a subway tunnel, and identified the sources of PM10 using elemental analysis and receptor modeling. Forty-four PM10 samples were collected in the tunnel between the Gireum and Mia stations on Line 4 in metropolitan Seoul and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and ion chromatography. The major PM10 sources were identified using positive matrix factorization (PMF). The average PM10 concentration in the tunnels was 200.8 ± 22.0 μg/m3. Elemental analysis indicated that the PM10 consisted of 40.4% inorganic species, 9.1% anions, 4.9% cations, and 45.6% other materials. Iron was the most abundant element, with an average concentration of 72.5 ± 10.4 μg/m3. The PM10 sources characterized by PMF included rail, wheel, and brake wear (59.6%), soil combustion (17.0%), secondary aerosols (10.0%), electric cable wear (8.1%), and soil and road dust (5.4%). Internal sources comprising rail, wheel, brake, and electric cable wear made the greatest contribution to the PM10 (67.7%) in tunnel air. Implications: With installation of a platform screen door, PM10 levels in subway tunnels were higher than those on platforms. Tunnel PM10 levels exceeded 150 µg/m3 of the Korean standard for subway platform. Elemental analysis of PM10 in a tunnel showed that Fe was the most abundant element. Five PM10 sources in tunnel were identified by positive matrix factorization. Railroad-related sources contributed 68% of PM10 in the subway tunnel.

  7. Physical‐chemical and microbiological characterization, and mutagenic activity of airborne PM sampled in a biomass‐fueled electrical production facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Corey A.; Lemieux, Christine L.; Long, Alexandra S.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass combustion is used in heating and electric power generation in many areas of the world. Airborne particulate matter (PM) is released when biomass is brought to a facility, stored, and combusted. Occupational exposure to airborne PM within biomass‐fueled facilities may lead to health probl...... includes PM from biomass combustion as well as internal combustion vehicles, may contribute to an elevated risk of adverse health effects. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2011. © 2010 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.......Biomass combustion is used in heating and electric power generation in many areas of the world. Airborne particulate matter (PM) is released when biomass is brought to a facility, stored, and combusted. Occupational exposure to airborne PM within biomass‐fueled facilities may lead to health...... collected in March was more toxic than PM collected in August. Overall, airborne PM collected from the facility, especially that from the boiler room, were more toxic than PM generated from straw and wood chips. The results suggest that exposure to combustion PM in a biomass‐fueled facility, which likely...

  8. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of fine and PM10 in the Desert Southwest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Clements

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Desert Southwest Coarse Particulate Matter Study was undertaken in Pinal County, Arizona, to better understand the origin and impact of sources of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM in rural, arid regions of the U.S. southwestern desert. The desert southwest experiences some of the highest PM10 mass concentrations in the country. To augment previously reported results, 6-week aggregated organic speciation data that included ambient concentrations of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organic acids, and saccharides were used in chemical mass balance modeling (CMB. A set of re-suspended soil samples were analyzed for specific marker species to provide locally-appropriate source profiles for the CMB analysis. These profiles, as well as previously collected plant and fungal spore profiles from the region, were combined with published source profiles for other relevant sources and used in the CMB analysis. The six new region-specific source profiles included both organic and inorganic species for four crustal material sources, one plant detritus source, and one fungal spore source.Results indicate that up to half of the ambient PM2.5 was apportioned to motor vehicles with the highest regional contribution observed in the small urban center of Casa Grande. Daily levels of apportioned crustal material accounted for up to 50% of PM2.5 mass with the highest contributions observed at the sites closest to active agricultural areas. Apportioned secondary PM, biomass burning, and road dust typically contributed less than 35% as a group to the apportioned PM2.5 mass. Crustal material was the primary source apportioned to PM10 and accounted for between 50–90% of the apportioned mass. Of the other sources apportioned to PM10, motor vehicles and road dust were the largest contributors at the urban and one of the rural sites, whereas road dust and meat cooking operations were the largest contributors at the other rural site.

  9. A novel PM motor with hybrid PM excitation and asymmetric rotor structure for high torque performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaohong Xu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel permanent magnet (PM motor for high torque performance, in which hybrid PM material and asymmetric rotor design are applied. The hybrid PM material is adopted to reduce the consumption of rare-earth PM because ferrite PM is assisted to enhance the torque production. Meanwhile, the rotor structure is designed to be asymmetric by shifting the surface-insert PM (SPM, which is used to improve the torque performance, including average torque and torque ripple. Moreover, the reasons for improvement of the torque performance are explained by evaluation and analysis of the performances of the proposed motor. Compared with SPM motor and V-type motor, the merit of high utilization ratio of rare-earth PM is also confirmed, showing that the proposed motor can offer higher torque density and lower torque ripple simultaneously with less consumption of rare-earth PM.

  10. Health benefits of PM10 reduction in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouni, Mohammad Bagherian; Moradi, Mahsa; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Akbaripoor, Shayan; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Neisi, Abdolkazem; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad; Sheikhi, Reza; Kermani, Majid; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Naimabadi, Abolfazl; Gholami, Moeen; Mozhdehi, Saeed Pourkarim; Esmaeili, Mehdi; Barari, Kian

    2017-08-01

    Air pollution contains a complex mixture of poisonous compounds including particulate matter (PM) which has wide spectrum of adverse health effects. The main purpose of this study was to estimate the potential health impacts or benefits due to any changes in annual PM10 level in four major megacities of Iran. The required data of PM10 for AirQ software was collected from air quality monitoring stations in four megacities of Iran. The preprocessing was carried out using macro coding in excel environment. The relationship between different presumptive scenarios and health impacts was determined. We also assessed the health benefits of reducing PM10 to WHO Air Quality Guidelines (WHO-AQGs) and National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs) levels with regard to the rate of mortality and morbidity in studied cities. We found that the 10 μg/m3 increase in annual PM10 concentration is responsible for seven (95% CI 6-8) cases increase in total number of deaths per 2 × 105 person. We also found that 10.7, 7.2, 5.7, and 5.3% of total death is attributable to short-term exposure to air pollution for Ahvaz, Isfahan, Shiraz, and Tehran, respectively. We found that by attaining the WHO's proposed value for PM10, the potential health benefits of 89, 84, 79, and 78% were obtained in Ahvaz, Isfahan, Shiraz, and Tehran, respectively. The results also indicated that 27, 10, 3, and 1% of health impacts were attributed to dust storm days for Ahvaz, Isfahan, Shiraz, and Tehran, respectively.

  11. Differential electrocardiogram efffects in normal and hypertensive rats after inhalation exposure to transition metal rich particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation of particulate matter (PM) associated with air pollution causes adverse effects on cardiac function including heightened associations with ischemic heart disease, dysrhythmias, heart failure, and cardiac arrest. Some of these effects have been attributable to transitio...

  12. Joint measurements of PM2. 5 and light-absorptive PM in woodsmoke-dominated ambient and plume environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K. Max; Allen, George; Yang, Bo; Chen, Geng; Gu, Jiajun; Schwab, James; Felton, Dirk; Rattigan, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    DC, also referred to as Delta-C, measures enhanced light absorption of particulate matter (PM) samples at the near-ultraviolet (UV) range relative to the near-infrared range, which has been proposed previously as a woodsmoke marker due to the presence of enhanced UV light-absorbing materials from wood combustion. In this paper, we further evaluated the applications and limitations of using DC as both a qualitative and semi-quantitative woodsmoke marker via joint continuous measurements of PM2. 5 (by nephelometer pDR-1500) and light-absorptive PM (by 2-wavelength and 7-wavelength Aethalometertext">®) in three northeastern US cities/towns including Rutland, VT; Saranac Lake, NY and Ithaca, NY. Residential wood combustion has shown to be the predominant source of wintertime primary PM2. 5 emissions in both Rutland and Saranac Lake, where we conducted ambient measurements. In Ithaca, we performed woodsmoke plume measurements. We compared the pDR-1500 against a FEM PM2. 5 sampler (BAM 1020), and identified a close agreement between the two instruments in a woodsmoke-dominated ambient environment. The analysis of seasonal and diurnal trends of DC, black carbon (BC, 880 nm) and PM2. 5 concentrations supports the use of DC as an adequate qualitative marker. The strong linear relationships between PM2. 5 and DC in both woodsmoke-dominated ambient and plume environments suggest that DC can reasonably serve as a semi-quantitative woodsmoke marker. We propose a DC-based indicator for woodsmoke emission, which has shown to exhibit a relatively strong linear relationship with heating demand. While we observed reproducible PM2. 5-DC relationships in similar woodsmoke-dominated ambient environments, those relationships differ significantly with different environments, and among individual woodsmoke sources. Our analysis also indicates the potential for PM2. 5-DC relationships to be utilized to distinguish different combustion and operating conditions of woodsmoke sources, and

  13. PM10 Sampling and AOD Trends during 2016 Winter Fog Season in the Islamabad Region

    KAUST Repository

    Bulbul, Gufran; Shahid, Imran; Chishtie, Farrukh; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan; Hundal, Rabia Ali; Zahra, Fatima; Shahzad, Muhammad Imran

    2017-01-01

    PM samples were collected during intensive fog days in Islamabad, Pakistan, to investigate the impact of particulate matter on fog formation. The PM concentrations were monitored at the Institute of Space Technology site using a high-volume air

  14. Air pollution studies in terms of PM2.5, PM2.5-10, PM10, lead and black carbon in urban areas of Antananarivo-Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasoazanany, E. O.; Andriamahenina, N. N.; Ravoson, H. N.; Raoelina Andriambololona; Randriamanivo, L. V.; Ramaherison, H.; Ahmed, H.; Harinoely, M.

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols or particulate matters are chemically complex and dynamic mixtures of solid and liquid particles. Sources of particulate matters include both natural and anthropogenic processes. The present work consists in determining the concentrations of existing elements in the aerosols collected in Andravoahangy and in Ambodin Isotry in Antananarivo city (Madagascar). The size distribution of these elements and their main sources are also studied.The Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer is used for the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The results show that the concentrations of the airborne particulate matters PM 2.5-10 are higher than those of PM 2.5 .The identified elements in the aerosol samples are Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr and Pb. The average concentrations of these elements are also higher in the coarse particles than in the fine particles. The calculation of the enrichment factors by Mason's model shows that Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb are of anthropogenic origins. The average concentrations of lead (2.8 ng.m -3 , 31.3 ng.m -3 and 19.6 ng.m -3 respectively in aerosols collected in Andravoahangy in 2007 and in 2008 and in Ambodin Isotry in 2008) are largely lower than the average concentration of 1.8 μg.m -3 obtained in 2000 in the Antananarivo urban areas. The concentration of black carbon is higher in the fine particles. The Air Quality Index category is variable in the two sites.

  15. PM10 Sampling and AOD Trends during 2016 Winter Fog Season in the Islamabad Region

    KAUST Repository

    Bulbul, Gufran

    2017-07-24

    PM samples were collected during intensive fog days in Islamabad, Pakistan, to investigate the impact of particulate matter on fog formation. The PM concentrations were monitored at the Institute of Space Technology site using a high-volume air sampler and its elemental composition was studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Sampling was done for a duration of 24 hours on selected days, including all foggy days in a period from January 2016 to February 2016. The concentration of PM varied from 123 µg m to 202 µg m with an overall mean concentration of 177 µg m. On most occasions, PM levels were considerably high as compared to permissible limits of both Pak-NEQS and WHO guidelines. It has been observed that the air quality during fog days was much worse, with elevated levels of particulate matter observed during foggy days. The SEM-EDS revealed the presence of different elements including some metals Si, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cr, Pb, Al etc. The morphological studies suggest that most of the particles are crystalline in shape, suggesting their main source as soil. Some samples also showed round spherical shape which refers their anthropogenic source. The sun photometer observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and satellite observations from Aqua’s Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) showed significant correlation. Moreover, elevated level of AOD were found during heavy fog days. The validated high satellite AOD were associated with high PM concentration during heavy fog days.

  16. Quantifying Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying Matter explains how scientists learned to measure matter and quantify some of its most fascinating and useful properties. It presents many of the most important intellectual achievements and technical developments that led to the scientific interpretation of substance. Complete with full-color photographs, this exciting new volume describes the basic characteristics and properties of matter. Chapters include:. -Exploring the Nature of Matter. -The Origin of Matter. -The Search for Substance. -Quantifying Matter During the Scientific Revolution. -Understanding Matter's Electromagnet

  17. Airborne Particulate Matter Induces Nonallergic Eosinophilic Sinonasal Inflammation in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanathan, Murugappan; London, Nyall R; Tharakan, Anuj; Surya, Nitya; Sussan, Thomas E; Rao, Xiaoquan; Lin, Sandra Y; Toskala, Elina; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Biswal, Shyam

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) has been linked to aggravation of respiratory symptoms, increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and all-cause mortality. Although the health effects of PM on the lower pulmonary airway have been extensively studied, little is known regarding the impact of chronic PM exposure on the upper sinonasal airway. We sought to test the impact of chronic airborne PM exposure on the upper respiratory system in vivo. Mice were subjected, by inhalation, to concentrated fine (2.5 μm) PM 6 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 16 weeks. Mean airborne fine PM concentration was 60.92 μm/m 3 , a concentration of fine PM lower than that reported in some major global cities. Mice were then killed and analyzed for evidence of inflammation and barrier breakdown compared with control mice. Evidence of the destructive effects of chronic airborne PM on sinonasal health in vivo, including proinflammatory cytokine release, and macrophage and neutrophil inflammatory cell accumulation was observed. A significant increase in epithelial barrier dysfunction was observed, as assessed by serum albumin accumulation in nasal airway lavage fluid, as well as decreased expression of adhesion molecules, including claudin-1 and epithelial cadherin. A significant increase in eosinophilic inflammation, including increased IL-13, eotaxin-1, and eosinophil accumulation, was also observed. Collectively, although largely observational, these studies demonstrate the destructive effects of chronic airborne PM exposure on the sinonasal airway barrier disruption and nonallergic eosinophilic inflammation in mice.

  18. Potential Harmful Effects of PM2.5 on Occurrence and Progression of Acute Coronary Syndrome: Epidemiology, Mechanisms, and Prevention Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Meng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of <2.5 µm (PM2.5 and its association with acute coronary syndrome (ACS has gained increased attention in recent years. Significant associations between PM2.5 and ACS have been found in most studies, although sometimes only observed in specific subgroups. PM2.5-induced detrimental effects and ACS arise through multiple mechanisms, including endothelial injury, an enhanced inflammatory response, oxidative stress, autonomic dysfunction, and mitochondria damage as well as genotoxic effects. These effects can lead to a series of physiopathological changes including coronary artery atherosclerosis, hypertension, an imbalance between energy supply and demand to heart tissue, and a systemic hypercoagulable state. Effective strategies to prevent the harmful effects of PM2.5 include reducing pollution sources of PM2.5 and population exposure to PM2.5, and governments and organizations publicizing the harmful effects of PM2.5 and establishing air quality standards for PM2.5. PM2.5 exposure is a significant risk factor for ACS, and effective strategies with which to prevent both susceptible and healthy populations from an increased risk for ACS have important clinical significance in the prevention and treatment of ACS.

  19. Identification and Characterization of Particulate Matter Concentrations at Construction Jobsites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid P. S. Araújo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification and characterization of particulate matter (PM concentrations from construction site activities pose major challenges due to the diverse characteristics related to different aspects, such as concentration, particle size and particle composition. Moreover, the characterization of particulate matter is influenced by meteorological conditions, including temperature, humidity, rainfall and wind speed. This paper is part of a broader investigation that aims to develop a methodology for assessing the environmental impacts caused by the PM emissions that arise from construction activities. The objective of this paper is to identify and characterize the PM emissions on a construction site with different aerodynamic diameters (PM2.5, PM10, total suspended particulates (TSP, based on an exploratory study. Initially, a protocol was developed to standardize the construction site selection criteria, laboratory procedures, field sample collection and laboratory analysis. This protocol was applied on a multifamily residential building construction site during three different construction phases (earthworks, superstructure and finishings aimed at measuring and monitoring PM concentrations arising from construction activities. The particulate matter was characterized in different particle sizes. Results showed that the higher TSP emissions arising from construction activities provoked environmental impacts. Some limitations to the results were identified, especially with regards the need for a detailed investigation about the influence of different construction phases on PM emissions. The findings provided significant knowledge about various situations, serving as a basis for improving the existing methodology for particulate material collection on construction sites and the development of future studies on the specific construction site phases.

  20. LHCb: Observation of CP violation in $B^{\\pm} \\to D^0 K^{\\pm}$ decays at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Johnson, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of $B^\\pm \\to DK^\\pm$ and $B^\\pm \\to D\\pi^\\pm$ decays is presented where the D meson is reconstructed in the two-body final states: $K^\\pm \\pi^\\mp$, $K^+K^−$ and $\\pi^+\\pi^-$. Using 1.0 fb$^{−1}$ of LHCb data, measurements of several observables are made including the first observation of the suppressed mode $B^\\pm \\to [\\pi^\\pm K^\\mp] DK^\\pm$. CP violation in $B^\\pm \\to DK^\\pm$ decays is observed with $5.8\\sigma$ significance. We also comment on the prospects for similar measurements using different final states.

  1. Spatiotemporal Characterization of Ambient PM2.5 Concentrations in Shandong Province (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Christakos, George

    2015-11-17

    China experiences severe particulate matter (PM) pollution problems closely linked to its rapid economic growth. Advancing the understanding and characterization of spatiotemporal air pollution distribution is an area where improved quantitative methods are of great benefit to risk assessment and environmental policy. This work uses the Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method to assess the space-time variability of PM2.5 concentrations and predict their distribution in the Shandong province, China. Daily PM2.5 concentrations obtained at air quality monitoring sites during 2014 were used. On the basis of the space-time PM2.5 distributions generated by BME, we performed three kinds of querying analysis to reveal the main distribution features. The results showed that the entire region of interest is seriously polluted (BME maps identified heavy pollution clusters during 2014). Quantitative characterization of pollution severity included both pollution level and duration. The number of days during which regional PM2.5 exceeded 75, 115, 150, and 250 μg m(-3) varied: 43-253, 13-128, 4-66, and 0-15 days, respectively. The PM2.5 pattern exhibited an increasing trend from east to west, with the western part of Shandong being a heavily polluted area (PM2.5 exceeded 150 μg m(-3) during long time periods). Pollution was much more serious during winter than during other seasons. Site indicators of PM2.5 pollution intensity and space-time variation were used to assess regional uncertainties and risks with their interpretation depending on the pollutant threshold. The observed PM2.5 concentrations exceeding a specified threshold increased almost linearly with increasing threshold value, whereas the relative probability of excess pollution decreased sharply with increasing threshold.

  2. Source identification of ambient PM2.5 during summer inhalation exposure studies in Detroit, MI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, M.; Keeler, G.J.; Wagner, J.G.; Harkema, J.R. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Air Quality Laboratory

    2006-07-15

    Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in heavily populated urban centers of the United States. Because ambient fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter {<=} 2.5 {mu}m; PM2.5) is a complex mixture resulting from multiple sources and variable atmospheric conditions, it is difficult to identify specific components of PM2.5 that are responsible for adverse health effects. During four consecutive summers from 2000 to 2003 we characterized the ambient gaseous and PM2.5 air quality in an urban southwest Detroit community where childhood asthma hospitalization rates are more than twice the statewide average. Both integrated and continuous PM measurements together with gaseous air pollution measurements were performed using a mobile air research facility, AirCARE1, in which concurrent toxicological studies were being conducted. Chemical and physical characterizations of PM2.5 as well as receptor modeling using positive matrix factorization (PMF) were completed. Results from PMF indicated that six major sources contributed to the observed ambient PM2.5 mass during the summer months. Primary sources included (1) coal combustion/secondary sulfate aerosol, (2) motor vehicle/urban road dust, (3) municipal waste incinerators, (4) oil combustion/refineries, (5) sewage sludge incinerators, and (6) iron/steel manufacturing. Although the contribution of the coal/secondary sulfate aerosol source was greater than other factors, increased levels of urban PM2.5 from local combustion sources were also observed. In addition to characterization of ambient PM2.5 and their sources in southwest Detroit, this paper discusses possible associations of ambient PM2.5 from local combustion sources, specifically incinerator and refinery emissions and the observed adverse health effects during the inhalation exposure campaigns.

  3. Your PM Personality and Why It Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    activities, while Introverts (I) are more comfortable reflecting in their inner world of thoughts and ideas. The fourth and last letter of your MBTI...me to stop coming into their office every 15 minutes with a different task (both were introverts ). They took our MBTI team -building off-site

  4. Urban PM in Eastern Germany: Source apportionment and contributions from different spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pinxteren, D.; Fomba, K. W.; Mothes, F.; Spindler, G.; Herrmann, H.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the contributions of particulate matter (PM) sources and the source areas impacting total PM levels in a city are important requirements for further developing clean air policies and efficient abatement strategies. This presentation reports on two studies in Eastern Germany providing a detailed picture of present-day urban PM sources and discriminating contributions of local, regional and long-range sources. The "Leipzig Aerosol 2013-15" study yielded contributions of 12 sources to coarse, fine, and ultrafine particles, resolved by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) from comprehensive chemical speciation of 5-stage Berner impactor samples at 4 different sites in the Leipzig area. Dominant winter-time sources were traffic exhaust and non-exhaust emissions, secondary aerosol formation, and combustion emissions from both biomass and coal burning with different relative importance in different particle size ranges. Local sources dominated PM levels in ultrafine and coarse particles (60% - 80%) while high mass concentrations in accumulation mode particles mainly resulted from regional import into the city (70%). The "PM-East" study compiled PM10 mass and constituents' concentrations at 10 urban and rural sites in Eastern Germany during winter 2016/17, which included a 3-week episode of frequent exceedances of the PM10 limit value. PMF source apportionment is performed for a subset of the sites, including the city of Berlin. Contributions from short-, mid-, and long-range sources, including trans-boundary pollution import from neighbouring countries, are quantitatively assessed by advanced back trajectory statistical methods. Data analysis in PM-East is ongoing and final results will be available by November. Funding is acknowledged from 4 federal states of Germany: Berlin Senate Department for Environment, Transport and Climate Protection; Saxon State Office for Environment, Agriculture and Geology; State Agency for Environment, Nature Conservation and

  5. Size, Composition, and Sources of Health Relevant Particulate Matter in the San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Walter Allan

    Particulate Matter (PM) is an environment contaminant that has been associated with adverse health effects in epidemiological and toxicological studies. Atmospheric PM is made up of a diverse array of chemical species that are emitted from multiple sources across a range of aerodynamic diameters spanning several orders of magnitude. The focus of the present work was the characterization of ambient PM with aerodynamic diameters below 1.8 mum (PM1.8) in 6 size sub-fractions including PM0.1. Chemical species measured included organic carbon, elemental carbon, water soluble ions, trace metals, and organic molecular markers in urban and rural environments in the San Joaquin Valley. These measurements were used to determine differences in relative diurnal size distributions during a severe winter stagnation event, seasonal changes in PM size and composition, and the source origin of carbonaceous PM. This size-resolved information was used to calculate lung deposition patterns of health relevant PM species to evaluate seasonal differences in PM dose. By accurately calculating PM dose, researchers are able to more directly link ambient PM characterization data with biological endpoints. All of these results are used to support ongoing toxicological health effects studies. These types of analyses are important as this type of information may assist regulators with developing control strategies to reduce health effects caused by particulate air pollution.

  6. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentr...

  7. Seasonal trends, chemical speciation and source apportionment of fine PM in Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhami, Mohammad; Hosseini, Vahid; Zare Shahne, Maryam; Bigdeli, Mostafa; Lai, Alexandra; Schauer, James J.

    2017-03-01

    Frequent air pollution episodes have been reported for Tehran, Iran, mainly because of critically high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The composition and sources of these particles are poorly known, so this study aims to identify the major components and heavy metals in PM2.5 along with their seasonal trends and associated sources. 24-hour PM2.5 samples were collected at a main residential station every 6 days for a full year from February 2014 to February 2015. The samples were analyzed for ions, organic carbon (including water-soluble and insoluble portions), elemental carbon (EC), and all detectable elements. The dominant mass components, which were determined by means of chemical mass closure, were organic matter (35%), dust (25%), non-sea salt sulfate (11%), EC (9%), ammonium (5%), and nitrate (2%). Organic matter and EC together comprised 44% of fine PM on average (increased to >70% in the colder season), which reflects the significance of anthropogenic urban sources (i.e. vehicles). The contributions of different components varied considerably throughout the year, particularly the dust component that varied from 7% in the cold season to 56% in the hot and dry season. Principal component analyses were applied, resulting in 5 major source factors that explained 85% of the variance in fine PM. Factor 1, representing soil dust, explained 53%; Factor 2 denotes heavy metals mainly found in industrial sources and accounted for 18%; and rest of factors, mainly representing combustion sources, explained 14% of the variation. The levels of major heavy metals were further evaluated, and their trends showed considerable increases during cold seasons. The results of this study provide useful insight to fine PM in Tehran, which could help in identifying their health effects and sources, and also adopting effective control strategies.

  8. Toxicity of Urban PM10 and Relation with Tracers of Biomass Burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Heuvel, Rosette; Staelens, Jeroen; Koppen, Gudrun; Schoeters, Greet

    2018-02-12

    The chemical composition of particles varies with space and time and depends on emission sources, atmospheric chemistry and weather conditions. Evidence suggesting that particles differ in toxicity depending on their chemical composition is growing. This in vitro study investigated the biological effects of PM 10 in relation to PM-associated chemicals. PM 10 was sampled in ambient air at an urban traffic site (Borgerhout) and a rural background location (Houtem) in Flanders (Belgium). To characterize the toxic potential of PM 10 , airway epithelial cells (Beas-2B cells) were exposed to particles in vitro. Different endpoints were studied including cell damage and death (cell viability) and the induction of interleukin-8 (IL-8). The mutagenic capacity was assessed using the Ames II Mutagenicity Test. The endotoxin levels in the collected samples were analyzed and the oxidative potential (OP) of PM 10 particles was evaluated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Chemical characteristics of PM 10 included tracers for biomass burning (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan), elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Most samples displayed dose-dependent cytotoxicity and IL-8 induction. Spatial and temporal differences in PM 10 toxicity were seen. PM 10 collected at the urban site was characterized by increased pro-inflammatory and mutagenic activity as well as higher OP and elevated endotoxin levels compared to the background area. Reduced cell viability (-0.46 biomass burning, levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan. Furthermore, direct and indirect mutagenicity were associated with tracers for biomass burning, OC, EC and PAHs. Multiple regression analyses showed levoglucosan to explain 16% and 28% of the variance in direct and indirect mutagenicity, respectively. Markers for biomass burning were associated with altered cellular responses and increased mutagenic activity. These findings may indicate a role of

  9. Metro Commuter Exposures to Particulate Air Pollution and PM2.5-Associated Elements in Three Canadian Cities: The Urban Transportation Exposure Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryswyk, Keith; Anastasopolos, Angelos T; Evans, Greg; Sun, Liu; Sabaliauskas, Kelly; Kulka, Ryan; Wallace, Lance; Weichenthal, Scott

    2017-05-16

    System-representative commuter air pollution exposure data were collected for the metro systems of Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver, Canada. Pollutants measured included PM 2.5 (PM = particulate matter), PM 10 , ultrafine particles, black carbon, and the elemental composition of PM 2.5 . Sampling over three weeks was conducted in summer and winter for each city and covered each system on a daily basis. Mixed-effect linear regression models were used to identify system features related to particulate exposures. Ambient levels of PM 2.5 and its elemental components were compared to those of the metro in each city. A microenvironmental exposure model was used to estimate the contribution of a 70 min metro commute to daily mean exposure to PM 2.5 elemental and mass concentrations. Time spent in the metro was estimated to contribute the majority of daily exposure to several metallic elements of PM 2.5 and 21.2%, 11.3% and 11.5% of daily PM 2.5 exposure in Toronto, Montreal, and Vancouver, respectively. Findings suggest that particle air pollutant levels in Canadian metros are substantially impacted by the systems themselves, are highly enriched in steel-based elements, and can contribute a large portion of PM 2.5 and its elemental components to a metro commuter's daily exposure.

