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Sample records for matter pm continuous

  1. Development of a continuous monitoring system for PM10 and components of PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, M; Xiong, J Q; Li, W

    2000-01-01

    While particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters below 10 and 2.5 microns (PM10 and PM2.5) correlate with excess mortality and morbidity, there is evidence for still closer epidemiological associations with sulfate ion, and experimental exposure-response studies suggest that the hydrogen ion and ultrafine (PM0.15) concentrations may be important risk factors. Also, there are measurement artifacts in current methods used to measure ambient PM10 and PM2.5, including negative artifacts because of losses of sampled semivolatile components (ammonium nitrate and some organics) and positive artifacts due to particle-bound water. To study such issues, we are developing a semi-continuous monitoring system for PM10, PM2.5, semivolatiles (organic compounds and NH4NO3), particle-bound water, and other PM2.5 constituents that may be causal factors. PM10 is aerodynamically sorted into three size-fractions: (1) coarse (PM10-PM2.5); (2) accumulation mode (PM2.5-PM0.15); and (3) ultrafine (PM0.15). The mass concentration of each fraction is measured in terms of the linear relation between accumulated mass and pressure drop on polycarbonate pore filters. The PM0.15 mass, being highly correlated with the ultrafine number concentration, provides a good index of the total number concentration in ambient air. For the accumulation mode (PM2.5-PM0.15), which contains nearly all of the semivolatiles and particle-bound water by mass, aliquots of the aerosol stream flow into system components that continuously monitor sulfur (by flame photometry), ammonium and nitrate (by chemiluminescence following catalytic transformations to NO), organics (by thermal-optical analysis) and particle-bound water (by electrolytic hygrometer after vacuum evaporation of sampled particles). The concentration of H+ can be calculated (by ion balance using the monitoring data on NO3-, NH4+, and SO4=).

  2. Danish emission inventory for particular matter (PM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, M; Winther, M; Illerup, J B; Hjort Mikkelsen, M

    2003-11-01

    The first Danish emission inventory that was reported in 2002 was a provisional-estimate based on data presently available. This report documents methodology, emission factors and references used for an improved Danish emission inventory for particulate matter. Further results of the improved emission inventory for the year 2000 are shown. The particulate matter emission inventory includes TSP, PM,, and PM, The report covers emission inventories for transport and stationary combustion. An appendix covering emissions from agriculture is also included. For the transport sector, both exhaust and non-exhaust emission such as tyre and break wear and road abrasion are included. (au)

  3. Analysis of Particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentration in Khorramabad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hamed Mirhosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In this study, the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 in eight station of Khorramabad city was analyzed. Materials and Methods: For this study, the data were taken from April 2010 to March 2011. The eight sampling point were chosen in account to Khorramabad maps. During this period, 240 daily PM samples including coarse particle (PM 10 and fine particle (PM 2.5 were collected. A two-part sampler was used to collect samples of PM. According to one-way ANOVA, multiple comparisons Scheffe, the obtained data were analyzed and then compared with the Environment protection organization standard rates. Khorramabad Results: The results revealed that during measuring the maximum concentration of PM 10 and PM 2.5 was respectively 120.9 and 101.09 μ/m 3 at Shamshirabad station. There was a significant difference between the mean values of PM 10 concentration (μg/m 3 in the seasons of summer. In addition, the mean concentrations of PM 10 in warmer months exceeded to the maximum permissible concentration. Conclusions: Year comparison of PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentration with standard were revealed particle matter concentration in summer season was higher than standard. Although total mean of particle matter was less than standard concentration.

  4. Fine Particle Matter (PM2.5) Design Value

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Fine particulate matter or PM2.5 (total mass of particles below 2.5 micron is diameter) is known to cause adverse health effects in humans.See the following websites...

  5. Spatiotemporal patterns of particulate matter (PM and associations between PM and mortality in Shenzhen, China

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    Fengying Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most studies on air pollution exposure and its associations with human health in China have focused on the heavily polluted industrial areas and/or mega-cities, and studies on cities with comparatively low air pollutant concentrations are still rare. Only a few studies have attempted to analyse particulate matter (PM for the vibrant economic centre Shenzhen in the Pearl River Delta. So far no systematic investigation of PM spatiotemporal patterns in Shenzhen has been undertaken and the understanding of pollution exposure in urban agglomerations with comparatively low pollution is still limited. Methods We analyze daily and hourly particulate matter concentrations and all-cause mortality during 2013 in Shenzhen, China. Temporal patterns of PM (PM2.5 and PM10 with aerodynamic diameters of 2.5 (10 μm or less (or less (including particles with a diameter that equals to 2.5 (10 μm are studied, along with the ratio of PM2.5 to PM10. Spatial distributions of PM10 and PM2.5 are addressed and associations of PM10 or PM2.5 and all-cause mortality are analyzed. Results Annual average PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were 61.3 and 39.6 μg/m3 in 2013. PM2.5 failed to meet the Class 2 annual limit of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard. PM2.5 was the primary air pollutant, with 8.8 % of days having heavy PM2.5 pollution. The daily PM2.5/PM10 ratios were high. Hourly PM2.5 concentrations in the tourist area were lower than downtown throughout the day. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were higher in western parts of Shenzhen than in eastern parts. Excess risks in the number of all-cause mortality with a 10 μg/m3 increase of PM were 0.61 % (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 0.50–0.72 for PM10, and 0.69 % (95 % CI: 0.55–0.83 for PM2.5, respectively. The greatest ERs of PM10 and PM2.5 were in 2-day cumulative measures for the all-cause mortality, 2-day lag for females and the young (0–65 years, and L02 for males and the elder (>65

  6. Preliminary analysis of variability in concentration of fine particulate matter - PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 in area of Poznań city

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    Sówka Izabela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It is commonly known, that suspended particulate matter pose a threat to human life and health, negatively influence the flora, climate and also materials. Especially dangerous is the presence of high concentration of particulate matter in the area of cities, where density of population is high. The research aimed at determining the variability of suspended particulate matter concentration (PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 in two different thermal seasons, in the area of Poznań city. As a part of carried out work we analyzed the variability of concentrations and also performed a preliminary analysis of their correlation. Measured concentrations of particulate matter were contained within following ranges: PM10 – 8.7-69.6 μg/m3, PM2.5 – 2.2-88.5 μg/m3, PM1.0 – 2.5-22.9 μg/m3 in the winter season and 1.0-42.8 μg/m3 (PM10, 1.2-40.3 μg/m3 (PM2.5 and 2.7-10.4 (PM1.0 in the summer season. Preliminary correlative analysis indicated interdependence between the temperature of air, the speed of wind and concentration of particulate matter in selected measurement points. The values of correlation coefficients between the air temperature, speed of wind and concentrations of particulate matter were respectively equal to: for PM10: -0.59 and -0.55 (Jana Pawła II Street, -0.53 and -0.53 (Szymanowskiego Street, for PM2.5: -0.60 and -0.53 (Jana Pawła II Street and for PM1.0 -0.40 and -0.59 (Jana Pawła II Street.

  7. Calibrating a ground-based backscatter lidar for continuous measurements of PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Markus; Oderbolz, Daniel

    2007-10-01

    One of the main issues of atmospheric research and air quality control is the reduction of harmful particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere. Small particles can enter the human airways and cause serious health problems such as COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease), asthma or even lung cancer. Recently, interest has shifted from PM10 to finer fractions of particulate matter, e.g. PM2.5, because the health impact of finer particles is considered to be more severe. Up to now measurements of particulate matter were carried out mainly at ground level. However important atmospheric processes, i.e. particle formation, transport and vertical mixing processes, take place predominantly at higher altitudes in the planetary boundary layer. Lidar in principle provides the ability to observe these processes where they occur. The new method outlined in this paper demonstrates the use of a small sized and quite inexpensive lidar in stand-alone operation to investigate transport processes of particulate matter, and PM2.5 in particular. Continuous measurements of PM2.5 as a reference are gained with a conventional in-situ monitor, installed on a tower at an altitude of 325 m in the North of Berlin (Frohnauer Turm). These PM2.5 measurements will be compared with backscatter Lidar data (1064 nm) taken from approx. 60 m over ground up to an altitude of 15 km with a spatial resolution of 15 m. The vertical backscatter profiles at 325 m will be correlated to the concentrations obtained by the PM2,5 monitor on the tower. Both measurements have a time resolution of 180 s to observe also processes that take place at short time scales. The objective is to gain correlation functions for estimating PM2.5 concentrations from backscatter Lidar data. Such a calibrated Lidar system is a valuable instrument for environmental agencies and atmospheric research groups to observe and investigate causes of high level PM concentrations. First results show a reasonably good linear correlation

  8. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in Mexico City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Charles E. Kolb

    2008-03-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants designed to understand the atmospheric chemistry and aerosol particle microphysics impacting air quality in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) and its urban plume. The overall effort, titled MCMA- 2006, focused on: 1) the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles and 2) the measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine particular matter (PM) production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA). MCAM-2006 pursued it goals through three main activities: 1) performance and publication of detailed analyses of extensive MCMA trace gas and fine PM measurements made by the collaborating groups and others during earlier MCMA field campaigns in 2002 and 2003; 2) deployment and utilization of extensive real-time trace gas and fine PM instrumentation at urban and downwind MCMA sites in support of the MAX-Mex/MILAGRO field measurements in March, 2006; and, 3) analyses of the 2006 MCMA data sets leading to further publications that are based on new data as well as insights from analysis and publication of the 2002/2003 field data. Thirteen archival publications were coauthored with other MCMA-2003 participants. Documented findings included a significantly improved speciated emissions inventory from on-road vehicles, a greatly enhanced understanding of the sources and atmospheric loadings of volatile organic compounds, a unique analysis of the high fraction of ambient formaldehyde from primary emission sources, a much more extensive knowledge of the composition, size distributions and atmospheric mass loadings of both primary and secondary fine PM, including the fact that the rate of MCMA SOA production greatly exceeded that predicted by current atmospheric models, and evaluations of significant errors that can arise from standard air quality monitors for ozone and nitrogen

  9. Multifaceted health impacts of Particulate Matter (PM and its management: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban air quality is becoming a serious public health concern at global scale. Particulate matter (PM pollution is intimately linked with human health. Present review describes the different human health implications associated with PM pollution. PM may derive its origin from natural and anthropogenic sources. Vehicle derived pollutants as well as industrial emissions simultaneously release deleterious fine-grained PM into the atmosphere. Fine PM especially PM2.5 and PM10 are particularly deleterious to human health. Air pollution PM is an important environmental health risk factor for several respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Further, PM is inextricably linked with genotoxicity and mutations. Literature review of the cellular and molecular basis of adverse effects associated with PM is presented in this paper. Finally, management, existing technologies and policy options to reduce or mitigate the adverse health impacts of PM pollution is discussed as an eco-sustainable approach.

  10. The Concentrations and Reduction of Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10, PM2.5, PM1 at Shelterbelt Site in Beijing

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    Jungang Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter is a serious source of air pollution in urban areas, where it exerts adverse effects on human health. This article focuses on the study of subduction of shelterbelts for atmospheric particulates. The results suggest that (1 the PM mass concentration is higher in the morning or both morning and noon inside the shelterbelts and lower mass concentrations at other times; (2 the particle mass concentration inside shelterbelt is higher than outside; (3 the particle interception efficiency of the two forest belts over the three months in descending order was PM10 > PM1 > PM2.5; and (4 the two shelterbelts captured air pollutants at rates of 1496.285 and 909.075 kg/month and the major atmospheric pollutant in Beijing city is PM10. Future research directions are to study PM mass concentration variation of shelterbelt with different tree species and different configuration.

  11. Ambient air quality of karachi city as reflected by atmospheric particulate matter (PM/sub 10/) concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashmi, D.R.; Shareef, A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the variation of ambient aerosol (PM/sub 10/) concentrations in Karachi, city. Samples were collected from ten different locations, representative of urban background, residential, traffic and industrial areas from 2007 to 2011. At each location, PM/sub 10/) was measured continuously from 08:00 am to 06:00 pm at local time. The maximum 10 h average particulate matter (PM/sub 10/) mass concentrations were found at Tibet Centre (440.1 mg/m/sup 3/) and minimum at PCSIR Campus (21.7 mg/m/sup 3/) during 2008. A rising trend during 2008 may be due to the civil works for bridges and extension of roads at different locations in Karachi. The results also suggest that urban traffic and industrial areas appeared to have higher PM/sub 10/) concentration than residential and background areas. (author)

  12. Seasonal variation of the metal composition in particulate matter (PM) in Graz determined with ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartl, M.; Raber, G.; Goessler, W.; Licbinsky, R.; Pongratz, T.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Graz, the 2 nd biggest city of Austria, is not only famous for its cultural heritage but is also well known as one of the most heavily air-polluted cities of Austria. Samples of particulate matter (PM 1.0 , PM 2.5 , and PM 10 ), collected in Graz over a one year period, were analyzed for 36 metals by ICPMS following microwave-assisted acid digestion. Accumulation of PM in the city (Graz is located in a basin) and additional emissions (e.g. domestic combustion) during winter caused not only higher PM concentrations but also marked changes in the PM metal composition. (author)

  13. A multivariate study for characterizing particulate matter (PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1)) in Seoul metropolitan subway stations, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Soon-Bark; Jeong, Wootae; Park, Duckshin; Kim, Ki-Tae; Cho, Kyung Hwa

    2015-10-30

    Given that around eight million commuters use the Seoul Metropolitan Subway (SMS) each day, the indoor air quality (IAQ) of its stations has attracted much public attention. We have monitored the concentration of particulate matters (PMx) (i.e., PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) in six major transfer stations per minute for three weeks during the summer, autumn, and winter in 2014 and 2015. The data were analyzed to investigate the relationship between PMx concentration and multivariate environmental factors using statistical methods. The average PM concentration observed was approximately two or three times higher than outdoor PM10 concentration, showing similar temporal patterns at concourses and platforms. This implies that outdoor PM10 is the most significant factor in controlling indoor PM concentration. In addition, the station depth and number of trains passing through stations were found to be additional influences on PMx. Principal component analysis (PCA) and self-organizing map (SOM) were employed, through which we found that the number of trains influences PM concentration in the vicinity of platforms only, and PMx hotspots were determined. This study identifies the external and internal factors affecting PMx characteristics in six SMS stations, which can assist in the development of effective IAQ management plans to improve public health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The variability in iron speciation in size fractionated residual oil fly ash particulate matter (ROFA PM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanaik, Sidhartha; Huggins, Frank E; Huffman, Gerald P

    2016-08-15

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) containing iron can catalyze Fenton reaction leading to the production of reactive oxygen species in cells. It can also catalyze atmospheric redox reaction. These reactions are governed by the physicochemical characteristics of iron in ambient PM. As a surrogate for ambient PM, we prepared residual oil fly ash PM (ROFA PM) in a practical fire tube boiler firing residual oils with varying sulfur and ash contents. The ROFA particles were resolved into fine PM or PM2.5 (aerodynamic diameter (AD)iron speciation in PM2.5+ was ascertained using X-ray absorption spectroscopy and leaching method while that in PM2.5 was reported earlier. The results of both studies are compared to get an insight into the variability in the iron speciation in different size fractions. The results show the predominance of ferric sulfate, with a minor spinal ferrite in both PM (i.e. ZnxNi1-xFe2O4 in PM2.5, ZnFe2O4 in PM2.5+). The iron solubility in ROFA PM depends on its speciation, mode of incorporation of iron into particle's carbonaceous matrix, the grade and composition of oils, and pH of the medium. The soluble fraction of iron in PM is critical in assessing its interaction with the biological systems and its toxic potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. In vitro investigations of platinum, palladium, and rhodium mobility in urban airborne particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5, and PM1) using simulated lung fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zereini, Fathi; Wiseman, Clare L S; Püttmann, Wilhelm

    2012-09-18

    Environmental concentrations of platinum group elements (PGE) have been increasing since the introduction of automotive catalytic converters to control harmful emissions. Assessments of the human health risks of exposures to these elements, especially through the inhalation of PGE-associated airborne particulate matter (PM), have been hampered by a lack of data on their bioaccessibility. The purpose of this study is to apply in vitro methods using simulated human lung fluids [artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) and Gamble's solution] to assess the mobility of the PGE, platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd), and rhodium (Rh) in airborne PM of human health concern. Airborne PM samples (PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1)) were collected in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. For comparison, the same extraction experiments were conducted using the standard reference material, Used Auto Catalyst (monolith) (NIST 2557). Pt and Pd concentrations were measured using isotope dilution ICP-Q-MS, while Rh was measured directly with ICP-Q-MS (in collision mode with He), following established matrix separation and enrichment procedures, for both solid (filtered residues) and extracted sample phases. The mobilized fractions measured for PGE in PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1) were highly variable, which can be attributed to the heterogenic nature of airborne PM and its composition. Overall, the mobility of PGE in airborne PM samples was notable, with a mean of 51% Rh, 22% Pt, and 29% Pd present in PM(1) being mobilized by ALF after 24 h. For PM(1) exposed to Gamble's solution, a mean of 44% Rh, 18% Pt, and 17% Pd was measured in solution after 24 h. The mobility of PGE associated with airborne PM was also determined to be much higher compared to that measured for the auto catalyst standard reference material. The results suggest that PGE emitted from automotive catalytic converters are likely to undergo chemical transformations during and/or after being emitted in the environment. This study highlights the need

  16. PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) INHIBITS NEUROTROPHIN RELEASE FROM A549 CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several investigations have linked PM exposure to the exacerbation of allergic lung diseases. Many PM effects are mediated by cells within the lung including the airway epithelium, eosinophils, and lymphocytes. These cells also produce neurotophins such as NGF and/or express neur...

  17. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavala, Miguel; Velasco, Erik; Molina; Mario J.

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation.

  18. A new technique for online measurement of total and water-soluble copper (Cu) in coarse particulate matter (PM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dongbin; Shafer, Martin M.; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a novel system for online, field measurement of copper (Cu) in ambient coarse (2.5–10 μm) particulate matter (PM). This new system utilizes two virtual impactors combined with a modified liquid impinger (BioSampler) to collect coarse PM directly as concentrated slurry samples. The total and water-soluble Cu concentrations are subsequently measured by a copper Ion Selective Electrode (ISE). Laboratory evaluation results indicated excellent collection efficiency (over 85%) for particles in the coarse PM size ranges. In the field evaluations, very good agreements for both total and water-soluble Cu concentrations were obtained between online ISE-based monitor measurements and those analyzed by means of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Moreover, the field tests indicated that the Cu monitor could achieve near-continuous operation for at least 6 consecutive days (a time resolution of 2–4 h) without obvious shortcomings. - Highlights: • A novel only PM sampling and Cu measuring technology is developed. • Very good particle collection efficiency for coarse PM is observed. • Excellent agreement is obtained between Cu ISE and offline ICP-MS measurements. • The new system can be continuously operated for at least 6 consecutive days. - A new technique for online measurements of Cu in coarse PM is described

  19. Health and Environmental Effects of Particulate Matter (PM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter pose the greatest problems, because they can get deep into your lungs, and some may even get into your bloodstream. Fine particles (PM2.5) are the main cause of reduced visibility (haze).

  20. FINE PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) AND ORGANIC SPECIATION OF FIREPLACE EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a summary of fireplace particle size and organic speciation data gathered to date in an on-going project. Tests are being conducted in a residential wood combustion (RWC) laboratory on three factory-built fireplaces. RWC wood smoke particles <10?m (PM10) con...

  1. Fine particulate matter (PM) and organic speciation of fireplace emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purvis, C.R.; McCrillis, R.C.; Kariher, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of fireplace particle size and organic speciation data gathered to date in an ongoing project. Tests are being conducted in a residential wood combustion (RWC) laboratory on three factory-built fireplaces. RWC wood smoke particles <10 microm (PM10) consist primarily of a mixture of organic compounds that have condensed into droplets; therefore, the size distribution and total mass are influenced by temperature of the sample during its collection. During the series 1 tests (15 tests), the dilution tunnel used to cool and dilute the stack gases gave an average mixed gas temperature of 47.3 C and an average dilution ration of 4.3. Averages for the PM2.5 (particles <2.5 microm) and PM10 fractions were 74 and 84%, respectively. For the series 2 tests, the dilution tunnel was modified, reducing the average mixed gas temperatures to 33.8 C and increasing the average dilution ratio to 11.0 in tests completed to date. PM2.5 and PM10 fractions were 83 and 91%, respectively. Since typical winter-time mixed gas temperatures would usually be less than 10 C, these size fraction results probably represent the lower bound; the PM10 and PM2.5 size fraction results might be higher at typical winter temperatures. The particles collected on the first stage were light gray and appeared to include inorganic ash. Particles collected on the remainder of the stages were black and appeared to be condensed organics because there was noticeable lateral bleeding of the collected materials into the filter substrate. Total particulate emission rates ranged from 10.3 to 58.4 g/h; corresponding emission factors ranged from 3.3 to 14.9 g/kg of dry wood burned. A wide range of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 8270 semivolatile organic compounds were found in the emissions; of the 17 target compounds quantified, major constituents are phenol, 2-methylphenol, 4-methylphenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, and naphthalene

  2. PIXE characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 particulate matter collected during the winter season in Shanghai city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanxun; Wang Yingsong; Li Delu; Li Aiguo; Li Yan; Zhang Guilin

    2006-01-01

    The samples of PM2.5 and PM10 inhalable particulate matter had been collected during the period of December 2002-January 2003 at nineteen representative sites of Shanghai urban and suburb area in order to investigate the chemical characterization of aerosol particle in winter. The samples were analyzed to determine the average concentrations for up to twenty elements by means of particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). It was found that the average elemental concentrations in the urban center are higher than those in the suburb, except for Ti and P. The particulate mass data demonstrate that the ratio range of PM2.5/PM10 is from 0.32 to 0.85 and its average ratio is 0.6. The result of the enrichment factor shows that the inhalable particles may be divided into two categories, i.e., soil elements from the earth crust and anthropogenic pollution elements. It is noticed that toxic or harmful elements such as S, As, Pb, Ni, Mn and Se are enriched mainly in fine particles with diameter less than 2.5 μm. The fingerprints of major pollution sources such as coal (or oil) burning, vehicle exhaust emission and industry are also presented and discussed. (author)

  3. On the origin and variability of suspended particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10) concentrations in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikridas, Michael; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kizas, Christos; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Sciare, Jean

    2017-04-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean (EM) lies at the crossroad of three different continents (Europe, Asia, and Africa). EM is a densely populated region including several cities with 3M inhabitants or more (e.g. Athens, Istanbul, Izmir, and Cairo). It has been identified as the most polluted area in Europe with respect to particulate matter (PM) mainly due to the combination of high photochemical activity, which causes pollutants to oxidize and partitioning in the particle phase, with the elevated pollutants emissions from neighboring regions. In addition, the proximity to Africa and the Middle East allows frequent transport of dust particles. At the center of the Eastern Mediterranean lies the island of Cyprus, which has received very little attention regarding its PM levels despite being the location in Europe most frequently impacted by air masses from the Middle East. Herewith, we present a historical PM archive that spans 2 decades. It involves ongoing monitoring on a daily basis of particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 μm (PM10), 2.5 μm (PM2.5), and 1 μm (PM1) conducted in at least one, of the 12 currently existing air quality stations in Cyprus since 1997, 2005, and 2009, respectively. The most extended PM datasets correspond a) to the Agia Marina Xyliatou (AMX) monitoring station established at a remote area at the foothills of mount Troodos and b) that of the inland capital, Nicosia. Based on this long-term dataset, the diurnal, temporal and annual variability is assessed. Prior to 2010, PM10 concentration at all sites remained relatively constant, but at different levels, violating the annual EU legislated PM10 limit of 40 μg m-3. Since 2010, coarse mode levels have decreased at all sites. The reported decrease was equal to 30% at AMX. As a result, since 2010 the observed levels comply with the EU legislation threshold. Satellite observations of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard NASA

  4. Spatial Correlation Analysis between Particulate Matter 10 (PM10) Hazard and Respiratory Diseases in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, N. Ha; Tripathi, N. K.

    2014-11-01

    Every year, during dry season, Chiang Mai and other northern provinces of Thailand face the problem of haze which is mainly generated by the burning of agricultural waste and forest fire, contained high percentage of particulate matter. Particulate matter 10 (PM10), being very small in size, can be inhaled easily to the deepest parts of the human lung and throat respiratory functions. Due to this, it increases the risk of respiratory diseases mainly in the case of continuous exposure to this seasonal smog. MODIS aerosol images (MOD04) have been used for four weeks in March 2007 for generating the hazard map by linking to in-situ values of PM10. Simple linear regression model between PM10 and AOD got fair correlation with R2 = 0.7 and was applied to transform PM10 pattern. The hazard maps showed the dominance of PM10 in northern part of Chiang Mai, especially in second week of March when PM10 level was three to four times higher than standard. The respiratory disease records and public health station of each village were collected from Provincial Public Health Department in Chiang Mai province. There are about 300 public health stations out of 2070 villages; hence thiessen polygon was created to determine the representative area of each public health station. Within each thiessen polygon, respiratory disease incident rate (RDIR) was calculated based on the number of patients and population. Global Moran's I was computed for RDIR to explore spatial pattern of diseases through four weeks of March. Moran's I index depicted a cluster pattern of respiratory diseases in 2nd week than other weeks. That made sense for a relationship between PM10 and respiratory diseases infections. In order to examine how PM10 affect the human respiratory system, geographically weighted regression model was used to observe local correlation coefficient between RDIR and PM10 across study area. The result captured a high correlation between respiratory diseases and high level of PM10 in

  5. The relationship between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and schizophrenia severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Rika; Onozuka, Daisuke; Ikeda, Kouji; Kuroda, Kenji; Ieiri, Ichiro; Hagihara, Akihito

    2018-04-23

    Although particulate matter (PM) is reported to affect the rate of emergency admissions for schizophrenia, no study has examined the relationship between particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM 2.5 ) and the severity of schizophrenia. We obtained data on patients with schizophrenia at a psychiatric hospital, and on air pollution in Sakai, Japan between Feb 1, 2013 and April 30, 2016. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the relationship between PM 2.5 concentrations and scores on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) of schizophrenia patients at admission, with a lag of up to 7 days. During the study period, there were 1193 schizophrenia cases. The odds ratio (OR) for a BPRS score ≥ 50 at admission was 1.05 [95% confidence interval 1.00-1.10] and the effect of PM 2.5 concentration was significant for lag period of 2 days. The ORs associated with PM 2.5 concentration increased substantially for patients over 65 years of age. Ambient PM 2.5 concentration was associated with exacerbation of schizophrenia. Our results suggest that protection for several days should be considered for controlling PM 2.5 -related schizophrenia, especially among elderly patients.

  6. Health effects of ambient levels of respirable particulate matter (PM) on healthy, young-adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, William J.; Venigalla, Mohan M.; Trump, David

    2015-12-01

    There is an absence of studies that define the relationship between ambient particulate matter (PM) levels and adverse health outcomes among the young and healthy adult sub-group. In this research, the relationship between exposures to ambient levels of PM in the 10 micron (PM10) and 2.5 micron (PM2.5) size fractions and health outcomes in members of the healthy, young-adult subgroup who are 18-39 years of age was examined. Active duty military personnel populations at three strategically selected military bases in the United States were used as a surrogate to the control group. Health outcome data, which consists of the number of diagnoses for each of nine International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision (ICD-9) categories related to respiratory illness, were derived from outpatient visits at each of the three military bases. Data on ambient concentrations of particulate matter, specifically PM10 and PM2.5, were obtained for these sites. The health outcome data were correlated and regressed with the PM10 and PM2.5 data, and other air quality and weather-related data on a daily and weekly basis for the period 1998 to 2004. Results indicate that at Fort Bliss, which is a US Environmental Protection Agency designated non-attainment area for PM10, a statistically significant association exists between the weekly-averaged number of adverse health effects in the young and healthy adult population and the corresponding weekly-average ambient PM10 concentration. A least squares regression analysis was performed on the Fort Bliss data sets indicated that the health outcome data is related to several environmental parameters in addition to PM10. Overall, the analysis estimates a .6% increase in the weekly rate of emergency room visits for upper respiratory infections for every 10 μg/m3 increase in the weekly-averaged PM10 concentration above the mean. The findings support the development of policy and guidance opportunities that can be developed to mitigate exposures

  7. Hydrophobic and porous cellulose nanofibrous screen for efficient particulate matter (PM2.5) blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Liping; Guo, Yi; Peng, Xinsheng

    2017-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution in air seriously affects public health. However, both bulk thickness and the accumulation of PM particles typically lead to a quick decline in the air permeability and large pressure drops of the conventional air clean membranes. In this work, we choose cellulose nanofibers (CNFs, a low cost, biodegradable and sustainable material) to form a hydrophobic and porous CNF thin layer on a stainless steel screen (300 mesh with pore size of 48 µ m) through a simple filtration-assisted gelation process and subsequent polydimethylsiloxane modification. The prepared hydrophobic CNFs/stainless steel screen demonstrates highly efficient PM2.5 blocking based on size-sieving effect, fast air permeability and long-term durability under natural ventilation conditions in the relative humidity range from 45% to 93%. This technique holds great potential for indoor PM2.5 blocking under natural ventilation conditions. (paper)

  8. Hydrophobic and porous cellulose nanofibrous screen for efficient particulate matter (PM2.5) blocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liping; Guo, Yi; Peng, Xinsheng

    2017-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution in air seriously affects public health. However, both bulk thickness and the accumulation of PM particles typically lead to a quick decline in the air permeability and large pressure drops of the conventional air clean membranes. In this work, we choose cellulose nanofibers (CNFs, a low cost, biodegradable and sustainable material) to form a hydrophobic and porous CNF thin layer on a stainless steel screen (300 mesh with pore size of 48 µm) through a simple filtration-assisted gelation process and subsequent polydimethylsiloxane modification. The prepared hydrophobic CNFs/stainless steel screen demonstrates highly efficient PM2.5 blocking based on size-sieving effect, fast air permeability and long-term durability under natural ventilation conditions in the relative humidity range from 45% to 93%. This technique holds great potential for indoor PM2.5 blocking under natural ventilation conditions.

  9. Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo Alvarez, H.; Sosa Echeverria, R.; Sanchez Alvarez, P.; Krupa, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter (PM) at high altitude urban areas in different countries, must consider the pressure and temperature due to the effect that these parameters have on the breath volume. This paper shows the importance to correct Air Quality Standards for PM considering pressure and temperature at different altitudes. Specific factors were suggested to convert the information concerning PM, from local to standard conditions, and adjust the Air Quality Standards for different high altitudes cities. The correction factors ranged from: 1.03 for Santiago de Chile to 1.47 for El Alto Bolivia. Other cities in this study include: Mexico City, México; La Paz, Bolivia; Bogota, Cali and Medellin, Colombia; Quito, Ecuador and Cuzco, Peru. If these corrections are not considered, the atmospheric concentrations will be underestimated. - Highlights: ► AQS for particulate matter concentrations adjusted by pressure and temperature. ► Particulate matter concentrations can be underestimated in high altitude Cities. ► Particulate matter concentrations must be compared under the same conditions. - In order to compare high altitude atmospheric PM concentrations with AQS, one must consider T and P of the sampling site.

  10. Carbonaceous material in fine particulate matter (PM10) of urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocco, Domenico; Leonardi, Vittorio; Maso; Marco; Prignani, Patrizia

    2006-01-01

    Total carbon (TC), elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) in the fine particulate matter (PM10) were measured in the urban areas of Rome and Marino (Castelli Romani) by means a thermal method with a non-dispersive infrared detector (NDIR). The results showed that carbonaceous material constitutes 30-40% of the total aerosols in Rome and about 20% in Marino [it

  11. Effects of Source-Apportioned Coarse Particulate Matter (PM) on Allergic Responses in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cleveland Multiple Air Pollutant Study (CMAPS) is one of the first comprehensive studies conducted to evaluate particulate matter (PM) over local and regional scales. Cleveland and the nearby Ohio River Valley impart significant regional sources of air pollution including coa...

  12. Influence of background particulate matter (PM) on urban air quality in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, H; Wigder, N; Jaffe, D

    2013-11-15

    Elevated particulate matter concentrations due to Asian long-range transport (LRT) are frequently observed in the free troposphere (FT) above the Pacific Northwest, U.S. Transport of this aerosol from the FT to the boundary layer (BL) and its effect to local air quality remain poorly constrained. We used data collected at the Mount Bachelor observatory (MBO, 2.8 km a.s.l) and from ground stations in the Pacific Northwest to study transport of fine particulate matter (PM) from the FT to the BL. During Asian LRT episodes PM concentrations were clearly elevated above the corresponding monthly averages at MBO as well as at low elevation sites across Washington and Oregon. Also, a clear correlation between MBO and low elevation sites was observed, indicating that LRT episodes are seen in both the FT and BL. In addition, drum impactor measurements show that the chemical composition of PM at MBO was similar to that measured at the BL sites. Using a simple regression model, we estimate that during springtime, when the transport from Asia is most effective, the contribution of Asian sources to PM2.5 in clean background areas of the Pacific Northwest was on average 1.7 μg m(-3) (representing approximately 50-80% of PM). The influence of LRT PM was also seen in measurement stations situated in the urban and urban background areas. However, the fraction of LRT PM was less pronounced (36-50% of PM) due to larger local emissions in the urban areas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of methods to examine the effects of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on human peripheral blood leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zussman, Lisa Ann

    In vitro methods to study the effect of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) on leukocyte function using human peripheral blood were developed. These methods were demonstrated using the blood of 1-5 individuals and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) urban PM #1648, diesel PM #1650, silica PM, and a locally collected PM sample (New Jersey PM10). For the blood samples analyzed in this study NIST urban PM and New Jersey PM10 treatment mediated the release of granule contents from peripheral blood leukocytes and induced structural changes associated with degranulation. Flow cytometry revealed PM-induced changes in phagocytosis and cell structure associated with degranulation. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed NIST urban PM-induced cell structure changes were associated with PM internalization. Colorametric and electrophoretic methods showed no PM-induced release of primary granules and a slight PM-induced release of secondary granules associated with only NIST urban PM. Enzyme Immunosorbent Assays detected increased histamine release from basophils treated with NIST urban PM, a locally collected PM, and the soluble and insoluble components of these particles. NIST urban PM was found to be a potent inducer of histamine release in 4 out of 6 individuals tested. Fractionation studies revealed that soluble (aqueous) and insoluble fractions of NIST urban PM contain histamine-releasing activity. This was also demonstrated for the New Jersey PM10 sample for which the soluble fraction exhibited the most activity. Complementary studies with inhibitors of IgE-mediated histamine release conducted on one test subject suggest that PM-induced histamine release was partially mediated by IgE. A new hypothesis has been formed, suggesting that particle toxicity is related to PM-induced histamine release. Due to the bioactive nature of histamine and its association with many cardiopulmonary responses, the PM- mediated release of histamine should be investigated

  14. EVALUATION OF THE SMPS-APS SYSTEM AS A CONTINUOUS MONITOR FOR MEASURING PM2.5, PM10 AND COARSE (PM2.5-10) CONCENTRATIONS. (R827352C011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respirable particulate matter (PM) has been linked to mortality and morbidity by a variety of epidemiological studies. This research has led to the creation of a new PM standard for particles with diameters 2.5). Since the conclusion of these studie...

  15. Outdoor particulate matter (PM) and associated cardiovascular diseases in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Zeina; Salameh, Pascale; Nasser, Wissam; Abou Abbas, Linda; Elias, Elias; Leveque, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution is a widespread environmental concern. Considerable epidemiological evidence indicates air pollution, particularly particulate matter (PM), as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in the developed countries. The main objective of our review is to assess the levels and sources of PM across the Middle East area and to search evidence for the relationship between PM exposure and CVD. An extensive review of the published literature pertaining to the subject (2000-2013) was conducted using PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar databases. We reveal that low utilization of public transport, ageing vehicle fleet and the increasing number of personal cars in the developing countries all contribute to the traffic congestion and aggravate the pollution problem. The annual average values of PM pollutants in the Middle East region are much higher than the World Health Organization 2006 guidelines (PM2.5 = 10 μg/m(3), PM10 = 20 μg/m(3)). We uncover evidence on the association between PM and CVD in 4 Middle East countries: Iran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. The findings are in light of the international figures. Ambient PM pollution is considered a potential risk factor for platelet activation and atherosclerosis and has been found to be linked with an increased risk for mortality and hospital admissions due to CVD. This review highlights the importance of developing a strategy to improve air quality and reduce outdoor air pollution in the developing countries, particularly in the Middle East. Future studies should weigh the potential impact of PM on the overall burden of cardiac diseases. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  16. Outdoor particulate matter (PM and associated cardiovascular diseases in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeina Nasser

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is a widespread environmental concern. Considerable epidemiological evidence indicates air pollution, particularly particulate matter (PM, as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD in the developed countries. The main objective of our review is to assess the levels and sources of PM across the Middle East area and to search evidence for the relationship between PM exposure and CVD. An extensive review of the published literature pertaining to the subject (2000–2013 was conducted using PubMed, Medline and Google Scholar databases. We reveal that low utilization of public transport, ageing vehicle fleet and the increasing number of personal cars in the developing countries all contribute to the traffic congestion and aggravate the pollution problem. The annual average values of PM pollutants in the Middle East region are much higher than the World Health Organization 2006 guidelines (PM2.5 = 10 μg/m3, PM10 = 20 μg/m3. We uncover evidence on the association between PM and CVD in 4 Middle East countries: Iran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Qatar and the United Arab Emirates. The findings are in light of the international figures. Ambient PM pollution is considered a potential risk factor for platelet activation and atherosclerosis and has been found to be linked with an increased risk for mortality and hospital admissions due to CVD. This review highlights the importance of developing a strategy to improve air quality and reduce outdoor air pollution in the developing countries, particularly in the Middle East. Future studies should weigh the potential impact of PM on the overall burden of cardiac diseases.

  17. Short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2,5 and PM10) and the risk of heart rhythm abnormalities and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Małgorzata; Kocot, Krzysztof

    2016-09-28

    Results of epidemiological studies suggest a significant impact of ambient particulate matter air pollution (PM10 and PM2,5) on the health of the population. Increased level of these pollutants is connected with increased rate of daily mortality and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases. Among analyzed health effects, heart arrhythmias and stroke are mentioned most frequently. The aim of the study was to present the current knowledge of potential influence of the exposure to fine particulate matter on the presence of arrhythmias and strokes. Subject literature review suggests, that there is a link between short-term exposure to fine dust and the occurrence of arrhythmias. Results of previous studies indicates that this exposure may lead to significant electrophysiological changes in heart, resulting in higher susceptibility to cardiac rhythm abnormalities. In case of stroke, a stronger correlation between number of hospitalizations and death cases and exposure to fine dust was seen for ischaemic stroke than for haemorhhagic stroke. In addition, a significantly more harmful impact of the exposure to ultra particles (particles of aerodynamic diameter below 2,5 μm) has been confirmed. Among important mechanisms responsible for observed health impact of particulate matter there are: induction and intensification of inflammation, increased oxidative stress, increased autonomic nervous system activity, vasoconstriction, rheological changes and endothelial dysfunction. Among people of higher susceptibility to fine dust negative health impact are: elderly (over 65 years old), obese people, patients with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, patients with diabetes and those with coagulation disorders. For further improvement of general health status, actions aimed at reducing the risk associated with fine dust and at the same time at continuing studies to clarify the biological mechanisms explaining the influence of fine dust on human health are necessary.

  18. Short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2,5 and PM10 and the risk of heart rhythm abnormalities and stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kowalska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of epidemiological studies suggest a significant impact of ambient particulate matter air pollution (PM10 and PM2,5 on the health of the population. Increased level of these pollutants is connected with increased rate of daily mortality and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular diseases. Among analyzed health effects, heart arrhythmias and stroke are mentioned most frequently. The aim of the study was to present the current knowledge of potential influence of the exposure to fine particulate matter on the presence of arrhythmias and strokes. Subject literature review suggests, that there is a link between short-term exposure to fine dust and the occurrence of arrhythmias. Results of previous studies indicates that this exposure may lead to significant electrophysiological changes in heart, resulting in higher susceptibility to cardiac rhythm abnormalities. In case of stroke, a stronger correlation between number of hospitalizations and death cases and exposure to fine dust was seen for ischaemic stroke than for haemorhhagic stroke. In addition, a significantly more harmful impact of the exposure to ultra particles (particles of aerodynamic diameter below 2,5 μm has been confirmed. Among important mechanisms responsible for observed health impact of particulate matter there are: induction and intensification of inflammation, increased oxidative stress, increased autonomic nervous system activity, vasoconstriction, rheological changes and endothelial dysfunction. Among people of higher susceptibility to fine dust negative health impact are: elderly (over 65 years old, obese people, patients with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, patients with diabetes and those with coagulation disorders. For further improvement of general health status, actions aimed at reducing the risk associated with fine dust and at the same time at continuing studies to clarify the biological mechanisms explaining the influence of fine dust on human health

  19. Black carbon and particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in New York City's subway stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilcassim, M J Ruzmyn; Thurston, George D; Peltier, Richard E; Gordon, Terry

    2014-12-16

    The New York City (NYC) subway is the main mode of transport for over 5 million passengers on an average weekday. Therefore, airborne pollutants in the subway stations could have a significant impact on commuters and subway workers. This study looked at black carbon (BC) and particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in selected subway stations in Manhattan. BC and PM2.5 levels were measured in real time using a Micro-Aethalometer and a PDR-1500 DataRAM, respectively. Simultaneous samples were also collected on quartz filters for organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) analysis and on Teflon filters for gravimetric and trace element analysis. In the underground subway stations, mean real time BC concentrations ranged from 5 to 23 μg/m(3), with 1 min average peaks >100 μg/m(3), while real time PM2.5 levels ranged from 35 to 200 μg/m(3). Mean EC levels ranged from 9 to 12.5 μg/m(3). At street level on the same days, the mean BC and PM2.5 concentrations were below 3 and 10 μg/m(3), respectively. This study shows that both BC soot and PM levels in NYC's subways are considerably higher than ambient urban street levels and that further monitoring and investigation of BC and PM subway exposures are warranted.

  20. Experimental Investigation of the Effects of Some Operating Diesel Engine Variables on Emitted Particulate Matters (PM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M. Saleh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The diesel engine is the most efficient prime mover commonly available today. Diesel engines move a large portion of the world’s goods, power much of the world’s equipment, and generate electricity more economically than any other device in their size range. But the diesel is one of the largest contributors to environmental pollution problems worldwide, and will remain so, with large increases expected in vehicle population. This experimental study has been conducted with direct injection diesel engine and particulate matters (PM concentrations were measured at variable operating variables. The results show that PM concentrations influence by changing equivalence ratio, load, engine speed and injection timing

  1. Mobile air quality studies (MAQS in inner cities: particulate matter PM10 levels related to different vehicle driving modes and integration of data into a geographical information program

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    Uibel Stefanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate matter (PM is assumed to exert a major burden on public health. Most studies that address levels of PM use stationary measure systems. By contrast, only few studies measure PM concentrations under mobile conditions to analyze individual exposure situations. Methods By combining spatial-temporal analysis with a novel vehicle-mounted sensor system, the present Mobile Air Quality Study (MAQS aimed to analyse effects of different driving conditions in a convertible vehicle. PM10 was continuously monitored in a convertible car, driven with roof open, roof closed, but windows open, or windows closed. Results PM10 values inside the car were nearly always higher with open roof than with roof and windows closed, whereas no difference was seen with open or closed windows. During the day PM10 values varied with high values before noon, and occasional high median values or standard deviation values due to individual factors. Vehicle speed in itself did not influence the mean value of PM10; however, at traffic speed (10 – 50 km/h the standard deviation was large. No systematic difference was seen between PM10 values in stationary and mobile cars, nor was any PM10 difference observed between driving within or outside an environmental (low emission zone. Conclusions The present study has shown the feasibility of mobile PM analysis in vehicles. Individual exposure of the occupants varies depending on factors like time of day as well as ventilation of the car; other specific factors are clearly identifiably and may relate to specific PM10 sources. This system may be used to monitor individual exposure ranges and provide recommendations for preventive measurements. Although differences in PM10 levels were found under certain ventilation conditions, these differences are likely not of concern for the safety and health of passengers.

  2. ASSOCIATION OF PARTICULATE MATTER (PM WITH RESPIRATORY SYMPTOMS AMONG CHILDREN IN SELECTED PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN PAHANG

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    Maryam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM is one of the primary pollutants found in the indoor environment. It can cause deterioration of the indoor air quality (IAQ and is often linked with adverse health effects especially towards susceptible subgroup of the population like children. School children are exposed to PM inside the classroom, as this indoor PM may originate from both indoor and outdoor sources. Furthermore, ambient surrounding could be one of the major factors that contribute to its high concentration, specifically for school environment like government-subsidized schools in Malaysia whereby the schools are using natural ventilation systems to control the thermal comfort inside the classrooms. Hence the infiltration of outdoor PM into the indoor is probably high and significant. The high concentration of PM may affect the children’s health and learning performances. Due to this reason, it is important to study the effects of PM towards children. Thus, this study aims to assess the concentrations of PM and selected IAQ parameters in the school indoor environment with distinct background characteristics including residential, industrial, and rural areas. PM and IAQ parameters (temperature, relative humidity (RH, carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2 were assessed for 8-hours duration via DustMate Environmental Dust Detector (Turnkey Instruments, USA and VelociCalc® Multi-Function Ventilation Meter 9565 (TSI®, USA respectively, during occupied and non-occupied time in the classrooms. Second, considering the children’s prolonged and repetitive exposure towards PM in school indoor environment and their body sensitivity, this study also screened for the prevalence of non-specific respiratory disease (NSRD and persistent cough and phlegm (PCP among children via structured questionnaire developed by American Thoracic Society’s Division of Lung Diseases (ATS-DLD-78-C. Higher concentrations of PM and prevalence of respiratory symptoms in the

  3. A five-year study of particulate matter (PM2.5) and cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiva G, Manuel A.; Santibañez, Daniela A.; Ibarra E, Sergio; Matus C, Patricia; Seguel, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Cerebrovascular accidents, or strokes, are the second leading cause of mortality and the leading cause of morbidity in both Chile and the rest of the world. However, the relationship between particulate matter pollution and strokes is not well characterized. The association between fine particle concentration and stroke admissions was studied. Data on hospital admissions due to cerebrovascular accidents were collected from the Ministry of Health. Air quality and meteorological data were taken from the Air Quality database of the Santiago Metropolitan Area. Santiago reported 33,624 stroke admissions between January 1, 2002 and December 30, 2006. PM2.5 concentration was markedly seasonal, increasing during the winter. This study found an association between PM2.5 exposure and hospital admissions for stroke; for every PM2.5 concentration increase of 10 μg m −3 , the risk of emergency hospital admissions for cerebrovascular causes increased by 1.29% (95% CI 0.552%–2.03%). Highlights: •Particulate matter pollution – cerebrovascular diseases relationship is not well known. •Cerebrovascular diseases are the second leading cause of mortality and the leading cause of morbidity. •PM2.5 increase 10 μg/m 3 the risk of hospital admissions for stroke causes increases by 1.29%. •The results are similar to that of other cities worldwide. -- Relationship between PM pollution and strokes is not well characterized. In Santiago the risk of the stroke increased by 1.29%; for every increase of 10 μg m −3 in PM2.5

  4. Proinflammatory effects and oxidative stress within human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM>2.5) collected from Cotonou, Benin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachon, Boris Fresnel; Firmin, Stéphane; Verdin, Anthony; Ayi-Fanou, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    After particulate matter (PM) collection in Cotonou (Benin), a complete physicochemical characterization of PM 2.5 and PM >2.5 was led. Then, their adverse health effects were evaluated by using in vitro culture of human lung cells. BEAS-2B (bronchial epithelial cells) were intoxicated during short-term exposure at increasing PM concentrations (1.5–96 μg/cm 2 ) to determine global cytotoxicity. Hence, cells were exposed to 3 and 12 μg/cm 2 to investigate the potential biological imbalance generated by PM toxicity. Our findings showed the ability of both PM to induce oxidative stress and to cause inflammatory cytokines/chemokines gene expression and secretion. Furthermore, PM were able to induce gene expression of enzymes involved in the xenobiotic metabolism pathway. Strong correlations between gene expression of metabolizing enzymes, proinflammatory responses and cell cycle alteration were found, as well as between proinflammatory responses and cell viability. Stress oxidant parameters were highly correlated with expression and protein secretion of inflammatory mediators. Highlights: • The aim of this study was to investigate the toxic potential of collected particles. • Toxicological effects were determined by using human bronchial epithelial cells. • Both particles induced oxidative stress, proinflammatory response and cell alterations. • Metabolizing enzymes were linked to proinflammatory responses and cell alterations. • Oxidative stress was highly correlated to the proinflammatory mediators. -- This study evidences the toxic potential of African fine and coarse particulate matters on respiratory epithelial cells

  5. Characterization of Fine Particulate Matter (PM) and Secondary PM Precursor Gases in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina, Luisa T.; Molina, Mario J.; Volkamer, Rainer; de Foy, Benjamin; Lei, Wenfang; Zavaka, Miguel; Velasco, Erik

    2008-10-31

    This project was one of three collaborating grants funded by DOE/ASP to characterize the fine particulate matter (PM) and secondary PM precursors in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) during the MILAGRO Campaign. The overall effort of MCMA-2006, one of the four components, focused on i) examination of the primary emissions of fine particles and precursor gases leading to photochemical production of atmospheric oxidants and secondary aerosol particles; ii) measurement and analysis of secondary oxidants and secondary fine PM production, with particular emphasis on secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and iii) evaluation of the photochemical and meteorological processes characteristic of the Mexico City Basin. The collaborative teams pursued the goals through three main tasks: i) analyses of fine PM and secondary PM precursor gaseous species data taken during the MCMA-2002/2003 campaigns and preparation of publications; ii) planning of the MILAGRO Campaign and deployment of the instrument around the MCMA; and iii) analysis of MCMA-2006 data and publication preparation. The measurement phase of the MILAGRO Campaign was successfully completed in March 2006 with excellent participation from the international scientific community and outstanding cooperation from the Mexican government agencies and institutions. The project reported here was led by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology/Molina Center for Energy and the Environment (MIT/MCE2) team and coordinated with DOE/ASP-funded collaborators at Aerodyne Research Inc., University of Colorado at Boulder and Montana State University. Currently 24 papers documenting the findings from this project have been published. The results from the project have improved significantly our understanding of the meteorological and photochemical processes contributing to the formation of ozone, secondary aerosols and other pollutants. Key findings from the MCMA-2003 include a vastly improved speciated emissions inventory from on

  6. Spatial distribution of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in Seoul Metropolitan Subway stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Roh, Young Man; Lee, Cheol Min; Kim, Chi Nyon

    2008-06-15

    The aims of this study are to examine the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in areas within the Seoul Metropolitan Subway network and to provide fundamental data in order to protect respiratory health of subway workers and passengers from air pollutants. A total of 22 subway stations located on lines 1-4 were selected based on subway official's guidance. At these stations both subway worker areas (station offices, rest areas, ticket offices and driver compartments) and passengers areas (station precincts, subway carriages and platforms) were the sites used for measuring the levels of PM. The mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were relatively higher on platforms, inside subway carriages and in driver compartments than in the other areas monitored. The levels of PM10 and PM2.5 for station precincts and platforms exceeded the 24-h acceptable threshold limits of 150 microg/m3 for PM10 and 35 microg/m3 for PM2.5, which are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). However, levels measured in station and ticket offices fell below the respective threshold. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations on platforms located underground were significantly higher than those at ground level (p<0.05).

  7. Milano summer particulate matter (PM10 triggers lung inflammation and extra pulmonary adverse events in mice.

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    Francesca Farina

    Full Text Available Recent studies have suggested a link between particulate matter (PM exposure and increased mortality and morbidity associated with pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases; accumulating evidences point to a new role for air pollution in CNS diseases. The purpose of our study is to investigate PM10sum effects on lungs and extra pulmonary tissues. Milano PM10sum has been intratracheally instilled into BALB/c mice. Broncho Alveolar Lavage fluid, lung parenchyma, heart and brain were screened for markers of inflammation (cell counts, cytokines, ET-1, HO-1, MPO, iNOS, cytotoxicity (LDH, ALP, Hsp70, Caspase8-p18, Caspase3-p17 for a putative pro-carcinogenic marker (Cyp1B1 and for TLR4 pathway activation. Brain was also investigated for CD68, TNF-α, GFAP. In blood, cell counts were performed while plasma was screened for endothelial activation (sP-selectin, ET-1 and for inflammation markers (TNF-α, MIP-2, IL-1β, MPO. Genes up-regulation (HMOX1, Cyp1B1, IL-1β, MIP-2, MPO and miR-21 have been investigated in lungs and blood. Inflammation in the respiratory tract of PM10sum-treated mice has been confirmed in BALf and lung parenchyma by increased PMNs percentage, increased ET-1, MPO and cytokines levels. A systemic spreading of lung inflammation in PM10sum-treated mice has been related to the increased blood total cell count and neutrophils percentage, as well as to increased blood MPO. The blood-endothelium interface activation has been confirmed by significant increases of plasma ET-1 and sP-selectin. Furthermore PM10sum induced heart endothelial activation and PAHs metabolism, proved by increased ET-1 and Cyp1B1 levels. Moreover, PM10sum causes an increase in brain HO-1 and ET-1. These results state the translocation of inflammation mediators, ultrafine particles, LPS, metals associated to PM10sum, from lungs to bloodstream, thus triggering a systemic reaction, mainly involving heart and brain. Our results provided additional insight into the toxicity

  8. Photometrically measured continuous personal PM(2.5) exposure: levels and correlation to a gravimetric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanki, Timo; Alm, Sari; Ruuskanen, Juhani; Janssen, Nicole A H; Jantunen, Matti; Pekkanen, Juha

    2002-05-01

    There is evidence that hourly variations in exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) may be associated with adverse health effects. Still there are only few published data on short-term levels of personal exposure to PM in community settings. The objectives of the study were to assess hourly and shorter-term variations in personal PM(2.5) exposure in Helsinki, Finland, and to compare results from portable photometers to simultaneously measured gravimetric concentrations. The effect of relative humidity on the photometric results was also evaluated. Personal PM(2.5) exposures of elderly persons were assessed for 24 h every second week, resulting in 308 successful measurements from 47 different subjects. Large changes in concentrations in minutes after cooking or changing microenvironment were seen. The median of daily 1-h maxima was over twice the median of 24-h averages. There was a strong significant association between the two means, which was not linear. Median (95th percentile) of the photometric 24-h concentrations was 12.1 (37.7) and of the 24-h gravimetric concentrations 9.2 (21.3) microg/m3. The correlation between the photometric and the gravimetric method was quite good (R2=0.86). Participants spent 94.1% of their time indoors or in a vehicle, where relative humidity is usually low and thus not likely to cause significant effects on photometric results. Even outdoors, the relative humidity had only modest effect on concentrations. Photometers are a promising method to explore the health effects of short-term variation in personal PM(2.5) exposure.

  9. The Effects of Bus Ridership on Airborne Particulate Matter (PM10 Concentrations

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    Jaeseok Her

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution caused by rapid urbanization and the increased use of private vehicles seriously affects citizens’ health. In order to alleviate air pollution, many cities have replaced diesel buses with compressed natural gas (CNG buses that emit less exhaust gas. Urban planning strategies such as transit-oriented development (TOD posit that reducing private vehicle use and increasing public transportation use would reduce air pollution levels. The present study examined the effects of bus ridership on airborne particulate matter (PM10 concentrations in the capital region of Korea. We interpolated the levels of PM10 from 128 air pollution monitoring stations, utilizing the Kriging method. Spatial regression models were used to estimate the impact of bus ridership on PM10 levels, controlling for physical environment attributes and socio-economic factors. The analysis identified that PM10 concentration levels tend to be lower in areas with greater bus ridership. This result implies that urban and transportation policies designed to promote public transportation may be effective strategies for reducing air pollution.

  10. Particulate Matter Dispersion (PM10, with interrelation of topographic and meteorological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Javier Arrieta-Fuentes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mining-industrial processes carried out by anthropic action, bring the generation of impacts to the environment. Between the impacts associated with mining is the involvement of the air quality produced by the release of atmospheric pollutants, being subject to study the behavior of the respirable fraction of particulate matter less than 10 microns (PM10 with respect to meteorological and topographical factors. The analyzed scenarios in the study involved daily and annual exposure times of PM10, in wich modeling with AERMOD View Software was made. The model was carried out in two topographic zones, a complex area, located in the municipality of Socha and a simple area located in the municipality of Sogamoso. It was used meteorological data type satellite, in format .SAM for modeled areas. Three types of emission sources were identified in the areas; considering that the disperse fixed emission sources predominate, followed by the mobile sources and point sources were found in low proportion. PM10 dispersion models made for the zones of simple and complex topography, gave as result that direction and the wind speed is conditioned by the type of zone. It allowed a free flow in the predominant direction in wind rose to the area of simple topography and a turbulent flow in the complex area. It was determined that the sources of emission of PM10 in both cases are local scale; They presented a critical radius of drag and deposition of particles of 200 m approximately.

  11. Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-06

    WP-201317) Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-volatile Particulate Matter (PM... Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions 6. AUTHOR(S) E. Corporan, M. DeWitt, C. Klingshirn, M.D. Cheng, R. Miake-Lye, J. Peck...the performance and viability of two devices to condition aircraft turbine engine exhaust to allow the accurate measurement of total (volatile and non

  12. First Compton telescope prototype based on continuous LaBr3-SiPM detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llosá, G.; Cabello, J.; Callier, S.; Gillam, J.E.; Lacasta, C.; Rafecas, M.; Raux, L.; Solaz, C.; Stankova, V.; La Taille, C. de; Trovato, M.; Barrio, J.

    2013-01-01

    A first prototype of a Compton camera based on continuous scintillator crystals coupled to silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) arrays has been successfully developed and operated. The prototype is made of two detector planes. The first detector is made of a continuous 16×18×5 mm 3 LaBr 3 crystal coupled to a 16-elements SiPM array. The elements have a size of 3×3 mm 3 in a 4.5×4.05 mm 2 pitch. The second detector, selected by availability, consists of a continuous 16×18×5 mm 3 LYSO crystal coupled to a similar SiPM array. The SPIROC1 ASIC is employed in the readout electronics. Data have been taken with a 22 Na source placed at different positions and images have been reconstructed with the simulated one-pass list-mode (SOPL) algorithm. Detector development for the construction of a second prototype with three detector planes is underway. LaBr 3 crystals of 32×36 mm 2 size and 5/10 mm thickness have been acquired and tested with a PMT. The resolution obtained is 3.5% FWHM at 511 keV. Each crystal will be coupled to four MPPC arrays. Different options are being tested for the prototype readout

  13. Temporal and spatial analyses of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and its relationship with meteorological parameters over an urban city in northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolan; Ma, Yanjun; Wang, Yangfeng; Liu, Ningwei; Hong, Ye

    2017-12-01

    Temporal and spatial characteristics of atmospheric particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) and its relationship with meteorology over Shenyang, a city in northeast China, were statistically analyzed using hourly and daily averaged PM mass concentrations measured at 11 locations and surface meteorological parameters, from January 2014 to May 2016. Using averaged data from 11 stations in Shenyang, it was found that the monthly mean PM2.5 mass concentrations were higher in winter (97.2 ± 11.2 μg m- 3) and autumn (85.5 ± 42.9 μg m- 3), and lower in spring (62.0 ± 14.0 μg m- 3) and summer (42.5 ± 8.4 μg m- 3), similar to the seasonal variation in PM10 concentrations. The monthly ratios of PM2.5/PM10 ranged from 0.41 to 0.87, and were larger in autumn and winter but lowest in spring due to dust activities. PM pollution was concentrated mainly in the central, northern, and western areas of Shenyang in most seasons mainly due to anthropogenic activities such as traffic and residential emission and construction activity as well as natural dust emission. PM concentrations observed over different areas in all seasons generally exhibited two peaks, at 08:00-10:00 local time (LT) and 21:00-23:00 LT, with the exception of PM2.5 in summer, which showed only one peak during the daytime. In addition, PM10 concentrations peaked around 14:00 LT during spring in the western area of Shenyang because of strong thermal and dynamic turbulence, resulting in elevated dust emissions from adjacent dust sources. The relationship between daily PM concentrations and meteorological parameters showed both seasonal and annual variation. Overall, both PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were negatively correlated with atmospheric visibility, with correlation coefficients (R) of 0.71 and 0.56, respectively. In most seasons, PM concentrations also exhibited negative correlations with wind speed, but showed positive correlations with air pressure, air temperature, and relative humidity. Strong wind

  14. Prolonged continuous exposure to high fine particulate matter associated with cardiovascular and respiratory disease mortality in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinfeng; Yin, Qian; Tong, Shilu; Ren, Zhoupeng; Hu, Maogui; Zhang, Hongrui

    2017-11-01

    Although many studies examined the effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on the deaths of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and respiratory disease (RD), few research has paid attention to the effects of prolonged continuous exposure to high PM2.5 pollution. This study estimated the excess risks (ER) of CVD and RD mortalities associated with prolonged continuous exposure to high PM2.5 pollution for the whole population and specific subsociodemographic groups in Beijing, which is the capital city of China with over 20 million residents and having severe PM2.5 pollution problems. Our results suggested that when high PM2.5 pollution occurred continuously, at various thresholds and durations, the adverse effects on CVD and RD mortalities varied significantly. The CVD mortality risks in association with prolonged continuous high PM2.5 pollution exposure were more serious for single individuals (including unmarried, divorced, and widowed), illiterate and outdoor workers than for other specific subsociodemographic groups. When the daily PM2.5 concentration higher than 105 μg/m3 consecutively occurs, at the ninth day, the ERs of CVD death for single individuals, illiterate and outdoor workers groups reached to 45% (95% CI: 22, 71), 51% (95% CI: 28, 79) and 53% (95% CI: 29, 82) respectively. On the other hand, prolonged continuous high PM2.5 pollution level appeared to contribute a higher proportion of RD deaths among illiterate and outdoor workers, but less significant for the other specific subsociodemographic groups. When the duration with daily PM2.5 pollution higher than 115 μg/m3 reached to six days, the ERs for outdoor workers and illiterate attributed to prolonged continuous PM2.5 pollution exposure increased 36% (95% CI: 5, 76) and 49% (95% CI: 16, 91) respectively.

  15. Level, potential sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particulate matter (PM10) in Naples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vaio, Paola; Cocozziello, Beatrice; Corvino, Angela; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Frecentese, Francesco; Magli, Elisa; Onorati, Giuseppe; Saccone, Irene; Santagada, Vincenzo; Settimo, Gaetano; Severino, Beatrice; Perissutti, Elisa

    2016-03-01

    In Naples, particulate matter PM10 associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined in urban background (NA01) and urban traffic (NA02) sites. The principal objective of the study was to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 for identification of their possible sources (through diagnostic ratio - DR and principal component analysis - PCA) and an estimation of the human health risk (from exposure to airborne TEQ). Airborne PM10 samples were collected on quartz filters using a Low Volume Sampler (LVS) for 24 h with seasonal samples (autumn, winter, spring and summer) of about 15 days each between October 2012 and July 2013. The PM10 mass was gravimetrically determined. The PM10 levels, in all seasons, were significantly higher (P gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis. The concentration of Benzo[a]Pyrene, BaP (EU and National limit value: 1 ng m-3 in PM10), varied from 0.065 ng m-3 during autumn time to 0.872 ng m-3 in spring time (NA01) and from 0.120 ng m-3 during autumn time to 1.48 ng m-3 of winter time (NA02) with four overshoots. In NA02 the trend of Σ12 PAHs was comparable to NA01 but were observed higher values than NA01. In fact, the mean concentration of Σ12 PAHs, in urban-traffic site was generally 2 times greater than in urban-background site in all the campaigns. PAHs with 5 and 6 ring, many of which are suspected carcinogens or genotoxic agents, (i.e Benzo[a]Pyrene, Indeno[1,2,3-cd]Pyrene, Benzo[b]Fluoranthene, Benzo[k]Fluoranthene and Benzo[g,h,i]Perylene), had a large contribution (∼50-55%) of total PAHs concentration in PM10 in two sites and in each of the campaigns. Diagnostic ratio analysis and PCA suggested a substantial contributions from traffic emission with minimal influence from coal combustion and natural gas emissions. In particular diesel vehicular emissions were the major source of PAHs at the studied sites. The use of Toxicity Equivalence Quantity (TEQ

  16. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Pomegranate Peel Extract in THP-1 Cells Exposed to Particulate Matter PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soojin Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and experimental evidence support health risks associated with the exposure to airborne particulate matter with a diameter of <10 μM (PM10. PM10 stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and inflammatory mediators. Thus, we assumed that natural antioxidants might provide health benefits attenuating hazardous effects of PM10. In the present study, we examined the effects of pomegranate peel extract (PPE on THP-1 monocytic cells exposed to PM10. PM10 induced cytotoxicity and the production of ROS. It also increased the expression and secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, and cell adhesion molecules, such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1. PPE at 10–100 μg mL−1 attenuated the production of ROS and the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, and ICAM-1, but not VCAM-1, in THP-1 cells stimulated by PM10 (100 μg mL−1. PPE also attenuated the adhesion of PM10-stimulated THP-1 cells to EA.hy926 endothelial cells. PPE constituents, punicalagin and ellagic acid, attenuated PM10-induced monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, and punicalagin was less cytotoxic compared to ellagic acid. The present study suggests that PPE and punicalagin may be useful in alleviating inflammatory reactions due to particulate matter.

  17. New York State urban and rural measurements of continuous PM2.5 mass by FDMS, TEOM, and BAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, James J; Felton, Henry D; Rattigan, Oliver V; Demerjian, Kenneth L

    2006-04-01

    Field evaluations and comparisons of continuous fine particulate matter (PM2,5) mass measurement technologies at an urban and a rural site in New York state are performed. The continuous measurement technologies include the filter dynamics measurement system (FDMS) tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) monitor, the stand-alone TEOM monitor (without the FDMS), and the beta attenuation monitor (BAM). These continuous measurement methods are also compared with 24-hr integrated filters collected and analyzed under the Federal Reference Method (FRM) protocol. The measurement sites are New York City (the borough of Queens) and Addison, a rural area of southwestern New York state. New York City data comparisons between the FDMS TEOM, BAM, and FRM are examined for bias and seasonality during a 2-yr period. Data comparisons for the FDMS TEOM and FRM from the Addison location are examined for the same 2-yr period. The BAM and FDMS measurements at Queens are highly correlated with each other and the FRM. The BAM and FDMS are very similar to each other in magnitude, and both are approximately 25% higher than the FRM filter measurements at this site. The FDMS at Addison measures approximately 9% more mass than the FRM. Mass reconstructions using the speciation trends network filter data are examined to provide insight as to the contribution of volatile species of PM2.5 in the FDMS mass measurement and the fraction that is likely lost in the FRM mass measurement. The reconstructed mass at Queens is systematically lower than the FDMS by approximately 10%.

  18. Growth, extracellular alkaline phosphatase activity, and kinetic characteristic responses of the bloom-forming toxic cyanobacterium, Microcystis aeruginosa, to atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5, PM2.5-10, and PM>10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ziran; Wang, Shoubing; Wang, Yuanan; Zhang, Jie

    2018-03-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (APM), commonly seen and widely excited in environment, appears great enough to influence the biochemical processes in aquatic microorganisms and phytoplankton. Understanding the response of cyanobacteria to various factors is fundamental for eutrophication control. To clarify the response of cyanobacteria to APM, the effects of PM 2.5 , PM 2.5-10 , and PM >10 on Microcystis aeruginosa were researched. Variabilities in cell density, chlorophyll a, soluble protein, malondialdehyde, extracellular activity, and kinetic parameters of alkaline phosphatase were evaluated by lab-cultured experiments. Results showed that the PM 2.5 had a slight stimulation impact on the growth and enhanced both of the 48- and 72-h extracellular alkaline phosphatase activity (APA), the affinity of alkaline phosphatase for substrate, and the 72-h maximum enzymatic reaction velocity (V max ). Moreover, the stimulations in extracellular APA and V max enhanced with the increasing exposure concentrations. We also found there were no obvious distinctions on the effects of growth and alkaline phosphatase in M. aeruginosa between PM 2.5-10 and PM >10 exposure groups. Obviously, inhibitory effects on growth existed in 4.0 and 8.0 mg/L PM 2.5-10 and 8.0 mg/L PM >10 at 120 h. Furthermore, PM 2.5-10 and PM >10 exerted inhibitory effects on the extracellular APA during the 72-h exposure. Simultaneously, the V max was notably inhibited and the affinity of alkaline phosphatase for substrate was more inseparable compared with control in PM 2.5-10 and PM >10 treatments. Nevertheless, the inhibitors in extracellular APA and kinetic parameters were unrelated to PM 2.5-10 and PM >10 exposure concentrations. Two-way ANOVA results revealed that there were significant interactions between exposure concentration and diameter of APM on the 120-h cell density, soluble protein content, APA, and 72 h APA of M. aeruginosa. These results in our study would be meaningful to further

  19. Air quality in terms of particulate matter (PM10) and element components in Antananarivo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raoelina Andriambololona; Rakotondramanana, H.T.; Rasoazanany, E.O.; Randriamanivo, L.V.; Rasolofonirina, M.; Razafy Andrianarivo, R.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to study the size distribution of toxic elements, undesirables ones and PM10 in the aerosols of Antananarivo urban areas using Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence. This work was carried out in the framework of Co-ordinated Research Program organised by the IAEA in 1998. The air sampler DICHOTOMOUS was used for sampling, with which two types of aerosols could be obtained: respirable aerosols or fine particles (aerodynamic diameter below 2.5 μm PM-2 ,5 ) and inhalable or coarse particles (aerodynamic diameter from 2.5 μm to 10μm PM 10 ). Samples were taken from six sampling sites, namely Ambohidahy tunnel, Ambanidia tunnel, Andravoahangy, Soarano, Mahamasina and Ankorondrano. Then, they were digested with acid digestion bomb. The results showed the presence of elements such as sulfur (S), chlorine (Cl), kalium (K), calcium (Ca), titanium (Ti), lead (Pb) in the aerosols. Their concentrations are higher in respirable particles. For classical air pollutant components, particularly lead and PM10, the 1.8 μg.m -3 mean concentration value of lead is largely higher than 0.5μg. m -3 , which is the WHO (World Health organization) adopted value, and above the USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) maximum admissible one (1.5 μg.m -3 ) as well. Regarding the size distribution of lead, the results showed that the small particles were mainly enriched in lead. The same observation can also be stated for PM10 with a 240 μg.m -3 mean concentration value , higher than 150 μg.m - 3 , adopted by the two above-mentioned organizations. Therefore, the Antananarivo urban area is classified as saturated zone for both parameters (lead and particulate matter). In addition, the results of Mason enrichment factors showed that the elements such as sulfur (S), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), bromine (Br), and lead (Pb) are from both natural and anthropogenic sources. The elements such as kalium (K), chlorine (Cl), calcium (Ca

  20. Evaluation of sampling inhalable PM10 particulate matter (≤ 10 μm) using co-located high volume samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajoy, R R S; Dias, J W C; Rego, E C P; Netto, A D Pereira

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the determination of the concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), collected simultaneously by six PM10 high volume samplers from two different manufacturers installed in the same location. Fifteen samples of 24 h were obtained with each equipment at a selected urban area of Rio de Janeiro city. The concentration of PM10 ranged between 10.73 and 54.04 μg m −3 . The samplers were considered comparable to each other, as the adopted methodology presented good repeatability

  1. Source identification and long-term monitoring of airborne particulate matter (PM2.5/PM10) in an urban region of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong-Sam Chung; Sun-Ha Kim; Jong-Hwa Moon; Young-Jin Kim; Jong-Myoung Lim; Jin-Hong Lee

    2006-01-01

    For the identification of air pollution sources, about 500 airborne particulate matter (PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) samples were collected by using a Gent air sampler and a polycarbonate filter in an urban region in the middle of Korea from 2000 to 2003. The concentrations of 25 elements in the samples were measured by using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Receptor modeling was performed on the air monitoring data by using the positive matrix factorization (PMF2) method. According to this analysis, the existence of 6 to 10 PMF factors, such as metal-alloy, oil combustion, diesel exhaust, coal combustion, gasoline exhaust, incinerator, Cu-smelter, biomass burning, sea-salt, and soil dust were identified. (author)

  2. The Effect of Economic Growth, Urbanization, and Industrialization on Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Concentrations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangdong; Fang, Chuanglin; Wang, Shaojian; Sun, Siao

    2016-11-01

    Rapid economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization in China have led to extremely severe air pollution that causes increasing negative effects on human health, visibility, and climate change. However, the influence mechanisms of these anthropogenic factors on fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations are poorly understood. In this study, we combined panel data and econometric methods to investigate the main anthropogenic factors that contribute to increasing PM 2.5 concentrations in China at the prefecture level from 1999 to 2011. The results showed that PM 2.5 concentrations and three anthropogenic factors were cointegrated. The panel Fully Modified Least Squares and panel Granger causality test results indicated that economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization increased PM 2.5 concentrations in the long run. The results implied that if China persists in its current development pattern, economic growth, industrialization and urbanization will inevitably lead to increased PM 2.5 emissions in the long term. Industrialization was the principal factor that affected PM 2.5 concentrations for the total panel, the industry-oriented panel and the service-oriented panel. PM 2.5 concentrations can be reduced at the cost of short-term economic growth and industrialization. However, reducing the urbanization level is not an efficient way to decrease PM 2.5 pollutions in the short term. The findings also suggest that a rapid reduction of PM 2.5 concentrations relying solely on adjusting these anthropogenic factors is difficult in a short-term for the heavily PM 2.5 -polluted panel. Moreover, the Chinese government will have to seek much broader policies that favor a decoupling of these coupling relationships.

  3. Source apportionment of fine (PM1.8) and ultrafine (PM0.1) airborne particulate matter during a severe winter pollution episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleeman, Michael J; Riddle, Sarah G; Robert, Michael A; Jakober, Chris A; Fine, Phillip M; Hays, Michael D; Schauer, James J; Hannigan, Michael P

    2009-01-15

    Size-resolved samples of airborne particulate matter (PM) collected during a severe winter pollution episode at three sites in the San Joaquin Valley of California were extracted with organic solvents and analyzed for detailed organic compounds using GC-MS. Six particle size fractions were characterized with diameter (Dp) < 1.8 microm; the smallest size fraction was 0.056 < Dp < 0.1 microm which accounts for the majority of the mass in the ultrafine (PM0.1) size range. Source profiles for ultrafine particles developed during previous studies were applied to the measurements at each sampling site to calculate source contributions to organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations. Ultrafine EC concentrations ranged from 0.03 microg m(-3) during the daytime to 0.18 microg m(-3) during the nighttime. Gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, and lubricating oil combustion products accounted for the majority of the ultrafine EC concentrations, with relatively minor contributions from biomass combustion and meat cooking. Ultrafine OC concentrations ranged from 0.2 microg m(-3) during the daytime to 0.8 microg m(-3) during the nighttime. Wood combustion was found to be the largest source of ultrafine OC. Meat cooking was also identified as a significant potential source of PM0.1 mass but further study is required to verify the contributions from this source. Gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, and lubricating oil combustion products made minor contributions to PM0.1 OC mass. Total ultrafine particulate matter concentrations were dominated by contributions from wood combustion and meat cooking during the current study. Future inhalation exposure studies may wish to target these sources as potential causes of adverse health effects.

  4. Removal of particulate matter (PM10) by air scrubbers at livestock facilities: results of an on-farm monitoring program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melse, R.W.; Hofschreuder, P.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Air scrubbers are commonly used for removal of ammonia and odor from exhaust air of animal houses in the Netherlands. In addition, air scrubbers remove a part of the particulate matter. In this article, the results of an on-farm monitoring are presented in which PM10 removal was monitored at 24

  5. Continuous and semicontinuous monitoring techniques for particulate matter mass and chemical components: a synthesis of findings from EPA's Particulate Matter Supersites Program and related studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Paul A; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2008-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Particulate Matter (PM) Supersites Program to provide key stakeholders (government and private sector) with significantly improved information needed to develop effective and efficient strategies for reducing PM on urban and regional scales. All Supersites projects developed and evaluated methods and instruments, and significant advances have been made and applied within these programs to yield new insights to our understanding of PM accumulation in air as well as improved source-receptor relationships. The tested methods include a variety of continuous and semicontinuous instruments typically with a time resolution of an hour or less. These methods often overcome many of the limitations associated with measuring atmospheric PM mass concentrations by daily filter-based methods (e.g., potential positive or negative sampling artifacts). Semicontinuous coarse and ultrafine mass measurement methods also were developed and evaluated. Other semicontinuous monitors tested measured the major components of PM such as nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, organic and elemental carbon, trace elements, and water content of the aerosol as well as methods for other physical properties of PM, such as number concentration, size distribution, and particle density. Particle mass spectrometers, although unlikely to be used in national routine monitoring networks in the foreseeable future because of their complex technical requirements and cost, are mentioned here because of the wealth of new information they provide on the size-resolved chemical composition of atmospheric particles on a near continuous basis. Particle mass spectrometers likely represent the greatest advancement in PM measurement technology during the last decade. The improvements in time resolution achieved by the reported semicontinuous methods have proven to be especially useful in characterizing ambient PM, and are becoming essential in allowing scientists to

  6. Extractable organic matter in PM10 from LiWan district of Guangzhou City, PR China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xinhui; Sheng, Guoying; Peng, Peng an; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Fu, Jiamo

    2002-12-02

    PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. The sigma(n)-alkane and sigmaPAHs ranged from 26.4 to 719.2 ng/m3 and 7.4 to 159.4 ng/m3, respectively. A seasonal fluctuation was clearly evident with higher concentrations occurring during the colder months (April). In addition, some compositional differences are observed for the organic compounds in samples collected from different heights above ground level. Higher sites had a significant contribution from vascular plant wax. The presence of petroleum products with no carbon number preference, pristane, phytane and a significant unresolved complex mixture (UCM) with unresolved to resolved components ratio (U/R) of 6.2-13.2 confirm the petroleum component. The relative distribution of n-alkanes and the values of molecular diagnostic ratio, such as carbon preference index (CPI) values ranging from 1.0 to 1.4 (for the whole range of n-alkanes), indicated the importance of petroleum and diesel residues and gasoline emissions, as well as the minor contribution of n-alkanes emitted directly from epicuticular waxes. Indeed, the percent contribution of leaf 'wax' n-alkanes (5.2-19.4%) indicated a low contribution of biogenic sources. The fossil fuel biomarkers, hopanes and steranes were observed in the PM10 samples, which indicate a petroleum origin. The distribution pattern of PAHs was characteristic of anthropogenic emissions. Coupling carbon number maximum (Cmax), CPI, U/R values, molecular marker and molecular diagnostic ratios for alkanes and PAHs revealed a classification of natural biogenic and anthropogenic components of atmospheric aerosols. These analyses support the conclusion that vehicular emission was the major source of organic compounds during the study period, while the contribution of epicuticular waxes emitted by terrestrial plants was minor.

  7. Toxic potential of organic constituents of submicron particulate matter (PM1) in an urban road site (Barcelona).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Sofia R; van Drooge, Barend L; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Grimalt, Joan O; Barata, Carlos; Vieira, Natividade; Guimarães, Laura; Piña, Benjamin

    2017-06-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is a recognized risk factor contributing to a number of diseases in human populations and wildlife globally. Organic matter is a major component of PM, but its contribution to overall toxicity of PM has not been thoroughly evaluated yet. In the present work, the biological activity of organic extracts from PM1 (particles with less than 1 μm of aerodynamic diameter) collected from an urban road site in the centre of Barcelona (NE Spain) was evaluated using a yeast-based assay (AhR-RYA) and different gene expression markers in zebrafish embryos. Dioxin-like activity of the extracts correlated to primary emissions from local traffic exhausts, reflecting weekday/weekend alternance. Expression levels of cyp1a and of gene markers for key cellular processes and development (ier2, fos) also correlated to vehicle emissions, whereas expression of gene markers related to antioxidant defence and endocrine effects (gstal, hao1, ttr) was strongly reduced in samples with strong contribution from regional air masses with aged secondary organic species or with strong influence of biomass burning emissions. Our data suggest that the toxic potential of PM1 organic chemical constituents strongly depends on the emission sources and on the process of ageing from primary to secondary organic aerosols.

  8. Spatiotemporal prediction of continuous daily PM2.5 concentrations across China using a spatially explicit machine learning algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yu; Luo, Yuzhou; Deng, Xunfei; Chen, Huajin; Grieneisen, Michael L.; Shen, Xueyou; Zhu, Lizhong; Zhang, Minghua

    2017-04-01

    A high degree of uncertainty associated with the emission inventory for China tends to degrade the performance of chemical transport models in predicting PM2.5 concentrations especially on a daily basis. In this study a novel machine learning algorithm, Geographically-Weighted Gradient Boosting Machine (GW-GBM), was developed by improving GBM through building spatial smoothing kernels to weigh the loss function. This modification addressed the spatial nonstationarity of the relationships between PM2.5 concentrations and predictor variables such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and meteorological conditions. GW-GBM also overcame the estimation bias of PM2.5 concentrations due to missing AOD retrievals, and thus potentially improved subsequent exposure analyses. GW-GBM showed good performance in predicting daily PM2.5 concentrations (R2 = 0.76, RMSE = 23.0 μg/m3) even with partially missing AOD data, which was better than the original GBM model (R2 = 0.71, RMSE = 25.3 μg/m3). On the basis of the continuous spatiotemporal prediction of PM2.5 concentrations, it was predicted that 95% of the population lived in areas where the estimated annual mean PM2.5 concentration was higher than 35 μg/m3, and 45% of the population was exposed to PM2.5 >75 μg/m3 for over 100 days in 2014. GW-GBM accurately predicted continuous daily PM2.5 concentrations in China for assessing acute human health effects.

  9. An association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) levels and emergency ambulance dispatches for cardiovascular diseases in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiki, Toshihiro; Onozuka, Daisuke; Kamouchi, Masahiro; Hagihara, Akihito

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether short-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is associated with emergency ambulance dispatches for cardiovascular diseases in Japan. The nationwide data on emergency dispatches of ambulance for cardiovascular diseases classified as I00-I99 by International Classification of Diseases-10th revision in 30 Japanese prefectures between April 1 and December 31, in 2010 were analyzed. Data on weather variability including PM 2.5 , temperature and relative humidity were acquired from ambient air pollution monitoring stations. Conditional Poisson regression models were used to estimate the prefecture-specific effects of PM 2.5 on morbidity, and adjust for confounding factors. A meta-analysis was then applied to pool estimates at the 30-prefecture level. A total of 160,566 emergency ambulance dispatches for cardiovascular diseases were reported during the study period. The risk of emergency ambulance dispatch for cardiovascular diseases significantly increased with an increase in the exposure to PM 2.5 in Fukuoka and Iwate Prefectures. However, we found no statistically significant associations between PM 2.5 and emergency ambulance dispatches in the pooled analysis (odds ratio 1.00, 95 % confidence interval 0.99-1.00). Heterogeneity was not observed between prefectures (Cochran Q test, p = 0.187, I 2  = 18.4 %). Exposure to PM 2.5 is not associated with overall emergency ambulance dispatches for cardiovascular diseases in Japan.

  10. Black Carbon and Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Concentrations in New York City’s Subway Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The New York City (NYC) subway is the main mode of transport for over 5 million passengers on an average weekday. Therefore, airborne pollutants in the subway stations could have a significant impact on commuters and subway workers. This study looked at black carbon (BC) and particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations in selected subway stations in Manhattan. BC and PM2.5 levels were measured in real time using a Micro-Aethalometer and a PDR-1500 DataRAM, respectively. Simultaneous samples were also collected on quartz filters for organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) analysis and on Teflon filters for gravimetric and trace element analysis. In the underground subway stations, mean real time BC concentrations ranged from 5 to 23 μg/m3, with 1 min average peaks >100 μg/m3, while real time PM2.5 levels ranged from 35 to 200 μg/m3. Mean EC levels ranged from 9 to 12.5 μg/m3. At street level on the same days, the mean BC and PM2.5 concentrations were below 3 and 10 μg/m3, respectively. This study shows that both BC soot and PM levels in NYC’s subways are considerably higher than ambient urban street levels and that further monitoring and investigation of BC and PM subway exposures are warranted. PMID:25409007

  11. Chemical characterization of outdoor and subway fine (PM(2.5-1.0)) and coarse (PM(10-2.5)) particulate matter in Seoul (Korea) by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Sang-Hoon; Willis, Robert; Peters, Thomas M

    2015-02-13

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul (Korea) and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42%-60% (by weight) of fine particulate matter larger than 1 µm (PM(2.5-1.0)) in outdoor samples and 18% of PM2.5-1.0 in subway samples. Iron-containing particles accounted for only 3%-6% in outdoor samples but 69% in subway samples. Qualitatively similar results were found for coarse particulate matter (PM(10-2.5)) with soil/road dust particles dominating outdoor samples (66%-83%) and iron-containing particles contributing most to subway PM(10-2.5) (44%). As expected, soil/road dust particles comprised a greater mass fraction of PM(10-2.5) than PM(2.5-1.0). Also as expected, the mass fraction of iron-containing particles was substantially less in PM(10-2.5) than in PM(2.5-1.0). Results of this study are consistent with known emission sources in the area and with previous studies, which showed high concentrations of iron-containing particles in the subway compared to outdoor sites. Thus, passive sampling with CCSEM-EDX offers an inexpensive means to assess PM(2.5-1.0) and PM(10-2.5) simultaneously and by composition at multiple locations.

  12. Statins attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction induced by exposure to urban particulate matter (PM{sub 10})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Ryohei; Hiraiwa, Kunihiko; Cheng, Jui Chih [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Bai, Ni [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Vincent, Renaud [Environmental Health Sciences and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Francis, Gordon A.; Sin, Don D. [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Van Eeden, Stephan F., E-mail: Stephan.vanEeden@hli.ubc.ca [UBC James Hogg Research Centre, St. Paul' s Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (particles less than 10 μm or PM{sub 10}) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have well-established anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of statins on the adverse functional and morphological changes in blood vessels induced by PM{sub 10}. New Zealand White rabbits fed with a high fat diet were subjected to balloon injury to their abdominal aorta followed by PM{sub 10}/saline exposure for 4 weeks ± lovastatin (5 mg/kg/day) treatment. PM{sub 10} exposure accelerated balloon catheter induced plaque formation and increased intimal macrophages and lipid accumulation while lovastatin attenuated these changes and promoted smooth muscle cell recruitment into plaques. PM{sub 10} impaired vascular acetylcholine (Ach) responses and increased vasoconstriction induced by phenylephrine as assessed by wire myograph. Supplementation of nitric oxide improved the impaired Ach responses. PM{sub 10} increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in blood vessels and increased the plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1). Incubation with specific inhibitors for iNOS, COX-2 or ET-1 in the myograph chambers significantly improved the impaired vascular function. Lovastatin decreased the expression of these mediators in atherosclerotic lesions and improved endothelial dysfunction. However, lovastatin was unable to reduce blood lipid levels to the baseline level in rabbits exposed to PM{sub 10}. Taken together, statins protect against PM{sub 10}-induced cardiovascular disease by reducing atherosclerosis and improving endothelial function via their anti-inflammatory properties. - Highlights: • Coarse particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) accelerated balloon injury-induced plaque formation. • Lovastatin decreased intimal

  13. Statins attenuate the development of atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction induced by exposure to urban particulate matter (PM10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Ryohei; Hiraiwa, Kunihiko; Cheng, Jui Chih; Bai, Ni; Vincent, Renaud; Francis, Gordon A.; Sin, Don D.; Van Eeden, Stephan F.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to ambient air particulate matter (particles less than 10 μm or PM 10 ) has been shown to be an independent risk factor for the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) have well-established anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of statins on the adverse functional and morphological changes in blood vessels induced by PM 10 . New Zealand White rabbits fed with a high fat diet were subjected to balloon injury to their abdominal aorta followed by PM 10 /saline exposure for 4 weeks ± lovastatin (5 mg/kg/day) treatment. PM 10 exposure accelerated balloon catheter induced plaque formation and increased intimal macrophages and lipid accumulation while lovastatin attenuated these changes and promoted smooth muscle cell recruitment into plaques. PM 10 impaired vascular acetylcholine (Ach) responses and increased vasoconstriction induced by phenylephrine as assessed by wire myograph. Supplementation of nitric oxide improved the impaired Ach responses. PM 10 increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in blood vessels and increased the plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1). Incubation with specific inhibitors for iNOS, COX-2 or ET-1 in the myograph chambers significantly improved the impaired vascular function. Lovastatin decreased the expression of these mediators in atherosclerotic lesions and improved endothelial dysfunction. However, lovastatin was unable to reduce blood lipid levels to the baseline level in rabbits exposed to PM 10 . Taken together, statins protect against PM 10 -induced cardiovascular disease by reducing atherosclerosis and improving endothelial function via their anti-inflammatory properties. - Highlights: • Coarse particulate matter (PM 10 ) accelerated balloon injury-induced plaque formation. • Lovastatin decreased intimal macrophages, lipid accumulation, and

  14. Elemental characterization of New Year's Day PM10 and PM2.2 particulates matter at several sites in Metro Manila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Flora L; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B; Morco, Ryan P; Racho, Joseph Michael D [Analytical Measurements Research Group, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Commonwealth Ave., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    2007-07-01

    In the Philippines, it has been a yearly tradition to welcome the coming of the New Year with the loudest noise as can be achieved. Firecrackers and fireworks have been a necessity for Filipinos during this time despite bans on the use of most of these and despite the Department of Health (DOH) campaign to use alternative safe practices to welcome the New Year. Data for PM 10 samples (fractionated as PM 10-2.2 or the course fraction and PM2.2 or the fine fraction) collected in four PNRI sampling sites in Metro Manila show the air pollution impacts of fireworks on New Year's Eve. Samples were collected from 1998 to 2006 using a Gent dichotomous sampler in connection with the PNRI project {sup P}articulate Matter Source Apportionment Using Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques{sup .} Particulate mass was determined by gravimetry. Elemental analysis of the air filters was done using X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (X RF) or Particle induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), multielemental non-destructive nuclear analytical techniques. Black carbon was analyzed using reflectometry. PM 10 values increased by two to four times the usual averages (36.4 to 55.4 ug/cum) and in 2002 even exceeded the PNAAQ short-term guideline value of 150 ug/cum at the ADMU sampling station. PM2.2 values increased by two to six times the usual averages (15 to 28 ug/cum), even many times exceeding US EPA short-term guideline value of 65 ug/cum. The increase in the particulate mass of New Year's Day samples can be attributed more to an increase in the metal pollutants rather than the black carbon, with higher contribution to the fine fraction. Increase in the elemental concentrations of Al, S, Cl, K, Ba, Sr, Ti, V, Mn, Cu and Pb were observed with the highest contribution from K. Results show that the usual practices of burning firecrackers and fireworks during New Year's day celebration is a very strong source of air pollution which contributes significantly high amount of metal pollutants in the

  15. Elemental characterization of New Year's Day PM10 and PM2.2 particulates matter at several sites in Metro Manila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Morco, Ryan P.; Racho, Joseph Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    In the Philippines, it has been a yearly tradition to welcome the coming of the New Year with the loudest noise as can be achieved. Firecrackers and fireworks have been a necessity for Filipinos during this time despite bans on the use of most of these and despite the Department of Health (DOH) campaign to use alternative safe practices to welcome the New Year. Data for PM 10 samples (fractionated as PM 10-2.2 or the course fraction and PM2.2 or the fine fraction) collected in four PNRI sampling sites in Metro Manila show the air pollution impacts of fireworks on New Year's Eve. Samples were collected from 1998 to 2006 using a Gent dichotomous sampler in connection with the PNRI project P articulate Matter Source Apportionment Using Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques . Particulate mass was determined by gravimetry. Elemental analysis of the air filters was done using X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (X RF) or Particle induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), multielemental non-destructive nuclear analytical techniques. Black carbon was analyzed using reflectometry. PM 10 values increased by two to four times the usual averages (36.4 to 55.4 ug/cum) and in 2002 even exceeded the PNAAQ short-term guideline value of 150 ug/cum at the ADMU sampling station. PM2.2 values increased by two to six times the usual averages (15 to 28 ug/cum), even many times exceeding US EPA short-term guideline value of 65 ug/cum. The increase in the particulate mass of New Year's Day samples can be attributed more to an increase in the metal pollutants rather than the black carbon, with higher contribution to the fine fraction. Increase in the elemental concentrations of Al, S, Cl, K, Ba, Sr, Ti, V, Mn, Cu and Pb were observed with the highest contribution from K. Results show that the usual practices of burning firecrackers and fireworks during New Year's day celebration is a very strong source of air pollution which contributes significantly high amount of metal pollutants in the air

  16. Contributions to cities' ambient particulate matter (PM): A systematic review of local source contributions at global level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagulian, Federico; Belis, Claudio A.; Dora, Carlos Francisco C.; Prüss-Ustün, Annette M.; Bonjour, Sophie; Adair-Rohani, Heather; Amann, Markus

    2015-11-01

    For reducing health impacts from air pollution, it is important to know the sources contributing to human exposure. This study systematically reviewed and analysed available source apportionment studies on particulate matter (of diameter of 10 and 2.5 microns, PM10 and PM2.5) performed in cities to estimate typical shares of the sources of pollution by country and by region. A database with city source apportionment records, estimated with the use of receptor models, was also developed and available at the website of the World Health Organization. Systematic Scopus and Google searches were performed to retrieve city studies of source apportionment for particulate matter. Six source categories were defined. Country and regional averages of source apportionment were estimated based on city population weighting. A total of 419 source apportionment records from studies conducted in cities of 51 countries were used to calculate regional averages of sources of ambient particulate matter. Based on the available information, globally 25% of urban ambient air pollution from PM2.5 is contributed by traffic, 15% by industrial activities, 20% by domestic fuel burning, 22% from unspecified sources of human origin, and 18% from natural dust and salt. The available source apportionment records exhibit, however, important heterogeneities in assessed source categories and incompleteness in certain countries/regions. Traffic is one important contributor to ambient PM in cities. To reduce air pollution in cities and the substantial disease burden it causes, solutions to sustainably reduce ambient PM from traffic, industrial activities and biomass burning should urgently be sought. However, further efforts are required to improve data availability and evaluation, and possibly to combine with other types of information in view of increasing usefulness for policy making.

  17. Modelling of particulate matter pollution (PM10) over the Etang de Berre area Determination of areas of homogeneous pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocheton, F.; Poulet, D.; Mesbah, B.; Hourdin, G.

    2010-01-01

    AIRFOBEP is the association in charge of the air quality monitoring in the Etang de Berre area. AIRFOBEP is managing a network of ten sensors to monitor the PMI (particulate matter index) particulate pollution. This network is updated once a year according to the Air Quality Monitoring Plan (PSQA). Optimizing this network needs to know how the particulate pollution is distributed in the area. In other words, to determine the limits of homogeneous zones of PM 10 pollution. The aim of the project presented in this article is to produce a map of homogeneous zones of PM 10 pollution in the Etang de Berre area. The project was carried out in two steps: - PM 10 atmospheric dispersion modeling, using a ADMS-URBAN software, - Statistic classification, based on the well known Hierarchical Ascending Classification (HAC) technique. Results of the atmospheric dispersion modeling was namely adjusted using an original technique for the 'background PM 10 pollution' computation. Good performances have been obtained when comparing modeling and measurements data. Finally, a set of five homogeneous zones was found to well describe the PM 10 pollution level distribution in the Etang de Berre area. (author)

  18. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Matthew; Freer-Smith, Peter; Sinnett, Danielle; Aylott, Matthew; Taylor, Gail

    2010-05-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence created by the structure of the urban forest. In this context urban greening has long been known as a mechanism to contribute towards PM10 removal from the air, furthermore, tree canopy cover has a role in contributing towards a more sustainable urban environment. The work reported here has been carried out within the BRIDGE project (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism). The aim of this project is to assess the fluxes of energy, water, carbon dioxide and particulates within the urban environment and develope a DSS (Decision Support System) to aid urban planners in sustainable development. A combination of published urban canopy cover data from ground, airborne and satellite based surveys was used. For each of the 33 London boroughs the urban canopy was classified to three groups, urban woodland, street trees and garden trees and each group quantified in terms of ground cover. The total [PM10] for each borough was taken from the LAEI (London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2006) and the contribution to reducing [PM10] was assessed for each canopy type. Deposition to the urban canopy was assessed using the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) approach. Deposition to the canopy, boundary layer height and percentage reduction of the [PM10] in the atmosphere was assessed using both hourly meterological data and [PM10] and seasonal data derived from annual models. Results from hourly and annual data were compared with measured values. The model was then

  19. Determinants of exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) for waiting passengers at bus stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Daniel Baldwin; Ray, Paul David; Stinson, Anne E.; Park, JiYoung

    2010-12-01

    This research evaluates commuter exposure to particulate matter during pre-journey commute segments for passengers waiting at bus stops by investigating 840 min of simultaneous exposure levels, both inside and outside seven bus shelters in Buffalo, New York. A multivariate regression model is used to estimate the relation between exposure to particulate matter (PM 2.5 measured in μg m -3) and three vectors of determinants: time and location, physical setting and placement, and environmental factors. Four determinants have a statistically significant effect on particulate matter: time of day, passengers' waiting location, land use near the bus shelter, and the presence of cigarette smoking at the bus shelter. Model results suggest that exposure to PM 2.5 inside a bus shelter is 2.63 μg m -3 (or 18 percent) higher than exposure outside a bus shelter, perhaps due in part to the presence of cigarette smoking. Morning exposure levels are 6.51 μg m -3 (or 52 percent) higher than afternoon levels. Placement of bus stops can affect exposure to particulate matter for those waiting inside and outside of shelters: air samples at bus shelters located in building canyons have higher particulate matter than bus shelters located near open space.

  20. Laboratory Validation of Four Black Carbon Measurement Methods for Determination of the Nonvolatile Particulate Matter (nvPM) Mass Emissions from Commercial Aircraft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four candidate black carbon (BC) measurement techniques have been identified by the SAE International E-31 Committee for possible use in determining nonvolatile particulate matter (nvPM) mass emissions during commercial aircraft engine certification. These techniques are carbon b...

  1. Gaseous VOCs rapidly modify particulate matter and its biological effects - Part 1: Simple VOCs and model PM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersviller, S.; Lichtveld, K.; Sexton, K. G.; Zavala, J.; Lin, Y.-H.; Jaspers, I.; Jeffries, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    This is the first of a three-part study designed to demonstrate dynamic entanglements among gaseous organic compounds (VOC), particulate matter (PM), and their subsequent potential biological effects. We study these entanglements in increasingly complex VOC and PM mixtures in urban-like conditions in a large outdoor chamber. To the traditional chemical and physical characterizations of gas and PM, we added new measurements of biological effects, using cultured human lung cells as model indicators. These biological effects are assessed here as increases in cellular damage or expressed irritation (i.e., cellular toxic effects) from cells exposed to chamber air relative to cells exposed to clean air. The exposure systems permit virtually gas-only- or PM-only-exposures from the same air stream containing both gases and PM in equilibria, i.e., there are no extractive operations prior to cell exposure. Our simple experiments in this part of the study were designed to eliminate many competing atmospheric processes to reduce ambiguity in our results. Simple volatile and semi-volatile organic gases that have inherent cellular toxic properties were tested individually for biological effect in the dark (at constant humidity). Airborne mixtures were then created with each compound to which we added PM that has no inherent cellular toxic properties for another cellular exposure. Acrolein and p-tolualdehyde were used as model VOCs and mineral oil aerosol (MOA) was selected as a surrogate for organic-containing PM. MOA is appropriately complex in composition to represent ambient PM, and exhibits no inherent cellular toxic effects and thus did not contribute any biological detrimental effects on its own. Chemical measurements, combined with the responses of our biological exposures, clearly demonstrate that gas-phase pollutants can modify the composition of PM (and its resulting detrimental effects on lung cells). We observed that, even if the gas-phase pollutants are not

  2. Potential impact of particulate matter less than 10 micron (PM10) to ambient air quality of Jakarta and Palembang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustine, I.; Yulinawati, H.; Gunawan, D.; Suswantoro, E.

    2018-01-01

    Particulate is a main urban air pollutant affects the environment and human wellbeing. The purpose of this study is to analyze the impact of particulate matter less than 10 micron (PM10) to ambient air quality of Jakarta and Palembang. The analysis is done with calendarPlot Function of openair model, which is based on the calculation of Pollutant Standards Index (PSI) or better known as Air Quality Index (AQI). The AQI category of “moderate” dominates Jakarta’s calendar from 2015 to 2016, which indicates the impact of PM10 is the visibility reduction. There was one day with category “unhealthy” that indicates the impact of dust exposure everywhere in Jakarta during 2015. Similar to Jakarta, the AQI category “moderate” also dominates Palembang’s calendar during 2015. However, the AQI category “hazardous” happened for few days in September and October 2015 during forest fires, which indicates the more harmful impacts of PM10, such as reduced visibility, dust exposure everywhere, increased sensitivity in patients with asthma and bronchitis to respiratory illness in all exposed populations. During 2016, AQI category of Jakarta mostly “moderate”, while in Palembang was “good”. Dominant AQI category from 2015 to 2016 shows higher PM10 concentration occurred in Jakarta compared to Palembang.

  3. [Exploration of a quantitative methodology to characterize the retention of PM2.5 and other atmospheric particulate matter by plant leaves: taking Populus tomentosa as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Xi, Ben-Ye; Cao, Zhi-Guo; Jia, Li-Ming

    2014-08-01

    Taking Populus tomentosa as an example, a methodology called elution-weighing-particle size-analysis (EWPA) was proposed to evaluate quantitatively the ability of retaining fine particulate matter (PM2.5, diameter d ≤ 2.5 μm) and atmospheric particulate matter by plant leaves using laser particle size analyzer and balance. This method achieved a direct, accurate measurement with superior operability about the quality and particle size distribution of atmospheric particulate matter retained by plant leaves. First, a pre-experiment was taken to test the stability of the method. After cleaning, centrifugation and drying, the particulate matter was collected and weighed, and then its particle size distribution was analyzed by laser particle size analyzer. Finally, the mass of particulate matter retained by unit area of leaf and stand was translated from the leaf area and leaf area index. This method was applied to a P. tomentosa stand which had not experienced rain for 27 days in Beijing Olympic Forest Park. The results showed that the average particle size of the atmospheric particulate matter retained by P. tomentosa was 17.8 μm, and the volume percentages of the retained PM2.5, inhalable particulate matter (PM10, d ≤ 10 μm) and total suspended particle (TSP, d ≤ 100 μm) were 13.7%, 47.2%, and 99.9%, respectively. The masses of PM2.5, PM10, TSP and total particulate matter were 8.88 x 10(-6), 30.6 x 10(-6), 64.7 x 10(-6) and 64.8 x 10(-6) g x cm(-2) respectively. The retention quantities of PM2.5, PM10, TSP and total particulate matter by the P. tomentosa stand were 0.963, 3.32, 7.01 and 7.02 kg x hm(-2), respectively.

  4. Chemical Characterization of Outdoor and Subway Fine (PM2.5–1.0) and Coarse (PM10–2.5) Particulate Matter in Seoul (Korea) by Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Sang-Hoon; Willis, Robert; Peters, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul (Korea) and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42%–60% (by weight) of fine particulate matter larger than 1 µm (PM2.5–1.0) in outdoor samples and 18% of PM2.5–1.0 in subway samples. Iron-containing particles accounted for only 3%–6% in outdoor samples but 69% in subway samples. Qualitatively similar results were found for coarse particulate matter (PM10–2.5) with soil/road dust particles dominating outdoor samples (66%–83%) and iron-containing particles contributing most to subway PM10–2.5 (44%). As expected, soil/road dust particles comprised a greater mass fraction of PM10–2.5 than PM2.5–1.0. Also as expected, the mass fraction of iron-containing particles was substantially less in PM10–2.5 than in PM2.5–1.0. Results of this study are consistent with known emission sources in the area and with previous studies, which showed high concentrations of iron-containing particles in the subway compared to outdoor sites. Thus, passive sampling with CCSEM-EDX offers an inexpensive means to assess PM2.5–1.0 and PM10-2.5 simultaneously and by composition at multiple locations. PMID:25689348

  5. Chemical Characterization of Outdoor and Subway Fine (PM2.5–1.0 and Coarse (PM10–2.5 Particulate Matter in Seoul (Korea by Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Hoon Byeon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Outdoor and indoor (subway samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul (Korea and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX. Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42%–60% (by weight of fine particulate matter larger than 1 µm (PM2.5–1.0 in outdoor samples and 18% of PM2.5–1.0 in subway samples. Iron-containing particles accounted for only 3%–6% in outdoor samples but 69% in subway samples. Qualitatively similar results were found for coarse particulate matter (PM10–2.5 with soil/road dust particles dominating outdoor samples (66%–83% and iron-containing particles contributing most to subway PM10–2.5 (44%. As expected, soil/road dust particles comprised a greater mass fraction of PM10–2.5 than PM2.5–1.0. Also as expected, the mass fraction of iron-containing particles was substantially less in PM10–2.5 than in PM2.5–1.0. Results of this study are consistent with known emission sources in the area and with previous studies, which showed high concentrations of iron-containing particles in the subway compared to outdoor sites. Thus, passive sampling with CCSEM-EDX offers an inexpensive means to assess PM2.5–1.0 and PM10-2.5 simultaneously and by composition at multiple locations.

  6. Temporal multiscaling characteristics of particulate matter PM 10 and ground-level ozone O3 concentrations in Caribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plocoste, Thomas; Calif, Rudy; Jacoby-Koaly, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    A good knowledge of the intermittency of atmospheric pollutants is crucial for air pollution management. We consider here particulate matter PM 10 and ground-level ozone O3 time series in Guadeloupe archipelago which experiments a tropical and humid climate in the Caribbean zone. The aim of this paper is to study their scaling statistics in the framework of fully developed turbulence and Kolmogorov's theory. Firstly, we estimate their Fourier power spectra and consider their scaling properties in the physical space. The power spectra computed follows a power law behavior for both considered pollutants. Thereafter we study the scaling behavior of PM 10 and O3 time series. Contrary to numerous studies where the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis is frequently applied, here, the classical structure function analysis is used to extract the scaling exponent or multifractal spectrum ζ(q) ; this function provides a full characterization of a process at all intensities and all scales. The obtained results show that PM 10 and O3 possess intermittent and multifractal properties. The singularity spectrum MS(α) also confirms both pollutants multifractal features. The originality of this work comes from a statistical modeling performed on ζ(q) and MS(α) by a lognormal model to compute the intermittency parameter μ. By contrast with PM 10 which mainly depends on puffs of Saharan dust (synoptic-scale), O3 is more intermittent due to variability of its local precursors. The results presented in this paper can help to better understand the mechanisms governing the dynamics of PM 10 and O3 in Caribbean islands context.

  7. Programmable integrated front-end for SiPM/PMT PET detectors with continuous scintillating crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Herrero Bosch, Vicente; Monzó Ferrer, José María; Ros García, Ana; Aliaga Varea, Ramón José; González Martínez, Antonio Javier; Montoliu, C.; Colom Palero, Ricardo José; Benlloch Baviera, Jose María

    2012-01-01

    AMIC architecture has been introduced in previous works in order to provide a generic and expandable solution for implementing large number of outputs SiPM array/PMT detectors. The underlying idea in AMIC architecture is to calculate the moments of the detected light distribution in an analog fashion. These moments provide information about energy, x/y position, etc. of the light distribution of the detected event. Moreover this means that a small set of signals contains most of the informati...

  8. Respiratory health risks and exposure to particulate matter (PM 2.5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A validated questionnaire for respiratory health was administered to 102 waste pickers and exposure to environmental and personal PM2.5 was evaluated. There was a relatively high prevalence of chronic cough and wheeze amongst all participants (57% and 51% respectively). Males reported a higher frequency of cough ...

  9. Year-long continuous personal exposure to PM 2.5 recorded by a fast responding portable nephelometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniš, Martin; Kolomazníková, Jana

    2010-08-01

    Personal exposure to particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter under 2.5 μm (PM 2.5) was monitored using a DustTrak nephelometer. The battery-operated unit, worn by an adult individual for a period of approximately one year, logged integrated average PM 2.5 concentrations over 5 min intervals. A detailed time-activity diary was used to record the experimental subject's movement and the microenvironments visited. Altogether 239 days covering all the months (except April) were available for the analysis. In total, 60 463 acceptable 5-min averages were obtained. The dataset was divided into 7 indoor and 4 outdoor microenvironments. Of the total time, 84% was spent indoors, 10.9% outdoors and 5.1% in transport. The indoor 5-min PM 2.5 average was higher (55.7 μg m -3) than the outdoor value (49.8 μg m -3). The highest 5-min PM 2.5 average concentration was detected in restaurant microenvironments (1103 μg m -3), the second highest 5-min average concentration was recorded in indoor spaces heated by stoves burning solid fuels (420 μg m -3). The lowest 5-min mean aerosol concentrations were detected outdoors in rural/natural environments (25 μg m -3) and indoors at the monitored person's home (36 μg m -3). Outdoor and indoor concentrations of PM 2.5 measured by the nephelometer at home and during movement in the vicinity of the experimental subject's home were compared with those of the nearest fixed-site monitor of the national air quality monitoring network. The high correlation coefficient (0.78) between the personal and fixed-site monitor aerosol concentrations suggested that fixed-site monitor data can be used as proxies for personal exposure in residential and some other microenvironments. Collocated measurements with a reference method (β-attenuation) showed a non-linear systematic bias of the light-scattering method, limiting the use of direct concentration readings for exact exposure analysis.

  10. Evaluation of a timing integrated circuit architecture for continuous crystal and SiPM based PET systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzo, J M; Ros, A; Herrero-Bosch, V; Perino, I V; Aliaga, R J; Gadea-Girones, R; Colom-Palero, R J

    2013-01-01

    Improving timing resolution in positron emission tomography (PET), thus having fine time information of the detected pulses, is important to increase the reconstructed images signal to noise ratio (SNR) [1]. In the present work, an integrated circuit topology for time extraction of the incoming pulses is evaluated. An accurate simulation including the detector physics and the electronics with different configurations has been developed. The selected architecture is intended for a PET system based on a continuous scintillation crystal attached to a SiPM array. The integrated circuit extracts the time stamp from the first few photons generated when the gamma-ray interacts with the scintillator, thus obtaining the best time resolution. To get the time stamp from the detected pulses, a time to digital converter (TDC) array based architecture has been proposed as in [2] or [3]. The TDC input stage uses a current comparator to transform the analog signal into a digital signal. Individually configurable trigger levels allow us to avoid false triggers due to signal noise. Using a TDC per SiPM configuration results in a very area consuming integrated circuit. One solution to this problem is to join several SiPM outputs to one TDC. This reduces the number of TDCs but, on the other hand, the first photons will be more difficult to be detected. For this reason, it is important to simulate how the time resolution is degraded when the number of TDCs is reduced. Following this criteria, the best configuration will be selected considering the trade-off between achievable time resolution and the cost per chip. A simulation is presented that uses Geant4 for simulation of the physics process and, for the electronic blocks, spice and Matlab. The Geant4 stage simulates the gamma-ray interaction with the scintillator, the photon shower generation and the first stages of the SiPM. The electronics simulation includes an electrical model of the SiPM array and all the integrated circuitry

  11. Environmental pollution: quantitative analysis of particulate matter (PM10) by SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Melo Junior, Ariston da Silva; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de

    2007-01-01

    The atmospheric pollution is a concern in the great urban centers, due its association with man pathologies. The Campinas region is one of the most urbanized of the Sao Paulo State and an important industrial center. Thus, due to its location and importance were installed three samplers for particulate material (PM 10 ). One sampler was located in downtown of Campinas city, in an avenue with high vehicular flow. Another sampler was installed in the UNICAMP campus and the third one in Paulinia city, near to REPLAN. For downtown of Campinas city PM 10 concentrations higher than regular air quality established by CETESB (150 μg.m -3 ) was observed. The PM 10 values for Paulinia and downtown of Campinas were higher than Barao Geraldo location. Employing SR-TXRF was possible identify and quantify 19 elements in the particulate material samples. All the measurements were performed at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, Campinas, SP. After statistics analysis by principal components and cluster analysis was possible to assemble the elements according emission sources. The dusty soil for coarse fraction contributed with 62%, 51% and 46% for Barao Geraldo, Paulinia and downtown of Campinas, respectively. The vehicular emission was responsible for 16% at downtown Campinas city as expected due to high vehicular flow at sampling place. The vehicular and industrial emissions contributed with 20% and 25%, respectively at Paulinia sampling site. The industrial emissions observed for Barao Geraldo and downtown of Campinas city were 27% and 33%, respectively. (author)

  12. PM-10 and heavy metals in particulate matter of the province of Lecce (Apulia, Southern Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buccolieri, Alessandro; Buccolieri, Giovanni [Lecce Univ., Lecce (Italy). Dipartimento di scienza dei materiali; Cardellicchio, Nicola [CNR-Istituto par l' ambiente marino costiero, Taranto (Italy); Dell' Atti, Angelo [Lecce Univ., Lecce (Italy). Dipartimento di scienza dei materiali; Osservatorio dell' inquinamento dell' atmosfera e dello spazio circumterrestre, Campi Salentina (Italy); Florio, Elena Tiziana [Osservatorio dell' inquinamento dell' atmosfera e dello spazio circumterrestre, Campi Salentina (Italy)

    2005-01-15

    This parer shows the results of a preliminary study of air monitoring in the province of Lecce (Apulia, Southem Italy). In particular, the attention has been focused on the determination of the PM-1O level and of the concentration of nine metals (C d, Cf, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) present on the filters which were collected in two towns (Lecce and Campi Salentina) from 2002 until 2003. The metals have been chosen on the basis of their toxicity and of their possible use as chemical tracers. The results have proved that PM-1O values and metals concentrations did not show substantial difference between the two towns and that PM-1O level and lead concentration are below the limit established by Italian law in force. The experiments have demonstrated a high correlation between iron and manganese in both sampling sites; this could be attributed to pollution of metallurgical origin. Multivariate statistical analysis, carried out by HCA and PCA methods, has been used in order to differentiate samples in relation to sampling sites, sampling period and meteorological conditions.

  13. Environmental pollution: quantitative analysis of particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Melo Junior, Ariston da Silva [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mails: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; juniorariston@gmail.com; Zucchi, Orgheda Luiza Araujo Domingues [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa Sirito de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br

    2007-07-01

    The atmospheric pollution is a concern in the great urban centers, due its association with man pathologies. The Campinas region is one of the most urbanized of the Sao Paulo State and an important industrial center. Thus, due to its location and importance were installed three samplers for particulate material (PM{sub 10}). One sampler was located in downtown of Campinas city, in an avenue with high vehicular flow. Another sampler was installed in the UNICAMP campus and the third one in Paulinia city, near to REPLAN. For downtown of Campinas city PM{sub 10} concentrations higher than regular air quality established by CETESB (150 {mu}g.m{sup -3}) was observed. The PM{sub 10} values for Paulinia and downtown of Campinas were higher than Barao Geraldo location. Employing SR-TXRF was possible identify and quantify 19 elements in the particulate material samples. All the measurements were performed at Synchrotron Light Source Laboratory, Campinas, SP. After statistics analysis by principal components and cluster analysis was possible to assemble the elements according emission sources. The dusty soil for coarse fraction contributed with 62%, 51% and 46% for Barao Geraldo, Paulinia and downtown of Campinas, respectively. The vehicular emission was responsible for 16% at downtown Campinas city as expected due to high vehicular flow at sampling place. The vehicular and industrial emissions contributed with 20% and 25%, respectively at Paulinia sampling site. The industrial emissions observed for Barao Geraldo and downtown of Campinas city were 27% and 33%, respectively. (author)

  14. Particulate matter (PM 10 ) in Istanbul: Origin, source areas and potential impact on surrounding regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, M.; Theodosi, C.; Zarmpas, P.; Im, U.; Bougiatioti, A.; Yenigun, O.; Mihalopoulos, N.

    2011-12-01

    Water-soluble ions (Cl -, NO3-, SO42-, CO4-, Na +, NH4+, K +, Mg 2+,Ca 2+), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), organic and elemental carbon (OC, EC) and trace metals (Al, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) were measured in aerosol PM 10 samples above the megacity of Istanbul between November 2007 and June 2009. Source apportionment analysis using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) indicates that approximately 80% of the PM 10 is anthropogenic in origin (secondary, refuse incineration, fuel oil and solid fuel combustion and traffic). Crustal and sea salt account for 10.2 and 7.5% of the observed mass, respectively. In general, anthropogenic (except secondary) aerosol shows higher concentrations and contributions in winter. Mean concentration and contribution of crustal source is found to be more important during the transitional period due to mineral dust transport from North Africa. During the sampling period, 42 events exceeding the limit value of 50 μg m -3 are identified. A significant percentage (91%; n = 38) of these exceedances is attributed to anthropogenic sources. Potential Source Contribution Function analysis highlights that Istanbul is affected from distant sources from Balkans and Western Europe during winter and from Eastern Europe during summer. On the other hand, Istanbul sources influence western Black Sea and Eastern Europe during winter and Aegean and Levantine Sea during summer.

  15. Meteorological modes of variability for fine particulate matter (PM2.5 air quality in the United States: implications for PM2.5 sensitivity to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Fisher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We applied a multiple linear regression model to understand the relationships of PM2.5 with meteorological variables in the contiguous US and from there to infer the sensitivity of PM2.5 to climate change. We used 2004–2008 PM2.5 observations from ~1000 sites (~200 sites for PM2.5 components and compared to results from the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM. All data were deseasonalized to focus on synoptic-scale correlations. We find strong positive correlations of PM2.5 components with temperature in most of the US, except for nitrate in the Southeast where the correlation is negative. Relative humidity (RH is generally positively correlated with sulfate and nitrate but negatively correlated with organic carbon. GEOS-Chem results indicate that most of the correlations of PM2.5 with temperature and RH do not arise from direct dependence but from covariation with synoptic transport. We applied principal component analysis and regression to identify the dominant meteorological modes controlling PM2.5 variability, and show that 20–40% of the observed PM2.5 day-to-day variability can be explained by a single dominant meteorological mode: cold frontal passages in the eastern US and maritime inflow in the West. These and other synoptic transport modes drive most of the overall correlations of PM2.5 with temperature and RH except in the Southeast. We show that interannual variability of PM2.5 in the US Midwest is strongly correlated with cyclone frequency as diagnosed from a spectral-autoregressive analysis of the dominant meteorological mode. An ensemble of five realizations of 1996–2050 climate change with the GISS general circulation model (GCM using the same climate forcings shows inconsistent trends in cyclone frequency over the Midwest (including in sign, with a likely decrease in cyclone frequency implying an increase in PM2.5. Our results demonstrate the need for multiple GCM realizations (because of climate chaos when diagnosing

  16. Concentrations of Platinum Group Elements (Pt, Pd, Rh in Airborne Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Collected at Selected Canadian Urban Sites: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celo V.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing environmental concentrations of platinum group elements (PGEs, in particular platinum (Pt, palladium (Pd and rhodium (Rh, from catalytic converters has been reported worldwide. Initially it was believed that the emitted PGEs remain in the roadside environment, but recent studies have shown that fine PGE-containing particles can be transported and distributed at regional and long-range levels. Therefore, the monitoring of PGEs in airborne particulate matter (PM is important for the estimation of potential risks to human health and to the ecosystem. The aim of this study is to present the first results from an analysis on the concentration and distribution of Pt, Pd and Rh in PM collected on Teflon filters at two selected urban sites (Toronto, Ontario; Edmonton, Alberta collected within the Canadian National Air Pollution Surveillance (NAPS network. In this work, a quadruple inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, combined with microwave assisted acid digestion using aqua regia was used. A cation exchange separation was used to alleviate the matrix-induced spectral and nonspectral interferences prior to ICP-MS analysis. To obtain sufficient material needed for PGEs analysis, fine PM (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mm; PM2.5 and coarse PM (with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 and 10 mm; PM10-2.5 samples were combined into composite samples on a seasonal basis. The obtained results will be discussed and compared with literature data.

  17. Activation of different pathways of apoptosis by air pollution particulate matter (PM2.5) in human epithelial lung cells (L132) in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagher, Zeina; Garcon, Guillaume; Billet, Sylvain; Gosset, Pierre; Ledoux, Frederic; Courcot, Dominique; Aboukais, Antoine; Shirali, Pirouz

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated the increase of respiratory and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity with high levels of air pollution particulate matter (PM). However, the underlying mechanisms of actions by which PM induce adverse health effects are still unclear. We have recently undertaken an extensive investigation of the adverse health effects of air pollution PM 2.5 , and shown that in vitro short-term exposure to PM 2.5 induced oxidative stress and inflammation in human lung epithelial cells (L132). Hence, it was convenient to complete the physical and chemical characterization of PM and to investigate whether in vitro short-term exposure to PM could be imply in the activation of apoptosis. Accordingly, we found that 92.15% of PM were equal or smaller than 2.5 μm and their specific surface area was 1 m 2 /g. Inorganic (i.e. Fe, Al, Ca, Na, K, Mg, Pb, etc.) and organic (i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) chemicals were found in PM, suggesting that much of them derived from wind-borne dust from the industrial complex and the heavy motor vehicle traffic. In other respects, we showed that PM exposure induced apoptosis by activating not only the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced pathway (i.e. TNF-α secretion, caspase-8 and -3 activation), but also the mitochondrial pathway (i.e. 8-hydroxy-2'-desoxyguanosine formation, cytochrome c release from mitochondria, caspase-9 and -3 activation). Moreover, changes in the transcription rates of p53, bcl-2, and bax genes, on the one hand, and DNA fragmentation, on the other hand, were reported in PM-exposed proliferating L132 cells, revealing the occurrence of apoptotic events. Taken together, these findings suggested that in vitro short-term exposure to PM 2.5 induced apoptosis in L132 cells

  18. TNFα and IL-6 Responses to Particulate Matter in Vitro: Variation According to PM Size, Season, and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon and Soil Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano-León, Natalia; Serrano-Lomelin, Jesús; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Quintana-Belmares, Raúl; Vega, Elizabeth; Vázquez-López, Inés; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; López-Villegas, Maria Tania; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Perez, Irma Rosas; O’Neill, Marie S.; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Observed seasonal differences in particulate matter (PM) associations with human health may be due to their composition and to toxicity-related seasonal interactions. Objectives: We assessed seasonality in PM composition and in vitro PM pro-inflammatory potential using multiple PM samples. Methods: We collected 90 weekly PM10 and PM2.5 samples during the rainy-warm and dry-cold seasons in five urban areas with different pollution sources. The elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and endotoxins identified in the samples were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). We tested the potential of the PM to induce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretion in cultured human monocytes (THP-1), and we modeled pro-inflammatory responses using the component scores. Results: PM composition varied by size and by season. PCA identified two main components that varied by season. Combustion-related constituents (e.g., vanadium, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene) mainly comprised component 1 (C1). Soil-related constituents (e.g., endotoxins, silicon, aluminum) mainly comprised component 2 (C2). PM from the rainy-warm season was high in C2. PM (particularly PM2.5) from the dry-cold season was rich in C1. Elevated levels of cytokine production were associated with PM10 and C2 (rainy-warm season), whereas reduced levels of cytokine production were associated with PM2.5 and C1 (dry-cold season). TNFα secretion was increased following exposure to PM with high (vs. low) C2 content, but TNFα secretion in response to PM was decreased following exposure to samples containing ≥ 0.1% of C1-related PAHs, regardless of C2 content. The results of the IL-6 assays suggested more complex interactions between PM components and particle size. Conclusions: Variations in PM soil and PAH content underlie seasonal and PM size–related patterns in TNFα secretion. These results suggest that the mixture of components in PM explains some

  19. A distributed network of low-cost continuous reading sensors to measure spatiotemporal variations of PM2.5 in Xi'an, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Meiling; Cao, Junji; Seto, Edmund

    2015-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a growing public health concern especially in industrializing countries but existing monitoring networks are unable to properly characterize human exposures due to low resolution spatiotemporal data. Low-cost portable monitors can supplement existing networks in both developed and industrializing regions to increase density of sites and data. This study tests the performance of a low-cost sensor in high concentration urban environments. Seven Portable University of Washington Particle (PUWP) monitors were calibrated with optical and gravimetric PM2.5 reference monitors in Xi'an, China in December 2013. Pairwise correlations between the raw PUWP and the reference monitors were high (R 2  = 0.86–0.89). PUWP monitors were also simultaneously deployed at eight sites across Xi'an alongside gravimetric PM2.5 monitors (R 2  = 0.53). The PUWP monitors were able to identify the High-technology Zone site as a potential PM2.5 hotspot with sustained high concentrations compared to the city average throughout the day. - Highlights: • A $15 portable PM sensor demonstrated high correlations with reference monitors. • The sensor can be deployed in high PM2.5 urban environments. • The sensor can improve spatiotemporal resolution of data from existing monitoring networks. - This reliable low-cost portable PM sensor could help improve monitoring and management of urban air pollution to help protect public health in both developed and developing areas

  20. The exposure assessment of airborne particulates matter (PM10 and PM2.5) towards building occupants: A case study at KL Sentral, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohddin, S A; Aminuddin, N M

    2014-01-01

    Airborne particulates have been recognized as a crucial pollutant of indoor air. These pollutants can contribute towards poor indoor air quality (IAQ), which may affect human health in immediate or long term. This study aims to determine the level of IAQ and the effects of particulate towards occupants of office buildings (the office buildings selected for the case study are SSM, KTMB and MRCB at KL Sentral). The objectives of study are (i) to measure the level of airborne particulates that contribute to the IAQ during working hours, (ii) to compare the level of airborne particulates with the existing guidelines and standards of IAQ in Malaysia and other Asian countries and (iii) to assess the symptoms associated with airborne particulates among the building occupants, which were achieved through primary data collection (case study or site survey, structured interview and questionnaire survey) and supported by literature reviews. The results showed that the mass concentration level of airborne particulates within the areas has exceeded the allowable limit of 0.15mg/m 3 by IAQ Code of Practice, 2005 of the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia and 0.05mg/m 3 by the Department of Environmental (DOE) (outdoor) of 8 hours continuous sampling. Based on the findings, the highest mass concentration values measured is 2.581 mg/m 3 at lobby of SSM building which is the highest recorded 17 times higher from the maximum limit recommended by DOSH than the others. This is due to the nearby construction works and the high numbers of particulates are generated from various types of vehicles for transportation surrounding KL Sentral. Therefore, the development of Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines on PM 2.5 as one of the crucial parameters is highly recommended

  1. The exposure assessment of airborne particulates matter (PM10 & PM2.5) towards building occupants: A case study at KL Sentral, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohddin, S. A.; Aminuddin, N. M.

    2014-02-01

    Airborne particulates have been recognized as a crucial pollutant of indoor air. These pollutants can contribute towards poor indoor air quality (IAQ), which may affect human health in immediate or long term. This study aims to determine the level of IAQ and the effects of particulate towards occupants of office buildings (the office buildings selected for the case study are SSM, KTMB and MRCB at KL Sentral). The objectives of study are (i) to measure the level of airborne particulates that contribute to the IAQ during working hours, (ii) to compare the level of airborne particulates with the existing guidelines and standards of IAQ in Malaysia and other Asian countries and (iii) to assess the symptoms associated with airborne particulates among the building occupants, which were achieved through primary data collection (case study or site survey, structured interview and questionnaire survey) and supported by literature reviews. The results showed that the mass concentration level of airborne particulates within the areas has exceeded the allowable limit of 0.15mg/m3 by IAQ Code of Practice, 2005 of the Department of Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia and 0.05mg/m3 by the Department of Environmental (DOE) (outdoor) of 8 hours continuous sampling. Based on the findings, the highest mass concentration values measured is 2.581 mg/m3 at lobby of SSM building which is the highest recorded 17 times higher from the maximum limit recommended by DOSH than the others. This is due to the nearby construction works and the high numbers of particulates are generated from various types of vehicles for transportation surrounding KL Sentral. Therefore, the development of Malaysian Ambient Air Quality Guidelines on PM2.5 as one of the crucial parameters is highly recommended.

  2. Trace Elements Speciation of Submicron Particulate Matter (PM1) Collected in the Surroundings of Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira; Kaczmarek, Konrad; Mainka, Anna

    2015-10-16

    This study reports the concentrations of PM1 trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se) content in highly mobile (F1), mobile (F2), less mobile (F3) and not mobile (F4) fractions in samples that were collected in the surroundings of power plants in southern Poland. It also reports source identification by enrichment factors (EF) and a principal component analysis (PCA). There is limited availability of scientific data concerning the chemical composition of dust, including fractionation analyses of trace elements, in the surroundings of power plants. The present study offers important results in order to fill this data gap. The data collected in this study can be utilized to validate air quality models in this rapidly developing area. They are also crucial for comparisons with datasets from similar areas all over the world. Moreover, the identification of the bioavailability of selected carcinogenic and toxic elements in the future might be used as output data for potential biological and population research on risk assessment. This is important in the context of air pollution being hazardous to human health.