  10. Differences in allergic inflammatory responses between urban PM2.5 and fine particle derived from desert-dust in murine lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Miao, E-mail: hemiao@mail.cmu.edu.cn [Environment and Non-communicable Disease Research Center, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110122 (China); Department of Health Sciences, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Oita 870-1201 (Japan); Ichinose, Takamichi, E-mail: ichinose@oita-nhs.ac.jp [Department of Health Sciences, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Oita 870-1201 (Japan); Kobayashi, Makoto [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Kanazawa Medical University, Ishikawa 920-0293 (Japan); Arashidani, Keiichi [Department of Immunology and Parasitology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Fukuoka 807-8555 (Japan); Yoshida, Seiichi [Department of Health Sciences, Oita University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Oita 870-1201 (Japan); Nishikawa, Masataka [Environmental Chemistry Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Takano, Hirohisa [Environmental Health Division, Department of Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Sun, Guifan [Environment and Non-communicable Disease Research Center, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang 110122 (China); Shibamoto, Takayuki [Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The biological and chemical natures of materials adsorbed onto fine particulate matter (PM2.5) vary by origin and passage routes. The exacerbating effects of the two samples—urban PM2.5 (U-PM2.5) collected during the hazy weather in a Chinese city and fine particles (ASD-PM2.5) collected during Asian sand dust (ASD) storm event days in Japan—on murine lung eosinophilia were compared to clarify the role of toxic materials in PM2.5. The amounts of β-glucan and mineral components were higher in ASD-PM2.5 than in U-PM2.5. On the other hand, organic chemicals, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were higher in U-PM2.5 than in ASD-PM2.5. When BALB/c mice were intratracheally instilled with U-PM2.5 and ASD-PM2.5 (total 0.4 mg/mouse) with or without ovalbumin (OVA), various biological effects were observed, including enhancement of eosinophil recruitment induced by OVA in the submucosa of the airway, goblet cell proliferation in the bronchial epithelium, synergic increase of OVA-induced eosinophil-relevant cytokines and a chemokine in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and increase of serum OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE. Data demonstrate that U-PM2.5 and ASD-PM2.5 induced allergic inflammatory changes and caused lung pathology. U-PM2.5 and ASD-PM2.5 increased F4/80{sup +} CD11b{sup +} cells, indicating that an influx of inflammatory and exudative macrophages in lung tissue had occurred. The ratio of CD206 positive F4/80{sup +} CD11b{sup +} cells (M2 macrophages) in lung tissue was higher in the OVA + ASD-PM2.5 treated mice than in the OVA + U-PM2.5 treated mice. These results suggest that the lung eosinophilia exacerbated by both PM2.5 is due to activation of a Th2-associated immune response along with induced M2 macrophages and the exacerbating effect is greater in microbial element (β-glucan)-rich ASD-PM2.5 than in organic chemical-rich U-PM2.5. - Highlights: • The aggravating effects of urban-PM2.5 and desert-PM2.5 on lung eosinophilia were compared.

  11. Differences in allergic inflammatory responses between urban PM2.5 and fine particle derived from desert-dust in murine lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Miao; Ichinose, Takamichi; Kobayashi, Makoto; Arashidani, Keiichi; Yoshida, Seiichi; Nishikawa, Masataka; Takano, Hirohisa; Sun, Guifan; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    The biological and chemical natures of materials adsorbed onto fine particulate matter (PM2.5) vary by origin and passage routes. The exacerbating effects of the two samples—urban PM2.5 (U-PM2.5) collected during the hazy weather in a Chinese city and fine particles (ASD-PM2.5) collected during Asian sand dust (ASD) storm event days in Japan—on murine lung eosinophilia were compared to clarify the role of toxic materials in PM2.5. The amounts of β-glucan and mineral components were higher in ASD-PM2.5 than in U-PM2.5. On the other hand, organic chemicals, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were higher in U-PM2.5 than in ASD-PM2.5. When BALB/c mice were intratracheally instilled with U-PM2.5 and ASD-PM2.5 (total 0.4 mg/mouse) with or without ovalbumin (OVA), various biological effects were observed, including enhancement of eosinophil recruitment induced by OVA in the submucosa of the airway, goblet cell proliferation in the bronchial epithelium, synergic increase of OVA-induced eosinophil-relevant cytokines and a chemokine in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and increase of serum OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE. Data demonstrate that U-PM2.5 and ASD-PM2.5 induced allergic inflammatory changes and caused lung pathology. U-PM2.5 and ASD-PM2.5 increased F4/80 + CD11b + cells, indicating that an influx of inflammatory and exudative macrophages in lung tissue had occurred. The ratio of CD206 positive F4/80 + CD11b + cells (M2 macrophages) in lung tissue was higher in the OVA + ASD-PM2.5 treated mice than in the OVA + U-PM2.5 treated mice. These results suggest that the lung eosinophilia exacerbated by both PM2.5 is due to activation of a Th2-associated immune response along with induced M2 macrophages and the exacerbating effect is greater in microbial element (β-glucan)-rich ASD-PM2.5 than in organic chemical-rich U-PM2.5. - Highlights: • The aggravating effects of urban-PM2.5 and desert-PM2.5 on lung eosinophilia were compared. • Both PM2.5 enhanced

  12. Atmospheric LiDAR coupled with point measurement air quality samplers to measure fineparticulate matter (PM) emissions from agricultural operations. Part 2 of the California 2007 - 2008 Tillage Campaigns: Spring 2008 Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern with health effects resulting from PM10 exposure is drawing increased regulatory scrutiny and research toward local agricultural tillage operations. To investigate the control effectiveness of one of the current Conservation Management Practices (CMPs) written for agricul...

  13. Day and night variation in chemical composition and toxicological responses of size segregated urban air PM samples in a high air pollution situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, P. I.; Wang, Q.; Kuuspalo, K.; Ruusunen, J.; Hao, L.; Fang, D.; Väisänen, O.; Ruuskanen, A.; Sippula, O.; Happo, M. S.; Uski, O.; Kasurinen, S.; Torvela, T.; Koponen, H.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Komppula, M.; Gu, C.; Jokiniemi, J.; Hirvonen, M.-R.

    2015-11-01

    Urban air particulate pollution is a known cause for adverse human health effects worldwide. China has encountered air quality problems in recent years due to rapid industrialization. Toxicological effects induced by particulate air pollution vary with particle sizes and season. However, it is not known how distinctively different photochemical activity and different emission sources during the day and the night affect the chemical composition of the PM size ranges and subsequently how it is reflected to the toxicological properties of the PM exposures. The particulate matter (PM) samples were collected in four different size ranges (PM10-2.5; PM2.5-1; PM1-0.2 and PM0.2) with a high volume cascade impactor. The PM samples were extracted with methanol, dried and thereafter used in the chemical and toxicological analyses. RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to the particulate samples in four different doses for 24 h. Cytotoxicity, inflammatory parameters, cell cycle and genotoxicity were measured after exposure of the cells to particulate samples. Particles were characterized for their chemical composition, including ions, element and PAH compounds, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to take images of the PM samples. Chemical composition and the induced toxicological responses of the size segregated PM samples showed considerable size dependent differences as well as day to night variation. The PM10-2.5 and the PM0.2 samples had the highest inflammatory potency among the size ranges. Instead, almost all the PM samples were equally cytotoxic and only minor differences were seen in genotoxicity and cell cycle effects. Overall, the PM0.2 samples had the highest toxic potential among the different size ranges in many parameters. PAH compounds in the samples and were generally more abundant during the night than the day, indicating possible photo-oxidation of the PAH compounds due to solar radiation. This was reflected to different toxicity in the PM

  14. Modelling street level PM10 concentrations across Europe: source apportionment and possible futures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesewetter, G.; Borken-Kleefeld, J.; Schöpp, W.; Heyes, C.; Thunis, P.; Bessagnet, B.; Terrenoire, E.; Fagerli, H.; Nyiri, A.; Amann, M.

    2015-02-01

    Despite increasing emission controls, particulate matter (PM) has remained a critical issue for European air quality in recent years. The various sources of PM, both from primary particulate emissions as well as secondary formation from precursor gases, make this a complex problem to tackle. In order to allow for credible predictions of future concentrations under policy assumptions, a modelling approach is needed that considers all chemical processes and spatial dimensions involved, from long-range transport of pollution to local emissions in street canyons. Here we describe a modelling scheme which has been implemented in the GAINS integrated assessment model to assess compliance with PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter dispersion calculations, and a traffic increment calculation wherever applicable. At each monitoring station fulfilling a few data coverage criteria, measured concentrations in the base year 2009 are explained to the extent possible and then modelled for the past and future. More than 1850 monitoring stations are covered, including more than 300 traffic stations and 80% of the stations which exceeded the EU air quality limit values in 2009. As a validation, we compare modelled trends in the period 2000-2008 to observations, which are well reproduced. The modelling scheme is applied here to quantify explicitly source contributions to ambient concentrations at several critical monitoring stations, displaying the differences in spatial origin and chemical composition of urban roadside PM10 across Europe. Furthermore, we analyse the predicted evolution of PM10 concentrations in the European Union until 2030 under different policy scenarios. Significant improvements in ambient PM10 concentrations are expected assuming successful implementation of already agreed legislation; however, these will not be large enough to ensure attainment of PM10 limit values in hot spot locations such as Southern Poland and major European cities. Remaining issues are

  15. PM 10 Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM 10 and have been...

  16. Advanced receptor modelling for the apportionment of road dust resuspension to atmospheric PM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, F.; Pandolfi, M.; Escrig, A.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Pey, J.; Perez, N.; Hopke, P. K.

    2009-04-01

    Fugitive emissions from traffic resuspension can often represent an important source of atmospheric particulate matter in urban environments, especially when the scarce precipitations favour the accumulation of road dust. Resuspension of road dust can lead to high exposures to heavy metals, metalloids and mineral matter. Knowing the amount of its contribution to atmospheric PM is a key task for establishing eventual mitigation or preventive measures. Factor analysis techniques are widely used tools for atmospheric aerosol source apportionment, based on the mass conservation principle. Paatero and Tapper (1993) suggested the use of a Weighted Least Squares scheme with the aim of obtaining a minimum variance solution. Additionally they proposed to incorporate the basic physical constraint of non negativity, calling their approach Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), which can be performed by the program PMF2 released by Paatero (1997). Nevertheless, Positive Matrix Factorization can be either solved with the Multilinear Engine (ME-2), a more flexible program, also developed by Paatero (1999), which can solve any model consisting in sum of products of unknowns. The main difference with PMF2 is that ME-2 does not solve only well-defined tasks, but its actions are defined in a "script file" written in a special-purpose programming language, allowing incorporating additional tasks such as data processing etc. Thus in ME-2 a priori information, e.g. chemical fingerprints can be included as auxiliary terms of the object function to be minimized. This feature of ME-2 make it especially suitable for source apportionment studies where some knowledge (chemical ratios, profiles, mass conservation etc) of involved sources is available. The aim of this study was to quantify the contribution of road dust resuspension in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 data set from Barcelona (Spain). Given that recently the emission profile of local road dust was characterized (Amato et al., in press

  17. Asthma and PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmour M Ian

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract PM10 (the mass of particles present in the air having a 50% cutoff for particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm is the standard measure of particulate air pollution used worldwide. Epidemiological studies suggest that asthma symptoms can be worsened by increases in the levels of PM10. Epidemiological evidence at present indicates that PM10 increases do not raise the chances of initial sensitisation and induction of disease, although further research is warranted. PM10 is a complex mixture of particle types and has many components and there is no general agreement regarding which component(s could lead to exacerbations of asthma. However pro-inflammatory effects of transition metals, hydrocarbons, ultrafine particles and endotoxin, all present to varying degrees in PM10, could be important. An understanding of the role of the different components of PM10 in exacerbating asthma is essential before proper risk assessment can be undertaken leading to advice on risk management for the many asthmatics who are exposed to air pollution particles.

  18. Assessment of health risk due to PM 10 using fuzzy linear membership kriging with particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jeetendra B.; Reddy, Vijay S.; Jana, Soumya; De, Swades

    2013-01-01

    Air quality is an important determinant of individual as well as broader well-being. Major pollutants include gasses as well as assorted suspended particulate matter (PM). In this paper, we focus on PM10, which are a collection of particles with median aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm that remains suspended in the air for long periods. PM10, usually consist of smoke, dirt and dust particles, as well as spores and pollen, could easily be inhaled deep into lung. As a result, high outdoor PM10 concentration poses significant health hazard, and accurate modeling and prediction of health risk due to PM10 assume importance in pollution and public health management. In this backdrop, we propose an improved health risk assessment technique, and demonstrate its efficacy using widely used California PM10 database. At the heart of the proposed method lies indicator kriging, a well-known risk estimation technique. However, improved assessment of subjective health risk is achieved by posing the problem in a fuzzy setting, and optimizing the associated membership functions. In particular, we employ particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, which has been motivated by natural behavior of organisms such as fish-schooling and bird flocking, and proven effective in various optimization contexts. We apply the fuzzy PSO membership grade kriging technique to predict the PM10 spatial distribution over the entire California state. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of health risk due to PM 10 using fuzzy linear membership kriging with particle swarm optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Jeetendra B.; Reddy, Vijay S.; Jana, Soumya [Indian Institute of Technology, Hyderabad (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; De, Swades [Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Air quality is an important determinant of individual as well as broader well-being. Major pollutants include gasses as well as assorted suspended particulate matter (PM). In this paper, we focus on PM10, which are a collection of particles with median aerodynamic diameter less than 10 {mu}m that remains suspended in the air for long periods. PM10, usually consist of smoke, dirt and dust particles, as well as spores and pollen, could easily be inhaled deep into lung. As a result, high outdoor PM10 concentration poses significant health hazard, and accurate modeling and prediction of health risk due to PM10 assume importance in pollution and public health management. In this backdrop, we propose an improved health risk assessment technique, and demonstrate its efficacy using widely used California PM10 database. At the heart of the proposed method lies indicator kriging, a well-known risk estimation technique. However, improved assessment of subjective health risk is achieved by posing the problem in a fuzzy setting, and optimizing the associated membership functions. In particular, we employ particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, which has been motivated by natural behavior of organisms such as fish-schooling and bird flocking, and proven effective in various optimization contexts. We apply the fuzzy PSO membership grade kriging technique to predict the PM10 spatial distribution over the entire California state. (orig.)

  20. Hospital indoor PM10/PM2.5 and associated trace elements in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhua; Bi Xinhui; Sheng Guoying; Fu Jiamo

    2006-01-01

    PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected in the indoor environments of four hospitals and their adjacent outdoor environments in Guangzhou, China during the summertime. The concentrations of 18 target elements in particles were also quantified. The results showed that indoor PM2.5 levels with an average of 99 μg m -3 were significantly higher than outdoor PM2.5 standard of 65 μg m -3 recommended by USEPA [United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Fact Sheet. EPA's Revised Particulate Matter Standards, 17, July 1997] and PM2.5 constituted a large fraction of indoor respirable particles (PM10) by an average of 78% in four hospitals. High correlation between PM2.5 and PM10 (R 2 of 0.87 for indoors and 0.90 for outdoors) suggested that PM2.5 and PM10 came from similar particulate emission sources. The indoor particulate levels were correlated with the corresponding outdoors (R 2 of 0.78 for PM2.5 and 0.67 for PM10), demonstrating that outdoor infiltration could lead to direct transportation into indoors. In addition to outdoor infiltration, human activities and ventilation types could also influence indoor particulate levels in four hospitals. Total target elements accounted for 3.18-5.56% of PM2.5 and 4.38-9.20% of PM10 by mass, respectively. Na, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Ti were found in the coarse particles, while K, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb, As and Se existed more in the fine particles. The average indoor concentrations of total elements were lower than those measured outdoors, suggesting that indoor elements originated mainly from outdoor emission sources. Enrichment factors (EF) for trace element were calculated to show that elements of anthropogenic origins (Zn, Pb, As, Se, V, Ni, Cu and Cd) were highly enriched with respect to crustal composition (Al, Fe, Ca, Ti and Mn). Factor analysis was used to identify possible pollution source-types, namely street dust, road traffic and

  1. Hospital indoor PM10/PM2.5 and associated trace elements in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Bi, Xinhui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2006-07-31

    PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected in the indoor environments of four hospitals and their adjacent outdoor environments in Guangzhou, China during the summertime. The concentrations of 18 target elements in particles were also quantified. The results showed that indoor PM2.5 levels with an average of 99 microg m(-3) were significantly higher than outdoor PM2.5 standard of 65 microg m(-3) recommended by USEPA [United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Fact Sheet. EPA's Revised Particulate Matter Standards, 17, July 1997] and PM2.5 constituted a large fraction of indoor respirable particles (PM10) by an average of 78% in four hospitals. High correlation between PM2.5 and PM10 (R(2) of 0.87 for indoors and 0.90 for outdoors) suggested that PM2.5 and PM10 came from similar particulate emission sources. The indoor particulate levels were correlated with the corresponding outdoors (R(2) of 0.78 for PM2.5 and 0.67 for PM10), demonstrating that outdoor infiltration could lead to direct transportation into indoors. In addition to outdoor infiltration, human activities and ventilation types could also influence indoor particulate levels in four hospitals. Total target elements accounted for 3.18-5.56% of PM2.5 and 4.38-9.20% of PM10 by mass, respectively. Na, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Ti were found in the coarse particles, while K, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb, As and Se existed more in the fine particles. The average indoor concentrations of total elements were lower than those measured outdoors, suggesting that indoor elements originated mainly from outdoor emission sources. Enrichment factors (EF) for trace element were calculated to show that elements of anthropogenic origins (Zn, Pb, As, Se, V, Ni, Cu and Cd) were highly enriched with respect to crustal composition (Al, Fe, Ca, Ti and Mn). Factor analysis was used to identify possible pollution source-types, namely street dust, road traffic

  2. The influence of urban heat island phenomenon on PM concentration: an observation study during the summer half-year in metropolitan Taipei, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Li-Wei

    2018-01-01

    Air circulation due to the urban heat island (UHI) effect can influence the dispersion of air pollutants in a metropolis. This study focusses on the influence of the UHI effect on particulate matter (PM; including PM2.5 and PM2.5-10) between May and September 2010-2012 in the Taipei basin. Meteorological and PM data were obtained from the sites, owned by the governmental authorities. The analysis was carried out using t test, relative indices (RIs), Pearson product-moment correlation and stepwise regression. The results show that the RI values for PM were the highest at moderate UHI intensity (MUI; 2 °C ≤ UHI < 4 °C) rather than at strong UHI intensity (SUI; 4 °C ≤ UHI) during the peak time for anthropogenic emissions (20:00 LST). Neither the accumulation of PM nor the surface convergence occurred in the hot centre, as shown by the case study. At MUI, more than 89 % of the synoptic weather patterns showed that the weather was clear and hot or that the atmosphere was stable. The variation in PM was associated with horizontal and vertical air dispersion. Poor horizontal air dispersion, with subsidence, caused an increase in PM at MUI. However, the updraft motion diluted the PM at SUI. The stepwise regression models show that the cloud index and surface air pressure determined the variation in PM2.5-10, while cloud index, wind speed and mixing height influenced the variation in PM2.5. In conclusion, a direct relationship between UHI effect and PM was not obvious.

  3. A study of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in the atmosphere of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Due to rapid economic growth of the country in the last 25 years, particulate matter (PM) has become a topic of ... created by pollution, as well as by high levels of urbanization. In 2012, the ...... for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of.

  4. Assessment of annual air pollution levels with PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and associated heavy metals in Algiers, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbi, Abdelhamid; Kerchich, Yacine; Kerbachi, Rabah; Boughedaoui, Ménouèr

    2018-01-01

    Concentrations of particulate matter less than 1  μm, 2.5  μm, 10 μm and their contents of heavy metals were investigated in two different stations, urban and roadside at Algiers (Algeria). Sampling was conducted during two years by a high volume samplers (HVS) equipped with a cascade impactor at four levels stage, for one year sampling. The characterization of the heavy metals associated to the particulate matter (PM) was carried out by X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (XRF). The annual average concentration of PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 in both stations were 18.24, 32.23 and 60.01 μg m -3 respectively. The PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations in roadside varied from 13.46 to 25.59 μg m -3 , 20.82-49.85 μg m -3 and 45.90-77.23 μg m -3 respectively. However in the urban station, the PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations varied from 10.45 to 26.24 μg m -3 , 18.53-47.58 μg m -3 and 43.8-91.62 μg m -3 . The heavy metals associated to the PM were confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses (SEM-EDX). The different spots of PM 2.5 analysis by SEM-EDX shows the presence of nineteen elements with anthropogenic and natural origins, within the heavy metal detected, the lead was found with maximum of 5% (weight percent). In order to determine the source contributions of PM levels at the two sampling sites sampling, principal compound analysis (PCA) was applied to the collected data. Statistical analysis confirmed anthropogenic source with traffic being a significant source and high contribution of natural emissions. At both sites, the PM 2.5 /PM 10 ratio is lower than that usually recorded in developed countries. The study of the back-trajectories of the air masses starting from Sahara shows that desert dust influences the concentration and the composition of the PM measured in Algiers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PM2.5 metal exposures and nocturnal heart rate variability: a panel study of boilermaker construction workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrick Robert F

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To better understand the mechanism(s of particulate matter (PM associated cardiovascular effects, research priorities include identifying the responsible PM characteristics. Evidence suggests that metals play a role in the cardiotoxicity of fine PM (PM2.5 and in exposure-related decreases in heart rate variability (HRV. We examined the association between daytime exposure to the metal content of PM2.5 and night HRV in a panel study of boilermaker construction workers exposed to metal-rich welding fumes. Methods Twenty-six male workers were monitored by ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG on a workday while exposed to welding fume and a non-workday (baseline. From the ECG, rMSSD (square root of the mean squared differences of successive intervals was summarized over the night (0:00–7:00. Workday, gravimetric PM2.5 samples were analyzed by x-ray fluorescence to determine metal content. We used linear mixed effects models to assess the associations between night rMSSD and PM2.5 metal exposures both with and without adjustment for total PM2.5. Matched ECG measurements from the non-workday were used to control for individual cardiac risk factors and models were also adjusted for smoking status. To address collinearity between PM2.5 and metal content, we used a two-step approach that treated the residuals from linear regression models of each metal on PM2.5 as surrogates for the differential effects of metal exposures in models for night rMSSD. Results The median PM2.5 exposure was 650 μg/m3; median metal exposures for iron, manganese, aluminum, copper, zinc, chromium, lead, and nickel ranged from 226 μg/m3 to non-detectable. We found inverse linear associations in exposure-response models with increased metal exposures associated with decreased night rMSSD. A statistically significant association for manganese was observed, with a decline of 0.130 msec (95% CI: -0.162, -0.098 in night rMSSD for every 1 μg/m3 increase in

  6. Acute exposure to fine and coarse particulate matter and infant mortality in Tokyo, Japan (2002-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effect of short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5μm in diameter (PM2.5) or to coarse particles on infant mortality. We evaluated the association between short-term exposure to PM and infant mortality in Japan and assessed whether adverse health effects were observable at PM concentrations below Japanese air quality guidelines. We used a time-stratified, case-crossover design. The participants included 2086 infants who died in the 23 urbanized wards of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government between January 2002 and December 2013. We obtained measures of PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM; PMPM7-2.5 by subtracting PM2.5 from SPM. We then used conditional logistic regression to analyze the data. Same-day PM2.5 was associated with increased risks of infant and postneonatal mortality, especially for mortality related to respiratory causes. For a 10μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5, the odds ratios were 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.12) for infant mortality and 1.10 (1.02-1.19) for postneonatal mortality. PM7-2.5 was also associated with an increased risk of postneonatal mortality, independent of PM2.5. Even when PM2.5 and SPM concentrations were below Japanese air quality guidelines, we observed adverse health effects. This study provides further evidence that acute exposure to PM2.5 and coarse particles (PM7-2.5) is associated with an increased risk of infant mortality. Further, rigorous evaluation of air quality guidelines for daily average PM2.5 and larger particles is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Review on recent progress in observations, source identifications and countermeasures of PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chun-Sheng; Duan, Feng-Kui; He, Ke-Bin; Ma, Yong-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Recently, PM2.5 (atmospheric fine particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) have received so much attention that the observations, source appointment and countermeasures of it have been widely studied due to its harmful impacts on visibility, mood (mental health), physical health, traffic safety, construction, economy and nature, as well as its complex interaction with climate. A review on the PM2.5 related research is necessary. We start with summary of chemical composition and characteristics of PM2.5 that contains both macro and micro observation results and analysis, wherein the temporal variability of concentrations of PM2.5 and major components in many recent reports is embraced. This is closely followed by an overview of source appointment, including the composition and sources of PM2.5 in different countries in the six inhabitable continents based on the best available results. Besides summarizing PM2.5 pollution countermeasures by policy, planning, technology and ideology, the World Air Day is proposed to be established to inspire and promote the crucial social action in energy-saving and emission-reduction. Some updated knowledge of the important topics (such as formation and evolution mechanisms of hazes, secondary aerosols, aerosol mass spectrometer, organic tracers, radiocarbon, emissions, solutions for air pollution problems, etc.) is also included in the present review by logically synthesizing the studies. In addition, the key research challenges and future directions are put forward. Despite our efforts, our understanding of the recent reported observations, source identifications and countermeasures of PM2.5 is limited, and subsequent efforts both of the authors and readers are needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Impacts of Stratospheric Sulfate Geoengineering on PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.; Xia, L.; Tilmes, S.; Mills, M. J.; Richter, J.; Kravitz, B.; MacMartin, D.

    2017-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) includes sulfate, nitrate, organic carbon, elemental carbon, soil dust, and sea salt. The first four components are mostly present near the ground as fine particulate matter with a diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5), and these are of the most concern for human health. PM is efficiently scavenged by precipitation, which is its main atmospheric sink. Here we examine the impact of stratospheric climate engineering on this important pollutant and health risk, taking advantage of two sets of climate model simulations conducted at the National Center for Atmospheric Research. We use the full tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry version of the Community Earth System Model - Community Atmospheric Model 4 (CESM CAM4-chem) with a horizontal resolution of 0.9° x 1.25° lat-lon to simulate a stratospheric sulfate injection climate intervention of 8 Tg SO2 yr-1 combined with an RCP6.0 global warming forcing, the G4 Specified Stratospheric Aerosol (G4SSA) scenario. We also analyze the output from a 20-member ensemble of Community Earth System Model, version 1 with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model as its atmospheric component (CESM1(WACCM)) simulations, also at 0.9° x 1.25° lat-lon resolution, with sulfur dioxide injection at 15°N, 15°S, 30°N, and 30°S varying in time to balance RCP8.5 forcing. While the CESM CAM4-chem model has full tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry, CESM1(WACCM) has an internally generated quasi-biennial oscillation and a comprehensive tropospheric and stratospheric sulfate aerosol treatment, but only stratospheric chemistry. For G4SSA, there are a global temperature reduction of 0.8 K and global averaged precipitation decrease of 3% relative to RCP6.0. The global averaged surface PM2.5 reduces about 1% compared with RCP6.0, mainly over Eurasian and East Asian regions in Northern Hemisphere winter. The PM2.5 concentration change is a combination of effects from tropospheric chemistry and precipitation

  9. High Efficiency, Transparent, Reusable, and Active PM2.5 Filters by Hierarchical Ag Nanowire Percolation Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seongmin; Cho, Hyunmin; Han, Seonggeun; Won, Phillip; Lee, Habeom; Hong, Sukjoon; Yeo, Junyeob; Kwon, Jinhyeong; Ko, Seung Hwan

    2017-07-12

    Air quality has become a major public health issue in Asia including China, Korea, and India. Particulate matters are the major concern in air quality. We present the first environmental application demonstration of Ag nanowire percolation network for a novel, electrical type transparent, reusable, and active PM2.5 air filter although the Ag nanowire percolation network has been studied as a very promising transparent conductor in optoelectronics. Compared with previous particulate matter air filter study using relatively weaker short-range intermolecular force in polar polymeric nanofiber, Ag nanowire percolation network filters use stronger long-range electrostatic force to capture PM2.5, and they are highly efficient (>99.99%), transparent, working on an active mode, low power consumption, antibacterial, and reusable after simple washing. The proposed new particulate matter filter can be applied for a highly efficient, reusable, active and energy efficient filter for wearable electronics application.