  3. Trace Elements Speciation of Submicron Particulate Matter (PM1 Collected in the Surroundings of Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Zajusz-Zubek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the concentrations of PM1 trace elements (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se content in highly mobile (F1, mobile (F2, less mobile (F3 and not mobile (F4 fractions in samples that were collected in the surroundings of power plants in southern Poland. It also reports source identification by enrichment factors (EF and a principal component analysis (PCA. There is limited availability of scientific data concerning the chemical composition of dust, including fractionation analyses of trace elements, in the surroundings of power plants. The present study offers important results in order to fill this data gap. The data collected in this study can be utilized to validate air quality models in this rapidly developing area. They are also crucial for comparisons with datasets from similar areas all over the world. Moreover, the identification of the bioavailability of selected carcinogenic and toxic elements in the future might be used as output data for potential biological and population research on risk assessment. This is important in the context of air pollution being hazardous to human health.

  4. Impact of the global economic crisis on metal levels in particulate matter (PM) at an urban area in the Cantabria Region (Northern Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arruti, A.; Fernandez-Olmo, I.; Irabien, A.

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution by particulate matter is well linked with anthropogenic activities; the global economic crisis that broke out in the last year may be a proper indicator of this close relationship. Some economic indicators show the regional effects of the crisis on the Cantabria Region. The present work aims to evaluate the impact of the economic crisis on PM10 levels and composition at the major city of the region, Santander. Some metals linked to anthropogenic activities were measured at Santander and studied by Positive Matrix Factorization; this statistical analysis allowed to identify three main factors: urban background, industrial and molybdenum-related factor. The main results show that the temporal trend of the levels of the industrial tracers found in the present study are well agree with the evolution of the studied economic indicators; nevertheless, the urban background tracers and PM10 concentration levels are not well correlated with the studied economic indicators. - Highlights: → The impact of the crisis is higher on the PM-bound metal levels than on the PM levels. → The crisis effects on the trace metal associated to the urban background are negligible. → The temporal trend of the industrial trace metals levels and the studied economic indicators is similar. → The crisis effects on the main industrial tracer levels in PM2.5 and PM10 are similar. - The study presents an evaluation of the economic crisis impact on PM levels and composition at a coastal urban area in the Region of Cantabria (Northern Spain).

  5. Concentrations of Platinum Group Elements (Pt, Pd, Rh) in Airborne Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10-2.5) Collected at Selected Canadian Urban Sites: a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Celo V.; Zhao J. J.; Dabek-Zlotorzynska E.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing environmental concentrations of platinum group elements (PGEs), in particular platinum (Pt), palladium (Pd) and rhodium (Rh), from catalytic converters has been reported worldwide. Initially it was believed that the emitted PGEs remain in the roadside environment, but recent studies have shown that fine PGE-containing particles can be transported and distributed at regional and long-range levels. Therefore, the monitoring of PGEs in airborne particulate matter (PM) is important for...

  6. PREFACE: SPECIAL SECTION OF THE JOURNAL OF AIR & WASTE MANAGEMENT ASSOCIATION FOR PARTICULATE MATTER: ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, EXPOSURE AND THE FOURTH COLLOQUIUM ON PM AND HUMAN HEALTH

    Science.gov (United States)

    This dedicated issue of the Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association contains 17 peer-reviewed scientific papers that were presented at the specialty conference, “Particulate Matter: Atmospheric Sciences, Exposure and the Fourth Colloquium on PM and Human Health,” that w...

  7. A low-cost particulate matter (PM2.5) monitor for wildland fire smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Scott; Quinn, Casey; Miller-Lionberg, Daniel; Volckens, John

    2018-02-01

    Wildfires and prescribed fires produce emissions that degrade visibility and are harmful to human health. Smoke emissions and exposure monitoring is critical for public and environmental health protection; however, ground-level measurements of smoke from wildfires and prescribed fires has proven difficult, as existing (validated) monitoring technologies are expensive, cumbersome, and generally require line power. Few ground-based measurements are made during fire events, which limits our ability to assess the environmental and human health impacts of wildland fire smoke. The objective of this work was to develop and validate an Outdoor Aerosol Sampler (OAS) - a filter-based air sampler that has been miniaturized, solar powered, and weatherproofed. This sampler was designed to overcome several of the technical challenges of wildland fire monitoring by being relatively inexpensive and solar powered. The sampler design objectives were achieved by leveraging low-cost electronic components, open-source programming platforms, and in-house fabrication methods. A direct-reading PM2.5 sensor was selected and integrated with the OAS to provide time-resolved concentration data. Cellular communications established via short message service (SMS) technology were utilized in transmitting online sensor readings and controlling the sampling device remotely. A Monte Carlo simulation aided in the selection of battery and solar power necessary to independently power the OAS, while keeping cost and size to a minimum. Thirteen OAS were deployed to monitor smoke concentrations downwind from a large prescribed fire. Aerosol mass concentrations were interpolated across the monitoring network to depict smoke concentration gradients in the vicinity of the fire. Strong concentration gradients were observed (spatially and temporally) and likely present due to a combination of changing fire location and intensity, topographical features (e.g., mountain ridges), and diurnal weather patterns

  8. A low-cost particulate matter (PM2.5 monitor for wildland fire smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kelleher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wildfires and prescribed fires produce emissions that degrade visibility and are harmful to human health. Smoke emissions and exposure monitoring is critical for public and environmental health protection; however, ground-level measurements of smoke from wildfires and prescribed fires has proven difficult, as existing (validated monitoring technologies are expensive, cumbersome, and generally require line power. Few ground-based measurements are made during fire events, which limits our ability to assess the environmental and human health impacts of wildland fire smoke. The objective of this work was to develop and validate an Outdoor Aerosol Sampler (OAS – a filter-based air sampler that has been miniaturized, solar powered, and weatherproofed. This sampler was designed to overcome several of the technical challenges of wildland fire monitoring by being relatively inexpensive and solar powered. The sampler design objectives were achieved by leveraging low-cost electronic components, open-source programming platforms, and in-house fabrication methods. A direct-reading PM2.5 sensor was selected and integrated with the OAS to provide time-resolved concentration data. Cellular communications established via short message service (SMS technology were utilized in transmitting online sensor readings and controlling the sampling device remotely. A Monte Carlo simulation aided in the selection of battery and solar power necessary to independently power the OAS, while keeping cost and size to a minimum. Thirteen OAS were deployed to monitor smoke concentrations downwind from a large prescribed fire. Aerosol mass concentrations were interpolated across the monitoring network to depict smoke concentration gradients in the vicinity of the fire. Strong concentration gradients were observed (spatially and temporally and likely present due to a combination of changing fire location and intensity, topographical features (e.g., mountain ridges, and

  9. A Search for Dark Matter with a continuously sensitive Bubble Chamber.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    COUPP is a dark matter search experiment located underground at SNOLAB which exploits continuously sensitive room temperature heavy liquid bubble chambers as nuclear recoil detectors to search for dark matter. The theory of operation of a bubble chamber as a dark matter detector, recent results, and future plans will be discussed.

  10. Characterization of an area of reference for inhalable particulate matter (PM2.5) associated with genetic biomonitoring in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva da Silva, Cristiane; Rossato, Juliana Marzari; Vaz Rocha, Jocelita Aparecida; Vargas, Vera Maria Ferrão

    2015-01-15

    Humans are exposed to health-impairing air pollutants, especially children who are more sensitive to cancer-causing toxins. This study described an area of reference for inhalable particulates (PM2.5) by chemical (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and mutagenic characterization associated with the genetic biomonitoring of children (aged 5-11 years). The area studied was in a small town in Brazil, used as reference in previous studies. Organic matter of PM2.5 (extracted with dichloromethane) was evaluated for mutagenesis in a Salmonella/microsome (microsuspension) assay, in strains measuring frameshift error (TA98, YG1021 and YG1024) and base pair substitution (TA100) of DNA, in the presence and absence of rat liver metabolization fraction (S9). Exposure was studied analyzing a sample of 45 children using comet assay (peripheral blood lymphocytes) and micronucleus (exfoliated buccal mucosa cells). PM2.5 concentration for the period was 9% (25.89-64.71 μg/m3) events above WHO limit value (25 μg/m3). Mutagenesis responses (revertants/m3) varied from negative (spring) to 8.3±0.69 (autumn) (-S9) and 5.4±0.36 (winter) (+S9), in strain TA98, and for TA100, in spring, from negative to 14.8±4.23 (-S9) and 17.5±2.72 (+S9). YG strain results show mononitroarenes and aromatic amines. Mean biomonitoring values were established for MN, 0.3±0.41 (‰) and for other cell types a variation from 0.6±0.73 (‰), nuclear buds to 57.5±24.92 (‰), karyorrhexis. Comet assay means were 23.1±12.44; 7.3±11.66 and 0.9±2.30 for tail length, intensity and moment, respectively. There was no difference for sex and age for the different parameters. A significant difference in confounding factors was observed for passive smoking and MN induction. PAHs and mutagenesis in the air may be related to local vehicular emissions. These results challenge the definition of areas of reference for air pollution associated with human biomonitoring including the region studied. Copyright © 2014

  11. Two year-long continuous monitoring of PM1 aerosol chemical composition at the Cyprus Atmospheric Observatory. Source apportionment of the Organic content and geographic origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavroulas, Iasonas; Pikridas, Michael; Oikonomou, Kostantina; Vasiliadou, Emily; Savvides, Chrysanthos; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Gros, Valerie; Sciare, Jean

    2017-04-01

    Particulate matter with diameter smaller than 1{μ}m (PM1) induces direct and indirect effects on local and regional pollution, global climate and health. As of the beginning of 2015, the chemical composition of submicron aerosols, is continuously being monitored at the newly established Cyprus Atmospheric Observatory (CAO, http://www.cyi.ac.cy/index.php/cao.html), a national facility of the ACTRIS Research Infrastructure operated by The Cyprus Institute. Cyprus, an island located in the Eastern Mediterranean Middle East region and influenced by diverse air masses throughout the year, is ideal for monitoring photochemically aged aerosols and gaseous pollutants of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Furthermore this is a unique dataset for this area in such proximity to the Middle East, a poorly documented area in terms of atmospheric aerosol observations. An Aerodyne Quadrupole Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (Q-ACSM) is currently deployed at the CAO premises (35.04N - 33.06E) situated at the rural area of Agia Marina Xyliatou on the foothill of mount Troodos at an elevation of 532m above sea level (asl). The ACSM delivers chemical composition of the major non-refractory aerosol (PM1) chemical constituents (organics, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, chloride) with an effective (close to 100{%}) collection efficiency for particles in the diameter range of 65-700 nm at a 30 minute temporal resolution. Black Carbon (BC) was also monitored using both Magee Scientific AE-31 and AE-33 aethalometers. Quality control of the PM chemical dataset was conducted by comparison with chemical analysis performed on collocated 24-h filter samples (PM1) and comparison with 1-h PM2.5 derived from a Thermo Scientific TEOM (1400a) Monitor. Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was conducted and different organic aerosol factors were distinguished using the Igor based SoFi toolkit utilizing the ME-2 multilinear engine. Air mass origin was investigated for each measurement day using the

  12. Biomagnetic monitoring of particulate matter (PM through leaves of an invasive alien plant Lantana camara in an Indo-Burma hot spot region

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    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Present study was performed in urban forests of Aizawl, Mizoram, North East India falling under an Indo-Burma hot spot region of existing ecological relevance and pristine environment. Phyto-sociolology of invasive weeds has been performed and results revealed that Lantana camara was the most dominant invasive weed. Further, the air quality studies revealed high suspended particulate matter (SPM as well as respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM in ambient air of Aizawl, Mizoram, North East India. Bio-magnetic monitoring through plant leaves has been recognised as recent thrust area in the field of particulate matter (PM science. We aimed to investigate that whether magnetic properties of Lantana camara leaves may act as proxy of PM pollution and hence an attempt towards it's sustainable management. Magnetic susceptibility (χ, Anhyste reticremanent magnetization (ARM and Saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM of Lantana camara plant leaves were assessed and concomitantly correlated these magnetic properties with ambient PM in order to screen this invasive plant which may act as proxy for ambient PM concentrations. Results revealed high χ, ARM, SIRM of Lantana camara leaves and moreover, these parameters were having significant and positive correlation with ambient SPM as well as RSPM. Therefore, present study recommended the use of Lantana camara as bio-magnetic monitor which may further have sustainable management implications of an invasive plant.

  13. Fast Inverse Distance Weighting-Based Spatiotemporal Interpolation: A Web-Based Application of Interpolating Daily Fine Particulate Matter PM2.5 in the Contiguous U.S. Using Parallel Programming and k-d Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have identified associations between mortality and changes in concentration of particulate matter. These studies have highlighted the public concerns about health effects of particulate air pollution. Modeling fine particulate matter PM2.5 exposure risk and monitoring day-to-day changes in PM2.5 concentration is a critical step for understanding the pollution problem and embarking on the necessary remedy. This research designs, implements and compares two inverse distance weighting (IDW-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods, in order to assess the trend of daily PM2.5 concentration for the contiguous United States over the year of 2009, at both the census block group level and county level. Traditionally, when handling spatiotemporal interpolation, researchers tend to treat space and time separately and reduce the spatiotemporal interpolation problems to a sequence of snapshots of spatial interpolations. In this paper, PM2.5 data interpolation is conducted in the continuous space-time domain by integrating space and time simultaneously, using the so-called extension approach. Time values are calculated with the help of a factor under the assumption that spatial and temporal dimensions are equally important when interpolating a continuous changing phenomenon in the space-time domain. Various IDW-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods with different parameter configurations are evaluated by cross-validation. In addition, this study explores computational issues (computer processing speed faced during implementation of spatiotemporal interpolation for huge data sets. Parallel programming techniques and an advanced data structure, named k-d tree, are adapted in this paper to address the computational challenges. Significant computational improvement has been achieved. Finally, a web-based spatiotemporal IDW-based interpolation application is designed and implemented where users can visualize and animate

  14. Fast Inverse Distance Weighting-Based Spatiotemporal Interpolation: A Web-Based Application of Interpolating Daily Fine Particulate Matter PM2.5 in the Contiguous U.S. Using Parallel Programming and k-d Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixin; Losser, Travis; Yorke, Charles; Piltner, Reinhard

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have identified associations between mortality and changes in concentration of particulate matter. These studies have highlighted the public concerns about health effects of particulate air pollution. Modeling fine particulate matter PM2.5 exposure risk and monitoring day-to-day changes in PM2.5 concentration is a critical step for understanding the pollution problem and embarking on the necessary remedy. This research designs, implements and compares two inverse distance weighting (IDW)-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods, in order to assess the trend of daily PM2.5 concentration for the contiguous United States over the year of 2009, at both the census block group level and county level. Traditionally, when handling spatiotemporal interpolation, researchers tend to treat space and time separately and reduce the spatiotemporal interpolation problems to a sequence of snapshots of spatial interpolations. In this paper, PM2.5 data interpolation is conducted in the continuous space-time domain by integrating space and time simultaneously, using the so-called extension approach. Time values are calculated with the help of a factor under the assumption that spatial and temporal dimensions are equally important when interpolating a continuous changing phenomenon in the space-time domain. Various IDW-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods with different parameter configurations are evaluated by cross-validation. In addition, this study explores computational issues (computer processing speed) faced during implementation of spatiotemporal interpolation for huge data sets. Parallel programming techniques and an advanced data structure, named k-d tree, are adapted in this paper to address the computational challenges. Significant computational improvement has been achieved. Finally, a web-based spatiotemporal IDW-based interpolation application is designed and implemented where users can visualize and animate spatiotemporal interpolation

  15. Fast inverse distance weighting-based spatiotemporal interpolation: a web-based application of interpolating daily fine particulate matter PM2:5 in the contiguous U.S. using parallel programming and k-d tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixin; Losser, Travis; Yorke, Charles; Piltner, Reinhard

    2014-09-03

    Epidemiological studies have identified associations between mortality and changes in concentration of particulate matter. These studies have highlighted the public concerns about health effects of particulate air pollution. Modeling fine particulate matter PM2.5 exposure risk and monitoring day-to-day changes in PM2.5 concentration is a critical step for understanding the pollution problem and embarking on the necessary remedy. This research designs, implements and compares two inverse distance weighting (IDW)-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods, in order to assess the trend of daily PM2.5 concentration for the contiguous United States over the year of 2009, at both the census block group level and county level. Traditionally, when handling spatiotemporal interpolation, researchers tend to treat space and time separately and reduce the spatiotemporal interpolation problems to a sequence of snapshots of spatial interpolations. In this paper, PM2.5 data interpolation is conducted in the continuous space-time domain by integrating space and time simultaneously, using the so-called extension approach. Time values are calculated with the help of a factor under the assumption that spatial and temporal dimensions are equally important when interpolating a continuous changing phenomenon in the space-time domain. Various IDW-based spatiotemporal interpolation methods with different parameter configurations are evaluated by cross-validation. In addition, this study explores computational issues (computer processing speed) faced during implementation of spatiotemporal interpolation for huge data sets. Parallel programming techniques and an advanced data structure, named k-d tree, are adapted in this paper to address the computational challenges. Significant computational improvement has been achieved. Finally, a web-based spatiotemporal IDW-based interpolation application is designed and implemented where users can visualize and animate spatiotemporal interpolation

  16. Assessment of social losses of pollution's health caused by man-made pollution of atmospheric air with emissions of particulate matters (PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turos Ye.I.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available According to available estimates, about 3% of lethal outcomes from cardiac-pulmonary pathology and 5% from lung cancer are related to the impact of patriculate matters (PM. In the course of the study there were assessed social losses of population’s health (additional death cases caused by risk conditions of atmospheric air pollution with PM of various air-dynamic diameter (PM10, proper to emissions of various industrial enterprises. It was established that 90% of population of cities under study live under high exposures (≥50 µg/m3 health and risks for population (IRM=10-3÷10-4, caused by PM10 emissions. Results showed that metallurgical industry is responsible for 7,2 to 2193 additional mortality cases. The impact of machine building enterprises – from 0.06 to 21 cases; coke and chemical – from 1.5 to 36 cases; mining – from 1.1 to 14,6 cases. The findings revealed 0.6 % increase in lifetime mortality for each 10 µg/m3 in 24-hour average PM10 concentration. Based on research outcomes, a set of instruments was developed for implementation of air pollution risk management programs aimed at mitigation of health risks from (PM10 in highly exposed groups.

  17. Punicalagin and (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Rescue Cell Viability and Attenuate Inflammatory Responses of Human Epidermal Keratinocytes Exposed to Airborne Particulate Matter PM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Jin Kyung; Lee, Jeong-Won; Kim, Young Mi; Boo, Yong Chool

    2018-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter with a diameter of < 10 µm (PM10) causes oxidative damage, inflammation, and premature skin aging. In this study, we evaluated whether polyphenolic antioxidants attenuate the inflammatory responses of PM10-exposed keratinocytes. Primary human epidermal keratinocytes were exposed in vitro to PM10 in the absence or presence of punicalagin and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), which are the major polyphenolic antioxidants found in pomegranate and green tea, respectively. Assays were performed to determine cell viability, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and expression of NADPH oxidases (NOX), proinflammatory cytokines, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1. PM10 decreased cell viability and increased ROS production in a dose-dependent manner. It also increased the expression levels of NOX-1, NOX-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-1. Punicalagin was not cytotoxic up to 300 μM, and (-)-EGCG was cytotoxic above 30 μM, respectively. Further, punicalagin (3-30 μM) and EGCG (3-10 μM) rescued the viability of PM10-exposed cells. They also attenuated ROS production and the expression of NOX-1, NOX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and MMP-1 stimulated by PM10. This study demonstrates that polyphenolic antioxidants, such as punicalagin and (-)-EGCG, rescue keratinocyte viability and attenuate the inflammatory responses of these cells due to airborne particles. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) personal exposure evaluation on mechanics and administrative officers at the motor vehicle testing center at Pulo Gadung, DKI Jakarta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizky, Zuly Prima; Yolla, Patricia Bebby; Ramdhan, Doni Hikmat

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in both the short and long term has been known to cause deaths and health effects, especially related to the heart, blood vessels, and lungs. Based on this information, researchers conducted this study at a motor vehicle testing center unit at Pulo Gadung, in Jarkarta, to determine the concentration of PM2.5 that workers were exposed to. The major source of PM2.5 in this area is from the exhaust of gas emissions from motor vehicles, which is one of the largest contributors to the levels of PM in urban areas. Ten mechanics were picked from 16 mechanics that work in this station. Four administration workers from different posts were also picked to participate. The researcher conducted the PM2.5 personal exposure measurement during weekdays from 6 to 14 April 2015 (2 workers/day). This research was conducted to measure the particle number concentration with size Organization Air Quality Guidelines, the PM2.5 exposure of the mechanics and administrative officers exceeded the recommended exposure (25 μm/m3).

  19. Estimating Landscape Fire Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions over Southern Africa using MSG-SEVIRI Fire Radiative Power (FRP) and MODIS Aerosol Optical Thickness Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Bernardo; Wooster, Martin J.

    2016-04-01

    The approach to estimating landscape fire fuel consumption based on the remotely sensed fire radiative power (FRP) thermal energy release rate, as opposed to burned area, is now relatively widely used in studies of fire emissions, including operationally within the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). Nevertheless, there are still limitations to the approach, including uncertainties associated with using only the few daily overpasses typically provided by polar orbiting satellite systems, the conversion between FRP and smoke emissions, and the increased likelihood that the more frequent data from geostationary systems fails to detect the (probably highly numerous) smaller (i.e. low FRP) component of a regions fire regime. In this study, we address these limitations to directly estimate fire emissions of Particular Matter (PM; or smoke aerosols) by presenting an approach combining the "bottom-up" FRP observations available every 15 minutes across Africa from the Meteosat Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) Fire Radiative Product (FRP) processed at the EUMETSAT LSA SAF, and the "top-down" aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measures of the fire plumes themselves as measured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensors aboard the Terra (MOD04_L2) and Aqua (MYD04_L2) satellites. We determine PM emission coefficients that relate directly to FRP measures by combining these two datasets, and the use of the almost continuous geostationary FRP observations allows us to do this without recourse to (uncertain) data on wind speed at the (unknown) height of the matching plume. We also develop compensation factors to address the detection limitations of small/low intensity (low FRP) fires, and remove the need to estimate fuel consumption by going directly from FRP to PM emissions. We derive the smoke PM emissions coefficients per land cover class by comparing the total fire radiative energy (FRE) released from individual fires

  20. Assessing the cytotoxicity of ambient particulate matter (PM) using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and its relationship with the PM chemical composition and oxidative potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixiang; Plewa, Michael J.; Mukherjee, Ujjal Kumar; Verma, Vishal

    2018-04-01

    We assessed mammalian cell cytotoxicity of ambient PM2.5 and investigated its association with the oxidative potential (OP) and chemical composition of the particles. Sixteen PM samples spanning in various seasons (fall, winter, spring and summer) were collected from an urban site in central Illinois. Cytotoxicity (LC50) in terms of the volume of air that kills 50% of the cells were calculated, which varied from 4.3 to 7.2 m3 of air. The OP was measured by two assays - the dithiothreitol (DTT) and the surrogate lung fluid (SLF) assay. In DTT assay, we measured two endpoints - hydroxyl radicals (•OH) generation and DTT consumption (the conventionally measured endpoint), while only •OH generation was measured in the SLF assay. Although, all three endpoints in the OP assays correlated significantly (P ≤ 0.05) with LC50, the correlation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in DTT and SLF assays was much higher (r > 0.80 for •OH generation versus LC50) than the DTT consumption (r = 0.58). To further understand the components in PM that drive cytotoxicity and OP, concentration of water-soluble metals (Fe, Cu, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Hg, and Zn), organic carbon (OC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and elemental carbon (EC) were measured. Among all the chemical components, Fe, Cu and WSOC correlated most (r > 0.70; P ≤ 0.01) with the cytotoxicity. DTT consumption correlated only with OC and WSOC (r > 0.80; P ≤ 0.01), while •OH generation in DTT and SLF assay correlated with both WSOC (r > 0.70; P ≤ 0.01) and metals (i.e. Fe and Cu; r > 0.75; P ≤ 0.01). Our results suggest a strong link between the PM2.5 OP and its cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the synergistic interactions among the organic compounds (i.e. WSOC) and metals (Fe and Cu) to enhance the ROS generation, which are more effectively captured in •OH generation endpoints in DTT and SLF assay than the DTT consumption, appear to be largely responsible for the observed mammalian cell

  1. Impact of 2000–2050 climate change on fine particulate matter (PM2.5 air quality inferred from a multi-model analysis of meteorological modes

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    D. J. Jacob

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the effect of climate change on fine particulate matter (PM2.5 air quality using general circulation models (GCMs show inconsistent results including in the sign of the effect. This reflects uncertainty in the GCM simulations of the regional meteorological variables affecting PM2.5. Here we use the CMIP3 archive of data from fifteen different IPCC AR4 GCMs to obtain improved statistics of 21st-century trends in the meteorological modes driving PM2.5 variability over the contiguous US. We analyze 1999–2010 observations to identify the dominant meteorological modes driving interannual PM2.5 variability and their synoptic periods T. We find robust correlations (r > 0.5 of annual mean PM2.5 with T, especially in the eastern US where the dominant modes represent frontal passages. The GCMs all have significant skill in reproducing present-day statistics for T and we show that this reflects their ability to simulate atmospheric baroclinicity. We then use the local PM2.5-to-period sensitivity (dPM2.5/dT from the 1999–2010 observations to project PM2.5 changes from the 2000–2050 changes in T simulated by the 15 GCMs following the SRES A1B greenhouse warming scenario. By weighted-average statistics of GCM results we project a likely 2000–2050 increase of ~ 0.1 μg m−3 in annual mean PM2.5 in the eastern US arising from less frequent frontal ventilation, and a likely decrease albeit with greater inter-GCM variability in the Pacific Northwest due to more frequent maritime inflows. Potentially larger regional effects of 2000–2050 climate change on PM2.5 may arise from changes in temperature, biogenic emissions, wildfires, and vegetation, but are still unlikely to affect annual PM2.5 by more than 0.5 μg m−3.

  2. A weighted higher-order network analysis of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) transport in Yangtze River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yufang; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Shuhua

    2018-04-01

    Specification of PM2.5 transmission characteristics is important for pollution control, policymaking and prediction. In this paper, we propose weights for motif instances, thereby to implement a weighted higher-order clustering algorithm for a weighted, directed PM2.5 network in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of China. The weighted, directed network we create in this paper includes information on meteorological conditions of wind speed and wind direction, plus data on geographic distance and PM2.5 concentrations. We aim to reveal PM2.5 mobility between cities in the YRD. Major potential PM2.5 contributors and closely interacted clusters are identified in the network of 178 air quality stations in the YRD. To our knowledge, it is the first work to incorporate weight information into the higher-order network analysis to study PM2.5 transport.

  3. Demonstration of Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Volatile and Non-Volatile Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-30

    emissions demonstration . 46 6 Figure 24. T63 engine with extension pipe to direct exhaust outside of the test cell for exhaust sampling with tip...to assess their effectiveness in conditioning turbine engine exhaust for total PM emissions measurements. Both were designed to promote the... effectively control and mitigate PM emissions. Aircraft PM is formed in the engine combustor due to incomplete combustion of fuel, and in the

  4. A statistical model for determining impact of wildland fires on Particulate Matter (PM2.5) in Central California aided by satellite imagery of smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preisler, Haiganoush K.; Schweizer, Donald; Cisneros, Ricardo; Procter, Trent; Ruminski, Mark; Tarnay, Leland

    2015-01-01

    As the climate in California warms and wildfires become larger and more severe, satellite-based observational tools are frequently used for studying impact of those fires on air quality. However little objective work has been done to quantify the skill these satellite observations of smoke plumes have in predicting impacts to PM 2.5 concentrations at ground level monitors, especially those monitors used to determine attainment values for air quality under the Clean Air Act. Using PM 2.5 monitoring data from a suite of monitors throughout the Central California area, we found a significant, but weak relationship between satellite-observed smoke plumes and PM 2.5 concentrations measured at the surface. However, when combined with an autoregressive statistical model that uses weather and seasonal factors to identify thresholds for flagging unusual events at these sites, we found that the presence of smoke plumes could reliably identify periods of wildfire influence with 95% accuracy. - Highlights: • Satellite observed smoke is useful for predicting wildfire impacts on Particulate Matter. • A metric was developed to flag ‘exceptional events’ days as defined by EPA. • We found significant impact of wildfires on PM 2.5 at various sites in Central California. • Fires in most years had no significant impact on compliance with EPA standards. - This work quantifies the skill of satellite observations of smoke plumes in predicting wildfire impacts on PM 2.5 concentrations at ground level monitors

  5. Magnetic properties of atmospheric particulate matter from automatic air sampler stations in Latium (Italy): Toward a definition of magnetic fingerprints for natural and anthropogenic PM10 sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnotti, Leonardo; Macrı, Patrizia; Egli, Ramon; Mondino, Manlio

    2006-12-01

    Environmental problems linked to the concentration of atmospheric particulate matter with dimensions less than 10 μm (PM10) in urban settings have stimulated a variety of scientific researches. This study reports a systematic analysis of the magnetic properties of PM10 samples collected by six automatic stations installed for air quality monitoring through the Latium Region (Italy). We measured the low-field magnetic susceptibility of daily air filters collected during the period July 2004 to July 2005. For each station, we derived an empirical linear correlation linking magnetic susceptibility to the concentration of PM10 produced by local sources (i.e., in absence of significant inputs of exogenous dust). An experimental approach is suggested for estimating the percentage of nonmagnetic PM10 transported from natural far-sided sources (i.e., dust from North Africa and marine aerosols). Moreover, we carried out a variety of additional magnetic measurements to investigate the magnetic mineralogy of selected air filters spanning representative periods. The results indicate that the magnetic fraction of PM10 is composed by a mixture of low-coercivity, magnetite-like, ferrimagnetic particles with a wide spectrum of grain sizes, related to a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources. The natural component of PM10 has a characteristic magnetic signature that is indistinguishable from that of eolian dust. The anthropogenic PM10 fraction is mostly originated from circulating vehicles and is a mixture of prevailing fine superparamagnetic particles and subordinate large multidomain grains; the former are more directly related to exhaust, whereas the latter may be associated to abrasion of metallic parts.

  6. Personal exposure measurements of school-children to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in winter of 2013, Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijun; Guo, Changyi; Jia, Xiaodong; Xu, Huihui; Pan, Meizhu; Xu, Dong; Shen, Xianbiao; Zhang, Jianghua; Tan, Jianguo; Qian, Hailei; Dong, Chunyang; Shi, Yewen; Zhou, Xiaodan; Wu, Chen

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform an exposure assessment of PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter) among children and to explore the potential sources of exposure from both indoor and outdoor environments. In terms of real-time exposure measurements of PM2.5, we collected data from 57 children aged 8-12 years (9.64 ± 0.93 years) in two schools in Shanghai, China. Simultaneously, questionnaire surveys and time-activity diaries were used to estimate the environment at home and daily time-activity patterns in order to estimate the exposure dose of PM2.5 in these children. Principle component regression analysis was used to explore the influence of potential sources of PM2.5 exposure. All the median personal exposure and microenvironment PM2.5 concentrations greatly exceeded the daily 24-h PM2.5 Ambient Air Quality Standards of China, the USA, and the World Health Organization (WHO). The median Etotal (the sum of the PM2.5 exposure levels in different microenvironment and fractional time) of all students was 3014.13 (μg.h)/m3. The concentration of time-weighted average (TWA) exposure of all students was 137.01 μg/m3. The median TWA exposure level during the on-campus period (135.81 μg/m3) was significantly higher than the off-campus period (115.50 μg/m3, P = 0.013 < 0.05). Besides ambient air pollution and meteorological conditions, storey height of the classroom and mode of transportation to school were significantly correlated with children's daily PM2.5 exposure. Children in the two selected schools were exposed to high concentrations of PM2.5 in winter of 2013 in Shanghai. Their personal PM2.5 exposure was mainly associated with ambient air conditions, storey height of the classroom, and children's transportation mode to school.

  7. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science Water A-Z Index Laws & Regulations By Business Sector By Topic Compliance Enforcement Laws and Executive ...

  8. RESPIRATORY EFFECTS OF INHALED METAL-RICH PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) IN RATS: INFLUENCE OF SYSTEMIC ANTIOXIDANT DEPLETION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metal-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species and resultant oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of emission-source PM toxicity. We hypothesized that inducing an antioxidant deficit prior to inhalation of metal-rich PM would worsen adverse health outcom...

  9. Electrocardiographic, hemodynamic, and biochemical responses to acute particulate matter (PM) exposure in aged heart failure-prone rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure to ambient PM from fossil-fuel emissions is linked to cardiovascular disease and death. This association strengthens in people with preexisting cardiac disease-especially heart failure (HF). The mechanisms explaining PM-induced exacerbation ofHF are unclear. Some o...

  10. Acute Exposure to Particulate Matter (PM) Alters Physiologic and Toxicologic Endpoints in a Rat Model of Heart Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure to ambient PM from fossil-fuel emissions is linked to cardiovascular disease and death. This association strengthens in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases—especially heart failure (HF). We previously examined the effects of PM on HF by exposing Sponta...

  11. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere I. Continuous Emission and Condensed Matter Within the Chromosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuous spectrum of the solar photosphere stands as the paramount observation with regard to the condensed nature of the solar body. Studies relative to Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission (e.g. Robitaille P.-M. Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission: 150 years. Progr. Phys., 2009, v. 4, 3–13. and a detailed analysis of the stellar opacity problem (Robitaille P.M. Stellar opacity: The Achilles’ heel of the gaseous Sun. Progr. Phys., 2011, v. 3, 93–99 have revealed that gaseous models remain unable to properly account for the generation of this spectrum. Therefore, it can be stated with certainty that the photosphere is comprised of condensed matter. Beyond the solar surface, the chromospheric layer of the Sun also generates a weak continuous spectrum in the visible region. This emission exposes the presence of material in the condensed state. As a result, above the level of the photosphere, matter exists in both gaseous and condensed forms, much like within the atmosphere of the Earth. The continuous visible spectrum associated with the chromosphere provides the twenty-sixth line of evidence that the Sun is condensed matter.

  12. Field testing of particulate matter continuous emission monitors at the DOE Oak Ridge TSCA incinerator. Toxic Substances Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, James E; Davis, Wayne T; Calcagno, James A; Allen, Marshall W

    2002-01-01

    A field study to evaluate the performance of three commercially available particulate matter (PM) continuous emission monitors (CEMs) was conducted in 1999-2000 at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator. This study offers unique features that are believed to enhance the collective US experience with PM CEMs. The TSCA Incinerator is permitted to treat PCB-contaminated RCRA hazardous low-level radioactive wastes. The air pollution control system utilizes MACT control technology and is comprised of a rapid quench, venturi scrubber, packed bed scrubber, and two ionizing wet scrubbers in series, which create a saturated flue gas that must be conditioned by the CEMs prior to measurement. The incinerator routinely treats a wide variety of wastes including high and low BTU organic liquids, aqueous, and solid wastes. The various possible combinations for treating liquid and solid wastes may present a challenge in establishing a single, acceptable correlation relationship for individual CEMs. The effect of low-level radioactive material present in the waste is a unique site-specific factor not evaluated in previous tests. The three systems chosen for evaluation were two beta gauge devices and a light scattering device. The performance of the CEMs was evaluated using the requirements in draft Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 11 (PS11) and Procedure 2. The results of Reference Method 5i stack tests for establishing statistical correlations between the reference method data and the CEMs responses are discussed.

  13. Distribution of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) in rural field, rural village and urban areas of northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Chen; Wang, Hongqijie; Chen, Jiwei; Yuan, Chenyi; Li, Tongchao; Wang, Wentao; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Han; Chen, Yuanchen; Tang, Jianhui; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Junfeng; Coveney, Raymond M.; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric PM 10 were measured for 12 months at 18 sites along a 2500 km profile across northern China. Annual mean PM 10 concentrations in urban, rural village, and rural field sites were 180 ± 171, 182 ± 154, and 128 ± 89 μg/m 3 , respectively. The similarities in PM 10 concentrations between urban and rural village sites suggest that strong localized emissions and severe contamination in rural residential areas are derived from solid fuels combustion in households. High PM 10 concentrations in Wuwei and Taiyuan were caused by either sandstorms or industrial activities. Relatively low PM 10 concentrations were observed in coastal areas of Dalian and Yantai. Particulate air pollution was much higher in winter and spring than in summer and fall. Multiple regression analysis indicates that 35% of the total variance can be attributed to sandstorms, precipitation and residential energy consumption. Over 40% of the measurements in both urban and rural village areas exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. Highlights: • Spatial distribution of PM 10 concentrations in northern China was investigated. • High levels of PM 10 in rural villages were caused by solid fuel emission. • A strong seasonality with high levels of PM 10 in spring and winter was observed. • Influence of sandstorm, energy consumption, and precipitation were evaluated. • Over 40% of the measurements exceeded the national ambient air quality standard. -- PM 10 concentrations in rural villages of China were comparable with those in the cities, indicating severe air pollution in the rural villages caused by coal and biofuel combustion

  14. Characteristics and source apportionment of organic matter in PM(2.5) from cities in different climatic zones of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jialiang

    For the first time, the dependency of the characteristics of organic matter in PM2.5 on geographical and climatic zones in three metropolitan cities of China was studied. Seasonal samples were collected at suburban and urban sites in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou in 2002 and 2003. To further support the above study, seasonal samples were also collected at Changdao Island, a remote island, in Bohai Sea/Yellow Sea. Concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and solvent-extractable organic compounds (SEOC) were analyzed. The characteristics of the n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-fatty acids, n-alkanols and molecular markers such as triterpanes were determined and used for source identification. Source apportionment was complemented by Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) modeling using the measured organic species as tracers. The impact of wind speed and wind direction on air quality was studied by back trajectory calculations and analysis. In general, traffic emissions were the largest contributors of OC followed by coal burning, kitchen emissions, vegetative detritus and biomass burning. However, in the space-heating season in Northern China, coal burning was the most important contributor of OC in the suburban areas of Beijing and at Changdao. Beijing had the highest concentration of organic aerosol followed by Guangzhou and Shanghai, while seasonal variation was in reverse order. Dispersion conditions determined by local topographies and meteorology were responsible for this trend. Contrary to common understanding, pollutant concentrations at the suburban sites were higher than the urban sites in all three cities. The main reason was the rapid urbanization of the suburban areas in the immediate vicinity of urban centers since China opened up for economic development, in addition, large numbers of manufacturing plants were relocated from the cities to the countryside in an attempt to clean up the urban

  15. Genotoxic effects and oxidative stress induced by organic extracts of particulate matter(PM 10)collected from a subway tunnel in Seoul, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi Hyun; Kim, Ha Ryong; Park, Yong Joo; Park, Duck Shin; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Oh, Seung Min

    2012-12-12

    Particulate matter (PM) has become an important health risk factor in our society. PM can easily deposit in the bronchi and lungs, causing diverse diseases such as respiratory infections, lung cancers and cardiovascular diseases. In recent days, more and more toxicological studies have been dealing with air particles in distinctive areas including industrial areas, transportation sites, or indoors. Studies on subway PM in particular, have been recognizing PM as an important health risk factor because many people use subways as a major mode of public transportation (4 million people a day in Korea). The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of organic extract (OE) of subway PM10 and potential attribution of PAHs to these effects. Particles were collected in the subway tunnel at Kil-eum station(Line 4) for one month and then extracted with Dichloromethane (DCM). Chinese Hamster Ovary cells(CHO-K1) and human normal bronchial cells (BEAS-2B) were exposed to OE, and MN and Comet assays were conducted to analyze the genotoxicity. The results showed that OE increased DNA or chromosome damages in both cell lines. In the modified Comet assay and MN assay with free radical scavengers, we confirmed that the genotoxic effect of OE was partially due to the oxidative damage on DNA. DCFHD Aassay also indicated that OE induced ROS generation in BEAS-2B cells. PAHs [benzo(a)anthracene,benzo(k)fluoranthrene, etc.], the most well-known carcinogens in polluted air, were detected in Kil-eum PM10. In conclusion, our findings confirmed that OE of subway PM10 has genotoxic effects on normal human lung cells, and oxidative stress could be one of the major mechanisms of these genotoxic effects.In addition, some genotoxic and carcinogenic PAHs were detected in OE by GC/MS/MS, even though PAHs level was not enough to increase CYP1A1 gene. Therefore, we suggest that additive or synergistic effects by unidentified chemicals as well as PAHs contained in OE of subway

  16. Assessment of life quality in patients with bronchial asthma residing in Krakow in the areas of varying concentrations of particulate matter (PM10

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    Monika Ścibor

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Asthma is a chronic disease, from which more and more people in the world suffer. It is connected with many bothersome symptoms and limitations, which result in decreased quality of life for the patient. Environmental and individual aspects do not necessarily affect individuals in the same way, so it is necessary to determine which factors have predominantly impacted on an individual, in order to minimize their impact and to take better control over treatment of asthma. The aim of this research was to compare the quality of life among patients with bronchial asthma living in Krakow in the areas where they get exposed to varying concentrations of particulate matter (PM10. Material and methods. The study included 98 adults diagnosed with bronchial asthma. The research was conducted using the AQLQ poll. PM10 concentration was measured in several Malopolska Air Pollution Monitoring Stations located throughout the city. Results. Analyzing the quality of life in the view of symptoms, activity limitations and emotional well being, there was a substantial statistical difference observed in people occupying the areas with different PM10 concentrations. No significant statistical difference was observed in the frequency of asthma symptoms caused by the environmental stimuli between the 2 discussed groups. One group of patients who came to the allergy clinic for control of asthma symptoms and the second group who live in the vicinity of the monitoring stations measuring PM10 concentrations. Conclusions. For many of the cases, the quality of life was not worse for patients with asthma living in an area with slightly elevated concentrations of PM10, and sometimes paradoxically the quality of life was improved. These results show that PM10 concentrations do not correlate with quality of life of asthma patients.

  17. Spatiotemporal Association of Real-Time Concentrations of Black Carbon (BC with Fine Particulate Matters (PM2.5 in Urban Hotspots of South Korea

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    Sungroul Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the spatiotemporal distributions of black carbon (BC and particulate matters with aerodynamic diameters of less than 2.5 m (PM2.5 concentrations at urban diesel engine emission (DEE hotspots of South Korea. Concentrations of BC and PM2.5 were measured at the entrance gate of two diesel bus terminals and a train station, in 2014. Measurements were conducted simultaneously at the hotspot (Site 1 and at its adjacent, randomly selected, residential areas, apartment complex near major roadways, located with the same direction of 300 m (Site 2 and 500 m (Site 3 away from Site 1 on 4 different days over the season, thrice per day; morning (n = 120 measurements for each day and site, evening (n = 120, and noon (n = 120. The median (interquartile range PM2.5 ranged from 12.6 (11.3–14.3 to 60.1 (47.0–76.0 μg/m3 while those of BC concentrations ranged from 2.6 (1.9–3.7 to 6.3 (4.2–10.3 μg/m3. We observed a strong relationship of PM2.5 concentrations between sites (slopes 0.89–0.9, the coefficient of determination 0.89–0.96 while the relationship for BC concentrations between sites was relatively weak (slopes 0.76–0.85, the coefficient of determination 0.54–0.72. PM2.5 concentrations were changed from 4% to 140% by unit increase of BC concentration, depending on site and time while likely supporting the necessity of monitoring of BC as well as PM2.5, especially at urban DEE related hotspot areas.

  18. Fractionation of trace elements and human health risk of submicron particulate matter (PM1) collected in the surroundings of coking plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajusz-Zubek, Elwira; Radko, Tomasz; Mainka, Anna

    2017-08-01

    Samples of PM1 were collected in the surroundings of coking plants located in southern Poland. Chemical fractionation provided information on the contents of trace elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb and Se in all mobile (F1-F3) and not mobile (F4) fractions of PM1 in the vicinity of large sources of emissions related to energochemical processing of coal during the summer. The determined enrichment factors indicate the influence of anthropogenic sources on the concentration of the examined elements contained in PM1 in the areas subjected to investigation. The analysis of health risk for the assumed scenario of inhabitant exposure to the toxic effect of elements, based on the values of the hazard index, revealed that the absorption of the examined elements contained in the most mobile fractions of particulate matter via inhalation by children and adults can be considered potentially harmless to the health of people inhabiting the surroundings of coking plants during the summer (HI PM1, approximately four adults and one child out of one million people living in the vicinity of the coking plants may develop cancer.

  19. The impact of particulate matter (PM and nitric oxides (NOx on human health and an analysis of selected sources accounting for their emission in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krzeszowiak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective: This paper is concerned with the harmful impact of nitric oxides (NOx and particulate matter (PM on humans. The objective was to determine which source of emission is the most urgent in terms of its reduction.Abbreviated description of the state of knowledge: In published epidemiological studies multiple notifications indicating the harmful impact of particulate matter on human health can be found. The harmful impact is underscored by the increase in the number of hospitalisations owing to diseases of respiratory and cardio-vascular systems, as well as by the rise in general fatality rate. The analysis of the PM impact on the human body is prompted by the fact that its detrimental effects are not clearly defined. Additionally, nitric oxides contribute to the increased number of exacerbations of respiratory disease and are a factor increasing susceptibility to development of local inflammation. Conclusions: The following study is meant to show that the air pollution which derives from vehicles (NOx and PM has a significant impact on human health. This applies particularly to residents of cities and big towns. This issue has gained special importance in Poland. According to the data from the Central Statistical Office, the increasing number of vehicles in use and their age lead to increased emission of the pollutants considered.

  20. Effect of Ambient Particulate Matter 2.5 Micrometer (PM2.5 to Prevalence of Impaired Lung Function and Asthma in Tangerang and Makassar

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    Budi Haryanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter 2.5 micrometer (PM2.5 emission increased with increasing number of urban population as a result of increasing number of motor vehicles for their daily transportation. This study aimed to determine the level of impaired lung function and asthma and its relation to ambient levels of PM2.5 among migrant communities in Tangerang and Makassar and socioeconomic conditions. A cross-sectional design was implemented by involving 4,250 and 2,900 respondents in Tangerang and Makassar respectively on April to September 2010. Cluster sampling approach was applied. PM2.5 ambient measurements in each city were based on the coordinates of 40 global positioning system locations. The PM2.5 levels found higher in the morning than afternoon in both cities, with average about six folds of WHO guideline of 35 mg/m3. Asthma prevalence was found similar in both cities (1.3% and impaired lung function prevalence in Makassar was higher (24% than Tangerang (21%. Data showed there was no association between PM2.5 levels to the prevalence of asthma and impaired lung function in both cities. The study confirmed that exposure to PM2.5 is associated with prevalence of asthma and impaired lung function and provided evidence showed that the effect of air pollution was modified by certain living environment characteristics. These findings suggest the improvement of housing ventilations and larger space of living room for better oxygen circulation. AbstrakEmisi partikel debu 2,5 mikrometer (PM2.5 meningkat dengan bertambahnya jumlah penduduk kota akibat peningkatan angka kendaraan bermotor sebagai transportasi penduduk sehari-hari. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui tingkat gangguan fungsi paru dan asma serta hubungannya dengan kadar ambien PM2.5 pada masyarakat migran di Tangerang dan Makassar dan kondisi sosial ekonomi. Desain potong lintang digunakan dengan melibatkan 4.250 dan 2.900 responden di Tangerang dan Makassar pada bulan April sampai September

  1. Approximation of personal exposure to fine particulate matters (PM2.5) during cooking using solid biomass fuels in the kitchens of rural West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayek, Sukanta; Padhy, Pratap Kumar

    2018-03-27

    More than 85% of the rural Indian households use traditional solid biofuels (SBFs) for daily cooking. Burning of the easily available unprocessed solid fuels in inefficient earthen cooking stoves produce large quantities of particulate matters. Smaller particulates, especially with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM 2.5 ), largely generated during cooking, are considered to be health damaging in nature. In the present study, kitchen level exposure of women cooks to fine particulate matters during lunch preparation was assessed considering kitchen openness as surrogate to the ventilation condition. Two-way ANCOVA analysis considering meal quantity as a covariate revealed no significant interaction between the openness and the seasons explaining the variability of the personal exposure to the fine particulate matters in rural kitchen during cooking. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed the openness as the only significant predictor for personal exposure to the fine particulate matters. In the present study, the annual average fine particulate matter exposure concentration was found to be 974 μg m -3 .

  2. One year online chemical speciation of submicron particulate matter (PM1) sampled at a French industrial and coastal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shouwen; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Augustin, Patrick; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2015-04-01

    The harbor of Dunkirk (Northern France) is surrounded by different industrial plants (metallurgy, petrochemistry, food processing, power plant, etc.), which emit gaseous and particulate pollutants such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur (SO2), and submicron particles (PM1). These emissions are poorly characterized and their impact on neighboring urban areas has yet to be assessed. Studies are particularly needed in this type of complex environments to get a better understanding of PM1sources, especially from the industrial sector, their temporal variability, and their transformation. Several instruments, capable of real-time measurements (temporal resolution ≤ 30 min), were deployed at a site located downwind from the industrial area of Dunkirk for a one-year duration (July 2013-September 2014). An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and an Aethalometer monitored the main chemical species in the non-refractory submicron particles and black carbon, respectively. Concomitant measurements of trace gases and wind speed and direction were also performed. This dataset was analyzed considering four wind sectors, characteristics of marine, industrial, industrial-urban, and urban influences, and the different seasons. We will present a descriptive analysis of PM1, showing strong variations of ambient concentrations, as well as evidences of SO2 to SO4 gas-particle conversion when industrial plumes reached the monitoring site. The organic fraction measured by ACSM (37% of the total mass on average) was analyzed using a source-receptor model based on Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to identify chemical signatures of main emission sources and to quantify the contribution of each source to the PM1 budget given the wind sector. Four main factors were identified: hydrocarbon organic aerosol (HOA), oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) and cooking-like organic aerosol (COA). Overall, the total PM

  3. Sources and oxidative potential of water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS in fine particulate matter (PM2.5 in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ma

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS are a major redox-active component of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5; however, information on their sources and associated redox activity is limited. In this study, HULISWS mass concentration, various HULISWS species, and dithiothreitol (DTT activity of HULISWS were quantified in PM2.5 samples collected during a 1-year period in Beijing. Strong correlation was observed between HULISWS and DTT activity; both exhibited higher levels during the heating season than during the nonheating season. Positive matrix factorization analysis of both HULISWS and DTT activity was performed. Four combustion-related sources, namely coal combustion, biomass burning, waste incineration, and vehicle exhausts, and one secondary factor were resolved. In particular, waste incineration was identified as a source of HULISWS for the first time. Biomass burning and secondary aerosol formation were the major contributors ( >  59 % to both HULISWS and associated DTT activity throughout the year. During the nonheating season, secondary aerosol formation was the most important source, whereas during the heating season, the predominant contributor was biomass burning. The four combustion-related sources accounted for  >  70 % of HULISWS and DTT activity, implying that future reduction in PM2.5 emissions from combustion activities can substantially reduce the HULISWS burden and their potential health impact in Beijing.

  4. Effect of particulate matter less than 10μm (PM10 on mortality in Bogota, Colombia: a time-series analysis, 1998-2006

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    Luis Camilo Blanco-Becerra

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the association between daily mortality from different causes and acute exposure to particulate matter less than 10 microns in aerodynamic diameter (PM10, in Bogota, Colombia. Materials and methods. A time-series ecological study was conducted from 1998 to 2006. The association between mortality (due to different causes and exposure was analyzed using single and distributed lag models and adjusting for potential confounders. Results. For all ages, the cumulative effect of acute mortality from all causes and respiratory causes increased 0.71% (95%CI 0.46-0.96 and 1.43% (95%CI 0.85-2.00, respectively, per 10μg/m3 increment in daily average PM10 with a lag of three days before death. Cumulative effect of mortality from cardiovascular causes was -0.03% (95%CI -0.49-0.44% with the same lag. Conclusions. The results suggest an association between an increase in PM10 concentrations and acute mortality from all causes and respiratory causes.

  5. Sources and oxidative potential of water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS) in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yiqiu; Cheng, Yubo; Qiu, Xinghua; Cao, Gang; Fang, Yanhua; Wang, Junxia; Zhu, Tong; Yu, Jianzhen; Hu, Di

    2018-04-01

    Water-soluble humic-like substances (HULISWS) are a major redox-active component of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5); however, information on their sources and associated redox activity is limited. In this study, HULISWS mass concentration, various HULISWS species, and dithiothreitol (DTT) activity of HULISWS were quantified in PM2.5 samples collected during a 1-year period in Beijing. Strong correlation was observed between HULISWS and DTT activity; both exhibited higher levels during the heating season than during the nonheating season. Positive matrix factorization analysis of both HULISWS and DTT activity was performed. Four combustion-related sources, namely coal combustion, biomass burning, waste incineration, and vehicle exhausts, and one secondary factor were resolved. In particular, waste incineration was identified as a source of HULISWS for the first time. Biomass burning and secondary aerosol formation were the major contributors ( > 59 %) to both HULISWS and associated DTT activity throughout the year. During the nonheating season, secondary aerosol formation was the most important source, whereas during the heating season, the predominant contributor was biomass burning. The four combustion-related sources accounted for > 70 % of HULISWS and DTT activity, implying that future reduction in PM2.5 emissions from combustion activities can substantially reduce the HULISWS burden and their potential health impact in Beijing.

  6. Neighborhood Perceptions and Cumulative Impacts of Low Level Chronic Exposure to Fine Particular Matter (PM2.5 on Cardiopulmonary Health

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    Kristen M. C. Malecki

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Adverse perceptions of neighborhood safety, aesthetics and quality including access to resources can induce stress and may make individuals more sensitive to cardiopulmonary effects of air pollution exposure. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions as important and modifiable non-chemical stressors of the built environment that may exacerbate effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary health outcomes, particularly among general population based cohorts. This study examined associations between low-level chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 and cardiopulmonary health, and the potential mediating or modifying effects of adverse neighborhood perceptions. Using data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW, 2230 non-asthmatic adults age 21–74 were included in the analyses. The overall goals of this study were to assess if individuals who experience stress from neighborhood environments in which they live were more sensitive to low levels of fine particular matter (PM2.5 μg/m3. Demographic predictors of air pollution exposure included younger age, non-White race, lower education and middle class income. After adjustments, objective lung function measures (FEV1 and FEV1 to FVC ratio were the only cardiopulmonary health indicators significantly associated with chronic three-year annual averages of PM2.5. Among all non-asthmatics, a ten unit increase in estimated three year annual average PM2.5 exposure was significantly associated with lower forced expiratory volume (L in one second FEV1 (β = −0.40 μg/L; 95% CI −0.45, −0.06. Among all individuals, adverse perceptions of the neighborhood built environment did not appear to statistically moderate or mediate associations. However, stratified analysis did reveal significant associations between PM2.5 and lung function (FEV1 only among individuals with negative perceptions and increased reports of neighborhood stressors. These findings included individuals who

  7. Neighborhood Perceptions and Cumulative Impacts of Low Level Chronic Exposure to Fine Particular Matter (PM2.5) on Cardiopulmonary Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, Kristen M C; Schultz, Amy A; Bergmans, Rachel S

    2018-01-06

    Adverse perceptions of neighborhood safety, aesthetics and quality including access to resources can induce stress and may make individuals more sensitive to cardiopulmonary effects of air pollution exposure. Few studies have examined neighborhood perceptions as important and modifiable non-chemical stressors of the built environment that may exacerbate effects of air pollution on cardiopulmonary health outcomes, particularly among general population based cohorts. This study examined associations between low-level chronic exposure to fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and cardiopulmonary health, and the potential mediating or modifying effects of adverse neighborhood perceptions. Using data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin (SHOW), 2230 non-asthmatic adults age 21-74 were included in the analyses. The overall goals of this study were to assess if individuals who experience stress from neighborhood environments in which they live were more sensitive to low levels of fine particular matter (PM 2.5 μg/m³). Demographic predictors of air pollution exposure included younger age, non-White race, lower education and middle class income. After adjustments, objective lung function measures (FEV1 and FEV1 to FVC ratio) were the only cardiopulmonary health indicators significantly associated with chronic three-year annual averages of PM 2.5 . Among all non-asthmatics, a ten unit increase in estimated three year annual average PM 2.5 exposure was significantly associated with lower forced expiratory volume (L) in one second FEV1 (β = -0.40 μg/L; 95% CI -0.45, -0.06). Among all individuals, adverse perceptions of the neighborhood built environment did not appear to statistically moderate or mediate associations. However, stratified analysis did reveal significant associations between PM 2.5 and lung function (FEV1) only among individuals with negative perceptions and increased reports of neighborhood stressors. These findings included individuals who felt their

  8. Chemical characterization and sources of personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the megacity of Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Cui; Jahn, Heiko J; Engling, Guenter; Ward, Tony J; Kraemer, Alexander; Ho, Kin-Fai; Yim, S H L; Chan, Chuen-Yu

    2017-12-01

    Concurrent ambient and personal measurements of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) were conducted in eight districts of Guangzhou during the winter of 2011. Personal-to-ambient (P-C) relationships of PM 2.5 chemical components were determined and sources of personal PM 2.5 exposures were evaluated using principal component analysis and a mixed-effects model. Water-soluble inorganic ions (e.g., SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , NH 4 + , C 2 O 4 2- ) and anhydrosugars (e.g., levoglucosan, mannosan) exhibited median personal-to-ambient (P/C) ratios personal PM 2.5 were significantly affected by ambient sources. Conversely, elemental carbon (EC) and calcium (Ca 2+ ) showed median P/C ratios greater than unity, illustrating significant impact of local traffic, indoor sources, and/or personal activities on individual's exposure. SO 4 2- displayed very low coefficient of divergence (COD) values coupled with strong P-C correlations, implying a uniform distribution of SO 4 2- in the urban area of Guangzhou. EC, Ca 2+ , and levoglucosan were otherwise heterogeneously distributed across individuals in different districts. Regional air pollution (50.4 ± 0.9%), traffic-related particles (8.6 ± 0.7%), dust-related particles (5.8 ± 0.7%), and biomass burning emissions (2.0 ± 0.2%) were moderate to high positive sources of personal PM 2.5 exposure in Guangzhou. The observed positive and significant contribution of Ca 2+ to personal PM 2.5 exposure, highlighting indoor sources and/or personal activities, were driving factors determining personal exposure to dust-related particles. Considerable discrepancies (COD values ranging from 0.42 to 0.50) were shown between ambient concentrations and personal exposures, indicating caution should be taken when using ambient concentrations as proxies for personal exposures in epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of water containing acetone–butanol–ethanol for NOx-PM (nitrogen oxide-particulate matter) trade-off in the diesel engine fueled with biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yu-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Wu, Tser Son; Wu, Chang-Yu; Chen, Shui-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Fuel blends that contain biodiesel are known to produce greater NO x (nitrogen oxide) emissions in diesel engine exhaust than regular diesel, and this is one of the key barriers to the wider adoption of biodiesel as an alternative fuel. In this study, a water-containing ABE (acetone–butanol–ethanol) solution, which simulates products that are produced from biomass fermentation without dehydration processing, was tested as a biodiesel-diesel blend additive to lower NO x emissions from diesel engines. The energy efficiency and the PM (particulate matter) and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) emissions were investigated and compared under various operating conditions. Although biodiesel had greater NO x emissions, the blends that contained 25% of the water-containing ABE solution had significantly lower NO x (4.30–30.7%), PM (10.9–63.1%), and PAH (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) emissions (26.7–67.6%) than the biodiesel–diesel blends and regular diesel, respectively. In addition, the energy efficiency of this new blend was 0.372–7.88% higher with respect to both the biodiesel–diesel blends and regular diesel. Because dehydration and surfactant addition are not necessary, the application of ABE–biodiesel–diesel blends can simplify fuel production processes, reduce energy consumption, and lower pollutant emissions, meaning that the ABE–biodiesel–diesel blend is a promising green fuel. - Highlights: • Water-containing ABE (acetone–butanol–ethanol)–biodiesel–diesel was tested in a diesel engine. • The addition of ABE to biodiesel–diesel blends can enhance the energy efficiency. • The addition of ABE can solve the problem of NO x -PM (nitrogen oxide-particulate matter) trade-off when using biodiesel. • PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) can be further reduced by adding ABE in biodiesel–diesel blends. • Fuel production was simplified due to the acceptance of water in ABE

  10. NAAQS Designated Area Polygons - Fine Particulate Matter (24-Hr, PM-2.5), Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

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    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Designated Areas for Particulate Matter < 2.5 microns, according to the 24-Hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Nonattainment areas are geographic...

  11. The method for determination of parameters of the phenomenological continual model of soil organic matter transformation

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    S. I. Bartsev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A possible method for experimental determination of parameters of the previously proposed continual mathematical model of soil organic matter transformation is theoretically considered in this paper. The previously proposed by the authors continual model of soil organic matter transformation, based on using the rate of matter transformation as a continual scale of its recalcitrance, describes the transformation process phenomenologically without going into detail of microbiological mechanisms of transformation. Thereby simplicity of the model is achieved. The model is represented in form of one differential equation in first­order partial derivatives, which has an analytical solution in elementary functions. The model equation contains a small number of empirical parameters which generally characterize environmental conditions where the matter transformation process occurs and initial properties of the plant litter. Given the values of these parameters, it is possible to calculate dynamics of soil organic matter stocks and its distribution over transformation rate. In the present study, possible approaches for determination of the model parameters are considered and a simple method of their experimental measurement is proposed. An experiment of an incubation of chemically homogeneous samples in soil and multiple sequential measurement of the sample mass loss with time is proposed. An equation of time dynamics of mass loss of incubated homogeneous sample is derived from the basic assumption of the presented soil organic matter transformation model. Thus, fitting by the least squares method the parameters of sample mass loss curve calculated according the proposed mass loss dynamics equation allows to determine the parameters of the general equation of soil organic transformation model.

  12. GADEP Continuous PM2.5 mass concentration data, VIIRS Day Night Band SDR (SVDNB), MODIS Terra Level 2 water vapor profiles (infrared algorithm for atmospheric profiles for both day and night, NWS surface meteorological data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data descriptions are provided at the following urls: GADEP Continuous PM2.5 mass concentration data - https://aqs.epa.gov/aqsweb/documents/data_mart_welcome.html...

  13. [Ultrastructural pathology of oligodendrocytes in the white matter in continuous paranoid schizophrenia: a role for microglia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uranova, N A; Vikhreva, O V; Rakhmanova, V I; Orlovskaya, D D

    Previously the authors have reported the ultrastructural pathology and deficit of oligodendrocytes in gray and white matter of the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia. The aim of the study was to determine of the effects of microglia on the ultrastructure of oligodendrocytes in the white matter underlying the prefrontal cortex in continuous schizophrenia. Postmortem morphometric electron microscopic study of oligodendrocytes in close apposition to microglia was performed in white matter underlying the prefrontal cortex (BA10). Eleven cases of chronic continuous schizophrenia and 11 normal controls were studied. Areas of oligodendrocytes, of their nuclei and cytoplasm, volume density (Vv) and the number of mitochondria, vacuoles of endoplasmic reticulum and lipofuscin granules were estimated. Group comparison was performed using ANCOVA. The schizophrenia group differed from the control group by paucity of ribosomes in the cytoplasm of oligodendrocytes, a significant decrease in Vv and the number of mitochondria and increase in the number of lipofuscin granules. Significant correlations between the parameters of lipofuscin granules, mitochondria and vacuoles were found only in the schizophrenia group. The number of lipofuscin granules were correlated positively with the illness duration. Dystrophic alterations of oligodendrocytes attached to microglial cells were found in the white matter of the prefrontal cortex in chronic paranoid schizophrenia as compared to controls. The data obtained suggest that microglia might contribute to abnormalities of energy, lipid and protein metabolism of oligodendrocytes in schizophrenia.

  14. Semivolatile Organic Compounds (SOCs) in Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) during Clear, Fog, and Haze Episodes in Winter in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Tian, Mi; Ding, Nan; Yan, Xiao; Chen, She-Jun; Mo, Yang-Zhi; Yang, Wei-Qiang; Bi, Xin-Hui; Wang, Xin-Ming; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2018-05-01

    Few efforts have been made to elucidate the influence of weather conditions on the fate of semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs). Here, daily fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) during clear, haze, and fog episodes collected in the winter in Beijing, China was analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), and organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs). The total concentrations of PAHs, OPFRs, and BFRs had medians of 45.1 ng/m 3 and 1347 and 46.7 pg/m 3 , respectively. The temporal pattern for PAH concentrations was largely dependent on coal combustion for residential heating. OPFR compositions that change during colder period were related to enhanced indoor emissions due to heating. The mean concentrations of SOCs during haze and fog days were 2-10 times higher than those during clear days. We found that BFRs with lower octanol and air partition coefficients tended to increase during haze and fog episodes, be removed from PM 2.5 during clear episodes, or both. For PAHs and OPFRs, pollutants that are more recalcitrant to degradation were prone to accumulate during haze and fog days. The potential source contribution function (PSCF) model indicated that southern and eastern cities were major source regions of SOCs at this site.