  10. Measurement of Ambient Air Particle (TSP, PM10, PM2,5) Around Candidate Location of PLTN Semenanjung Lemahabang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AgusGindo S; Budi Hari H

    2008-01-01

    Measurement analysis of ambient air particle (TSP, PM 10 , PM 2,5 ) around location candidate of PLTN (Power Station of Nuclear Energy) Semenanjung Lemahabang has been carried out. The measurement was conducted in May 2007 with a purpose to providing information about concentration of ambient air particle (TSP, PM 10 , PM 2,5 ) and diameter distribution of its air particle. The measurement was conducted in three locations i.e. 1). Balong village 2). Bayuran 3). Bondo. Concentration of TSP, PM 10 , and PM 2,5 per 24 hours in all measured locations in area candidate of PLTN exceed quality standard of national ambient air is specified by government. All measurement locations for the TSP, PM 10 , and PM 2,5 was include category of ISPU (Standard Index of Air Pollution) moderate. (author)

  11. Particle Reduction Strategies - PAREST. PM10-cause analysis based on hypothetical emissions scenarios. Sub-report; Strategien zur Verminderung der Feinstaubbelastung - PAREST. PM10-Ursachenanalyse auf der Basis hypothetischer Emissionsszenarien. Teilbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Rainer [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Troposphaerische Umweltforschung

    2013-06-15

    In this report, a PM10 cause analysis is presented, which provides an estimation of the extent to which the emitted substances from ten different source sectors are responsible for the calculated PM10 concentrations in Germany (PM = particulate matter). [German] In diesem Bericht wird eine PM10-Ursachenanalyse vorgestellt, die eine Abschaetzung liefert, in welchem Umfang die in Deutschland von den verschiedenen Verursachergruppen emittierten Stoffe fuer die in Deutschland berechneten PM10-Konzentrationen verantwortlich sind.

  12. Estimation of Fine Particulate Matter in Taipei Using Landuse Regression and Bayesian Maximum Entropy Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Kuo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Fine airborne particulate matter (PM2.5 has adverse effects on human health. Assessing the long-term effects of PM2.5 exposure on human health and ecology is often limited by a lack of reliable PM2.5 measurements. In Taipei, PM2.5 levels were not systematically measured until August, 2005. Due to the popularity of geographic information systems (GIS, the landuse regression method has been widely used in the spatial estimation of PM concentrations. This method accounts for the potential contributing factors of the local environment, such as traffic volume. Geostatistical methods, on other hand, account for the spatiotemporal dependence among the observations of ambient pollutants. This study assesses the performance of the landuse regression model for the spatiotemporal estimation of PM2.5 in the Taipei area. Specifically, this study integrates the landuse regression model with the geostatistical approach within the framework of the Bayesian maximum entropy (BME method. The resulting epistemic framework can assimilate knowledge bases including: (a empirical-based spatial trends of PM concentration based on landuse regression, (b the spatio-temporal dependence among PM observation information, and (c site-specific PM observations. The proposed approach performs the spatiotemporal estimation of PM2.5 levels in the Taipei area (Taiwan from 2005–2007.

  13. Estimation of fine particulate matter in Taipei using landuse regression and bayesian maximum entropy methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hwa-Lung; Wang, Chih-Hsih; Liu, Ming-Che; Kuo, Yi-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Fine airborne particulate matter (PM2.5) has adverse effects on human health. Assessing the long-term effects of PM2.5 exposure on human health and ecology is often limited by a lack of reliable PM2.5 measurements. In Taipei, PM2.5 levels were not systematically measured until August, 2005. Due to the popularity of geographic information systems (GIS), the landuse regression method has been widely used in the spatial estimation of PM concentrations. This method accounts for the potential contributing factors of the local environment, such as traffic volume. Geostatistical methods, on other hand, account for the spatiotemporal dependence among the observations of ambient pollutants. This study assesses the performance of the landuse regression model for the spatiotemporal estimation of PM2.5 in the Taipei area. Specifically, this study integrates the landuse regression model with the geostatistical approach within the framework of the Bayesian maximum entropy (BME) method. The resulting epistemic framework can assimilate knowledge bases including: (a) empirical-based spatial trends of PM concentration based on landuse regression, (b) the spatio-temporal dependence among PM observation information, and (c) site-specific PM observations. The proposed approach performs the spatiotemporal estimation of PM2.5 levels in the Taipei area (Taiwan) from 2005-2007.

  14. Associations of acute exposure to fine and coarse particulate matter and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have reported adverse health effects of short-term exposure to coarse particles independent of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), but evidence in Asian countries is limited. We therefore evaluated associations between short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan. We used a time-stratified, case-crossover design. Study participants included 664,509 older people (≥65 years old) in the 23 urbanized wards of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, who died between January 2002 and December 2013. We obtained PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM; PMPM7-2.5 by subtracting PM2.5 from SPM to account for coarse particles. We then used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 confidence intervals (CIs). Same-day PM2.5 and PM7-2.5 were independently associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality related to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases; for example, both pollutants were positively associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality even after simultaneous adjustment for each pollutant: OR of 1.006 (95% CI: 1.003, 1.009) for PM2.5 and 1.016 (95% CI: 1.011, 1.022) for PM7-2.5. Even below concentrations stipulated by the Japanese air quality guidelines for PM2.5 and SPM (PM7), we observed adverse health effects. This study provides further evidence that acute exposure to PM2.5 and coarse particles is associated with increased risk of mortality among older people. Rigorous evaluation of air quality guidelines for daily average PM2.5 and larger particles should be continued. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving spatio-temporal model estimation of satellite-derived PM2.5 concentrations: Implications for public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, M. G.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Crosson, W. L.; Yang, C. A.; Coffield, S. R.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite-derived environmental data, available in a range of spatio-temporal scales, are contributing to the growing use of health impact assessments of air pollution in the public health sector. Models developed using correlation of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) with ground measurements of fine particulate matter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5) are widely applied to measure PM2.5 spatial and temporal variability. In the public health sector, associations of PM2.5 with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases are often investigated to quantify air quality impacts on these health concerns. In order to improve predictability of PM2.5 estimation using correlation models, we have included meteorological variables, higher-resolution AOD products and instantaneous PM2.5 observations into statistical estimation models. Our results showed that incorporation of high-resolution (1-km) Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC)-generated MODIS AOD, meteorological variables and instantaneous PM2.5 observations improved model performance in various parts of California (CA), USA, where single variable AOD-based models showed relatively weak performance. In this study, we further asked whether these improved models actually would be more successful for exploring associations of public health outcomes with estimated PM2.5. To answer this question, we geospatially investigated model-estimated PM2.5's relationship with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases such as asthma, high blood pressure, coronary heart disease, heart attack and stroke in CA using health data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). PM2.5 estimation from these improved models have the potential to improve our understanding of associations between public health concerns and air quality.

  16. Sources of ambient concentrations and chemical composition of PM 2.5-0.1 in Cork Harbour, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebust, S.; Allanic, A.; O'Connor, I. P.; Jourdan, C.; Healy, D.; Sodeau, J. R.

    2010-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM 10-2.5 and PM 2.5-0.1) has been collected over a period of one year in Cork Harbour, Ireland, using a high-volume cascade impactor and polyurethane foam collection substrate. Collected PM 2.5-0.1 was analysed for water-soluble inorganic ions and metal content using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. On average approximately 50% by mass of the chemical content of PM was identified. The motivation for the study was to assess the potential impact of shipping emissions on air quality in Cork Harbour and City, with a view to informing public health impacts. The average ambient concentration of PM 10 between May 2007 and April 2008 was 4.6 µgm - 3 and the maximum concentration measured in one sample, representing a 4 day collection period, was 16 µgm - 3 . The major inorganic constituents identified in PM collected in Haulbowline Island in Cork Harbour were sulfate, ammonium, nitrate, chloride and sodium ions, which were mainly attributable to sea salt and secondary inorganic aerosols from regional sources. The results were analysed by principal component analysis for the purpose of source apportionment. Four factors were identified explaining over 80% of the data set variance. The factors were: shipping, sea salt, crustal material and secondary inorganic aerosols (SIA). The smaller size fraction was frequently observed to dominate, as the average concentration was 2.77 µgm - 3 for PM 2.5-0.1 compared to 1.9 µgm - 3 for PM 10-2.5. Fresh ship plumes were not found to make a significant contribution to primary PM 2.5-0.1 concentrations adjacent to the shipping channel. However, this was partially attributed to the ultrafine nature of ship emissions and the majority of the toxic metal content was attributed to emissions associated with heavy oil combustion sources, which include ship engines.

  17. Spatiotemporal estimation of historical PM2.5 concentrations using PM10, meteorological variables, and spatial effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianfa; Wu, Anna H.; Cheng, Iona; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Wu, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Monitoring of fine particulate matter with diameter health outcomes such as cancer. In this study, we aimed to design a flexible approach to reliably estimate historical PM2.5 concentrations by incorporating spatial effect and the measurements of existing co-pollutants such as particulate matter with diameter additive non-linear model. The spatiotemporal model was evaluated, using leaving-one-site-month-out cross validation. Our final daily model had an R2 of 0.81, with PM10, meteorological variables, and spatial autocorrelation, explaining 55%, 10%, and 10% of the variance in PM2.5 concentrations, respectively. The model had a cross-validation R2 of 0.83 for monthly PM2.5 concentrations (N = 8170) and 0.79 for daily PM2.5 concentrations (N = 51,421) with few extreme values in prediction. Further, the incorporation of spatial effects reduced bias in predictions. Our approach achieved a cross validation R2 of 0.61 for the daily model when PM10 was replaced by total suspended particulate. Our model can robustly estimate historical PM2.5 concentrations in California when PM2.5 measurements were not available.

  18. Long term PM2.5 estimation and its impact on human health in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Sheng; Pozzer, Andrea; Cao, Chunxiang

    2014-05-01

    Due to the economic growth and urbanization, the emissions of pollutants have increased significantly in the North China Plain (NCP). Beijing, the capital of China, is located at the northern tip of NCP, and it is considered one of the most densely populated cities with the poorest air quality. This is of major concerns, because of the impact of high pollutants concentration on human health. The present study analyses the characteristics of AOD and the particulate matter with diameter health in the central Beijing areas. We acquire AOD from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) in Beijing from 2001 to 2012. The AOD data are fitted with a lognormal distribution, and the 95% of the cumulative probability is used as the threshold for episodes of high AOD. Most episodes occur in summer, mostly in June, though this is combined with high precipitation. Episodes of high AOD caused by coarse pollutants occur only in March and April, and they are mostly caused by dust from the north. According to wind direction, wind speed, boundary layer height (BLH) and pollutant emission distribution, episodes of high AOD are due to the anthropogenic pollutants from the south (Hebei province). Based on ground PM2.5 observation from the US embassy in Beijing from 2010 to 2011, we establish a relationship between PM2.5and AERONET AOD, including BLH and relative humidity (RH) correction. Thanks to this method, 12 years of PM2.5 are estimated for the Beijing central area, allowing the estimation of long term concentrations of this pollutant. Since there is no obvious difference among the daily PM2.5 of six stations lying in Chaoyang, Dongcheng, and Xicheng district, we use the daily PM2.5 from US embassy station to represent the PM2.5 concentration in these three districts, and calculate yearly premature mortality due to long term exposure to PM2.5among the population with an age of ≥ 30 yr in these three districts.

  19. Pulmonary toxicity study in rats with PM 10 and PM 2.5: Differential responses related to scale and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Lei, Tian; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Zhang, Hua-Shan; Yang, Dan-Feng; Xi, Zhu-Ge; Chen, Jian-Hua; Wang, Wei

    2011-02-01

    ObjectionTo study the pollution of atmospheric particles at winter in Beijing and compare the lung toxicity which induced by particle samples from different sampling sites. MethodWe collected samples from two sampling points during the winter for toxicity testing and chemical analysis. Wistar rats were administered with particles by intratracheal instillation. After exposure, biochemically index, esimmunity indexes, histopathology and DNA damage were detected in rat pulmonary cells. ResultThe elements with enrichment factors (EF) larger than 10 were As, Cd, Cu, Zn, S and Pb in the four experiment groups. The priority control of the total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM 10 and PM 2.5 of Near-traffic source was much higher than that of Far-traffic source, it demonstrated that near the traffic source of PAHs pollution was heavier than that of Far-traffic source, as it was close to main roads Beiyuan Road, motor vehicle emissions were much higher. The pathology of lung showed that the degree of inflammation was increased with the particle diameter minished, it was the same as the detection of biochemical parameters such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Total antioxidant status(T-AOC) and total protein (TP) in BALF and inflammation cytokine(interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in lung homogenate. The indexes of DNA damage including the content of DNA and Olive empennage of PM 2.5 were significant higher than that of PM 10 at the same surveillance point ( P < 0.05), near-traffic particles were higher than the far-traffic particles at the same diameter, ( P < 0.05). ConclusionNear-traffic area particles had certain pollution at winter in Beijing. Meanwhile, atmospheric particulate matters on lung toxicity were related to the particles size and distance related sites which were exposed: smaller size, more toxicity; nearer from traffic, more toxicity.

  20. Indoor air quality modeling for PM 10, PM 2.5, and PM 1.0 in naturally ventilated classrooms of an urban Indian school building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Radha; Khare, Mukesh

    2011-05-01

    Assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms of school buildings is of prime concern due to its potential effects on student's health and performance as they spend a substantial amount of their time (6-7 h per day) in schools. A number of airborne contaminants may be present in urban school environment. However, respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) is of great significance as they may significantly affect occupants' health. The objectives of the present study are twofold, one, to measure the concentrations of PM(10) (building located near a heavy-traffic roadway (9,755 and 4,296 vehicles/hour during weekdays and weekends, respectively); and second, to develop single compartment mass balance-based IAQ models for PM(10) (NVIAQM(pm10)), PM(2.5) (NVIAQM(pm2.5)), and PM(1.0) (NVIAQM(pm1.0)) for predicting their indoor concentrations. Outdoor RSPM levels and classroom characteristics, such as size, occupancy level, temperature, relative humidity, and CO(2) concentrations have also been monitored during school hours. Predicted indoor PM(10) concentrations show poor correlations with observed indoor PM(10) concentrations (R (2) = 0.028 for weekdays, and 0.47 for weekends). However, a fair degree of agreement (d) has been found between observed and predicted concentrations, i.e., 0.42 for weekdays and 0.59 for weekends. Furthermore, NVIAQM(pm2.5) and NVIAQM(pm1.0) results show good correlations with observed concentrations of PM(2.5) (R(2) = 0.87 for weekdays and 0.9 for weekends) and PM(1.0) (R(2) = 0.86 for weekdays and 0.87 for weekends). NVIAQM(pm10) shows the tendency to underpredict indoor PM(10) concentrations during weekdays as it does not take into account the occupant's activities and its effects on the indoor concentrations during the class hours. Intense occupant's activities cause resuspension or delayed deposition of PM(10). The model results further suggests conductance of experimental and physical simulation studies on dispersion of

  1. Reduction of power consumption in motor-driven applications by using PM motors; PM = Permanent Magnet; Reduktion af elforbrug til motordrift ved anvendelse af PM motorer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvenegaard, C.M.; Hansen, Mads P.R.; Groenborg Nikolaisen, C. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Nielsen, Sandie B. (Teknologisk Institut, AArhus (Denmark)); Ritchie, E.; Leban, K. (Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark))

    2009-12-15

    The traditional asynchronous motor with aluminum rotor is today by far the most widespread and sold electric motor, but a new and more energy efficient type of engine - the permanent magnet motor (PM motor) - is expected in the coming years to win larger and larger market shares. Several engine manufacturers in Europe, USA and Asia are now beginning to market the PM motors, which can replace the traditional asynchronous motor. The project aims to uncover the pros and cons of replacing asynchronous motors including EFF1 engines with PM motors, including the price difference. Furthermore, it is identified how the efficiency of PM motors is affected by low load levels and at various forms of control. Finally, the energy savings potential is analysed, by replacing asynchronous motors with PM motors. The study includes laboratory tests of PM motors, made in a test stand at Danish Technological Institute. (ln)

  2. Non-exhaust PM emissions from electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Victor R. J. H.; Achten, Peter A. J.

    2016-06-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to adverse health effects by numerous studies. Therefore, governments have been heavily incentivising the market to switch to electric passenger cars in order to reduce air pollution. However, this literature review suggests that electric vehicles may not reduce levels of PM as much as expected, because of their relatively high weight. By analysing the existing literature on non-exhaust emissions of different vehicle categories, this review found that there is a positive relationship between weight and non-exhaust PM emission factors. In addition, electric vehicles (EVs) were found to be 24% heavier than equivalent internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). As a result, total PM10 emissions from EVs were found to be equal to those of modern ICEVs. PM2.5 emissions were only 1-3% lower for EVs compared to modern ICEVs. Therefore, it could be concluded that the increased popularity of electric vehicles will likely not have a great effect on PM levels. Non-exhaust emissions already account for over 90% of PM10 and 85% of PM2.5 emissions from traffic. These proportions will continue to increase as exhaust standards improve and average vehicle weight increases. Future policy should consequently focus on setting standards for non-exhaust emissions and encouraging weight reduction of all vehicles to significantly reduce PM emissions from traffic.

  3. Modelos lineares aplicados à estimativa da concentração do material particulado (PM10) na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ Linear models applied to the assessment of daily concentration of particulate matter (PM10) in Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Bastos Lyra; Melissa Oda-Souza; Denise Nunes Viola

    2011-01-01

    Regressão linear múltipla foi aplicada para ajustar dois modelos à concentração média de 24 h do material particulado com diâmetro inferior a 10 µm (PM10). As variáveis explanatórias no primeiro modelo (M1) foram os elementos meteorológicos (temperatura e umidade do ar, precipitação pluvial, velocidade do vento e pressão atmosférica) e o índice de direção do vento (IDV). No segundo (M2), além dos elementos meteorológicos e do IDV, foi incluído como variável explanatória, a concentração de PM1...

  4. Increases in wintertime PM2.5 sodium and chloride linked to snowfall and road salt application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesar, Katheryn R.; Mattson, Claire N.; Peterson, Peter K.; May, Nathaniel W.; Prendergast, Rashad K.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2018-03-01

    The application of salts and salty brines to roads is common practice during the winter in many urban environments. Road salts can become aerosolized, thereby injecting sodium and chloride particulate matter (PM) into the atmosphere. Here, data from the United States Environmental Protection Agency Chemical Speciation Monitoring Network were used to assess temporal trends of sodium and chloride PM2.5 (PM road salt aerosols. Sodium and chloride PM2.5 concentrations were an average of three times higher in the winter, as compared to the summer, for locations with greater than 25 cm of average annual snowfall. Winter urban chloride PM2.5 concentrations attributed to road salt can even sometimes rival those of coastal sea spray aerosol-influenced sites. In most snow-influenced cities, chloride and sodium PM2.5 concentrations were positively correlated with snowfall; however, this relationship is complicated by differences in state and local winter maintenance practices. This study highlights the ubiquity of road salt aerosols in the United States and their potential impact on wintertime urban air quality, particularly due to the potential for multiphase reactions to liberate chlorine from the particle-phase. Since road salt application is a common practice in wintertime urban environments across the world, it is imperative that road salt application emissions, currently not included in inventories, and its impacts be investigated through measurements and modeling.

  5. Estimating regional spatial and temporal variability of PM(2.5) concentrations using satellite data, meteorology, and land use information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Paciorek, Christopher J; Koutrakis, Petros

    2009-06-01

    Studies of chronic health effects due to exposures to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters meteorologic information to estimate ground-level PM(2.5) concentrations. We developed a two-stage generalized additive model (GAM) for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency PM(2.5) concentrations in a domain centered in Massachusetts. The AOD model represents conditions when AOD retrieval is successful; the non-AOD model represents conditions when AOD is missing in the domain. The AOD model has a higher predicting power judged by adjusted R(2) (0.79) than does the non-AOD model (0.48). The predicted PM(2.5) concentrations by the AOD model are, on average, 0.8-0.9 microg/m(3) higher than the non-AOD model predictions, with a more smooth spatial distribution, higher concentrations in rural areas, and the highest concentrations in areas other than major urban centers. Although AOD is a highly significant predictor of PM(2.5), meteorologic parameters are major contributors to the better performance of the AOD model. GOES aerosol/smoke product (GASP) AOD is able to summarize a set of weather and land use conditions that stratify PM(2.5) concentrations into two different spatial patterns. Even if land use regression models do not include AOD as a predictor variable, two separate models should be fitted to account for different PM(2.5) spatial patterns related to AOD availability.

  6. Health Outcomes of Exposure to Biological and Chemical Components of Inhalable and Respirable Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morakinyo, Oyewale Mayowa; Mokgobu, Matlou Ingrid; Mukhola, Murembiwa Stanley; Hunter, Raymond Paul

    2016-06-14

    Particulate matter (PM) is a key indicator of air pollution and a significant risk factor for adverse health outcomes in humans. PM is not a self-contained pollutant but a mixture of different compounds including chemical and biological fractions. While several reviews have focused on the chemical components of PM and associated health effects, there is a dearth of review studies that holistically examine the role of biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM in disease causation. A literature search using various search engines and (or) keywords was done. Articles selected for review were chosen following predefined criteria, to extract and analyze data. The results show that the biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM play a significant role in the burden of health effects attributed to PM. These health outcomes include low birth weight, emergency room visit, hospital admission, respiratory and pulmonary diseases, cardiovascular disease, cancer, non-communicable diseases, and premature death, among others. This review justifies the importance of each or synergistic effects of the biological and chemical constituents of PM on health. It also provides information that informs policy on the establishment of exposure limits for PM composition metrics rather than the existing exposure limits of the total mass of PM. This will allow for more effective management strategies for improving outdoor air quality.

  7. Health Outcomes of Exposure to Biological and Chemical Components of Inhalable and Respirable Particulate Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewale Mayowa Morakinyo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM is a key indicator of air pollution and a significant risk factor for adverse health outcomes in humans. PM is not a self-contained pollutant but a mixture of different compounds including chemical and biological fractions. While several reviews have focused on the chemical components of PM and associated health effects, there is a dearth of review studies that holistically examine the role of biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM in disease causation. A literature search using various search engines and (or keywords was done. Articles selected for review were chosen following predefined criteria, to extract and analyze data. The results show that the biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM play a significant role in the burden of health effects attributed to PM. These health outcomes include low birth weight, emergency room visit, hospital admission, respiratory and pulmonary diseases, cardiovascular disease, cancer, non-communicable diseases, and premature death, among others. This review justifies the importance of each or synergistic effects of the biological and chemical constituents of PM on health. It also provides information that informs policy on the establishment of exposure limits for PM composition metrics rather than the existing exposure limits of the total mass of PM. This will allow for more effective management strategies for improving outdoor air quality.

  8. Variation in global chemical composition of PM2.5: emerging results from SPARTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Graydon; Weagle, Crystal L.; Murdymootoo, Kalaivani K.; Ring, Amanda; Ritchie, Yvonne; Stone, Emily; Walsh, Ainsley; Akoshile, Clement; Anh, Nguyen Xuan; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; Brook, Jeff; Qonitan, Fatimah D.; Dong, Jinlu; Griffith, Derek; He, Kebin; Holben, Brent N.; Kahn, Ralph; Lagrosas, Nofel; Lestari, Puji; Ma, Zongwei; Misra, Amit; Norford, Leslie K.; Quel, Eduardo J.; Salam, Abdus; Schichtel, Bret; Segev, Lior; Tripathi, Sachchida; Wang, Chien; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Yuxuan; Brauer, Michael; Cohen, Aaron; Gibson, Mark D.; Liu, Yang; Vanderlei Martins, J.; Rudich, Yinon; Martin, Randall V.

    2016-08-01

    The Surface PARTiculate mAtter Network (SPARTAN) is a long-term project that includes characterization of chemical and physical attributes of aerosols from filter samples collected worldwide. This paper discusses the ongoing efforts of SPARTAN to define and quantify major ions and trace metals found in fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Our methods infer the spatial and temporal variability of PM2.5 in a cost-effective manner. Gravimetrically weighed filters represent multi-day averages of PM2.5, with a collocated nephelometer sampling air continuously. SPARTAN instruments are paired with AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sun photometers to better understand the relationship between ground-level PM2.5 and columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD).We have examined the chemical composition of PM2.5 at 12 globally dispersed, densely populated urban locations and a site at Mammoth Cave (US) National Park used as a background comparison. So far, each SPARTAN location has been active between the years 2013 and 2016 over periods of 2-26 months, with an average period of 12 months per site. These sites have collectively gathered over 10 years of quality aerosol data. The major PM2.5 constituents across all sites (relative contribution ± SD) are ammoniated sulfate (20 % ± 11 %), crustal material (13.4 % ± 9.9 %), equivalent black carbon (11.9 % ± 8.4 %), ammonium nitrate (4.7 % ± 3.0 %), sea salt (2.3 % ± 1.6 %), trace element oxides (1.0 % ± 1.1 %), water (7.2 % ± 3.3 %) at 35 % RH, and residual matter (40 % ± 24 %).Analysis of filter samples reveals that several PM2.5 chemical components varied by more than an order of magnitude between sites. Ammoniated sulfate ranges from 1.1 µg m-3 (Buenos Aires, Argentina) to 17 µg m-3 (Kanpur, India in the dry season). Ammonium nitrate ranged from 0.2 µg m-3 (Mammoth Cave, in summer) to 6.8 µg m-3 (Kanpur, dry season). Equivalent black carbon ranged from 0.7 µg m-3 (Mammoth Cave) to over 8 µg m-3 (Dhaka, Bangladesh and Kanpur

  9. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  10. Seasonal variability of PM2.5 composition and sources in the Klang Valley urban-industrial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amil, Norhaniza; Talib Latif, Mohd; Firoz Khan, Md; Mohamad, Maznorizan

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) variability in the Klang Valley urban-industrial environment. In total, 94 daily PM2.5 samples were collected during a 1-year campaign from August 2011 to July 2012. This is the first paper on PM2.5 mass, chemical composition and sources in the tropical environment of Southeast Asia, covering all four seasons (distinguished by the wind flow patterns) including haze events. The samples were analysed for various inorganic components and black carbon (BC). The chemical compositions were statistically analysed and the temporal aerosol pattern (seasonal) was characterised using descriptive analysis, correlation matrices, enrichment factor (EF), stoichiometric analysis and chemical mass closure (CMC). For source apportionment purposes, a combination of positive matrix factorisation (PMF) and multi-linear regression (MLR) was employed. Further, meteorological-gaseous parameters were incorporated into each analysis for improved assessment. In addition, secondary data of total suspended particulate (TSP) and coarse particulate matter (PM10) sampled at the same location and time with this study (collected by Malaysian Meteorological Department) were used for PM ratio assessment. The results showed that PM2.5 mass averaged at 28 ± 18 µg m-3, 2.8-fold higher than the World Health Organisation (WHO) annual guideline. On a daily basis, the PM2.5 mass ranged between 6 and 118 µg m-3 with the daily WHO guideline exceeded 43 % of the time. The north-east (NE) monsoon was the only season with less than 50 % sample exceedance of the daily WHO guideline. On an annual scale, PM2.5 mass correlated positively with temperature (T) and wind speed (WS) but negatively with relative humidity (RH). With the exception of NOx, the gases analysed (CO, NO2, NO and SO2) were found to significantly influence the PM2.5 mass. Seasonal variability unexpectedly showed that rainfall, WS and wind direction (WD) did not significantly correlate

  11. Basic statistics of PM2.5 and PM10 in the atmosphere of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, E; Reyes, E; Sánchez, G; Ortiz, E; Ruiz, M; Chow, J; Watson, J; Edgerton, S

    2002-03-27

    The high levels of fine particulate matter in Mexico City are of concern since they may induce severe public health effects as well as the attenuation of visible light. Sequential filter samplers were used at six different sites from 23 February to 22 March 1997. The sampling campaign was carried out as part of the project 'Investigación sobre Materia Particulada y Deterioro Atmosferico-Aerosol and Visibility Evaluation Research'. This research was a cooperative project sponsored by PEMEX and by the US Department of Energy. Sampling sites represent the different land uses along the city, the northwest station, Tlalnepantla, is located in a mixed medium income residential and industrial area. The northeast station, Xalostoc, is located in a highly industrialized area, Netzahualcoyotl is located in a mixed land use area, mainly commercial and residential. Station La Merced is located in the commercial and administrative district downtown. The southwest station is located in the Pedregal de San Angel, in a high-income neighborhood, and the southeast station located in Cerro de la Estrella is a mixed medium income residential and commercial area. Samples were collected four times a day in Cerro de la Estrella (CES), La Merced (MER) and Xalostoc (XAL) with sampling periods of 6 h. In Pedregal (PED), Tlalnepantla (TLA) and Netzahualcoyot1 (NEZ) sampling periods were every 24 h. In this paper the basic statistics of PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations are presented. The average results showed that 49, 61, 46, 57, 51 and 44% of the PM10 consisted of PM2.5 for CES, MER, XAL, PED, TLA and NEZ, respectively. The 24-h average highest concentrations of PM25 and PM10 were registered at NEZ (184 and 267 microg/m3) and the lowest at PED (22 and 39 microg/m3). The highest PM10 correlations were between XAL-CES (0.79), PED-TLA (0.80). In contrast, the highest PM2.5 correlations were between CES-PED (0.74), MER-CES (0.73) and TLA-PED (0.72), showing a lower correlation than the PM10

  12. Single-particle potential of the Λ hyperon in nuclear matter with chiral effective field theory NLO interactions including effects of Y N N three-baryon interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, M.