  15. Spatial and temporal variation of sources contributing to quasi-ultrafine particulate matter PM0.36 in Augsburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengxia; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Cyrys, Josef; Wolf, Kathrin; Karg, Erwin; Gu, Jianwei; Orasche, Jürgen; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Peters, Annette; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2018-08-01

    to study the sources contributing to quasi-ultrafine particle (UFP) organic carbon and the spatial temporal variability of the sources. 24h quasi-UFP (particulate matter quasi-UFP vary among sites and source types and show source-specific characteristics. Therefore, caution should be taken when using one monitor site measurement to assess human exposure in health effect studies of quasi-UFP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characteristics of organic matter in PM2.5 from an e-waste dismantling area in Taizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zeping; Feng, Jialiang; Han, Wenliang; Wu, Minghong; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying

    2010-08-01

    Solvent extractable organic compounds in PM(2.5) samples collected in Taizhou, a city famous for its electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling industry in Zhejiang province of China, were analyzed to identify the main emission sources based on molecular markers. Two types of plastics which were most frequently contained in the e-wastes, wires/cables and plastic blocks, were burned in the lab and the particles emitted analyzed. The concentrations of PAHs and phthalate esters at the e-waste dismantling area during our sampling periods were about two times of that at the reference urban site, indicating the high pollution level there. The high concentrations of quaterphenyl found at the dismantling area indicated that burning of plastics or polymers was an important emission source of the PAHs in the fine particles. The diagnostic analysis based on the compositions of alkanes, hopanes and other molecular markers showed that engine exhaust, biomass burning and kitchen emissions were also important emission sources at the e-waste dismantling area. Our results suggested that more effort should be paid to control the correlative emission sources such as transportation and kitchen to achieve better air quality at the e-waste dismantling area besides regulating the recycling activities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-exhaust PM emissions from electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Victor R. J. H.; Achten, Peter A. J.

    2016-06-01

    Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to adverse health effects by numerous studies. Therefore, governments have been heavily incentivising the market to switch to electric passenger cars in order to reduce air pollution. However, this literature review suggests that electric vehicles may not reduce levels of PM as much as expected, because of their relatively high weight. By analysing the existing literature on non-exhaust emissions of different vehicle categories, this review found that there is a positive relationship between weight and non-exhaust PM emission factors. In addition, electric vehicles (EVs) were found to be 24% heavier than equivalent internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). As a result, total PM10 emissions from EVs were found to be equal to those of modern ICEVs. PM2.5 emissions were only 1-3% lower for EVs compared to modern ICEVs. Therefore, it could be concluded that the increased popularity of electric vehicles will likely not have a great effect on PM levels. Non-exhaust emissions already account for over 90% of PM10 and 85% of PM2.5 emissions from traffic. These proportions will continue to increase as exhaust standards improve and average vehicle weight increases. Future policy should consequently focus on setting standards for non-exhaust emissions and encouraging weight reduction of all vehicles to significantly reduce PM emissions from traffic.

  18. Atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Coupled With Point Measurement Air Quality Samplers to Measure Fine Particulate Matter (PM) Emissions From Agricultural Operations: The Los Banos CA Fall 2007 Tillage Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne particles, especially fine particulate matter 2.5 micrometers (μm) or less in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), are microscopic solids or liquid droplets that can cause serious health problems, including increased respiratory symptoms such as coughing or difficulty breathing...

  19. Assessing the impact of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on respiratory-cardiovascular chronic diseases in the New York City Metropolitan area using Hierarchical Bayesian Model estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    An enhanced research paradigm is presented to address the spatial and temporal gaps in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) measurements and generate realistic and representative concentration fields for use in epidemiological studies of human exposure to ambient air particulate conce...

  20. A dynamic processes study of PM retention by trees under different wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Changkun; Kan, Liyan; Guo, Jiankang; Jin, Sijia; Li, Zhigang; Chen, Dan; Li, Xin; Che, Shengquan

    2018-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is one of the most serious environmental problems, exacerbating respiratory and vascular illnesses. Plants have the ability to reduce non-point source PM pollution through retention on leaves and branches. Studies of the dynamic processes of PM retention by plants and the mechanisms influencing this process will help to improve the efficiency of urban greening for PM reduction. We examined dynamic processes of PM retention and the major factors influencing PM retention by six trees with different branch structure characteristics in wind tunnel experiments at three different wind speeds. The results showed that the changes of PM numbers retained by plant leaves over time were complex dynamic processes for which maximum values could exceed minimum values by over 10 times. The average value of PM measured in multiple periods and situations can be considered a reliable indicator of the ability of the plant to retain PM. The dynamic processes were similar for PM 10 and PM 2.5 . They could be clustered into three groups simulated by continually-rising, inverse U-shaped, and U-shaped polynomial functions, respectively. The processes were the synthetic effect of characteristics such as species, wind speed, period of exposure and their interactions. Continually-rising functions always explained PM retention in species with extremely complex branch structure. Inverse U-shaped processes explained PM retention in species with relatively simple branch structure and gentle wind. The U-shaped processes mainly explained PM retention at high wind speeds and in species with a relatively simple crown. These results indicate that using plants with complex crowns in urban greening and decreasing wind speed in plant communities increases the chance of continually-rising or inverse U-shaped relationships, which have a positive effect in reducing PM pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Induction of IL-6 and inhibition of IL-8 secretion in the human airway cell line Calu-3 by urban particulate matter collected with a modified method of PM sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto; Torres, Victor; Miranda, Javier; Martinez, Leticia; Garcia-Cuellar, Claudia; Nawrot, Tim S.; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Hoet, Peter; Ramirez-Lopez, Pavel; Rosas, Irma; Nemery, Benoit; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro Roman

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) induces inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, we evaluated the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by an airway cell line exposed to PM with a mean aerodynamic size equal to or less than 10 or 2.5 μm (PM 10 and PM 2.5 , respectively) collected in Mexico City, using a modified high-volume sampling method avoiding the use of solvents or introducing membrane components into the samples. PM was collected on cellulose-nitrate (CN) membranes modified for collection on high-volume samplers. Composition of the particles was evaluated by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and scanning electron microscopy. The particles (10-160 μg/cm 2 ) were tested on Calu-3 cells. Control cultures were exposed to LPS (10 ng/mL to 100 μg/mL) or silica (10-160 μg/cm 2 ). IL-6 and IL-8 secretions were evaluated by ELISA. An average of 10 mg of PM was recovered form each cellulose-nitrate filter. No evidence of contamination from the filter was found. Cells exposed to PM 10 presented an increase in the secretion of IL-6 (up to 400%), while IL-8 decreased (from 40% to levels below the detection limit). A similar but weaker effect was observed with PM 2.5 . In conclusion, our modified sampling method provides a large amount of urban PM free of membrane contamination. The urban particles induce a decrease in IL-8 secretion that contrasts with the LPS and silica effects. These results suggest that the regulation of IL-8 expression is different for urban particles (complex mixture containing combustion-related particles, soil and biologic components) than for biogenic compounds or pure mineral particles.

  2. Induction of IL-6 and inhibition of IL-8 secretion in the human airway cell line Calu-3 by urban particulate matter collected with a modified method of PM sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto, E-mail: ealfaro.incan@gmail.com [Lung Toxicology Unit, Pneumology Section, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Subdireccion de Investigacion Basica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Avenida San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Torres, Victor [Departamento Farmacologia, Facultad de Medicina, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Miranda, Javier [Departamento de Fisica Experimental, Instituto de Fisca, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Martinez, Leticia [Deparatmento de Aerobiologia, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera - Facultad de Medicina, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Garcia-Cuellar, Claudia [Subdireccion de Investigacion Basica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Avenida San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Nawrot, Tim S.; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Hoet, Peter [Lung Toxicology Unit, Pneumology Section, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Ramirez-Lopez, Pavel [Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Quimica e Industrias Extractivas, I.P.N. (Mexico); Rosas, Irma [Deparatmento de Aerobiologia, Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera - Facultad de Medicina, U.N.A.M. (Mexico); Nemery, Benoit [Lung Toxicology Unit, Pneumology Section, K.U. Leuven (Belgium); Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro Roman [Subdireccion de Investigacion Basica, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Avenida San Fernando 22, C.P. 14080, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-15

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) induces inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, we evaluated the secretion of IL-6 and IL-8 by an airway cell line exposed to PM with a mean aerodynamic size equal to or less than 10 or 2.5 {mu}m (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively) collected in Mexico City, using a modified high-volume sampling method avoiding the use of solvents or introducing membrane components into the samples. PM was collected on cellulose-nitrate (CN) membranes modified for collection on high-volume samplers. Composition of the particles was evaluated by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and scanning electron microscopy. The particles (10-160 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}) were tested on Calu-3 cells. Control cultures were exposed to LPS (10 ng/mL to 100 {mu}g/mL) or silica (10-160 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}). IL-6 and IL-8 secretions were evaluated by ELISA. An average of 10 mg of PM was recovered form each cellulose-nitrate filter. No evidence of contamination from the filter was found. Cells exposed to PM{sub 10} presented an increase in the secretion of IL-6 (up to 400%), while IL-8 decreased (from 40% to levels below the detection limit). A similar but weaker effect was observed with PM{sub 2.5}. In conclusion, our modified sampling method provides a large amount of urban PM free of membrane contamination. The urban particles induce a decrease in IL-8 secretion that contrasts with the LPS and silica effects. These results suggest that the regulation of IL-8 expression is different for urban particles (complex mixture containing combustion-related particles, soil and biologic components) than for biogenic compounds or pure mineral particles.

  3. CARDIOVASCULAR MORTALITY IN PHOENIX: PM1 IS A BETTER INDICATOR THAN PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has obtained a 3-year database of particulate matter (PM) in Phoenix, AZ from 1995 - 1997 that includes elemental analysis by XRF of daily PM2.5. During this time period PM1 and PM2.5 TEOMs were run simultaneously for about 7 months during two periods of the year. Regressio...

  4. Indoor pollution: PM2.5 and PM10 from cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chianese, E.; Barone, G.; Castaldo, R.M.; Riccio, A.

    2009-01-01

    This work is aimed to establishing the temporal and spatial dispersion of PM 10 and PM 2.5 particulate matter fractions generated by cigarettes smoking in an indoor ambient. To this purpose, PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations were collected with a mobile instrument positioned in a room accommodating a smoking machine. [it

  5. Removal of natural organic matter and arsenic from water by electrocoagulation/flotation continuous flow reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohora, Emilijan; Rončević, Srdjan; Dalmacija, Božo; Agbaba, Jasmina; Watson, Malcolm; Karlović, Elvira; Dalmacija, Milena

    2012-10-15

    The performance of the laboratory scale electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF) reactor in removing high concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM) and arsenic from groundwater was analyzed in this study. An ECF reactor with bipolar plate aluminum electrodes was operated in the horizontal continuous flow mode. Electrochemical and flow variables were optimized to examine ECF reactor contaminants removal efficiency. The optimum conditions for the process were identified as groundwater initial pH 5, flow rate=4.3 l/h, inter electrode distance=2.8 cm, current density=5.78 mA/cm(2), A/V ratio=0.248 cm(-1). The NOM removal according to UV(254) absorbance and dissolved organic matter (DOC) reached highest values of 77% and 71% respectively, relative to the raw groundwater. Arsenic removal was 85% (6.2 μg As/l) relative to raw groundwater, satisfying the drinking water standards. The specific reactor electrical energy consumption was 17.5 kWh/kg Al. The specific aluminum electrode consumption was 66 g Al/m(3). According to the obtained results, ECF in horizontal continuous flow mode is an energy efficient process to remove NOM and arsenic from groundwater. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A study of uniformity of elements deposition on glass fiber filters after collection of airborne particulate matter (PM-10), using a high-volume sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Julieta; Rebagliati, Raúl Jiménez; Gómez, Darío; Smichowski, Patricia

    2005-12-15

    A study was conducted to evaluate the homogeneity of the distribution of metals and metalloids deposited on glass fiber filters collected using a high-volume sampler equipped with a PM-10 sampling head. The airborne particulate matter (APM)-loaded glass fiber filters (with an active surface of about 500cm(2)) were weighed and then each filter was cut in five small discs of 6.5cm of diameter. Each disk was mineralized by acid-assisted microwave (MW) digestion using a mixture of nitric, perchloric and hydrofluoric acids. Analysis was performed by axial view inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and the elements considered were: Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti and V. The validation of the procedure was performed by the analysis of the standard reference material NIST 1648, urban particulate matter. As a way of comparing the possible variability in trace elements distribution in a particular filter, the mean concentration for each element over the five positions (discs) was calculated and each element concentration was normalized to this mean value. Scatter plots of the normalized concentrations were examined for all elements and all sub-samples. We considered that an element was homogeneously distributed if its normalized concentrations in the 45 sub-samples were within +/-15% of the mean value ranging between 0.85 and 1.15. The study demonstrated that the 12 elements tested showed different distribution pattern. Aluminium, Cu and V showed the most homogeneous pattern while Cd and Ni exhibited the largest departures from the mean value in 13 out of the 45 discs analyzed. No preferential deposition was noticed in any sub-sample.

  7. Impacts of 2000-2050 Climate Change on Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Air Quality in China Based on Statistical Projections Using an Ensemble of Global Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, D. M.; Tai, A. P. K.; Shen, L.; Moch, J. M.; van Donkelaar, A.; Mickley, L. J.

    2017-12-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality is strongly dependent on not only on emissions but also meteorological conditions. Here we examine the dominant synoptic circulation patterns that control day-to-day PM2.5 variability over China. We perform principal component (PC) analysis on 1998-2016 NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis I daily meteorological fields to diagnose distinct synoptic meteorological modes, and perform PC regression on spatially interpolated 2014-2016 daily mean PM2.5 concentrations in China to identify modes dominantly explaining PM2.5 variability. We find that synoptic systems, e.g., cold-frontal passages, maritime inflow and frontal precipitation, can explain up to 40% of the day-to-day PM2.5 variability in major metropolitan regions in China. We further investigate how annually changing frequencies of synoptic systems, as well as changing local meteorology, drive interannual PM2.5 variability. We apply a spectral analysis on the PC time series to obtain the 1998-2016 annual median synoptic frequency, and use a forward-selection multiple linear regression (MLR) model of satellite-derived 1998-2015 annual mean PM2.5 concentrations on local meteorology and synoptic frequency, selecting predictors that explain the highest fraction of interannual PM2.5 variability while guarding against multicollinearity. To estimate the effect of climate change on future PM2.5 air quality, we project a multimodel ensemble of 15 CMIP5 models under the RCP8.5 scenario on the PM2.5-to-meteorology sensitivities derived for the present-day from the MLR model. Our results show that climate change could be responsible for increases in PM2.5 of more than 25 μg m-3 in northwestern China and 10 mg m-3 in northeastern China by the 2050s. Increases in synoptic frequency of cold-frontal passages cause only a modest 1 μg m-3 decrease in PM2.5 in North China Plain. Our analyses show that climate change imposes a significant penalty on air quality over China and poses serious threat on

  8. A comparative study of the organic matter in PM 2.5 from three Chinese megacities in three different climatic zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jialiang; Hu, Min; Chan, Chak K.; Lau, P. S.; Fang, Ming; He, Lingyan; Tang, Xiaoyan

    Organic matter in PM 2.5 collected in 2002 and 2003 from three megacities in different climatic zones in China, Beijing (40°N), Shanghai (31°N) and Guangzhou (23°N), was characterized. The focus was on solvent-extractable organic compounds (SEOC), which were used to identify the influences of geography, variation of the season, sources and transport on the concentration and distribution of these homologues. Organic carbon, elemental carbon, and water-soluble organic carbon concentrations were analyzed only for the substantiation of the SEOC findings. Analysis of the fossil fuel residues and the plant wax components in n-alkanes, PAHs, fatty acids and n-alkanols allowed the identification of anthropogenic (coal and petroleum combustion processes, and kitchen emissions) and biogenic (vegetation and microbial) sources. The influence of temperature on the distribution of the SEOC was exemplified by the negative correlation between the relative concentrations of the semivolatile homologues (alkanes and PAHs) and ambient temperature. This is attributable to gas-particle partitioning. Indirectly, ambient temperature dictates the type of vegetation that can grow in a geographical zone. This would influence the distribution of the plant waxes, and finally, it plays a role in the aerosol loading due to energy usage.

  9. Removal of natural organic matter and arsenic from water by electrocoagulation/flotation continuous flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohora, Emilijan; Rončević, Srdjan; Dalmacija, Božo; Agbaba, Jasmina; Watson, Malcolm; Karlović, Elvira; Dalmacija, Milena

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A continuous electrocoagulation/flotation reactor was designed built and operated. ► Highest NOM removal according to UV 254 was 77% relative to raw groundwater. ► Highest NOM removal accordance to DOC was 71%, relative to raw groundwater. ► Highest As removal archived was 85% (6.2 μg/l), relative to raw groundwater. ► Specific reactor energy and electrode consumption was 1.7 kWh/m 3 and 66 g Al/m 3 . - Abstract: The performance of the laboratory scale electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF) reactor in removing high concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM) and arsenic from groundwater was analyzed in this study. An ECF reactor with bipolar plate aluminum electrodes was operated in the horizontal continuous flow mode. Electrochemical and flow variables were optimized to examine ECF reactor contaminants removal efficiency. The optimum conditions for the process were identified as groundwater initial pH 5, flow rate = 4.3 l/h, inter electrode distance = 2.8 cm, current density = 5.78 mA/cm 2 , A/V ratio = 0.248 cm −1 . The NOM removal according to UV 254 absorbance and dissolved organic matter (DOC) reached highest values of 77% and 71% respectively, relative to the raw groundwater. Arsenic removal was 85% (6.2 μg As/l) relative to raw groundwater, satisfying the drinking water standards. The specific reactor electrical energy consumption was 17.5 kWh/kg Al. The specific aluminum electrode consumption was 66 g Al/m 3 . According to the obtained results, ECF in horizontal continuous flow mode is an energy efficient process to remove NOM and arsenic from groundwater.

  10. Removal of natural organic matter and arsenic from water by electrocoagulation/flotation continuous flow reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohora, Emilijan, E-mail: emohora@ifc.org [University of Novi Sad Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia); Roncevic, Srdjan; Dalmacija, Bozo; Agbaba, Jasmina; Watson, Malcolm; Karlovic, Elvira; Dalmacija, Milena [University of Novi Sad Faculty of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Environmental Protection, Trg D. Obradovica 3, 21000 Novi Sad (Serbia)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A continuous electrocoagulation/flotation reactor was designed built and operated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest NOM removal according to UV{sub 254} was 77% relative to raw groundwater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest NOM removal accordance to DOC was 71%, relative to raw groundwater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest As removal archived was 85% (6.2 {mu}g/l), relative to raw groundwater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Specific reactor energy and electrode consumption was 1.7 kWh/m{sup 3} and 66 g Al/m{sup 3}. - Abstract: The performance of the laboratory scale electrocoagulation/flotation (ECF) reactor in removing high concentrations of natural organic matter (NOM) and arsenic from groundwater was analyzed in this study. An ECF reactor with bipolar plate aluminum electrodes was operated in the horizontal continuous flow mode. Electrochemical and flow variables were optimized to examine ECF reactor contaminants removal efficiency. The optimum conditions for the process were identified as groundwater initial pH 5, flow rate = 4.3 l/h, inter electrode distance = 2.8 cm, current density = 5.78 mA/cm{sup 2}, A/V ratio = 0.248 cm{sup -1}. The NOM removal according to UV{sub 254} absorbance and dissolved organic matter (DOC) reached highest values of 77% and 71% respectively, relative to the raw groundwater. Arsenic removal was 85% (6.2 {mu}g As/l) relative to raw groundwater, satisfying the drinking water standards. The specific reactor electrical energy consumption was 17.5 kWh/kg Al. The specific aluminum electrode consumption was 66 g Al/m{sup 3}. According to the obtained results, ECF in horizontal continuous flow mode is an energy efficient process to remove NOM and arsenic from groundwater.

  11. PM levels in urban area of Bejaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benaissa, Fatima; Maesano, Cara Nichole; Alkama, Rezak; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is not routinely measured in Bejaia City, Algeria, an urban area of around 200,000 inhabitants. We present first time measurements of particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations for this city (PM10, PM7, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1) over the course of one week, from July 8 to July 14, 2015. This study covered eight urban sampling sites and 169 measurements were obtained to determine mass concentration levels. Air pollution is not routinely measured in Bejaia City, Algeria, an urban area of around 200,000 inhabitants. We present first time measurements of particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations for this city (PM10, PM7, PM4, PM2.5 and PM1) over the course of one week, from July 8 to July 14, 2015. This study covered eight urban sampling sites and 169 measurements were obtained to determine mass concentration levels. The average city-wide PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations measured during this sampling were 87.8 ± 33.9 and 28.7 ± 10.6 µg/m3 respectively. These results show that particulate matter levels are high and exceed Algerian ambient air quality standards (maximum 80 µg/m3, without specifying the particle size). Further, PM10 and PM2.5 averages were well above the prescribed 24-hour average World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines (WHO AQG) (50 µg/m3 for PM10 and 25 µg/m3 for PM2.5). The PM1, PM2,5, PM4 and PM7 fractions accounted for 15%, 32 %, 56% and 78% respectively of the PM10 measurements. Our analysis reveals that PM concentration variations in the study region were influenced primarily by traffic. In fact, lower PM10 concentrations (21.7 and 33.1 µg/m3) were recorded in residential sites while higher values (53.1, and 45.2 µg/m3) were registered in city centers. Keywords: Particulate matter, Urban area, vehicle fleet, Bejaia.

  12. Airborne particulate matter PM2.5 from Mexico City affects the generation of reactive oxygen species by blood neutrophils from asthmatics: an in vitro approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceballos Guillermo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mexico City Metropolitan Area is densely populated, and toxic air pollutants are generated and concentrated at a higher rate because of its geographic characteristics. It is well known that exposure to particulate matter, especially to fine and ultra-fine particles, enhances the risk of cardio-respiratory diseases, especially in populations susceptible to oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fine particles on the respiratory burst of circulating neutrophils from asthmatic patients living in Mexico City. Methods In total, 6 subjects diagnosed with mild asthma and 11 healthy volunteers were asked to participate. Neutrophils were isolated from peripheral venous blood and incubated with fine particles, and the generation of reactive oxygen species was recorded by chemiluminescence. We also measured plasma lipoperoxidation susceptibility and plasma myeloperoxidase and paraoxonase activities by spectrophotometry. Results Asthmatic patients showed significantly lower plasma paraoxonase activity, higher susceptibility to plasma lipoperoxidation and an increase in myeloperoxidase activity that differed significantly from the control group. In the presence of fine particles, neutrophils from asthmatic patients showed an increased tendency to generate reactive oxygen species after stimulation with fine particles (PM2.5. Conclusion These findings suggest that asthmatic patients have higher oxidation of plasmatic lipids due to reduced antioxidant defense. Furthermore, fine particles tended to increase the respiratory burst of blood human neutrophils from the asthmatic group. On the whole, increased myeloperoxidase activity and susceptibility to lipoperoxidation with a concomitant decrease in paraoxonase activity in asthmatic patients could favor lung infection and hence disrupt the control of asthmatic crises.

  13. Study on Concentration of Particulate Matter with Diameter Less than 10 Microns, Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Related to PM2.5 in the Ambient Air of Sina Hospital District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Kermani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:In recent decades, extensive studies have shown a number of short and long-term health effects of particle matters. In addition to particle matters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs and heavy metals in airborne particles due to their mutagenic and carcinogenic properties are considered major air pollutants. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of PM2.5particulate, 7heavy metal concentrations and 13 PAHs compound associated with fine particles (PM2.5-boud PAHs in the district of Sina hospital, Tehran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in air of Sina Hospital district in Tehran. Concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 were determined by gravimetric. Also heavy metal concentrations in samples after digestion were determined with ICP-AES instrument through injection. Then the PAHs compounds from each sample were extracted by ultrasonic method. After this step, extracted sample was injected for analysis by GC-MS and concentration of each compound was read. Results: The daily average concentration of PM2.5 during the study was 41.19 µg/m3.Concentration values for zinc, lead, cadmium, chromium, nickel and arsenic, were 92/69, 05/38, 2/18, 24/4, 19/4 and 34/1 ng/m3 respectively but mercury not found in this study. Average concentrations of PAHs compounds have been variable from0.07 ng/m3 for Chrysene to 1.21ng/m3 for Dibenzo(ahanthracene. Conclusion: In this study, the daily average of PM2.5 concentrations was above the Iranian National PM, WHO (25 µg/m3 and EPA (35 µg/m3 standards established for PM2.5 particles. Heavy metal concentrations in this study were lower than values reported in previous studies in Tehran. The highest concentrations among PAHs compounds belonging toIndeo(cd 1,2,3pyren, Dibenzo(ah anthracene, Benzo (B flouranthin and Benzo (Kflouranthin that all of these compounds are related to vehicle emissions.

  14. The associations between birth weight and exposure to fine particulate matter (PM_2_._5) and its chemical constituents during pregnancy: A meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Luo, Xiping; Zhao, Chunmei; Zhang, Bo; Tao, Jun; Yang, Zuyao; Ma, Wenjun; Liu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    We performed this meta-analysis to estimate the associations of maternal exposure to PM_2_._5 and its chemical constituents with birth weight and to explore the sources of heterogeneity in regard to the findings of these associations. A total of 32 studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE, PUBMED, Embase, China Biological Medicine and Wanfang electronic databases before April 2015. We estimated the statistically significant associations of reduced birth weight (β = −15.9 g, 95% CI: −26.8, −5.0) and LBW (OR = 1.090, 95% CI: 1.032, 1.150) with PM_2_._5 exposure (per 10 μg/m"3 increment) during the entire pregnancy. Trimester-specific analyses showed negative associations between birth weight and PM_2_._5 exposure during the second (β = −12.6 g) and third (β = −10.0 g) trimesters. Other subgroup analyses indicated significantly different pooled-effect estimates of PM_2_._5 exposure on birth weight in studies with different exposure assessment methods, study designs and study settings. We further observed large differences in the pooled effect estimates of the PM_2_._5 chemical constituents for birth weight decrease and LBW. We concluded that PM_2_._5 exposure during pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight, and late pregnancy might be the critical window. Some specific PM_2_._5 constituents may have larger toxic effects on fetal weight. Exposure assessment methods, study designs and study settings might be important sources of the heterogeneity among the included studies. - Highlights: • Effects of prenatal PM_2_._5 exposure on birth weight were assessed. • A meta-analysis was performed on studies published before March 2015. • PM_2_._5 exposure during pregnancy might induce lower birth weight. • Late pregnancy might be the critical window of PM_2_._5 effects. • Some specific PM_2_._5 constituents may have larger toxic effects on fetal weight. - PM_2_._5 exposure during pregnancy was associated with lower birth

  15. Particulate matter in rural and urban nursery schools in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, R.A.O.; Branco, P.T.B.S.; Alvim-Ferraz, M.C.M.; Martins, F.G.; Sousa, S.I.V.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have been showing strong associations between exposures to indoor particulate matter (PM) and health effects on children. Urban and rural nursery schools have different known environmental and social differences which make their study relevant. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate indoor PM concentrations on different microenvironments of three rural nursery schools and one urban nursery school, being the only study comparing urban and rural nursery schools considering the PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 fractions (measured continuously and in terms of mass). Outdoor PM 2.5 and PM 10 were also obtained and I/O ratios have been determined. Indoor PM mean concentrations were higher in the urban nursery than in rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. However, I/O ratios allowed concluding that the recorded concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources. WHO guidelines and Portuguese legislation exceedances for PM 2.5 and PM 10 were observed mainly in the urban nursery school. - Highlights: • This is the only study comparing urban and rural nurseries considering PM fractions. • A low number of children in classrooms is enough to increase PM concentrations. • Children in urban nurseries are exposed to higher PM concentrations than in rural. • Children were mainly exposed to the finer fractions, which are worse to health. - PM levels were higher in the urban nursery than in the rural ones, which might have been related to traffic emissions. Still concentrations depended more significantly of indoor sources

  16. Toxicological Impact of Air Pollution Particulate Matter PM 2.5 Collected under Urban Industrial or Rural Influence Occurrence of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Reaction in BEAS 2B Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Corrected Version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dergham, M.; Billet, S; Verdin, A.; Courcot, D.; Cazier, F.; Pirouz, Sh.; Garcon, G.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution Particulate Matter (PM) is one of the risk factors involved in the high incidence of respiratory and cardio-vascular diseases. In this work, to integrate inter-seasonal and inter-site variations, fine particle (PM2.5) samples have been collected in spring-summer 2008) and autumn 2008-winter 2009, in Dunkerque (France) under urban or industrial influence, and in Rubrouck (France), under rural influence. Attention was paid to characterize their physico-chemical characteristics, and to determine their ability to induce oxidative stress and inflammatory response in a human bronchial epithelial cell model (BEAS-2B cell line). Physico-chemical characterization of the six PM samples showed their heterogeneities and complexities depending upon their respective natural and/or anthropogenic emission sources. Lung cytotoxicity of these air pollution PM2.5 samples, as shown in BEAS-2B cells, might rely on the induction of oxidative stress conditions and particularly on the excessive inflammatory response. (author)

  17. Synoptic meteorological modes of variability for fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air quality in major metropolitan regions of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Danny M.; Tai, Amos P. K.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Moch, Jonathan M.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Shen, Lu; Martin, Randall V.

    2018-05-01

    In his study, we use a combination of multivariate statistical methods to understand the relationships of PM2.5 with local meteorology and synoptic weather patterns in different regions of China across various timescales. Using June 2014 to May 2017 daily total PM2.5 observations from ˜ 1500 monitors, all deseasonalized and detrended to focus on synoptic-scale variations, we find strong correlations of daily PM2.5 with all selected meteorological variables (e.g., positive correlation with temperature but negative correlation with sea-level pressure throughout China; positive and negative correlation with relative humidity in northern and southern China, respectively). The spatial patterns suggest that the apparent correlations with individual meteorological variables may arise from common association with synoptic systems. Based on a principal component analysis of 1998-2017 meteorological data to diagnose distinct meteorological modes that dominate synoptic weather in four major regions of China, we find strong correlations of PM2.5 with several synoptic modes that explain 10 to 40 % of daily PM2.5 variability. These modes include monsoonal flows and cold frontal passages in northern and central China associated with the Siberian High, onshore flows in eastern China, and frontal rainstorms in southern China. Using the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region as a case study, we further find strong interannual correlations of regionally averaged satellite-derived annual mean PM2.5 with annual mean relative humidity (RH; positive) and springtime fluctuation frequency of the Siberian High (negative). We apply the resulting PM2.5-to-climate sensitivities to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate projections to predict future PM2.5 by the 2050s due to climate change, and find a modest decrease of ˜ 0.5 µg m-3 in annual mean PM2.5 in the BTH region due to more frequent cold frontal ventilation

  18. A continuous analyzer for soluble anionic constituents and ammonium in atmospheric particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Horr, Rida; Samanta, Gautam; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2003-12-15

    A new continuous soluble particle collector (PC) that does not use steam is described. Preceded by a denuder and interfaced with an ion chromatograph, this compact collector (3 in. o.d., approximately 5 in. total height) permits collection and continuous extraction of soluble components in atmospheric particulate matter. The PC is mounted atop a parallel plate wetted denuder for removal of soluble gases. The soluble gas denuded air enters the PC through an inlet. One version of the PC contained an integral cyclone-like inlet. For this device, penetration of particles as a function of size was characterized. In the simpler design, the sampled air enters the PC through a nozzle, and deionized water flows through a capillary tube placed close to the exit side of the nozzle by Venturi action or is forcibly pumped. Some growth of the aerosol occurs in the highly humid mist-chamber environment, but the dominant aerosol capture mechanism involves capture by the water film that forms on the hydrophobic PTFE membrane filter that constitutes the top of the PC and the airflow exit. Water drops coalesce on the filter and fall below into a purpose-machined cavity equipped with a liquid sensor. The water and the dissolved constituents are aspirated by a pump onto serial cation and anion preconcentrator columns. NH4+ captured by the cation preconcentrator is eluted with NaOH and is passed across an asymmetric membrane device. NH3 diffuses from the alkaline donor stream into a deionized water flowing countercurrent; the conductivity of the latter provides a measure of ammonium. The anions on the anion preconcentrator column are eluted and measured by a fully automated ion chromatography system. The total system thus provides automated semicontinuous measurement of soluble anions and ammonium. With a 15 min analytical cycle and a sampling rate of 5 L/min, the limit of detection (LOD) for ammonium is 8 ng/m3 and those for sulfate, nitrate, and oxalate are < or = 0.1 ng/m3. The

  19. Is the continuous matter creation cosmology an alternative to ΛCDM?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabris, J.C.; Pacheco, J.A. de Freitas; Piattella, O.F.

    2014-01-01

    The matter creation cosmology is revisited, including the evolution of baryons and dark matter particles. The creation process affects only dark matter and not baryons. The dynamics of the ΛCDM model can be reproduced only if two conditions are satisfied: 1) the entropy density production rate and the particle density variation rate are equal and 2) the (negative) pressure associated to the creation process is constant. However, the matter creation model predicts a present dark matter-to-baryon ratio much larger than that observed in massive X-ray clusters of galaxies, representing a potential difficulty for the model. In the linear regime, a fully relativistic treatment indicates that baryons are not affected by the creation process but this is not the case for dark matter. Both components evolve together at early phases but lately the dark matter density contrast decreases since the background tends to a constant value. This behaviour produces a negative growth factor, in disagreement with observations, being a further problem for this cosmology

  20. Particulate matter (PM 2.5 levels in ETS emissions of a Marlboro Red cigarette in comparison to the 3R4F reference cigarette under open- and closed-door condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueller Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Potential health damage by environmental emission of tobacco smoke (environmental tobacco smoke, ETS has been demonstrated convincingly in numerous studies. People, especially children, are still exposed to ETS in the small space of private cars. Although major amounts of toxic compounds from ETS are likely transported into the distal lung via particulate matter (PM, few studies have quantified the amount of PM in ETS. Study aim The aim of this study was to determine the ETS-dependent concentration of PM from both a 3R4F reference cigarette (RC as well as a Marlboro Red brand cigarette (MRC in a small enclosed space under different conditions of ventilation to model car exposure. Method In order to create ETS reproducibly, an emitter (ETSE was constructed and mounted on to an outdoor telephone booth with an inner volume of 1.75 m3. Cigarettes were smoked under open- and closed-door condition to imitate different ventilation scenarios. PM2.5 concentration was quantified by a laser aerosol spectrometer (Grimm; Model 1.109, and data were adjusted for baseline values. Simultaneously indoor and outdoor climate parameters were recorded. The time of smoking was divided into the ETS generation phase (subset “emission” and a declining phase of PM concentration (subset “elimination”; measurement was terminated after 10 min. For all three time periods the average concentration of PM2.5 (Cmean-PM2.5 and the area under the PM2.5 concentration curve (AUC-PM2.5 was calculated. The maximum concentration (Cmax-PM2.5 was taken from the total interval. Results For both cigarette types open-door ventilation reduced the AUC-PM2.5 (RC: from 59 400 ± 14 600 to 5 550 ± 3 900 μg*sec/m3; MRC: from 86 500 ± 32 000 to 7 300 ± 2 400 μg*sec/m3; p mean-PM2.5 (RC: from 600 ± 150 to 56 ± 40 μg/m3, MRC from 870 ± 320 to 75 ± 25 μg/m3; p max-PM2.5 was reduced by about 80% (RC: from 1 050 ± 230 to

  1. A statistical model for determining impact of wildland fires on Particulate Matter (PM2.5) in Central California aided by satellite imagery of smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Donald Schweizer; Ricardo Cisneros; Trent Procter; Mark Ruminski; Leland Tarnay

    2015-01-01

    As the climate in California warms and wildfires become larger and more severe, satellite-based observational tools are frequently used for studying impact of those fires on air quality. However little objective work has been done to quantify the skill these satellite observations of smoke plumes have in predicting impacts to PM2.5 concentrations...

  2. Quantification of vehicle fleet PM_1_0 particulate matter emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources using tunnel measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Samantha; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-01-01

    Road tunnels act like large laboratories; they provide an excellent environment to quantify atmospheric particles emission factors from exhaust and non-exhaust sources due to their known boundary conditions. Current work compares the High Volume, Dichotomous Stacked Filter Unit and Partisol Air Sampler for coarse, PM_1_0 and PM_2_._5 particle concentration measurement and found that they do not differ significantly (p = 95%). PM_2_._5 fraction contributes 66% of PM_1_0 proportions and significantly influenced by traffic (turbulence) and meteorological conditions. Mass emission factors for PM_1_0 varies from 21.3 ± 1.9 to 28.8 ± 3.4 mg/vkm and composed of Motorcycle (0.0003–0.001 mg/vkm), Cars (26.1–33.4 mg/vkm), LDVs (2.4–3.0 mg/vkm), HDVs (2.2–2.8 mg/vkm) and Buses (0.1 mg/vkm). Based on Lawrence et al. (2013), source apportionment modelling, the PM_1_0 emission of brake wear (3.8–4.4 mg/vkm), petrol exhaust (3.9–4.5 mg/vkm), diesel exhaust (7.2–8.3 mg/vkm), re-suspension (9–10.4 mg/vkm), road surface wear (3.9–4.5 mg/vkm), and unexplained (7.2 mg/vkm) were also calculated. The current study determined that the combined non-exhaust fleet PM_1_0 emission factor (16.7–19.3 mg/vkm) are higher than the combined exhaust emission factor (11.1–12.8 mg/vkm). Thus, highlight the significance of non-exhaust emissions and the need for legislation and abatement strategies to reduce their contributions to ambient PM concentrations. - Highlights: • Calculations of exhaust/non-exhaust particulate emission factors using tunnel sampling and source apportionment techniques. • Non-exhaust emission dominates in the fine particle fraction, considered responsible for adverse human health impacts. • Emission factors for non-exhaust sources (e.g. tyre and brake) were calculated. • Fleet source PM_1_0 emission factor were also calculated, which can be used in dispersion modelling and health risk assessment. • Tukey mean

  3. 40 CFR Appendix L to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Fine Particulate Matter as PM2.5 in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and 1000 W/m2 solar radiation intensity. 7.4.8.2 The ambient temperature sensor shall be of such a... measurement of the mass concentration of fine particulate matter having an aerodynamic diameter less than or... matter specified in § 50.7 and § 50.13 of this part are met. The measurement process is considered to be...

  4. Characterization of metal and trace element contents of particulate matter (PM10) emitted by vehicles running on Brazilian fuels-hydrated ethanol and gasoline with 22% of anhydrous ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira da Silva, Moacir; Vicente de Assunção, João; de Fátima Andrade, Maria; Pesquero, Célia R

    2010-01-01

    Emission of fine particles by mobile sources has been a matter of great concern due to its potential risk both to human health and the environment. Although there is no evidence that one sole component may be responsible for the adverse health outcomes, it is postulated that the metal particle content is one of the most important factors, mainly in relation to oxidative stress. Data concerning the amount and type of metal particles emitted by automotive vehicles using Brazilian fuels are limited. The aim of this study was to identify inhalable particles (PM(10)) and their trace metal content in two light-duty vehicles where one was fueled with ethanol while the other was fueled with gasoline mixed with 22% of anhydrous ethanol (gasohol); these engines were tested on a chassis dynamometer. The elementary composition of the samples was evaluated by the particle-induced x-ray emission technique. The experiment showed that total emission factors ranged from 2.5 to 11.8 mg/km in the gasohol vehicle, and from 1.2 to 3 mg/km in the ethanol vehicle. The majority of particles emitted were in the fine fraction (PM(2.5)), in which Al, Si, Ca, and Fe corresponded to 80% of the total weight. PM(10) emissions from the ethanol vehicle were about threefold lower than those of gasohol. The elevated amount of fine particulate matter is an aggravating factor, considering that these particles, and consequently associated metals, readily penetrate deeply into the respiratory tract, producing damage to lungs and other tissues.

  5. Toxicological and epidemiological studies of cardiovascular effects of ambient air fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and its chemical components: coherence and public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, Morton

    2014-04-01

    Recent investigations on PM2.5 constituents' effects in community residents have substantially enhanced our knowledge on the impacts of specific components, especially the HEI-sponsored National Particle Toxicity Component (NPACT) studies at NYU and UW-LRRI that addressed the impact of long-term PM2.5 exposure on cardiovascular disease (CVD) effects. NYU's mouse inhalation studies at five sites showed substantial variations in aortic plaque progression by geographic region that was coherent with the regional variation in annual IHD mortality in the ACS-II cohort, with both the human and mouse responses being primarily attributable to the coal combustion source category. The UW regressions of associations of CVD events and mortality in the WHI cohort, and of CIMT and CAC progression in the MESA cohort, indicated that [Formula: see text] had stronger associations with CVD-related human responses than OC, EC, or Si. The LRRI's mice had CVD-related biomarker responses to [Formula: see text]. NYU also identified components most closely associated with daily hospital admissions (OC, EC, Cu from traffic and Ni and V from residual oil). For daily mortality, they were from coal combustion ([Formula: see text], Se, and As). While the recent NPACT research on PM2.5 components that affect CVD has clearly filled some major knowledge gaps, and helped to define remaining uncertainties, much more knowledge is needed on the effects in other organ systems if we are to identify and characterize the most effective and efficient means for reducing the still considerable adverse health impacts of ambient air PM. More comprehensive speciation data are needed for better definition of human responses.

  6. Characterization of traffic-related ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in an Asian city: Environmental and health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Khlystov, Andrey; Norford, Leslie K.; Tan, Zhen-Kang; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2017-07-01

    Vehicular traffic emission is an important source of particulate pollution in most urban areas. The detailed chemical speciation of traffic-related PM2.5 (fine particles) is relatively sparse in the literature, especially in Asian cities. To fill this knowledge gap, we carried out an intensive field study in Singapore from November 2015 to February 2016. PM2.5 samples were collected concurrently at a typical roadside microenvironment and at an urban background site. A detailed chemical speciation of PM2.5 samples was conducted to gain insights into the emission characteristics of traffic-related fine aerosols. Analyses of diagnostic ratios and molecular markers of selected chemical species were explored for source attribution of different classes of chemical constituents in traffic-related PM2.5. The human health risk due to inhalation of the particulate-bound PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and toxic trace elements was estimated for both adults and children. The overall results of the study indicate that gasoline-powered vehicles make a higher contribution to traffic-related fine aerosol components such as organic carbon (OC), particle-bound PAHs and particulate ammonium than that of diesel-powered vehicles. However, both types of vehicles contribute to traffic-related EC emissions significantly. The combustion of petroleum fuels and lubricating oil make significant contributions to the emission of n-alkanes and hopanes into the urban atmosphere, respectively. The study further reveals that some toxic trace elements are emitted from non-exhaust sources and that aromatic acids represent an important component of secondary organic aerosols. The emission of toxic trace elements from non-exhaust sources is of particular concern as they could pose a higher carcinogenic risk to both adults and children than other chemical species.

  7. The satellite-based remote sensing of particulate matter (PM) in support to urban air quality: PM variability and hot spots within the Cordoba city (Argentina) as revealed by the high-resolution MAIAC-algorithm retrievals applied to a ten-years dataset (2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Ceca, Lara Sofia; Carreras, Hebe A.; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Barnaba, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is one of the major harmful pollutants to public health and the environment [1]. In developed countries, specific air-quality legislation establishes limit values for PM metrics (e.g., PM10, PM2.5) to protect the citizens health (e.g., European Commission Directive 2008/50, US Clean Air Act). Extensive PM measuring networks therefore exist in these countries to comply with the legislation. In less developed countries air quality monitoring networks are still lacking and satellite-based datasets could represent a valid alternative to fill observational gaps. The main PM (or aerosol) parameter retrieved from satellite is the 'aerosol optical depth' (AOD), an optical parameter quantifying the aerosol load in the whole atmospheric column. Datasets from the MODIS sensors on board of the NASA spacecrafts TERRA and AQUA are among the longest records of AOD from space. However, although extremely useful in regional and global studies, the standard 10 km-resolution MODIS AOD product is not suitable to be employed at the urban scale. Recently, a new algorithm called Multi-Angle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) was developed for MODIS, providing AOD at 1 km resolution [2]. In this work, the MAIAC AOD retrievals over the decade 2003-2013 were employed to investigate the spatiotemporal variation of atmospheric aerosols over the Argentinean city of Cordoba and its surroundings, an area where a very scarce dataset of in situ PM data is available. The MAIAC retrievals over the city were firstly validated using a 'ground truth' AOD dataset from the Cordoba sunphotometer operating within the global AERONET network [3]. This validation showed the good performances of the MAIAC algorithm in the area. The satellite MAIAC AOD dataset was therefore employed to investigate the 10-years trend as well as seasonal and monthly patterns of particulate matter in the Cordoba city. The first showed a marked increase of AOD over time, particularly evident in

  8. GADEP Continuous PM2.5 mass concentration data, VIIRS Day Night Band SDR (SVDNB), MODIS Terra Level 2 water vapor profiles (infrared algorithm for atmospheric profiles for both day and night, NWS surface meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data descriptions are provided at the following urls:GADEP Continuous PM2.5 mass concentration data - https://aqs.epa.gov/aqsweb/documents/data_mart_welcome.htmlhttps://www3.epa.gov/ttn/amtic/files/ambient/pm25/qa/QA-Handbook-Vol-II.pdfVIIRS Day Night Band SDR (SVDNB) http://www.class.ngdc.noaa.gov/saa/products/search?datatype_family=VIIRS_SDRMODIS Terra Level 2 water vapor profiles (infrared algorithm for atmospheric profiles for both day and night -MOD0&_L2; http://modis-atmos.gsfc.nasa.gov/MOD07_L2/index.html NWS surface meteorological data - https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/isdThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Wang, J., C. Aegerter, and J. Szykman. Potential Application of VIIRS Day/Night Band for Monitoring Nighttime Surface PM2.5 Air Quality From Space. ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier Science Ltd, New York, NY, USA, 124(0): 55-63, (2016).

  9. Modelos lineares aplicados à estimativa da concentração do material particulado (PM10 na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ Linear models applied to the assessment of daily concentration of particulate matter (PM10 in Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bastos Lyra

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Regressão linear múltipla foi aplicada para ajustar dois modelos à concentração média de 24 h do material particulado com diâmetro inferior a 10 µm (PM10. As variáveis explanatórias no primeiro modelo (M1 foram os elementos meteorológicos (temperatura e umidade do ar, precipitação pluvial, velocidade do vento e pressão atmosférica e o índice de direção do vento (IDV. No segundo (M2, além dos elementos meteorológicos e do IDV, foi incluído como variável explanatória, a concentração de PM10 do dia anterior (PM10,i-1. Para a seleção das variáveis explanatórias a serem incluídas no modelo, utilizou-se a técnica stepwise. Medidas da concentração de PM10 e dos elementos meteorológicos foram realizadas entre 01/05/02 e 31/08/03 em São Cristóvão (22º 53´ S; 43º 13´ W e 24 m na cidade do Rio de Janeiro. O coeficiente de determinação (r² para o ajuste dos modelos foi razoável, sendo que o modelo M2 (r² = 0,557 mostrou ajuste superior ao modelo M1 (r² = 0,334. Os elementos meteorológicos tiveram correlação negativa com PM10, com exceção do índice de direção do vento, que da mesma forma de PM10,i-1, apresentou correlação positiva. A umidade relativa do ar e a precipitação pluvial mostraram-se os elementos meteorológicos mais significativos nos modelos. Contudo, quando PM10,i-1 é considerada, esta variável se mostrou a mais significativa no modelo. Independente do modelo, a inclusão da temperatura do ar não foi significativa (p > 0,05. O modelo M2 teve concordância entre os valores estimados e observados e precisão superior ao modelo M1. Em termos de previsão da qualidade do ar, os modelos mostraram resultados satisfatórios, sobressaindo-se o modelo M2.Multiple linear regression was used to fit two models to the daily average concentration of particulate matter with diameter lower than 10 µm (PM10. The explanatory variables in the first model (M1 were the weather variables (air temperature

  10. Fine PM measurements: personal and indoor air monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantunen, M; Hänninen, O; Koistinen, K; Hashim, J H

    2002-12-01

    This review compiles personal and indoor microenvironment particulate matter (PM) monitoring needs from recently set research objectives, most importantly the NRC published "Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (1998)". Techniques and equipment used to monitor PM personal exposures and microenvironment concentrations and the constituents of the sampled PM during the last 20 years are then reviewed. Development objectives are set and discussed for personal and microenvironment PM samplers and monitors, for filter materials, and analytical laboratory techniques for equipment calibration, filter weighing and laboratory climate control. The progress is leading towards smaller sample flows, lighter, silent, independent (battery powered) monitors with data logging capacity to store microenvironment or activity relevant sensor data, advanced flow controls and continuous recording of the concentration. The best filters are non-hygroscopic, chemically pure and inert, and physically robust against mechanical wear. Semiautomatic and primary standard equivalent positive displacement flow meters are replacing the less accurate methods in flow calibration, and also personal sampling flow rates should become mass flow controlled (with or without volumetric compensation for pressure and temperature changes). In the weighing laboratory the alternatives are climatic control (set temperature and relative humidity), and mechanically simpler thermostatic heating, air conditioning and dehumidification systems combined with numerical control of temperature, humidity and pressure effects on flow calibration and filter weighing.

  11. Exposure to particulate matters (PM2.5) and airborne nicotine in computer game rooms after implementation of smoke-free legislation in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungroul; Sohn, Jongryeul; Lee, Kiyoung

    2010-12-01

    In South Korea, computer game rooms are subject to regulations mandating a designated nonsmoking area pursuant to Article 7 of the Enforcement Rules of the National Health Promotion Act; nonsmoking areas must be enclosed on all sides by solid and impermeable partitions. Using PM(2.5) monitors (SidePak AM510) and airborne nicotine monitors, we measured concentrations in smoking and nonsmoking areas to examine whether separation of the nonsmoking areas as currently practiced is a viable way to protect the nonsmoking area from secondhand smoke exposure. Convenient samplings were conducted at 28 computer game rooms randomly selected from 14 districts in Seoul, South Korea between August and September 2009. The medians (interquartile range) of PM(2.5) concentrations in smoking and nonsmoking areas were 69.3 μg/m(3) (34.5-116.5 μg/m(3)) and 34 μg/m(3) (15.0-57.0 μg/m(3)), while those of airborne nicotine were 0.41 μg/m(3) (0.25-0.69 μg/m(3)) and 0.12 μg/m(3) (0.06-0.16 μg/m(3)), respectively. Concentrations of airborne nicotine and PM(2.5) in nonsmoking areas were substantially positively associated with those in smoking areas. The Spearman correlation coefficients for them were 0.68 (p = .02) and 0.1 (p = 0.7), respectively. According to our modeling result, unit increase of airborne nicotine concentration in a smoking area contributed to 7 (95% CI = 2.5-19.8) times increase of the concentration in the adjacent nonsmoking area after controlling for the degree of partition left closed and the indoor space volume. Our study thus provides evidence for the introduction of more rigorous policy initiatives aimed at encouraging a complete smoking ban in such venues.

  12. Local contribution of wood combustion to PM10 and PM2.5; Lokale bijdrage van houtverbranding aan PM10 en PM2,5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, G.; Weijers, E. [ECN Biomassa, Kolen en Milieuonderzoek, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    In February 2009 the concentration of wood smoke in a residential area in Schoorl (Noord-Holland, Netherlands) was investigated over a period of three weeks. The aim was to assess the effect of local particulate matter (PM) emissions - caused by heating with wood stoves in this area - on local PM concentration. [Dutch] In februari 2009 zijn in Schoorl in Noord-Holland concentraties houtrook bepaald door levoglucosanmetingen (een voor houtrook kenmerkende koolwaterstofverbinding). Lokale houtrook draagt daar significant bij aan de concentratie fijn stof: tussen 9% en 27% voor PM10 en tussen 30% en 39% voor PM2,5.

  13. The local contribution of wood burning to PM10 and PM2.5; De lokale bijdrage van houtverbranding aan PM10 en PM2,5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kos, G.; Weijers, E. [ECN Biomassa, Kolen en Milieuonderzoek, Petten (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    In January 2009, the concentrations of wood smoke in Schoorl, the Netherlands, were established by means of levoglucosan measurements (a hydrocarbon compound that is characteristic for wood smoke). Local wood smoke contributes significantly to the concentration of particulate matter: between 9% and 27% for PM10 and between 30% and 29% for PM2.5. [Dutch] In februari 2009 zijn in Schoorl in Noord-Holland concentraties houtrook bepaald door levoglucosanmetingen (een voor houtrook kenmerkende koolwaterstofverbinding). Lokale houtrook draagt daar significant bij aan de concentratie fijn stof: tussen 9% en 27% voor PM10 en tussen 30% en 39% voor PM2,5.

  14. Continuing Education That Matters: A Successful, Evidence-Based Course with Minimal Pharmaceutical Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfrey, Jeff; Brown, Steven R.; Ebell, Mark H.; Geng, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about the influence of the pharmaceutical and medical device industries on continuing medical education (CME) have been voiced frequently over the past decade. Reliance on industry funding increases the potential for bias. Industry-supported CME often emphasizes conditions that can be treated with newer drugs or devices rather than those…

  15. 40 CFR Appendix Q to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Lead in Particulate Matter as PM10 Collected From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....5Quality assurance (QA) procedures for the collection of monitoring data are contained in Part 58, Appendix... set forth in Appendix A of part 58. The bias is assessed through an audit using spiked filters. The... Particulate Matter,” in Advances in X-Ray Analysis, J.R. Rhodes, Ed., Plenum Publishing Corporation, New York...

  16. Application of Positive Matrix Factorization in the Identification of the Sources of PM2.5 in Taipei City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yuan Ho

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Fine particulate matter (PM2.5 has a small particle size, which allows it to directly enter the respiratory mucosa and reach the alveoli and even the blood. Many countries are already aware of the adverse effects of PM2.5, and determination of the sources of PM2.5 is a critical step in reducing its concentration to protect public health. This study monitored PM2.5 in the summer (during the southwest monsoon season of 2017. Three online monitoring systems were used to continuously collect hourly concentrations of key chemical components of PM2.5, including anions, cations, carbon, heavy metals, and precursor gases, for 24 h per day. The sum of the concentrations of each compound obtained from the online monitoring systems is similar to the actual PM2.5 concentration (98.75%. This result suggests that the on-line monitoring system of this study covers relatively complete chemical compounds. Positive matrix factorization (PMF was adopted to explore and examine the proportion of each source that contributed to the total PM2.5 concentration. According to the source contribution analysis, 55% of PM2.5 can be attributed to local pollutant sources, and the remaining 45% can be attributed to pollutants emitted outside Taipei City. During the high-PM2.5-concentration (episode period, the pollutant conversion rates were higher than usual due to the occurrence of vigorous photochemical reactions. Moreover, once pollutants are emitted by external stationary pollutant sources, they move with pollution air masses and undergo photochemical reactions, resulting in increases in the secondary pollutant concentrations of PM2.5. The vertical monitoring data indicate that there is a significant increase in PM2.5 concentration at high altitudes. High-altitude PM2.5 will descend to the ground and thereby affect the ground-level PM2.5 concentration.

  17. Performance characteristics of a low-volume PM10 sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four identical PM10 pre-separators, along with four identical low-volume (1m3 hr-1) total suspended particulate (TSP) samplers were tested side-by-side in a controlled laboratory particulate matter (PM) chamber. The four PM10 and four TSP samplers were also tested in an oil pipe-cleaning field to ev...

  18. Characteristics of lead isotope ratios and elemental concentrations in PM 10 fraction of airborne particulate matter in Shanghai after the phase-out of leaded gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Tan, Mingguang; Shibata, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Li, Yan; Zhang, Guilin; Zhang, Yuanmao; Shan, Zuci

    The stable lead (Pb) isotope ratios and the concentrations of 23 elements, including heavy metals and toxic elements, were measured in the PM 10 airborne particle samples collected at seven monitoring sites in Shanghai, China, to evaluate the current elemental compositions and local airborne Pb isotope ratio characteristics. Some source-related samples, such as cement, coal and oil combustion dust, metallurgic dust, vehicle exhaust particles derived from leaded gasoline and unleaded gasoline, and polluted soils were analyzed for their Pb content and isotope ratio and compared to those observed in PM 10 samples. Airborne Pb concentration ranged from 167 to 854 ng/m 3 in the seven monitored sites with an average of 515 ng/m 3 in Shanghai, indicating that a high concentration of Pb remains in the air after the phasing out of leaded gasoline. Lead isotopic compositions in airborne particles ( 207Pb/ 206Pb, 0.8608±0.0018; 208Pb/ 206Pb, 2.105±0.005) are clearly distinct from the vehicle exhaust particles ( 207Pb/ 206Pb, 0.8854±0.0075; 208Pb/ 206Pb, 2.145±0.006), suggesting that the automotive lead is not currently the major component of Pb in the air. By using a binary mixing equation, a source apportionment based on 207Pb/ 206Pb ratios, indicates that the contribution from automotive emission to the airborne Pb is around 20%. The Pb isotope ratios obtained in the source-related samples confirmed that the major emission sources are metallurgic dust, coal combustion, and cement.

  19. Investigation of Air Quality Index and PM10 and PM2.5 in Arak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Fazelinia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: In this study, the air quality index and concentration of particles such as PM10 and PM2.5 were investigated in Arak. Materials and Methods: To determine the concentration of PM10 and PM2.5, 60 samples were collected by laser TSI model 8520 in summer and winter 2012. The collection site was around Arak city center. Results: during the sampling period, as a matter of PM10, the cleanest and the most polluted month were December and June with the average of 34.33 µg m-3 and 100.1 µg m-3, respectively. The concentration of PM2.5 was 12.93 and 53.17 µg m-3 for December and June, respectively. Meanwhile, in terms of air quality index (AQI, in 98.3% and 70% of cases, the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5, respectively were less than normal (AQI100. Conclusion: The concentration of PM10 in the study period was less than Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 2006 guideline. Meanwhile, the concentrations of PM2.5 in 30% of air samples were greater than EPA guideline. The average PM2.5/PM10 ratio during the sampling period was 0.41 compared to range 0.15 to 0.25 reported by EPA.

  20. PM2.5 and PM10 Emission from agricultural soils by wind erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil tillage and wind erosion are a major source of particulate matter less than 2.5 and 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10) emission from cultivated soil. Fifteen cultivated soils collected from 5 states were tested as crushed (<2.0 mm) and uncrushed (natural aggregation) at 8, 10, and 13 m s-1 wind velocity in...

  1. Potential Sources and Formations of the PM2.5 Pollution in Urban Hangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Continuous measurements of meteorological parameters, gaseous pollutants, particulate matters, and the major chemical species in PM2.5 were conducted in urban Hangzhou from 1 September to 30 November 2013 to study the potential sources and formations of PM2.5 pollution. The average PM2.5 concentration was 69 µg·m−3, ~97% higher than the annual concentration limit in the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS of China. Relative humidity (RH and wind speed (WS were two important factors responsible for the increase of PM2.5 concentration, with the highest value observed under RH of 70%–90%. PM2.5 was in good correlation with both NO2 and CO, but not with SO2, and the potential source contribution function (PSCF results displayed that local emissions were important potential sources contributing to the elevated PM2.5 and NO2 in Hangzhou. Thus, local vehicle emission was suggested as a major contribution to the PM2.5 pollution. Concentrations of NO2 and CO significantly increased in pollution episodes, while the SO2 concentration even decreased, implying local emission rather than region transport was the major source contributing to the formation of pollution episodes. The sum of SO42−, NO3−, and NH4+ accounted for ~50% of PM2.5 in mass in pollution episodes and the NO3−/EC ratios were significantly elevated, revealing that the formation of secondary inorganic species, particularly NO3−, was an important contributor to the PM2.5 pollution in Hangzhou. This study highlights that controlling local pollution emissions was essential to reduce the PM2.5 pollution in Hangzhou, and the control of vehicle emission in particular should be further promoted in the future.

  2. Network modeling of PM10 concentration in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supian, Muhammad Nazirul Aiman Abu; Bakar, Sakhinah Abu; Razak, Fatimah Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Air pollution is not a new phenomenon in Malaysia. The Department of Environment (DOE) monitors the country's ambient air quality through a network of 51 stations. The air quality is measured using the Air Pollution Index (API) which is mainly recorded based on the concentration of particulate matter, PM10 readings. The Continuous Air Quality Monitoring (CAQM) stations are located in various places across the country. In this study, a network model of air quality based on PM10 concen tration for selected CAQM stations in Malaysia has been developed. The model is built using a graph formulation, G = (V, E) where vertex, V is a set of CAQM stations and edges, E is a set of correlation values for each pair of vertices. The network measurements such as degree distributions, closeness centrality, and betweenness centrality are computed to analyse the behaviour of the network. As a result, a rank of CAQM stations has been produced based on their centrality characteristics.

  3. Wintertime indoor air levels of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 at public places and their contributions to TSP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangsheng; Chen, Rui; Shen, Xingxing; Mao, Xiaoling

    2004-04-01

    From 26 October 2002 to 8 March 2003, particulate matter (PM) concentrations (total suspended particles [TSP], PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) were measured at 49 public places representing different environments in the urban area of Beijing. The objectives of this study were (1) to characterize the indoor PM concentrations in public places, (2) to evaluate the potential indoor sources and (3) to investigate the contribution of PM10 to TSP and the contributions of PM2.5 and PM1 to PM10. Additionally, The indoor and outdoor particle concentrations in the same type of indoor environment were employed to investigate the I/O level, and comparison was made between I/O levels in different types of indoor environment. Construction activities and traffic condition were the major outdoor sources to influence the indoor particle levels. The contribution of PM10 to TSP was even up to 68.8%, while the contributions of PM2.5 and PM1 to PM10 were not as much as that of PM10 to TSP.

  4. Joint measurements of PM2. 5 and light-absorptive PM in woodsmoke-dominated ambient and plume environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K. Max; Allen, George; Yang, Bo; Chen, Geng; Gu, Jiajun; Schwab, James; Felton, Dirk; Rattigan, Oliver

    2017-09-01

    DC, also referred to as Delta-C, measures enhanced light absorption of particulate matter (PM) samples at the near-ultraviolet (UV) range relative to the near-infrared range, which has been proposed previously as a woodsmoke marker due to the presence of enhanced UV light-absorbing materials from wood combustion. In this paper, we further evaluated the applications and limitations of using DC as both a qualitative and semi-quantitative woodsmoke marker via joint continuous measurements of PM2. 5 (by nephelometer pDR-1500) and light-absorptive PM (by 2-wavelength and 7-wavelength Aethalometertext">®) in three northeastern US cities/towns including Rutland, VT; Saranac Lake, NY and Ithaca, NY. Residential wood combustion has shown to be the predominant source of wintertime primary PM2. 5 emissions in both Rutland and Saranac Lake, where we conducted ambient measurements. In Ithaca, we performed woodsmoke plume measurements. We compared the pDR-1500 against a FEM PM2. 5 sampler (BAM 1020), and identified a close agreement between the two instruments in a woodsmoke-dominated ambient environment. The analysis of seasonal and diurnal trends of DC, black carbon (BC, 880 nm) and PM2. 5 concentrations supports the use of DC as an adequate qualitative marker. The strong linear relationships between PM2. 5 and DC in both woodsmoke-dominated ambient and plume environments suggest that DC can reasonably serve as a semi-quantitative woodsmoke marker. We propose a DC-based indicator for woodsmoke emission, which has shown to exhibit a relatively strong linear relationship with heating demand. While we observed reproducible PM2. 5-DC relationships in similar woodsmoke-dominated ambient environments, those relationships differ significantly with different environments, and among individual woodsmoke sources. Our analysis also indicates the potential for PM2. 5-DC relationships to be utilized to distinguish different combustion and operating conditions of woodsmoke sources, and

  5. Citizen-Enabled Aerosol Measurements for Satellites (CEAMS): A Network for High-Resolution Measurements of PM2.5 and Aerosol Optical Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, J. R.; Volckens, J.; Ford, B.; Jathar, S.; Long, M.; Quinn, C.; Van Zyl, L.; Wendt, E.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter with diameter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) is a pollutant that contributes to the development of human disease. Satellite-derived estimates of surface-level PM2.5 concentrations have the potential to contribute greatly to our understanding of how particulate matter affects health globally. However, these satellite-derived PM2.5 estimates are often uncertain due to a lack of information about the ratio of surface PM2.5 to aerosol optical depth (AOD), which is the primary aerosol retrieval made by satellite instruments. While modelling and statistical analyses have improved estimates of PM2.5:AOD, large uncertainties remain in situations of high PM2.5 exposure (such as urban areas and in wildfire-smoke plumes) where the health impacts of PM2.5 may be the greatest. Surface monitoring networks for co-incident PM2.5 and AOD measurements are extremely rare, even in the North America. To provide constraints for the PM2.5:AOD relationship, we have developed a relatively low-cost (application (iOS and Android). Sun photometry is performed across 4 discrete wavelengths that match those reported by the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). Aerosol concentration is reported using both time-integrated filter mass (analyzed in an academic laboratory and reported as a 24-48hr average) and a continuous PM sensor within the instrument. Citizen scientists use the device to report daily AOD and PM2.5 measurements made in their backyards to a central server for data display and download. In this presentation, we provide an overview of (1) AOD and PM2.5 measurement calibration; (2) citizen recruiting and training efforts; and (3) results from our pilot citizen-science measurement campaign.