    2018-03-01

    Adopting hyperon-nucleon and hyperon-nucleon-nucleon interactions parametrized in chiral effective field theory, single-particle potentials of the Λ and Σ hyperons are evaluated in symmetric nuclear matter and in pure neutron matter within the framework of lowest-order Bruckner theory. The chiral NLO interaction bears strong Λ N -Σ N coupling. Although the Λ potential is repulsive if the coupling is switched off, the Λ N -Σ N correlation brings about the attraction consistent with empirical data. The Σ potential is repulsive, which is also consistent with empirical information. The interesting result is that the Λ potential becomes shallower beyond normal density. This provides the possibility of solving the hyperon puzzle without introducing ad hoc assumptions. The effects of the Λ N N -Λ N N and Λ N N -Σ N N three-baryon forces are considered. These three-baryon forces are first reduced to normal-ordered effective two-baryon interactions in nuclear matter and then incorporated in the G -matrix equation. The repulsion from the Λ N N -Λ N N interaction is of the order of 5 MeV at normal density and becomes larger with increasing density. The effects of the Λ N N -Σ N N coupling compensate the repulsion at normal density. The net effect of the three-baryon interactions on the Λ single-particle potential is repulsive at higher densities.

  13. The effect of composition, size, and solubility on acute pulmonary injury in rats following exposure to Mexico city ambient particulate matter samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Samantha J; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Thomas, Ronald F; Schladweiler, Mette C; McGee, John; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM)-associated metals can contribute to adverse cardiopulmonary effects following exposure to air pollution. The aim of this study was to investigate how variation in the composition and size of ambient PM collected from two distinct regions in Mexico City relates to toxicity differences. Male Wistar Kyoto rats (14 wk) were intratracheally instilled with chemically characterized PM10 and PM2.5 from the north and PM10 from the south of Mexico City (3 mg/kg). Both water-soluble and acid-leachable fractions contained several metals, with levels generally higher in PM10 South. The insoluble and total, but not soluble, fractions of all PM induced pulmonary damage that was indicated by significant increases in neutrophilic inflammation, and several lung injury biomarkers including total protein, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase activity, and γ-glutamyl transferase activity 24 and 72 h postexposure. PM10 North and PM2.5 North also significantly decreased levels of the antioxidant ascorbic acid. Elevation in lung mRNA biomarkers of inflammation (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α and macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-2), oxidative stress (heme oxygenase [HO]-1, lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor [LOX]-1, and inducibile nitric oxide synthase [iNOS]), and thrombosis (tissue factor [TF] and plasminogen activator inhibitor [PAI]-1), as well as reduced levels of fibrinolytic protein tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), further indicated pulmonary injury following PM exposure. These responses were more pronounced with PM10 South (PM10 South > PM10 North > PM2.5 North), which contained higher levels of redox-active transition metals that may have contributed to specific differences in selected lung gene markers. These findings provide evidence that surface chemistry of the PM core and not the water-soluble fraction played an important role in regulating in vivo pulmonary toxicity responses to Mexico City PM.

  14. The impact of long-range-transport on PM1 and PM2.5 at a Central Mediterranean site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, M. R.; Becagli, S.; Garcia Orza, J. A.; Vecchi, R.; Dinoi, A.; Udisti, R.; Cabello, M.

    2013-06-01

    Water soluble ions, methanesulfonate, organic and elemental carbon, and metals in PM2.5 and PM1 samples were analysed by Positive Matrix Factorization to identify and quantify major sources of fine particles at a Central Mediterranean site. The cluster analysis of four-day back trajectories was used to determine the dependence of PM2.5 and PM1 levels and composition on air-flows. The cluster analysis has identified six, six, and seven distinct air-flow types arriving at 500, 1500, and 3000 m above sea level (asl), respectively. Slow-west (Wslow) and north-eastern (NE) flows at 500 and 1500 m asl were the most frequent and were associated with the highest PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations. The PM concentrations from combustion sources including biomass burning were at their maximum under north-western (NW) flows. Similarly, the ammonium sulphate source was enhanced under Wslow and NE flows. South-eastern Mediterranean Sea air-flows were associated with the highest PM2.5 concentrations due to the heavy-oil-combustion source and the highest PM2.5 and PM1 concentrations due to the secondary marine source. PM2.5 concentrations due to the reacted dust and traffic source and PM1 concentrations due to the nitrate with reacted dust and mixed anthropogenic source showed no clear dependence on air-flows. This work highlights the different impact of aerosol sources on PM2.5 and PM1 fractions, being PM1 more adequate to control anthropogenic emissions from combustion sources.

  15. A hybrid approach to estimating national scale spatiotemporal variability of PM2.5 in the contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerman, Bernardo S; Jerrett, Michael; Serre, Marc; Martin, Randall V; Lee, Seung-Jae; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Ross, Zev; Su, Jason; Burnett, Richard T

    2013-07-02

    Airborne fine particulate matter exhibits spatiotemporal variability at multiple scales, which presents challenges to estimating exposures for health effects assessment. Here we created a model to predict ambient particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) across the contiguous United States to be applied to health effects modeling. We developed a hybrid approach combining a land use regression model (LUR) selected with a machine learning method, and Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) interpolation of the LUR space-time residuals. The PM2.5 data set included 104,172 monthly observations at 1464 monitoring locations with approximately 10% of locations reserved for cross-validation. LUR models were based on remote sensing estimates of PM2.5, land use and traffic indicators. Normalized cross-validated R(2) values for LUR were 0.63 and 0.11 with and without remote sensing, respectively, suggesting remote sensing is a strong predictor of ground-level concentrations. In the models including the BME interpolation of the residuals, cross-validated R(2) were 0.79 for both configurations; the model without remotely sensed data described more fine-scale variation than the model including remote sensing. Our results suggest that our modeling framework can predict ground-level concentrations of PM2.5 at multiple scales over the contiguous U.S.

  16. EVALUATION OF THE SMPS-APS SYSTEM AS A CONTINUOUS MONITOR FOR MEASURING PM2.5, PM10 AND COARSE (PM2.5-10) CONCENTRATIONS. (R827352C011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respirable particulate matter (PM) has been linked to mortality and morbidity by a variety of epidemiological studies. This research has led to the creation of a new PM standard for particles with diameters 2.5). Since the conclusion of these studie...

  17. Chemical characteristics and influence of continental outflow on PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 measured at Tuoji island in the Bohai Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junmei; Yang, Lingxiao; Mellouki, Abdelwahid; Wen, Liang; Yang, Yumeng; Gao, Ying; Jiang, Pan; Li, Yanyan; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-12-15

    To investigate the chemical characteristics and sources of size-segregated particles in the background region, PM 1.0 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 samples were collected in Tuoji Island (TI) during the winter of 2014. Water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) including Na + , NH 4 + , K + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cl - , NO 3 - and SO 4 2- , organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were analysed. The average mass concentrations of PM 1.0 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 were 44.5μg/m 3 , 62.0μg/m 3 and 94.4μg/m 3 , respectively, and particles were importantly enriched in PM 1.0 . Secondary WSIIs (NH 4 + , NO 3 - and SO 4 2- ) were the most abundant species, and their contribution was highest in PM 1.0 . The average values of NOR and SOR were more than 0.1 in PM 1.0 , suggesting that secondary formation of SO 4 2- and NO 3 - from the gas precursors SO 2 and NO 2 occurred in PM 1.0 . Secondary organic carbon accounted for 62.3% in PM 1.0 , 61.9% in PM 1.0-2.5 and 48.9% in PM 2.5-10 of OC, formed mainly in the fine mode. The particles concentrations were mainly affected by air mass from the North China Plain, especially the air mass from the southwest of Shandong province, which had low speed and altitude. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Physicochemical properties, in vitro cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of PM1.0 and PM2.5 from Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yajuan; Wu, Yizhao; Wang, Yali; Li, Yinsheng; Jin, Chengyu

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) links with a variety of respiratory diseases. However, compared with coarse particles (PM 10 ) and fine particles (PM 2.5 ), submicrometer particles (PM 1.0 ) may be a more important indicator of human health risks. In this study, the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of PM 1.0 samples from Shanghai were examined using A549 cells, and compared with the effects of PM 2.5 , to better understand the health effects of PM 1.0 in this area. The PM 1.0 and PM 2.5 samples were characterized for morphology, water-soluble inorganic ions, organic and elemental carbon, and metal elements. The cytotoxicity of PMs was measured using cell viability and cell membrane damage assays. The genotoxic effects of PMs were determined using the comet assay, and DNA damage was quantified using olive tail moment (OTM) values. The physicochemical characterization indicated that PM 1.0 was enriched in carbonaceous elements and hazardous metals (Al, Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, and V), whereas PM 2.5 was more abundant in large, irregular mineral particles. The biological results revealed that both PM 1.0 and PM 2.5 could induce significant cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in A549 cells, and that exposure to PM 1.0 caused more extensive toxic effects than exposure to PM 2.5 . The greater cytotoxic effects of PM 1.0 can be attributed to the combined effects of size and chemical composition, whereas the genotoxic effects of PM 1.0 may be mainly associated with chemical species.

  19. Scenario Study on PM emission Reduction in Cement Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qian; Chen, Xiaojun; Xia, Xin; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Huili; Jin, Ling; Yan, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    Cement industry is one of the high pollution industries in China. Evaluation of the primary particulate matter (PM) emission status and the reduction potential is not only important for our understanding of the effectiveness of current pollution control measures but also vital for future policy design. In this study, PM emitted from cement producing process in 2014 was calculated using an emission factor method. Three PM emission control scenarios were set up considering source control, process management and end-of-pipe treatment, and the PM emission reduction by 2020 under the three scenarios was predicted, respectively. In 2014, the primary PM emission from cement industry was 1.95 million tons. By 2020, the productions of cement and clinker were expected to increase by 12% and 7%, respectively, and the PM emission would increase by about 10%. By implementation of GB4915-2013 and comprehensive control of fugitive PM emission, the PM emission would probably be reduced by 34%. Another 7% decrease would be expected from source control. The second scenario can be considered as an assessment of the effectiveness of the revised emission standard, and this research can be used as a technical support to the environmental management authorities to make relevant policies.

  20. Characterization of the chemical composition of PM2.5 emitted from on-road China III and China IV diesel trucks in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bobo; Shen, Xianbao; Cao, Xinyue; Yao, Zhiliang; Wu, Yunong

    2016-05-01

    The composition of diesel exhaust fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is of growing interest because of its impacts on health and climatic factors and its application in source apportionment and aerosol modeling. We characterized the detailed chemical composition of the PM2.5, including the organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble ions (WSIs), and elemental contents, emitted from China III and China IV diesel trucks (nine each) based on real-world measurements in Beijing using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS). Carbonaceous compounds were the dominant components (totaling approximately 87%) of the PM2.5, similar to the results (greater than 80% of the PM2.5) of our previous study of on-road China III diesel trucks. In general, the amounts of individual component groups (carbonaceous compounds, WSIs, and elements) and PM2.5 emissions for China IV diesel trucks were lower than those of China III diesel trucks of the same size, except for the WSIs and elements for the light- and medium-duty diesel trucks. The EC/OC mass ratios were strongly dependent on the emission standards, and the ratios of China IV diesel trucks were higher than those of China III diesel trucks of the same size. The chemical species in the PM2.5 were significantly affected by the driving conditions. Overall, the emission factors (EFs) of the PM2.5 and OC under non-highway (NHW) driving conditions were higher than those under highway (HW) driving conditions, and the EC/OC mass ratios presented an increasing trend, with decreasing OC/PM2.5 and increasing EC/PM2.5 from NHW to HW driving conditions; similar trends were reported in our previous study. In addition, Pearson's correlation coefficients among the PM2.5 species were analyzed to determine the relationships among the various chemical components. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. New Leakage Current Particulate Matter Sensor for On-Board Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structure and principle of the new leakage current particulate matter (PM sensor are introduced and further study is performed on the PM sensor with the combination of numerical simulation and bench test. High voltage electrode, conductive shell, and heaters are all built-in. Based on the principle of Venturi tube and maze structure design, this sensor can detect transient PM concentrations. Internal flow field of the sensor and distribution condition of PM inside the sensor are analyzed through gas-solid two-phase flow numerical simulation. The experiment was also carried out on the whole sensor system (including mechanical and electronic circuit part and the output signals were analyzed. The results of simulation and experiment reveal the possibility of PM concentration (mass detection by the sensor.

  2. [Sample preparation methods for chromatographic analysis of organic components in atmospheric particulate matter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Liang; Wu, Dapeng; Guan, Yafeng

    2014-09-01

    The determination of organic composition in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is of great importance in understanding how PM affects human health, environment, climate, and ecosystem. Organic components are also the scientific basis for emission source tracking, PM regulation and risk management. Therefore, the molecular characterization of the organic fraction of PM has become one of the priority research issues in the field of environmental analysis. Due to the extreme complexity of PM samples, chromatographic methods have been the chief selection. The common procedure for the analysis of organic components in PM includes several steps: sample collection on the fiber filters, sample preparation (transform the sample into a form suitable for chromatographic analysis), analysis by chromatographic methods. Among these steps, the sample preparation methods will largely determine the throughput and the data quality. Solvent extraction methods followed by sample pretreatment (e. g. pre-separation, derivatization, pre-concentration) have long been used for PM sample analysis, and thermal desorption methods have also mainly focused on the non-polar organic component analysis in PM. In this paper, the sample preparation methods prior to chromatographic analysis of organic components in PM are reviewed comprehensively, and the corresponding merits and limitations of each method are also briefly discussed.

  3. Epigenetic Regulation in Particulate Matter-Mediated Cardiopulmonary Toxicities: A Systems Biology Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Garcia, Joe Gn; Zhang, Wei

    2012-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution exerts significant adverse health effects in global populations, particularly in developing countries with extensive air pollution. Understanding of the mechanisms of PM-induced health effects including the risk for cardiovascular diseases remains limited. In addition to the direct cellular physiological responses such as mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, PM mediates remarkable dysregulation of gene expression, especially in cardiovascular tissues. The PM-mediated gene dysregulation is likely to be a complex mechanism affected by various genetic and non-genetic factors. Notably, PM is known to alter epigenetic markers (e.g., DNA methylation and histone modifications), which may contribute to air pollution-mediated health consequences including the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Notably, epigenetic changes induced by ambient PM exposure have emerged to play a critical role in gene regulation. Though the underlying mechanism(s) are not completely clear, the available evidence suggests that the modulated activities of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), histone acetylase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) may contribute to the epigenetic changes induced by PM or PM-related chemicals. By employing genome-wide epigenomic and systems biology approaches, PM toxicogenomics could conceivably progress greatly with the potential identification of individual epigenetic loci associated with dysregulated gene expression after PM exposure, as well the interactions between epigenetic pathways and PM. Furthermore, novel therapeutic targets based on epigenetic markers could be identified through future epigenomic studies on PM-mediated cardiopulmonary toxicities. These considerations collectively inform the future population health applications of genomics in developing countries while benefiting global personalized medicine at the same time.

  4. Monitoring of PM10 and PM2.5 around primary particulate anthropogenic emission sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Rodriguez, Sergio; Plana, Felicià; Mantilla, Enrique; Ruiz, Carmen R.

    Investigations on the monitoring of ambient air levels of atmospheric particulates were developed around a large source of primary anthropogenic particulate emissions: the industrial ceramic area in the province of Castelló (Eastern Spain). Although these primary particulate emissions have a coarse grain-size distribution, the atmospheric transport dominated by the breeze circulation accounts for a grain-size segregation, which results in ambient air particles occurring mainly in the 2.5-10 μm range. The chemical composition of the ceramic particulate emissions is very similar to the crustal end-member but the use of high Al, Ti and Fe as tracer elements as well as a peculiar grain-size distribution in the insoluble major phases allow us to identify the ceramic input in the bulk particulate matter. PM2.5 instead of PM10 monitoring may avoid the interference of crustal particles without a major reduction in the secondary anthropogenic load, with the exception of nitrate. However, a methodology based in PM2.5 measurement alone is not adequate for monitoring the impact of primary particulate emissions (such as ceramic emissions) on air quality, since the major ambient air particles derived from these emissions are mainly in the range of 2.5-10 μm. Consequently, in areas characterised by major secondary particulate emissions, PM2.5 monitoring should detect anthropogenic particulate pollutants without crustal particulate interference, whereas PM10 measurements should be used in areas with major primary anthropogenic particulate emissions.

  5. Battery condenser system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additi...

  6. Particle reduction strategies - PAREST. Evaluation of emission reduction scenarios using chemical transport calculations. PM10- and PM2.5-reduction potentials by package of measures for further immission reduction in Germany. Sub-report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the effects of additional emission control measures the PM10 and PM2.5 air quality in Germany (PM = particulate matter). The immission effects of the planned measures were calculated with the Chemistry-Aerosol-Transport Model REM CALGRID (RCG). [de

  7. Mass concentration, composition and sources of fine and coarse particulate matter in Tijuana, Mexico, during Cal-Mex campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, María Cruz; Campos, Arturo Alberto; Cárdenas, Beatriz; Blanco, Salvador; Molina, Luisa T.; Querol, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    This work was carried out in the framework of the Cal-Mex project, which focuses on investigating the atmosphere along Mexico-California border region. Sampling was carried out at two sites located in Tijuana urban area: Parque Morelos and Metales y Derivados. PM2.5 and PM10 24 h samples were collected every three days from 17th May 2010 to 27th June 2010, and were used for gravimetric and chemical analyses (major and minor elements, inorganic ions, organic and elemental carbon) of PM. A subsequent Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis was performed. PM2.5 and PM10 average concentrations during Cal-Mex were relatively lower compared to usual annual averages. Trace elements concentrations recorded in the present study were lower than those recorded in Mexico City in 2006, with the exception of Pb at Metales y Derivados, attributed to the influence of a specific industrial source, which also includes As, Cd and Tl. Apart from this industrial source, both urban sites were found to be affected by similar sources with respect to bulk PM. Fine PM (PM2.5) was mainly apportioned by fueloil and biomass combustion and secondary aerosols, and road traffic. Coarse PM (PM2.5-10) was mainly apportioned by a mineral source (sum of road dust resuspension, construction emissions and natural soil) and fresh and aged sea salt. The road traffic was responsible for more than 60% of the fine elemental carbon and almost 40% of the fine organic matter.

  8. Spatiotemporal Changes in Fine Particulate Matter Pollution and the Associated Mortality Burden in China between 2015 and 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luwei Feng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, research on the spatiotemporal distribution and health effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 has been conducted in China. However, the limitations of different research scopes and methods have led to low comparability between regions regarding the mortality burden of PM2.5. A kriging model was used to simulate the distribution of PM2.5 in 2015 and 2016. Relative risk (RR at a specified PM2.5 exposure concentration was estimated with an integrated exposure–response (IER model for different causes of mortality: lung cancer (LC, ischaemic heart disease (IHD, cerebrovascular disease (stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The population attributable fraction (PAF was adopted to estimate deaths attributed to PM2.5. 72.02% of cities experienced decreases in PM2.5 from 2015 to 2016. Due to the overall decrease in the PM2.5 concentration, the total number of deaths decreased by approximately 10,658 per million in 336 cities, including a decrease of 1400, 1836, 6312 and 1110 caused by LC, IHD, stroke and COPD, respectively. Our results suggest that the overall PM2.5 concentration and PM2.5-related deaths exhibited decreasing trends in China, although air quality in local areas has deteriorated. To improve air pollution control strategies, regional PM2.5 concentrations and trends should be fully considered.

  9. An observational study of PM10 and hospital admissions for acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disease in Tasmania, Australia 1992-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mészáros, D; Markos, J; FitzGerald, D G; Walters, E H; Wood-Baker, R

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter with a diameter below 10 µ (PM10) has been a major concern in the Tamar Valley, Launceston, where wood heaters are extensively used. We examined the relationship between PM10 levels, meteorological variables, respiratory medications and hospital admissions for respiratory disease over the decade 1992-2002. PM10 levels were provided by the Department of Primary Industry Water, Parks and Environment, and meteorological variables from the Bureau of Meteorology. We obtained hospital discharge codes for the Launceston General Hospital. Poisson regression was used for statistical analyses. Mean daily PM10 levels declined from 50.7 to 16.5 μg/m(3). Hospitalisations for asthma decreased from 29 to 21 per month, whereas chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) increased and bronchitis/bronchiolitis remained unchanged. We found a 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM10 to be associated with a 4% increase in admissions for acute bronchitis/bronchiolitis (p0.05), but no association with asthma or COPD was found. All respiratory diseases showed seasonal patterns of hospitalisation. This is the first long-term study in Australia to demonstrate an association between PM10 levels and respiratory diseases. Reducing exposure to PM10 may decrease hospital admissions for respiratory diseases. Better preventive measures, including sustained public health initiatives to combat air pollution, are required to reduce respiratory morbidity.

  10. Investigation of air pollution of Shanghai subway stations in ventilation seasons in terms of PM2.5 and PM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Erbao; Shen, Henggen; He, Lei; Zhang, Jiawen

    2017-07-01

    In November 2015, the PM 2.5 and PM 10 particulate matter (PM) levels in platforms, station halls, and rail areas of the Shangcheng and Jiashan Road Station were monitored to investigate air pollution in the Shanghai subway system. The results revealed that in subway stations, PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations were significantly higher than those in outdoor environments. In addition, particle concentrations in the platforms exceeded maximum levels that domestic safety standards allowed. Particularly on clear days, PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations in platforms were significantly higher than maximum standards levels. Owing to the piston effect, consistent time-varying trends were exhibited by PM 2.5 concentrations in platforms, station halls, and rail areas. Platform particle concentrations were higher than the amount in station halls, and they were higher on clear days than on rainy days. The time-varying trends of PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations in platforms and station halls were similar to each other. Activities within the station led to most of the inhalable particles within the station area. The mass concentration ratios of PM 2.5 and PM 10 in platforms were within 0.65-0.93, and fine particles were the dominant components.

  11. Application of particle size distributions to total particulate stack samples to estimate PM2.5 and PM10 emission factors for agricultural sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particle size distributions (PSD) have long been used to more accurately estimate the PM10 fraction of total particulate matter (PM) stack samples taken from agricultural sources. These PSD analyses were typically conducted using a Coulter Counter with 50 micrometer aperture tube. With recent increa...

  12. Take PM2.5 into account in 2015 or sooner?; Rekening houden met PM2,5 in 2015 of eerder?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Sluis, C. [Ploum Lodder Princen advocaten en notarissen, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    This section pays attention to the European guideline for air quality that was introduced in 2008 to cover particulate matter (PM2.5) [Dutch] In deze rubriek wordt aandacht besteed aan de Europese richtlijn voor luchtkwaliteit die in 2008 is geintroduceerd voor fijn stof (PM2,5)

  13. Monitoring and source apportionment of trace elements in PM2.5: Implications for local air quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueyan; Chang, Miao; Ding, Shanshan; Wang, Shiwen; Ni, Dun; Hu, Hongtao

    2017-07-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) samples were collected simultaneously every hour in Beijing between April 2014 and April 2015 at five sites. Thirteen trace elements (TEs) in PM 2.5 were analyzed by online X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The annual average PM 2.5 concentrations ranged from 76.8 to 102.7 μg m -3 . TEs accounted for 5.9%-8.7% of the total PM 2.5 mass with Cl, S, K, and Si as the most dominant elements. Spearman correlation coefficients of PM 2.5 or TE concentrations between the background site and other sites showed that PM 2.5 and some element loadings were affected by regional and local sources, whereas Cr, Si, and Ni were attributed to substantial local emissions. Temporal variations of TEs in PM 2.5 were significant and provided information on source profiles. The PM 2.5 concentrations were highest in autumn and lowest in summer. Mn and Cr showed similar variation. Fe, Ca, Si, and Ti tended to show higher concentrations in spring, whereas concentrations of S peaked in summer. Concentrations of Cl, K, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni peaked in winter. PM 2.5 and TE median concentrations were higher on Saturdays than on weekdays. The diurnal pattern of PM 2.5 and TE median concentrations yielded similar bimodal patterns. Five dominant sources of PM 2.5 mass were identified via positive matrix factorization (PMF). These sources included the regional and local secondary aerosols, traffic, coal burning, soil dust, and metal processing. Air quality management strategies, including regional environmental coordination and collaboration, reduction in secondary aerosol precursors, restrictive vehicle emission standards, promotion of public transport, and adoption of clean energy, should be strictly implemented. High time-resolution measurements of TEs provided detailed source profiles, which can greatly improve precision in interpreting source apportionment calculations; the PMF analysis of online XRF data is a powerful tool for local air quality management. Copyright

  14. LHCb: Evidence of CP violation in charmless three-body decays $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^\\pm K^+K^-$, $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^+ K^-\\pi^\\pm$ and $B^\\pm\\rightarrow \\pi^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$

    CERN Multimedia

    Lopes, J H

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of CP violation in charmless three-body decays $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^\\pm K^+K^-$, $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^+ K^-\\pi^\\pm$ and $B^\\pm\\rightarrow \\pi^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$

  15. Enhancement in secondary particulate matter production due to mountain trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Teng; Fung, J. C. H.; Ma, H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Chan, P. W.; Yu, J. Z.; Xue, J.

    2014-10-01

    As China's largest economic development zone, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is subject to particulate matter (PM) and visibility deterioration problems. Due to high PM concentration, haze days impacting ambient visibility have occurred frequently in this region. Besides visibility impairment, PM pollution also causes a negative impact on public health. These negative impacts have heightened the need to improve our understanding of the PM pollution of the PRD region. One major cause of the PRD pollution problem is cold front passages in the winter; however, the mechanism of pollution formation stays unclear. In this study, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) is utilized to investigate the detailed PM production and transport mechanisms in the PRD. Simulated concentrations of PM2.5 species, which have a good correlation with observation, show that sulfate and nitrate are the dominant pollutants among different PM2.5 species. Before the cold front passage a large amount of gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants are transported to the mountainous regions in the north of the PRD, and become trapped by the terrain. Over the mountain regions, cloud driven by upwelling flow promotes aqueous-phase reactions including oxidations of PM precursors such as SO2 and NO2. By this process, production of secondary PM is enhanced. When the cold front continues to advance further south, PM is transported to the PRD cities, and suppressed into a thin layer near the ground by a low planetary boundary layer (PBL). Thus high PM concentration episodes take place in the PRD cities. After examining production and transportation pathways, this study presents that the complex terrain configuration would block pollutant dispersion, provide cloudy environment, and advance secondary PM production. Previous studies have pointed out that pollution emitted from outside this region largely influences the air quality in the PRD; however, this study shows that pollutants from the outside could be

  16. Short term variations in particulate matter in Mahi river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    The particulate matter (PM) collected from Mahi River Estuary was analysed for organic carbon (POC), nitrogen (PON), and chlorophyll a (Chl a). The concentration of PM, POC, PON and Chl a showed short term variations. Average surface concentration...

  17. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2013 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  18. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2004 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  19. The effect of size-segregated ambient particulate matter on Th1/Th2-like immune responses in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Liang Huang

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM has been associated with increased pulmonary and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Additionally, PM is known to exacerbate asthma. However, whether ambient PM exposure contributes to the onset of asthma, especially in non-atopic children and adults, is less conclusive. The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of size-fractioned PM on lung immune responses in healthy BALB/c mice.We collected PM10, PM2.5, PM1 and PM0.1 samples from October 2012 to August 2013 in the Taipei Basin. These PM samples were representative of urban traffic pollution. The samples were extracted and sonicated in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. Female BALB/c mice were exposed to the samples via intratracheal instillation at three different doses: 1.75 mg/kg (35 μg/per mouse, 5 mg/kg (100 μg/per mouse, and 12.5 mg/kg (250 μg/per mouse. The mice were exposed on days 0 and 7, and PBS alone was used as a control. Following the exposures, the expression profiles of inflammatory cells and cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were assessed. Exposure to PM10 resulted in inflammatory responses, including the recruitment of neutrophils and the induction of T helper 1 (Th1 cell-related cytokine release, such as TNF-α and IFN-γ. Furthermore, an allergic immune response, including the recruitment of eosinophils and the up-regulation of T helper 2 (Th2 cell-related cytokine release, such as IL-5 and IL-13, was also observed in the BALF of mice exposed to PM10.Our study showed that exposure to PM alone caused mixed Th1/Th2 inflammatory responses in healthy mice. These findings support the hypothesis that PM may contribute to the onset of asthma.

  20. An Automated Heart Rate Detection Platform in Wild-Type Zebrafish for Cardiotoxicity Screening of Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to air pollution-derived particulate matter (PM) causes adverse cardiovascular health outcomes, with increasing evidence implicating soluble components of PM; however, the enormous number of unique PM samples from different air sheds far exceeds the capacity of conventio...

  1. Quantifying the decadal changes of PM2.5 over New York through a combination of satellite, model and in-situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X.; Fiore, A. M.; Curci, G.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Civerolo, K.; Ku, M.; van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R.

    2017-12-01

    Ambient exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is one of the top global health concerns. Efforts have been made to regulate PM2.5 precursor emissions across the U.S.A, which are expected to mitigate the air pollution related health impacts. However, quantifying the health outcomes from emission controls requires robust estimates of PM2.5 exposures that accurately describe the spatial and temporal variability of PM2.5. Satellite remote sensing offers the potential to fill the gaps of the sparse, limited sampling of in situ measurement networks and is increasingly being used in health assessments. We provide new estimates of PM2.5 over New York State with 1 km spatial resolution that use Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) AOD and a regional air quality model (CMAQ) to estimate the AOD-PM2.5 scaling factors. Next, we evaluate three major sources of uncertainties of satellite-derived PM2.5 data and their impacts on the derived decadal changes: 1) satellite retrieval of AOD, 2) optical properties of the particles, 3) relationships between the aerosol burden in the planetary boundary layer and full atmospheric column. Finally, we analyze the decadal changes of PM2.5 over New York State using the newly developed PM2.5 data, alongside four other PM2.5 estimates including satellite-derived PM2.5 developed by van Donkelaar et al. (2015), statistical land use regression developed by Beckerman et al. (2013), CMAQ simulations, and a Bayesian fusion of CMAQ and ground-based measurements. By evaluating the decadal changes of PM2.5 from multiple datasets over areas with dense (e.g. New York City area) and sparse ground-based measurements (e.g. upstate New York), we evaluate the extent to which satellite remote sensing could help better quantify the health outcomes of emission controls. References: Beckerman et al., (2013), A Hybrid Approach to Estimating National Scale Spatiotemporal Variability of PM2.5 in the Contiguous United States, Environ. Sci

  2. Comparative study of the effects of PM1-induced oxidative stress on autophagy and surfactant protein B and C expressions in lung alveolar type II epithelial MLE-12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ru; Guan, Longfei; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jinxia; Rui, Wei; Zhang, Fang; Ding, Wenjun

    2016-12-01

    There is a strong link between smaller air pollution particles and a range of serious health conditions. Thus, there is a need for understanding the impacts of airborne fine particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of PM1) on lung alveolar epithelial cells. In the present study, mouse lung epithelial type II cell MLE-12 cells were used to examine the intracellular oxidative responses and the surfactant protein expressions after exposure to various concentrations of PM1 collected from an urban site and a steel-factory site (referred as uPM1 and sPM1 hereafter, respectively). Physicochemical characterization of PM1 was performed by using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Cytotoxicity and autophagy induced by PM1 were assessed by using comprehensive approaches after MLE-12 cells were exposed to different concentrations of PM1 for various times. Expression of surfactant proteins B and C in MLE-12 cells was determined by Western blotting. All of the tested PM1 induced cytotoxicity evidenced by significant decrease of cell viability and increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release in a time- and concentration-dependent manner in the exposed cells compared with the unexposed cells. A similar pattern of increase of intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities was also observed. PM1-induced autophagy was evidenced by an increase in microtubule-associated protein light chain-3 (LC3) puncta, accumulation of LC3II, and increased levels of beclin1. Data from Western blotting showed significant decrease of surfactant protein B and C expressions. Relatively high concentrations of transition metals, including Fe, Cu and Mn, may be responsible for the higher toxicity of sPM1 compared with uPM1. Moreover, pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or Chelex (a metal chelating agent, which removes a large suite of metals from PM1) prevented the increase of

  3. Research on chromium and arsenic speciation in atmospheric particulate matter: short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocoń, Katarzyna; Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Widziewicz, Kamila

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) plays an important role in the distribution of elements in the environment. The PM-bound elements penetrates into the other elements of the environment, in two basic forms - those dissolved in the atmospheric precipitation and those permanently bound to PM particles. Those forms differs greatly in their mobility, thus posing a potential threat to living organisms. They can also be an immediate threat, while being inhaled. Chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) belong to the group of elements whose certain chemical states exhibit toxic properties, that is Cr(VI) and As(III). Thus, recognition of the actual threat posed by Cr and As in the environment, including those present in PM, is possible only through the in depth speciation analysis. Research on the Cr and As speciation in PM, more than the analogous studies of their presence in other compartments of the environment, have been undertaken quite rarely. Hence the knowledge on the speciation of PM-bound As and Cr is still limited. The state of knowledge in the field of PM-bound Cr and As is presented in the paper. The issues related to the characterization and occurrence of Cr and As species in PM, the share of Cr and As species mass in different PM size fractions, and in PM of different origin is also summarized. The analytical techniques used in the speciation analysis of PM-bound Cr and As are also discussed. In the existing literature there is no data on the physical characteristics of Cr and As (bound to a different PM size fractions), and thus it still lack of data needed for a comprehensive assessment of the actual environmental and health threat posed by airborne Cr and As.

  4. Control of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions from restaurant operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whynot, J; Quinn, G; Perryman, P; Votlucka, P

    1999-09-01

    This paper describes efforts to reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions from restaurant operations, including application of an existing control method to a new equipment type. Commercial charbroiling in the South Coast Air Basin results in emissions of approximately 10 tons/day of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and 1.3 tons/day of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Over a seven-year period, the South Coast Air Quality Management District worked with industry to develop test methods for measuring emissions from various cooking operations, evaluate control technologies, and develop a rule to reduce these emissions. Of the two basic types of charbroilers--chain-driven and underfired--underfired produce four times the emissions when equivalent amounts of product are cooked. Cost-effective control technology is currently available only for chain-driven charbroilers. The application of flameless catalytic oxidizers to chain-driven charbroilers was found to effectively reduce emissions by at least 83% and is cost-effective. The catalysts have been used worldwide at restaurants for several years. Research efforts are underway to identify control options for underfired charbroilers. Implementation of Rule 1138, Control of Emissions from Restaurant Operations, adopted November 14, 1997, will result in reductions of 0.5 tons/day of PM2.5 and 0.2 tons/day of VOCs. Future rules will result in reductions from underfired charbroilers and possibly other restaurant equipment when cost-effective solutions are available.

  5. Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter: Association with Nonaccidental and Cardiovascular Mortality in the Agricultural Health Study Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Weichenthal, Scott; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Burnett, Richard T.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Jones, Rena R.; DellaValle, Curt T.; Sandler, Dale P.; Ward, Mary H.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nonaccidental mortality in rural populations. Objective: We examined the relationship between PM2.5 and nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality in the U.S. Agricultural Health Study cohort. Methods: The cohort (n = 83,378) included farmers, their spouses, and commercial pesticide applicators residing primarily in Iowa and North Carolina. Deaths occurring between ...

  6. Precise measurement of the $K^{\\pm} \\to \\pi^{\\pm}e^{+}e^{−}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J.R.; Kalmus, G.; Lazzeroni, C.; Munday, D.J.; Slater, M.W.; Wotton, S.A.; Arcidiacono, R.; Bocquet, G.; Cabibbo, N.; Ceccucci, A.; Cundy, D.; Falaleev, V.; Fidecaro, M.; Gatignon, L.; Gonidec, A.; Kubischta, W.; Norton, A.; Maier, A.; Patel, M.; Peters, A.; Balev, S.; Frabetti, P.L.; Goudzovski, E.; Hristov, P.; Kekelidze, V.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Madigozhin, D.; Marinova, E.; Molokanova, N.; Polenkevich, I.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Stoynev, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Monnier, E.; Swallow, E.; Winston, R.; Rubin, P.; Walker, A.; Baldini, W.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Damiani, C.; Fiorini, M.; Gianoli, A.; Martini, M.; Petrucci, F.; Savrie, M.; Scarpa, M.; Wahl, H.; Bizzeti, A.; Calvetti, M.; Celeghini, E.; Iacopini, E.; Lenti, M.; Martelli, F.; Ruggiero, G.; Veltri, M.; Behler, M.; Eppard, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Marouelli, P.; Masetti, L.; Moosbrugger, U.; Morales Morales, C.; Renk, B.; Wache, M.; Wanke, R.; Winhart, A.; Coward, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Shieh, M.; Szleper, M.; Velasco, M.; Wood, M.D.; Anzivino, G.; Cenci, P.; Imbergamo, E.; Nappi, A.; Pepe, M.; Petrucci, M.C.; Piccini, M.; Raggi, M.; Valdata-Nappi, M.; Cerri, C.; Fantechi, R.; Collazuol, G.; DiLella, L.; Lamanna, G.; Mannelli, I.; Michetti, A.; Costantini, F.; Doble, N.; Fiorini, L.; Giudici, S.; Pierazzini, G.; Sozzi, M.; Venditti, S.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheze, J.B.; De Beer, M.; Derre, J.; Marel, G.; Mazzucato, E.; Peyaud, B.; Vallage, B.; Holder, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Bifani, S.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Clemencic, M.; Goy Lopez, S.; Marchetto, F.; Dibon, H.; Jeitler, M.; Markytan, M.; Mikulec, I.; Neuhofer, G.; Widhalm, L.

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 7253 $K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm e^+e^-(\\gamma)$ decay candidates with 1.0% background contamination has been collected by the NA48/2 experiment at the CERN SPS, allowing a precise measurement of the decay properties. The branching ratio in the full kinematic range was measured to be ${\\rm BR}=(3.11\\pm0.12)\\times 10^{-7}$, where the uncertainty includes also the model dependence. The shape of the form factor $W(z)$, where $z=(M_{ee}/M_K)^2$, was parameterized according to several models, and, in particular, the slope $\\delta$ of the linear form factor $W(z)=W_0(1+\\delta z)$ was determined to be $\\delta=2.32\\pm0.18$. A possible CP violating asymmetry of $K^+$ and $K^-$ decay widths was investigated, and a conservative upper limit of $2.1\\times 10^{-2}$ at 90% CL was established.

  7. SPECIEUROPE: The European data base for PM source profiles

    OpenAIRE

    PERNIGOTTI DENISE; BELIS CLAUDIO; SPANO' LUCA

    2015-01-01

    A database of atmospheric particulate matter emission source profiles in Europe (SPECIEUROPE) was developed by the Joint Research Center in the framework of the Forum for air quality modeling in Europe (FAIRMODE, Working Group 3). It contains the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emission sources reported in the scientific literature and reports drafted by competent authorities. The first release of SPECIEUROPE consists of 151 measured profiles (original), 13 composite (merging ...

  8. High exhaust temperature, zoned, electrically-heated particulate matter filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Paratore, Jr., Michael J.; Bhatia, Garima

    2015-09-22

    A system includes a particulate matter (PM) filter, an electric heater, and a control circuit. The electric heater includes multiple zones, which each correspond to longitudinal zones along a length of the PM filter. A first zone includes multiple discontinuous sub-zones. The control circuit determines whether regeneration is needed based on an estimated level of loading of the PM filter and an exhaust flow rate. In response to a determination that regeneration is needed, the control circuit: controls an operating parameter of an engine to increase an exhaust temperature to a first temperature during a first period; after the first period, activates the first zone; deactivates the first zone in response to a minimum filter face temperature being reached; subsequent to deactivating the first zone, activates a second zone; and deactivates the second zone in response to the minimum filter face temperature being reached.

  9. Toxicity of Urban PM10 and Relation with Tracers of Biomass Burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosette Van Den Heuvel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of particles varies with space and time and depends on emission sources, atmospheric chemistry and weather conditions. Evidence suggesting that particles differ in toxicity depending on their chemical composition is growing. This in vitro study investigated the biological effects of PM10 in relation to PM-associated chemicals. PM10 was sampled in ambient air at an urban traffic site (Borgerhout and a rural background location (Houtem in Flanders (Belgium. To characterize the toxic potential of PM10, airway epithelial cells (Beas-2B cells were exposed to particles in vitro. Different endpoints were studied including cell damage and death (cell viability and the induction of interleukin-8 (IL-8. The mutagenic capacity was assessed using the Ames II Mutagenicity Test. The endotoxin levels in the collected samples were analyzed and the oxidative potential (OP of PM10 particles was evaluated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy. Chemical characteristics of PM10 included tracers for biomass burning (levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan, elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs. Most samples displayed dose-dependent cytotoxicity and IL-8 induction. Spatial and temporal differences in PM10 toxicity were seen. PM10 collected at the urban site was characterized by increased pro-inflammatory and mutagenic activity as well as higher OP and elevated endotoxin levels compared to the background area. Reduced cell viability (−0.46 < rs < −0.35, p < 0.01 and IL-8 induction (−0.62 < rs < −0.67, p < 0.01 were associated with all markers for biomass burning, levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan. Furthermore, direct and indirect mutagenicity were associated with tracers for biomass burning, OC, EC and PAHs. Multiple regression analyses showed levoglucosan to explain 16% and 28% of the variance in direct and indirect mutagenicity, respectively. Markers for biomass burning were

  10. Exposure to urban PM1 in rats: development of bronchial inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filep, Ágnes; Fodor, Gergely H; Kun-Szabó, Fruzsina; Tiszlavicz, László; Rázga, Zsolt; Bozsó, Gábor; Bozóki, Zoltán; Szabó, Gábor; Peták, Ferenc

    2016-03-10

    Several epidemiological and laboratory studies have evidenced the fact that atmospheric particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of respiratory morbidity. It is well known that the smallest fraction of PM (PM1 - particulate matter having a diameter below 1 μm) penetrates the deepest into the airways. The ratio of the different size fractions in PM is highly variable, but in industrial areas PM1 can be significant. Despite these facts, the health effects of PM1 have been poorly investigated and air quality standards are based on PM10 and PM2.5 (PM having diameters below 10 μm and 2.5 μm, respectively) concentrations. Therefore, this study aimed at determining whether exposure to ambient PM1 at a near alert threshold level for PM10 has respiratory consequences in rats. Rats were either exposed for 6 weeks to 100 μg/m(3) (alert threshold level for PM10 in Hungary) urban submicron aerosol, or were kept in room air. End-expiratory lung volume, airway resistance (Raw) and respiratory tissue mechanics were measured. Respiratory mechanics were measured under baseline conditions and following intravenous methacholine challenges to characterize the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AH). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed and lung histology was performed. No significant differences were detected in lung volume and mechanical parameters at baseline. However, the exposed rats exhibited significantly greater MCh-induced responses in Raw, demonstrating the progression of AH. The associated bronchial inflammation was evidenced by the accumulation of inflammatory cells in BALF and by lung histology. Our findings suggest that exposure to concentrated ambient PM1 (mass concentration at the threshold level for PM10) leads to the development of mild respiratory symptoms in healthy adult rats, which may suggest a need for the reconsideration of threshold limits for airborne PM1.

  11. Correction of SiPM temperature dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, A.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a high granular analogue hadronic calorimeter (AHCAL) using scintillator tiles with built-in Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) readout is reported. A muon beam is used for the minimum ionizing particle (MIP) based calibration of the single cells. The calibration chain including corrections for the non-linearity of the SiPM is presented. The voltage and temperature dependencies of the SiPM signal have been investigated using the versatile LED system of the AHCAL. Monitoring and correction methods are discussed. Measurements from the operation 2006 and 2007 at the CERN SPS test beam and data provided by the Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP) in Moscow are compared.

  12. Trends in arsenic levels in PM10 and PM 2.5 aerosol fractions in an industrialized area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aleix, J R; Delgado-Saborit, J M; Verdú-Martín, G; Amigó-Descarrega, J M; Esteve-Cano, V

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic element that affects human health and is widely distributed in the environment. In the area of study, the main Spanish and second largest European industrial ceramic cluster, the main source of arsenic aerosol is related to the impurities in some boracic minerals used in the ceramic process. Epidemiological studies on cancer occurrence in Spain points out the study region as one with the greater risk of cancer. Concentrations of particulate matter and arsenic content in PM10 and PM2.5 were measured and characterized by ICP-MS in the area of study during the years 2005-2010. Concentrations of PM10 and its arsenic content range from 27 to 46 μg/m(3) and from 0.7 to 6 ng/m(3) in the industrial area, respectively, and from 25 to 40 μg/m(3) and from 0.7 to 2.8 ng/m(3) in the urban area, respectively. Concentrations of PM2.5 and its arsenic content range from 12 to 14 μg/m(3) and from 0.5 to 1.4 ng/m(3) in the urban background area, respectively. Most of the arsenic content is present in the fine fraction, with ratios of PM2.5/PM10 in the range of 0.65-0.87. PM10, PM2.5, and its arsenic content show a sharp decrease in recent years associated with the economic downturn, which severely hit the production of ceramic materials in the area under study. The sharp production decrease due to the economic crisis combined with several technological improvements in recent years such as substitution of boron, which contains As impurities as raw material, have reduced the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and As in air to an extent that currently meets the existing European regulations.

  13. Drivers of soil organic matter vulnerability to climate change, Part II: RothC modelling of carbon dynamics including radiocarbon data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Mirjam S.; Abiven, Samuel; González Domínguez, Beatriz R.; Hagedorn, Frank; Reisser, Moritz; Walthert, Lorenz; Zimmermann, Stephan; Niklaus, Pascal A.

    2016-04-01

    It is still largely unknown what drives the vulnerability of soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to climate change, i.e. the likelihood of a soil to loose its SOC along with the change in environmental conditions. Our objective is to assess the SOC vulnerability of Swiss forest soils and identify its potential drivers: climate (temperature, soil moisture), soil (clay content, pH) and landscape (slope, aspect) properties. Fifty-four sites were selected for balanced spatial and driver magnitudes distribution. We measured the SOC characteristics (content and radiocarbon) and studied the C decomposition by laboratory soil incubations (details in Part I, abstract by B. González Domínguez). In order to assess the current SOC pool distribution and its radiocarbon signatures, we extended the Rothamsted Carbon (RothC) model with radiocarbon (14C) isotope modelling (RothCiso). The RothC model distinguishes four active SOC pools, decomposable and resistant plant material, microbial biomass and humified organic matter, and an inert SOC pool (Jenkinson 1990). The active pools are decomposed and mineralized to CO2 by first order kinetics. The RothCiso assigns all pools a 14C signature, based on the atmospheric 14C concentrations of the past century (plant C inputs) and their turnover. Currently we constrain the model with 14C signatures measured on the 54 fresh and their corresponding archived bulk soil samples, taken 12-24 years before. We were able to reproduce the measured radiocarbon concentrations of the SOC with the RothCiso and first results indicate, that the assumption of an inert SOC pool, that is radiocarbon dead, is not appropriate. In a second step we will compare the SOC mean residence time assessed by the two methodological approaches - incubation (C efflux based) and modelling (C stock based) - and relate it to the environmental drivers mentioned above. With the combination of the two methodological approaches and 14C analysis we hope to gain more insights into

  14. PM2.5 in Dutch dwellings due to cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Borsboom, W.A.; Kemp, R.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cooking emissions have long been seen as an odour problem. However recent studies showed that Particulate Matter (PM) is the main health risk of indoor air and cooking can be a major source. A small field study within 9 Dutch dwellings indicates that depending on the conditions cooking can have a

  15. Development of ambient PM 2.5 management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    "Using analyzed and modeled field data on air quality and meteorology, researchers identified major contributors of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Fairbanks. This : project was an effort to help the city meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ...

  16. PM2.5 measurement protocol for offices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Voogt, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    People are more than 80% of their time indoors. However, in contrast to ambient air, no (legal) limits for indoor particulate matter exist. This paper describes a measurement protocol to determine the yearly averaged indoor PM2,5 concentration and gives reference values for five quality classes:

  17. Comparison of Ground-Based PM2.5 and PM10 Concentrations in China, India, and the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchuan Yang

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and industrialization have spurred air pollution, making it a global problem. An understanding of the spatiotemporal characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm, respectively is necessary to mitigate air pollution. We compared the characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations and their trends of China, India, and the U.S. from 2014 to 2017. Particulate matter levels were lowest in the U.S., while China showed higher concentrations, and India showed the highest. Interestingly, significant declines in PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were found in some of the most polluted regions in China as well as the U.S. No comparable decline was observed in India. A strong seasonal trend was observed in China and India, with the highest values occurring in winter and the lowest in summer. The opposite trend was noted for the U.S. PM2.5 was highly correlated with PM10 for both China and India, but the correlation was poor for the U.S. With regard to reducing particulate matter pollutant concentrations, developing countries can learn from the experiences of developed nations and benefit by establishing and implementing joint regional air pollution control programs.

  18. Effect of exposure to ambient PM2.5 pollution on the risk of respiratory tract diseases: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Xu, Cheng; Ji, Guixiang; Liu, Hui; Shao, Wentao; Zhang, Chunlan; Gu, Aihua; Zhao, Peng

    2017-01-19

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer and the World Health Organization have designated airborne particulates, including particulates of median aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), as Group 1 carcinogens. It has not been determined, however, whether exposure to ambient PM 2.5 is associated with an increase in respiratory related diseases. This meta-analysis assessed the association between exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and the risk of respiratory tract diseases, using relevant articles extracted from PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase. In results, of the 1,126 articles originally identified, 35 (3.1%) were included in this meta-analysis. PM 2.5 was found to be associated with respiratory tract diseases. After subdivision by age group, respiratory tract disease, and continent, PM 2.5 was strongly associated with respiratory tract diseases in children, in persons with cough, lower respiratory illness, and wheezing, and in individuals from North America, Europe, and Asia. The risk of respiratory tract diseases was greater for exposure to traffic-related than non-traffic-related air pollution. In children, the pooled relative risk (RR) represented significant increases in wheezing (8.2%), cough (7.5%), and lower respiratory illness (15.3%). The pooled RRs in children were 1.091 (95%CI: 1.049, 1.135) for exposure to respiratory tract diseases, especially in children exposed to high concentrations of PM 2.5 .

  19. Source apportionment of speciated PM2.5 and non-parametric regressions of PM2.5 and PM(coarse) mass concentrations from Denver and Greeley, Colorado, and construction and evaluation of dichotomous filter samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrahita, Ricardo A.

    The Denver Aerosol Sources and Health study (DASH) was a long-term study of the relationship between the variability in fine particulate mass and chemical constituents (PM2.5, particulate matter less than 2.5mum) and adverse health effects such as cardio-respiratory illnesses and mortality. Daily filter samples were chemically analyzed for multiple species. We present findings based on 2.8 years of DASH data, from 2003 to 2005. Multilinear Engine 2 (ME-2), a receptor-based source apportionment model was applied to the data to estimate source contributions to PM2.5 mass concentrations. This study relied on two different ME-2 models: (1) a 2-way model that closely reflects PMF-2; and (2) an enhanced model with meteorological data that used additional temporal and meteorological factors. The Coarse Rural Urban Sources and Health study (CRUSH) is a long-term study of the relationship between the variability in coarse particulate mass (PMcoarse, particulate matter between 2.5 and 10mum) and adverse health effects such as cardio-respiratory illnesses, pre-term births, and mortality. Hourly mass concentrations of PMcoarse and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are measured using tapered element oscillating microbalances (TEOMs) with Filter Dynamics Measurement Systems (FDMS), at two rural and two urban sites. We present findings based on nine months of mass concentration data, including temporal trends, and non-parametric regressions (NPR) results, which were used to characterize the wind speed and wind direction relationships that might point to sources. As part of CRUSH, 1-year coarse and fine mode particulate matter filter sampling network, will allow us to characterize the chemical composition of the particulate matter collected and perform spatial comparisons. This work describes the construction and validation testing of four dichotomous filter samplers for this purpose. The use of dichotomous splitters with an approximate 2.5mum cut point, coupled with a 10mum cut

  20. Characterization of Chemical Composition in PM2.5 in Beijing Before, During, and After a Large-Scale International Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Cheng, S.; Li, J.

    2017-12-01

    To commemorate the 70th anniversary of the victory of the Chinese people's Anti-Japanese War and the World Anti-Fascist War, an international parade was held in Beijing in September 2015. In order to ensure satisfactory air quality during this event, a phased emission control measures were taken in Beijing and its surrounding provinces. The 24-h PM2.5 samples were collected in Beijing from August 1 to September 15, 2015 covering the period before, during and after this large-scale event. The observed PM2.5 data, meteorological data, emission reduction measures, and air mass trajectory simulation results were systematically analyzed to understand the pollution characteristics and chemical compositions of PM2.5 in Beijing. The results indicated that PM2.5 concentration during the two emission control phases was reduced by 61.7% comparing to the non-control period, but the regional transport of pollutants and meteorological conditions had a more prominent impact on PM2.5 than emission reduction during phase 2. The secondary water-soluble ions including SO42-, NO3-, and NH4+ were found as the main ions present in PM2.5. During the entire emission control period, organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) mass concentrations were decreased by 53.1% and 57.9%. A PM2.5 mass balance was analyzed, and it was found that the organic matter accounted for 29.3, 37.6 and 28.5% of the PM2.5 mass before, during and after the emission control, while the contribution of mobile sources to PM2.5 was relatively outstanding after a series of emission control measures.