  6. Cascade degradation of organic matters in brewery wastewater using a continuous stirred microbial electrochemical reactor and analysis of microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiman; Qu, Youpeng; Li, Da; Ambuchi, John J.; He, Weihua; Zhou, Xiangtong; Liu, Jia; Feng, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    A continuous stirred microbial electrochemical reactor (CSMER), comprising of a complete mixing zone (CMZ) and microbial electrochemical zone (MEZ), was used for brewery wastewater treatment. The system realized 75.4 ± 5.7% of TCOD and 64.9 ± 4.9% of TSS when fed with brewery wastewater concomitantly achieving an average maximum power density of 304 ± 31 m W m−2. Cascade utilization of organic matters made the CSMER remove a wider range of substrates compared with a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), in which process 79.1 ± 5.6% of soluble protein and 86.6 ± 2.2% of soluble carbohydrates were degraded by anaerobic digestion in the CMZ and short-chain volatile fatty acids were further decomposed and generated current in the MEZ. Co-existence of fermentative bacteria (Clostridium and Bacteroides, 19.7% and 5.0%), acetogenic bacteria (Syntrophobacter, 20.8%), methanogenic archaea (Methanosaeta and Methanobacterium, 40.3% and 38.4%) and exoelectrogens (Geobacter, 12.4%) as well as a clear spatial distribution and syntrophic interaction among them contributed to the cascade degradation process in CSMER. The CSMER shows great promise for practical wastewater treatment application due to high pre-hydrolysis and acidification rate, high energy recovery and low capital cost. PMID:27270788

  7. Variations of PM2.5, PM10 mass concentration and health assessment in Islamabad, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memhood, Tariq; Tianle, Z.; Ahmad, I.; Li, X.; Shen, F.; Akram, W.; Dong, L.

    2018-04-01

    Sparse information appears in lack of awareness among the people regarding the linkage between particulate matter (PM) and mortality in Pakistan. The current study is aimed to investigate the seasonal mass concentration level of PM2.5 and PM10 in ambient air of Islamabad to assess the health risk of PM pollution. The sampling was carried out with two parallel medium volume air samplers on Whatman 47 mm quartz filter at a flow rate of 100L/min. Mass concentration was obtained by gravimetric analysis. A noticeable seasonal change in PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentration was observed. In case of PM2.5, the winter was a most polluted and spring was the cleanest season of 2017 in Islamabad with 69.97 and 40.44 μgm‑3 mean concentration. Contrary, highest (152.42 μgm‑3) and lowest (74.90 μgm‑3) PM10 mass concentration was observed in autumn and summer respectively. Air Quality index level for PM2.5 and PM10 was remained moderated to unhealthy and good to sensitive respectively. Regarding health risk assessment, using national data for mortality rates, the excess mortality due to PM2.5 and PM10 exposure has been calculated and amounts to over 198 and 98 deaths annually for Islamabad. Comparatively estimated lifetime risk for PM2.5 (1.16×10-6) was observed higher than PM10 (7.32×10-8).

  8. Source identification of ambient PM2.5 during summer inhalation exposure studies in Detroit, MI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morishita, M.; Keeler, G.J.; Wagner, J.G.; Harkema, J.R. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Air Quality Laboratory

    2006-07-15

    Particulate air pollution is associated with cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in heavily populated urban centers of the United States. Because ambient fine particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter {<=} 2.5 {mu}m; PM2.5) is a complex mixture resulting from multiple sources and variable atmospheric conditions, it is difficult to identify specific components of PM2.5 that are responsible for adverse health effects. During four consecutive summers from 2000 to 2003 we characterized the ambient gaseous and PM2.5 air quality in an urban southwest Detroit community where childhood asthma hospitalization rates are more than twice the statewide average. Both integrated and continuous PM measurements together with gaseous air pollution measurements were performed using a mobile air research facility, AirCARE1, in which concurrent toxicological studies were being conducted. Chemical and physical characterizations of PM2.5 as well as receptor modeling using positive matrix factorization (PMF) were completed. Results from PMF indicated that six major sources contributed to the observed ambient PM2.5 mass during the summer months. Primary sources included (1) coal combustion/secondary sulfate aerosol, (2) motor vehicle/urban road dust, (3) municipal waste incinerators, (4) oil combustion/refineries, (5) sewage sludge incinerators, and (6) iron/steel manufacturing. Although the contribution of the coal/secondary sulfate aerosol source was greater than other factors, increased levels of urban PM2.5 from local combustion sources were also observed. In addition to characterization of ambient PM2.5 and their sources in southwest Detroit, this paper discusses possible associations of ambient PM2.5 from local combustion sources, specifically incinerator and refinery emissions and the observed adverse health effects during the inhalation exposure campaigns.

  9. Predicting PM10 concentration in Seoul metropolitan subway stations using artificial neural network (ANN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sechan; Kim, Minjeong; Kim, Minhae; Namgung, Hyeong-Gyu; Kim, Ki-Tae; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Bark

    2018-01-05

    The indoor air quality of subway systems can significantly affect the health of passengers since these systems are widely used for short-distance transit in metropolitan urban areas in many countries. The particles generated by abrasion during subway operations and the vehicle-emitted pollutants flowing in from the street in particular affect the air quality in underground subway stations. Thus the continuous monitoring of particulate matter (PM) in underground station is important to evaluate the exposure level of PM to passengers. However, it is difficult to obtain indoor PM data because the measurement systems are expensive and difficult to install and operate for significant periods of time in spaces crowded with people. In this study, we predicted the indoor PM concentration using the information of outdoor PM, the number of subway trains running, and information on ventilation operation by the artificial neural network (ANN) model. As well, we investigated the relationship between ANN's performance and the depth of underground subway station. ANN model showed a high correlation between the predicted and actual measured values and it was able to predict 67∼80% of PM at 6 subway station. In addition, we found that platform shape and depth influenced the model performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Estimation of the local and long-range contributions to particulate matter levels using continuous measurements in a single urban background site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulou, Marianna; Skyllakou, Ksakousti; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2016-06-01

    The Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) algorithm is used together with PMCAMx, a regional chemical transport model, to develop a simple observation-based method (OBM) for the estimation of local and regional contributions of sources of primary and secondary pollutants in urban areas. We test the hypothesis that the minimum of the diurnal average concentration profile of the pollutant is a good estimate of the average contribution of long range transport levels. We use PMCAMx to generate "pseudo-observations" for four different European cities (Paris, London, Milan, and Dusseldorf) and PSAT to estimate the corresponding "true" local and regional contributions. The predictions of the proposed OBM are compared to the "true" values for different definitions of the source area. During winter, the estimates by the OBM for the local contributions to the concentrations of total PM2.5, primary pollutants, and sulfate are within 25% of the "true" contributions of the urban area sources. For secondary organic aerosol the OBM overestimates the importance of the local sources and it actually estimates the contributions of sources within 200 km from the receptor. During summer for primary pollutants and cities with low nearby emissions (ratio of emissions in an area extending 100 km from the city over local emissions lower than 10) the OBM estimates correspond to the city emissions within 25% or so. For cities with relatively high nearby emissions the OBM estimates correspond to emissions within 100 km from the receptor. For secondary PM2.5 components like sulfate and secondary organic aerosol the OBM's estimates correspond to sources within 200 km from the receptor. Finally, for total PM2.5 the OBM provides approximately the contribution of city emissions during the winter and the contribution of sources within 100 km from the receptor during the summer.

  11. PM10 Sampling and AOD Trends during 2016 Winter Fog Season in the Islamabad Region

    KAUST Repository

    Bulbul, Gufran; Shahid, Imran; Chishtie, Farrukh; Shahid, Muhammad Zeeshaan; Hundal, Rabia Ali; Zahra, Fatima; Shahzad, Muhammad Imran

    2017-01-01

    PM samples were collected during intensive fog days in Islamabad, Pakistan, to investigate the impact of particulate matter on fog formation. The PM concentrations were monitored at the Institute of Space Technology site using a high-volume air

  12. Health effects from indoor and outdoor exposure to fine particulate matter in life cycle impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; McKone, T.E.; Jolliet, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution is a major contributor to human disease burden as continuously shown in the Global Burden of Disease study series. Exposures to PM2.5 concentration outdoors and indoors contribute almost equally to this burden. Despite the importance, health...... impacts from exposure to PM2.5 are often excluded from life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) characterization profiles. This is in large part because of the lack of well-vetted harmonized guidance about how to consistently assess the exposures and impacts of indoor and outdoor emissions of PM2.5 and its...... precursors. We present a framework for calculating characterization factors for indoor and outdoor emissions of primary PM2.5 and secondary PM2.5 precursors, and a roadmap for further refining this modelling framework for operational use in LCIA. The framework was developed over the last three years...

  13. Time Course of Heart Rate Variability Response to PM2.5 Exposure from Secondhand Smoke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Garza

    Full Text Available Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS has been associated with decreased heart rate variability (HRV. However, the time course of this association is unclear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the association between 15-240 minute SHS-related fine particulate matter (PM2.5 moving averages and indices of HRV.With a panel study design, we used personal monitors to continuously measure PM2.5 and HRV of 35 participants who were exposed to SHS for approximately 6 hours.We observed negative, significant associations between 5-minute HRV indices and 15 minute PM2.5 moving averages and 240 minute PM2.5 moving averages: there was a significant (p<0.01 7.5% decrease in the 5-minute square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal heart beats associated with (RMSSD, and a significant (p<0.01 14.7% decrease in the 5-minute high frequency (HF power associated with the 15 minute PM2.5 moving averages; there was also a significant (p<0.01 46.9% decrease in the 5-minute RMSSD, and a significant (p<0.01 77.7% decrease in the 5-minute high frequency (HF power associated with the 240 minute PM2.5 moving averages.Our findings that exposure to SHS related PM2.5 was associated with HRV support the hypothesis that SHS can affect the cardiovascular system. The negative associations reported between short and longer term PM2.5 and HRV indicate adverse effects of SHS on the cardiovascular system.

  14. Ambient PM2.5 exposure and premature mortality burden in the holy city Varanasi, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Vaishali; Dey, Sagnik; Chowdhury, Sourangsu

    2017-01-01

    More than 3 million population residing in the holy city Varanasi and sub-urban areas is exposed to very high level of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) from various sources. Continuous monitoring by Central Pollution Control Board started only in 2015; therefore what was the pollution level in the past and how it has changed over the years are not known. We use MODIS aerosol products to infer PM 2.5 and examine 15-year climatology. Data shows a rapid (1.5–3% per year) increase in PM 2.5 in the last 15 years and high (87% days in a year) persistence of PM 2.5 above the national air quality standard. It translates to a burden of 5700 (2800–7500) annual premature deaths (0.16% of the population), of which 29%, 18%, 33%, 19% and remaining 1% are attributed to ischemic heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute lower respiratory infection and lung cancer respectively. If the region achieves the Indian (WHO) air quality standard, 1900 (3800) premature deaths can be avoided every year. - Highlights: • MODIS AOD data are used to infer surface PM 2.5 in the holy city Varanasi, India. • PM 2.5 increases rapidly (1.5–3% per year) in the last 15 years. • 87% days in a year, daily PM 2.5 exceeds national standard. • 5700 annual premature death is estimated, of which 1900 can be saved if Indian standard is met. • COPD has the largest share in the burden. - This study presents 15-year ambient PM 2.5 statistics in Varanasi using satellite data (in absence of long-term in-situ data) and the associated premature mortality burden.

  15. Airborne Particulate Matter in School Classrooms of Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Rovelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor size-fractioned particulate matter (PM was measured in seven schools in Milan, to characterize their concentration levels in classrooms, compare the measured concentrations with the recommended guideline values, and provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the intervention measures, based on the guidelines developed by the Italian Ministry of Healthand applied to mitigate exposure to undesirable air pollutants. Indoor sampling was performed from Monday morning to Friday afternoon in three classrooms of each school and was repeated in winter 2011–2012 and 2012–2013. Simultaneously, PM2.5 samples were also collected outdoors. Two different photometers were used to collect the PM continuous data, which were corrected a posteriori using simultaneous gravimetric PM2.5 measurements. Furthermore, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 were monitored and used to determine the Air Exchange Rates in the classrooms. The results revealed poor IAQ in the school environment. In several cases, the PM2.5 and PM10 24 h concentrations exceeded the 24 h guideline values established by the World Health Organization (WHO. In addition, the indoor CO2 levels often surpassed the CO2 ASHRAE Standard. Our findings confirmed that important indoor sources (human movements, personal clouds, cleaning activities emitted coarse particles, markedly increasing the measured PM during school hours. In general, the mean PM2.5 indoor concentrations were lower than the average outdoor PM2.5 levels, with I/O ratios generally <1. Fine PM was less affected by indoor sources, exerting a major impact on the PM1–2.5 fraction. Over half of the indoor fine particles were estimated to originate from outdoors. To a first approximation, the intervention proposed to reduce indoor particle levels did not seem to significantly influence the indoor fine PM concentrations. Conversely, the frequent opening of doors and windows appeared to significantly contribute to the

  16. Using support vector regression to predict PM10 and PM2.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizhen, Hou; Zhengqiang, Li; Yuhuan, Zhang; Hua, Xu; Ying, Zhang; Kaitao, Li; Donghui, Li; Peng, Wei; Yan, Ma

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machine (SVM), as a novel and powerful machine learning tool, can be used for the prediction of PM 10 and PM 2.5 (particulate matter less or equal than 10 and 2.5 micrometer) in the atmosphere. This paper describes the development of a successive over relaxation support vector regress (SOR-SVR) model for the PM 10 and PM 2.5 prediction, based on the daily average aerosol optical depth (AOD) and meteorological parameters (atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, air temperature, wind speed), which were all measured in Beijing during the year of 2010–2012. The Gaussian kernel function, as well as the k-fold crosses validation and grid search method, are used in SVR model to obtain the optimal parameters to get a better generalization capability. The result shows that predicted values by the SOR-SVR model agree well with the actual data and have a good generalization ability to predict PM 10 and PM 2.5 . In addition, AOD plays an important role in predicting particulate matter with SVR model, which should be included in the prediction model. If only considering the meteorological parameters and eliminating AOD from the SVR model, the prediction results of predict particulate matter will be not satisfying

  17. Your PM Personality and Why It Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    activities, while Introverts (I) are more comfortable reflecting in their inner world of thoughts and ideas. The fourth and last letter of your MBTI...me to stop coming into their office every 15 minutes with a different task (both were introverts ). They took our MBTI team -building off-site

  18. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentr...

  19. Respiratory hospitalizations in association with fine PM and its ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite observed geographic and temporal variation in particulate matter (PM)-related health morbidities, only a small number of epidemiologic studies have evaluated the relation between PM2.5 chemical constituents and respiratory disease. Most assessments are limited by inadequate spatial and temporal resolution of ambient PM measurements and/or by their approaches to examine the role of specific PM components on health outcomes. In a case-crossover analysis using daily average ambient PM2.5 total mass and species estimates derived from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model and available observations, we examined the association between the chemical components of PM (including elemental and organic carbon, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and other remaining) and respiratory hospitalizations in New York State. We evaluated relationships between levels (low, medium, high) of PM constituent mass fractions, and assessed modification of the PM2.5–hospitalization association via models stratified by mass fractions of both primary and secondary PM components. In our results, average daily PM2.5 concentrations in New York State were generally lower than the 24-hr average National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). Year-round analyses showed statistically significant positive associations between respiratory hospitalizations and PM2.5 total mass, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium concentrations at multiple exposure lags (0.5–2.0% per interquartile range [IQR

  20. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere II. Continuous Emission and Condensed Matter Within the Corona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The K-corona, a significant portion of the solar atmosphere, displays a continuous spectrum which closely parallels photospheric emission, though without the presence of overlying Fraunhofer lines. The E-corona exists in the same region and is characterized by weak emission lines from highly ionized atoms. For instance, the famous green emission line from coronium (FeXIV is part of the E-corona. The F-corona exists beyond the K/E-corona and, like the photospheric spectrum, is characterized by Fraunhofer lines. The F-corona represents photospheric light scattered by dust particles in the interplanetary medium. Within the gaseous models of the Sun, the K-corona is viewed as photospheric radiation which has been scattered by relativistic electrons. This scattering is thought to broaden the Fraunhofer lines of the solar spectrum such that they can no longer be detected in the K-corona. Thus, the gaseous models of the Sun account for the appearance of the K-corona by distorting photospheric light, since they are unable to have recourse to condensed matter to directly produce such radiation. Conversely, it is now advanced that the continuous emission of the K-corona and associated emission lines from the E-corona must be interpreted as manifestations of the same phenomenon: condensed matter exists in the corona. It is well-known that the Sun expels large amounts of material from its surface in the form of flares and coronal mass ejections. Given a liquid metallic hydrogen model of the Sun, it is logical to assume that such matter, which exists in the condensed state on the solar surface, continues to manifest its nature once expelled into the corona. Therefore, the continuous spectrum of the K-corona provides the twenty-seventh line of evidence that the Sun is composed of condensed matter.

  1. Associations of acute exposure to fine and coarse particulate matter and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have reported adverse health effects of short-term exposure to coarse particles independent of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), but evidence in Asian countries is limited. We therefore evaluated associations between short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan. We used a time-stratified, case-crossover design. Study participants included 664,509 older people (≥65 years old) in the 23 urbanized wards of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, who died between January 2002 and December 2013. We obtained PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM; PMPM7-2.5 by subtracting PM2.5 from SPM to account for coarse particles. We then used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 confidence intervals (CIs). Same-day PM2.5 and PM7-2.5 were independently associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality related to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases; for example, both pollutants were positively associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality even after simultaneous adjustment for each pollutant: OR of 1.006 (95% CI: 1.003, 1.009) for PM2.5 and 1.016 (95% CI: 1.011, 1.022) for PM7-2.5. Even below concentrations stipulated by the Japanese air quality guidelines for PM2.5 and SPM (PM7), we observed adverse health effects. This study provides further evidence that acute exposure to PM2.5 and coarse particles is associated with increased risk of mortality among older people. Rigorous evaluation of air quality guidelines for daily average PM2.5 and larger particles should be continued. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Atmospheric LiDAR coupled with point measurement air quality samplers to measure fineparticulate matter (PM) emissions from agricultural operations. Part 2 of the California 2007 - 2008 Tillage Campaigns: Spring 2008 Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concern with health effects resulting from PM10 exposure is drawing increased regulatory scrutiny and research toward local agricultural tillage operations. To investigate the control effectiveness of one of the current Conservation Management Practices (CMPs) written for agricul...

  3. Elemental composition of PM2.5 in the urban environment of San Juan, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera Sammaritano, Mariela; Bustos, Daniel G; Poblete, Arnobio G; Wannaz, Eduardo D

    2018-02-01

    This study contributes to the current knowledge about air pollution in the province of San Juan, Argentina. Sampling was carried out to measure the fine particulate matter in the atmosphere (PM 2.5 ) of the city of San Juan. PM 2.5 was collected continuously during the winter and spring seasons of 2014 and 2015, and the concentrations of 14 elements (Pb, Ca, K, Cd, Ni, Cr, Mn, V, Cu, Ti, Ba, Co, Sr, and Fe) were determined in PM 2.5 filters using the technique of X-ray fluorescence by synchrotron radiation (SR-XRF). The results revealed that PM 2.5 presented annual and seasonal variations, showing a higher concentration during the winter seasons. In addition, for the elements quantified in the filters, a multivariate analysis (Positive Matrix Factorization) was performed to identify the main sources of emission of these elements in the study area, with a series of components being obtained that corresponded to their compositions, which were assigned physical meanings. The first factor, which was the most important in contribution of the sum of the measured elements (45%), was determined mainly by the elements K, Ti, V, Mn, and Fe, which came predominantly from soil particles. The second factor contributed 30% to the measured species in PM 2.5 , with higher Ba and Zn content perhaps being related to emissions from vehicular traffic. Finally, the third factor, in which Pb, Cr, and Ca predominated, may be an indicator of industrial activity and contributed 25% of the sum of the measured elements of PM 2.5 . The results of this study provide the first PM composition database in the province, and this can now be used in the development of mitigation and prevention programs.

  4. Sources of atmospheric aerosols controlling PM10 levels in Heraklion, Crete during winter time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivitis, Nikolaos; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Stavroulas, Iasonas; Kandilogiannaki, Maria; Vavadaki, Katerina; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    High concentrations of Particulate Matter (PM) in the atmosphere have negative impact to human health. Thresholds for ambient concentrations that are defined by the directive 2008/50/EC are frequently exceeded even at background conditions in the Mediterranean region as shown in earlier studies. The sources of atmospheric particles in the urban environment of a medium size city of eastern Mediterranean are studied in the present work in order to better understand the causes and characteristics of exceedances of the daily mean PM10limit value of 50 μg m-3. Measurements were performed at the atmospheric quality measurement station of the Region of Crete, at the Heraklion city center on Crete island, during the winter/spring period of 2014-2015 and 2015-2016. Special emphasis was given to the study of the contribution of Black Carbon (BC) to the levels of PM10. Continuous measurements were performed using a beta-attenuation PM10monitor and a 7-wavelength Aethalometer with a time resolution of 30 and 5 minutes respectively. For direct comparison to background regional conditions, concurrent routine measurements at the atmospheric research station of University of Crete at Finokalia were used as background reference. Analysis of exceedances in the daily PM10 mass concentration showed that the total of the exceedances was related to long range transport of Saharan dust rather than local sources. However, compared to the Finokalia station it was found that there were 20% more exceedances in Heraklion, the addition of transported dust on the local pollution was the reason for the additional exceedance days. Excluding dust events, it was found that the PM10variability was dependent on the BC abundance, traffic during rush hours in the morning and biomass burning for domestic heating in the evening contributed significantly to PM10levels in Heraklion.

  5. 40 CFR 52.378 - Control strategy: PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: PM10 52.378 Section 52.378 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.378 Control strategy: PM10 (a) Approval...

  6. PM 10 Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for PM 10 and have been...

  7. Variation in global chemical composition of PM2.5: emerging results from SPARTAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Graydon; Weagle, Crystal L.; Murdymootoo, Kalaivani K.; Ring, Amanda; Ritchie, Yvonne; Stone, Emily; Walsh, Ainsley; Akoshile, Clement; Anh, Nguyen Xuan; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; Brook, Jeff; Qonitan, Fatimah D.; Dong, Jinlu; Griffith, Derek; He, Kebin; Holben, Brent N.; Kahn, Ralph; Lagrosas, Nofel; Lestari, Puji; Ma, Zongwei; Misra, Amit; Norford, Leslie K.; Quel, Eduardo J.; Salam, Abdus; Schichtel, Bret; Segev, Lior; Tripathi, Sachchida; Wang, Chien; Yu, Chao; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Yuxuan; Brauer, Michael; Cohen, Aaron; Gibson, Mark D.; Liu, Yang; Vanderlei Martins, J.; Rudich, Yinon; Martin, Randall V.

    2016-08-01

    The Surface PARTiculate mAtter Network (SPARTAN) is a long-term project that includes characterization of chemical and physical attributes of aerosols from filter samples collected worldwide. This paper discusses the ongoing efforts of SPARTAN to define and quantify major ions and trace metals found in fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Our methods infer the spatial and temporal variability of PM2.5 in a cost-effective manner. Gravimetrically weighed filters represent multi-day averages of PM2.5, with a collocated nephelometer sampling air continuously. SPARTAN instruments are paired with AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sun photometers to better understand the relationship between ground-level PM2.5 and columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD).We have examined the chemical composition of PM2.5 at 12 globally dispersed, densely populated urban locations and a site at Mammoth Cave (US) National Park used as a background comparison. So far, each SPARTAN location has been active between the years 2013 and 2016 over periods of 2-26 months, with an average period of 12 months per site. These sites have collectively gathered over 10 years of quality aerosol data. The major PM2.5 constituents across all sites (relative contribution ± SD) are ammoniated sulfate (20 % ± 11 %), crustal material (13.4 % ± 9.9 %), equivalent black carbon (11.9 % ± 8.4 %), ammonium nitrate (4.7 % ± 3.0 %), sea salt (2.3 % ± 1.6 %), trace element oxides (1.0 % ± 1.1 %), water (7.2 % ± 3.3 %) at 35 % RH, and residual matter (40 % ± 24 %).Analysis of filter samples reveals that several PM2.5 chemical components varied by more than an order of magnitude between sites. Ammoniated sulfate ranges from 1.1 µg m-3 (Buenos Aires, Argentina) to 17 µg m-3 (Kanpur, India in the dry season). Ammonium nitrate ranged from 0.2 µg m-3 (Mammoth Cave, in summer) to 6.8 µg m-3 (Kanpur, dry season). Equivalent black carbon ranged from 0.7 µg m-3 (Mammoth Cave) to over 8 µg m-3 (Dhaka, Bangladesh and Kanpur

  8. Asthma and PM10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmour M Ian

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract PM10 (the mass of particles present in the air having a 50% cutoff for particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm is the standard measure of particulate air pollution used worldwide. Epidemiological studies suggest that asthma symptoms can be worsened by increases in the levels of PM10. Epidemiological evidence at present indicates that PM10 increases do not raise the chances of initial sensitisation and induction of disease, although further research is warranted. PM10 is a complex mixture of particle types and has many components and there is no general agreement regarding which component(s could lead to exacerbations of asthma. However pro-inflammatory effects of transition metals, hydrocarbons, ultrafine particles and endotoxin, all present to varying degrees in PM10, could be important. An understanding of the role of the different components of PM10 in exacerbating asthma is essential before proper risk assessment can be undertaken leading to advice on risk management for the many asthmatics who are exposed to air pollution particles.

  9. Hospital indoor PM10/PM2.5 and associated trace elements in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhua; Bi Xinhui; Sheng Guoying; Fu Jiamo

    2006-01-01

    PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected in the indoor environments of four hospitals and their adjacent outdoor environments in Guangzhou, China during the summertime. The concentrations of 18 target elements in particles were also quantified. The results showed that indoor PM2.5 levels with an average of 99 μg m -3 were significantly higher than outdoor PM2.5 standard of 65 μg m -3 recommended by USEPA [United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Fact Sheet. EPA's Revised Particulate Matter Standards, 17, July 1997] and PM2.5 constituted a large fraction of indoor respirable particles (PM10) by an average of 78% in four hospitals. High correlation between PM2.5 and PM10 (R 2 of 0.87 for indoors and 0.90 for outdoors) suggested that PM2.5 and PM10 came from similar particulate emission sources. The indoor particulate levels were correlated with the corresponding outdoors (R 2 of 0.78 for PM2.5 and 0.67 for PM10), demonstrating that outdoor infiltration could lead to direct transportation into indoors. In addition to outdoor infiltration, human activities and ventilation types could also influence indoor particulate levels in four hospitals. Total target elements accounted for 3.18-5.56% of PM2.5 and 4.38-9.20% of PM10 by mass, respectively. Na, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Ti were found in the coarse particles, while K, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb, As and Se existed more in the fine particles. The average indoor concentrations of total elements were lower than those measured outdoors, suggesting that indoor elements originated mainly from outdoor emission sources. Enrichment factors (EF) for trace element were calculated to show that elements of anthropogenic origins (Zn, Pb, As, Se, V, Ni, Cu and Cd) were highly enriched with respect to crustal composition (Al, Fe, Ca, Ti and Mn). Factor analysis was used to identify possible pollution source-types, namely street dust, road traffic and

  10. Hospital indoor PM10/PM2.5 and associated trace elements in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhua; Bi, Xinhui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2006-07-31

    PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected in the indoor environments of four hospitals and their adjacent outdoor environments in Guangzhou, China during the summertime. The concentrations of 18 target elements in particles were also quantified. The results showed that indoor PM2.5 levels with an average of 99 microg m(-3) were significantly higher than outdoor PM2.5 standard of 65 microg m(-3) recommended by USEPA [United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Fact Sheet. EPA's Revised Particulate Matter Standards, 17, July 1997] and PM2.5 constituted a large fraction of indoor respirable particles (PM10) by an average of 78% in four hospitals. High correlation between PM2.5 and PM10 (R(2) of 0.87 for indoors and 0.90 for outdoors) suggested that PM2.5 and PM10 came from similar particulate emission sources. The indoor particulate levels were correlated with the corresponding outdoors (R(2) of 0.78 for PM2.5 and 0.67 for PM10), demonstrating that outdoor infiltration could lead to direct transportation into indoors. In addition to outdoor infiltration, human activities and ventilation types could also influence indoor particulate levels in four hospitals. Total target elements accounted for 3.18-5.56% of PM2.5 and 4.38-9.20% of PM10 by mass, respectively. Na, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Ti were found in the coarse particles, while K, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb, As and Se existed more in the fine particles. The average indoor concentrations of total elements were lower than those measured outdoors, suggesting that indoor elements originated mainly from outdoor emission sources. Enrichment factors (EF) for trace element were calculated to show that elements of anthropogenic origins (Zn, Pb, As, Se, V, Ni, Cu and Cd) were highly enriched with respect to crustal composition (Al, Fe, Ca, Ti and Mn). Factor analysis was used to identify possible pollution source-types, namely street dust, road traffic

  11. A study of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in the atmosphere of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Due to rapid economic growth of the country in the last 25 years, particulate matter (PM) has become a topic of ... created by pollution, as well as by high levels of urbanization. In 2012, the ...... for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of.

  12. Assessment of annual air pollution levels with PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and associated heavy metals in Algiers, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbi, Abdelhamid; Kerchich, Yacine; Kerbachi, Rabah; Boughedaoui, Ménouèr

    2018-01-01

    Concentrations of particulate matter less than 1  μm, 2.5  μm, 10 μm and their contents of heavy metals were investigated in two different stations, urban and roadside at Algiers (Algeria). Sampling was conducted during two years by a high volume samplers (HVS) equipped with a cascade impactor at four levels stage, for one year sampling. The characterization of the heavy metals associated to the particulate matter (PM) was carried out by X-Ray Fluorescence analysis (XRF). The annual average concentration of PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 in both stations were 18.24, 32.23 and 60.01 μg m -3 respectively. The PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations in roadside varied from 13.46 to 25.59 μg m -3 , 20.82-49.85 μg m -3 and 45.90-77.23 μg m -3 respectively. However in the urban station, the PM 1 , PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations varied from 10.45 to 26.24 μg m -3 , 18.53-47.58 μg m -3 and 43.8-91.62 μg m -3 . The heavy metals associated to the PM were confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Energy Dispersive X-Ray analyses (SEM-EDX). The different spots of PM 2.5 analysis by SEM-EDX shows the presence of nineteen elements with anthropogenic and natural origins, within the heavy metal detected, the lead was found with maximum of 5% (weight percent). In order to determine the source contributions of PM levels at the two sampling sites sampling, principal compound analysis (PCA) was applied to the collected data. Statistical analysis confirmed anthropogenic source with traffic being a significant source and high contribution of natural emissions. At both sites, the PM 2.5 /PM 10 ratio is lower than that usually recorded in developed countries. The study of the back-trajectories of the air masses starting from Sahara shows that desert dust influences the concentration and the composition of the PM measured in Algiers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationships of relative humidity with PM2.5 and PM10 in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Cairong; Liu, Hongyu; Li, Yufeng; Peng, Yan; Wang, Juan; Dai, Lingjun

    2017-10-23

    Severe particulate matter (PM, including PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) pollution frequently impacts many cities in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in China, which has aroused growing concern. In this study, we examined the associations between relative humidity (RH) and PM pollution using the equal step-size statistical method. Our results revealed that RH had an inverted U-shaped relationship with PM 2.5 concentrations (peaking at RH = 45-70%), and an inverted V-shaped relationship (peaking at RH = 40 ± 5%) with PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 . The trends of polluted-day number significantly changed at RH = 70%. The very-dry (RH humidity (RH = 60-70%) conditions positively affected PM 2.5 and exerted an accumulation effect, while the mid-humidity (RH = 70-80%), high-humidity (RH = 80-90%), and extreme-humidity (RH = 90-100%) conditions played a significant role in reducing particle concentrations. For PM 10 , the accumulation and reduction effects of RH were split at RH = 45%. Moreover, an upward slope in the PM 2.5 /PM 10 ratio indicated that the accumulation effects from increasing RH were more intense on PM 2.5 than on PM 10 , while the opposite was noticed for the reduction effects. Secondary transformations from SO 2 and NO 2 to sulfate and nitrate were mainly responsible for PM 2.5 pollution, and thus, controlling these precursors is effective in mitigating the PM pollution in the YRD, especially during winter. The conclusions in this study will be helpful for regional air-quality management.

  14. Elevated personal exposure to particulate matter from human activities in a residence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Andrea R; Kopperud, Royal J; Hildemann, Lynn M

    2004-01-01

    Continuous laser particle counters collocated with time-integrated filter samplers were used to measure personal, indoor, and outdoor particulate matter (PM) concentrations for a variety of prescribed human activities during a 5-day experimental period in a home in Redwood City, CA, USA. The mean daytime personal exposures to PM(2.5) and PM(5) during prescribed activities were 6 and 17 times, respectively, as high as the pre-activity indoor background concentration. Activities that resulted in the highest exposures of PM(2.5), PM(5), and PM(10) were those that disturbed dust reservoirs on furniture and textiles, such as dry dusting, folding clothes and blankets, and making a bed. The vigor of activity and type of flooring were also important factors for dust resuspension. Personal exposures to PM(2.5) and PM(5) were 1.4 and 1.6 times, respectively, as high as the indoor concentration as measured by a stationary monitor. The ratio of personal exposure to the indoor concentration was a function of both particle size and the distance of the human activity from the stationary indoor monitor. The results demonstrate that a wide variety of indoor human resuspension activities increase human exposure to PM and contribute to the "personal cloud" effect.

  15. Airborne particulate matter in school classrooms of northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovelli, Sabrina; Cattaneo, Andrea; Nuzzi, Camilla P; Spinazzè, Andrea; Piazza, Silvia; Carrer, Paolo; Cavallo, Domenico M

    2014-01-27

    Indoor size-fractioned particulate matter (PM) was measured in seven schools in Milan, to characterize their concentration levels in classrooms, compare the measured concentrations with the recommended guideline values, and provide a preliminary assessment of the efficacy of the intervention measures, based on the guidelines developed by the Italian Ministry of Healthand applied to mitigate exposure to undesirable air pollutants. Indoor sampling was performed from Monday morning to Friday afternoon in three classrooms of each school and was repeated in winter 2011-2012 and 2012-2013. Simultaneously, PM2.5 samples were also collected outdoors. Two different photometers were used to collect the PM continuous data, which were corrected a posteriori using simultaneous gravimetric PM2.5 measurements. Furthermore, the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) were monitored and used to determine the Air Exchange Rates in the classrooms. The results revealed poor IAQ in the school environment. In several cases, the PM2.5 and PM10 24 h concentrations exceeded the 24 h guideline values established by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, the indoor CO2 levels often surpassed the CO2 ASHRAE Standard. Our findings confirmed that important indoor sources (human movements, personal clouds, cleaning activities) emitted coarse particles, markedly increasing the measured PM during school hours. In general, the mean PM2.5 indoor concentrations were lower than the average outdoor PM2.5 levels, with I/O ratios generally levels did not seem to significantly influence the indoor fine PM concentrations. Conversely, the frequent opening of doors and windows appeared to significantly contribute to the reduction of the average indoor CO2 levels.

  16. Particle Reduction Strategies - PAREST. PM10-cause analysis based on hypothetical emissions scenarios. Sub-report; Strategien zur Verminderung der Feinstaubbelastung - PAREST. PM10-Ursachenanalyse auf der Basis hypothetischer Emissionsszenarien. Teilbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, Rainer [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Troposphaerische Umweltforschung

    2013-06-15

    In this report, a PM10 cause analysis is presented, which provides an estimation of the extent to which the emitted substances from ten different source sectors are responsible for the calculated PM10 concentrations in Germany (PM = particulate matter). [German] In diesem Bericht wird eine PM10-Ursachenanalyse vorgestellt, die eine Abschaetzung liefert, in welchem Umfang die in Deutschland von den verschiedenen Verursachergruppen emittierten Stoffe fuer die in Deutschland berechneten PM10-Konzentrationen verantwortlich sind.

  17. Small-angle light scattering by airborne particulates: Environnement S.A. continuous particulate monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Gaubicher, Bertrand; Thaury, Claire; Mineau, Jean-Luc

    2010-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter may have an effect on human health. It is therefore necessary to determine and control in real time the evolution of the concentration and mass of particulates in the ambient air. These parameters can be obtained using optical methods. We propose here a new instrument, 'CPM' (continuous particulate monitor), for the measurement of light scattered by ambient particulates at small angles. This geometry allows simultaneous and separate detections of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 fractions of airborne particulate matter, with no influence of their chemical nature and without using theoretical calculations. The ambient air is collected through a standard sampling head (PM10 inlet according to EN 12341, PM2.5 inlet according to EN 14907; or PM1, TSP inlets, standard US EPA inlets). The analysis of the first measurements demonstrates that this new instrument can detect, for each of the seven defined size ranges, real-time variations of particulate content in the ambient air. The measured concentrations (expressed in number per liter) can be converted into total mass concentrations (expressed in micrograms per cubic meter) of all fractions of airborne particulate matters sampled by the system. Periodic comparison with a beta-attenuation mass monitor (MP101M Beta Gauge Analyzer from Environnement S.A. company) allows the calculation of a calibration factor as a function of the mean particulate density that is used for this conversion. It is then possible to provide real-time relative variations of aerosol mass concentration

  18. Spatiotemporal estimation of historical PM2.5 concentrations using PM10, meteorological variables, and spatial effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianfa; Wu, Anna H.; Cheng, Iona; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Wu, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Monitoring of fine particulate matter with diameter health outcomes such as cancer. In this study, we aimed to design a flexible approach to reliably estimate historical PM2.5 concentrations by incorporating spatial effect and the measurements of existing co-pollutants such as particulate matter with diameter additive non-linear model. The spatiotemporal model was evaluated, using leaving-one-site-month-out cross validation. Our final daily model had an R2 of 0.81, with PM10, meteorological variables, and spatial autocorrelation, explaining 55%, 10%, and 10% of the variance in PM2.5 concentrations, respectively. The model had a cross-validation R2 of 0.83 for monthly PM2.5 concentrations (N = 8170) and 0.79 for daily PM2.5 concentrations (N = 51,421) with few extreme values in prediction. Further, the incorporation of spatial effects reduced bias in predictions. Our approach achieved a cross validation R2 of 0.61 for the daily model when PM10 was replaced by total suspended particulate. Our model can robustly estimate historical PM2.5 concentrations in California when PM2.5 measurements were not available.

  19. Indoor air quality modeling for PM 10, PM 2.5, and PM 1.0 in naturally ventilated classrooms of an urban Indian school building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Radha; Khare, Mukesh

    2011-05-01

    Assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) in classrooms of school buildings is of prime concern due to its potential effects on student's health and performance as they spend a substantial amount of their time (6-7 h per day) in schools. A number of airborne contaminants may be present in urban school environment. However, respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) is of great significance as they may significantly affect occupants' health. The objectives of the present study are twofold, one, to measure the concentrations of PM(10) (building located near a heavy-traffic roadway (9,755 and 4,296 vehicles/hour during weekdays and weekends, respectively); and second, to develop single compartment mass balance-based IAQ models for PM(10) (NVIAQM(pm10)), PM(2.5) (NVIAQM(pm2.5)), and PM(1.0) (NVIAQM(pm1.0)) for predicting their indoor concentrations. Outdoor RSPM levels and classroom characteristics, such as size, occupancy level, temperature, relative humidity, and CO(2) concentrations have also been monitored during school hours. Predicted indoor PM(10) concentrations show poor correlations with observed indoor PM(10) concentrations (R (2) = 0.028 for weekdays, and 0.47 for weekends). However, a fair degree of agreement (d) has been found between observed and predicted concentrations, i.e., 0.42 for weekdays and 0.59 for weekends. Furthermore, NVIAQM(pm2.5) and NVIAQM(pm1.0) results show good correlations with observed concentrations of PM(2.5) (R(2) = 0.87 for weekdays and 0.9 for weekends) and PM(1.0) (R(2) = 0.86 for weekdays and 0.87 for weekends). NVIAQM(pm10) shows the tendency to underpredict indoor PM(10) concentrations during weekdays as it does not take into account the occupant's activities and its effects on the indoor concentrations during the class hours. Intense occupant's activities cause resuspension or delayed deposition of PM(10). The model results further suggests conductance of experimental and physical simulation studies on dispersion of

  20. Setting a protective PM standard: A view from the frontline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Paul; Eddie Terrill [Dayton Regional Air Pollution Control Agency, Dayton, OH (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Several aspects of the US EPA's recent proposal to revise the particulate matter (PM) standards deeply concern state and local air agencies and their representatives with the State and Territorial Air Pollution Program Administrators and the Association of Local Air Pollution Control Offices (STAPPA and ALAPCO). STAPPA and ALAPCO urge EPA to follow the recommendations of its appointed scientific experts and lower the annual average standard to 13 or 14 {mu}mg/m{sup 3} in addition to lowering the daily standard to 35 {mu}m/m{sup 3}. Unless EPA strengthens its proposal consistent with the recommendations of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC), STAPPA and ALAPCO are extremely concerned that we will continue to see significant increased premature mortality and adverse health effects throughout the country. For the reasons described in the article STAPPA and ALAPCO urge EPA to eliminate the exemptions for agriculture, mining and rural windblown dust. STAPPA and ALAPCO are troubled that EPA has ignored any commitment to funding the proposed coarse PM network scheduled for deployment in Fiscal Year (FY) 2008. EPA has estimated that the capital costs of this monitoring network could easily exceed US$ 14 million, with annual operating expenses of approximately US$ 13 million. State and local agencies will simply not be able to assume these significant costs. 33 refs.

  1. A possible link between particulate matter air pollution and type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volders, Evelien

    2008-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is most commonly referred to as PM10 and can be subdivided into coarse particles, fine particles and ultrafine particles. Sources of PM air pollution include combustion from car engines and industrial processes. Expos

  2. Estimation of health effects (morbidity and mortality attributed to PM10 and PM2.5 exposure using an Air Quality model in Bukan city, from 2015-2016 exposure using air quality model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Kamarehie

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air Quality software is a useful tool for assessing the health risks associated with air pollutants. Quantifying the effects of exposure to air pollutants in terms of public health has become a critical component of policy discussion. The present study purposed to quantify the health effects of particulate matters on mortality and morbidity in a Bukan city hospital from 2015-2016. Methods: Information regarding coordinates, exposed population, number of stations used in profiling, mean and maximum concentrations (annual, winter, and summer, annual 98th percentile, baseline incidence (BI per 100 000 per year, and relative risk was needed for use with the software. Results: The average particulate matter concentration was higher in summer than in winter. The concentrations of PM10 in summer and winter were 84.37 and 74.86 μg m-3, respectively. The Air Quality model predicted that total mortality rates related to PM10 and PM2.5 were 33.3 and 49.8 deaths, respectively. As a result, 3.79% of the total mortality was due to PM10. In Bukan city, 2.004% of total deaths were due to cardiovascular mortality. The Air Quality model predicted that the deaths of 92.2 people were related to hospital admissions for respiratory disease. Conclusion: The continual evaluation of air quality data is necessary for investigating the effect of pollutants on human health.

  3. Understanding Particulate Matter Dynamics in the San Joaquin Valley during DISCOVER-AQ, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, G.; Zhang, X.; Kim, H.; Parworth, C.; Pusede, S. E.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Cohen, R. C.; Zhang, Q.; Cappa, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Air quality in the California San Joaquin Valley (SJV) during winter continues to be the worst in the state, failing EPA's 24-hour standard for particulate matter. Despite our improved understanding of the sources of particulate matter (PM) in the valley, air-quality models are unable to predict PM concentrations accurately. We aim to characterize periods of high particulate matter concentrations in the San Joaquin Valley based on ground and airborne measurements of aerosols and gaseous pollutants, during the DISCOVER-AQ campaign, 2013. A highly instrumented aircraft flew across the SJV making three transects in a repeatable pattern, with vertical spirals over select locations. The aircraft measurements were complemented by ground measurements at these locations, with extensive chemically-speciated measurements at a ground "supersite" at Fresno. Hence, the campaign provided a comprehensive three-dimensional view of the particulate and gaseous pollutants around the valley. The vertical profiles over the different sites indicate significant variability in the concentrations and vertical distribution of PM around the valley, which are most likely driven by differences in the combined effects of emissions, chemistry and boundary layer dynamics at each site. The observations suggest that nighttime PM is dominated by surface emissions of PM from residential fuel combustion, while early morning PM is strongly influenced by mixing of low-level, above-surface, nitrate-rich layers formed from dark chemistry overnight to the surface.

  4. Modelos lineares aplicados à estimativa da concentração do material particulado (PM10) na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, RJ Linear models applied to the assessment of daily concentration of particulate matter (PM10) in Rio de Janeiro city, RJ, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Bastos Lyra; Melissa Oda-Souza; Denise Nunes Viola

    2011-01-01

    Regressão linear múltipla foi aplicada para ajustar dois modelos à concentração média de 24 h do material particulado com diâmetro inferior a 10 µm (PM10). As variáveis explanatórias no primeiro modelo (M1) foram os elementos meteorológicos (temperatura e umidade do ar, precipitação pluvial, velocidade do vento e pressão atmosférica) e o índice de direção do vento (IDV). No segundo (M2), além dos elementos meteorológicos e do IDV, foi incluído como variável explanatória, a concentração de PM1...

  5. Enhancement in secondary particulate matter production due to mountain trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Teng; Fung, J. C. H.; Ma, H.; Lau, A. K. H.; Chan, P. W.; Yu, J. Z.; Xue, J.

    2014-10-01

    As China's largest economic development zone, the Pearl River Delta (PRD) is subject to particulate matter (PM) and visibility deterioration problems. Due to high PM concentration, haze days impacting ambient visibility have occurred frequently in this region. Besides visibility impairment, PM pollution also causes a negative impact on public health. These negative impacts have heightened the need to improve our understanding of the PM pollution of the PRD region. One major cause of the PRD pollution problem is cold front passages in the winter; however, the mechanism of pollution formation stays unclear. In this study, the Comprehensive Air Quality Model (CAMx) is utilized to investigate the detailed PM production and transport mechanisms in the PRD. Simulated concentrations of PM2.5 species, which have a good correlation with observation, show that sulfate and nitrate are the dominant pollutants among different PM2.5 species. Before the cold front passage a large amount of gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants are transported to the mountainous regions in the north of the PRD, and become trapped by the terrain. Over the mountain regions, cloud driven by upwelling flow promotes aqueous-phase reactions including oxidations of PM precursors such as SO2 and NO2. By this process, production of secondary PM is enhanced. When the cold front continues to advance further south, PM is transported to the PRD cities, and suppressed into a thin layer near the ground by a low planetary boundary layer (PBL). Thus high PM concentration episodes take place in the PRD cities. After examining production and transportation pathways, this study presents that the complex terrain configuration would block pollutant dispersion, provide cloudy environment, and advance secondary PM production. Previous studies have pointed out that pollution emitted from outside this region largely influences the air quality in the PRD; however, this study shows that pollutants from the outside could be

  6. Basic statistics of PM2.5 and PM10 in the atmosphere of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, E; Reyes, E; Sánchez, G; Ortiz, E; Ruiz, M; Chow, J; Watson, J; Edgerton, S

    2002-03-27

    The high levels of fine particulate matter in Mexico City are of concern since they may induce severe public health effects as well as the attenuation of visible light. Sequential filter samplers were used at six different sites from 23 February to 22 March 1997. The sampling campaign was carried out as part of the project 'Investigación sobre Materia Particulada y Deterioro Atmosferico-Aerosol and Visibility Evaluation Research'. This research was a cooperative project sponsored by PEMEX and by the US Department of Energy. Sampling sites represent the different land uses along the city, the northwest station, Tlalnepantla, is located in a mixed medium income residential and industrial area. The northeast station, Xalostoc, is located in a highly industrialized area, Netzahualcoyotl is located in a mixed land use area, mainly commercial and residential. Station La Merced is located in the commercial and administrative district downtown. The southwest station is located in the Pedregal de San Angel, in a high-income neighborhood, and the southeast station located in Cerro de la Estrella is a mixed medium income residential and commercial area. Samples were collected four times a day in Cerro de la Estrella (CES), La Merced (MER) and Xalostoc (XAL) with sampling periods of 6 h. In Pedregal (PED), Tlalnepantla (TLA) and Netzahualcoyot1 (NEZ) sampling periods were every 24 h. In this paper the basic statistics of PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations are presented. The average results showed that 49, 61, 46, 57, 51 and 44% of the PM10 consisted of PM2.5 for CES, MER, XAL, PED, TLA and NEZ, respectively. The 24-h average highest concentrations of PM25 and PM10 were registered at NEZ (184 and 267 microg/m3) and the lowest at PED (22 and 39 microg/m3). The highest PM10 correlations were between XAL-CES (0.79), PED-TLA (0.80). In contrast, the highest PM2.5 correlations were between CES-PED (0.74), MER-CES (0.73) and TLA-PED (0.72), showing a lower correlation than the PM10

  7. Physicochemical properties, in vitro cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of PM1.0 and PM2.5 from Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yajuan; Wu, Yizhao; Wang, Yali; Li, Yinsheng; Jin, Chengyu

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) links with a variety of respiratory diseases. However, compared with coarse particles (PM 10 ) and fine particles (PM 2.5 ), submicrometer particles (PM 1.0 ) may be a more important indicator of human health risks. In this study, the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of PM 1.0 samples from Shanghai were examined using A549 cells, and compared with the effects of PM 2.5 , to better understand the health effects of PM 1.0 in this area. The PM 1.0 and PM 2.5 samples were characterized for morphology, water-soluble inorganic ions, organic and elemental carbon, and metal elements. The cytotoxicity of PMs was measured using cell viability and cell membrane damage assays. The genotoxic effects of PMs were determined using the comet assay, and DNA damage was quantified using olive tail moment (OTM) values. The physicochemical characterization indicated that PM 1.0 was enriched in carbonaceous elements and hazardous metals (Al, Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, and V), whereas PM 2.5 was more abundant in large, irregular mineral particles. The biological results revealed that both PM 1.0 and PM 2.5 could induce significant cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in A549 cells, and that exposure to PM 1.0 caused more extensive toxic effects than exposure to PM 2.5 . The greater cytotoxic effects of PM 1.0 can be attributed to the combined effects of size and chemical composition, whereas the genotoxic effects of PM 1.0 may be mainly associated with chemical species.

  8. Preliminary PM2.5 and PM10 fractions source apportionment complemented by statistical accuracy determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samek Lucyna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Samples of PM10 and PM2.5 fractions were collected between the years 2010 and 2013 at the urban area of Krakow, Poland. Numerous types of air pollution sources are present at the site; these include steel and cement industries, traffic, municipal emission sources and biomass burning. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the concentrations of the following elements: Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, As and Pb within the collected samples. Defining the elements as indicators, airborne particulate matter (APM source profiles were prepared by applying principal component analysis (PCA, factor analysis (FA and multiple linear regression (MLR. Four different factors identifying possible air pollution sources for both PM10 and PM2.5 fractions were attributed to municipal emissions, biomass burning, steel industry, traffic, cement and metal industry, Zn and Pb industry and secondary aerosols. The uncertainty associated with each loading was determined by a statistical simulation method that took into account the individual elemental concentrations and their corresponding uncertainties. It will be possible to identify two or more sources of air particulate matter pollution for a single factor in case it is extremely difficult to separate the sources.

  9. Scenario Study on PM emission Reduction in Cement Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qian; Chen, Xiaojun; Xia, Xin; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Huili; Jin, Ling; Yan, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    Cement industry is one of the high pollution industries in China. Evaluation of the primary particulate matter (PM) emission status and the reduction potential is not only important for our understanding of the effectiveness of current pollution control measures but also vital for future policy design. In this study, PM emitted from cement producing process in 2014 was calculated using an emission factor method. Three PM emission control scenarios were set up considering source control, process management and end-of-pipe treatment, and the PM emission reduction by 2020 under the three scenarios was predicted, respectively. In 2014, the primary PM emission from cement industry was 1.95 million tons. By 2020, the productions of cement and clinker were expected to increase by 12% and 7%, respectively, and the PM emission would increase by about 10%. By implementation of GB4915-2013 and comprehensive control of fugitive PM emission, the PM emission would probably be reduced by 34%. Another 7% decrease would be expected from source control. The second scenario can be considered as an assessment of the effectiveness of the revised emission standard, and this research can be used as a technical support to the environmental management authorities to make relevant policies.

  10. Source strengths for indoor human activities that resuspend particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Andrea R; Kopperud, Royal J; Hildemann, Lynn M

    2004-03-15

    A mathematical model was applied to continuous indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM) measurements to estimate source strengths for a variety of prescribed human activities that resuspend house dust in the home. Activities included folding blankets, folding clothes, dry dusting, making a bed, dancing on a rug, dancing on a wood floor, vacuuming, and walking around and sitting on upholstered furniture. Although most of the resuspended particle mass from these activities was larger than 5 microm in diameter, the resuspension of PM2.5 and PM5 was substantial, with source strengths ranging from 0.03 to 0.5 mg min(-1) for PM2.5 and from 0.1 to 1.4 mg min(-1) for PM5. Source strengths for PM > 5 microm could not be quantified due to instrument limitations. The source strengths were found to be a function of the number of persons performing the activity, the vigor of the activity, the type of activity, and the type of flooring.

  11. Surface Monitoring Data for PM2.5 and Ozone

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — AIRNOW is an EPA program in collaboration with the States to gather and distribute hourly near-realtime data from several hundred continuous PM2.5 and ozone monitors.

  12. Monitoring of PM10 and PM2.5 around primary particulate anthropogenic emission sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Rodriguez, Sergio; Plana, Felicià; Mantilla, Enrique; Ruiz, Carmen R.

    Investigations on the monitoring of ambient air levels of atmospheric particulates were developed around a large source of primary anthropogenic particulate emissions: the industrial ceramic area in the province of Castelló (Eastern Spain). Although these primary particulate emissions have a coarse grain-size distribution, the atmospheric transport dominated by the breeze circulation accounts for a grain-size segregation, which results in ambient air particles occurring mainly in the 2.5-10 μm range. The chemical composition of the ceramic particulate emissions is very similar to the crustal end-member but the use of high Al, Ti and Fe as tracer elements as well as a peculiar grain-size distribution in the insoluble major phases allow us to identify the ceramic input in the bulk particulate matter. PM2.5 instead of PM10 monitoring may avoid the interference of crustal particles without a major reduction in the secondary anthropogenic load, with the exception of nitrate. However, a methodology based in PM2.5 measurement alone is not adequate for monitoring the impact of primary particulate emissions (such as ceramic emissions) on air quality, since the major ambient air particles derived from these emissions are mainly in the range of 2.5-10 μm. Consequently, in areas characterised by major secondary particulate emissions, PM2.5 monitoring should detect anthropogenic particulate pollutants without crustal particulate interference, whereas PM10 measurements should be used in areas with major primary anthropogenic particulate emissions.

  13. Using Continuous In-situ Measurement of Fluorescence to Reveal Hot Spots and Hot Moments of Dissolved Organic Matter Dynamics in a Forested Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, K. A.; Hosen, J. D.; Raymond, P. A.; Stubbins, A.; Shanley, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    River systems serve as net carbon exporters from land to the ocean, fueling downstream aquatic ecosystem food webs. Fluorescence signatures of aquatic organic matter can be used as a proxy for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and can characterize DOC composition, reactivity, and source to improve our understanding of ecological processes. In-situ measurement of fluorescence using fifteen-minute interval data logging allows greater temporal resolution than laboratory studies. However, in-situ data must be corrected for interferences from temperature, absorbance and turbidity changes occurring in the field. We installed multiparameter water quality sondes (Eureka Mantas) and in-situ fluorometers (Turner Designs Cyclops) at sites nested within streams and riparian zones in the Sleepers River Research Watershed in Vermont in 2017. We coupled these measurements with simultaneous intensive field sampling campaigns and laboratory analysis of DOC and fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrices. The data loggers from the nested sites recorded fluorescence peaks responding to discharge events and tracked changes in fluorescence occurring from upstream to downstream sites. Laboratory results confirm a nonlinear, hysteretic relationship between discharge and DOC where peak DOC lags peak discharge. This hysteresis is predicted to be controlled by multiple flow paths and DOC sources (i.e. groundwater, overland flow). We conclude that continuous in-situ records of river water fluorescence can be used to inform ecological processes and test new hypotheses concerning dissolved organic matter dynamics in watersheds.

  14. Battery condenser system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additi...

  15. Particle reduction strategies - PAREST. Evaluation of emission reduction scenarios using chemical transport calculations. PM10- and PM2.5-reduction potentials by package of measures for further immission reduction in Germany. Sub-report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the effects of additional emission control measures the PM10 and PM2.5 air quality in Germany (PM = particulate matter). The immission effects of the planned measures were calculated with the Chemistry-Aerosol-Transport Model REM CALGRID (RCG). [de

  16. Investigation of air pollution of Shanghai subway stations in ventilation seasons in terms of PM2.5 and PM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Erbao; Shen, Henggen; He, Lei; Zhang, Jiawen

    2017-07-01

    In November 2015, the PM 2.5 and PM 10 particulate matter (PM) levels in platforms, station halls, and rail areas of the Shangcheng and Jiashan Road Station were monitored to investigate air pollution in the Shanghai subway system. The results revealed that in subway stations, PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations were significantly higher than those in outdoor environments. In addition, particle concentrations in the platforms exceeded maximum levels that domestic safety standards allowed. Particularly on clear days, PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations in platforms were significantly higher than maximum standards levels. Owing to the piston effect, consistent time-varying trends were exhibited by PM 2.5 concentrations in platforms, station halls, and rail areas. Platform particle concentrations were higher than the amount in station halls, and they were higher on clear days than on rainy days. The time-varying trends of PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations in platforms and station halls were similar to each other. Activities within the station led to most of the inhalable particles within the station area. The mass concentration ratios of PM 2.5 and PM 10 in platforms were within 0.65-0.93, and fine particles were the dominant components.

  17. Application of particle size distributions to total particulate stack samples to estimate PM2.5 and PM10 emission factors for agricultural sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particle size distributions (PSD) have long been used to more accurately estimate the PM10 fraction of total particulate matter (PM) stack samples taken from agricultural sources. These PSD analyses were typically conducted using a Coulter Counter with 50 micrometer aperture tube. With recent increa...

  18. Take PM2.5 into account in 2015 or sooner?; Rekening houden met PM2,5 in 2015 of eerder?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Sluis, C. [Ploum Lodder Princen advocaten en notarissen, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    This section pays attention to the European guideline for air quality that was introduced in 2008 to cover particulate matter (PM2.5) [Dutch] In deze rubriek wordt aandacht besteed aan de Europese richtlijn voor luchtkwaliteit die in 2008 is geintroduceerd voor fijn stof (PM2,5)

  19. LHCb: Evidence of CP violation in charmless three-body decays $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^\\pm K^+K^-$, $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^+ K^-\\pi^\\pm$ and $B^\\pm\\rightarrow \\pi^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$

    CERN Multimedia

    Lopes, J H

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of CP violation in charmless three-body decays $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$, $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^\\pm K^+K^-$, $B^\\pm\\rightarrow K^+ K^-\\pi^\\pm$ and $B^\\pm\\rightarrow \\pi^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$

  20. Short term variations in particulate matter in Mahi river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    The particulate matter (PM) collected from Mahi River Estuary was analysed for organic carbon (POC), nitrogen (PON), and chlorophyll a (Chl a). The concentration of PM, POC, PON and Chl a showed short term variations. Average surface concentration...

  1. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2013 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  2. Canada-United States Transboundary Particulate Matter Science Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This 2004 document summarizes the findings of the Canada-U.S. subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation concerning the transboundary transport of particulate matter (PM) and PM precursors between the two countries.

  3. PARTICULATE MATTER CONCENTRATION AND EMISSION FACTOR IN THREE DIFFERENT LAYING HEN HOUSING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate PM10 concentration in three different laying hens houses (traditional battery cages with aerated open manure storage, aviary system and vertical tiered cages with manure belts with forced air drying and to evaluate particulate matter emission into atmosphere during one year of observation. Internal and external temperature and relative humidity, ventilation rate, PM10 concentration have been continuously monitored in order to evaluate particulate matter concentration changes during the day and the season and to define PM10 emission factors. PM10 concentration was corrected by gravimetric technique to lower measurements error. In the aviary system house, TSP and fine particulate matter (particles smaller than 2.5 micron concentration was measured. Average yearly PM10 concentration was remarkably higher in the aviary system house with 0.215 mg m-3 vs 108 mg m-3 for the ventilated belt house and vs 0.094 mg m-3 for the traditional battery cages house. In the Aviary system housing, TSP concentration was 0.444 mg m-3 and PM2.5 was 0.032 mg m-3, highlighting the existence of a severe working environment for men and animals. Recorded values for PM10 emission were 0.433 mg h-1 hen-1 for battery cages housing type, 0.081 mg h-1 hen-1 for ventilated belt cages house, values lower than those available in literature, while the aviary system housing type showed the highest PM10 emission (1.230 mg h-1 hen-1 with appreciable peaks during the morning, together with the increased animal activity and daily farmer operations, as feed administration, cleaning and droppings removal.

  4. Source apportionment of speciated PM2.5 and non-parametric regressions of PM2.5 and PM(coarse) mass concentrations from Denver and Greeley, Colorado, and construction and evaluation of dichotomous filter samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piedrahita, Ricardo A.

    The Denver Aerosol Sources and Health study (DASH) was a long-term study of the relationship between the variability in fine particulate mass and chemical constituents (PM2.5, particulate matter less than 2.5mum) and adverse health effects such as cardio-respiratory illnesses and mortality. Daily filter samples were chemically analyzed for multiple species. We present findings based on 2.8 years of DASH data, from 2003 to 2005. Multilinear Engine 2 (ME-2), a receptor-based source apportionment model was applied to the data to estimate source contributions to PM2.5 mass concentrations. This study relied on two different ME-2 models: (1) a 2-way model that closely reflects PMF-2; and (2) an enhanced model with meteorological data that used additional temporal and meteorological factors. The Coarse Rural Urban Sources and Health study (CRUSH) is a long-term study of the relationship between the variability in coarse particulate mass (PMcoarse, particulate matter between 2.5 and 10mum) and adverse health effects such as cardio-respiratory illnesses, pre-term births, and mortality. Hourly mass concentrations of PMcoarse and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are measured using tapered element oscillating microbalances (TEOMs) with Filter Dynamics Measurement Systems (FDMS), at two rural and two urban sites. We present findings based on nine months of mass concentration data, including temporal trends, and non-parametric regressions (NPR) results, which were used to characterize the wind speed and wind direction relationships that might point to sources. As part of CRUSH, 1-year coarse and fine mode particulate matter filter sampling network, will allow us to characterize the chemical composition of the particulate matter collected and perform spatial comparisons. This work describes the construction and validation testing of four dichotomous filter samplers for this purpose. The use of dichotomous splitters with an approximate 2.5mum cut point, coupled with a 10mum cut

  5. An Automated Heart Rate Detection Platform in Wild-Type Zebrafish for Cardiotoxicity Screening of Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to air pollution-derived particulate matter (PM) causes adverse cardiovascular health outcomes, with increasing evidence implicating soluble components of PM; however, the enormous number of unique PM samples from different air sheds far exceeds the capacity of conventio...