  1. Evaluation of PM2.5 surface concentration simulated by Version 1 of the NASA’s MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis over Israel and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provençal, Simon; Buchard, Virginie; da Silva, Arlindo M.; Leduc, Richard; Barrette, Nathalie; Elhacham, Emily; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang

    2018-01-01

    Version 1 of the NASA MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) assimilates bias-corrected aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from MODIS-Terra and MODIS-Aqua, and simulates particulate matter (PM) concentration data to reproduce a consistent database of AOD and PM concentration around the world from 2002 to the end of 2015. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate MERRAero’s simulation of fine PM concentration against surface measurements in two regions of the world with relatively high levels of PM concentration but with profoundly different PM composition, those of Israel and Taiwan. Being surrounded by major deserts, Israel’s PM load is characterized by a significant contribution of mineral dust, and secondary contributions of sea salt particles, given its proximity to the Mediterranean Sea, and sulfate particles originating from Israel’s own urban activities and transported from Europe. Taiwan’s PM load is composed primarily of anthropogenic particles (sulfate, nitrate and carbonaceous particles) locally produced or transported from China, with an additional contribution of springtime transport of mineral dust originating from Chinese and Mongolian deserts. The evaluation in Israel produced favorable results with MERRAero slightly overestimating measurements by 6% on average and reproducing an excellent year-to-year and seasonal fluctuation. The evaluation in Taiwan was less favorable with MERRAero underestimating measurements by 42% on average. Two likely reasons explain this discrepancy: emissions of anthropogenic PM and their precursors are largely uncertain in China, and MERRAero doesn’t include nitrate particles in its simulation, a pollutant of predominately anthropogenic sources. MERRAero nevertheless simulates well the concentration of fine PM during the summer, when Taiwan is least affected by the advection of pollution from China. PMID:29670645

  2. Improving Satellite-Driven PM2.5 Models with VIIRS Nighttime Light Data in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiya Zhang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have estimated ground-level concentrations of particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5 using satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD in conjunction with meteorological and land use variables. However, the impacts of urbanization on air pollution for predicting PM2.5 are seldom considered. Nighttime light (NTL data, acquired with the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP satellite, could be useful for predictions because they have been shown to be good indicators of the urbanization and human activity that can affect PM2.5 concentrations. This study investigated the potential of incorporating VIIRS NTL data in statistical models for PM2.5 concentration predictions. We developed a mixed-effects model to derive daily estimations of surface PM2.5 levels in the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei region using 3 km resolution satellite AOD and VIIRS NTL data. The results showed the addition of NTL information could improve the performance of the PM2.5 prediction model. The NTL data revealed additional details for predication results in areas with low PM2.5 concentrations and greater apparent seasonal variation due to the seasonal variability of human activity. Comparison showed prediction accuracy was improved more substantially for the model using NTL directly than for the model using the vegetation-adjusted NTL urban index that included NTL. Our findings indicate that VIIRS NTL data have potential for predicting PM2.5 and that they could constitute a useful supplemental data source for estimating ground-level PM2.5 distributions.

  3. PM(10) episodes in Greece: Local sources versus long-range transport-observations and model simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaios, Vasileios N; Triantafyllou, Athanasios G; Koutrakis, Petros

    2017-01-01

    Periods of abnormally high concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, defined as air pollution episodes, can cause adverse health effects. Southern European countries experience high particulate matter (PM) levels originating from local and distant sources. In this study, we investigated the occurrence and nature of extreme PM 10 (PM with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm) pollution episodes in Greece. We examined PM 10 concentration data from 18 monitoring stations located at five sites across the country: (1) an industrial area in northwestern Greece (Western Macedonia Lignite Area, WMLA), which includes sources such as lignite mining operations and lignite power plants that generate a high percentage of the energy in Greece; (2) the greater Athens area, the most populated area of the country; and (3) Thessaloniki, (4) Patra, and (5) Volos, three large cities in Greece. We defined extreme PM 10 pollution episodes (EEs) as days during which PM 10 concentrations at all five sites exceeded the European Union (EU) 24-hr PM 10 standards. For each EE, we identified the corresponding prevailing synoptic and local meteorological conditions, including wind surface data, for the period from January 2009 through December 2011. We also analyzed data from remote sensing and model simulations. We recorded 14 EEs that occurred over 49 days and could be grouped into two categories: (1) Local Source Impact (LSI; 26 days, 53%) and (2) African Dust Impact (ADI; 23 days, 47%). Our analysis suggested that the contribution of local sources to ADI EEs was relatively small. LSI EEs were observed only in the cold season, whereas ADI EEs occurred throughout the year, with a higher frequency during the cold season. The EEs with the highest intensity were recorded during African dust intrusions. ADI episodes were found to contribute more than local sources in Greece, with ADI and LSI fraction contribution ranging from 1.1 to 3.10. The EE contribution during ADI fluctuated from 41 to 83

  4. Comparisons of urban and rural PM10−2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and semi-volatile fractions in northeastern Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Clements

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coarse (PM10−2.5 and fine (PM2.5 particulate matter in the atmosphere adversely affect human health and influence climate. While PM2.5 is relatively well studied, less is known about the sources and fate of PM10−2.5. The Colorado Coarse Rural-Urban Sources and Health (CCRUSH study measured PM10−2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentrations, as well as the fraction of semi-volatile material (SVM in each size regime (SVM2.5, SVM10−2.5, from 2009 to early 2012 in Denver and comparatively rural Greeley, Colorado. Agricultural operations east of Greeley appear to have contributed to the peak PM10−2.5 concentrations there, but concentrations were generally lower in Greeley than in Denver. Traffic-influenced sites in Denver had PM10−2.5 concentrations that averaged from 14.6 to 19.7 µg m−3 and mean PM10−2.5 ∕ PM10 ratios of 0.56 to 0.70, higher than at residential sites in Denver or Greeley. PM10−2.5 concentrations were more temporally variable than PM2.5 concentrations. Concentrations of the two pollutants were not correlated. Spatial correlations of daily averaged PM10−2.5 concentrations ranged from 0.59 to 0.62 for pairs of sites in Denver and from 0.47 to 0.70 between Denver and Greeley. Compared to PM10−2.5, concentrations of PM2.5 were more correlated across sites within Denver and less correlated between Denver and Greeley. PM10−2.5 concentrations were highest during the summer and early fall, while PM2.5 and SVM2.5 concentrations peaked in winter during periodic multi-day inversions. SVM10−2.5 concentrations were low at all sites. Diurnal peaks in PM10−2.5 and PM2.5 concentrations corresponded to morning and afternoon peaks of traffic activity, and were enhanced by boundary layer dynamics. SVM2.5 concentrations peaked around noon on both weekdays and weekends. PM10−2.5 concentrations at sites located near highways generally increased with wind speeds above about 3 m s−1. Little wind speed dependence was

  5. Local PM10 and PM2.5 emission inventories from agricultural tillage and harvest in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Tong, Daniel Q; Zhang, Shichun; Zhang, Xuelei; Zhao, Hongmei

    2017-07-01

    Mineral particles or particulate matters (PMs) emitted during agricultural activities are major recurring sources of atmospheric aerosol loading. However, precise PM inventory from agricultural tillage and harvest in agricultural regions is challenged by infrequent local emission factor (EF) measurements. To understand PM emissions from these practices in northeastern China, we measured EFs of PM 10 and PM 2.5 from three field operations (i.e., tilling, planting and harvesting) in major crop production (i.e., corn and soybean), using portable real-time PM analyzers and weather station data. County-level PM 10 and PM 2.5 emissions from agricultural tillage and harvest were estimated, based on local EFs, crop areas and crop calendars. The EFs averaged (107±27), (17±5) and 26mg/m 2 for field tilling, planting and harvesting under relatively dry conditions (i.e., soil moisture agricultural dust emissions to regional air quality in northeastern China. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The direct influence of ship traffic on atmospheric PM2.5, PM10 and PAH in Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, D; Gambaro, A; Belosi, F; De Pieri, S; Cairns, W R L; Donateo, A; Zanotto, E; Citron, M

    2011-09-01

    The direct influence of ship traffic on atmospheric levels of coarse and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5), PM(10)) and fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been estimated in the urban area of Venice. Data analysis has been performed on results collected at three sites over the summer, when ship traffic is at a maximum. Results indicate that monitoring of the PM daily concentrations is not sufficiently detailed for the evaluation of this contribution, even though it could be useful for specific markers such as PAHs. Therefore a new methodology, based on high temporal resolution measurements coupled with wind direction information and the database of ship passages of the Harbour Authority of Venice has been developed. The sampling sites were monitored with optical detectors (DustTrack(®) and Mie pDR-1200) operating at a high temporal resolution (20s and 1s respectively) for PM(2.5) and PM(10). PAH in the particulate and gas phases were recovered from quartz fibre filters and polyurethane foam plugs using pressurised solvent extraction, the extracts were then analysed by gas chromatography- high-resolution mass spectrometry. Our results shows that the direct contribution of ships traffic to PAHs in the gas phase is 10% while the contribution to PM(2.5) and to PM(10) is from 1% up to 8%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Temporal variations and spatial distribution of ambient PM2.2 and PM1 concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K.; Hopke, Philip K.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations and characteristics of airborne particulate matter (PM 1 , PM 2.2 and BC) on air quality have been studied at two air quality-monitoring stations in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. One site is at the Farm Gate area, a hot spot with very high pollutant concentrations because of its proximity to major roadways. The other site is at a semi-residential area located at the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka Campus, (AECD) with relatively less traffic. The samples were collected using a 'Gent' stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2.2 μm and 2.2-10 μm sizes. Samples of fine (PM 2.2 ) and coarse (PM 2.2-1 ) airborne particulate matter fractions collected from 2000 to 2003 were studied. It has been observed that fine particulate matter has a decreasing trend, from prior year measurements, because of Government policy interventions like phase-wise plans to take two-stroke three-wheelers off the roads in Dhaka and finally banned from January 1, 2003. Other policy interventions were banning of old buses and trucks to ply on Dhaka city promotion of the using compressed natural gas (CNG), introducing air pollution control devices in vehicles, etc. It was found that both local (mostly from vehicular emissions) and possibly some regional emission sources are responsible for high PM 2.2 and BC concentrations in Dhaka. PM 2.2 , PM 2.2-1 and black carbon concentration levels depend on the season, wind direction and wind speed. Transport related emissions are the major source of BC and long-range transportation from fossil fuel related sources and biomass burning could be another substantial source of BC

  8. Temporal variations and spatial distribution of ambient PM2.2 and PM10 concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Bilkis A; Biswas, Swapan K; Hopke, Philip K

    2006-04-01

    Concentrations and characteristics of airborne particulate matter (PM(10), PM(2.2) and BC) on air quality have been studied at two air quality-monitoring stations in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. One site is at the Farm Gate area, a hot spot with very high pollutant concentrations because of its proximity to major roadways. The other site is at a semi-residential area located at the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka Campus, (AECD) with relatively less traffic. The samples were collected using a 'Gent' stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2.2 mum and 2.2-10 mum sizes. Samples of fine (PM(2.2)) and coarse (PM(2.2-10)) airborne particulate matter fractions collected from 2000 to 2003 were studied. It has been observed that fine particulate matter has a decreasing trend, from prior year measurements, because of Government policy interventions like phase-wise plans to take two-stroke three-wheelers off the roads in Dhaka and finally banned from January 1, 2003. Other policy interventions were banning of old buses and trucks to ply on Dhaka city promotion of the using compressed natural gas (CNG), introducing air pollution control devices in vehicles, etc. It was found that both local (mostly from vehicular emissions) and possibly some regional emission sources are responsible for high PM(2.2) and BC concentrations in Dhaka. PM(2.2), PM(2.2-10) and black carbon concentration levels depend on the season, wind direction and wind speed. Transport related emissions are the major source of BC and long-range transportation from fossil fuel related sources and biomass burning could be another substantial source of BC.

  9. Search for $CP$ violation in $D^{\\pm}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}$ and $D^{\\pm}_{s}\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves Jr, A.A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J.E.; Appleby, R.B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J.J.; Badalov, A.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R.J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjornstad, P.M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N.H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L.Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H.V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G.A.; Craik, D.C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P.N.Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; de Miranda, J.M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, RF.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gavrilov, G.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani', S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V.V.; Gobel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gandara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L.A.; Grauges, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grunberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S.C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S.T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J.A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C.R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T.M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R.F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V.N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R.W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.P.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lowdon, P.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I.V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J.F.; Marconi, U.; Benito, C.Marin; Marino, P.; Marki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martin Sanchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Minard, M.N.; Moggi, N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Morda, A.; Morello, M.J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A.B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Muller, K.; Muresan, R.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A.D.; Nguyen, T.D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D.P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, G.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J.M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B.K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C.J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G.D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perez Trigo, E.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilar, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J.H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M.S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M.M.; dos Reis, A.C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D.A.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A.B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Vidal, A.Romero; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, H.; Valls, P.Ruiz; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Coutinho, R.Silva; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N.A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Subbiah, V.K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szilard, D.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M.T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Garcia, M.Ubeda; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vazquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J.J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voss, C.; Voss, H.; de Vries, J.A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D.R.; Watson, N.K.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M.P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F.F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S.A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2014-10-03

    A search for $CP$ violation in Cabibbo-suppressed $D^{\\pm}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}$ and $D^{\\pm}_{s}\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}$ decays is performed using $pp$ collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3~fb$^{-1}$, recorded by the LHCb experiment. The individual $CP$-violating asymmetries are measured to be \\begin{eqnarray*} \\mathcal{A}_{CP}^{D^{\\pm}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}} & = & (+0.03 \\pm 0.17 \\pm 0.14) \\% \\\\ \\mathcal{A}_{CP}^{D^{\\pm}_s\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}} & = & (+0.38 \\pm 0.46 \\pm 0.17) \\%, \\end{eqnarray*} assuming that $CP$ violation in the Cabibbo-favoured decays is negligible. A combination of the measured asymmetries for the four decay modes $D^{\\pm}_{(s)}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}$ and $D^{\\pm}_{(s)}\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}$ gives the sum \\[ \\mathcal{A}_{CP}^{D^{\\pm}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}}+ \\mathcal{A}_{CP}^{D^{\\pm}_s\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}} = (+0.41 \\pm 0.49 \\pm 0.26) \\%. \\] In all cases, the first uncertainties are statistical and the second sys...

  10. Mitochondrial damage: An important mechanism of ambient PM2.5 exposure-induced acute heart injury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ruijin; Kou, Xiaojing; Geng, Hong; Xie, Jingfang; Tian, Jingjing; Cai, Zongwei; Dong, Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PM 2.5 induces heart mitochondrial morphological damage of rats. • Mitochondrial fission/fusion gene expression is important regulation mechanism. • Proinflammatoy cytokine level changes are accompanied with mitochondrial damage. • Alterations in oxidative stress and calcium homeostasis are focused on. - Abstract: Epidemiological studies suggested that ambient fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) exposure was associated with cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism, especially the mitochondrial damage mechanism, of PM 2.5 -induced heart acute injury is still unclear. In this study, the alterations of mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial fission/fusion gene expression, oxidative stress, calcium homeostasis and inflammation in hearts of rats exposed to PM 2.5 with different dosages (0.375, 1.5, 6.0 and 24.0 mg/kg body weight) were investigated. The results indicated that the PM 2.5 exposure induced pathological changes and ultra-structural damage in hearts such as mitochondrial swell and cristae disorder. Furthermore, PM 2.5 exposure significantly increased specific mitochondrial fission/fusion gene (Fis1, Mfn1, Mfn2, Drp1 and OPA1) expression in rat hearts. These changes were accompanied by decreases of activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), Na + K + -ATPase and Ca 2+ -ATPase and increases of levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) as well as levels of pro-inflammatory mediators including TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β in rat hearts. The results implicate that mitochondrial damage, oxidative stress, cellular homeostasis imbalance and inflammation are potentially important mechanisms for the PM 2.5 -induced heart injury, and may have relations with cardiovascular disease

  11. Ambient air pollutant PM10 and risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension in urban China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xin; Qiu, Jie; Qiu, Weitao; He, Xiaochun; Wang, Yixuan; Sun, Qingmei; Cui, Hongmei; Liu, Sufen; Tang, Zhongfeng; Chen, Ya; Yue, Li; Da, Zhenqiang; Lv, Ling; Lin, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Honghong; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhu, Daling; Zhang, Yaqun; Zhao, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship between air borne particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM 10 ) exposure and pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is inconclusive. Few studies have been conducted, and fewer were conducted in areas with high levels of PM 10 . Methods: To examine the association between PM 10 and PIH by different exposure time windows during pregnancy, we analyzed data from a birth cohort study conducted in Lanzhou, China including 8 745 pregnant women with available information on air pollution during pregnancy. A total of 333 PIH cases (127 gestational hypertension (GH) and 206 preeclampsia (PE)) were identified. PM 10 daily average concentrations of each subject were calculated according to the distance between home/work addresses and monitor stations using an inverse-distance weighting approach. Results: Average PM 10 concentration over the duration of entire pregnancy was significantly associated with PIH (OR = 1.12, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.23 per 10 μg m −3 increase), PE (OR = 1.16, 95%CI: 1.03, 1.30 per 10 μg m −3 increase), late onset PE (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.32 per10 μg m −3 increase), and severe PE (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.48 per 10 μg m −3 increase). Average PM 10 during the first 12 gestational weeks was associated with the risk of GH (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.21 per 10 μg m −3 increase), and PM 10 exposure before 20 gestational weeks was associated with the risk of severe PE (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.30 per 10 μg m −3 increase). Conclusions: We found that high level exposure to ambient PM 10 during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of PIH, GH and PE and that the strength of the association varied by timing of exposure during pregnancy. (letter)

  12. Assessment of microbial communities in PM1 and PM10 of Urumqi during winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, Huange; Lu, Jianjiang; Li, Shanman; Tong, Yanbin; Xie, Chunbin; Zheng, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Recently, inhalable particulate matter has been reported to carry microorganisms responsible for human allergy and respiratory disease. The unique geographical environment and adverse weather conditions of Urumqi cause double pollution of dust and smog, but research on the microbial content of the atmosphere has not been commenced. In this study, 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing were conducted to investigate the microbial composition of Urumqi's PM 1 and PM 10 pollutants in winter. Results showed that the bacterial community is mainly composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria accounted for the most proportion which was significant difference in some aforementioned studies. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota constitute the main part of the fungal microbial community. The difference of bacterial relative abundance in sample point is greater than in particle sizes. The sequences of several pathogenic bacteria and opportunistic pathogens were also detected, such as Acinetobacter, Delftia, Serratia, Chryseobacterium, which may impact on immunocompromised populations (elderly, children and postoperative convalescence patients), and some fungal genera may cause several plant diseases. Our findings may serve an important reference value in the global air microbial propagation and air microbial research in desert. - Highlights: • Using 16 s rDNA double variable region (V3 + V4) sequencing to elucidate the bacterial communities. • Several potential microbial allergens and pathogens present in PM 1 and PM 10 were found. • Providing a great supplement to environmental science and human health assessment.

  13. Investigating Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Human Lung Cells Exposed to Redox-Active PM Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) causes cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality through mechanisms that involve oxidative stress. 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ) is a ubiquitous component of PM and a potent redox-active electrophile. We previously reported that 1,2-NQ incr...

  14. Elemental composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 in urban environment in South Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, C. F.; Teixeira, E. C.; Meira, L.; Wiegand, F.; Yoneama, M. L.; Dias, J. F.

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze the elemental composition and the concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 in the Guaíba Hydrographic Basin with HV PM 10 and dichotomous samplers. Three sampling sites were selected: 8° Distrito, CEASA and Charqueadas. The sampling was conducted from October 2001 to December 2002. The mass concentrations of the samplers were evaluated, while the elemental concentrations of Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn were determined using the Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Factor Analysis and Canonical Correlation Analysis were applied to the chemical and meteorological variables in order to identify the sources of particulate matter. Industrial activities such as steel plants, coal-fired power plants, hospital waste burning, vehicular emissions and soil were identified as the sources of the particulate matter. Concentration levels higher than the daily and the annual average air quality standards (150 and 50 μg m -3, respectively) set by the Brazilian legislation were not observed.

  15. Air emission in France. Metropolitan area particulate matter; Emissions dans l'air en France. Metropole poussieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    Substances and index currently in survey are: Particulate matter: Total suspended particulates (TSP), Fine particulates with an equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 10 {mu}m (PM{sub 10}), 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 2.5}) and 1.0 {mu}m (PM{sub 1.0}). Density ratios relating to population, area, gross product, primary energy consumption, etc. Annual emissions are provided for each substance since 1990. Dates corresponding to the maximum and minimum values are also included. Results are provisional for 2001. (author)

  16. Long-term particulate matter exposure and mortality: a review of European epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boffetta Paolo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies considered the relation between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM and total mortality, as well as mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on the issue. Methods We searched the Medline database for epidemiological studies on air pollution and health outcomes published between January 2002 and December 2007. We also examined the reference lists of individual papers and reviews. Two independent reviewers classified the studies according to type of air pollutant, duration of exposure and health outcome considered. Among European investigations that examined long-term PM exposure we found 4 cohort studies (considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality, 1 case-control study (considering mortality from myocardial infarction, and 4 ecologic studies (2 studies considering total and cardiopulmonary mortality and 2 studies focused on cardiovascular mortality. Results Measurement indicators of PM exposure used in European studies, including PM10, PM2.5, total suspended particulate and black smoke, were heterogeneous. This notwithstanding, in all analytic studies total mortality was directly associated with long-term exposure to PM. The excesses in mortality were mainly due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes. Three out of 4 ecologic studies found significant direct associations between PM indexes and mortality. Conclusion European studies on long-term exposure to PM indicate a direct association with mortality, particularly from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases.

  17. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S. S.; Bennett, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Astrophysics conference in Maryland, organized by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland. The topics covered included low mass stars as dark matter, dark matter in galaxies and clusters, cosmic microwave background anisotropy, cold and hot dark matter, and the large scale distribution and motions of galaxies. There were eighty five papers presented. Out of these, 10 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  18. Global Annual Average PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Annual PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data set represents a series of annual average grids (2001-2010) of fine particulate matter...

  19. Global Annual Average PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Annual PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data sets represent a series of annual average grids (2001-2010) of fine particulate matter...

  20. Ambient Air Pollution and Increases in Blood Pressure: Role for biological constituents of particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets made up of a number of components including elemental carbon, organic chemicals, metals, acids (such as nitrates and sulfates), and soil and dust particles. Epidemiological studies con...

  1. Chemical Composition of Fine Particulate Matter and Life Expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Francesca; Wang, Yun; Correia, Andrew W.; Ezzati, Majid; Pope, C. Arden; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background In a previous study, we provided evidence that a decline in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution during the period between 2000 and 2007 was associated with increased life expectancy in 545 counties in the United States. In this article, we investigated which chemical constituents of PM2.5 were the main drivers of the observed association. Methods We estimated associations between temporal changes in seven major components of PM2.5 (ammonium, sulfate, nitrate, elemental carbon matter, organic carbon matter, sodium, and silicon) and temporal changes in life expectancy in 95 counties between 2002 and 2007. We included US counties that had adequate chemical components of PM2.5 mass data across all seasons. We fitted single pollutant and multiple pollutant linear models, controlling for available socioeconomic, demographic, and smoking variables and stratifying by urban and nonurban counties. Results In multiple pollutant models, we found that: (1) a reduction in sulfate was associated with an increase in life expectancy; and (2) reductions in ammonium and sodium ion were associated with increases in life expectancy in nonurban counties only. Conclusions Our findings suggest that recent reductions in long-term exposure to sulfate, ammonium, and sodium ion between 2002 and 2007 are associated with improved public health. PMID:25906366

  2. Airborne Particulate Matter in Two Multi-Family Green Buildings: Concentrations and Effect of Ventilation and Occupant Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Allison P; Calderon, Leonardo; Xiong, Youyou; Wang, Zuocheng; Senick, Jennifer; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Plotnik, Deborah; Wener, Richard; Andrews, Clinton J; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2016-01-20

    There are limited data on air quality parameters, including airborne particulate matter (PM) in residential green buildings, which are increasing in prevalence. Exposure to PM is associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, and since Americans spend almost 90% of their time indoors, residential exposures may substantially contribute to overall airborne PM exposure. Our objectives were to: (1) measure various PM fractions longitudinally in apartments in multi-family green buildings with natural (Building E) and mechanical (Building L) ventilation; (2) compare indoor and outdoor PM mass concentrations and their ratios (I/O) in these buildings, taking into account the effects of occupant behavior; and (3) evaluate the effect of green building designs and operations on indoor PM. We evaluated effects of ventilation, occupant behaviors, and overall building design on PM mass concentrations and I/O. Median PMTOTAL was higher in Building E (56 µg/m³) than in Building L (37 µg/m³); I/O was higher in Building E (1.3-2.0) than in Building L (0.5-0.8) for all particle size fractions. Our data show that the building design and occupant behaviors that either produce or dilute indoor PM (e.g., ventilation systems, combustion sources, and window operation) are important factors affecting residents' exposure to PM in residential green buildings.

  3. Airborne Particulate Matter in Two Multi-Family Green Buildings: Concentrations and Effect of Ventilation and Occupant Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison P. Patton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are limited data on air quality parameters, including airborne particulate matter (PM in residential green buildings, which are increasing in prevalence. Exposure to PM is associated with cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases, and since Americans spend almost 90% of their time indoors, residential exposures may substantially contribute to overall airborne PM exposure. Our objectives were to: (1 measure various PM fractions longitudinally in apartments in multi-family green buildings with natural (Building E and mechanical (Building L ventilation; (2 compare indoor and outdoor PM mass concentrations and their ratios (I/O in these buildings, taking into account the effects of occupant behavior; and (3 evaluate the effect of green building designs and operations on indoor PM. We evaluated effects of ventilation, occupant behaviors, and overall building design on PM mass concentrations and I/O. Median PMTOTAL was higher in Building E (56 µg/m3 than in Building L (37 µg/m3; I/O was higher in Building E (1.3–2.0 than in Building L (0.5–0.8 for all particle size fractions. Our data show that the building design and occupant behaviors that either produce or dilute indoor PM (e.g., ventilation systems, combustion sources, and window operation are important factors affecting residents’ exposure to PM in residential green buildings.

  4. The Simulations of Wildland Fire Smoke PM25 in the NWS Air Quality Forecasting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. C.; Pan, L.; McQueen, J.; Lee, P.; ONeill, S. M.; Ruminski, M.; Shafran, P.; Huang, J.; Stajner, I.; Upadhayay, S.; Larkin, N. K.