  6. SPECIEUROPE: The European data base for PM source profiles

    OpenAIRE

    PERNIGOTTI DENISE; BELIS CLAUDIO; SPANO' LUCA

    2015-01-01

    A database of atmospheric particulate matter emission source profiles in Europe (SPECIEUROPE) was developed by the Joint Research Center in the framework of the Forum for air quality modeling in Europe (FAIRMODE, Working Group 3). It contains the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emission sources reported in the scientific literature and reports drafted by competent authorities. The first release of SPECIEUROPE consists of 151 measured profiles (original), 13 composite (merging ...

  7. DATEP: 120 channel PM HV regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centro, S.; Giorgi, M. de

    1981-01-01

    DATEP (Distributore Alta Tensione Programmabile) has been designed to distribute high voltage to some 1500 PM's for the gamma detectors (part C) of EHS. Each unit has its own microprocessor controller which performs continuous checking of the 120 channels and allows operator interaction. Channel regulators are based on a specially developed thick film hybrid circuit that allows to get on overall temperature coefficient better than 50 ppm/ 0 C. (orig.)

  8. Exposure to urban PM1 in rats: development of bronchial inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filep, Ágnes; Fodor, Gergely H; Kun-Szabó, Fruzsina; Tiszlavicz, László; Rázga, Zsolt; Bozsó, Gábor; Bozóki, Zoltán; Szabó, Gábor; Peták, Ferenc

    2016-03-10

    Several epidemiological and laboratory studies have evidenced the fact that atmospheric particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of respiratory morbidity. It is well known that the smallest fraction of PM (PM1 - particulate matter having a diameter below 1 μm) penetrates the deepest into the airways. The ratio of the different size fractions in PM is highly variable, but in industrial areas PM1 can be significant. Despite these facts, the health effects of PM1 have been poorly investigated and air quality standards are based on PM10 and PM2.5 (PM having diameters below 10 μm and 2.5 μm, respectively) concentrations. Therefore, this study aimed at determining whether exposure to ambient PM1 at a near alert threshold level for PM10 has respiratory consequences in rats. Rats were either exposed for 6 weeks to 100 μg/m(3) (alert threshold level for PM10 in Hungary) urban submicron aerosol, or were kept in room air. End-expiratory lung volume, airway resistance (Raw) and respiratory tissue mechanics were measured. Respiratory mechanics were measured under baseline conditions and following intravenous methacholine challenges to characterize the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AH). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was analyzed and lung histology was performed. No significant differences were detected in lung volume and mechanical parameters at baseline. However, the exposed rats exhibited significantly greater MCh-induced responses in Raw, demonstrating the progression of AH. The associated bronchial inflammation was evidenced by the accumulation of inflammatory cells in BALF and by lung histology. Our findings suggest that exposure to concentrated ambient PM1 (mass concentration at the threshold level for PM10) leads to the development of mild respiratory symptoms in healthy adult rats, which may suggest a need for the reconsideration of threshold limits for airborne PM1.

  9. Investigation of time-resolved atmospheric conditions and indoor/outdoor particulate matter concentrations in homes with gas and biomass cook stoves in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Heather A; Pardyjak, Eric R

    2014-07-01

    This paper reports findings from a case study designed to investigate indoor and outdoor air quality in homes near the United States-Mexico border During the field study, size-resolved continuous particulate matter (PM) concentrations were measured in six homes, while outdoor PM was simultaneously monitored at the same location in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, during March 14-30, 2009. The purpose of the experiment was to compare PM in homes using different fuels for cooking, gas versus biomass, and to obtain a spatial distribution of outdoor PM in a region where local sources vary significantly (e.g., highway, border crossing, unpaved roads, industry). Continuous PM data were collected every 6 seconds using a valve switching system to sample indoor and outdoor air at each home location. This paper presents the indoor PM data from each home, including the relationship between indoor and outdoor PM. The meteorological conditions associated with elevated ambient PM events in the region are also discussed. Results indicate that indoor air pollution has a strong dependence on cooking fuel, with gas stoves having hourly averaged median PM3 concentrations in the range of 134 to 157 microg m(-3) and biomass stoves 163 to 504 microg m(-1). Outdoor PM also indicates a large spatial heterogeneity due to the presence of microscale sources and meteorological influences (median PM3: 130 to 770 microg m(-3)). The former is evident in the median and range of daytime PM values (median PM3: 250 microg m(-3), maximum: 9411 microg m(-3)), while the meteorological influences appear to be dominant during nighttime periods (median PM3: 251 microg m(-3), maximum: 10,846 microg m(-3)). The atmospheric stability is quantified for three nighttime temperature inversion episodes, which were associated with an order of magnitude increase in PM10 at the regulatory monitor in Nogales, AZ (maximum increase: 12 to 474 microg m(-3)). Implications: Regulatory air quality standards are based on outdoor

  10. Vertical characteristics and source identification of PM10 in Tianjin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhimei Xiao; Jianhui Wu; Suqin Han; Yufen Zhang; Hong Xu; Xiaoyong Zhang; Guoliang Shi; Yinchang Feng

    2012-01-01

    Ambient PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 μm) concentrations were measured on a 255 meter tower in Tianjin,China.The samples were collected at four vertical levels (10,40,120 and 220 m).Vertical characteristics for PM10 samples were studied.The results showed that the concentrations of PM10 and constituent species had a negative correlation with the sampling height.The highest concentrations of PM10 and species were obtained at the 10 m level,and the lowest concentrations were measured at the 220 m level.For the fractions of species to total mass,SO42- and NO3- had higher values (fraction) at greater height; while Ca had a higher fraction at lower height.Possible source categories for the PM10 ambient dataset were identified by the principal component analysis method.The possible source categories included crustal dust,vehicles,cement dust,and incineration as well as secondary sulfate and nitrate sources.Analysis of meteorological factors on PM10 concentrations indicated that wind speed and inversion may be the main factors contributing to different concentrations of PM10 at different heights.

  11. Will PM control undermine China's efforts to reduce soil acidification?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yu; Duan Lei; Lei Yu; Xing Jia; Nielsen, Chris P.; Hao Jiming

    2011-01-01

    China's strategies to control acidifying pollutants and particulate matter (PM) may be in conflict for soil acidification abatement. Acidifying pollutant emissions are estimated for 2005 and 2020 with anticipated control policies. PM emissions including base cations (BCs) are evaluated with two scenarios, a base case applying existing policy to 2020, and a control case including anticipated tightened measures. Depositions of sulfur (S), nitrogen (N) and BCs are simulated and their acidification risks are evaluated with critical load (CL). In 2005, the area exceeding CL covered 15.6% of mainland China, with total exceedance of 2.2 Mt S. These values decrease in the base scenario 2020, implying partial recovery from acidification. Under more realistic PM control, the respective estimates are 17.9% and 2.4 Mt S, indicating increased acidification risks due to abatement of acid-neutralizing BCs. China's anthropogenic PM abatement will have potentially stronger chemical implications for acidification than developed countries. - Highlights: → We model the emission and deposition of base cations and acid precursors in China. → Soil acidification in China is analyzed with exceedance of critical load. → China's PM control increases the acidification risk even with reduced SO 2 emission. → The impact of PM for acidification is stronger than that in developed countries. - The control of anthropogenic PM emission in China will increase the risk of soil acidification even with reduced SO 2 emission. Such implication is stronger than that in developed countries.

  12. Trends in arsenic levels in PM10 and PM 2.5 aerosol fractions in an industrialized area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aleix, J R; Delgado-Saborit, J M; Verdú-Martín, G; Amigó-Descarrega, J M; Esteve-Cano, V

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic element that affects human health and is widely distributed in the environment. In the area of study, the main Spanish and second largest European industrial ceramic cluster, the main source of arsenic aerosol is related to the impurities in some boracic minerals used in the ceramic process. Epidemiological studies on cancer occurrence in Spain points out the study region as one with the greater risk of cancer. Concentrations of particulate matter and arsenic content in PM10 and PM2.5 were measured and characterized by ICP-MS in the area of study during the years 2005-2010. Concentrations of PM10 and its arsenic content range from 27 to 46 μg/m(3) and from 0.7 to 6 ng/m(3) in the industrial area, respectively, and from 25 to 40 μg/m(3) and from 0.7 to 2.8 ng/m(3) in the urban area, respectively. Concentrations of PM2.5 and its arsenic content range from 12 to 14 μg/m(3) and from 0.5 to 1.4 ng/m(3) in the urban background area, respectively. Most of the arsenic content is present in the fine fraction, with ratios of PM2.5/PM10 in the range of 0.65-0.87. PM10, PM2.5, and its arsenic content show a sharp decrease in recent years associated with the economic downturn, which severely hit the production of ceramic materials in the area under study. The sharp production decrease due to the economic crisis combined with several technological improvements in recent years such as substitution of boron, which contains As impurities as raw material, have reduced the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and As in air to an extent that currently meets the existing European regulations.

  13. PM2.5 in Dutch dwellings due to cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Borsboom, W.A.; Kemp, R.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cooking emissions have long been seen as an odour problem. However recent studies showed that Particulate Matter (PM) is the main health risk of indoor air and cooking can be a major source. A small field study within 9 Dutch dwellings indicates that depending on the conditions cooking can have a

  14. Development of ambient PM 2.5 management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    "Using analyzed and modeled field data on air quality and meteorology, researchers identified major contributors of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Fairbanks. This : project was an effort to help the city meet U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ...

  15. PM2.5 measurement protocol for offices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, P.; Voogt, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    People are more than 80% of their time indoors. However, in contrast to ambient air, no (legal) limits for indoor particulate matter exist. This paper describes a measurement protocol to determine the yearly averaged indoor PM2,5 concentration and gives reference values for five quality classes:

  16. Comparison of Ground-Based PM2.5 and PM10 Concentrations in China, India, and the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingchuan Yang

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and industrialization have spurred air pollution, making it a global problem. An understanding of the spatiotemporal characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm and 10 μm, respectively is necessary to mitigate air pollution. We compared the characteristics of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations and their trends of China, India, and the U.S. from 2014 to 2017. Particulate matter levels were lowest in the U.S., while China showed higher concentrations, and India showed the highest. Interestingly, significant declines in PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations were found in some of the most polluted regions in China as well as the U.S. No comparable decline was observed in India. A strong seasonal trend was observed in China and India, with the highest values occurring in winter and the lowest in summer. The opposite trend was noted for the U.S. PM2.5 was highly correlated with PM10 for both China and India, but the correlation was poor for the U.S. With regard to reducing particulate matter pollutant concentrations, developing countries can learn from the experiences of developed nations and benefit by establishing and implementing joint regional air pollution control programs.

  17. Comparisons of urban and rural PM10−2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and semi-volatile fractions in northeastern Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Clements

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coarse (PM10−2.5 and fine (PM2.5 particulate matter in the atmosphere adversely affect human health and influence climate. While PM2.5 is relatively well studied, less is known about the sources and fate of PM10−2.5. The Colorado Coarse Rural-Urban Sources and Health (CCRUSH study measured PM10−2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentrations, as well as the fraction of semi-volatile material (SVM in each size regime (SVM2.5, SVM10−2.5, from 2009 to early 2012 in Denver and comparatively rural Greeley, Colorado. Agricultural operations east of Greeley appear to have contributed to the peak PM10−2.5 concentrations there, but concentrations were generally lower in Greeley than in Denver. Traffic-influenced sites in Denver had PM10−2.5 concentrations that averaged from 14.6 to 19.7 µg m−3 and mean PM10−2.5 ∕ PM10 ratios of 0.56 to 0.70, higher than at residential sites in Denver or Greeley. PM10−2.5 concentrations were more temporally variable than PM2.5 concentrations. Concentrations of the two pollutants were not correlated. Spatial correlations of daily averaged PM10−2.5 concentrations ranged from 0.59 to 0.62 for pairs of sites in Denver and from 0.47 to 0.70 between Denver and Greeley. Compared to PM10−2.5, concentrations of PM2.5 were more correlated across sites within Denver and less correlated between Denver and Greeley. PM10−2.5 concentrations were highest during the summer and early fall, while PM2.5 and SVM2.5 concentrations peaked in winter during periodic multi-day inversions. SVM10−2.5 concentrations were low at all sites. Diurnal peaks in PM10−2.5 and PM2.5 concentrations corresponded to morning and afternoon peaks of traffic activity, and were enhanced by boundary layer dynamics. SVM2.5 concentrations peaked around noon on both weekdays and weekends. PM10−2.5 concentrations at sites located near highways generally increased with wind speeds above about 3 m s−1. Little wind speed dependence was

  18. Inhalable microorganisms in Beijing's PM2.5 and PM10 pollutants during a severe smog event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chen; Jiang, Wenjun; Wang, Buying; Fang, Jianhuo; Lang, Jidong; Tian, Geng; Jiang, Jingkun; Zhu, Ting F

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution poses a formidable public health threat to the city of Beijing. Among the various hazards of PM pollutants, microorganisms in PM2.5 and PM10 are thought to be responsible for various allergies and for the spread of respiratory diseases. While the physical and chemical properties of PM pollutants have been extensively studied, much less is known about the inhalable microorganisms. Most existing data on airborne microbial communities using 16S or 18S rRNA gene sequencing to categorize bacteria or fungi into the family or genus levels do not provide information on their allergenic and pathogenic potentials. Here we employed metagenomic methods to analyze the microbial composition of Beijing's PM pollutants during a severe January smog event. We show that with sufficient sequencing depth, airborne microbes including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and dsDNA viruses can be identified at the species level. Our results suggested that the majority of the inhalable microorganisms were soil-associated and nonpathogenic to human. Nevertheless, the sequences of several respiratory microbial allergens and pathogens were identified and their relative abundance appeared to have increased with increased concentrations of PM pollution. Our findings may serve as an important reference for environmental scientists, health workers, and city planners.

  19. Local PM10 and PM2.5 emission inventories from agricultural tillage and harvest in northeastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Tong, Daniel Q; Zhang, Shichun; Zhang, Xuelei; Zhao, Hongmei

    2017-07-01

    Mineral particles or particulate matters (PMs) emitted during agricultural activities are major recurring sources of atmospheric aerosol loading. However, precise PM inventory from agricultural tillage and harvest in agricultural regions is challenged by infrequent local emission factor (EF) measurements. To understand PM emissions from these practices in northeastern China, we measured EFs of PM 10 and PM 2.5 from three field operations (i.e., tilling, planting and harvesting) in major crop production (i.e., corn and soybean), using portable real-time PM analyzers and weather station data. County-level PM 10 and PM 2.5 emissions from agricultural tillage and harvest were estimated, based on local EFs, crop areas and crop calendars. The EFs averaged (107±27), (17±5) and 26mg/m 2 for field tilling, planting and harvesting under relatively dry conditions (i.e., soil moisture agricultural dust emissions to regional air quality in northeastern China. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Inhalable Microorganisms in Beijing’s PM2.5 and PM10 Pollutants during a Severe Smog Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution poses a formidable public health threat to the city of Beijing. Among the various hazards of PM pollutants, microorganisms in PM2.5 and PM10 are thought to be responsible for various allergies and for the spread of respiratory diseases. While the physical and chemical properties of PM pollutants have been extensively studied, much less is known about the inhalable microorganisms. Most existing data on airborne microbial communities using 16S or 18S rRNA gene sequencing to categorize bacteria or fungi into the family or genus levels do not provide information on their allergenic and pathogenic potentials. Here we employed metagenomic methods to analyze the microbial composition of Beijing’s PM pollutants during a severe January smog event. We show that with sufficient sequencing depth, airborne microbes including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and dsDNA viruses can be identified at the species level. Our results suggested that the majority of the inhalable microorganisms were soil-associated and nonpathogenic to human. Nevertheless, the sequences of several respiratory microbial allergens and pathogens were identified and their relative abundance appeared to have increased with increased concentrations of PM pollution. Our findings may serve as an important reference for environmental scientists, health workers, and city planners. PMID:24456276

  1. The direct influence of ship traffic on atmospheric PM2.5, PM10 and PAH in Venice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contini, D; Gambaro, A; Belosi, F; De Pieri, S; Cairns, W R L; Donateo, A; Zanotto, E; Citron, M

    2011-09-01

    The direct influence of ship traffic on atmospheric levels of coarse and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5), PM(10)) and fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been estimated in the urban area of Venice. Data analysis has been performed on results collected at three sites over the summer, when ship traffic is at a maximum. Results indicate that monitoring of the PM daily concentrations is not sufficiently detailed for the evaluation of this contribution, even though it could be useful for specific markers such as PAHs. Therefore a new methodology, based on high temporal resolution measurements coupled with wind direction information and the database of ship passages of the Harbour Authority of Venice has been developed. The sampling sites were monitored with optical detectors (DustTrack(®) and Mie pDR-1200) operating at a high temporal resolution (20s and 1s respectively) for PM(2.5) and PM(10). PAH in the particulate and gas phases were recovered from quartz fibre filters and polyurethane foam plugs using pressurised solvent extraction, the extracts were then analysed by gas chromatography- high-resolution mass spectrometry. Our results shows that the direct contribution of ships traffic to PAHs in the gas phase is 10% while the contribution to PM(2.5) and to PM(10) is from 1% up to 8%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Temporal variations and spatial distribution of ambient PM2.2 and PM1 concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K.; Hopke, Philip K.

    2006-01-01

    Concentrations and characteristics of airborne particulate matter (PM 1 , PM 2.2 and BC) on air quality have been studied at two air quality-monitoring stations in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. One site is at the Farm Gate area, a hot spot with very high pollutant concentrations because of its proximity to major roadways. The other site is at a semi-residential area located at the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka Campus, (AECD) with relatively less traffic. The samples were collected using a 'Gent' stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2.2 μm and 2.2-10 μm sizes. Samples of fine (PM 2.2 ) and coarse (PM 2.2-1 ) airborne particulate matter fractions collected from 2000 to 2003 were studied. It has been observed that fine particulate matter has a decreasing trend, from prior year measurements, because of Government policy interventions like phase-wise plans to take two-stroke three-wheelers off the roads in Dhaka and finally banned from January 1, 2003. Other policy interventions were banning of old buses and trucks to ply on Dhaka city promotion of the using compressed natural gas (CNG), introducing air pollution control devices in vehicles, etc. It was found that both local (mostly from vehicular emissions) and possibly some regional emission sources are responsible for high PM 2.2 and BC concentrations in Dhaka. PM 2.2 , PM 2.2-1 and black carbon concentration levels depend on the season, wind direction and wind speed. Transport related emissions are the major source of BC and long-range transportation from fossil fuel related sources and biomass burning could be another substantial source of BC

  3. Temporal variations and spatial distribution of ambient PM2.2 and PM10 concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Bilkis A; Biswas, Swapan K; Hopke, Philip K

    2006-04-01

    Concentrations and characteristics of airborne particulate matter (PM(10), PM(2.2) and BC) on air quality have been studied at two air quality-monitoring stations in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. One site is at the Farm Gate area, a hot spot with very high pollutant concentrations because of its proximity to major roadways. The other site is at a semi-residential area located at the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka Campus, (AECD) with relatively less traffic. The samples were collected using a 'Gent' stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2.2 mum and 2.2-10 mum sizes. Samples of fine (PM(2.2)) and coarse (PM(2.2-10)) airborne particulate matter fractions collected from 2000 to 2003 were studied. It has been observed that fine particulate matter has a decreasing trend, from prior year measurements, because of Government policy interventions like phase-wise plans to take two-stroke three-wheelers off the roads in Dhaka and finally banned from January 1, 2003. Other policy interventions were banning of old buses and trucks to ply on Dhaka city promotion of the using compressed natural gas (CNG), introducing air pollution control devices in vehicles, etc. It was found that both local (mostly from vehicular emissions) and possibly some regional emission sources are responsible for high PM(2.2) and BC concentrations in Dhaka. PM(2.2), PM(2.2-10) and black carbon concentration levels depend on the season, wind direction and wind speed. Transport related emissions are the major source of BC and long-range transportation from fossil fuel related sources and biomass burning could be another substantial source of BC.

  4. Search for $CP$ violation in $D^{\\pm}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}$ and $D^{\\pm}_{s}\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves Jr, A.A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J.E.; Appleby, R.B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J.J.; Badalov, A.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R.J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjornstad, P.M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N.H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L.Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H.V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G.A.; Craik, D.C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P.N.Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; de Miranda, J.M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deleage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Farber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, RF.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gavrilov, G.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani', S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V.V.; Gobel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gandara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L.A.; Grauges, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grunberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S.C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S.T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J.A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hess, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C.R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T.M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I.R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R.F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V.N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R.W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.P.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lowdon, P.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I.V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J.F.; Marconi, U.; Benito, C.Marin; Marino, P.; Marki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martin Sanchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D.A.; Minard, M.N.; Moggi, N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Morda, A.; Morello, M.J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A.B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Muller, K.; Muresan, R.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A.D.; Nguyen, T.D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D.P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, G.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J.M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B.K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C.J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G.D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perez Trigo, E.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilar, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J.H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M.S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M.M.; dos Reis, A.C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D.A.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A.B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Vidal, A.Romero; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, H.; Valls, P.Ruiz; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Coutinho, R.Silva; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N.A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M.D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Subbiah, V.K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szilard, D.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M.T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Garcia, M.Ubeda; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vazquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J.J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voss, C.; Voss, H.; de Vries, J.A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D.R.; Watson, N.K.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M.P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F.F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S.A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2014-10-03

    A search for $CP$ violation in Cabibbo-suppressed $D^{\\pm}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}$ and $D^{\\pm}_{s}\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}$ decays is performed using $pp$ collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3~fb$^{-1}$, recorded by the LHCb experiment. The individual $CP$-violating asymmetries are measured to be \\begin{eqnarray*} \\mathcal{A}_{CP}^{D^{\\pm}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}} & = & (+0.03 \\pm 0.17 \\pm 0.14) \\% \\\\ \\mathcal{A}_{CP}^{D^{\\pm}_s\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}} & = & (+0.38 \\pm 0.46 \\pm 0.17) \\%, \\end{eqnarray*} assuming that $CP$ violation in the Cabibbo-favoured decays is negligible. A combination of the measured asymmetries for the four decay modes $D^{\\pm}_{(s)}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}$ and $D^{\\pm}_{(s)}\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}$ gives the sum \\[ \\mathcal{A}_{CP}^{D^{\\pm}\\rightarrow K^0_S K^{\\pm}}+ \\mathcal{A}_{CP}^{D^{\\pm}_s\\rightarrow K^0_S \\pi^{\\pm}} = (+0.41 \\pm 0.49 \\pm 0.26) \\%. \\] In all cases, the first uncertainties are statistical and the second sys...

  5. Assessment of microbial communities in PM1 and PM10 of Urumqi during winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, Huange; Lu, Jianjiang; Li, Shanman; Tong, Yanbin; Xie, Chunbin; Zheng, Xiaowu

    2016-01-01

    Recently, inhalable particulate matter has been reported to carry microorganisms responsible for human allergy and respiratory disease. The unique geographical environment and adverse weather conditions of Urumqi cause double pollution of dust and smog, but research on the microbial content of the atmosphere has not been commenced. In this study, 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing were conducted to investigate the microbial composition of Urumqi's PM 1 and PM 10 pollutants in winter. Results showed that the bacterial community is mainly composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria accounted for the most proportion which was significant difference in some aforementioned studies. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota constitute the main part of the fungal microbial community. The difference of bacterial relative abundance in sample point is greater than in particle sizes. The sequences of several pathogenic bacteria and opportunistic pathogens were also detected, such as Acinetobacter, Delftia, Serratia, Chryseobacterium, which may impact on immunocompromised populations (elderly, children and postoperative convalescence patients), and some fungal genera may cause several plant diseases. Our findings may serve an important reference value in the global air microbial propagation and air microbial research in desert. - Highlights: • Using 16 s rDNA double variable region (V3 + V4) sequencing to elucidate the bacterial communities. • Several potential microbial allergens and pathogens present in PM 1 and PM 10 were found. • Providing a great supplement to environmental science and human health assessment.

  6. Investigating Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Human Lung Cells Exposed to Redox-Active PM Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) causes cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality through mechanisms that involve oxidative stress. 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ) is a ubiquitous component of PM and a potent redox-active electrophile. We previously reported that 1,2-NQ incr...

  7. Elemental composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 in urban environment in South Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, C. F.; Teixeira, E. C.; Meira, L.; Wiegand, F.; Yoneama, M. L.; Dias, J. F.

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze the elemental composition and the concentrations of PM 10 and PM 2.5 in the Guaíba Hydrographic Basin with HV PM 10 and dichotomous samplers. Three sampling sites were selected: 8° Distrito, CEASA and Charqueadas. The sampling was conducted from October 2001 to December 2002. The mass concentrations of the samplers were evaluated, while the elemental concentrations of Si, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu and Zn were determined using the Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Factor Analysis and Canonical Correlation Analysis were applied to the chemical and meteorological variables in order to identify the sources of particulate matter. Industrial activities such as steel plants, coal-fired power plants, hospital waste burning, vehicular emissions and soil were identified as the sources of the particulate matter. Concentration levels higher than the daily and the annual average air quality standards (150 and 50 μg m -3, respectively) set by the Brazilian legislation were not observed.

  8. PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1.0—Emissions from industrial plants—Results from measurement programmes in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, C.; Noll, G.; Kalkoff, W.-D.; Baumbach, G.; Dreiseidler, A.

    Emission measurement programmes were carried out at industrial plants in several regions of Germany to determine the fine dust in the waste gases; the PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 fractions were sampled using a cascade impactor technique. The installations tested included plants used for: combustion (brown coal, heavy fuel oil, wood), cement production, glass production, asphalt mixing, and processing plants for natural stones and sand, ceramics, metallurgy, chemical production, spray painting, wood processing/chip drying, poultry farming and waste treatment. In addition waste gas samples were taken from small-scale combustion units, like domestic stoves, firing lignite briquettes or wood. In total 303 individual measurement results were obtained during 106 different measurement campaigns. In the study it was found that in more than 70% of the individual emission measurement results from industrial plants and domestic stoves the PM 10 portion amounted to more than 90% and the PM 2.5 portion between 50% and 90% of the total PM (particulate matter) emission. For thermal industrial processes the PM 1.0 portion constituted between 20% and 60% of the total PM emission. Typical particle size distributions for different processes were presented as cumulative frequency distributions and as frequency distributions. The particle size distributions determined for the different plant types show interesting similarities and differences depending on whether the processes are thermal, mechanical, chemical or mixed. Consequently, for the groups of plant investigated, a major finding of this study has been that the particle size distribution is a characteristic of the industrial process. Attempts to correlate particle size distributions of different plants to different gas cleaning technologies did not lead to usable results.

  9. Global Annual Average PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Annual PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data set represents a series of annual average grids (2001-2010) of fine particulate matter...

  10. Global Annual Average PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Annual PM2.5 Grids from MODIS and MISR Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data sets represent a series of annual average grids (2001-2010) of fine particulate matter...

  11. Continuation of full-scale three-dimensional numerical experiments on high-intensity particle and laser beam-matter interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Warren, B.

    2012-12-01

    We present results from the grant entitled, Continuation of full-scale three-dimensional numerical experiments on high-intensity particle and laser beam-matter interactions. The research significantly advanced the understanding of basic high-energy density science (HEDS) on ultra intense laser and particle beam plasma interactions. This advancement in understanding was then used to to aid in the quest to make 1 GeV to 500 GeV plasma based accelerator stages. The work blended basic research with three-dimensions fully nonlinear and fully kinetic simulations including full-scale modeling of ongoing or planned experiments. The primary tool was three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The simulations provided a test bed for theoretical ideas and models as well as a method to guide experiments. The research also included careful benchmarking of codes against experiment. High-fidelity full-scale modeling provided a means to extrapolate parameters into regimes that were not accessible to current or near term experiments, thereby allowing concepts to be tested with confidence before tens to hundreds of millions of dollars were spent building facilities. The research allowed the development of a hierarchy of PIC codes and diagnostics that is one of the most advanced in the world.

  12. Challenges in evaluating PM concentration levels, commuting exposure, and mask efficacy in reducing PM exposure in growing, urban communities in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Disa; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Wilson, James; Maidin, Alimin

    2016-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) contributes to an increased risk of respiratory and cardiovascular illnesses, cancer, and preterm birth complications. This project assessed PM exposure in Eastern Indonesia's largest city, where air quality has not been comprehensively monitored. We examined the efficacy of wearing masks as an individual intervention effort to reduce in-transit PM exposures. Handheld particulate counters were used to investigate ambient air quality for spatial analysis, as well as the differences in exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 (μg/m(3)) by different transportation methods [e.g. motorcycle (n=97), pete-pete (n=53), and car (n=55); note: n=1 means 1m(3) of air sample]. Mask efficacy to reduce PM exposure was evaluated [e.g. surgical masks (n=39), bandanas (n=52), and motorcycle masks (n=39)]. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to provide a range of uncertainty in exposure assessment. Overall PM10 levels (91±124 μg/m(3)) were elevated compared to the World Health Organization (WHO)'s 24-hour air quality guideline (50 μg/m(3)). While average PM2.5 levels (9±14 μg/m(3)) were below the WHO's guideline (25 μg/m(3)), measurements up to 139 μg/m(3) were observed. Compared to cars, average motorcycle and pete-pete PM exposures were four and three times higher for PM2.5, and 13 and 10 times higher for PM10, respectively. Only surgical masks were consistent in lowering PM2.5 and PM10 (pmasks. Individual interventions can effectively reduce individual PM exposures; however, policy interventions will be needed to improve the overall air quality and create safer transportation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of PM-PEMS for in-use measurements conducted during validation testing for the PM-PEMS measurement allowance program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Yusuf; Johnson, Kent C.; Durbin, Thomas D.; Jung, Heejung; Cocker, David R.; Bishnu, Dipak; Giannelli, Robert

    2012-08-01

    This study provides an evaluation of the latest Particulate Matter-Portable Emissions Measurement Systems (PM-PEMS) under different environmental and in-use conditions. It characterizes four PM measurement systems based on different measurement principles. At least three different units were tested for each PM-PEMS to account for variability. These PM-PEMS were compared with a UC Riverside's mobile reference laboratory (MEL). PM measurements were made from a class 8 truck with a 2008 Cummins diesel engine with a diesel particulate filter (DPF). A bypass around the DPF was installed in the exhaust to achieve a brake specific PM (bsPM) emissions level of 25 mg hp-1h-1. PM was dominated by elemental carbon (EC) during non-regeneration conditions and by hydrated sulfate (H2SO4.6H2O) during regeneration. The photo-acoustic PM-PEMS performed best, with a linear regression slope of 0.90 and R2 of 0.88 during non-regenerative conditions. With the addition of a filter, the photo-acoustic PM-PEMS slightly over reported than the total PM mass (slope = 1.10, R2 = 0.87). Under these same non-regeneration conditions, a PM-PEMS equipped with a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technology performed the poorest, and had a slope of 0.22 and R2 of 0.13. Re-tests performed on upgraded QCM PM-PEMS showed a better slope (0.66), and a higher R2 of 0.25. In the case of DPF regeneration, all PM-PEMS performed poorly, with the best having a slope of 0.20 and R2 of 0.78. Particle size distributions (PSD) showed nucleation during regeneration, with a shift of particle size to smaller diameters (˜64 nm to ˜13 nm) with elevated number concentrations when compared to non-regeneration conditions.

  14. Characterization of carbonaceous materials in PM2.5 and PM10 size fractions in Morogoro, Tanzania, during 2006 wet season campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mkoma, Stelyus L.; Chi Xuguang; Maenhaut, Willy

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples in PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions were collected in parallel at a rural site in Morogoro during wet season in March and April 2006. All samples were analysed for the particulate matter mass, for organic, elemental, and total carbon (OC, EC, and TC), and for water-soluble OC (WSOC). The average PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and associated standard deviations were 14 ± 13 μg/m 3 and 7.3 ± 4 μg/m 3 respectively. On average, TC accounted for 33% of the PM10 mass and 44% of the PM2.5 mass for the campaign. The average OC/PM percentage ratios were 27% and 33% in PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions respectively and a larger fraction of the OC was water-soluble. The observed low EC/TC mean percentage ratios of 10-14% respectively for PM10 and PM2.5 fractions indicate that the carbonaceous aerosol originates mainly from biogenic aerosols and/or biomass burning. A simple source apportionment approach was used to apportion the OC to biofuel and charcoal burning. On average, 93% of the PM10 OC was attributed to biofuel and 7% to charcoal burning in the 2006 wet season campaign. However, it is suggested that a contribution to the OC at Morogoro could also come from other natural biogenic matter, and/or biomass burning aerosols. The results for the sources of OC at Morogoro should therefore be considered with great caution.

  15. Contribution of biogenic emissions to the formation of ozone and particulate matter in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Betty K; Wu, Shiang-Yuh; Seigneur, Christian

    2002-08-15

    As anthropogenic emissions of ozone (O3) precursors, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and PM2.5 precursors continue to decrease in the United States, the fraction of O3 and PM2.5 attributable to natural sources may become significant in some locations, reducing the efficacy that can be expected from future controls of anthropogenic sources. Modeling studies were conducted to estimate the contribution of biogenic emissions to the formation of O3 and PM2.5 in Nashville/TN and the northeastern United States. Two approaches were used to bound the estimates. In an anthropogenic simulation, biogenic emissions and their influence at the domain boundaries were eliminated. Contributions of biogenic compounds to the simulated concentrations of O3 and PM2.5 were determined by the deviation of the concentrations in the anthropogenic case from those in the base case. A biogenic simulation was used to assess the amounts of O3 and PM2.5 produced in an environment free from anthropogenic influences in emissions and boundary conditions. In both locations, the contribution of biogenic emissions to O3 was small (production of O3 was much more sensitive to biogenic emissions in urban areas (22-34%). Therefore, the effects of biogenic emissions on O3 manifested mostly via their interaction with anthropogenic emissions of NOx. In the anthropogenic simulations, the average contribution of biogenic and natural sources to PM2.5 was estimated at 9% in Nashville/TN and 12% in the northeast domain. Because of the long atmospheric lifetimes of PM2.5, the contribution of biogenic/natural PM2.5 from the boundary conditions was higher than the contribution of biogenic aerosols produced within the domain. The elimination of biogenic emissions also affected the chemistry of other secondary PM2.5 components. Very little PM2.5 was formed in the biogenic simulations.

  16. Effects of ambient particulate matter on aerobic exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Wagner

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: Wintertime thermal inversions in narrow mountain valleys create a ceiling effect, increasing concentration of small particulate matter (PM2.5. Despite potential health risks, many people continue to exercise outdoors in thermal inversions. This study measured the effects of ambient PM2.5 exposure associated with a typical thermal inversion on exercise performance, pulmonary function, and biological markers of inflammation. Methods: Healthy, active adults (5 males, 11 females performed two cycle ergometer time trials outdoors in a counterbalanced design: 1 low ambient PM2.5 concentrations ( .05 for PM2.5 concentration and the measured variables. Conclusion: An acute bout of vigorous exercise during an AQI of “yellow” did not diminish exercise performance in healthy adults, nor did it have a negative effect on pulmonary function or biological health markers. These variables might not be sensitive to small changes from acute, mild PM2.5 exposure. Keywords: Air pollution, Cycle ergometry, Pulmonary function, Time trial, Vigorous exercise

  17. Human health risk due to variations in PM10-PM2.5 and associated PAHs levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Beatriz S.; Porta, Andrés; Colman Lerner, Jorge Esteban; Banda Noriega, Roxana; Massolo, Laura

    2017-07-01

    WHO (2012) reports that chronic exposure to air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), causes the death of 7 million people, constituting the most important environmental risk for health in the world. IARC classifies contaminated outdoor air as carcinogenic, Group 1 category. However, in our countries there are few studies regarding air pollution levels and possible associated effects on public health. The current study determined PM and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) levels in outdoor air, identified their possible emission sources and analysed health risks in the city of Tandil (Argentina). PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected using a low volume sampler (MiniVol TAS) in three areas: city centre, industrial and residential. Concentrations were determined by gravimetric methods and the content of the US EPA 16 priority PAHs was found by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Description of the main emission sources and selection of monitoring sites resulted from spatial analysis and the IVE (International Vehicle Emissions) model was used in the characterisation of the traffic flow. Median values of 35.7 μgm-3 and 9.6 μgm-3 in PM10 and PM2.5 respectively and characteristic profiles were found for each area. Local values PAHs associated to PM10 and PM2.5, in general, were lower than 10ngm-3. The estimated Unit Risk for the three areas exceeds US EPA standards (9 × 10-5). The number of deaths attributable to short term exposure to outdoor PM10 was 4 cases in children under 5 years of age, and 21 cases in total population, for a relative risk of 1.037.

  18. Lability of Secondary Organic Particulate Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; Giles, Mary K.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Bertram, Allan K.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    Accurate simulations of the consenctrations of atmospheric organic particulate matter (PM) are needed for predicting energy flow in the Earth’s climate system. In the past, simulations of organic PM widely assume equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between the PM and surrounding vapor. Herein, we test this assumption by measuring evaporation rates and associated vapor mass concentration of organic films representative of atmospheric PM. For films representing anthropogenic PM, evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations increased above a threshold relative humidity (RH), indicating equilibrium partitioning above a transition RH but not below. In contrast for films representing biogenic PM, no threshold was observed, indicating equilibrium partitioning at all RHs. The results suggest that the mass lability of atmospheric organic PM can differ in consequential ways among Earth’s natural biomes, polluted regions, and regions of land-use change, and these differences need to be considered when simulating atmospheric organic PM.

  19. Winter mass concentrations of carbon species in PM10, PM 2.5 and PM1 in Zagreb air, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godec, Ranka; Čačković, Mirjana; Šega, Krešimir; Bešlić, Ivan

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to examine the mass concentrations of EC, OC and TC (EC + OC) in PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1) particle fractions. Daily PM(10), PM(2.5) and PM(1) samples were collected at an urban background monitoring site in Zagreb during winter 2009. Average OC and EC mass concentrations were 11.9 and 1.8 μg m(-3) in PM(10), 9.0 and 1.4 μg m(-3) in PM(2.5), and 5.5 and 1.1 μg m(-3) in PM(1). Average OC/EC ratios in PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1) were 7.4, 6.9 and 5.4, respectively.

  20. Historical Trends in Pm2.5-Related Premature Mortality ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Air quality across the northern hemisphere over the past two decades has witnessed dramatic changes, with continuous improvement in developed countries in North America and Europe, but a contrasting sharp deterioration in developing regions of Asia. Objective: This study investigates the historical trend in the long-term exposure to PM2.5 and PM2.5-related premature mortality (PM2.5-mortality) and its response to changes in emission that occurred during 1990-2010 across the northern hemisphere. Implications for future trends in human exposure to air pollution in both developed and developing regions of the world are discussed. Methods: We employed the integrated exposure-response model developed by Health Effects Institute to estimate the PM2.5-mortality. The 1990-2010 annual-average PM2.5 concentrations were obtained from the simulations using WRF-CMAQ model. Emission mitigation efficiencies of SO2, NOx, NH3 and primary PM are estimated from the PM2.5-mortality responses to the emission variations. Results: Estimated PM2.5-mortalities in East Asia and South Asia increased by 21% and 85% respectively, from 866,000 and 578,000 in 1990, to 1,048,000 and 1,068,000 in 2010. PM2.5-mortalities in developed regions, i.e., Europe and high-income North America decreased substantially by 67% and 58% respectively. Conclusions: Over the past two decades, correlations between population and PM2.5 have become weaker in Europe and North America due to air pollu

  1. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHI, M.; Wu, H.; Zhang, S.; Li, H.; Yang, T.

    2013-12-01

    In urban areas,fine particle matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 um and 10 um (PM2.5-10), and 2.5 um (PM2.5), as an important source of urban particulate matter (PM) pollutants, have significant negative effects on health, atmospheric visibility and climate. PM has increasingly become a significant index of indicating the atmospheric pollution of city. In recent years, Beijing, China has been listed as one of the most serious air pollution city in the world. In order to investigate the sources of air pollutants, a total of 283 pairs of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 samples were collected daily from July, 2010 to June, 2011 in Beijing. Mineral magnetic properties and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were measured to verify the magnetic materials. Magnetic measures for PM indicated that the major magnetic phase was coarse-grained magnetite-like material. The χlf, χarm, SIRM and χarm/SIRM series of the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show seasonal dependences: high values in winter and low values in summer. In additional the parameters analyzed by Time-series methods show a strong cycle about 7 days above 95% confidence level. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show different pattern: the concentration of magnetic particles in PM2.5-10 show high values in mid-week, and particle sizes is steady, while the concentration of magnetic particles in PM2.5 show reverse a weekly cycle pattern, and particle sizes is smaller in the mid-week.Microscopy analyses reveal basically three morphologies of magnetic grains: aggregate, spherules and angular particles. The ultrafine carbonaceous particles which tend to form complex clusters and chain-like structures, most likely come from coal burning and motor vehicle exhaust. Spherical particles in PM2.5 are dominantly composed of Fe, O and C, grain-diameters of particles range from 0.3 to 2 um. Angular particles of Fe

  2. [Preliminary study of source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 in three cities of China during spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shen; Pan, Xiao-chuan; Madaniyazi, Li-na; Xie, Juan; He, Ya-hui

    2013-09-01

    To study source apportionment of atmospheric PM10 (particle matter ≤ 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter) and PM2.5 (particle matter ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) in Beijing,Urumqi and Qingdao, China. The atmospheric particle samples of PM10 and PM2.5 collected from Beijing between May 17th and June 18th, 2005, from Urumqi between April 20th and June 1st, 2006 and from Qingdao between April 4th and May 15th, 2005, were detected to trace the source apportionment by factor analysis and enrichment factor methods. In Beijing, the source apportionment results derived from factor analysis model for PM10 were construction dust and soil sand dust (contributing rate of variance at 45.35%), industry dust, coal-combusted smoke and vehicle emissions (contributing rate at 31.83%), and biomass burning dust (13.57%). The main pollution element was Pb, while the content (median (minimum value-maximum value)was 0.216 (0.040-0.795) µg/m(3)) . As for PM2.5, the sources were construction dust and soil sand dust (38.86%), industry dust, coal-combusted smoke and vehicle emissions (25.73%), biomass burning dust (13.10%) and burning oil dust (11.92%). The main pollution element was Zn (0.365(0.126-0.808) µg/m(3)).In Urumqi, source apportionment results for PM10 were soil sand dust and coal-combusted dust(49.75%), industry dust, vehicle emissions and secondary particles dust (30.65%). The main characteristic pollution element was Cd (0.463(0.033-1.351) ng/m(3)). As for PM2.5, the sources were soil sand dust and coal-combusted dust (43.26%), secondary particles dust (22.29%), industry dust and vehicle emissions (20.50%). The main characteristic pollution element was As (14.599 (1.696-36.741) µg/m(3)).In Qingdao, source apportionment results for PM10 were construction dust (30.91%), vehicle emissions and industry dust (29.65%) and secondary particles dust (28.99%). The main characteristic pollution element was Pb (64.071 (5.846-346.831) µg/m(3)). As for PM2.5, the sources were

  3. Anomalous elevated radiocarbon measurements of PM2.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Bruce A.; Fallon, Stewart J.; Zermeño, Paula; Bench, Graham; Schichtel, Bret A.

    2013-01-01

    Two-component models are often used to determine the contributions made by fossil fuel and natural sources of carbon in airborne particulate matter (PM). The models reduce thousands of actual sources to two end members based on isotopic signature. Combustion of fossil fuels produces PM free of carbon-14 ( 14 C). Wood or charcoal smoke, restaurant fryer emissions, and natural emissions from plants produce PM with the contemporary concentration of 14 C approximately 1.2 × 10 −1214 C/C. Such data can be used to estimate the relative contributions of fossil fuels and biogenic aerosols to the total aerosol loading and radiocarbon analysis is becoming a popular source apportionment method. Emissions from incinerators combusting medical or biological wastes containing tracer 14 C can skew the 14 C/C ratio of PM, however, so critical analysis of sampling sites for possible sources of elevated PM needs to be completed prior to embarking on sampling campaigns. Results are presented for two ambient monitoring sites in different areas of the United States where 14 C contamination is apparent. Our experience suggests that such contamination is uncommon but is also not rare (∼10%) for PM sampling sites.

  4. Efficiency of Emission Control Measures on Particulate Matter-Related Health Impacts and Economic Cost during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Meeting in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qichen Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC meeting was held from 5 November to 11 November 2014 in Beijing, and comprehensive emission control measures were implemented. The efficiency of these measures on particulate matter-related health impacts and economic cost need to be evaluated. Methods: The influences of emission control measures during APEC on particulate matter were evaluated, and health economic effects were assessed. Results: Average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 during APEC were reduced by 57.0%, and 50.6% respectively, compared with pre-APEC period. However, the concentrations of particulate matter rebounded after APEC. Compared with the pre-APEC and post-APEC periods, the estimated number of deaths caused by non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases that could be attributed to PM2.5 and PM10 during the APEC were the lowest. The economic cost associated with mortality caused by PM2.5 and PM10 during the APEC were reduced by (61.3% and 66.6% and (50.3% and 60.8% respectively, compared with pre-APEC and post-APEC. Conclusions: The emission control measures were effective in improving short term air quality and reducing health risks and medical expenses during 2014 APEC, but more efforts is needed for long term and continuous air quality improvement and health protection.

  5. Efficiency of Emission Control Measures on Particulate Matter-Related Health Impacts and Economic Cost during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Meeting in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qichen; Huang, Jing; Guo, Bin; Guo, Xinbiao

    2016-12-28

    Background : The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting was held from 5 November to 11 November 2014 in Beijing, and comprehensive emission control measures were implemented. The efficiency of these measures on particulate matter-related health impacts and economic cost need to be evaluated. Methods : The influences of emission control measures during APEC on particulate matter were evaluated, and health economic effects were assessed. Results : Average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 during APEC were reduced by 57.0%, and 50.6% respectively, compared with pre-APEC period. However, the concentrations of particulate matter rebounded after APEC. Compared with the pre-APEC and post-APEC periods, the estimated number of deaths caused by non-accidental, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases that could be attributed to PM 2.5 and PM 10 during the APEC were the lowest. The economic cost associated with mortality caused by PM 2.5 and PM 10 during the APEC were reduced by (61.3% and 66.6%) and (50.3% and 60.8%) respectively, compared with pre-APEC and post-APEC. Conclusions : The emission control measures were effective in improving short term air quality and reducing health risks and medical expenses during 2014 APEC, but more efforts is needed for long term and continuous air quality improvement and health protection.

  6. Observation of $C\\!P$ violation in $B^\\pm \\to D K^\\pm$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderson, J; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bates, A; Bauer, C; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Büchler-Germann, A; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chiapolini, N; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Diniz Batista, P; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisele, F; Eisenhardt, S; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Esperante Pereira, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garnier, J-C; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gauvin, N; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harji, R; Harnew, N; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Holubyev, K; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Huston, R S; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Imong, J; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jahjah Hussein, M; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jean-Marie, B; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Keaveney, J; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kim, Y M; Knecht, M; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kruzelecki, K; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Li, L; Li Gioi, L; Lieng, M; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Mac Raighne, A; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Magnin, J; Malde, S; Mamunur, R M D; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of $B^{\\pm}\\to DK^{\\pm}$ and $B^{\\pm}\\to D\\pi^{\\pm}$ decays is presented where the $D$ meson is reconstructed in the two-body final states:$K^{\\pm}\\pi^{\\mp}$, $K^+K^-$, $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $\\pi^{\\pm}K^{\\mp}$. Using $1.0{\\rm \\,fb}^{-1}$ of LHCb data, measurements of several observables are made including the first observation of the suppressed mode $B^{\\pm}\\to[\\pi^{\\pm}K^{\\mp}]_DK^{\\pm}$. $C\\!P$ violation in $B^{\\pm}\\to DK^{\\pm}$ decays is observed with $5.8\\,\\sigma$ significance.

  7. Lifetime measurement in 136Pm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toney, D.; Zhong, Q.; De Angelis, G.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the electromagnetic transition probabilities in the doublet bands of 136 Pm. These two bands have been observed up to Iπ = (21 + ). Contrary to the case of 134 Pr, the B(M1)/B(E2) ratios take similar values within the error bars in 136 Pm. This is a strong indication that there is considerable difference between the two nuclei. However, a lifetime measurement in 136 Pm is needed to shed light on the scale and the origin of the difference

  8. Differentiating the effects of characteristics of PM pollution on mortality from ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hualiang; Tao, Jun; Du, Yaodong; Liu, Tao; Qian, Zhengmin; Tian, Linwei; Di, Qian; Zeng, Weilin; Xiao, Jianpeng; Guo, Lingchuan; Li, Xing; Xu, Yanjun; Ma, Wenjun

    2016-03-01

    Though increasing evidence supports significant association between particulate matter (PM) air pollution and stroke, it remains unclear what characteristics, such as particle size and chemical constituents, are responsible for this association. A time-series model with quasi-Poisson function was applied to assess the association of PM pollution with different particle sizes and chemical constituents with mortalities from ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes in Guangzhou, China, we controlled for potential confounding factors in the model, such as temporal trends, day of the week, public holidays, meteorological factors and influenza epidemic. We found significant association between stroke mortality and various PM fractions, such as PM10, PM2.5 and PM1, with generally larger magnitudes for smaller particles. For the PM2.5 chemical constituents, we found that organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), sulfate, nitrate and ammonium were significantly associated with stroke mortality. The analysis for specific types of stroke suggested that it was hemorrhagic stroke, rather than ischemic stroke, that was significantly associated with PM pollution. Our study shows that various PM pollution fractions are associated with stroke mortality, and constituents primarily from combustion and secondary aerosols might be the harmful components of PM2.5 in Guangzhou, and this study suggests that PM pollution is more relevant to hemorrhagic stroke in the study area, however, more studies are warranted due to the underlying limitations of this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurement of the charge asymmetry in $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi K^{\\pm}$ and search for $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi \\pi^{\\pm}$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Cheung, S -F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorbounov, P; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Martynov, A; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2014-01-01

    The CP-violating charge asymmetry in $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi K^{\\pm}$ decays is measured in a sample of $pp$ collisions at 7 TeV centre-of-mass energy, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the LHCb experiment. The result is $\\mathcal{A}_{CP}(B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi K^{\\pm}) = \\rm 0.022\\pm 0.021 \\pm 0.009$, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second systematic. In addition, a search for the $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi \\pi^{\\pm}$ decay mode is performed, using the $B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi K^{\\pm}$ decay rate for normalization. An upper limit on the branching fraction $\\mathcal{B}(B^{\\pm}\\rightarrow \\phi \\pi^{\\pm})< 1.5\\times 10^{-7}$ is set at 90% confidence level.

  10. Effect of reaction temperature on the PM10 features during coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, J.C.; Du, Y.G.; Liu, Q.C.

    2008-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants produce fine fly ash consisting of particulate matter (PM). Particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM 1 0) is of significant concern because of its adverse environmental and health impacts. This paper studied the effect of reaction temperature on particulate matter (PM 1 0) emission and its chemical composition. The emission characteristics and elemental partition of PM 1 0 from coal combustion were investigated in a drop tube furnace. The paper discussed the experimental apparatus and conditions as well as the coal properties and sample analysis. Liupanshui (LPS) bituminous coal from China was used for the study. The fuel composition of LPS coal and the composition of low temperature ash of Chinese LPS coal were described. The paper also presented the results of the study with reference to particle size distribution and emission characteristic of PM 1 0; elemental partition within PM 1 0; and effect of the reaction temperature on elemental partition within PM 1 0. The PM mass size distribution was found to be bimodal. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  11. Procedures for identifying reasonably available control technology for stationary sources of PM-10. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, M.J.; Ellefson, R.

    1992-09-01

    The guidance document sets forth procedures and identifies sources of information that will assist State and local air pollution control agencies in determining Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) for PM-10 (particulate matter having a nominal aerometric diameter of 10 microns or less) emission from existing stationary sources on a case-by-case basis. It provides an annotated bibliography of documents to aid in identifying the activities that cause PM-10 emissions as well as applicable air pollution control measures and their effectiveness in reducing emissions. The most stringent state total particulate matter (PM) emission limits are identified for several categories of PM-10 sources and compared to available emission test data. Finally, guidance is provided on procedures for estimating total capital investment and total annual cost of the control measures which are generally used to control PM-10 emissions

  12. 40 CFR 52.379 - Control strategy: PM2.5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control strategy: PM2.5. 52.379 Section 52.379 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Connecticut § 52.379 Control strategy: PM2.5. Approval...

  13. Subchronic effects of inhaled ambient particulate matter on glucose homeostasis and target organ damage in a type 1 diabetic rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yuan-Horng [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Charles, Chou C.-K. [Research Center for Environmental Changes, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Jyh-Seng [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China); Tung, Chun-Liang [Department of Pathology, Ditmanson Medical Foundation Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chiayi, Taiwan (China); Li, Ya-Ru; Lo, Kai [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tsun-Jen, E-mail: tcheng@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported associations between particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular effects, and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients might be susceptible to these effects. The chief chronic injuries resulting from DM are small vascular injuries (micro-vascular complications) or large blood vessel injuries (macro-vascular complications). However, toxicological data regarding the effects of PM on DM-related cardiovascular complications is limited. Our objective was to investigate whether subchronic PM exposure alters glucose homeostasis and causes cardiovascular complications in a type 1 DM rat model. We constructed a real world PM{sub 2.5} exposure system, the Taipei Air Pollution Exposure System for Health Effects (TAPES), to continuously deliver non-concentrated PM for subchronic exposure. A type 1 DM rat model was induced using streptozotocin. Between December 22, 2009 and April 9, 2010, DM rats were exposed to PM or to filtered air (FA) using TAPES in Taipei, Taiwan, 24 h/day, 7 days/week, for a total of 16 weeks. The average concentrations (mean [SD]) of PM{sub 2.5} in the exposure and control chambers of the TAPES were 13.30 [8.65] and 0.13 [0.05] μg/m{sup 3}, respectively. Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was significantly elevated after exposure to PM compared with exposure to FA (mean [SD], 7.7% [3.1%] vs. 4.7% [1.0%], P < 0.05). Interleukin 6 and fibrinogen levels were significantly increased after PM exposure. PM caused focal myocarditis, aortic medial thickness, advanced glomerulosclerosis, and accentuation of tubular damage of the kidney (tubular damage index: 1.76 [0.77] vs. 1.15 [0.36], P < 0.001). PM exposure might induce the macro- and micro-vascular complications in DM through chronic hyperglycemia and systemic inflammation. - Highlights: • The study demonstrated cardiovascular and renal effects of PM in a rat model of DM. • TAPES is a continuous, real world, long-term PM exposure system. • HbA1c, a marker of glycemic

  14. Subchronic effects of inhaled ambient particulate matter on glucose homeostasis and target organ damage in a type 1 diabetic rat model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Yuan-Horng; Charles, Chou C.-K.; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Tung, Chun-Liang; Li, Ya-Ru; Lo, Kai; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported associations between particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular effects, and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients might be susceptible to these effects. The chief chronic injuries resulting from DM are small vascular injuries (micro-vascular complications) or large blood vessel injuries (macro-vascular complications). However, toxicological data regarding the effects of PM on DM-related cardiovascular complications is limited. Our objective was to investigate whether subchronic PM exposure alters glucose homeostasis and causes cardiovascular complications in a type 1 DM rat model. We constructed a real world PM 2.5 exposure system, the Taipei Air Pollution Exposure System for Health Effects (TAPES), to continuously deliver non-concentrated PM for subchronic exposure. A type 1 DM rat model was induced using streptozotocin. Between December 22, 2009 and April 9, 2010, DM rats were exposed to PM or to filtered air (FA) using TAPES in Taipei, Taiwan, 24 h/day, 7 days/week, for a total of 16 weeks. The average concentrations (mean [SD]) of PM 2.5 in the exposure and control chambers of the TAPES were 13.30 [8.65] and 0.13 [0.05] μg/m 3 , respectively. Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was significantly elevated after exposure to PM compared with exposure to FA (mean [SD], 7.7% [3.1%] vs. 4.7% [1.0%], P < 0.05). Interleukin 6 and fibrinogen levels were significantly increased after PM exposure. PM caused focal myocarditis, aortic medial thickness, advanced glomerulosclerosis, and accentuation of tubular damage of the kidney (tubular damage index: 1.76 [0.77] vs. 1.15 [0.36], P < 0.001). PM exposure might induce the macro- and micro-vascular complications in DM through chronic hyperglycemia and systemic inflammation. - Highlights: • The study demonstrated cardiovascular and renal effects of PM in a rat model of DM. • TAPES is a continuous, real world, long-term PM exposure system. • HbA1c, a marker of glycemic homeostasis, was

  15. Levels of PM2.5/PM10 and associated metal(loid)s in rural households of Henan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fuyong; Wang, Wei; Man, Yu Bon; Chan, Chuen Yu; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-04-15

    Although a majority of China's rural residents use solid fuels (biomass and coal) for household cooking and heating, clean energy such as electricity and liquid petroleum gas is becoming more popular in the rural area. Unfortunately, both solid fuels and clean energy could result in indoor air pollution. Daily respirable particulate matter (PM≤10 μm) and inhalable particulate matter (PM≤2.5 μm) were investigated in kitchens, sitting rooms and outdoor area in rural Henan during autumn (Sep to Oct 2012) and winter (Jan 2013). The results showed that PM (PM2.5 and PM10) and associated metal(loid)s varied among the two seasons and the four types of domestic energy used. Mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in kitchens during winter were 59.2-140.4% and 30.5-145.1% higher than those during autumn, respectively. Similar with the trends of PM2.5 and PM10, concentrations of As, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni and Mn in household PM2.5 and PM10 were apparently higher in winter than those in autumn. The highest mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 (368.5 and 588.7 μg m(-3)) were recorded in sitting rooms in Baofeng during winter, which were 5.7 and 3.9 times of corresponding health based guidelines for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Using coal can result in severe indoor air pollutants including PM and associated metal(loid)s compared with using crop residues, electricity and gas in rural Henan Province. Rural residents' exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 would be roughly reduced by 13.5-22.2% and 8.9-37.7% via replacing coal or crop residues with electricity. The present study suggested that increased use of electricity as domestic energy would effectively improve indoor air quality in rural China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Respiratory dose analysis for components of ambient particulate matter#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) in the atmosphere is a complex mixture of particles with different sizes and chemical compositions. Although PM is known to cause health hazard, specific attributes of PM that may cause health effects are somewhat ambiguous. The dose of each specific compo...

  17. Particulate matter urban air pollution from traffic car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, G. M.; Brezoczki, V. M.

    2017-05-01

    The particulate matters (PM) are very important compounds of urban air pollution. There are a lot of air pollution sources who can generate PM and one of the most important of them it is urban traffic car. Air particulate matters have a major influence on human health so everywhere are looking for PM reducing solutions. It is knows that one of the solution for reduce the PM content from car traffic on ambient urban air is the fluidity of urban traffic car by introduction the roundabout intersections. This paper want to present some particulate matter determinations for PM10 and PM2.5 conducted on the two types of urban intersection respectively traffic light and roundabout intersections in Baia Mare town in the approximate the same work conditions. The determinations were carried out using a portable particulate matter monitor Haz - Dust model EPAM - 5000, who can provide a real time data for PM10, PM 2.5.Determinations put out that there are differences between the two locations regarding the PM content on ambient air. On roundabout intersection the PM content is less than traffic light intersection for both PM10 and PM 2.5 with more than 30%.

  18. Spatio-Temporal Pattern Estimation of PM2.5 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region Based on MODIS AOD and Meteorological Data Using the Back Propagation Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiliang Ni

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the economic growth and increasing urbanization in the last three decades, the air quality over China has continuously degraded, which poses a great threat to human health. The concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 directly affects the mortality of people living in the polluted areas where air quality is poor. The Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH region, one of the well organized urban regions in northern China, has suffered with poor air quality and atmospheric pollution due to recent growth of the industrial sector and vehicle emissions. In the present study, we used the back propagation neural network model approach to estimate the spatial distribution of PM2.5 concentration in the BTH region for the period January 2014–December 2016, combining the satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (S-DAOD and meteorological data. The results were validated using the ground PM2.5 data. The general method including all PM2.5 training data and 10-fold cross-method have been used for validation for PM2.5 estimation (R2 = 0.68, RMSE = 20.99 for general validation; R2 = 0.54, RMSE = 24.13 for cross-method validation. The study provides a new approach to monitoring the distribution of PM2.5 concentration. The results discussed in the present paper will be of great help to government agencies in developing and implementing environmental conservation policy.

  19. Monetary Valuation of PM10-Related Health Risks in Beijing China: The Necessity for PM10 Pollution Indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hao; Xu, Linyu; Cai, Yanpeng

    2015-08-21

    Severe health risks caused by PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm) pollution have induced inevitable economic losses and have rendered pressure on the sustainable development of society as a whole. In China, with the "Polluters Pay Principle", polluters should pay for the pollution they have caused, but how much they should pay remains an intractable problem for policy makers. This paper integrated an epidemiological exposure-response model with economics methods, including the Amended Human Capital (AHC) approach and the Cost of Illness (COI) method, to value the economic loss of PM10-related health risks in 16 districts and also 4 functional zones in Beijing from 2008 to 2012. The results show that from 2008 to 2012 the estimated annual deaths caused by PM10 in Beijing are around 56,000, 58,000, 63,000, 61,000 and 59,000, respectively, while the economic losses related to health damage increased from around 23 to 31 billion dollars that PM10 polluters should pay for pollution victims between 2008 and 2012. It is illustrated that not only PM10 concentration but also many other social economic factors influence PM10-related health economic losses, which makes health economic losses show a time lag discrepancy compared with the decline of PM10 concentration. In conclusion, health economic loss evaluation is imperative in the pollution indemnity system establishment and should be considered for the urban planning and policy making to control the burgeoning PM10 health economic loss.

  20. Characterization of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in outdoor/indoor PM10/PM2.5/PM1.0 in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huiting; Gao, Lirong; Xia, Dan; Qiao, Lin; Wang, Runhua; Su, Guijin; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui

    2017-06-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were listed in the Stockholm Convention, because of their adverse health effects, persistence, bioaccumulation and ubiquitous presence in the environment. Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), chlorinated derivatives of n-alkanes, have been listed as candidate POPs under Stockholm Convention. Inhalation uptake was an important exposure pathway for non-occupational adult human and the pollution of particle matter has caused great concern. There are some studies focused on POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in different size particles. However, there were no studies that discussed CP concentrations in particulate matter (PM) with different sizes. In this study, a total of 30 PM samples were collected both outdoors and indoors at a sampling site in Beijing. These samples were used to investigate the concentrations and distributions of SCCPs and medium chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) in PM fractions of different sizes, and to evaluate inhalation exposure risks. The results showed that the average SCCPs and MCCPs in the outdoor PM 10 were 23.9 and 3.6 ng m -3 , while the mean values in indoor were 61.1 and 6.9 ng m -3 , respectively. The levels of SCCPs and MCCPs in indoor and outdoor were relatively high. SCCP and MCCP concentrations in the indoor PM 10 /PM 2.5 /PM 1.0 samples were higher than the corresponding values in the outdoor, because of the using of some products containing CPs in the indoors, like paints and coatings, leather and rubber products. In both outdoor and indoor air, CPs are mainly associated with particles ≤2.5 μm in diameter. The main homolog groups for both SCCPs and MCCPs were C 10-11 Cl 7-8 . It is assumed that SCCPs in the outdoor and indoor PM samples may mainly derive from the production and use of CP-42 and CP-52. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Direct and Indirect Effects of PM on the Cardiovascular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelin, Timothy D.; Joseph, Allan M.; Gorr, Matthew W.; Wold, Loren E.

    2011-01-01

    Human exposure to particulate matter (PM) elicits a variety of responses on the cardiovascular system through both direct and indirect pathways. Indirect effects of PM on the cardiovascular system are mediated through the autonomic nervous system, which controls heart rate variability, and inflammatory responses, which augment acute cardiovascular events and atherosclerosis. Recent research demonstrates that PM also affects the cardiovascular system directly by entry into the systemic circulation. This process causes myocardial dysfunction through mechanisms of reactive oxygen species production, calcium ion interference, and vascular dysfunction. In this review, we will present key evidence in both the direct and indirect pathways, suggest clinical applications of the current literature, and recommend directions for future research. PMID:22119171

  2. Variation in global chemical composition of PM2.5: emerging results from SPARTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Snider

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Surface PARTiculate mAtter Network (SPARTAN is a long-term project that includes characterization of chemical and physical attributes of aerosols from filter samples collected worldwide. This paper discusses the ongoing efforts of SPARTAN to define and quantify major ions and trace metals found in fine particulate matter (PM2.5. Our methods infer the spatial and temporal variability of PM2.5 in a cost-effective manner. Gravimetrically weighed filters represent multi-day averages of PM2.5, with a collocated nephelometer sampling air continuously. SPARTAN instruments are paired with AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET sun photometers to better understand the relationship between ground-level PM2.5 and columnar aerosol optical depth (AOD.We have examined the chemical composition of PM2.5 at 12 globally dispersed, densely populated urban locations and a site at Mammoth Cave (US National Park used as a background comparison. So far, each SPARTAN location has been active between the years 2013 and 2016 over periods of 2–26 months, with an average period of 12 months per site. These sites have collectively gathered over 10 years of quality aerosol data. The major PM2.5 constituents across all sites (relative contribution ± SD are ammoniated sulfate (20 % ± 11 %, crustal material (13.4 % ± 9.9 %, equivalent black carbon (11.9 % ± 8.4 %, ammonium nitrate (4.7 % ± 3.0 %, sea salt (2.3 % ± 1.6 %, trace element oxides (1.0 % ± 1.1 %, water (7.2 % ± 3.3 % at 35 % RH, and residual matter (40 % ± 24 %.Analysis of filter samples reveals that several PM2.5 chemical components varied by more than an order of magnitude between sites. Ammoniated sulfate ranges from 1.1 µg m−3 (Buenos Aires, Argentina to 17 µg m−3 (Kanpur, India in the dry season. Ammonium nitrate ranged from 0.2 µg m−3 (Mammoth Cave, in summer to 6.8  µg m−3 (Kanpur, dry season. Equivalent

  3. Indoor and outdoor particulate matter in primary school classrooms with fan-assisted natural ventilation in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ailu; Gall, Elliott T; Chang, Victor W C

    2016-09-01

    We conducted multiday continuous monitoring of indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM) in classrooms with fan-assisted natural ventilation (NV) at five primary schools in Singapore. We monitored size-resolved number concentration of PM with diameter 0.3-10 μm at all schools and alveolar deposited surface area concentrations of PM with diameter 0.01-1.0 μm (SA0.01-1.0) at two schools. Results show that, during the monitoring period, schools closer to expressways and in the downtown area had 2-3 times higher outdoor PM0.3-1.0 number concentrations than schools located in suburban areas. Average indoor SA0.01-1.0 was 115-118 μm(2) cm(-3) during periods of occupancy and 72-87 μm(2) cm(-3) during unoccupied periods. There were close indoor and outdoor correlations for fine PM during both occupied and unoccupied periods (Pearson's r = 0.84-1.0) while the correlations for coarse PM were weak during the occupied periods (r = 0.13-0.74). Across all the schools, the size-resolved indoor/outdoor PM ratios (I/O ratios) were 0.81 to 1.58 and 0.61 to 0.95 during occupied and unoccupied periods, respectively, and average infiltration factors were 0.64 to 0.94. Average PM net emission rates, calculated during periods of occupancy in the classrooms, were lower than or in the lower range of emission rates reported in the literature. This study also reveals that indoor fine and submicron PM predominantly come from outdoor sources, while indoor sources associated with occupancy may be important for coarse PM even when the classrooms have high air exchange rates.

  4. Using VIIRS/NPP and MODIS/Aqua data to provide a continuous record of suspended particulate matter in a highly turbid inland lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhigang; Duan, Hongtao; Shen, Ming; Ma, Ronghua; Xue, Kun; Liu, Dong; Xiao, Qitao

    2018-02-01

    Inland lakes are generally an important source of drinking water, and information on their water quality needs to be obtained in real time. To date, Moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data have played a critical, effective and long-term role in fulfilling this function. However, the MODIS instruments on board both the Terra and Aqua satellites have operated beyond their designed five-year mission lifespans (Terra was launched in 1999, whereas Aqua was launched in 2002), and these instruments may stop running at any time in the near future. The Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP, which was launched in Oct 2011) is expected to provide a consistent, long-term data record and continue the series of observations initiated by MODIS. To date, few evaluations of the consistency between VIIRS and MODIS have been conducted for turbid inland waters. In this study, we first used synchronous MODIS/Aqua and VIIRS/NPP data (±1 h) collected during 2012-2015 to evaluate the consistency of Rayleigh-corrected reflectance (Rrc) observations over Lake Hongze (the fourth-largest freshwater lake in China), since accurate remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) values cannot be acquired over turbid inland waters. Second, we used recently developed algorithms based on Rrc in the red band to estimate the concentrations of suspended particulate matter (SPM) from MODIS/Aqua and VIIRS/NPP data. Finally, we assessed the consistency of the SPM products derived from MODIS/Aqua and VIIRS/NPP. The results show the following. (1) The differences in Rrc among the green (VIIRS 551 nm and MODIS 555 nm) and red bands (VIIRS 671 nm and MODIS 645 nm) indicate a satisfactory consistency, and the unbiased percentage difference (UPD) is MODIS 859 nm and VIIRS 862 nm) indicate relatively large differences (UPD = 21.84%). (2) The satellite-derived SPM products obtained using MODIS/Aqua and VIIRS/NPP have a satisfactory

  5. Assessment of impact distances for particulate matter dispersion: A stochastic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, S.M.; Mores, P.L.; Santa Cruz, A.S.M.; Scenna, N.J.

    2009-01-01

    It is known that pollutants can be dispersed from the emission sources by the wind, or settled on the ground. Particle size, stack height, topography and meteorological conditions strongly affect particulate matter (PM) dispersion. In this work, an impact distance calculation methodology considering different particulate sizes is presented. A Gaussian-type dispersion model for PM that handles size particles larger than 0.1 μm is used. The model considers primary particles and continuous emissions. PM concentration distribution at every affected geographical point defined by a grid is computed. Stochastic uncertainty caused by the natural variability of atmospheric parameters is taken into consideration in the dispersion model by applying a Monte Carlo methodology. The prototype package (STRRAP) that takes into account the stochastic behaviour of atmospheric variables, developed for risk assessment and safe distances calculation [Godoy SM, Santa Cruz ASM, Scenna NJ. STRRAP SYSTEM - A software for hazardous materials risk assessment and safe distances calculation. Reliability Engineering and System Safety 2007;92(7):847-57] is enlarged for the analysis of the PM air dispersion. STRRAP computes distances from the source to every affected receptor in each trial and generates the impact distance distribution for each particulate size. In addition, a representative impact distance value to delimit the affected area can be obtained. Fuel oil stack effluents dispersion in Rosario city is simulated as a case study. Mass concentration distributions and impact distances are computed for the range of interest in environmental air quality evaluations (PM 2.5 -PM 10 ).

  6. Meteorological factors for PM10 concentration levels in Northern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santurtún, Ana; Mínguez, Roberto; Villar-Fernández, Alejandro; González Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Zarrabeitia, María Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is made up of a mixture of solid and aqueous species which enter the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural pathways. The levels and composition of ambient air PM depend on the climatology and on the geography (topography, soil cover, proximity to arid zones or to the coast) of a given region. Spain has particular difficulties in achieving compliance with the limit values established by the European Union (based on recommendations from the World Health Organization) for particulate matter on the order of 10 micrometers of diameter or less (PM10), but not only antropogenical emissions are responsible for this: some studies show that PM10 concentrations originating from these kinds of sources are similar to what is found in other European countries, while some of the geographical features of the Iberian Peninsula (such as African mineral dust intrusion, soil aridity or rainfall) are proven to be a factor for higher PM concentrations. This work aims to describe PM10 concentration levels in Cantabria (Northern Spain) and their relationship with the following meteorological variables: rainfall, solar radiation, temperature, barometric pressure and wind speed. Data consists of daily series obtained from hourly data records for the 2000-2010 period, of PM10 concentrations from 4 different urban-background stations, and daily series of the meteorological variables provided by Spanish National Meteorology Agency. The method used for establishing the relationships between these variables consists of several steps: i) fitting a non-stationary probability density function for each variable accounting for long-term trends, seasonality during the year and possible seasonality during the week to distinguish between work and weekend days, ii) using the marginal distribution function obtained, transform the time series of historical values of each variable into a normalized Gaussian time series. This step allows using consistently time series

  7. An integrated approach to identify the origin of PM10 exceedances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodio, M; Andriani, E; de Gennaro, G; Demarinis Loiotile, A; Di Gilio, A; Placentino, M C

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed to the development of an integrated approach for the characterization of particulate matter (PM) pollution events in the South of Italy. PM(10) and PM(2.5) daily samples were collected from June to November 2008 at an urban background site located in Bari (Puglia Region, South of Italy). Meteorological data, particle size distributions and atmospheric dispersion conditions were also monitored in order to provide information concerning the different features of PM sources. The collected data allowed suggesting four indicators to characterize different PM(10) exceedances. PM(2.5)/PM(10) ratio, natural radioactivity, aerosol maps and back-trajectory analysis and particle distributions were considered in order to evaluate the contribution of local anthropogenic sources and to determine the different origins of intrusive air mass coming from long-range transport, such as African dust outbreaks and aerosol particles from Central and Eastern Europe. The obtained results were confirmed by applying principal component analysis to the number particle concentration dataset and by the chemical characterization of the samples (PM(10) and PM(2.5)). The integrated approach for PM study suggested in this paper can be useful to support the air quality managers for the development of cost-effective control strategies and the application of more suitable risk management approaches.

  8. Indoor PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations in primary schools in Sari, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadyan, Mahmoud; Shabankhani, Bijan

    2013-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the distribution of particles in classrooms in primary schools located in the centre of the city of Sari, Iran and identify the relationship between indoor classroom particle levels and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations. Outdoor PM2.5 and indoor PM1, PM2.5, and PM10 were monitored using a real-time Micro Dust Pro monitor and a GRIMM monitor, respectively. Both monitors were calibrated by gravimetric method using filters. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that all indoor and outdoor data fitted normal distribution. Mean indoor PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations for all of the classrooms were 17.6 μg m(-3), 46.6 μg m(-3), 400.9 μg m(-3), and 36.9 μg m(-3), respectively. The highest levels of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were measured at the Shahed Boys School (69.1 μg m(-3) and 115.8 μg m(-3), respectively). The Kazemi school had the lowest levels of indoor and outdoor PM2.5 (29.1 μg m(-3) and 15.5 μg m(-3), respectively). In schools located near both main and small roads, the association between indoor fine particle (PM2.5 and PM1) and outdoor PM2.5 levels was stronger than that between indoor PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 levels. Mean indoor PM2.5 and PM10 and outdoor PM2.5 were higher than the standards for PM2.5 and PM10, and there was a good correlation between indoor and outdoor fine particle concentrations.

  9. Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Johns Hopkins Particulate Matter Research Center will map health risks of PM across the US based on analyses of national databases on air pollution, mortality,...

  10. Cytogenetic instability in populations with residential proximity to open-pit coal mine in Northern Colombia in relation to PM10 and PM2.5 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; da Silva, Juliana; Espitia-Pérez, Pedro; Brango, Hugo; Salcedo-Arteaga, Shirley; Hoyos-Giraldo, Luz Stella; de Souza, Claudia T; Dias, Johnny F; Agudelo-Castañeda, Dayana; Valdés Toscano, Ana; Gómez-Pérez, Miguel; Henriques, João A P

    2018-02-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that living in proximity to coal mines is correlated with numerous diseases including cancer, and that exposure to PM 10 and PM 2.5 components could be associated with this phenomenon. However, the understanding of the mechanisms by which PM exerts its adverse effects is still incomplete and comes mainly from studies in occupationally exposed populations. The aims of this study were to: (1) evaluate DNA damage in lymphocytes assessing the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay (CBMN-cyt) parameters; (2) identify aneugenic or clastogenic effects in lymphocytes of exposed populations using CREST immunostaining for micronuclei; (3) evaluate multi-elemental composition of atmospheric particulate matter; and (4) verify relation between the DNA damage and PM 2.5 and PM 10 levels around the mining area. Analysis revealed a significant increase in micronuclei frequency in binucleated (MNBN) and mononucleated (MNMONO) cells of individuals with residential proximity to open-pit coal mines compared to residents from non-mining areas. Correlation analysis demonstrated a highly significant association between PM 2.5 levels, MNBN frequencies and CREST+ micronuclei induction in exposed residents. These results suggest that PM 2.5 fraction generated in coal mining activities may induce whole chromosome loss (aneuploidy) preferentially, although there are also chromosome breaks. Analysis of the chemical composition of PM 2.5 by PIXE demonstrated that Si, S, K and Cr concentrations varied significantly between coal mining and reference areas. Enrichment factor values (EF) showed that S, Cr and Cu were highly enriched in the coal mining areas. Compared to reference area, mining regions had also higher concentrations of extractable organic matter (EOM) related to nonpolar and polar compounds. Our results demonstrate that PM 2.5 fraction represents the most important health risk for residents living near open-pit mines, underscoring the need for

  11. Continuous measurements at the urban roadside in an Asian megacity by Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM): particulate matter characteristics during fall and winter seasons in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C.; Lee, B. P.; Huang, D.; Jie Li, Y.; Schurman, M. I.; Louie, P. K. K.; Luk, C.; Chan, C. K.

    2016-02-01

    Non-refractory submicron aerosol is characterized using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) in the fall and winter seasons of 2013 on the roadside in an Asian megacity environment in Hong Kong. Organic aerosol (OA), characterized by application of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF), and sulfate are found to be dominant. Traffic-related organic aerosol shows good correlation with other vehicle-related species, and cooking aerosol displays clear mealtime concentration maxima and association with surface winds from restaurant areas. Contributions of individual species and OA factors to high NR-PM1 are analyzed for hourly data and daily data; while cooking emissions in OA contribute to high hourly concentrations, particularly during mealtimes, secondary organic aerosol components are responsible for episodic events and high day-to-day PM concentrations. Clean periods are either associated with precipitation, which reduces secondary OA with a lesser impact on primary organics, or clean oceanic air masses with reduced long-range transport and better dilution of local pollution. Haze events are connected with increases in contribution of secondary organic aerosol, from 30 to 50 % among total non-refractory organics, and the influence of continental air masses.

  12. Continuous measurements at the urban roadside in an Asian megacity by Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM: particulate matter characteristics during fall and winter seasons in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sun

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-refractory submicron aerosol is characterized using an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM in the fall and winter seasons of 2013 on the roadside in an Asian megacity environment in Hong Kong. Organic aerosol (OA, characterized by application of Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF, and sulfate are found to be dominant. Traffic-related organic aerosol shows good correlation with other vehicle-related species, and cooking aerosol displays clear mealtime concentration maxima and association with surface winds from restaurant areas. Contributions of individual species and OA factors to high NR-PM1 are analyzed for hourly data and daily data; while cooking emissions in OA contribute to high hourly concentrations, particularly during mealtimes, secondary organic aerosol components are responsible for episodic events and high day-to-day PM concentrations. Clean periods are either associated with precipitation, which reduces secondary OA with a lesser impact on primary organics, or clean oceanic air masses with reduced long-range transport and better dilution of local pollution. Haze events are connected with increases in contribution of secondary organic aerosol, from 30 to 50 % among total non-refractory organics, and the influence of continental air masses.

  13. Oxidative potential of subway PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Teresa; Kelly, Frank J.; Dunster, Chrissi; Oliete, Ana; Martins, Vânia; Reche, Cristina; Minguillón, Maria Cruz; Amato, Fulvio; Capdevila, Marta; de Miguel, Eladio; Querol, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Air quality in subway systems is of interest not only because particulate matter (PM) concentrations can be high, but also because of the peculiarly metalliferous chemical character of the particles, most of which differ radically from those of outdoor ambient air. We report on the oxidative potential (OP) of PM2.5 samples collected in the Barcelona subway system in different types of stations. The PM chemical composition of these samples showed typically high concentrations of Fe, Total Carbon, Ba, Cu, Mn, Zn and Cr sourced from rail tracks, wheels, catenaries, brake pads and pantographs. Two toxicological indicators of oxidative activity, ascorbic acid (AA) oxidation (expressed as OPAA μg-1 or OPAA m-3) and glutathione (GSH) oxidation (expressed as OPGSH μg-1 or OPGSH m-3), showed low OP for all samples (compared with outdoor air) but considerable variation between stations (0.9-2.4 OPAA μg-1; 0.4-1.9 OPGSH μg-1). Results indicate that subway PM toxicity is not related to variations in PM2.5 concentrations produced by ventilation changes, tunnel works, or station design, but may be affected more by the presence of metallic trace elements such as Cu and Sb sourced from brakes and pantographs. The OP assays employed do not reveal toxic effects from the highly ferruginous component present in subway dust.

  14. Source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 in a desert region in northern Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorquera, Héctor; Barraza, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Estimating contributions of anthropogenic sources to ambient particulate matter (PM) in desert regions is a challenging issue because wind erosion contributions are ubiquitous, significant and difficult to quantify by using source-oriented, dispersion models. A receptor modeling analysis has been applied to ambient PM 10 and PM 2.5 measured in an industrial zone ∼ 20 km SE of Antofagasta (23.63°S, 70.39°W), a midsize coastal city in northern Chile; the monitoring site is within a desert region that extends from northern Chile to southern Perú. Integrated 24-hour ambient samples of PM 10 and PM 2.5 were taken with Harvard Impactors; samples were analyzed by X Ray Fluorescence, ionic chromatography (NO 3 − and SO 4 = ), atomic absorption (Na + , K + ) and thermal optical transmission for elemental and organic carbon determination. Receptor modeling was carried out using Positive Matrix Factorization (US EPA Version 3.0); sources were identified by looking at specific tracers, tracer ratios, local winds and wind trajectories computed from NOAA's HYSPLIT model. For the PM 2.5 fraction, six contributions were found — cement plant, 33.7 ± 1.3%; soil dust, 22.4 ± 1.6%; sulfates, 17.8 ± 1.7%; mineral stockpiles and brine plant, 12.4 ± 1.2%; Antofagasta, 8.5 ± 1.3% and copper smelter, 5.3 ± 0.8%. For the PM 10 fraction five sources were identified — cement plant, 38.2 ± 1.5%; soil dust, 31.2 ± 2.3%; mineral stockpiles and brine plant, 12.7 ± 1.7%; copper smelter, 11.5 ± 1.6% and marine aerosol, 6.5 ± 2.4%. Therefore local sources contribute to ambient PM concentrations more than distant sources (Antofagasta, marine aerosol) do. Soil dust is enriched with deposition of marine aerosol and calcium, sulfates and heavy metals from surrounding industrial activities. The mean contribution of suspended soil dust to PM 10 is 50 μg/m 3 and the peak daily value is 104 μg/m 3 . For the PM 2.5 fraction, suspended soil dust contributes with an average of 9.3

  15. Particulate pollution of PM10 and PM2.5 due to strong anthropopressure in Sosnowiec city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Cembrzyńska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Air contamination with particulate matter causes a serious problem in large cities and urban-industrial agglomerations both in Poland and Europe. Anthropogenic sources of air pollution in urban areas are emissions from municipal, industrial and transportation sector. Many epidemiological studies have revealed that exposure to air pollution, especially the fine particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2,5 micrometer, can pose a threat to human health exposed to exceedingly high concentrations of particulate matter. Aim of the study: The aim of this study was to evaluate PM10 and PM2,5 mass concentrations in autumn and winter season in the city of Sosnowiec, in relation to ambient air quality standards in Poland and the European Union. Results: The average concentrations of PM10 and PM2,5 in autumn-winter seasons in Sosnowiec city 2010–2011 were 2,1 to 2,7 times higher than limit values, specified in the legislation acts.

  16. Chemical profiling of PM10 from urban road dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, C A; Evtyugina, M; Vicente, A M P; Vicente, E D; Nunes, T V; Silva, P M A; Duarte, M A C; Pio, C A; Amato, F; Querol, X

    2018-09-01

    Road dust resuspension is one of the main sources of particulate matter with impacts on air quality, health and climate. With the aim of characterising the thoracic fraction, a portable resuspension chamber was used to collect road dust from five main roads in Oporto and an urban tunnel in Braga, north of Portugal. The PM 10 samples were analysed for: i) carbonates by acidification and quantification of the evolved CO 2 , ii) carbonaceous content (OC and EC) by a thermo-optical technique, iii) elemental composition by ICP-MS and ICP-AES after acid digestion, and iv) organic speciation by GC-MS. Dust loadings of 0.48±0.39mgPM 10 m -2 were obtained for asphalt paved roads. A much higher mean value was achieved in a cobbled pavement (50mgPM 10 m -2 ). In general, carbonates were not detected in PM 10 . OC and EC accounted for PM 10 mass fractions up to 11% and 5%, respectively. Metal oxides accounted for 29±7.5% of the PM 10 mass from the asphalt paved roads and 73% in samples from the cobbled street. Crustal and anthropogenic elements, associated with tyre and brake wear, dominated the inorganic fraction. PM 10 comprised hundreds of organic constituents, including hopanoids, n-alkanes and other aliphatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), alcohols, sterols, various types of acids, glycerol derivatives, lactones, sugars and derivatives, phenolic compounds and plasticizers. In samples from the cobbled street, these organic classes represented only 439μgg -1 PM 10 , while for other pavements mass fractions up to 65mgg -1 PM 10 were obtained. Except for the cobbled street, on average, about 40% of the analysed organic fraction was composed of plasticizers. Although the risk via inhalation of PAH was found to be insignificant, the PM 10 from some roads can contribute to an estimated excess of 332 to 2183 per million new cancer cases in adults exposed via ingestion and dermal contact. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The investigation of atmospheric particulate matter pollution in Suzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yi'ou; Zhang Yuliang; Wang Ya; Wang Pei; Tian Hailin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the pollution status, vertical distribution and concentration variation within 24 hours of total suspended particles (TSPs), particulate matter ≤10 μm (PM10), particulate matter ≤5 (PM5) and particulate matter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5) in major functional areas of Suzhou and the protective effect of different type masks on particulate matter. Methods: (1) The concentration of atmospheric TSPs, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 in seven functional areas in Suzhou was monitored for three consecutive days. (2) A residential building of 25 stories was chosen and the concentration of TSPs, PM10, PM5, PM2.5 was detected at the 1st, 5th, 10th, 15th, 20 th and the 25th floor respectively. (3) The concentrations of the four particulate matter were detected every two-hours for three consecutive days to investigate how concentration of particulate matter varies within 24 hours. (4) The concentration of the four kinds of particulate matter was analyzed with the sampling head of monitor wrapped with disposable non-woven medical mask, fashion-type mask, gauze mask or activated carbon anti-dust mask respectively, and the protective effect of the four masks on particulate matter was compared. Results: (1) The concentration of PM2.5 was higher than the national health limit in all seven functional areas in Suzhou. (2) No significant difference in vertical distribution of particulate matter was found among different floors in residential buildings (P>0.05). (3) Two small peaks of particulate matter appeared in the morning and evening respectively while the top appeared at dawn (P< 0.05). (4) Disposable non-woven medical mask showed the best protective effect on particulate matter among the four tested masks. Conclusion: PM2.5 is the main particulate matter in Suzhou area. In addition the 4 kinds of particulate matter: TSP, PM10, PM5 and PM2.5 are of higher concentration in the early morning. No significant difference was detected from an altitude of less than 75 meters

  18. SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHILADELPHIA, PA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic molecular markers were measured in airborne particulate matter (PM10) from the City of Philadelphia North Broad Street air quality monitoring site to identify the seasonal abundances of key tracer compounds together with their dominant sources. Daily PM10...

  19. ACUTE EXPOSURE TO PARTICULATE MATTER IN A RAT MODEL OF HEART FAILURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This association strengthens in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases—especially heart failure (HF). To better characterize the cardiovascular effects of PM, we...

  20. Ozone co-exposure modifies cardiac function responses to fine and ultrafine particulate matter in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is growing evidence from epidemiological studies that show acute exposure to particulate matter (PM) increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the data supporting these findings are increasingly more convincing, the immediate impact of PM inhala...

  1. Complexity analysis in particulate matter measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Telesca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the complex temporal fluctuations of particulate matter data recorded in London area by using the Fisher-Shannon (FS information plane. In the FS plane the PM10 and PM2.5 data are aggregated in two different clusters, characterized by different degrees of order and organization. This results could be related to different sources of the particulate matter.

  2. Introduction of HTR-PM Operation and Fuel Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fucheng; Luo Yong; Gao Qiang

    2014-01-01

    There is a big difference between High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor Pebble-modules Demonstration Project(HTR-PM) and PWR in operation mode. HTR-PM is a continually refuelled reactor, and the operation and fuel management of it, which affect each other, are inseparable. Therefore, the analysis of HTR-PM fuel management needs to be carried out “in real time”. HTR-PM operation and fuel management system is developed for on-power refuelling mode of HTR-PM. The system, which calculates the core neutron flux and power distribution, taking high-temperature reactor physics analysis software-VSOP as a basic tool, can track and predict the core state online, and it has the ability to restructure core power distribution online, making use of ex-core detectors to correct and check tracking calculation. Based on the ability to track and predict, it can compute the core parameters to provide support for the operation of the reactor. It can also predict the operation parameters of the reactor to provide reference information for the fuel management.The contents of this paper include the development purposes, architecture, the main function modules, running process, and the idea of how to use the system to carry out HTR-PM fuel management. (author)

  3. Fine and coarse PM composition and sources in rural and urban sites in Switzerland: local or regional pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minguillón, M C; Querol, X; Baltensperger, U; Prévôt, A S H

    2012-06-15

    The chemical composition and sources of ambient particulate matter (PM) in Switzerland were studied. PM(1) and PM(10) samples were collected in winter and summer at an urban background site in Zurich and a rural background site in Payerne. Concentrations of major and trace elements, NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), NH(4)(+), organic and elemental carbon were determined. A subsequent Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis was performed. PM(10) and PM(1) concentrations varied similarly at both sites, with average PM(10) concentrations 24-25 μg/m(3) and 13-14 μg/m(3) in winter and summer, respectively, and average PM(1) concentrations 12-17 μg/m(3) and 6-7 μg/m(3). The influence of local sources was found to be higher in winter. PM was dominated by nitrate and organic matter in winter, and by mineral matter and organic matter in summer. Trace element concentrations related to road traffic (Zn, Cu, Sb, Sn) were higher at Zurich. Concentrations of Tl and Cs, attributed to the influence of a glass industry, were higher at Payerne. The elements mainly present in the coarse fraction were those related to mineral matter and brake and tyre abrasion (Cu, Mn, Ti, Sb, Sr, Bi, Li, La, Nd), and those in the fine fraction were related to high temperature anthropogenic processes (Pb, As, Cd, Tl, Cs). Common PM(1) and PM(1-10) sources identified by PMF were: ammonium nitrate, present in winter, negligible in summer; ammonium sulfate+K(biomass burning)+road traffic; and road traffic itself, related to exhaust emissions in PM(1) and to road dust resuspension in PM(1-10). Size-fraction specific sources were: a PM(1) glass industry source characterized by Cs, Tl, Rb, Li and Na, only present in Payerne; a PM(1) background source characterized by V, Ni, sulfate and Fe; two PM(1-10) mineral-related sources, with higher contribution in summer; a PM(1-10) salt source; and a PM(1-10) organic source, with higher contribution in summer, attributed to bioaerosols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  4. Ambient particulate matter air pollution and cardiopulmonary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, George; Lippmann, Morton

    2015-06-01

    Population exposures to ambient outdoor particulate matter (PM) air pollution have been assessed to represent a major burden on global health. Ambient PM is a diverse class of air pollution, with characteristics and health implications that can vary depending on a host of factors, including a particle's original source of emission or formation. The penetration of inhaled particles into the thorax is dependent on their deposition in the upper respiratory tract during inspiration, which varies with particle size, flow rate and tidal volume, and in vivo airway dimensions. All of these factors can be quite variable from person to person, depending on age, transient illness, cigarette smoke and other short-term toxicant exposures that cause transient bronchoconstriction, and occupational history associated with loss of lung function or cumulative injury. The adverse effects of inhaled PM can result from both short-term (acute) and long-term (chronic) exposures to PM, and can range from relatively minor, such as increased symptoms, to very severe effects, including increased risk of premature mortality and decreased life expectancy from long-term exposure. Control of the most toxic PM components can therefore provide major health benefits, and can help guide the selection of the most human health optimal air quality control and climate change mitigation policy measures. As such, a continued improvement in our understanding of the nature and types of PM that are most dangerous to health, and the mechanism(s) of their respective health effects, is an important public health goal. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Effects of Urban Landscape Pattern on PM2.5 Pollution—A Beijing Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiansheng; Xie, Wudan; Li, Weifeng; Li, Jiacheng

    2015-01-01

    PM2.5 refers to particulate matter (PM) in air that is less than 2.5μm in aerodynamic diameter, which has negative effects on air quality and human health. PM2.5 is the main pollutant source in haze occurring in Beijing, and it also has caused many problems in other cities. Previous studies have focused mostly on the relationship between land use and air quality, but less research has specifically explored the effects of urban landscape patterns on PM2.5. This study considered the rapidly growing and heavily polluted Beijing, China. To better understand the impact of urban landscape pattern on PM2.5 pollution, five landscape metrics including PLAND, PD, ED, SHEI, and CONTAG were applied in the study. Further, other data, such as street networks, population density, and elevation considered as factors influencing PM2.5, were obtained through RS and GIS. By means of correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression, the effects of landscape pattern on PM2.5 concentration was explored. The results showed that (1) at class-level, vegetation and water were significant landscape components in reducing PM2.5 concentration, while cropland played a special role in PM2.5 concentration; (2) landscape configuration (ED and PD) features at class-level had obvious effects on particulate matter; and (3) at the landscape-level, the evenness (SHEI) and fragmentation (CONTAG) of the whole landscape related closely with PM2.5 concentration. Results of this study could expand our understanding of the role of urban landscape pattern on PM2.5 and provide useful information for urban planning. PMID:26565799

  6. Effects of Urban Landscape Pattern on PM2.5 Pollution--A Beijing Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiansheng; Xie, Wudan; Li, Weifeng; Li, Jiacheng

    2015-01-01

    PM2.5 refers to particulate matter (PM) in air that is less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter, which has negative effects on air quality and human health. PM2.5 is the main pollutant source in haze occurring in Beijing, and it also has caused many problems in other cities. Previous studies have focused mostly on the relationship between land use and air quality, but less research has specifically explored the effects of urban landscape patterns on PM2.5. This study considered the rapidly growing and heavily polluted Beijing, China. To better understand the impact of urban landscape pattern on PM2.5 pollution, five landscape metrics including PLAND, PD, ED, SHEI, and CONTAG were applied in the study. Further, other data, such as street networks, population density, and elevation considered as factors influencing PM2.5, were obtained through RS and GIS. By means of correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression, the effects of landscape pattern on PM2.5 concentration was explored. The results showed that (1) at class-level, vegetation and water were significant landscape components in reducing PM2.5 concentration, while cropland played a special role in PM2.5 concentration; (2) landscape configuration (ED and PD) features at class-level had obvious effects on particulate matter; and (3) at the landscape-level, the evenness (SHEI) and fragmentation (CONTAG) of the whole landscape related closely with PM2.5 concentration. Results of this study could expand our understanding of the role of urban landscape pattern on PM2.5 and provide useful information for urban planning.

  7. Analysis of PM10, PM2.5, and PM2 5-10 concentrations in Santiago, Chile, from 1989 to 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrakis, Petros; Sax, Sonja N; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Coull, Brent; Demokritou, Phil; Oyola, Pedro; Garcia, Javier; Gramsch, Ernesto

    2005-03-01

    Daily particle samples were collected in Santiago, Chile, at four urban locations from January 1, 1989, through December 31, 2001. Both fine PM with da Ambient Air Quality Standards and the European Union concentration limits. Mean PM2.5 levels during the cold season (April through September) were more than twice as high as those observed in the warm season (October through March); whereas coarse particle levels were similar in both seasons. PM concentration trends were investigated using regression models, controlling for site, weekday, month, wind speed, temperature, and RH. Results showed that PM2.5 concentrations decreased substantially, 52% over the 12-year period (1989-2000), whereas PM2.5-10 concentrations increased by approximately 50% in the first 5 years and then decreased by a similar percentage over the following 7 years. These decreases were evident even after controlling for significant climatic effects. These results suggest that the pollution reduction programs developed and implemented by the Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente (CONAMA) have been effective in reducing particle levels in the Santiago Metropolitan region. However, particle levels remain high and it is thus imperative that efforts to improve air quality continue.

  8. [Characterizing Beijing's Airborne Bacterial Communities in PM2.5 and PM1 Samples During Haze Pollution Episodes Using 16S rRNA Gene Analysis Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bu-ying; Lang, Ji-dong; Zhang, Li-na; Fang, Jian-huo; Cao, Chen; Hao, Ji-ming; Zhu, Ting; Tian, Geng; Jiang, Jing-kun

    2015-08-01

    During 8th-14th Jan., 2013, severe particulate matter (PM) pollution episodes happened in Beijing. These air pollution events lead to high risks for public health. In addition to various PM chemical compositions, biological components in the air may also impose threaten. Little is known about airborne microbial community in such severe air pollution conditions. PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected during that 7-day pollution period. The 16S rRNA gene V3 amplification and the MiSeq sequencing were performed for analyzing these samples. It is found that there is no significant difference at phylum level for PM2.5 bacterial communities during that 7-day pollution period both at phylum and at genus level. At genus level, Arthrobacter and Frankia are the major airborne microbes presented in Beijing winter.samples. At genus level, there are 39 common genera (combined by first 50 genera bacterial of the two analysis) between the 16S rRNA gene analysis and those are found by Metagenomic analysis on the same PM samples. Frankia and Paracoccus are relatively more abundant in 16S rRNA gene data, while Kocuria and Geodermatophilus are relatively more abundant in Meta-data. PM10 bacterial communities are similar to those of PM2.5 with some noticeable differences, i.e., at phylum level, more Firmicutes and less Actinobacteria present in PM10 samples than in PM2.5 samples, while at genus level, more Clostridium presents in PM10 samples. The findings in Beijing were compared with three 16S rRNA gene studies in other countries. Although the sampling locations and times are different from each other, compositions of bacterial community are similar for those sampled at the ground atmosphere. Airborne microbial communities near the ground surface are different from those sampled in the upper troposphere.

  9. Effect of turbulence intensity on PM emission of heavy duty diesel trucks - Wind tunnel studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littera, D.; Cozzolini, A.; Besch, M.; Carder, D.; Gautam, M.

    2017-08-01

    Stringent emission regulations have forced drastic technological improvements in diesel aftertreatment systems, particularly in reducing Particulate Matter (PM) emissions. The formation and evolution of PM from modern engines are more sensitive to overall changes in the dilution process, such as rapidity of mixing, background PM present in the air. These technological advancements were made in controlled laboratory environments compliant with measurement standards (i.e. Code of Federal Regulation CFR in the USA) and are not fully representative of real-world emissions from these engines or vehicles. In light of this, a specifically designed and built wind tunnel by West Virginia University (WVU) is used for the study of the exhaust plume of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle, providing a better insight in the dilution process and the representative nanoparticles emissions in a real-world scenario. The subsonic environmental wind tunnel is capable of accommodating a full-sized heavy-duty truck and generating wind speeds in excess of 50mph. A three-dimensional gantry system allows spanning the test section and sample regions in the plume with accuracy of less than 5 mm. The gantry system is equipped with engine exhaust gas analyzers and PM sizing instruments. The investigation involves three different heavy-duty Class-8 diesel vehicles representative of three emission regulation standards, namely a US-EPA 2007 compliant, a US-EPA 2010 compliant, and a baseline vehicle without any aftertreatment technologies as a pre US-EPA 2007, respectively. The testing procedure includes three different vehicle speeds: idling, 20mph, and 35mph. The vehicles were tested on WVU's medium-duty chassis dynamometer, with the load applied to the truck reflecting the road load equation at the corresponding vehicle test speeds. Wind tunnel wind speed and vehicle speed were maintained in close proximity to one another during the entire test. Results show that the cross-sectional plume area

  10. Source apportionment and spatial variability of PM2.5 using measurements at five sites in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooibroek, D.; Schaap, M.; Weijers, E.P.; Hoogerbrugge, R.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands is considered one of the hotspot areas in Europe with high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and may not be able to meet all standards for PM2.5 in time with current legislation (Matthijsen et al., 2009). To improve our understanding of the composition, distribution and

  11. Modeling individual exposures to ambient PM2.5 in the diabetes and the environment panel study (DEPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution epidemiology studies of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) often use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates, which can induce exposure error. The goal of this study was to improve ambient PM2.5 exposure assessments for a repeated measurements study with ...

  12. Particulate matter speciation profiles for light-duty gasoline vehicles in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Darrell B; Baldauf, Richard W; Yanca, Catherine A; Fulper, Carl R

    2014-05-01

    Representative profiles for particulate matter particles less than or equal to 2.5 microm (PM2.5) are developed from the Kansas City Light-Duty Vehicle Emissions Study for use in the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) vehicle emission model, the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES), and for inclusion in the EPA SPECIATE database for speciation profiles. The profiles are compatible with the inputs of current photochemical air quality models, including the Community Multiscale Air Quality Aerosol Module Version 6 (AE6). The composition of light-duty gasoline PM2.5 emissions differs significantly between cold start and hot stabilized running emissions, and between older and newer vehicles, reflecting both impacts of aging/deterioration and changes in vehicle technology. Fleet-average PM2.5 profiles are estimated for cold start and hot stabilized running emission processes. Fleet-average profiles are calculated to include emissions from deteriorated high-emitting vehicles that are expected to continue to contribute disproportionately to the fleet-wide PM2.5 emissions into the future. The profiles are calculated using a weighted average of the PM2.5 composition according to the contribution of PM2.5 emissions from each class of vehicles in the on-road gasoline fleet in the Kansas City Metropolitan Statistical Area. The paper introduces methods to exclude insignificant measurements, correct for organic carbon positive artifact, and control for contamination from the testing infrastructure in developing speciation profiles. The uncertainty of the PM2.5 species fraction in each profile is quantified using sampling survey analysis methods. The primary use of the profiles is to develop PM2.5 emissions inventories for the United States, but the profiles may also be used in source apportionment, atmospheric modeling, and exposure assessment, and as a basis for light-duty gasoline emission profiles for countries with limited data. PM2.5 speciation profiles were

  13. Effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter and metal components on mortality in the Rome longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badaloni, Chiara; Cesaroni, Giulia; Cerza, Francesco; Davoli, Marina; Brunekreef, Bert; Forastiere, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of long-term exposure to metal components in particulate matter on mortality are still controversial. OBJECTIVES: To study the association between long-term exposure to PM10, PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, particulate matter components (copper, iron, zinc, sulfur, silicon,

  14. 40 CFR 1065.690 - Buoyancy correction for PM sample media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... mass, use a sample media density of 920 kg/m3. (3) For PTFE membrane (film) media with an integral... media. 1065.690 Section 1065.690 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Buoyancy correction for PM sample media. (a) General. Correct PM sample media for their buoyancy in air if...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.295 - PM inertial balance for field-testing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... net PM on a sample medium for field testing. (b) Component requirements. We recommend that you use a... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PM inertial balance for field-testing analysis. 1065.295 Section 1065.295 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED...

  16. 77 FR 58962 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Arizona; Nogales PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... and proposed action on this plan. Then, we provided a brief description of the location and geography... moderate PM 10 nonattainment areas as applied to the Nogales NA, given the area's air quality is influenced... contingency measures, among other requirements, continue to apply to PM 10 nonattainment areas even if the...

  17. Efecto de las partículas de diámetro inferior a 2,5 micras (PM2,5 sobre los ingresos hospitalarios en niños menores de 10 años en Madrid Impact of particulate matter with diameter of less than 2.5 microns [PM2.5] on daily hospital admissions in 0-10-year-olds in Madrid. Spain [2003-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Linares

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La Organización Mundial de la Salud establece como valor límite anual para la concentración de partículas PM2,5 en el aire el valor de 10µg/m³. No obstante, en algunas grandes ciudades, como Madrid, este valor prácticamente se duplica, con el consiguiente impacto sobre la morbimortalidad. Objetivo: Analizar y cuantificar el impacto que las PM2,5 tienen sobre los ingresos hospitalarios diarios en la ciudad de Madrid en niños menores de 10 años. Material y métodos: Se analizan los ingresos diarios en el servicio de urgencias del Hospital Gregorio Marañón de Madrid, por todas las causas menos accidentes (CIE-10: A00-R99 en el período 2003-2005, tanto para menores de 10 años como de un año. La metodología de análisis es la regresión de Poisson. Se controla por contaminación atmosférica química, acústica y polínica, así como por autocorrelación, tendencias, estacionalidades, días de la semana y epidemias de gripe. Resultados: Las PM2,5 son el único contaminante primario que aparece relacionado con los ingresos hospitalarios en la modelización. El riesgo relativo asociado a un incremento de 10µg/m³ fue de 1,03 (intervalo de confianza [IC95%]: 1,00-1,05 para el grupo de menores de 10 años y de 1,03 (IC95%]: 1,00-1,06 para menores de un año. Los riesgos atribuibles fueron del 2,7 y el 2,8%, respectivamente. Conclusión: Las PM2,5 son un excelente indicador de los efectos en salud de contaminantes primarios. Se pone de manifiesto la necesidad de implementar medidas para la reducción de PM2,5 en la atmósfera de las grandes ciudades.Introduction: The last report of World Health Organization's Air Quality Guidelines establishes a value of 10µg/m³ as the annual mean particulate PM2.5 concentration. However, in large cities such as Madrid, this value is doubled and consequently an association between PM2.5 values and effects on morbidity and mortality is to be expected. Objective: To analyze and quantify the

  18. Monitoring of 7Be in surface air of varying PM10 concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, J.H.; Liu, C.C.; Cho, I.C.; Niu, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, beryllium-7 ( 7 Be) concentrations of surface air were monitored throughout a span of 23 years (1992–2012) in the Taiwanese cities Yilan, Taipei, Taichung, and Kaohsiung. During this period, particulate matter (PM) concentrations, in terms of PM 10 , were collected monthly from the nearest air-quality pollutant monitoring stations and compared against 7 Be concentrations. Seasonal monsoons influenced 7 Be concentrations in all cities, resulting in high winter and low summer concentrations. In addition, the meteorological conditions caused seasonal PM 10 variations, yielding distinct patterns among the cities. There was no correlation between 7 Be and PM 10 in the case cities. The average annual 7 Be concentrations varied little among the cities, ranging from 2.9 to 3.5 mBq/m 3 , while the PM 10 concentrations varied significantly from 38 μg/m 3 in Yilan to 92 μg/m 3 in Kaohsiung depending on the degree of air pollution and meteorological conditions. The correlation between the 7 Be concentration and gross-beta activities (A β ) in air implied that the 7 Be was mainly attached to crustal PM and its concentration varied little among the cities, regardless of the increase in anthropogenic PM in air-polluted areas. - Highlights: • Both 7 Be and PM 10 concentrations were monitored in four Taiwanese cities from 1992 to 2012. • Seasonal variations of 7 Be and PM 10 were explained based on on meteorological and pollution conditions. • The annual concentrations of 7 Be varied little among the four cities even in high PM environment. • 7 Be is believed to mainly attach to natural PM in the cities that exhibited varying PM 10 concentrations

  19. Mass concentration coupled with mass loading rate for evaluating PM_2_._5 pollution status in the atmosphere: A case study based on dairy barns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, HungSoo; Park, Kihong; Lee, Kwangyul; Ndegwa, Pius M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated particulate matter (PM) loading rates and concentrations in ambient air from naturally ventilated dairy barns and also the influences of pertinent meteorological factors, traffic, and animal activities on mass loading rates and mass concentrations. Generally, relationships between PM_2_._5 concentration and these parameters were significantly poorer than those between the PM loading rate and the same parameters. Although ambient air PM_2_._5 loading rates correlated well with PM_2_._5 emission rates, ambient air PM_2_._5 concentrations correlated poorly with PM_2_._5 concentrations in the barns. A comprehensive assessment of PM_2_._5 pollution in ambient air, therefore, requires both mass concentrations and mass loading rates. Emissions of PM_2_._5 correlated strongly and positively with wind speed, temperature, and solar radiation (R"2 = 0.84 to 0.99) and strongly but negatively with relative humidity (R"2 = 0.93). Animal activity exhibited only moderate effect on PM_2_._5 emissions, while traffic activity did not significantly affect PM_2_._5 emissions. - Highlights: • Sink PM_2_._5 loading rates correlate well with source PM_2_._5 emission rates. • Sink PM_2_._5 concentrations correlate poorly with source PM_2_._5 concentrations. • Mass loading rate complements mass concentration in appraising sink PM_2_._5 status. • PM_2_._5 emissions is dependent on wind speed, temp, solar strength, and RH. • Cow traffic activity affects PM_2_._5 emissions, while traffic activity does not. - Both PM mass loading rate and concentrations are required for comprehensive assessment of pollution potential of PM released into the atmosphere.

  20. Health benefits of PM10 reduction in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouni, Mohammad Bagherian; Moradi, Mahsa; Zarasvandi, Alireza; Akbaripoor, Shayan; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Neisi, Abdolkazem; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Mohammad Javad; Sheikhi, Reza; Kermani, Majid; Shirmardi, Mohammad; Naimabadi, Abolfazl; Gholami, Moeen; Mozhdehi, Saeed Pourkarim; Esmaeili, Mehdi; Barari, Kian

    2017-08-01

    Air pollution contains a complex mixture of poisonous compounds including particulate matter (PM) which has wide spectrum of adverse health effects. The main purpose of this study was to estimate the potential health impacts or benefits due to any changes in annual PM10 level in four major megacities of Iran. The required data of PM10 for AirQ software was collected from air quality monitoring stations in four megacities of Iran. The preprocessing was carried out using macro coding in excel environment. The relationship between different presumptive scenarios and health impacts was determined. We also assessed the health benefits of reducing PM10 to WHO Air Quality Guidelines (WHO-AQGs) and National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQSs) levels with regard to the rate of mortality and morbidity in studied cities. We found that the 10 μg/m3 increase in annual PM10 concentration is responsible for seven (95% CI 6-8) cases increase in total number of deaths per 2 × 105 person. We also found that 10.7, 7.2, 5.7, and 5.3% of total death is attributable to short-term exposure to air pollution for Ahvaz, Isfahan, Shiraz, and Tehran, respectively. We found that by attaining the WHO's proposed value for PM10, the potential health benefits of 89, 84, 79, and 78% were obtained in Ahvaz, Isfahan, Shiraz, and Tehran, respectively. The results also indicated that 27, 10, 3, and 1% of health impacts were attributed to dust storm days for Ahvaz, Isfahan, Shiraz, and Tehran, respectively.

  1. Air pollution studies in terms of PM2.5, PM2.5-10, PM10, lead and black carbon in urban areas of Antananarivo-Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasoazanany, E. O.; Andriamahenina, N. N.; Ravoson, H. N.; Raoelina Andriambololona; Randriamanivo, L. V.; Ramaherison, H.; Ahmed, H.; Harinoely, M.

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols or particulate matters are chemically complex and dynamic mixtures of solid and liquid particles. Sources of particulate matters include both natural and anthropogenic processes. The present work consists in determining the concentrations of existing elements in the aerosols collected in Andravoahangy and in Ambodin Isotry in Antananarivo city (Madagascar). The size distribution of these elements and their main sources are also studied.The Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence spectrometer is used for the qualitative and quantitative analyses. The results show that the concentrations of the airborne particulate matters PM 2.5-10 are higher than those of PM 2.5 .The identified elements in the aerosol samples are Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr and Pb. The average concentrations of these elements are also higher in the coarse particles than in the fine particles. The calculation of the enrichment factors by Mason's model shows that Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb are of anthropogenic origins. The average concentrations of lead (2.8 ng.m -3 , 31.3 ng.m -3 and 19.6 ng.m -3 respectively in aerosols collected in Andravoahangy in 2007 and in 2008 and in Ambodin Isotry in 2008) are largely lower than the average concentration of 1.8 μg.m -3 obtained in 2000 in the Antananarivo urban areas. The concentration of black carbon is higher in the fine particles. The Air Quality Index category is variable in the two sites.

  2. The Effect of PM 10 on Ischemia- Reperfusion Induced Arrhythmias in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Radmanesh

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Epidemiological studies show that particulate matter (PM is the principal instigator of some adverse clinical symptoms involving cardiovascular diseases. PM exposure can increase experimental infarct size and potentiate myocardial ischemia and arrhythmias in experimental MI models such as ischemia-reperfusion (I/R injury.The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of particulate matter (PM10 on ischemia- reperfusion induced arrhythmias with emphasis on the protective role of VA as an antioxidant on them. Male Wistar rats were divided into 8 groups (n=10: Control, VAc, Sham, VA, PM1 (0.5 mg/kg, PM2 (2.5 mg/kg, PM3 group (5 mg/kg, PM3 + VA group. Within 48 hours, PM10 was instilled into trachea in two stages. Then the hearts were isolated, transferred to a Langendorff apparatus, and subjected to global ischemia (30 minutes followed by reperfusion (60 minutes. The ischemia- reperfusion induced ventricular arrhythmias were assessed according to the Lambeth conventions.In the present study,the number, incidence and duration of arrhythmiasduring30 minutes ischemia were demonstrated to be more than those in the reperfusion stage. PM exposure increased significantly the number, incidence and duration of arrhythmias in the ischemia and reperfusion duration. Vanillic acid reduced significantly the number, incidence and duration of arrhythmias during the ischemia and reperfusion period.In summary, the results of this study demonstrated that the protective and dysrhythmic effects of VA in the PM exposure rats in I/R model are probably related to its antioxidant properties.

  3. Ecklonia cava Extract and Dieckol Attenuate Cellular Lipid Peroxidation in Keratinocytes Exposed to PM10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Won; Seok, Jin Kyung; Boo, Yong Chool

    2018-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter can cause oxidative stress, inflammation, and premature skin aging. Marine plants such as Ecklonia cava Kjellman contain high amounts of polyphenolic antioxidants. The purpose of this study was to examine the antioxidative effects of E. cava extract in cultured keratinocytes exposed to airborne particulate matter with a diameter of <10  μ m (PM10). After the exposure of cultured HaCaT keratinocytes to PM10 in the absence and presence of E. cava extract and its constituents, cell viability and cellular lipid peroxidation were assessed. The effects of eckol and dieckol on cellular lipid peroxidation and cytokine expression were examined in human epidermal keratinocytes exposed to PM10. The total phenolic content of E. cava extract was the highest among the 50 marine plant extracts examined. The exposure of HaCaT cells to PM10 decreased cell viability and increased lipid peroxidation. The PM10-induced cellular lipid peroxidation was attenuated by E. cava extract and its ethyl acetate fraction. Dieckol more effectively attenuated cellular lipid peroxidation than eckol in both HaCaT cells and human epidermal keratinocytes. Dieckol and eckol attenuated the expression of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α , interleukin- (IL-) 1 β , IL-6, and IL-8 in human epidermal keratinocytes stimulated with PM10. This study suggested that the polyphenolic constituents of E. cava , such as dieckol, attenuated the oxidative and inflammatory reactions in skin cells exposed to airborne particulate matter.

  4. Characterization of PM2.5 and the major chemical components during a 1-year campaign in rural Guangzhou, Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Senchao; Zhao, Yan; Ding, Aijun; Zhang, Yingyi; Song, Tianli; Zheng, Junyu; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun-cheng; Zhong, Liuju

    2016-01-01

    A 1-year campaign was conducted in the rural area of Guangzhou, a megacity in southern China, to collect fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from March 2012 to February 2013. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and the major chemical components including 6 water-soluble ions, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and 13 additional elements were measured. The annual average concentration of PM2.5 was 44.2 ± 25.8 μg/m3. Sulfate was the most dominant component, accounting for 28.6% of PM2.5, followed by organic matter (21.9%). Both sea salt and crustal material accounted for only a small fraction of PM2.5 (burning. Two high-PM2.5 case studies show that both local and long-range transport can play important roles in the PM2.5 elevation episode.

  5. Receptor modeling of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP in different seasons and long-range transport analysis at a coastal site of Tianjin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Shaofei; Han, Bin; Bai, Zhipeng; Chen, Li; Shi, Jianwu; Xu, Zhun

    2010-09-15

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM(2.5), PM(10) and TSP) were sampled synchronously during three monitoring campaigns from June 2007 to February 2008 at a coastal site in TEDA of Tianjin, China. Chemical compositions including 19 elements, 6 water-solubility ions, organic and elemental carbon were determined. principle components analysis (PCA) and chemical mass balance modeling (CMB) were applied to determine the PM sources and their contributions with the assistance of NSS SO(4)(2)(-), the mass ratios of NO(3)(-) to SO(4)(2)(-) and OC to EC. Air mass backward trajectory model was compared with source apportionment results to evaluate the origin of PM. Results showed that NSS SO(4)(2)(-) values for PM(2.5) were 2147.38, 1701.26 and 239.80 ng/m(3) in summer, autumn and winter, reflecting the influence of sources from local emissions. Most of it was below zero in summer for PM(10) indicating the influence of sea salt. The ratios of NO(3)(-) to SO(4)(2)(-) was 0.19 for PM(2.5), 0.18 for PM(10) and 0.19 for TSP in winter indicating high amounts of coal consumed for heating purpose. Higher OC/EC values (mostly larger than 2.5) demonstrated that secondary organic aerosol was abundant at this site. The major sources were construction activities, road dust, vehicle emissions, marine aerosol, metal manufacturing, secondary sulfate aerosols, soil dust, biomass burning, some pharmaceutics industries and fuel-oil combustion according to PCA. Coal combustion, marine aerosol, vehicular emission and soil dust explained 5-31%, 1-13%, 13-44% and 3-46% for PM(2.5), PM(10) and TSP, respectively. Backward trajectory analysis showed air parcels originating from sea accounted for 39% in summer, while in autumn and winter the air parcels were mainly related to continental origin. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictability Analysis of PM10 Concentrations in Budapest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenczi, Zita

    2013-04-01

    Climate, weather and air quality may have harmful effects on human health and environment. Over the past few hundred years we had to face the changes in climate in parallel with the changes in air quality. These observed changes in climate, weather and air quality continuously interact with each other: pollutants are changing the climate, thus changing the weather, but climate also has impacts on air quality. The increasing number of extreme weather situations may be a result of climate change, which could create favourable conditions for rising of pollutant concentrations. Air quality in Budapest is determined by domestic and traffic emissions combined with the meteorological conditions. In some cases, the effect of long-range transport could also be essential. While the time variability of the industrial and traffic emissions is not significant, the domestic emissions increase in winter season. In recent years, PM10 episodes have caused the most critical air quality problems in Budapest, especially in winter. In Budapest, an air quality network of 11 stations detects the concentration values of different pollutants hourly. The Hungarian Meteorological Service has developed an air quality prediction model system for the area of Budapest. The system forecasts the concentration of air pollutants (PM10, NO2, SO2 and O3) for two days in advance. In this work we used meteorological parameters and PM10 data detected by the stations of the air quality network, as well as the forecasted PM10 values of the air quality prediction model system. In this work we present the evaluation of PM10 predictions in the last two years and the most important meteorological parameters affecting PM10 concentration. The results of this analysis determine the effect of the meteorological parameters and the emission of aerosol particles on the PM10 concentration values as well as the limits of this prediction system.

  7. Leadership PM: Theory and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misumi, J.

    1997-01-01

    A leadership concept which is designed to overcome the limitations of the commonly used behavioral classification scheme is presented. In this PM concept, P stands for performance and M for maintenance. Measuring each characteristic on an axis between ''high'' and ''low'', four distinct types of leadership could be identified. The model was tested in laboratory studies and field surveys of different organizations. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. PM Raman fiber laser at 1679 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a PM Raman fiber laser emitting light at 1679 nm. The laser has an slope efficiency of 67 % and an output power of more than 275mWwith a 27 pm linewidth.......We demonstrate a PM Raman fiber laser emitting light at 1679 nm. The laser has an slope efficiency of 67 % and an output power of more than 275mWwith a 27 pm linewidth....

  9. Assessment of microbial communities in PM1 and PM10 of Urumqi during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Huange; Lu, Jianjiang; Li, Shanman; Tong, Yanbin; Xie, Chunbin; Zheng, Xiaowu

    2016-07-01

    Recently, inhalable particulate matter has been reported to carry microorganisms responsible for human allergy and respiratory disease. The unique geographical environment and adverse weather conditions of Urumqi cause double pollution of dust and smog, but research on the microbial content of the atmosphere has not been commenced. In this study, 16S and 18S rRNA gene sequencing were conducted to investigate the microbial composition of Urumqi's PM1 and PM10 pollutants in winter. Results showed that the bacterial community is mainly composed of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria accounted for the most proportion which was significant difference in some aforementioned studies. Ascomycota and Basidiomycota constitute the main part of the fungal microbial community. The difference of bacterial relative abundance in sample point is greater than in particle sizes. The sequences of several pathogenic bacteria and opportunistic pathogens were also detected, such as Acinetobacter, Delftia, Serratia, Chryseobacterium, which may impact on immunocompromised populations (elderly, children and postoperative convalescence patients), and some fungal genera may cause several plant diseases. Our findings may serve an important reference value in the global air microbial propagation and air microbial research in desert. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of PM10 in Aurangabad City of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Kaushik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Almost 670 million people comprising 54.5% of our population reside in regions that do not meet the Indian NAAQS for fine particulate matter. Numerous studies have revealed a consistent correlation for particulate matter concentration with health than any other air pollutant. Aurangabad city a rapidly growing city with population of 1.5 million is home to five major industrial areas, the city is also known for its historical monuments which might also be adversely affected from air pollution. Therefore, this research aims at estimating PM10 concentrations at several locations across Aurangabad. The concentration of PM10 was highest at the Railway Station followed by Waluj (an industrial zone and City chowk is the centre of the city which has high population, tall buildings, few open spaces which causes high congestion and does not allow the particulates to disperse. Other locations with high concentrations of PM are Mill corner, Harsul T-point, Kranti Chowk, Seven Hill, TV centre and Beed Bye pass. All these locations have narrow roads, high traffic density, poor road condition with pot holes and few crossing points which cause congestion and vehicle idling which are responsible for high pollution. Therefore, it is evident that air pollution is a serious issue in the city which may be further aggravated if it is not brought under control. Hence, strategies have to be adopted for combating the menace of air pollution.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTVolume-5, Issue-2, March-May 2016, Page :61-74

  11. Establishing a link between vehicular PM sources and PM measurements in urban street canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Alfred D; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Wiener, Russell W; Hahn, Intaek; Drake-Richman, Zora E; Ellenson, William D

    2009-12-01

    The Brooklyn Traffic Real-Time Ambient Pollutant Penetration and Environmental Dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study, conducted in Brooklyn, NY, USA, in 2005, was designed with multiple goals in mind, two of which were contaminant source characterization and street canyon transport and dispersion monitoring. In the portion of the study described here, synchronized wind velocity and azimuth as well as particulate matter (PM) concentrations at multiple locations along 33rd Street were used to determine the feasibility of using traffic emissions in a complex urban topography as a sole tracer for studying urban contaminant transport. We demonstrate in this paper that it is possible to link downwind concentrations of contaminants in an urban street canyon to the vehicular traffic cycle using Eigen-frequency analysis. In addition, multivariable circular histograms are used to establish directional frequency maxima for wind velocity and contaminant concentration.

  12. Spatial and temporal variations in traffic-related particulate matter at New York City high schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Molini M.; Chillrud, Steven N.; Correa, Juan C.; Feinberg, Marian; Hazi, Yair; Deepti, K. C.; Prakash, Swati; Ross, James M.; Levy, Diane; Kinney, Patrick L.

    Relatively little is known about exposures to traffic-related particulate matter at schools located in dense urban areas. The purpose of this study was to examine the influences of diesel traffic proximity and intensity on ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) and black carbon (BC), an indicator of diesel exhaust particles, at New York City (NYC) high schools. Outdoor PM 2.5 and BC were monitored continuously for 4-6 weeks at each of 3 NYC schools and 1 suburban school located 40 km upwind of the city. Traffic count data were obtained using an automated traffic counter or video camera. BC concentrations were 2-3 fold higher at urban schools compared with the suburban school, and among the 3 urban schools, BC concentrations were higher at schools located adjacent to highways. PM 2.5 concentrations were significantly higher at urban schools than at the suburban school, but concentrations did not vary significantly among urban schools. Both hourly average counts of trucks and buses and meteorological factors such as wind direction, wind speed, and humidity were significantly associated with hourly average ambient BC and PM 2.5 concentrations in multivariate regression models. An increase of 443 trucks/buses per hour was associated with a 0.62 μg/m 3 increase in hourly average BC at an NYC school located adjacent to a major interstate highway. Car traffic counts were not associated with BC. The results suggest that local diesel vehicle traffic may be important sources of airborne fine particles in dense urban areas and consequently may contribute to local variations in PM 2.5 concentrations. In urban areas with higher levels of diesel traffic, local, neighborhood-scale monitoring of pollutants such as BC, which compared to PM 2.5, is a more specific indicator of diesel exhaust particles, may more accurately represent population exposures.

  13. Temporal variations and spatial distribution of ambient PM{sub 2.2} and PM{sub 1} concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Bilkis A. [Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Centre, P.O. Box-164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Biswas, Swapan K. [Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Centre, P.O. Box-164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Hopke, Philip K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5810 (United States)]. E-mail: hopkepk@clarkson.edu

    2006-04-01

    Concentrations and characteristics of airborne particulate matter (PM{sub 1}, PM{sub 2.2} and BC) on air quality have been studied at two air quality-monitoring stations in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. One site is at the Farm Gate area, a hot spot with very high pollutant concentrations because of its proximity to major roadways. The other site is at a semi-residential area located at the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka Campus, (AECD) with relatively less traffic. The samples were collected using a 'Gent' stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2.2 {mu}m and 2.2-10 {mu}m sizes. Samples of fine (PM{sub 2.2}) and coarse (PM{sub 2.2-1}) airborne particulate matter fractions collected from 2000 to 2003 were studied. It has been observed that fine particulate matter has a decreasing trend, from prior year measurements, because of Government policy interventions like phase-wise plans to take two-stroke three-wheelers off the roads in Dhaka and finally banned from January 1, 2003. Other policy interventions were banning of old buses and trucks to ply on Dhaka city promotion of the using compressed natural gas (CNG), introducing air pollution control devices in vehicles, etc. It was found that both local (mostly from vehicular emissions) and possibly some regional emission sources are responsible for high PM{sub 2.2} and BC concentrations in Dhaka. PM{sub 2.2}, PM{sub 2.2-1} and black carbon concentration levels depend on the season, wind direction and wind speed. Transport related emissions are the major source of BC and long-range transportation from fossil fuel related sources and biomass burning could be another substantial source of BC.