    2017-12-01

    The increase of wildland fire intensity and frequency in the United States (U.S.) has led to property loss, human fatality, and poor air quality due to elevated particulate matters and surface ozone concentrations. The NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) built the National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System driven by the NCEP North American Mesoscale Forecast System meteorology to provide ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) forecast guidance publicly. State and local forecasters use the NWS air quality forecast guidance to issue air quality alerts in their area. The NAQFC PM2.5 predictions include emissions from anthropogenic and biogenic sources, as well as natural sources such as dust storms and wildland fires. The wildland fire emission inputs to the NAQFC is derived from the NOAA National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service Hazard Mapping System fire and smoke detection product and the emission module of the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) BlueSky Smoke Modeling Framework. Wildland fires are unpredictable and can be ignited by natural causes such as lightning or be human-caused. It is extremely difficult to predict future occurrences and behavior of wildland fires, as is the available bio-fuel to be burned for real-time air quality predictions. Assumptions of future day's wildland fire behavior often have to be made from older observed wildland fire information. The comparisons between the NAQFC modeled PM2.5 and the EPA AirNow surface observation show that large errors in PM2.5 prediction can occur if fire smoke emissions are sometimes placed at the wrong location and/or time. A configuration of NAQFC CMAQ-system to re-run previous 24 hours, during which wildland fires were observed from satellites has been included recently. This study focuses on the effort performed to minimize the error in NAQFC PM2.5 predictions

  5. Source strengths for indoor human activities that resuspend particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Andrea R; Kopperud, Royal J; Hildemann, Lynn M

    2004-03-15

    A mathematical model was applied to continuous indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM) measurements to estimate source strengths for a variety of prescribed human activities that resuspend house dust in the home. Activities included folding blankets, folding clothes, dry dusting, making a bed, dancing on a rug, dancing on a wood floor, vacuuming, and walking around and sitting on upholstered furniture. Although most of the resuspended particle mass from these activities was larger than 5 microm in diameter, the resuspension of PM2.5 and PM5 was substantial, with source strengths ranging from 0.03 to 0.5 mg min(-1) for PM2.5 and from 0.1 to 1.4 mg min(-1) for PM5. Source strengths for PM > 5 microm could not be quantified due to instrument limitations. The source strengths were found to be a function of the number of persons performing the activity, the vigor of the activity, the type of activity, and the type of flooring.

  6. Spatial and temporal variability in urban fine particulate matter concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, Jonathan I.; Hanna, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Identification of hot spots for urban fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations is complicated by the significant contributions from regional atmospheric transport and the dependence of spatial and temporal variability on averaging time. We focus on PM 2.5 patterns in New York City, which includes significant local sources, street canyons, and upwind contributions to concentrations. A literature synthesis demonstrates that long-term (e.g., one-year) average PM 2.5 concentrations at a small number of widely-distributed monitoring sites would not show substantial variability, whereas short-term (e.g., 1-h) average measurements with high spatial density would show significant variability. Statistical analyses of ambient monitoring data as a function of wind speed and direction reinforce the significance of regional transport but show evidence of local contributions. We conclude that current monitor siting may not adequately capture PM 2.5 variability in an urban area, especially in a mega-city, reinforcing the necessity of dispersion modeling and methods for analyzing high-resolution monitoring observations. - Highlights: →Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) hot spots are hard to identify in urban areas. → Literature conclusions about PM 2.5 hot spots depend on study design and methods. → Hot spots are more likely for short-term concentrations at high spatial density. → Statistical methods illustrate local source impacts beyond regional transport. → Dispersion models and high-resolution monitors are both needed to find hot spots. - Fine particulate matter can vary spatially within large urban areas, in spite of the significant contribution from regional atmospheric transport.

  7. Effects of exposure estimation errors on estimated exposure-response relations for PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Louis Anthony Tony

    2018-07-01

    Associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure concentrations and a wide variety of undesirable outcomes, from autism and auto theft to elderly mortality, suicide, and violent crime, have been widely reported. Influential articles have argued that reducing National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM2.5 is desirable to reduce these outcomes. Yet, other studies have found that reducing black smoke and other particulate matter by as much as 70% and dozens of micrograms per cubic meter has not detectably affected all-cause mortality rates even after decades, despite strong, statistically significant positive exposure concentration-response (C-R) associations between them. This paper examines whether this disconnect between association and causation might be explained in part by ignored estimation errors in estimated exposure concentrations. We use EPA air quality monitor data from the Los Angeles area of California to examine the shapes of estimated C-R functions for PM2.5 when the true C-R functions are assumed to be step functions with well-defined response thresholds. The estimated C-R functions mistakenly show risk as smoothly increasing with concentrations even well below the response thresholds, thus incorrectly predicting substantial risk reductions from reductions in concentrations that do not affect health risks. We conclude that ignored estimation errors obscure the shapes of true C-R functions, including possible thresholds, possibly leading to unrealistic predictions of the changes in risk caused by changing exposures. Instead of estimating improvements in public health per unit reduction (e.g., per 10 µg/m 3 decrease) in average PM2.5 concentrations, it may be essential to consider how interventions change the distributions of exposure concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Challenges in evaluating PM concentration levels, commuting exposure, and mask efficacy in reducing PM exposure in growing, urban communities in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Disa; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Wilson, James; Maidin, Alimin

    2016-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) contributes to an increased risk of respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses, cancer, and preterm birth complications. This project assessed PM exposure in Eastern Indonesia's largest city, where air quality has not been comprehensively monitored. We examined the efficacy of wearing masks as an individual intervention effort to reduce in-transit PM exposures. Handheld particulate counters were used to investigate ambient air quality for spatial analysis, as well as the differences in exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 (μg/m(3)) by different transportation methods [e.g. motorcycle (n=97), pete-pete (n=53), and car (n=55); note: n=1 means 1m(3) of air sample]. Mask efficacy to reduce PM exposure was evaluated [e.g. surgical masks (n=39), bandanas (n=52), and motorcycle masks (n=39)]. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to provide a range of uncertainty in exposure assessment. Overall PM10 levels (91±124 μg/m(3)) were elevated compared to the World Health Organization (WHO)'s 24-hour air quality guideline (50 μg/m(3)). While average PM2.5 levels (9±14 μg/m(3)) were below the WHO's guideline (25 μg/m(3)), measurements up to 139 μg/m(3) were observed. Compared to cars, average motorcycle and pete-pete PM exposures were four and three times higher for PM2.5, and 13 and 10 times higher for PM10, respectively. Only surgical masks were consistent in lowering PM2.5 and PM10 (pmasks. Individual interventions can effectively reduce individual PM exposures; however, policy interventions will be needed to improve the overall air quality and create safer transportation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of PM-PEMS for in-use measurements conducted during validation testing for the PM-PEMS measurement allowance program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Yusuf; Johnson, Kent C.; Durbin, Thomas D.; Jung, Heejung; Cocker, David R.; Bishnu, Dipak; Giannelli, Robert

    2012-08-01

    This study provides an evaluation of the latest Particulate Matter-Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PM-PEMS) under different environmental and in-use conditions. It characterizes four PM measurement systems based on different measurement principles. At least three different units were tested for each PM-PEMS to account for variability. These PM-PEMS were compared with a UC Riverside's mobile reference laboratory (MEL). PM measurements were made from a class 8 truck with a 2008 Cummins diesel engine with a diesel particulate filter (DPF). A bypass around the DPF was installed in the exhaust to achieve a brake specific PM (bsPM) emissions level of 25 mg hp-1h-1. PM was dominated by elemental carbon (EC) during non-regeneration conditions and by hydrated sulfate (H2SO4.6H2O) during regeneration. The photo-acoustic PM-PEMS performed best, with a linear regression slope of 0.90 and R2 of 0.88 during non-regenerative conditions. With the addition of a filter, the photo-acoustic PM-PEMS slightly over reported than the total PM mass (slope = 1.10, R2 = 0.87). Under these same non-regeneration conditions, a PM-PEMS equipped with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technology performed the poorest, and had a slope of 0.22 and R2 of 0.13. Re-tests performed on upgraded QCM PM-PEMS showed a better slope (0.66), and a higher R2 of 0.25. In the case of DPF regeneration, all PM-PEMS performed poorly, with the best having a slope of 0.20 and R2 of 0.78. Particle size distributions (PSD) showed nucleation during regeneration, with a shift of particle size to smaller diameters (˜64 nm to ˜13 nm) with elevated number concentrations when compared to non-regeneration conditions.

  10. Source profiles of particulate matter emissions from a pilot-scale boiler burning North American coal blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S W

    2001-11-01

    Recent awareness of suspected adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM) emission has prompted publication of new standards for fine PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). However, scientific data on fine PM emissions from various point sources and their characteristics are very limited. Source apportionment methods are applied to identify contributions of individual regional sources to tropospheric particulate concentrations. The existing industrial database developed using traditional source measurement techniques provides total emission rates only, with no details on chemical nature or size characteristics of particulates. This database is inadequate, in current form, to address source-receptor relationships. A source dilution system was developed for sampling and characterization of total PM, PM2.5, and PM10 (i.e., PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 pm) from residual oil and coal combustion. This new system has automatic control capabilities for key parameters, such as relative humidity (RH), temperature, and sample dilution. During optimization of the prototype equipment, three North American coal blends were burned using a 0.7-megawatt thermal (MWt) pulverized coal-fired, pilot-scale boiler. Characteristic emission profiles, including PM2.5 and total PM soluble acids, and elemental and carbon concentrations for three coal blends are presented. Preliminary results indicate that volatile trace elements such as Pb, Zn, Ti, and Se are preferentially enriched in PM2.5. PM2.5 is also more concentrated in soluble sulfates relative to total PM. Coal fly ash collected at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) contains about 85-90% PM10 and 30-50% PM2.5. Particles contain the highest elemental concentrations of Si and Al while Ca, Fe, Na, Ba, and K also exist as major elements. Approximately 4-12% of the materials exists as soluble sulfates in fly ash generated by coal blends containing 0.2-0.8% sulfur by mass

  11. Influence of PM1 and PM2.5 on lung function parameters in healthy schoolchildren-a panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwozdziak, A; Sówka, I; Willak-Janc, E; Zwozdziak, J; Kwiecińska, K; Balińska-Miśkiewicz, W

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate lung function responses to short-term indoor PM 1 and PM 2.5 concentrations, we conducted a panel study of healthy schoolchildren aged 13-14 years. The following lung function parameters FVC, FEV 1 , PEF, and mid expiratory flows MEF 25 , MEF 50 , and MEF 75 were measured in 141 schoolchildren of the secondary school in Wroclaw, Poland in years 2009-2010. On days when spirometry tests were conducted, simultaneously, PM 1 and PM 2.5 samples were collected inside the school premises. Information about differentiating factors for children including smoking parents, sex, living close to busy streets, dust, mold, and pollen allergies were collected by means of questionnaires. To account for repeated measurements, the method of generalized estimating equations (GEE) was used. The GEE models for the entire group of children revealed the adverse effects (p < 0.05) of PM 1 and PM 2.5 . Small differences in effects estimates per interquartile range (IQR) of PM 1 and PM 2.5 on MEF 25 (5.1 and 4.8 %), MEF 50 (3.7 and 3.9 %), MEF 75 (3.5 and 3.6 %) and FEV 1 (1.3 and 1.0 %) imply that PM 1 was likely the component of PM 2.5 that might have a principal health effect on these lung function parameters. However, the reduction of FVC and PEF per IQR for PM 2.5 (2.1 and 5.2 %, respectively) was higher than for PM 1 (1.0 and 4.4 %, respectively). Adjustment for potential confounders did not change the unadjusted analysis.

  12. Characterization of carbonaceous materials in PM2.5 and PM10 size fractions in Morogoro, Tanzania, during 2006 wet season campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkoma, Stelyus L.; Chi Xuguang; Maenhaut, Willy

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples in PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions were collected in parallel at a rural site in Morogoro during wet season in March and April 2006. All samples were analysed for the particulate matter mass, for organic, elemental, and total carbon (OC, EC, and TC), and for water-soluble OC (WSOC). The average PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and associated standard deviations were 14 ± 13 μg/m 3 and 7.3 ± 4 μg/m 3 respectively. On average, TC accounted for 33% of the PM10 mass and 44% of the PM2.5 mass for the campaign. The average OC/PM percentage ratios were 27% and 33% in PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions respectively and a larger fraction of the OC was water-soluble. The observed low EC/TC mean percentage ratios of 10-14% respectively for PM10 and PM2.5 fractions indicate that the carbonaceous aerosol originates mainly from biogenic aerosols and/or biomass burning. A simple source apportionment approach was used to apportion the OC to biofuel and charcoal burning. On average, 93% of the PM10 OC was attributed to biofuel and 7% to charcoal burning in the 2006 wet season campaign. However, it is suggested that a contribution to the OC at Morogoro could also come from other natural biogenic matter, and/or biomass burning aerosols. The results for the sources of OC at Morogoro should therefore be considered with great caution.

  13. To what extent can aerosol water explain the discrepancy between model calculated and gravimetric PM10 and PM2.5?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Tsyro

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Inter-comparisons of European air quality models show that regional transport models, including the EMEP (Co-operative Programme for monitoring and evaluation of the long-range transmission of air pollutants in Europe aerosol model, tend to underestimate the observed concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5. Obviously, an accurate representation of the individual aerosol constituents is a prerequisite for adequate calculation of PM concentrations. On the other hand, available measurements on the chemical characterization of ambient particles reveal that full chemical PM mass closure is rarely achieved. The fraction unaccounted for by chemical analysis can comprise as much as 30-40% of gravimetric PM10 or PM2.5 mass. The unaccounted PM mass can partly be due to non-C atoms in organic aerosols and/or due to sampling and measurement artefacts. Moreover, a part of the unaccounted PM mass is likely to consist of water associated with particles. Thus, the gravimetrically measured particle mass does not necessarily represent dry PM10 and PM2.5 mass. This is thought to be one of the reasons for models under-prediction of observed PM, if calculated dry PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations are compared with measurements. The EMEP aerosol model has been used to study to what extent particle-bound water can explain the chemically unidentified PM mass in filter-based particle samples. Water content of PM2.5 and PM10 has been estimated with the model for temperature 20°C and relative humidity 50%, which are conditions required for equilibration of dust-loaded filters according to the Reference method recommended by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN. Model calculations for Europe show that, depending on particle composition, particle-bound water constitutes 20-35% of the annual mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations, which is consistent with existing experimental estimates. At two Austrian sites, in Vienna and Streithofen, where daily measurements of PM2.5 mass

  14. Source apportionment of PM2.5 at the Lin'an regional background site in China with three receptor models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Junjun; Zhang, Yanru; Qiu, Yuqing; Zhang, Hongliang; Du, Wenjiao; Xu, Lingling; Hong, Youwei; Chen, Yanting; Chen, Jinsheng

    2018-04-01

    Source apportionment of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were conducted at the Lin'an Regional Atmospheric Background Station (LA) in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China from July 2014 to April 2015 with three receptor models including principal component analysis combining multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR), UNMIX and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). The model performance, source identification and source contribution of the three models were analyzed and inter-compared. Source apportionment of PM2.5 was also conducted with the receptor models. Good correlations between the reconstructed and measured concentrations of PM2.5 and its major chemical species were obtained for all models. PMF resolved almost all masses of PM2.5, while PCA-MLR and UNMIX explained about 80%. Five, four and seven sources were identified by PCA-MLR, UNMIX and PMF, respectively. Combustion, secondary source, marine source, dust and industrial activities were identified by all the three receptor models. Combustion source and secondary source were the major sources, and totally contributed over 60% to PM2.5. The PMF model had a better performance on separating the different combustion sources. These findings improve the understanding of PM2.5 sources in background region.

  15. [The effect of ambient PM(10) on sperm quality in Wuhan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X C; Tian, X J; Ye, B; Ma, L; Zhang, Y; Yang, J

    2018-01-06

    Objective: To investigate the effect of exposure to particulate matter ≤10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM(10)) on sperm quality in different stages of sperm development. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1 827 patients attending the reproductive medicine center in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University during April 2013 to January 2015. Air pollution data from January 2013 to January 2015 was obtained from the database of Wuhan Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau. The generalized linear model was employed to assess the association between each exposure variables and sperm parameters for several exposure windows (0-9, 10-14, 15-69, 70-90, 0-90 days before sampling) . Results: The average levels of PM(10) was (116.2±71.6) μg/m(3) during the research period. Sperm volume was (75.4±49.1) ×10(6)/ml in sample population, (29.4±16.2) % in progressive motility and (51.8±21.6) % in total motility. Exposure to PM(10) was inversely associated with sperm concentration (β:-0.319; 95% CI: -0.529,-0.046) during 70-90 lag days. PM(10) exposure during the 0-90 lag days was significantly associated with progressive motility (β:-0.312; 95% CI: -0.527,-0.097) and total motility (β:-0.347; 95% CI: -0.636,-0.059) after adjusted for age, education level, BMI, smoking, abstinence time, temperature, humidity and season. Conclusion: Exposure to PM(10) was associated with statistically significant decrements in sperm concentration and motility, and the adverse impact on sperm concentration was significantly in early phases of spermatogenesis.

  16. Assesment of PM2.5 emission from corn stover burning determining in chamber combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidawati; Lestari, P.; Sofyan, A.

    2018-04-01

    Chamber measurement were conducted to determine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) emission from open burning of corn straw at Garut District, West Java. The of this study is to estimate the concentration of PM2.5 for two types of corn (corncobs and cornstover) for five varieties (Bisma, P29, NK, Bisma, NW). Corn residues were collected and then burned in the chamber combustion. The chamber was designed to simulate the burning in the field, which was observed in the field experiment that meteorological condition was calm wind. The samples were collected using a minivol air sampler. The assessment results of PM2.5 concentrations (mg/m3) from open burning experiment in the chamber for five varieties of corn cobs (Bisma, P29, NK, Bisi, NW) was 9.187; 2.843; 7.409; 3.781; 1.895 respectively. Concentration for corn stover burn was 2.060; 5.283; 4.048; 5.306 and 5.697 respectively. Fluctuations in the value of concentration among these varieties reflect variations in combustion conditions (combustion efficiency) and other parameters including water content, biomass conditions and the meteorological conditions. The combustion efficiency (MCE) of the combustion chamber simulation of corncobs ia lower than the MCE of corn stover, that the concentration PM2.5 more emitted from the burning of corn stover. The results of this study presented provide useful information for the development of local emission factors for PM2.5 from open burning of corn stover in Indonesia.

  17. Impacts of Energy Sector Emissions on PM2.5 Air Quality in Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karambelas, A. N.; Kiesewetter, G.; Heyes, C.; Holloway, T.

    2015-12-01

    India experiences high concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and several Indian cities currently rank among the world's most polluted cities. With ongoing urbanization and a growing economy, emissions from different energy sectors remain major contributors to air pollution in India. Emission sectors impact ambient air quality differently due to spatial distribution (typical urban vs. typical rural sources) as well as source height characteristics (low-level vs. high stack sources). This study aims to assess the impacts of emissions from three distinct energy sectors—transportation, domestic, and electricity—on ambient PM2.5­­ in northern India using an advanced air quality analysis framework based on the U.S. EPA Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Present air quality conditions are simulated using 2010 emissions from the Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interaction and Synergies (GAINS) model. Modeled PM2.5 concentrations are compared with satellite observations of aerosol optical depth (AOD) from the Moderate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for 2010. Energy sector emissions impacts on future (2030) PM2.5 are evaluated with three sensitivity simulations, assuming maximum feasible reduction technologies for either transportation, domestic, or electricity sectors. These simulations are compared with a business as usual 2030 simulation to assess relative sectoral impacts spatially and temporally. CMAQ is modeled at 12km by 12km and include biogenic emissions from the Community Land Model coupled with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols in Nature (CLM-MEGAN), biomass burning emissions from the Global Fires Emissions Database (GFED), and ERA-Interim meteorology generated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for 2010 to quantify the impact of modified anthropogenic emissions on ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Energy sector emissions analysis supports decision-making to improve future air quality and public health in

  18. Lability of Secondary Organic Particulate Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; Giles, Mary K.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Bertram, Allan K.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    Accurate simulations of the consenctrations of atmospheric organic particulate matter (PM) are needed for predicting energy flow in the Earth’s climate system. In the past, simulations of organic PM widely assume equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between the PM and surrounding vapor. Herein, we test this assumption by measuring evaporation rates and associated vapor mass concentration of organic films representative of atmospheric PM. For films representing anthropogenic PM, evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations increased above a threshold relative humidity (RH), indicating equilibrium partitioning above a transition RH but not below. In contrast for films representing biogenic PM, no threshold was observed, indicating equilibrium partitioning at all RHs. The results suggest that the mass lability of atmospheric organic PM can differ in consequential ways among Earth’s natural biomes, polluted regions, and regions of land-use change, and these differences need to be considered when simulating atmospheric organic PM.

  19. Winter mass concentrations of carbon species in PM10, PM 2.5 and PM1 in Zagreb air, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godec, Ranka; Čačković, Mirjana; Šega, Krešimir; Bešlić, Ivan

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to examine the mass concentrations of EC, OC and TC (EC + OC) in PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1) particle fractions. Daily PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1) samples were collected at an urban background monitoring site in Zagreb during winter 2009. Average OC and EC mass concentrations were 11.9 and 1.8 μg m(-3) in PM(10), 9.0 and 1.4 μg m(-3) in PM(2.5), and 5.5 and 1.1 μg m(-3) in PM(1). Average OC/EC ratios in PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1) were 7.4, 6.9 and 5.4, respectively.

  20. [Preliminary study of source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 in three cities of China during spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shen; Pan, Xiao-chuan; Madaniyazi, Li-na; Xie, Juan; He, Ya-hui

    2013-09-01

    To study source apportionment of atmospheric PM10 (particle matter ≤ 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter) and PM2.5 (particle matter ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) in Beijing,Urumqi and Qingdao, China. The atmospheric particle samples of PM10 and PM2.5 collected from Beijing between May 17th and June 18th, 2005, from Urumqi between April 20th and June 1st, 2006 and from Qingdao between April 4th and May 15th, 2005, were detected to trace the source apportionment by factor analysis and enrichment factor methods. In Beijing, the source apportionment results derived from factor analysis model for PM10 were construction dust and soil sand dust (contributing rate of variance at 45.35%), industry dust, coal-combusted smoke and vehicle emissions (contributing rate at 31.83%), and biomass burning dust (13.57%). The main pollution element was Pb, while the content (median (minimum value-maximum value)was 0.216 (0.040-0.795) µg/m(3)) . As for PM2.5, the sources were construction dust and soil sand dust (38.86%), industry dust, coal-combusted smoke and vehicle emissions (25.73%), biomass burning dust (13.10%) and burning oil dust (11.92%). The main pollution element was Zn (0.365(0.126-0.808) µg/m(3)).In Urumqi, source apportionment results for PM10 were soil sand dust and coal-combusted dust(49.75%), industry dust, vehicle emissions and secondary particles dust (30.65%). The main characteristic pollution element was Cd (0.463(0.033-1.351) ng/m(3)). As for PM2.5, the sources were soil sand dust and coal-combusted dust (43.26%), secondary particles dust (22.29%), industry dust and vehicle emissions (20.50%). The main characteristic pollution element was As (14.599 (1.696-36.741) µg/m(3)).In Qingdao, source apportionment results for PM10 were construction dust (30.91%), vehicle emissions and industry dust (29.65%) and secondary particles dust (28.99%). The main characteristic pollution element was Pb (64.071 (5.846-346.831) µg/m(3)). As for PM2.5, the sources were

  1. Baryonic matter and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Fukushima, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    We summarize recent developments in identifying the ground state of dense baryonic matter and beyond. The topics include deconfinement from baryonic matter to quark matter, a diquark mixture, topological effect coupled with chirality and density, and inhomogeneous chiral condensates.

  2. Anomalous elevated radiocarbon measurements of PM2.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Bruce A.; Fallon, Stewart J.; Zermeño, Paula; Bench, Graham; Schichtel, Bret A.

    2013-01-01

    Two-component models are often used to determine the contributions made by fossil fuel and natural sources of carbon in airborne particulate matter (PM). The models reduce thousands of actual sources to two end members based on isotopic signature. Combustion of fossil fuels produces PM free of carbon-14 ( 14 C). Wood or charcoal smoke, restaurant fryer emissions, and natural emissions from plants produce PM with the contemporary concentration of 14 C approximately 1.2 × 10 −1214 C/C. Such data can be used to estimate the relative contributions of fossil fuels and biogenic aerosols to the total aerosol loading and radiocarbon analysis is becoming a popular source apportionment method. Emissions from incinerators combusting medical or biological wastes containing tracer 14 C can skew the 14 C/C ratio of PM, however, so critical analysis of sampling sites for possible sources of elevated PM needs to be completed prior to embarking on sampling campaigns. Results are presented for two ambient monitoring sites in different areas of the United States where 14 C contamination is apparent. Our experience suggests that such contamination is uncommon but is also not rare (∼10%) for PM sampling sites.

  3. Lifetime measurement in 136Pm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toney, D.; Zhong, Q.; De Angelis, G.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the electromagnetic transition probabilities in the doublet bands of 136 Pm. These two bands have been observed up to Iπ = (21 + ). Contrary to the case of 134 Pr, the B(M1)/B(E2) ratios take similar values within the error bars in 136 Pm. This is a strong indication that there is considerable difference between the two nuclei. However, a lifetime measurement in 136 Pm is needed to shed light on the scale and the origin of the difference

  4. Differentiating the effects of characteristics of PM pollution on mortality from ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hualiang; Tao, Jun; Du, Yaodong; Liu, Tao; Qian, Zhengmin; Tian, Linwei; Di, Qian; Zeng, Weilin; Xiao, Jianpeng; Guo, Lingchuan; Li, Xing; Xu, Yanjun; Ma, Wenjun

    2016-03-01

    Though increasing evidence supports significant association between particulate matter (PM) air pollution and stroke, it remains unclear what characteristics, such as particle size and chemical constituents, are responsible for this association. A time-series model with quasi-Poisson function was applied to assess the association of PM pollution with different particle sizes and chemical constituents with mortalities from ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes in Guangzhou, China, we controlled for potential confounding factors in the model, such as temporal trends, day of the week, public holidays, meteorological factors and influenza epidemic. We found significant association between stroke mortality and various PM fractions, such as PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, with generally larger magnitudes for smaller particles. For the PM2.5 chemical constituents, we found that organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), sulfate, nitrate and ammonium were significantly associated with stroke mortality. The analysis for specific types of stroke suggested that it was hemorrhagic stroke, rather than ischemic stroke, that was significantly associated with PM pollution. Our study shows that various PM pollution fractions are associated with stroke mortality, and constituents primarily from combustion and secondary aerosols might be the harmful components of PM2.5 in Guangzhou, and this study suggests that PM pollution is more relevant to hemorrhagic stroke in the study area, however, more studies are warranted due to the underlying limitations of this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. A dynamic processes study of PM retention by trees under different wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Changkun; Kan, Liyan; Guo, Jiankang; Jin, Sijia; Li, Zhigang; Chen, Dan; Li, Xin; Che, Shengquan

    2018-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is one of the most serious environmental problems, exacerbating respiratory and vascular illnesses. Plants have the ability to reduce non-point source PM pollution through retention on leaves and branches. Studies of the dynamic processes of PM retention by plants and the mechanisms influencing this process will help to improve the efficiency of urban greening for PM reduction. We examined dynamic processes of PM retention and the major factors influencing PM retention by six trees with different branch structure characteristics in wind tunnel experiments at three different wind speeds. The results showed that the changes of PM numbers retained by plant leaves over time were complex dynamic processes for which maximum values could exceed minimum values by over 10 times. The average value of PM measured in multiple periods and situations can be considered a reliable indicator of the ability of the plant to retain PM. The dynamic processes were similar for PM 10 and PM 2.5 . They could be clustered into three groups simulated by continually-rising, inverse U-shaped, and U-shaped polynomial functions, respectively. The processes were the synthetic effect of characteristics such as species, wind speed, period of exposure and their interactions. Continually-rising functions always explained PM retention in species with extremely complex branch structure. Inverse U-shaped processes explained PM retention in species with relatively simple branch structure and gentle wind. The U-shaped processes mainly explained PM retention at high wind speeds and in species with a relatively simple crown. These results indicate that using plants with complex crowns in urban greening and decreasing wind speed in plant communities increases the chance of continually-rising or inverse U-shaped relationships, which have a positive effect in reducing PM pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Impacts of Particulate Matter on Gulf of Mexico Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, W.; Rohli, R. V.

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to analyze the relationship between tropical cyclones of the Gulf of Mexico-Atlantic basin and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). The daily mean PM2.5 concentration values were collected from United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Tropical cyclone data were collected from Tropical Prediction Center Best Track Reanalysis in Unisys Weather®. The GRIdded Binary (GRIB-formatted) data were downloaded from the Data Support Section of the Computational and Information Systems Laboratory at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). Through ArcGIS®, the tropical cyclone tracks were compared with the interpolated daily mean PM2.5 concentration value. Results suggest that the tracks tend to avoid areas with higher PM2.5 concentrations, and the intensity was weakened significantly after passing the PM2.5-rich area. Through simulation using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, the pressure and vertical structure of Hurricane Lili were weakened after passing the most PM2.5-rich area in Louisiana. Also, little evidence is found for the possibility of precipitation generated by the approaching tropical cyclone to cleanse the atmosphere of PM2.5 before storm passage. These results have important implications for tropical cyclone prediction as storms approach polluted areas or other places where PM2.5 particles are abundant, not only including urban environments but also in coastal areas where proscribed burns take place during tropical cyclone season, such as during sugarcane harvesting in southern Louisiana.

  7. 75 FR 29537 - Draft Transportation Conformity Guidance for Quantitative Hot-spot Analyses in PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Quantitative Hot- spot Analyses in PM 2.5 and PM 10 Nonattainment and Maintenance Areas AGENCY: Environmental... finalized, this guidance would help state and local agencies complete quantitative PM 2.5 and PM 10 hot-spot... projects. A hot-spot analysis includes an estimation of project-level emissions, air quality modeling, and...

  8. Measurement of the charge asymmetry in $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi K^{\\pm}$ and search for $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi \\pi^{\\pm}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Cheung, S -F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2014-01-01

    The CP-violating charge asymmetry in $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi K^{\\pm}$ decays is measured in a sample of $pp$ collisions at 7 TeV centre-of-mass energy, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the LHCb experiment. The result is $\\mathcal{A}_{CP}(B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi K^{\\pm}) = \\rm 0.022\\pm 0.021 \\pm 0.009$, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. In addition, a search for the $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi \\pi^{\\pm}$ decay mode is performed, using the $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi K^{\\pm}$ decay rate for normalization. An upper limit on the branching fraction $\\mathcal{B}(B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi \\pi^{\\pm})< 1.5\\times 10^{-7}$ is set at 90% confidence level.

  9. The PM2.5 threshold for aerosol extinction in the Beijing megacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingbin; Xin, Jinyuan; Liu, Zirui; Zhang, Kequan; Tang, Guiqian; Zhang, Wenyu; Wang, Yuesi

    2017-10-01

    Particulate pollution has remained at a high level in the megacity of Beijing in the past decade. The PM2.5, PM10, aerosol optical depth (AOD), Angstrom exponent(α), and PM2.5/PM10 ratio (the proportion of PM2.5 in PM10) in Beijing were 70±6 μg m-3, 128±6 μg m-3, 0.57 ± 0.05, 1.10 ± 0.08, 45 ± 4%, respectively, from 2005 to 2014. The annual means of PM concentration, AOD, α, and PM2.5/PM10 ratio decreased slightly during this decade, meanwhile PM concentration increased in the winter. Furthermore, we found there were thresholds of PM2.5 concentration for aerosol extinction. When the PM concentration was lower than a certain threshold, AOD decreased quickly with the decline of PM concentration. To make the improvement of the particle pollution more noticeable, the PM concentration should be controlled under the threshold. The annual averaged threshold is 63 μg m-3, and the threshold values reached the maximum of 74 μg m-3 in spring, ranged from 54 to 56 μg m-3 in the three other seasons. The threshold values ranged from 55 to 77 μg m-3 under other relevant factors, including air masses directions and relative humidity.

  10. Effect of reaction temperature on the PM10 features during coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, J.C.; Du, Y.G.; Liu, Q.C.

    2008-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants produce fine fly ash consisting of particulate matter (PM). Particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM 1 0) is of significant concern because of its adverse environmental and health impacts. This paper studied the effect of reaction temperature on particulate matter (PM 1 0) emission and its chemical composition. The emission characteristics and elemental partition of PM 1 0 from coal combustion were investigated in a drop tube furnace. The paper discussed the experimental apparatus and conditions as well as the coal properties and sample analysis. Liupanshui (LPS) bituminous coal from China was used for the study. The fuel composition of LPS coal and the composition of low temperature ash of Chinese LPS coal were described. The paper also presented the results of the study with reference to particle size distribution and emission characteristic of PM 1 0; elemental partition within PM 1 0; and effect of the reaction temperature on elemental partition within PM 1 0. The PM mass size distribution was found to be bimodal. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  11. Procedures for identifying reasonably available control technology for stationary sources of PM-10. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.J.; Ellefson, R.

    1992-09-01

    The guidance document sets forth procedures and identifies sources of information that will assist State and local air pollution control agencies in determining Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) for PM-10 (particulate matter having a nominal aerometric diameter of 10 microns or less) emission from existing stationary sources on a case-by-case basis. It provides an annotated bibliography of documents to aid in identifying the activities that cause PM-10 emissions as well as applicable air pollution control measures and their effectiveness in reducing emissions. The most stringent state total particulate matter (PM) emission limits are identified for several categories of PM-10 sources and compared to available emission test data. Finally, guidance is provided on procedures for estimating total capital investment and total annual cost of the control measures which are generally used to control PM-10 emissions

  12. Air quality in the Kootenays: fine particulate (PM10) airborne metals and sulphur dioxide levels, 1993-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    Air quality monitoring data collected in the Kootenays over a seven year period from 1993 to 1999 are summarized in an effort to inform the public about air quality in the Kootenays and to assist them in understanding air quality monitoring results. Data includes hourly (TEOM) and weekly (NAPS) data for particulate matter (PM 1 0) airborne metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc) and sulphur dioxide. Analysis of monitoring data showed that particulate matter levels remained constant in most communities, with Johnson Lake and Slocan reporting the lowest levels, while Golden had the highest values during this period. Trail-Butler Park showed a clear declining trend in PM 1 0. Airborne metals and sulphur dioxide levels have decreased in the Kootenays during the seven year period, with only occasional exceedances of both Level A and B air quality objectives in some communities. The report includes a detailed description of the sampling methodology and the analyzed results for PM 1 0, airborne metals and sulphur dioxide for 10 communities in the region. 6 refs., 1 tab., 16 figs., 1 map

  13. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  14. Respiratory dose analysis for components of ambient particulate matter#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of particles with different sizes and chemical compositions. Although PM is known to cause health hazard, specific attributes of PM that may cause health effects are somewhat ambiguous. The dose of each specific compo...

  15. Particulate matter urban air pollution from traffic car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, G. M.; Brezoczki, V. M.

    2017-05-01

    The particulate matters (PM) are very important compounds of urban air pollution. There are a lot of air pollution sources who can generate PM and one of the most important of them it is urban traffic car. Air particulate matters have a major influence on human health so everywhere are looking for PM reducing solutions. It is knows that one of the solution for reduce the PM content from car traffic on ambient urban air is the fluidity of urban traffic car by introduction the roundabout intersections. This paper want to present some particulate matter determinations for PM10 and PM2.5 conducted on the two types of urban intersection respectively traffic light and roundabout intersections in Baia Mare town in the approximate the same work conditions. The determinations were carried out using a portable particulate matter monitor Haz - Dust model EPAM - 5000, who can provide a real time data for PM10, PM 2.5.Determinations put out that there are differences between the two locations regarding the PM content on ambient air. On roundabout intersection the PM content is less than traffic light intersection for both PM10 and PM 2.5 with more than 30%.

  16. Statistical physics including applications to condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Hermann, Claudine

    2005-01-01

    Statistical Physics bridges the properties of a macroscopic system and the microscopic behavior of its constituting particles, otherwise impossible due to the giant magnitude of Avogadro's number. Numerous systems of today's key technologies -- as e.g. semiconductors or lasers -- are macroscopic quantum objects; only statistical physics allows for understanding their fundamentals. Therefore, this graduate text also focuses on particular applications such as the properties of electrons in solids with applications, and radiation thermodynamics and the greenhouse effect.

  17. Life cycle impact assessment modeling for particulate matter: A new approach based on physico-chemical particle properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notter, Dominic A

    2015-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) causes severe damage to human health globally. Airborne PM is a mixture of solid and liquid droplets suspended in air. It consists of organic and inorganic components, and the particles of concern range in size from a few nanometers to approximately 10μm. The complexity of PM is considered to be the reason for the poor understanding of PM and may also be the reason why PM in environmental impact assessment is poorly defined. Currently, life cycle impact assessment is unable to differentiate highly toxic soot particles from relatively harmless sea salt. The aim of this article is to present a new impact assessment for PM where the impact of PM is modeled based on particle physico-chemical properties. With the new method, 2781 characterization factors that account for particle mass, particle number concentration, particle size, chemical composition and solubility were calculated. Because particle sizes vary over four orders of magnitudes, a sound assessment of PM requires that the exposure model includes deposition of particles in the lungs and that the fate model includes coagulation as a removal mechanism for ultrafine particles. The effects model combines effects from particle size, solubility and chemical composition. The first results from case studies suggest that PM that stems from emissions generally assumed to be highly toxic (e.g. biomass combustion and fossil fuel combustion) might lead to results that are similar compared with an assessment of PM using established methods. However, if harmless PM emissions are emitted, established methods enormously overestimate the damage. The new impact assessment allows a high resolution of the damage allocatable to different size fractions or chemical components. This feature supports a more efficient optimization of processes and products when combating air pollution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Main components of PM10 in an area influenced by a cement plant in Catalonia, Spain: Seasonal and daily variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Joaquim; Sierra, Jordi; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, José L

    2018-05-01

    Particulate matter (PM) composition has a key role in a wide range of health outcomes, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, cardiovascular disease, and death, among others. Montcada i Reixac, a municipality located in the Barcelona metropolitan area (Catalonia, Spain), for its location and orography, is an interesting case- study to investigate air pollution. The area is also characterized by the presence of different industrial emission sources, including a cement factory and a large waste management plant, as well as an intense traffic. In this study, PM 10 levels, trace elements, ions, and carbonaceous particles were determined for a long time period (2013-2016) in this highly polluted area. PM 10 samples were collected during six consecutive days in two campaigns (cold and warm) per year. A number of elements (As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Fe, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Hg, Ho, K, La, Li, Hg, Mg, Mn, Mo, Nb, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tb, Th, Ti, Tl, U, V, W, Y, Yb, and Zr), ions (Cl - , SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , and NH 4 + ), and carbonaceous content (total carbon, organic plus elemental carbon, and CO 3 2- ), were analysed. These data were used to identify the PM 10 main components: mineral matter, sea spray, secondary inorganic aerosols, organic matter plus elemental carbon, trace elements or indeterminate fraction. Although a clear seasonality (cold vs. warm periods) was found, there were no differences between working days and weekends. Obviously, the cement plant influences the surrounding environment. However, no differences in trace elements related with the cement plant activity (Al, Ca, Ni and V) between weekdays and weekends were noted. However, some traffic-related elements (i.e., Co, Cr, Mn, and Sb) showed significantly higher concentrations in weekdays. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Investigation of time-resolved atmospheric conditions and indoor/outdoor particulate matter concentrations in homes with gas and biomass cook stoves in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Heather A; Pardyjak, Eric R

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports findings from a case study designed to investigate indoor and outdoor air quality in homes near the United States-Mexico border During the field study, size-resolved continuous particulate matter (PM) concentrations were measured in six homes, while outdoor PM was simultaneously monitored at the same location in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, during March 14-30, 2009. The purpose of the experiment was to compare PM in homes using different fuels for cooking, gas versus biomass, and to obtain a spatial distribution of outdoor PM in a region where local sources vary significantly (e.g., highway, border crossing, unpaved roads, industry). Continuous PM data were collected every 6 seconds using a valve switching system to sample indoor and outdoor air at each home location. This paper presents the indoor PM data from each home, including the relationship between indoor and outdoor PM. The meteorological conditions associated with elevated ambient PM events in the region are also discussed. Results indicate that indoor air pollution has a strong dependence on cooking fuel, with gas stoves having hourly averaged median PM3 concentrations in the range of 134 to 157 microg m(-3) and biomass stoves 163 to 504 microg m(-1). Outdoor PM also indicates a large spatial heterogeneity due to the presence of microscale sources and meteorological influences (median PM3: 130 to 770 microg m(-3)). The former is evident in the median and range of daytime PM values (median PM3: 250 microg m(-3), maximum: 9411 microg m(-3)), while the meteorological influences appear to be dominant during nighttime periods (median PM3: 251 microg m(-3), maximum: 10,846 microg m(-3)). The atmospheric stability is quantified for three nighttime temperature inversion episodes, which were associated with an order of magnitude increase in PM10 at the regulatory monitor in Nogales, AZ (maximum increase: 12 to 474 microg m(-3)). Implications: Regulatory air quality standards are based on outdoor

  20. Indoor air pollution (PM2.5) due to secondhand smoke in selected hospitality and entertainment venues of Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafees, Asaad Ahmed; Taj, Tahir; Kadir, Muhammad Masood; Fatmi, Zafar; Lee, Kiyoung; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2012-09-01

    To determine particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)) levels at various hospitality and entertainment venues of Karachi, Pakistan. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at various locations in Karachi, during July 2009. Sampling was performed at 20 enclosed public places, including hospitality (restaurants and cafés) and entertainment (snooker/billiard clubs and gaming zones) venues. PM(2.5) levels were measured using an aerosol monitor. All entertainment venues had higher indoor PM(2.5) levels as compared to the immediate outdoors. The indoor PM(2.5) levels ranged from 25 to 390 μg/m(3) and the outdoor PM(2.5) levels ranged from 18 to 96 μg/m(3). The overall mean indoor PM(2.5) level was 138.8 μg/m(3) (± 112.8). Among the four types of venues, the highest mean indoor PM(2.5) level was reported from snooker/billiard clubs: 264.7 μg/m(3) (± 85.4) and the lowest from restaurants: 66.4 μg/m(3) (± 57.6) while the indoor/outdoor ratio ranged from 0.97 to 10.2, highest being at the snooker/billiard clubs. The smoking density ranged from 0.21 to 0.57, highest being at gaming zones. The indoor PM(2.5) concentration and smoking density were not significantly correlated (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.113; p = 0.636). This study demonstrates unacceptably high levels of PM(2.5) exposure associated with secondhand smoke (SHS) at various entertainment venues of Karachi even after 8 years since the promulgation of smoke-free ordinance (2002) in Pakistan; however, better compliance may be evident at hospitality venues. The results of this study call for effective implementation and enforcement of smoke-free environment at public places in the country.

  1. Characterization of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in outdoor/indoor PM10/PM2.5/PM1.0 in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huiting; Gao, Lirong; Xia, Dan; Qiao, Lin; Wang, Runhua; Su, Guijin; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui

    2017-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were listed in the Stockholm Convention, because of their adverse health effects, persistence, bioaccumulation and ubiquitous presence in the environment. Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), chlorinated derivatives of n-alkanes, have been listed as candidate POPs under Stockholm Convention. Inhalation uptake was an important exposure pathway for non-occupational adult human and the pollution of particle matter has caused great concern. There are some studies focused on POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in different size particles. However, there were no studies that discussed CP concentrations in particulate matter (PM) with different sizes. In this study, a total of 30 PM samples were collected both outdoors and indoors at a sampling site in Beijing. These samples were used to investigate the concentrations and distributions of SCCPs and medium chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) in PM fractions of different sizes, and to evaluate inhalation exposure risks. The results showed that the average SCCPs and MCCPs in the outdoor PM 10 were 23.9 and 3.6 ng m -3 , while the mean values in indoor were 61.1 and 6.9 ng m -3 , respectively. The levels of SCCPs and MCCPs in indoor and outdoor were relatively high. SCCP and MCCP concentrations in the indoor PM 10 /PM 2.5 /PM 1.0 samples were higher than the corresponding values in the outdoor, because of the using of some products containing CPs in the indoors, like paints and coatings, leather and rubber products. In both outdoor and indoor air, CPs are mainly associated with particles ≤2.5 μm in diameter. The main homolog groups for both SCCPs and MCCPs were C 10-11 Cl 7-8 . It is assumed that SCCPs in the outdoor and indoor PM samples may mainly derive from the production and use of CP-42 and CP-52. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A study of health effect estimates using competing methods to model personal exposures to ambient PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Matthew; Hopke, Philip K; Zhao, Weixiang; Vedal, Sverre; Gelfand, Erwin; Rabinovitch, Nathan

    2007-09-01

    Various methods have been developed recently to estimate personal exposures to ambient particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in diameter (PM2.5) using fixed outdoor monitors as well as personal exposure monitors. One class of estimators involves extrapolating values using ambient-source components of PM2.5, such as sulfate and iron. A key step in extrapolating these values is to correct for differences in infiltration characteristics of the component used in extrapolation (such as sulfate within PM2.5) and PM2.5. When this is not done, resulting health effect estimates will be biased. Another class of approaches involves factor analysis methods such as positive matrix factorization (PMF). Using either an extrapolation or a factor analysis method in conjunction with regression calibration allows one to estimate the direct effects of ambient PM2.5 on health, eliminating bias caused by using fixed outdoor monitors and estimated personal ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Several forms of the extrapolation method are defined, including some new ones. Health effect estimates that result from the use of these methods are compared with those from an expanded PMF analysis using data collected from a health study of asthmatic children conducted in Denver, Colorado. Examining differences in health effect estimates among the various methods using a measure of lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s) as the health indicator demonstrated the importance of the correction factor(s) in the extrapolation methods and that PMF yielded results comparable with the extrapolation methods that incorporated correction factors.

  3. Environmental particulate (PM2.5 augments stiffness-induced alveolar epithelial cell mechanoactivation of transforming growth factor beta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn M Dysart

    Full Text Available Dysfunctional pulmonary homeostasis and repair, including diseases such as pulmonary fibrosis (PF, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and tumorigenesis have been increasing over the past decade, a fact that heavily implicates environmental influences. Several investigations have suggested that in response to increased transforming growth factor--beta (TGFβ signaling, the alveolar type II (ATII epithelial cell undergoes phenotypic changes that may contribute to the complex pathobiology of PF. We have previously demonstrated that increased tissue stiffness associated with PF is a potent extracellular matrix (ECM signal for epithelial cell activation of TGFβ. The work reported here explores the relationship between tissue stiffness and exposure to environmental stimuli in the activation of TGFβ. We hypothesized that exposure of ATII cells to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 will result in enhanced cell contractility, TGFβ activation, and subsequent changes to ATII cell phenotype. ATII cells were cultured on increasingly stiff substrates with or without addition of PM2.5. Exposure to PM2.5 resulted in increased activation of TGFβ, increased cell contractility, and elongation of ATII cells. Most notably, on 8 kPa substrates, a stiffness greater than normal but less than established fibrotic lung, addition of PM2.5 resulted in increased cortical cell stiffness, enhanced actin staining and cell elongation; a result not seen in the absence of PM2.5. Our work suggests that PM2.5 exposure additionally enhances the existing interaction between ECM stiffness and TGFβ that has been previously reported. Furthermore, we show that this additional enhancement is likely a consequence of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS leading to increased TGFβ signaling events. These results highlight the importance of both the micromechanical and biochemical environment in lung disease initiation and suggest that individuals in early stages of lung

  4. Direct and Indirect Effects of PM on the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelin, Timothy D.; Joseph, Allan M.; Gorr, Matthew W.; Wold, Loren E.

    2011-01-01

    Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) elicits a variety of responses on the cardiovascular system through both direct and indirect pathways. Indirect effects of PM on the cardiovascular system are mediated through the autonomic nervous system, which controls heart rate variability, and inflammatory responses, which augment acute cardiovascular events and atherosclerosis. Recent research demonstrates that PM also affects the cardiovascular system directly by entry into the systemic circulation. This process causes myocardial dysfunction through mechanisms of reactive oxygen species production, calcium ion interference, and vascular dysfunction. In this review, we will present key evidence in both the direct and indirect pathways, suggest clinical applications of the current literature, and recommend directions for future research. PMID:22119171

  5. Analysis of traffic and meteorology on airborne particulate matter in Münster, northwest Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietl, Johanna K; Klemm, Otto

    2009-07-01

    The importance of street traffic and meteorological conditions on the concentrations of particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 microm (PM10) was studied in the city of Münster in northwest Germany. The database consisted of meteorological data, data of PM10 mass concentrations and fine particle number (6-225 nm diameter) concentrations, and traffic intensity data as counted with tally hand counters at a four- to six-lane road. On working days, a significant correlation could be found between the diurnal mean PM10 mass concentration and vehicle number. The lower number of heavy-duty vehicles compared with passenger cars contributed more to the particle number concentration on working days than on weekend days. On weekends, when the vehicle number was very low, the correlation between PM10 mass concentration and vehicle number changed completely. Other sources of PM and the meteorology dominated the PM concentration. Independent of the weekday, by decreasing the traffic by approximately 99% during late-night hours, the PM10 concentration was reduced by 12% of the daily mean value. A correlation between PM10 and the particle number concentration was found for each weekday. In this study, meteorological parameters, including the atmospheric stability of the boundary layer, were also accounted for. The authors deployed artificial neural networks to achieve more information on the influence of various meteorological parameters, traffic, and the day of the week. A multilayer perceptron network showed the best results for predicting the PM10 concentration, with the correlation coefficient being 0.72. The influence of relative humidity, temperature, and wind was strong, whereas the influence of atmospheric stability and the traffic parameters was weak. Although traffic contributes a constant amount of particles in a daily and weekly cycle, it is the meteorology that drives most of the variability.

  6. A Review on Predicting Ground PM2.5 Concentration Using Satellite Aerosol Optical Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Chu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed the prediction of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 from satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD and summarized the advantages and limitations of these predicting models. A total of 116 articles were included from 1436 records retrieved. The number of such studies has been increasing since 2003. Among these studies, four predicting models were widely used: Multiple Linear Regression (MLR (25 articles, Mixed-Effect Model (MEM (23 articles, Chemical Transport Model (CTM (16 articles and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR (10 articles. We found that there is no so-called best model among them and each has both advantages and limitations. Regarding the prediction accuracy, MEM performs the best, while MLR performs worst. CTM predicts PM2.5 better on a global scale, while GWR tends to perform well on a regional level. Moreover, prediction performance can be significantly improved by combining meteorological variables with land use factors of each region, instead of only considering meteorological variables. In addition, MEM has advantages in dealing with the AOD data with missing values. We recommend that with the help of higher resolution AOD data, future works could be focused on developing satellite-based predicting models for the prediction of historical PM2.5 and other air pollutants.

  7. PM2.5 pollution from household solid fuel burning practices in central India: 1. Impact on indoor air quality and associated health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matawle, Jeevan Lal; Pervez, Shamsh; Shrivastava, Anjali; Tiwari, Suresh; Pant, Pallavi; Deb, Manas Kanti; Bisht, Diwan Singh; Pervez, Yasmeen F

    2017-10-01

    PM 2.5 concentrations were measured in residential indoor environment in slums of central India during 2012-2013. In addition, a suite of chemical components including metals (Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, Mo, Se, Sb, Na, Mg, K and Hg), ions (Na + , Mg 2+ , K + , Ca 2+ , F - , Cl - , NH 4 + , NO 3 - and SO 4 2- ) and carbon (OC and EC) were analyzed for all samples. Indoor PM 2.5 concentrations were found to be several folds higher than the 24-h national ambient air quality standard (60 µg/m 3 ) for PM 2.5 in India, and the concentrations were found to vary from season to season. Mass closure was attempted for PM 2.5 data, and close to 100 % mass was accounted for by organic matter, crustal material, secondary organic and inorganic aerosols and elemental carbon. Additionally, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health risks associated with exposure to indoor PM 2.5 (inhalation, dermal and ingestion) were estimated and while exposures associated with dermal contact and ingestion were found to be within the acceptable limits, risk associated with inhalation exposure was found to be high for children and adults. Elements including Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, As and Pb were present in high concentrations and contributed to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for residents' health. Results from this study highlight the need for efforts to reduce air pollution exposure in slum areas.

  8. An investigation of the treatment of particulate matter from gasoline engine exhaust using non-thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Dan; Gao Dengshan; Yu Gang; Shen Xianglin; Gu Fan

    2005-01-01

    A plasma reactor with catalysts was used to treat exhaust gas from a gasoline engine in order to decrease particulate matter (PM) emissions. The effect of non-thermal plasma (NTP) of the dielectric discharges on the removal of PM from the exhaust gas was investigated experimentally. The removal efficiency of PM was based on the concentration difference in PM for particle diameters ranging from 0.3 to 5.0 μm as measured by a particle counter. Several factors affecting PM conversion, including the density of plasma energy, reaction temperature, flow rate of exhaust gas, were investigated in the experiment. The results indicate that PM removal efficiency ranged approximately from 25 to 57% and increased with increasing energy input in the reactor, reaction temperature and residence time of the exhaust gas in the reactor. Enhanced removal of the PM was achieved by filling the discharge gap of the reactor with Cu-ZSM-5 catalyst pellets. In addition, the removal of unburned hydrocarbons was studied. Finally, available approaches for PM conversion were analyzed involving the interactions between discharge and catalytic reactions

  9. Characteristics and oxidative stress on rats and traffic policemen of ambient fine particulate matter from Shenyang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingyue; Li, Shuyin; Jin, Huanrong; Zhang, Yumin; Xu, Jia; Chen, Dongmei; Kuimin, Chen; Yuan, Zhou; Xiao, Chunling

    2015-09-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is becoming serious in China. This study aimed to investigate the impact of PM2.5 on DNA damage in Shenyang city. The concentration and composition of PM2.5 in traffic policemen's working sites including fields and indoor offices were obtained. Blood samples of field and office policemen were collected to detect DNA damage by Comet assay. Rats were used to further analyzing the oxidative DNA damage. The average concentration of PM2.5 in exposed group was significantly higher than that in control group. Composition analysis revealed that toxic heavy metal and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon substances were main elements of this PM2.5. DNA damage in field policemen was significantly higher than those in non-field group. Moreover, animal studies confirmed the oxidative DNA damage induced by PM2.5. Taken together, high DNA damages are found in the Shenyang traffic policemen and rats exposed to high level of airborne PM2.5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Meteorological factors for PM10 concentration levels in Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurtún, Ana; Mínguez, Roberto; Villar-Fernández, Alejandro; González Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Zarrabeitia, María Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is made up of a mixture of solid and aqueous species which enter the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural pathways. The levels and composition of ambient air PM depend on the climatology and on the geography (topography, soil cover, proximity to arid zones or to the coast) of a given region. Spain has particular difficulties in achieving compliance with the limit values established by the European Union (based on recommendations from the World Health Organization) for particulate matter on the order of 10 micrometers of diameter or less (PM10), but not only antropogenical emissions are responsible for this: some studies show that PM10 concentrations originating from these kinds of sources are similar to what is found in other European countries, while some of the geographical features of the Iberian Peninsula (such as African mineral dust intrusion, soil aridity or rainfall) are proven to be a factor for higher PM concentrations. This work aims to describe PM10 concentration levels in Cantabria (Northern Spain) and their relationship with the following meteorological variables: rainfall, solar radiation, temperature, barometric pressure and wind speed. Data consists of daily series obtained from hourly data records for the 2000-2010 period, of PM10 concentrations from 4 different urban-background stations, and daily series of the meteorological variables provided by Spanish National Meteorology Agency. The method used for establishing the relationships between these variables consists of several steps: i) fitting a non-stationary probability density function for each variable accounting for long-term trends, seasonality during the year and possible seasonality during the week to distinguish between work and weekend days, ii) using the marginal distribution function obtained, trans