  14. Temporal variations and spatial distribution of ambient PM{sub 2.2} and PM{sub 10} concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K. [Chemistry Division, Atomic Energy Centre, P.O. Box-164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Hopke, Philip K. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5810 (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Concentrations and characteristics of airborne particulate matter (PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.2} and BC) on air quality have been studied at two air quality-monitoring stations in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. One site is at the Farm Gate area, a hot spot with very high pollutant concentrations because of its proximity to major roadways. The other site is at a semi-residential area located at the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka Campus, (AECD) with relatively less traffic. The samples were collected using a 'Gent' stacked filter unit in two fractions of 0-2.2 {mu}m and 2.2-10 {mu}m sizes. Samples of fine (PM{sub 2.2}) and coarse (PM{sub 2.2-10}) airborne particulate matter fractions collected from 2000 to 2003 were studied. It has been observed that fine particulate matter has a decreasing trend, from prior year measurements, because of Government policy interventions like phase-wise plans to take two-stroke three-wheelers off the roads in Dhaka and finally banned from January 1, 2003. Other policy interventions were banning of old buses and trucks to ply on Dhaka city promotion of the using compressed natural gas (CNG), introducing air pollution control devices in vehicles, etc. It was found that both local (mostly from vehicular emissions) and possibly some regional emission sources are responsible for high PM{sub 2.2} and BC concentrations in Dhaka. PM{sub 2.2}, PM{sub 2.2-10} and black carbon concentration levels depend on the season, wind direction and wind speed. Transport related emissions are the major source of BC and long-range transportation from fossil fuel related sources and biomass burning could be another substantial source of BC. (author)

  15. Source Apportionment and Influencing Factor Analysis of Residential Indoor PM2.5 in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yibing; Liu, Liu; Xu, Chunyu; Li, Na; Liu, Zhe; Wang, Qin; Xu, Dongqun

    2018-01-01

    In order to identify the sources of indoor PM2.5 and to check which factors influence the concentration of indoor PM2.5 and chemical elements, indoor concentrations of PM2.5 and its related elements in residential houses in Beijing were explored. Indoor and outdoor PM2.5 samples that were monitored continuously for one week were collected. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of PM2.5 and 15 elements (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Se, Tl, V, Zn) were calculated and compared. The median indoor concentration of PM2.5 was 57.64 μg/m3. For elements in indoor PM2.5, Cd and As may be sensitive to indoor smoking, Zn, Ca and Al may be related to indoor sources other than smoking, Pb, V and Se may mainly come from outdoor. Five factors were extracted for indoor PM2.5 by factor analysis, explained 76.8% of total variance, outdoor sources contributed more than indoor sources. Multiple linear regression analysis for indoor PM2.5, Cd and Pb was performed. Indoor PM2.5 was influenced by factors including outdoor PM2.5, smoking during sampling, outdoor temperature and time of air conditioner use. Indoor Cd was affected by factors including smoking during sampling, outdoor Cd and building age. Indoor Pb concentration was associated with factors including outdoor Pb and time of window open per day, building age and RH. In conclusion, indoor PM2.5 mainly comes from outdoor sources, and the contributions of indoor sources also cannot be ignored. Factors associated indoor and outdoor air exchange can influence the concentrations of indoor PM2.5 and its constituents. PMID:29621164

  16. Gasoline cars produce more carbonaceous particulate matter than modern filter-equipped diesel cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, S M; El Haddad, I; Pieber, S M; Zardini, A A; Suarez-Bertoa, R; Clairotte, M; Daellenbach, K R; Huang, R-J; Slowik, J G; Hellebust, S; Temime-Roussel, B; Marchand, N; de Gouw, J; Jimenez, J L; Hayes, P L; Robinson, A L; Baltensperger, U; Astorga, C; Prévôt, A S H

    2017-07-13

    Carbonaceous particulate matter (PM), comprising black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (POA) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA, from atmospheric aging of precursors), is a highly toxic vehicle exhaust component. Therefore, understanding vehicle pollution requires knowledge of both primary emissions, and how these emissions age in the atmosphere. We provide a systematic examination of carbonaceous PM emissions and parameterisation of SOA formation from modern diesel and gasoline cars at different temperatures (22, -7 °C) during controlled laboratory experiments. Carbonaceous PM emission and SOA formation is markedly higher from gasoline than diesel particle filter (DPF) and catalyst-equipped diesel cars, more so at -7 °C, contrasting with nitrogen oxides (NO X ). Higher SOA formation from gasoline cars and primary emission reductions for diesels implies gasoline cars will increasingly dominate vehicular total carbonaceous PM, though older non-DPF-equipped diesels will continue to dominate the primary fraction for some time. Supported by state-of-the-art source apportionment of ambient fossil fuel derived PM, our results show that whether gasoline or diesel cars are more polluting depends on the pollutant in question, i.e. that diesel cars are not necessarily worse polluters than gasoline cars.

  17. The identification of metallic elements in airborne particulate matter derived from fossil fuels at Puertollano, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Teresa; Alastuey, Andres; Querol, Xavier; Font, Oriol [Institute of Earth Sciences ' ' Jaume Almera' ' , CSIC, C/Lluis Sole i Sabaris s/n, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Gibbons, Wes [AP 23075, Barcelona 08080 (Spain)

    2007-07-02

    Puertollano is the largest industrial centre in central Spain, and includes fossil fuel burning power plants as well as petrochemical and fertilizer complexes. The coal-fired power plants use locally mined coal from extensive coal deposits which continue to be exploited and used locally. The coal deposits have a distinctive geochemistry, being particularly enriched in Sb and Pb, as well as several other metals/metalloids that include Zn and As. ICP-AES and ICP-MS chemical analysis of particulate matter samples (both PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}) collected at Puertollano over a 57-week period in 2004-2005 reveals enhanced levels of several metallic trace elements, especially in the finer (PM{sub 2.5}) aerosol fraction. Factor analysis applied to the data indicates that at least some of these metallic elements are likely to originate from hydrocarbon combustion: Sb and Pb are markers linked to the local coals, whereas V and Ni are, at least in the finer (PM{sub 2.5}) fraction, likely associated with other anthropogenic sources. Other factors measured are related to natural sources such as crustal/mineral and sea spray particles. Our study provides an example of how chemical analysis of large numbers of ambient PM samples, combined with statistical factor analysis and coal geochemistry, can reveal airborne emissions from the combustion of specifically identifiable fuels. (author)

  18. Spatio-temporal characteristics of PM10 concentration across Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneng, Liew; Latif, Mohd Talib; Tangang, Fredolin T.; Mansor, Haslina

    The recurrence of forest fires in Southeast Asia and associated biomass burning, has contributed markedly to the problem of trans-boundary haze and the long-range movement of pollutants in the region. Air pollutants, specifically particulate matter in the atmosphere, have received extensive attention, mainly because of their adverse effect on people's health. In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of the PM10 concentration across Malaysia was analyzed by means of the rotated principal component analysis. The results suggest that the variability of the PM10 concentration can be decomposed into four dominant modes, each characterizing different spatial and temporal variations. The first mode characterizes the southwest coastal region of the Malaysian Peninsular with the PM10 showing a peak concentration during the summer monsoon i.e. when the winds are predominantly southerlies or southwesterlies, and a minimal concentration during the winter monsoon. The second mode features the region of western Borneo with the PM10 exhibiting a concentration surge in August-September, which is likely to be the result of the northward shift of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the subsequent rapid arrival of the rainy season. The third mode delineates the northern region of the Malaysian Peninsular with strong bimodality in the PM10 concentration. Seasonally, this component exhibits two concentration maxima during the late winter and summer monsoons, as well as two minima during the inter-monsoon periods. The fourth dominant mode characterizes the northern Borneo region which exhibits weaker seasonality of the PM10 concentration. Generally, the seasonal fluctuation of the PM10 concentration is largely associated with the seasonal variation of rainfall in the country. However, in addition to this, the PM10 concentration also fluctuates markedly in two timescale bands i.e. 10-20 days quasi-biweekly (QBW) and 30-60 days lower frequency (LF) band of the intra

  19. Characterization and Aerosol Mass balance of PM2.5 and PM10 Collected in Conakry, Guinea during the 2004 Harmattan Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States EPA conducted a six week air quality survey of the city of Conakry, Guinea, West Africa in 2004. The study was conducted to assess the background levels of anthropogenic and natural particulate matter (PM) and to investigate the local and regional sources of tho...

  20. Understanding the Rising Phase of the PM2.5 Concentration Evolution in Large China Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Baolei; Cai, Jun; Xu, Bing; Bai, Yuqi

    2017-04-01

    Long-term air quality observations are seldom analyzed from a dynamic view. This study analyzed fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution processes using long-term PM2.5 observations in three Chinese cities. Pollution processes were defined as linearly growing PM2.5 concentrations following the criteria of coefficient of determination R2 > 0.8 and duration time T ≥ 18 hrs. The linear slopes quantitatively measured pollution levels by PM2.5 concentrations rising rates (PMRR, μg/(m3·hr)). The 741, 210 and 193 pollution processes were filtered out, respectively, in Beijing (BJ), Shanghai (SH), and Guangzhou (GZ). Then the relationships between PMRR and wind speed, wind direction, 24-hr backward points, gaseous pollutants (CO, NO2 and SO2) concentrations, and regional PM2.5 levels were studied. Inverse relationships existed between PMRR and wind speed. The wind directions and 24-hr backward points converged in specific directions indicating long-range transport. Gaseous pollutants concentrations increased at variable rates in the three cities with growing PMRR values. PM2.5 levels at the upwind regions of BJ and SH increased at high PMRRs. Regional transport dominated the PM2.5 pollution processes of SH. In BJ, both local contributions and regional transport increased during high-PMRR pollution processes. In GZ, PM2.5 pollution processes were mainly caused by local emissions.

  1. Bufei Huoxue Capsule Attenuates PM2.5-Induced Pulmonary Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Jing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric fine particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5 may carry many toxic substances on its surface and this may pose a public health threat. Epidemiological research indicates that cumulative ambient PM2.5 is correlated to morbidity and mortality due to pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Mitigating the toxic effects of PM2.5 is therefore highly desired. Bufei Huoxue (BFHX capsules have been used in China to treat pulmonary heart disease (cor pulmonale. Thus, we assessed the effects of BFHX capsules on PM2.5-induced pulmonary inflammation and the underlying mechanisms of action. Using Polysearch and Cytoscape 3.2.1 software, pharmacological targets of BFHX capsules in atmospheric PM2.5-related respiratory disorders were predicted and found to be related to biological pathways of inflammation and immune function. In a mouse model of PM2.5-induced inflammation established with intranasal instillation of PM2.5 suspension, BFHX significantly reduced pathological response and inflammatory mediators including IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-8, TNF-α, and IL-1β. BFHX also reduced keratinocyte growth factor (KGF, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA, and collagen fibers deposition in lung and improved lung function. Thus, BFHX reduced pathological responses induced by PM2.5, possibly via regulation of inflammatory mediators in mouse lungs.

  2. Short-Term Health Impact Assessment of Urban PM10 in Bejaia City (Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Benaissa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used Health Impact Assessment (HIA to analyze the impact on a given population’s health outcomes in terms of all-causes mortality and respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations attributable to short-term exposure to particulate matter less than 10 μm diameter (PM10 in Bejaia city, for which health effects of air pollution have never been investigated. Two scenarios of PM10 reduction were considered: first, a scenario where the PM10 annual mean is decreased by 5 µg/m3, and then a scenario where this PM10 mean is decreased to 20 µg/m3 (World Health Organization annual air quality guideline (WHO-AQG. Annual mean level of PM10 (81.7 µg/m3 was calculated from objective measurements assessed in situ. Each year, about 4 and 55 deaths could be postponed with the first and the second scenarios successfully. Furthermore, decreasing PM10 annual mean by 5 µg/m3 would avoid 5 and 3 respiratory and cardiac hospitalizations, respectively, and not exceeding the PM10 WHO-AQG (20 µg/m3 would result in a potential gain of 36 and 23 per 100000 respiratory and cardiac hospitalizations, respectively. Lowering in current levels of PM10 has a nonnegligible impact in terms of public health that it is expected to be higher in the case of long-term effects.

  3. Dark Matter Caustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, Aravind

    2010-01-01

    The continuous infall of dark matter with low velocity dispersion in galactic halos leads to the formation of high density structures called caustics. Dark matter caustics are of two kinds : outer and inner. Outer caustics are thin spherical shells surrounding galaxies while inner caustics have a more complicated structure that depends on the dark matter angular momentum distribution. The presence of a dark matter caustic in the plane of the galaxy modifies the gas density in its neighborhood which may lead to observable effects. Caustics are also relevant to direct and indirect dark matter searches.

  4. 2005-2014 trends of PM10 source contributions in an industrialized area of southern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiwei; Chen, Bing; de la Campa, Ana M Sánchez; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; de la Rosa, Jesus D

    2018-05-01

    Particulate matter with a diameter of 10 μm or less (PM10) using receptor modelling was determined at an urban (La Linea, LL) and an industrial area (Puente Mayorga, PMY) in Southern Spain with samples collected during 2005-2014. The concentrations of PM10 had been decreasing at both sites in three distinctive periods: 1) the initial PM10 levels approached or exceeded the Spain and EU PM10 annual guidelines of 40 μg/m 3 during 2005-2007 at LL and 2005-2009 at PMY; 2) then PM10 dropped by 25%-∼30 μg/m 3 during 2008-2011 at LL and during 2010-2011 at PMY; 3) since 2012, the PM10 concentrations gradually decreased to major elements. These PM components generally showed a decrease trend, in accord with the trend of PM10 reduction. A PMF model identified seven sources to PM10 contributions. Secondary sulfate, soil/urban/construction dust, and secondary nitrate showed significantly decreasing trends with reduction of 40-60% comparing to the initial levels. The road traffic contribution decreased by 14% from the first to third period. However, sea salt, oil combustion, and industrial metallurgical process had relative stable contributions. These source contribution changes are reasonably governed by the PM emission abatement actions implemented during the past decade, as well as the financial crisis, that accounted for a significant decrease of PM pollution in Southern Spain. We identified that the mitigation efforts on industry, fossil fuel combustion, and urban transportation during the past decade were successful for air quality improvement in a highly industrialized area in Southern Spain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improvement of PM10 prediction in East Asia using inverse modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Youn-Seo; Choi, Dae-Ryun; Kwon, Hi-Yong; Jang, Young-Kee; Han, Jin-Seok

    2015-04-01

    Aerosols from anthropogenic emissions in industrialized region in China as well as dust emissions from southern Mongolia and northern China that transport along prevailing northwestern wind have a large influence on the air quality in Korea. The emission inventory in the East Asia region is an important factor in chemical transport modeling (CTM) for PM10 (particulate matters less than 10 ㎛ in aerodynamic diameter) forecasts and air quality management in Korea. Most previous studies showed that predictions of PM10 mass concentration by the CTM were underestimated when comparing with observational data. In order to fill the gap in discrepancies between observations and CTM predictions, the inverse Bayesian approach with Comprehensive Air-quality Model with extension (CAMx) forward model was applied to obtain optimized a posteriori PM10 emissions in East Asia. The predicted PM10 concentrations with a priori emission were first compared with observations at monitoring sites in China and Korea for January and August 2008. The comparison showed that PM10 concentrations with a priori PM10 emissions for anthropogenic and dust sources were generally under-predicted. The result from the inverse modeling indicated that anthropogenic PM10 emissions in the industrialized and urbanized areas in China were underestimated while dust emissions from desert and barren soil in southern Mongolia and northern China were overestimated. A priori PM10 emissions from northeastern China regions including Shenyang, Changchun, and Harbin were underestimated by about 300% (i.e., the ratio of a posteriori to a priori PM10 emission was a factor of about 3). The predictions of PM10 concentrations with a posteriori emission showed better agreement with the observations, implying that the inverse modeling minimized the discrepancies in the model predictions by improving PM10 emissions in East Asia.

  6. Modelling daily PM2.5 concentrations at high spatio-temporal resolution across Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoogh, Kees; Héritier, Harris; Stafoggia, Massimo; Künzli, Nino; Kloog, Itai

    2018-02-01

    Spatiotemporal resolved models were developed predicting daily fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations across Switzerland from 2003 to 2013. Relatively sparse PM 2.5 monitoring data was supplemented by imputing PM 2.5 concentrations at PM 10 sites, using PM 2.5 /PM 10 ratios at co-located sites. Daily PM 2.5 concentrations were first estimated at a 1 × 1km resolution across Switzerland, using Multiangle Implementation of Atmospheric Correction (MAIAC) spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) data in combination with spatiotemporal predictor data in a four stage approach. Mixed effect models (1) were used to predict PM 2.5 in cells with AOD but without PM 2.5 measurements (2). A generalized additive mixed model with spatial smoothing was applied to generate grid cell predictions for those grid cells where AOD was missing (3). Finally, local PM 2.5 predictions were estimated at each monitoring site by regressing the residuals from the 1 × 1km estimate against local spatial and temporal variables using machine learning techniques (4) and adding them to the stage 3 global estimates. The global (1 km) and local (100 m) models explained on average 73% of the total,71% of the spatial and 75% of the temporal variation (all cross validated) globally and on average 89% (total) 95% (spatial) and 88% (temporal) of the variation locally in measured PM 2.5 concentrations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Industrial PM2.5 cause pulmonary adverse effect through RhoA/ROCK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junyan; Lai, Chia-Hsiang; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Chen, Chongjun; Wang, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Pin-I; Lin, Chia-Hua

    2017-12-01

    According to the Chinese Ministry of Health, industrial pollution-induced health impacts have been the leading cause of death in China. While industrial fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is associated with adverse health effects, the major action mechanisms of different compositions of PM 2.5 are currently unclear. In this study, we treated normal human lung epithelial BEAS-2B cells with industrial organic and water-soluble PM 2.5 extracts under daily alveolar deposition dose to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying adverse pulmonary effects induced by PM 2.5 , including oxidative damage, inflammatory response, lung epithelial barrier dysfunction, and the recruitment of macrophages. We found that water-soluble PM 2.5 extracts caused more severe cytotoxic effects on BEAS-2B cells compared with that of organic extracts. Both organic and water-soluble PM 2.5 extracts induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway. Inflammatory response, epithelial barrier dysfunction, and the activation of NF-кB caused by both PM 2.5 extracts were attenuated by ROCK inhibitor Y-27632. This indicated that both PM 2.5 extracts could cause damage to epithelial cells through RhoA/ROCK-dependent NF-кB activation. Furthermore, the upregulation of macrophage adhesion induced by both PM 2.5 extracts was also attenuated by Y-27632 in a co-culture model of macrophages and the epithelial cells. Therefore, our results support that industrial PM 2.5 extracts-induced activation of the RhoA/ROCK-dependent NF-кB pathway induces pulmonary adverse effect. Thus, pharmacological inhibition of ROCK activation might have therapeutic potential in preventing lung disease associated with PM 2.5 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Composition of PM2.5 and PM1 on high and low pollution event days and its relation to indoor air quality in a home for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczyńska, Anna J; Krata, Agnieszka; Van Grieken, Rene; Brown, Andrew; Polezer, Gabriela; De Wael, Karolien; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja

    2014-08-15

    Many studies probing the link between air quality and health have pointed towards associations between particulate matter (PM) exposure and decreased lung function, aggravation of respiratory diseases like asthma, premature death and increased hospitalisation admissions for the elderly and individuals with cardiopulmonary diseases. Of recent, it is believed that the chemical composition and physical properties of PM may contribute significantly to these adverse health effects. As part of a Belgian Science Policy project ("Health effects of particulate matter in relation to physical-chemical characteristics and meteorology"), the chemical composition (elemental and ionic compositions) and physical properties (PM mass concentrations) of PM were investigated, indoors and outdoors of old age homes in Antwerp. The case reported here specifically relates to high versus normal/low pollution event periods. PM mass concentrations for PM1 and PM2.5 fractions were determined gravimetrically after collection via impaction. These same samples were hence analysed by EDXRF spectrometry and IC for their elemental and ionic compositions, respectively. During high pollution event days, PM mass concentrations inside the old age home reached 53 μg m(-3) and 32 μg m(-3) whilst outside concentrations were 101 μg m(-3) and 46 μg m(-3) for PM2.5 and PM1, respectively. The sum of nss-sulphate, nitrate and ammonium, dominate the composition of PM, and contribute the most towards an increase in the PM during the episode days constituting 64% of ambient PM2.5 (52 μg m(-3)) compared to 39% on non-episode days (10 μg m(-3)). Other PM components, such as mineral dust, sea salt or heavy metals were found to be considerably higher during PM episodes but relatively less important. Amongst heavy metals Zn and Pb were found at the highest concentrations in both PM2.5 and PM1. Acid-base ionic balance equations were calculated and point to acidic aerosols during event days and acidic to alkaline

  9. Continuity of care: what matters to women when they are referred from primary to secondary care during labour? a qualitative interview study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, J.; Stuijt, R.; Eijke, I.; Westerman, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Continuity of care during labour is important for women. Women with an intrapartum referral from primary to secondary care look back more negatively on their birh experience compared to those who are not referred. It is not clear which aspects of care contribute to this negative birth

  10. Inflammation response and cytotoxic effects in human THP-1 cells of size-fractionated PM10 extracts in a polluted urban site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilirò, T; Alessandria, L; Bonetta, S; Carraro, E; Gilli, G

    2016-02-01

    To contribute to a greater characterization of the airborne particulate matter's toxicity, size-fractionated PM10 was sampled during different seasons in a polluted urban site in Torino, a northern Italian city. Three main size fractions (PM10 - 3 μm; PM3 - 0.95 μm; PM THP-1 cells to evaluate their effects on cell proliferation, LDH activity, TNFα, IL-8 and CYP1A1 expression. The mean PM10 concentrations were statistically different in summer and in winter and the finest fraction PMtest) that could be used in the context of the different monitoring programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Urban aerosol in Oporto, Portugal: Chemical characterization of PM10 and PM2.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custódio, Danilo; Ferreira, Catarina; Alves, Célia; Duarte, Mácio; Nunes, Teresa; Cerqueira, Mário; Pio, Casimiro; Frosini, Daniele; Colombi, Cristina; Gianelle, Vorne; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Querol, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Several urban and industrial areas in Southern Europe are not capable of meeting the implemented EU standards for particulate matter. Efficient air quality management is required in order to ensure that the legal limits are not exceeded and that the consequences of poor air quality are controlled and minimized. Many aspects of the direct and indirect effects of suspended particulate matter on climate and public health are not well understood. The temporal variation of the chemical composition is still demanded, since it enables to adopt off-set strategies and to better estimate the magnitude of anthropogenic forcing on climate. This study aims to provide detailed information on concentrations and chemical composition of aerosol from Oporto city, an urban center in Southern Europe. This city is located near the coast line in the North of Portugal, being the country's second largest urban area. Moreover, Oporto city economic prospects depend heavily on a diversified industrial park, which contribute to air quality degradation. Another strong source of air pollution is traffic. The main objectives of this study are: 1) to characterize the chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 by setting up an orchestra of aerosol sampling devices in a strategic place in Oporto; 2) to identify the sources of particles exploring parameters such as organic and inorganic markers (e.g. sugars as tracers for biomass burning; metals and elemental carbon for industrial and vehicular emissions); 3) to evaluate long range transport of pollutants using back trajectory analysis. Here we present data obtained between January 2013 and January 2014 in a heavy traffic roadside sampling site located in the city center. Different PM10 and PM2.5 samplers were operated simultaneously in order to collect enough mass on different filter matrixes and to fulfill the requirements of analytical methodologies. More than 100 aerosol samples were collected and then analysed for their mass concentration and

  12. Multiple linear regression and regression with time series error models in forecasting PM10 concentrations in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kar Yong; Awang, Norhashidah

    2018-01-06

    Frequent haze occurrences in Malaysia have made the management of PM 10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic less than 10 μm) pollution a critical task. This requires knowledge on factors associating with PM 10 variation and good forecast of PM 10 concentrations. Hence, this paper demonstrates the prediction of 1-day-ahead daily average PM 10 concentrations based on predictor variables including meteorological parameters and gaseous pollutants. Three different models were built. They were multiple linear regression (MLR) model with lagged predictor variables (MLR1), MLR model with lagged predictor variables and PM 10 concentrations (MLR2) and regression with time series error (RTSE) model. The findings revealed that humidity, temperature, wind speed, wind direction, carbon monoxide and ozone were the main factors explaining the PM 10 variation in Peninsular Malaysia. Comparison among the three models showed that MLR2 model was on a same level with RTSE model in terms of forecasting accuracy, while MLR1 model was the worst.

  13. Temporal and spatial PM10 concentration distribution using an inverse distance weighted method in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarmizi, S. N. M.; Asmat, A.; Sumari, S. M.

    2014-02-01

    PM10 is one of the air contaminants that can be harmful to human health. Meteorological factors and changes of monsoon season may affect the distribution of these particles. The objective of this study is to determine the temporal and spatial particulate matter (PM10) concentration distribution in Klang Valley, Malaysia by using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method at different monsoon season and meteorological conditions. PM10 and meteorological data were obtained from the Malaysian Department of Environment (DOE). Particles distribution data were added to the geographic database on a seasonal basis. Temporal and spatial patterns of PM10 concentration distribution were determined by using ArcGIS 9.3. The higher PM10 concentrations are observed during Southwest monsoon season. The values are lower during the Northeast monsoon season. Different monsoon seasons show different meteorological conditions that effect PM10 distribution.

  14. Temporal and spatial PM10 concentration distribution using an inverse distance weighted method in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarmizi, S N M; Asmat, A; Sumari, S M

    2014-01-01

    PM 10 is one of the air contaminants that can be harmful to human health. Meteorological factors and changes of monsoon season may affect the distribution of these particles. The objective of this study is to determine the temporal and spatial particulate matter (PM 10 ) concentration distribution in Klang Valley, Malaysia by using the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) method at different monsoon season and meteorological conditions. PM 10 and meteorological data were obtained from the Malaysian Department of Environment (DOE). Particles distribution data were added to the geographic database on a seasonal basis. Temporal and spatial patterns of PM 10 concentration distribution were determined by using ArcGIS 9.3. The higher PM 10 concentrations are observed during Southwest monsoon season. The values are lower during the Northeast monsoon season. Different monsoon seasons show different meteorological conditions that effect PM 10 distribution

  15. A framework for delineating the regional boundaries of PM2.5 pollution: A case study of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianzheng; Li, Weifeng; Wu, Jiansheng

    2018-04-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) pollution has been a major issue in many countries. Considerable studies have demonstrated that PM 2.5 pollution is a regional issue, but little research has been done to investigate the regional extent of PM 2.5 pollution or to define areas in which PM 2.5 pollutants interact. To allow for a better understanding of the regional nature and spatial patterns of PM 2.5 pollution, This study proposes a novel framework for delineating regional boundaries of PM 2.5 pollution. The framework consists of four steps, including cross-correlation analysis, time-series clustering, generation of Voronoi polygons, and polygon smoothing using polynomial approximation with exponential kernel method. Using the framework, the regional PM 2.5 boundaries for China are produced and the boundaries define areas where the monthly PM 2.5 time series of any two cities show, on average, more than 50% similarity with each other. These areas demonstrate straightforwardly that PM 2.5 pollution is not limited to a single city or a single province. We also found that the PM 2.5 areas in China tend to be larger in cold months, but more fragmented in warm months, suggesting that, in cold months, the interactions between PM 2.5 concentrations in adjacent cities are stronger than in warmer months. The proposed framework provides a tool to delineate PM 2.5 boundaries and identify areas where PM 2.5 pollutants interact. It can help define air pollution management zones and assess impacts related to PM 2.5 pollution. It can also be used in analyses of other air pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. PM4 crystalline silica emission factors and ambient concentrations at aggregate-producing sources in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, John R; Brozell, Todd T; Rea, Charles; Boraston, Geoff; Hayden, John

    2009-11-01

    The California Construction and Industrial Minerals Association and the National Stone, Sand, & Gravel Association have sponsored tests at three sand and gravel plants in California to compile crystalline silica emission factors for particulate matter (PM) of aerodynamic diameter of 4 microm or less (PM4) and ambient concentration data. This information is needed by industrial facilities to evaluate compliance with the Chronic Reference Exposure Level (REL) for ambient crystalline silica adopted in 2005 by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. The REL applies to PM4 respirable PM. Air Control Techniques, P.C. sampled for PM4 crystalline silica using a conventional sampler for PM of aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 microm or less (PM2.5), which met the requirements of 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 50, Appendix L. The sample flow rate was adjusted to modify the 50% cut size to 4 microm instead of 2.5 microm. The filter was also changed to allow for crystalline silica analyses using National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7500. The particle size-capture efficiency curve for the modified Appendix L instrument closely matched the performance curve of NIOSH Method 0600 for PM4 crystalline silica and provided a minimum detection limit well below the levels attainable with NIOSH Method 0600. The results of the tests indicate that PM4 crystalline silica emissions range from 0.000006 to 0.000110 lb/t for screening operations, tertiary crushers, and conveyor transfer points. The PM4 crystalline silica emission factors were proportional to the crystalline silica content of the material handled in the process equipment. Measured ambient concentrations ranged from 0 (below detectable limit) to 2.8 microg/m3. All values measured above 2 microg/m3 were at locations upwind of the facilities being tested. The ambient PM4 crystalline silica concentrations measured during this study were below the California REL of 3 microg/m3

  17. PM EMISSIONS PRODUCED BY AIRCRAFT UNDER THE OPERATIONS AT THE AIRPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Zaporozhets

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The effects of aircraft engine emissions within the planetary boundary layer under the landing/ take-off operations contribute sufficiently to deterioration of air pollution in the vicinity of the airports and nearby residential areas. Currently the primary object of airport air quality are the nitrogen oxides and particle matter (PM10, PM2.5 and ultrafine PM emissions from aircraft engine exhausts as initiators of photochemical smog and regional haze, which may further impact on human health. Analysis of PM emission inventory results at major European airports highlighted on sufficiently high contribution of aircraft engines and APU. The paper aims to summarize the knowledge on particle size distributions, particle effective density, morphology and internal structure of aircraft PM, these properties are critical for understanding of the fate and potential health impact of PM. It also aims to describe the basic methods for calculation of emission and dispersion of PM, produced by aircrafts under the LTO operations. Methods: analytical solution of the atmospheric diffusion equation is used to calculate the maximum PM concentration from point emission source. The PM concentration varies inversely proportional to the wind velocity u1 and directly proportional to the vertical component of the turbulent exchange coefficient k1/u1. The evaluation of non-volatile PM concentration includes the size and shape of PM. PolEmiCa calculates the distributions of PM fractions for aircraft and APU exhausts (height of installation was given H=4,5m like for Tupolev-154. Results: The maximum concentration of PM in exhaust from APU is higher and appropriate distance is less than in case for gas. PM polydispersity leads to the separation of maximums concentration in space for individual fractions on the wind direction and therefore it contributes to the reduction of maximum total concentration. Discussion:But although the APU has contributed significantly to

  18. Identification of the sources of PM10 in a subway tunnel using positive matrix factorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Duckshin; Lee, Taejeong; Hwang, Doyeon; Jung, Wonseok; Lee, Yongil; Cho, KiChul; Kim, Dongsool; Lees, Kiyoung

    2014-12-01

    The level of particulate matter of less than 10 μm diameter (PM10) at subway platforms can be significantly reduced by installing a platform screen-door system. However, both workers and passengers might be exposed to higher PM10 levels while the cars are within the tunnel because it is a more confined environment. This study determined the PM10 levels in a subway tunnel, and identified the sources of PM10 using elemental analysis and receptor modeling. Forty-four PM10 samples were collected in the tunnel between the Gireum and Mia stations on Line 4 in metropolitan Seoul and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and ion chromatography. The major PM10 sources were identified using positive matrix factorization (PMF). The average PM10 concentration in the tunnels was 200.8 ± 22.0 μg/m3. Elemental analysis indicated that the PM10 consisted of 40.4% inorganic species, 9.1% anions, 4.9% cations, and 45.6% other materials. Iron was the most abundant element, with an average concentration of 72.5 ± 10.4 μg/m3. The PM10 sources characterized by PMF included rail, wheel, and brake wear (59.6%), soil combustion (17.0%), secondary aerosols (10.0%), electric cable wear (8.1%), and soil and road dust (5.4%). Internal sources comprising rail, wheel, brake, and electric cable wear made the greatest contribution to the PM10 (67.7%) in tunnel air. Implications: With installation of a platform screen door, PM10 levels in subway tunnels were higher than those on platforms. Tunnel PM10 levels exceeded 150 µg/m3 of the Korean standard for subway platform. Elemental analysis of PM10 in a tunnel showed that Fe was the most abundant element. Five PM10 sources in tunnel were identified by positive matrix factorization. Railroad-related sources contributed 68% of PM10 in the subway tunnel.

  19. Revealing driving factors of China's PM2.5 pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Zhao, H.; Zhang, Q.; Geng, G.; Tong, D.; Peng, L.; He, K.

    2017-12-01

    China's rapid economic development and intensive energy consumption are deteriorating the air quality significantly. Understanding the key driving factors behind China's growing emissions of air pollutants and the accompanying PM2.5 pollution is critical for the development of China's clean air policies and also provides insight into how other emerging economies may develop a clear sky future. Here we reveal the socioeconomic drivers of the variations of China's PM2.5 concentrations during 2002-2012 by using an interdisciplinary framework that integrates an emission inventory model, an index decomposition analysis model, and a regional air quality model. The decomposition results demostrate that the improvements in emission efficiency and energy efficiency failed to offset the increased emissions of both primary PM2.5 and gaseous PM2.5 precursors (including SO2 NOx, and volatile organic compounds) triggered by the surging economic growth during 2002-2012. During the same time, the effects of energy structure, production structure and population growth were relatively less significant to all pollutants, which indicates the potential of large emission abatements through energy structure and production structure adjustment. Sensitivity simulations by the air quality model based on the provincial decomposition results also show that the economic growth have outpaced efficiency improvements in the increments of PM2.5 concentrations during the study years. As China continues to develop rapidly, future policies should promote further improvements in efficiency and accelerate the adjustments toward clean energy and production structures, which are critical for reducing China's emissions and alleviating the severe PM2.5 pollution.

  20. Manganese survey in airborne particulate matter from a mining area at Hidalgo State, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldape, F.; Hernandez-Mendez, B.; Flores M, J.

    1999-01-01

    A manganese (Mn) survey in airborne particulate matter from a mining area located in Hidalgo State (Mexico) was performed using PIXE. Deposits of Mn ore, first discovered in 1959 and under continuous exploitation since 1962, are nowadays considered as one of the most important of their kind in the American Continent. Afterwards, local inhabitants have been under continuous overexposure to dusts and water highly enriched with Mn. Since no information was available about Mn content in airborne particulate matter in that area, especially in the respirable fraction PM 2.5 , airborne particles were collected simultaneously at two sites located on opposite sides of the rim of the mining valley, and along the line of prevailing local winds. The sample collection was performed on eight alternate days, taking two samples per day (day-time and night-time) at each sampling site, using Stacked Filter Units (SFUs) of the Davis design to separate particles into fine (PM 2.5 ) and coarse (PM 15 ) sizes. The samples were PIXE analyzed and the results of this study revealed that Mn content, in both fine and coarse fractions, were in excess of the general urban background level of 40 ng/m 3 (US Environmental Protection Agency, 1990) in more than 50% of the samples, which indicate severe environmental deterioration in the place under study

  1. Validation of Satellite AOD Data with the Ground PM10 Data over Islamabad Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, Gufran; Shahid, Imran

    2016-07-01

    Introduction The issue of air pollution affects the entire globe, but the countries having huge urban growth and industries are specially confronted with high amounts of suspended particles in atmosphere. According to WHO, for the areas where air pollution is monitored in Pakistan, the air pollution is deteriorating the air quality as time is passing. Pakistan, during the last decade, has seen an extensive rise in population growth, urbanization, and industrialization, together with a great increase in motorization and energy use. As a result, rise has taken place in the emission of various air pollutants. However, due to the lack of air quality management, the country is suffering from deterioration of air quality. From the air quality point of view, spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols and its variations are very important. The variations in the atmospheric aerosol, land surface properties, greenhouse gases, solar radiations and climatic changes alter the energy balance of the earth's atmospheric system. The addition of aerosol particles to the atmosphere is not only dependent upon the anthropogenic sources but these are also formed by physical and chemical atmospheric processes. Aerosols are a mixture of particles and these are characterized by their shape, their size (from nanometers (nm) to micrometers (µm) in radius) and their chemical composition. PM10 is the designation for particulate matter in the atmosphere that has an aerodynamic diameter of 10µm or less. The sources of PM10 may be natural (volcanoes, dust, storms, forest and grassland fires, living vegetation, or anthropogenic (burning of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants and industrialization). The current interest in atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) is mainly due to its effect on human health and its role in climate change. Therefore, the particulate matter must be monitored continuously to understand their likely impact on the atmosphere, environment and particularly human

  2. Search for direct CP violating charge asymmetries in $K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm\\pi^0\\pi^0$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J Richard; Kalmus, George Ernest; Lazzeroni, C; Munday, D J; Slater, M W; Wotton, S A; Arcidiacono, R; Bocquet, G; Cabibbo, Nicola; Ceccucci, A; Cundy, Donald C; Falaleev, V; Fidecaro, Maria; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Kubischta, Werner; Norton, A; Maier, A; Patel, M; Peters, A; Balev, S; Frabetti, P L; Goudzovski, E; Khristov, P Z; Kekelidze, V D; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D T; Marinova, E; Molokanova, N A; Polenkevich, I; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Stoynev, S; Zinchenko, A I; Monnier, E; Swallow, E; Winston, R; Rubin, P; Walker, A; Baldini, W; Cotta-Ramusino, A; Dalpiaz, P; Damiani, C; Fiorini, M; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Savrié, M; Scarpa, M; Wahle, H; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Celeghini, E; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Martelli, F; Ruggiero, G; Veltri, M; Behler, M; Eppard, K; Kleinknecht, K; Marouelli, P; Masetti, L; Moosbrugger, U; Morales-Morales, C; Renk, B; Wache, M; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Coward, D; Dabrowski, A; Fonseca-Martin, T; Shieh, M; Szleper, M; Velasco, M; Wood, M D; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Cenci, P; Imbergamo, E; Nappi, A; Pepé, M; Petrucci, M C; Piccini, M; Raggi, M; Valdata-Nappi, M; Cerri, C; Collazuol, G; Costantini, F; Di Lella, L; Doble, N; Fantechi, R; Fiorini, L; Giudici, S; Lamanna, G; Mannelli, I; Michetti, A; Pierazzini, G M; Sozzi, M; Bloch-Devaux, B; Cheshkov, C; Chèze, J B; De Beer, M; Derré, J; Marel, Gérard; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Vallage, B; Holder, M; Ziolkowski, M; Bifani, S; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Clemencic, M; Goy-Lopez, S; Marchetto, F; Dibon, Heinz; Jeitler, Manfred; Markytan, Manfred; Mikulec, I; Neuhofer, G; Widhalm, L

    2007-01-01

    A measurement of the direct CP violating charge asymmetries of the Dalitz plot linear slopes $A_g=(g^+-g^-)/(g^++g^-)$ in $K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$ and $K^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm\\pi^0\\pi^0$ decays by the NA48/2 experiment at CERN SPS is presented. A new technique of asymmetry measurement involving simultaneous $K^+$ and $K^-$ beams and a large data sample collected allowed a result of an unprecedented precision. The charge asymmetries were measured to be $A^c_g=(-1.5\\pm2.1)\\times10^{-4}$ with $3.11\\times 10^9$ $K^{\\pm}\\to\\pi^\\pm\\pi^+\\pi^-$ decays, and $A^n_g=(1.8\\pm1.8)\\times10^{-4}$ with $9.13\\times 10^7$ $K^{\\pm}\\to\\pi^\\pm\\pi^0\\pi^0$ decays. The precision of the results is limited mainly by the size of the data sample.

  3. Particulate matter in the indoor air of classrooms—exploratory results from Munich and surrounding area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H.; Twardella, D.; Dietrich, S.; Heitmann, D.; Schierl, R.; Liebl, B.; Rüden, H.

    Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated the association between particle mass (PM) concentration in outside air and the occurrence of health related problems and/or diseases. However, much less is known about indoor PM concentrations and associated health risks. In particular, data are needed on air quality in schools, since children are assumed to be more vulnerable to health hazards and spend a large part of their time in classrooms. On this background, we evaluated indoor air quality in 64 schools in the city of Munich and a neighbouring district outside the city boundary. In winter 2004-2005 in 92 classrooms, and in summer 2005 in 75 classrooms, data on indoor air climate parameters (temperature, relative humidity), carbon dioxide (CO 2) and various dust particle fractions (PM 10, PM 2.5) were collected; for the latter both gravimetrical and continuous measurements by laser aerosol spectrometer (LAS) were implemented. In the summer period, the particle number concentration (PNC), was determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Additionally, data on room and building characteristics were collected by use of a standardized form. Only data collected during teaching hours were considered in analysis. For continuously measured parameters the daily median was used to describe the exposure level in a classroom. The median indoor CO 2 concentration in a classroom was 1603 ppm in winter and 405 ppm in summer. With LAS in winter, median PM concentrations of 19.8 μg m -3 (PM 2.5) and 91.5 μg m -3 (PM 10) were observed, in summer PM concentrations were significantly reduced (median PM 2.5=12.7 μg m -3, median PM 10=64.9 μg m -3). PM 2.5 concentrations determined by the gravimetric method were in general higher (median in winter: 36.7 μg m -3, median in summer: 20.2 μg m -3) but correlated strongly with the LAS-measured results. In explorative analysis, we identified a significant increase of LAS-measured PM 2.5 by 1.7 μg m -3 per increase

  4. Continuity of care: what matters to women when they are referred from primary to secondary care during labour? a qualitative interview study in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Ank; Stuijt, Rosan; Eijke, Iva; Westerman, Marjan J

    2014-03-17

    Continuity of care during labour is important for women. Women with an intrapartum referral from primary to secondary care look back more negatively on their birh experience compared to those who are not referred. It is not clear which aspects of care contribute to this negative birth experience. This study aimed to explore in-depth the experiences of women who were referred during labour from primary to secondary care with regard to the different aspects of continuity of care. A qualitative interview study was conducted in the Netherlands among women who were in primary care at the onset of labour and were referred to secondary care before the baby was born. Through purposive sampling 27 women were selected. Of these, nine women planned their birth at home, two in an alongside midwifery unit and 16 in hospital. Thematic analysis was used. Continuity of care was a very important issue for women because it contributed to their feeling of safety during labour. Important details were sometimes not handed over between professionals within and between primary and secondary care, in particular about women's personal preferences. In case of referral of care from primary to secondary care, it was important for women that midwives handed over the care in person and stayed until they felt safe with the hospital team. Personal continuity of care, in which case the midwife stayed until the end of labour, was highly appreciated but not always expected.Fear of transportion during or after labour was a reason for women to choose hospital birth but also to opt for home birth. Choice of place of birth emerged as a fluid concept; most women planned their place of birth during pregnancy and were aware that they would spend some time at home and possibly some time in hospital. In case of referral from primary to secondary care during labour, midwives should hand over their care in person and preferrably stay with women throughout labour. Planned place of birth should be regarded as a

  5. Methodology to estimate particulate matter emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayson, Roger L; Fleming, Gregg G; Lovinelli, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Today, about one-fourth of U.S. commercial service airports, including 41 of the busiest 50, are either in nonattainment or maintenance areas per the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. U.S. aviation activity is forecasted to triple by 2025, while at the same time, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is evaluating stricter particulate matter (PM) standards on the basis of documented human health and welfare impacts. Stricter federal standards are expected to impede capacity and limit aviation growth if regulatory mandated emission reductions occur as for other non-aviation sources (i.e., automobiles, power plants, etc.). In addition, strong interest exists as to the role aviation emissions play in air quality and climate change issues. These reasons underpin the need to quantify and understand PM emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines, which has led to the need for a methodology to predict these emissions. Standardized sampling techniques to measure volatile and nonvolatile PM emissions from aircraft engines do not exist. As such, a first-order approximation (FOA) was derived to fill this need based on available information. FOA1.0 only allowed prediction of nonvolatile PM. FOA2.0 was a change to include volatile PM emissions on the basis of the ratio of nonvolatile to volatile emissions. Recent collaborative efforts by industry (manufacturers and airlines), research establishments, and regulators have begun to provide further insight into the estimation of the PM emissions. The resultant PM measurement datasets are being analyzed to refine sampling techniques and progress towards standardized PM measurements. These preliminary measurement datasets also support the continued refinement of the FOA methodology. FOA3.0 disaggregated the prediction techniques to allow for independent prediction of nonvolatile and volatile emissions on a more theoretical basis. The Committee for Aviation Environmental Protection of the International Civil

  6. Undergraduate Laboratory Experiment: Measuring Matter Antimatter Asymmetries at the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Parkes, Chris; Gutierrez, J

    2015-01-01

    This document is the student manual for a third year undergraduate laboratory experiment at the University of Manchester. This project aims to measure a fundamental difference between the behaviour of matter and antimatter through the analysis of data collected by the LHCb experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. The three-body dmecays $B^\\pm \\rightarrow h^\\pm h^+ h^-$, where $h^\\pm$ is a $\\pi^\\pm$ or $K^\\pm$ are studied. The inclusive matter antimatter asymmetry is calculated, and larger asymmetries are searched for in localized regions of the phase-space.

  7. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  8. Chemical composition and sources of PM1 and PM2.5 in Beijing in autumn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyun; Lang, Jianlei; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Li, Shengyue; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Dongsheng; Zhang, Hanyu; Wang, Haiyan

    2018-02-20

    Beijing, the capital of China, suffers from severe atmospheric aerosol pollution; nevertheless, a comprehensive study of the constituents and sources of PM 1 is still lacking, and the differences between PM 1 and PM 2.5 are still unclear. In this study, an intensive observation was conducted to reveal the pollution characteristics of PM 1 and PM 2.5 in Beijing in autumn. Positive matrix factorization (PMF), backward trajectories and a potential source contribution function (PSCF) model were used to identify the source categories and source areas of PM 1 and PM 2.5 . The results showed that the average concentrations of PM 1 and PM 2.5 reached 78.20μg/m 3 and 95.47μg/m 3 during the study period, respectively. PM 1 contributed greatly to PM 2.5 . The PM 1 /PM 2.5 value increased from 73.6% to 90.1% with PM 1 concentration growing from 150μg/m 3 . Higher secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) proportions (31.3%-70.8%) were found in PM 1 . The higher fraction of SIA, OC, EC and typical elements in PM 1 illustrated that anthropogenic components accumulated more in smaller size particles. Three typical weather patterns causing the heavy pollution in autumn were found as follows: (1) Siberian high and uniform high pressure field, (2) cold front and low-voltage system, and (3) uniform low pressure field. A PMF analysis indicated that secondary aerosols and coal combustion, vehicle, industry, biomass burning, and dust were the important sources of PM, accounting for 53.8%, 8.0%, 13.0%, 13.2% and 12.0% of PM 1 , respectively, and for 47.5%, 9.9%, 12.4%, 8.4% and 21.8% of PM 2.5 , respectively. The HYSPLIT and chemical components analysis indicated the potential contribution from biomass burning and fertilization ammonia emissions to PM 1 in autumn. The source areas were similar for PM 1 and PM 1-2.5 under general polluted conditions, but during the heavily polluted periods, the source areas were distributed in farther regions from Beijing for PM 1 than for PM 1-2.5 . Copyright

  9. Quantifying Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying Matter explains how scientists learned to measure matter and quantify some of its most fascinating and useful properties. It presents many of the most important intellectual achievements and technical developments that led to the scientific interpretation of substance. Complete with full-color photographs, this exciting new volume describes the basic characteristics and properties of matter. Chapters include:. -Exploring the Nature of Matter. -The Origin of Matter. -The Search for Substance. -Quantifying Matter During the Scientific Revolution. -Understanding Matter's Electromagnet

  10. Measuring arrangement for simultaneous and continuous determination of the total and radioactive amounts of reactive matters in flowing inert gases. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figge, K.; Martinen, H.; Schulz, W.

    1976-01-01

    In order to investigate the metabolism behaviour of radiocarbon-labelled substances, a special apparatus has been designed which enables a fully automatic as well as continuous and simultaneous determination of the total and the 14 C-labelled carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the respiratory air of small animals. The CO 2 which is exhaled by the experimental animals is absorbed quantitatively in a novel absorber-scintillator cocktail. The quantity of combined total CO 2 is then determined by measuring the specific conductivity whereas the amount of radioactive CO 2 is assessed via scintillation measurement. The measuring accuracy achieved is around 10 N cm 3 or about 5 nCi, whereas the CO 2 recovery is above 98%. In addition to the recording in a linear recorder, the data are transferred to punching tapes and can be evaluated in an EDP unit. (orig.) [de

  11. Modelling the long-range transport of secondary PM 10 to the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, A. L.; Derwent, R. G.; Maryon, R. H.

    The fine fraction of airborne particulate matter (PM 10) is known to be harmful to human health. In order to establish how current air quality standards can best be met now and in the future, it is necessary to understand the cause of PM 10 episodes. The UK Met Office's dispersion model, NAME, has been used to model hourly concentrations of sulphate aerosol for 1996 at a number of UK locations. The model output has been compared with measured values of PM 10 or sulphate aerosol at these sites and used to provide attribution information. In particular two large PM 10 episodes in March and July 1996 have been studied. The March episode has been shown to be the result of imported pollution from outside the UK, whereas the July case was dominated by UK emissions. This work highlights the need to consider trans-boundary pollution when setting air quality standards and when making policy decisions on emissions.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic matter associated to particulate matter emitted from atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastral, A.M.; Callen, M.S.; Garcia, T.

    1999-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the organic matter (OM) content associated with particulate matter (PM) emissions from atmospheric fluidized bed coal combustion have been studied. The two main aims of the work have been (a) to study OM and PAH emissions as a function of the coal fluidized bed combustion (FBC) variables in solid phase and (b) to check if there is any correlation between OM and PAH contained in the PM. The combustion was carried out in a laboratory scale plant at different combustion conditions: temperature, percentage of oxygen excess, and total air flow. PAH associated on the particulate matter have been analyzed by fluorescence spectroscopy in the synchronous mode (FS) after PM extraction by sonication with dimethylformamide (DMF). It can be concluded that there is not a direct relationship between the OM content and the PAH supported in the PM emitted. In addition, neither PM or OM show dependence between themselves

  13. ANALYSIS OF THE RESULTS OF MEASUREMENT OF CONCENTRATIONS OF AIR POLLUTION WITH PM10 AND PM2.5 MEASURING STATION SQUARE OF POZNAN IN BYDGOSZCZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Pasela

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of suspended particulate pollution PM10 and PM2.5 occurs in large urban areas where the main source of their presence is communication, which is primarily related to the combustion of liquid fuels. PM2.5 dust pollution is a major risk factor for diseases of the respiratory, cardiovascular, and allergy. Act regulating the standards and target dates for reducing concentrations of particulate matter in urban areas and in all the cities of over 100 thousand. residents of the Directive of the European Parliament and Council Directive 2008/50/EC of 21 May 2008. on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe (CAFE. The acceptable level of average daily concentration of PM10 is 50 μg/m3 and may be exceeded by not more than 35 times a year, while the level of allowable annual average concentration of 40 μg/m3. The aim of this study was to assess the state of air pollution of dust PM10 and PM2.5 for the selected area of the city of Bydgoszcz. The analysis was conducted using data from air monitoring stations located at Poznanska street. The station is owned by the Provincial Inspectorate for Environmental Protection (VIEP in Bydgoszcz. The studies have shown that the annual average concentration of particulate matter analyzed station in Bydgoszcz in the years 2013-2015 amounted to PM10 41 μg/m3 PM2.5 and 23 μg/m3. The results are on the borderline of acceptable levels of concentration resulting from the Regulation of the Minister of the Environment of 2 August 2012. The concentrations of particulate matter in ambient air are strongly associated with meteorological conditions. The definitely higher concentrations observed in the autumn-winter season. The decrease in temperature causes the combustion in the boiler house of fuels with a high emissions. The highest average daily concentration of suspended particulate matter was observed on Thursday and Friday in the winter months, and while the lowest concentration was recorded in the

  14. EBIT spectroscopy of Pm-like tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, R.; Zou, Y.; Reyna Almandos, J.; Biedermann, C.; Radtke, R.; Greier, A.; Neu, R.

    2003-01-01

    Methods of VUV electron beam ion trap (EBIT) spectroscopy are applied to the study of Pm-like tungsten (W 13+ ). These data show that theory appears well capable of dealing with these multi-electron (61) ions, at least for high ionization stages. A comparison of other spectroscopic methods applied to the study of other ions of the Pm I sequence is also given, and finally a search for the Pm-like W lines at the ASDEX Upgrade Tokamak is mentioned

  15. PM2.5-bound metal metabolic distribution and coupled lipid abnormality at different developmental windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Tingting; Zhang, Yingying; Ji, Xiaotong; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) is a serious threat to human health. As a toxicant constituent, metal leads to significant health risks in a population, but exposure to PM 2.5 -bound metals and their biological impacts are not fully understood. In this study, we determined the metal contents of PM 2.5 samples collected from a typical coal-burning city and then investigated the metabolic distributions of six metals (Zn, Pb, Mn, As, Cu, and Cd) following PM 2.5 inhalation in mice in different developmental windows. The results indicate that fine particles were mainly deposited in the lung, but PM 2.5 -bound metals could reach and gather in secondary off-target tissues (the lung, liver, heart and brain) with a developmental window-dependent property. Furthermore, elevations in triglycerides and cholesterol levels in sensitive developmental windows (the young and elderly stages) occurred, and significant associations between metals (Pb, Mn, As and Cd) and cholesterol in the heart, brain, liver and lung were observed. These findings suggest that PM 2.5 inhalation caused selective metal metabolic distribution in tissues with a developmental window-dependent property and that the effects were associated with lipid alterations. This provides a foundation for the underlying systemic toxicity following PM 2.5 exposure based on metal components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. High concentrations of heavy metals in PM from ceramic factories of Southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de la Campa, Ana M.; de la Rosa, Jesús D.; González-Castanedo, Yolanda; Fernández-Camacho, Rocío; Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Pio, Casimiro

    2010-06-01

    In this study, physicochemical characterization of Atmospheric Particulate Matter (PM) was performed in an urban-industrial site background (Bailén, Southern Spain), highly influenced by the impact of emission plumes from ceramic factories. This area is considered one of the towns with the highest PM 10 levels and average SO 2 concentration in Spain. A three stages methodology was used: 1) real-time measurements of levels of PM 10 and gaseous pollutants, and sampling of PM; 2) chemical characterization using ICP-MS, ICP-OES, CI and TOT, and source apportionment analysis (receptor modelling) of PM; and 3) chemical characterization of emission plumes derived from representative factories. High ambient air concentrations were found for most major components and trace elements compared with other industrialized towns in Spain. V and Ni are considered fingerprints of PM derived from the emissions of brick factories in this area, and were shown to be of particular interest. This highlights the high V and Ni concentrations in PM 10 (122 ngV/m 3 and 23.4 ngNi/m 3), with Ni exceeding the 2013 annual target value for the European Directive 2004/107/EC (20 ng/m 3). The methodology of this work can be used by Government departments responsible for Environment and Epidemiology in planning control strategies for improving air quality.

  17. The Effect of PM10 on Allergy Symptoms in Allergic Rhinitis Patients During Spring Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Il Gyu Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asian sand dust (ASD that originates in the Mongolian Desert in the spring induces serious respiratory health problems throughout East Asia (China, Korea, Japan. PM10 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm is a major air pollutant component in ASD. We studied the effects of PM10 on allergy symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis during the spring season, when ASD frequently develops. Methods: We investigated the changes in allergic symptoms in 108 allergic patients and 47 healthy subjects by comparing their 120-day symptom scores from February to May 2012. At the same time, the contributions of pollen count and PM10 concentration were also assessed. We also compared symptom scores before and 2 days after the daily PM10 concentration was >100 μg/m3. Results: The PM10 concentration during the 120 days was <150 μg/m3. No significant correlations were observed between changes in the PM10 concentration and allergic symptom scores (p > 0.05. However, allergic symptoms were significantly correlated with outdoor activity time (p < 0.001. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that a PM10 concentration <150 μg/m3 did not influence allergy symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis during the 2012 ASD season.

  18. Modelling street level PM10 concentrations across Europe: source apportionment and possible futures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kiesewetter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing emission controls, particulate matter (PM has remained a critical issue for European air quality in recent years. The various sources of PM, both from primary particulate emissions as well as secondary formation from precursor gases, make this a complex problem to tackle. In order to allow for credible predictions of future concentrations under policy assumptions, a modelling approach is needed that considers all chemical processes and spatial dimensions involved, from long-range transport of pollution to local emissions in street canyons. Here we describe a modelling scheme which has been implemented in the GAINS integrated assessment model to assess compliance with PM10 (PM with aerodynamic diameter 10 across Europe. Furthermore, we analyse the predicted evolution of PM10 concentrations in the European Union until 2030 under different policy scenarios. Significant improvements in ambient PM10 concentrations are expected assuming successful implementation of already agreed legislation; however, these will not be large enough to ensure attainment of PM10 limit values in hot spot locations such as Southern Poland and major European cities. Remaining issues are largely eliminated in a scenario applying the best available emission control technologies to the maximal technically feasible extent.

  19. Submicrometer aerosol in rural and urban backgrounds in southern Poland: primary and secondary components of PM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogula-Kozłowska, Wioletta; Klejnowski, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Diurnal samples of PM(1) (submicrometer particles, having aerodynamic diameters not greater than 1 μm) were collected at an urban background site in Zabrze (from 01.08. to 31.12.2009) and a rural background site in Racibórz (from 01.08. to 31.12.2010). The samples were analyzed for carbon (organic and elemental), water soluble ions (Na(+), NH(4) (+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-)) and concentrations of 21 elements by using, respectively, a Sunset Laboratory carbon analyzer, a Herisau Metrohm AG ion chromatograph, a PANalitycal Epsilon 5 spectrometer. To perform the monthly mass closure calculations for PM(1), the chemical components were categorized into organic matter (OM), elemental carbon (EC), secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA), crustal matter (CM), marine components (MC), other elements (OE) and unidentified matter (UM). The mass contributions of secondary (SOM) and primary (POM) organic matter to PM(1) were also estimated. In average, 50 % of PM(1) in Zabrze and 40 % in Racibórz were secondary aerosol coming from the transformations of its gaseous precursors. High concentrations and mass contributions of EC and OM to PM, and probable PM acidic nature in Zabrze, indicate particularly high hazard from the ambient submicrometer particles to the inhabitants of southern Poland.

  20. Characteristics of PM2.5 speciation in representative megacities and across China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, F.; Tan, J.; Zhao, Q.; Du, Z.; He, K.; Ma, Y.; Duan, F.; Chen, G.; Zhao, Q.

    2011-06-01

    Based on PM2.5 chemical data sets from literature and from our surface observations, chemical species and reconstructed speciation of PM2.5 in representative Chinese megacities and across China were compared to draw insights into the characteristics of PM2.5 speciation. PM2.5 mass concentrations and speciation compositions varied substantially over geographical regions in China. Near six-fold variations in average PM2.5 concentrations (34.0-193.4 μg m-3) across China were found with high PM2.5 levels (>100 μg m-3) appearing in the cities in the northern and western regions and low levels (transport of the secondary aerosols, thus more intensive characteristic of "complex atmospheric pollution" compared to the western region. Organic matter had significant contribution to PM2.5 over all the sites. Organic matter plus sulfate, nitrate, and ammonia accounted for 53-90 % of PM2.5 mass across China. PM2.5 speciation across China was also characterized by high content of crustal material, which was usually at more than ~10 μg m-3 level or shared ~10 % of PM2.5 mass in urban areas, due to transported desert dust and locally induced dust. In four representative megacities (i.e. Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou), PM2.5 mass and major components (except sulfate) were at higher levels than those in US continental east by one order of magnitude. Distinct differences in nitrate and sulfate levels and their mass ratio [NO3-]/[SO42-] imply that mobile sources are likely more important in Guangzhou, whereas in Chongqing it is stationary (coal combustion) sources. The observed intra-city variations in PM2.5 mass and speciation indicate that both local emissions and regional transportation contributed significantly to high fine particle loadings in Beijing, while local contribution likely played a predominant role in Chongqing. During the ten-year period from 1999 through 2008 in urban Beijing, both the sum of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonia and [NO3-]/[SO42-] ratio

  1. Estimating spatiotemporal distribution of PM1 concentrations in China with satellite remote sensing, meteorology, and land use information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gongbo; Knibbs, Luke D; Zhang, Wenyi; Li, Shanshan; Cao, Wei; Guo, Jianping; Ren, Hongyan; Wang, Boguang; Wang, Hao; Williams, Gail; Hamm, N A S; Guo, Yuming

    2018-02-01

    PM 1 might be more hazardous than PM 2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 1 μm and ≤2.5 μm, respectively). However, studies on PM 1 concentrations and its health effects are limited due to a lack of PM 1 monitoring data. To estimate spatial and temporal variations of PM 1 concentrations in China during 2005-2014 using satellite remote sensing, meteorology, and land use information. Two types of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 6 aerosol optical depth (AOD) data, Dark Target (DT) and Deep Blue (DB), were combined. Generalised additive model (GAM) was developed to link ground-monitored PM 1 data with AOD data and other spatial and temporal predictors (e.g., urban cover, forest cover and calendar month). A 10-fold cross-validation was performed to assess the predictive ability. The results of 10-fold cross-validation showed R 2 and Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) for monthly prediction were 71% and 13.0 μg/m 3 , respectively. For seasonal prediction, the R 2 and RMSE were 77% and 11.4 μg/m 3 , respectively. The predicted annual mean concentration of PM 1 across China was 26.9 μg/m 3 . The PM 1 level was highest in winter while lowest in summer. Generally, the PM 1 levels in entire China did not substantially change during the past decade. Regarding local heavy polluted regions, PM 1 levels increased substantially in the South-Western Hebei and Beijing-Tianjin region. GAM with satellite-retrieved AOD, meteorology, and land use information has high predictive ability to estimate ground-level PM 1 . Ambient PM 1 reached high levels in China during the past decade. The estimated results can be applied to evaluate the health effects of PM 1 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J.P.; Shafer, M.M.; Schauer, J.J.; Solomon, P.A.; Saide, P.E.; Spak, S.N.; Cheng, Y.F.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D.G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J.T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather

  3. Source apportionment of PM2.5 across China using LOTOS-EUROS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.; Kranenburg, R.; Manders, A.; Hendriks, C.; Segers, A.; Dammers, E.; Denier van der Gon, H.; Schaap, M.; Dammers, E.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, L.; Liu, Z.

    2017-01-01

    China's population is exposed to high levels of particulate matter (PM) due to its strong economic growth and associated urbanization and industrialization. To support policy makers to develop cost effective mitigation strategies it is of crucial importance to understand the emission sources as well

  4. Source Sector and Region Contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the STEM chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the WRF model. Predicted AOD valu...

  5. 76 FR 72404 - Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets in Submitted PM10

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-23

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9495-4] Adequacy Status of Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets in Submitted PM 10 Maintenance Plan for Sacramento County; CA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... found that the motor vehicle emissions budgets (MVEBs) for particulate matter with an aerodynamic...

  6. Spatial assessment of PM{sub 10} and ozone concentrations in Europe (2005)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    This report presents particulate matter (PM{sub 10}) and ground.level ozone concentration maps covering the whole of Europe. The interpolated maps are based on a combination of measurement and regional modelling results. Using measured concentrations as a primary source of information, the report summarizes the methodologies and the methodological choices taken in order to derive such maps. (au)

  7. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of fine and PM10 in the Desert Southwest, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L. Clements

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Desert Southwest Coarse Particulate Matter Study was undertaken in Pinal County, Arizona, to better understand the origin and impact of sources of fine and coarse particulate matter (PM in rural, arid regions of the U.S. southwestern desert. The desert southwest experiences some of the highest PM10 mass concentrations in the country. To augment previously reported results, 6-week aggregated organic speciation data that included ambient concentrations of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organic acids, and saccharides were used in chemical mass balance modeling (CMB. A set of re-suspended soil samples were analyzed for specific marker species to provide locally-appropriate source profiles for the CMB analysis. These profiles, as well as previously collected plant and fungal spore profiles from the region, were combined with published source profiles for other relevant sources and used in the CMB analysis. The six new region-specific source profiles included both organic and inorganic species for four crustal material sources, one plant detritus source, and one fungal spore source.Results indicate that up to half of the ambient PM2.5 was apportioned to motor vehicles with the highest regional contribution observed in the small urban center of Casa Grande. Daily levels of apportioned crustal material accounted for up to 50% of PM2.5 mass with the highest contributions observed at the sites closest to active agricultural areas. Apportioned secondary PM, biomass burning, and road dust typically contributed less than 35% as a group to the apportioned PM2.5 mass. Crustal material was the primary source apportioned to PM10 and accounted for between 50–90% of the apportioned mass. Of the other sources apportioned to PM10, motor vehicles and road dust were the largest contributors at the urban and one of the rural sites, whereas road dust and meat cooking operations were the largest contributors at the other rural site.

  8. Identification and chemical characterization of industrial particulate matter sources in southwest Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastuey, Andrés; Querol, Xavier; Plana, Feliciano; Viana, Mar; Ruiz, Carmen R; Sánchez de la Campa, Ana; de la Rosa, Jesús; Mantilla, Enrique; García dos Santos, Saul

    2006-07-01

    A detailed physical and chemical characterization of coarse particulate matter (PM10) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the city of Huelva (in Southwestern Spain) was carried out during 2001 and 2002. To identify the major emission sources with a significant influence on PM10 and PM2.5, a methodology was developed based on the combination of: (1) real-time measurements of levels of PM10, PM2.5, and very fine particulate matter (PM1); (2) chemical characterization and source apportionment analysis of PM10 and PM2.5; and (3) intensive measurements in field campaigns to characterize the emission plumes of several point sources. Annual means of 37, 19, and 16 microg/m3 were obtained for the study period for PM10, PM2.5, and PM1, respectively. High PM episodes, characterized by a very fine grain size distribution, are frequently detected in Huelva mainly in the winter as the result of the impact of the industrial emission plumes on the city. Chemical analysis showed that PM at Huelva is characterized by high PO4(3-) and As levels, as expected from the industrial activities. Source apportionment analyses identified a crustal source (36% of PM10 and 31% of PM2.5); a traffic-related source (33% of PM10 and 29% of PM2.5), and a marine aerosol contribution (only in PM10, 4%). In addition, two industrial emission sources were identified in PM10 and PM2.5: